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Sample records for neurocognitive impairment resulting

  1. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Kei eMizuno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment is a feature of childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. Several studies have demonstrated reduced attention control in CCFS patients in switching and divided attention tasks. In students, the extent of deterioration in task performance depends on the level of fatigue. Poor performance in switching and divided attention is common in both fatigued students and CCFS patients. Additionally, attentional functions show dramatic development from childhood to adolescence, suggesting that abnormal development of switching and divided attention may be induced by chronic fatigue. The brain structures associated with attentional control are situated in the frontal and parietal cortices, which are the last to mature, suggesting that severe fatigue in CCFS patients and students may inhibit normal structural and functional development in these regions. A combination of treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy and antidepressant medication is effective to improve attentional control processing in CCFS patients. Studies identifying the features of neurocognitive impairment in CCFS have improved our current understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms of CCFS.

  2. Mediated and Moderated Effects of Neurocognitive Impairment on Outcomes of Treatment for Substance Dependence and Major Depression

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    Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method Participants were veterans (N =197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of two group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. PMID:24588403

  3. The association of neurocognitive impairment with diminished expression and apathy in schizophrenia.

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    Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Hager, Oliver M; Kirschner, Matthias; Bischof, Martin; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Kaiser, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Negative symptoms can be grouped into the two dimensions of diminished expression and apathy, which have been shown to be dissociable regarding external validators, such as functional outcome. Here, we investigated whether these two dimensions differentially relate to neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia. 47 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 33 healthy control participants were subjected to a neurocognitive test battery assessing multiple cognitive domains (processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, mental planning), which are integrated into a composite cognition score. Negative symptoms in patients were assessed using the Brief Negative Symptom Scale. We found that diminished expression significantly related to neurocognitive impairment, while severity of apathy symptoms was not directly associated with neurocognition. Other assessed clinical variables include chlorpromazine equivalents, positive symptoms, and depressive symptoms and did not influence the results. Our results are in line with a cognitive resource limitation model of diminished expression in schizophrenia and indicate that cognitive remediation therapy might be helpful to ameliorate expressive deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurocognitive markers of cognitive impairment: exploring the roles of speed and inconsistency.

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    Dixon, Roger A; Garrett, Douglas D; Lentz, Tanya L; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Strauss, Esther; Hultsch, David F

    2007-05-01

    A well-known challenge for research in the cognitive neuropsychology of aging is to distinguish between the deficits and changes associated with normal aging and those indicative of early cognitive impairment. In a series of 2 studies, the authors explored whether 2 neurocognitive markers, speed (mean level) and inconsistency (intraindividual variability), distinguished between age groups (64-73 and 74-90+ years) and cognitive status groups (nonimpaired, mildly impaired, and moderately impaired). Study 1 (n = 416) showed that both level and inconsistency distinguished between the age and 2 cognitive status (not impaired, mildly impaired) groups, with a modest tendency for inconsistency to predict group membership over and above mean level. Study 2 (n = 304) replicated these results but extended them because of the qualifying effects associated with the unique moderately impaired oldest group. Specifically, not only were the groups more firmly distinguished by both indicators of speed, but evidence for the differential contribution of performance inconsistency was stronger. Neurocognitive markers of speed and inconsistency may be leading indicators of emerging cognitive impairment. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

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    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  6. Neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia predict behavioral and neurocognitive impairments

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    Antigona eMartinez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Paying attention to visual stimuli is typically accompanied by event-related desynchronizations (ERD of ongoing alpha (7-14 Hz activity in visual cortex. The present study used time-frequency based analyses to investigate the role of impaired alpha ERD in visual processing deficits in schizophrenia (Sz. Subjects viewed sinusoidal gratings of high (HSF and low (LSF spatial frequency designed to test functioning of the parvo- versus magnocellular pathways, respectively. Patients with Sz and healthy controls paid attention selectively to either the LSF or HSF gratings which were presented in random order. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs were recorded to all stimuli. As in our previous study, it was found that Sz patients were selectively impaired at detecting LSF target stimuli and that ERP amplitudes to LSF stimuli were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the Selection Negativity, which is generally regarded as a specific index of feature-selective attention. In the time-frequency domain, the differential ERP deficits to LSF stimuli were echoed in a virtually absent theta-band phase locked response to both unattended and attended LSF stimuli (along with relatively intact theta-band activity for HSF stimuli. In contrast to the theta-band evoked responses which were tightly stimulus locked, stimulus-induced desynchronizations of ongoing alpha activity were not tightly stimulus locked and were apparent only in induced power analyses. Sz patients were significantly impaired in the attention-related modulation of ongoing alpha activity for both HSF and LSF stimuli. These deficits correlated with patients’ behavioral deficits in visual information processing as well as with visually based neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest an additional, pathway-independent, mechanism by which deficits in early visual processing contribute to overall cognitive impairment in

  7. Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients and comparison of different screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moreira de Souza

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is relatively frequent among HIV-infected patients and is often underdiagnosed. Assessment of HAND in daily clinical practice is challenging and different tools have been proposed. Objective : To evaluate risk factors and compare different screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Methods : HIV-infected patients were evaluated using the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a neurocognitive self-perception questionnaire recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained through chart review and patient interview. Results : Among the 63 patients included, low performance on the IHDS was observed in 54.0% and IHDS score was inversely associated with age (OR 0.13; 95%CI [0.02-0.67]. Regarding cognitive self-perception, 63.5% of patients reported no impairment on the three domains covered by the questionnaire. Among those patients self-reporting no problems, 42.1% had low performance on the IHDS. None of the patients scored below the education-adjusted cut-off on the MMSE. Conclusion : IHDS scores suggestive of HAND were observed in more than half of the patients and lower scores were found among older patients. There was low agreement between the different tools, suggesting that the MMSE may be inadequate for assessing HAND. The self-assessment questionnaire had low sensitivity and might not be useful as a screening tool.

  8. Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived "a" Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment.

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    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.

  9. Increased Clinical and Neurocognitive Impairment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Bipolar Disorder

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    Weissman, Adam S.; Bates, Marsha E.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar (BD) symptomatology is prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may lead to increased impairment. The current study compared clinical and neurocognitive impairment in children (7-13 years) diagnosed with ASD (n=55), BD (n=34), ASD + BD (n=23), and a non-clinical control group (n=27). Relative to the ASD group, the ASD…

  10. Selective Neurocognitive Impairments in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

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    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network…

  11. Neurocognitive impairment in a large sample of homeless adults with mental illness.

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    Stergiopoulos, V; Cusi, A; Bekele, T; Skosireva, A; Latimer, E; Schütz, C; Fernando, I; Rourke, S B

    2015-04-01

    This study examines neurocognitive functioning in a large, well-characterized sample of homeless adults with mental illness and assesses demographic and clinical factors associated with neurocognitive performance. A total of 1500 homeless adults with mental illness enrolled in the At Home Chez Soi study completed neuropsychological measures assessing speed of information processing, memory, and executive functioning. Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected. Linear regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with neurocognitive performance. Approximately half of our sample met criteria for psychosis, major depressive disorder, and alcohol or substance use disorder, and nearly half had experienced severe traumatic brain injury. Overall, 72% of participants demonstrated cognitive impairment, including deficits in processing speed (48%), verbal learning (71%) and recall (67%), and executive functioning (38%). The overall statistical model explained 19.8% of the variance in the neurocognitive summary score, with reduced neurocognitive performance associated with older age, lower education, first language other than English or French, Black or Other ethnicity, and the presence of psychosis. Homeless adults with mental illness experience impairment in multiple neuropsychological domains. Much of the variance in our sample's cognitive performance remains unexplained, highlighting the need for further research in the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics reveals altered waste clearance and accelerated aging in HIV patients with neurocognitive impairment

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    Cassol, Edana; Misra, Vikas; Dutta, Anupriya; Morgello, Susan; Gabuzda, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Some features of HAND resemble those of age-associated cognitive decline in the absence of HIV, suggesting that overlapping mechanisms may contribute to neurocognitive impairment. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 100 individuals (46 HIV-positive patients and 54 HIV-negative controls). Methods: Untargeted CSF metabolite profiling was performed using liquid/gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry. Cytokine profiling was performed by Bioplex. Bioinformatic analyses were performed in Metaboanalyst and R. Results: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART mapped to pathways associated with neurotransmitter production, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and metabolic waste. Many CSF metabolites altered in HIV overlapped with those altered with advanced age in HIV-negative controls, suggesting a pattern indicative of accelerated aging. Machine learning models identified neurotransmitters (glutamate, N-acetylaspartate), markers of glial activation (myo-inositol), and ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyric acid, 1,2-propanediol) as top-ranked classifiers of HAND. These CSF metabolites correlated with worse neurocognitive test scores, plasma inflammatory biomarkers [interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2Ra], and intrathecal IFN responses (IFN-γ and kynurenine : tryptophan ratio), suggesting inter-relationships between systemic and intrathecal inflammation and metabolic alterations in CSF. Conclusions: Alterations in the CSF metabolome of HIV patients on ART suggest that persistent inflammation, glial responses, glutamate neurotoxicity, and altered brain waste disposal systems contribute to mechanisms involved in HAND that may be augmented with aging. PMID:24752083

  13. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z scor...

  14. Serotonin-Related Gene Polymorphisms and Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Alcohol Abusers

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    Karina Villalba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.

  15. Neurocognitive function impairment after whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: actual assessment

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    Tallet Agnes V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT is an effective treatment in brain metastases and, when combined with local treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, gives the best brain control. Nonetheless, WBRT is often omitted after local treatment due to its potential late neurocognitive effects. Publications on radiation-induced neurotoxicity have used different assessment methods, time to assessment, and definition of impairment, thus making it difficult to accurately assess the rate and magnitude of the neurocognitive decline that can be expected. In this context, and to help therapeutic decision making, we have conducted this literature review, with the aim of providing an average incidence, magnitude and time to occurrence of radio-induced neurocognitive decline. We reviewed all English language published articles on neurocognitive effects of WBRT for newly diagnosed brain metastases or with a preventive goal in adult patients, with any methodology (MMSE, battery of neurcognitive tests with which baseline status was provided. We concluded that neurocognitive decline is predominant at 4 months, strongly dependant on brain metastases control, partially solved at later time, graded 1 on a SOMA-LENT scale (only 8% of grade 2 and more, insufficiently assessed in long-term survivors, thus justifying all efforts to reduce it through irradiation modulation.

  16. Neurocognitive function impairment after whole brain radiotherapy for brain metastases: actual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallet, Agnes V; Azria, David; Barlesi, Fabrice; Spano, Jean-Philippe; Carpentier, Antoine F; Gonçalves, Antony; Metellus, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is an effective treatment in brain metastases and, when combined with local treatments such as surgery and stereotactic radiosurgery, gives the best brain control. Nonetheless, WBRT is often omitted after local treatment due to its potential late neurocognitive effects. Publications on radiation-induced neurotoxicity have used different assessment methods, time to assessment, and definition of impairment, thus making it difficult to accurately assess the rate and magnitude of the neurocognitive decline that can be expected. In this context, and to help therapeutic decision making, we have conducted this literature review, with the aim of providing an average incidence, magnitude and time to occurrence of radio-induced neurocognitive decline. We reviewed all English language published articles on neurocognitive effects of WBRT for newly diagnosed brain metastases or with a preventive goal in adult patients, with any methodology (MMSE, battery of neurcognitive tests) with which baseline status was provided. We concluded that neurocognitive decline is predominant at 4 months, strongly dependant on brain metastases control, partially solved at later time, graded 1 on a SOMA-LENT scale (only 8% of grade 2 and more), insufficiently assessed in long-term survivors, thus justifying all efforts to reduce it through irradiation modulation

  17. Factors related to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment differ with age.

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    Fogel, Gary B; Lamers, Susanna L; Levine, Andrew J; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; McGrath, Michael S; Shapshak, Paul; Singer, Elyse J

    2015-02-01

    Over 50% of HIV-infected (HIV+) persons are expected to be over age 50 by 2015. The pathogenic effects of HIV, particularly in cases of long-term infection, may intersect with those of age-related illnesses and prolonged exposure to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). One potential outcome is an increased prevalence of neurocognitive impairment in older HIV+ individuals, as well as an altered presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs). In this study, we employed stepwise regression to examine 24 features sometimes associated with HAND in 40 older (55-73 years of age) and 30 younger (32-50 years of age) HIV+, cART-treated participants without significant central nervous system confounds. The features most effective in generating a true assessment of the likelihood of HAND diagnosis differed between older and younger cohorts, with the younger cohort containing features associated with drug abuse that were correlated to HAND and the older cohort containing features that were associated with lipid disorders mildly associated with HAND. As the HIV-infected population grows and the demographics of the epidemic change, it is increasingly important to re-evaluate features associated with neurocognitive impairment. Here, we have identified features, routinely collected in primary care settings, that provide more accurate diagnostic value than a neurocognitive screening measure among younger and older HIV individuals.

  18. The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium brain gene array: two types of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment.

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    Benjamin B Gelman

    Full Text Available The National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium (NNTC performed a brain gene expression array to elucidate pathophysiologies of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders.Twenty-four human subjects in four groups were examined A Uninfected controls; B HIV-1 infected subjects with no substantial neurocognitive impairment (NCI; C Infected with substantial NCI without HIV encephalitis (HIVE; D Infected with substantial NCI and HIVE. RNA from neocortex, white matter, and neostriatum was processed with the Affymetrix® array platform.With HIVE the HIV-1 RNA load in brain tissue was three log(10 units higher than other groups and over 1,900 gene probes were regulated. Interferon response genes (IFRGs, antigen presentation, complement components and CD163 antigen were strongly upregulated. In frontal neocortex downregulated neuronal pathways strongly dominated in HIVE, including GABA receptors, glutamate signaling, synaptic potentiation, axon guidance, clathrin-mediated endocytosis and 14-3-3 protein. Expression was completely different in neuropsychologically impaired subjects without HIVE. They had low brain HIV-1 loads, weak brain immune responses, lacked neuronally expressed changes in neocortex and exhibited upregulation of endothelial cell type transcripts. HIV-1-infected subjects with normal neuropsychological test results had upregulation of neuronal transcripts involved in synaptic transmission of neostriatal circuits.Two patterns of brain gene expression suggest that more than one pathophysiological process occurs in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive impairment. Expression in HIVE suggests that lowering brain HIV-1 replication might improve NCI, whereas NCI without HIVE may not respond in kind; array results suggest that modulation of transvascular signaling is a potentially promising approach. Striking brain regional differences highlighted the likely importance of circuit level disturbances in HIV/AIDS. In

  19. Neurocognitive impairment in plwha: clinical features and assessment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    People with HAND have impairment on multiple cognitive domains, including attention, concentration, memory, executive function, motor functioning and speed of information processing, and sensory perceptual/motor skills deficits. The milder forms of HAND are easily missed. Diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds in ...

  20. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

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    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  1. Neurocognitive impairment in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: measurement issues in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tricia S; Aranow, Cynthia; Ross, Gail S; Barsdorf, Alexandra; Imundo, Lisa F; Eichenfield, Andrew H; Kahn, Philip J; Diamond, Betty; Levy, Deborah M

    2011-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) by comparing published classification criteria, and to examine associations between NCI, disease characteristics, psychosocial well-being, and intelligence. cSLE patients and ethnicity- and age-matched healthy controls completed a neuropsychological research battery, and results were categorized by 3 different NCI classification criteria with different cutoff scores (e.g., >2, 1.5, or 1 SD below the mean) and the number of required abnormal tests or domains. Forty-one cSLE subjects and 22 controls were included. Subjects were predominantly female (~70%) and Hispanic (∼70%). Executive functioning, psychomotor speed, and fine motor speed were most commonly affected. Method 1 classified 34.1% of cSLE subjects with NCI compared to method 2 (14.6% with decline and 7.3% with NCI) and method 3 (63.4% with NCI). The prevalence of NCI was not significantly different between the controls and patients using any of the categorization methods. NCI was not associated with SLE disease activity or characteristics or with depression. Using method 3, patients in the cognitive impairment group reported significantly lower quality of life estimates (69.7 versus 79.3; P = 0.03). Below average intellectual functioning (intelligence quotient 1 and >1.5 SDs, but not >2 SDs below the mean. NCI was prevalent in cSLE, but varied according to the chosen categorization method. A similar proportion of cSLE patients and controls had NCI, reinforcing the importance of studying an appropriate control group. Categorical classification (i.e., impaired/nonimpaired) may oversimplify the commonly observed deficits in cSLE. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Neurocognitive impairment and suicide risk among prison inmates.

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    Vadini, Francesco; Calella, Giulio; Pieri, Alessandro; Ricci, Elena; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; De Risio, Alfredo; Sciacca, Antonina; Santilli, Francesca; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Reducing the number of suicides in jails and prisons is an international priority. Several risk factors for suicide attempts, such as historical, prison-related, psychosocial and clinical factors, have been found in prisoners. We assessed whether demographic, conviction-related and neuro-behavioral variables might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. On a preliminary sample of 254 detainees within an ongoing project, we assessed whether demographic, conviction-related, psychiatric, cognitive variables and illness comorbidity might be associated with current suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts in two large central Italy prisons. Psychiatric disorders and suicide risk was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. We also have identified the detainees with clear-cut previous suicide attempts. The cognitive function was assessed with a brief neuropsychological battery including trail making A, trail making B, Digit Span, and Symbol Digit test. Impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Cumulative illness was evaluated with Charlson Comorbidity Index. Impairment in global cognitive function was the strongest predictor of both high suicide risk and lifetime suicide attempts (both p impulsivity, and illness comorbidity. Limitation LIMITATION: Cross-sectional study design and relatively small sample size. Cognitive deficits may improve our understanding of the suicidal vulnerability and should be systematically included in the assessment of suicide risk, as potential predictors of suicidal acts and targets of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of Impaired Neurocognitive Functioning in School-Age Children Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

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    van der Rijken, Rachel; Hulstijn-Dirkmaat, Gerdine; Kraaimaat, Floris; Nabuurs-Kohrman, Lida; Daniels, Otto; Maassen, Ben

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk of developing neurocognitive problems. However, as these problems are usually identified after cardiac surgery, it is unclear whether they resulted from the surgery or whether they pre-existed and hence might be explained by complications and events associated with the heart disease…

  4. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

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    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on neurocognitive impairment and symptoms after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14

  6. Enhanced Assessment Technology and Neurocognitive Aspects of Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Mathematics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios A. Pappas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific Learning Disorder with impairment in Mathematics (Developmental Dyscalculia is a complex learning disorder which affects arithmetic skills, symbolic magnitude processing, alertness, flexibility in problem solving and maintained attention. Neuro-cognitive studies revealed that such difficulties in children with DD could be related to poor Working Memory and attention deficits. Furthermore, neuroimaging studies indicate that brain structure differences in children with DD compared to typically developing children could affect mathematical performance. In this study we present the cognitive profile of Dyscalculia, as well as the neuropsychological aspects of the deficit, with special reference to the utilization of enhanced assessment technology such as computerized neuropsychological tools and neuroimaging techniques.

  7. Impaired neurocognitive functions affect social learning processes in oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Lochman, John E

    2012-09-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive consequences is compromised in children and adolescents with these disorders due to reduced sensitivity to punishment and to reward. As a result, both learning of appropriate behavior and learning to refrain from inappropriate behavior may be affected. Likewise, problem solving is impaired due to deficiencies in inhibition, attention, cognitive flexibility, and decision making. Consequently, children and adolescents with ODD and CD may have difficulty learning to optimize their behavior in changeable environments. This conceptualization of ODD and CD is relevant for the improvement of the effect of psychological treatments. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral interventions that have been shown to be modestly effective in ODD and CD are based on social learning. Limited effectiveness of these interventions may be caused by difficulties in social learning in children and adolescents with ODD and CD. However, although these impairments have been observed at a group level, the deficits in reward processing, punishment processing, and cognitive control mentioned above may not be present to the same extent in each individual with ODD and CD. Therefore, the neurocognitive characteristics in children and adolescents with ODD and CD should be assessed individually. Thus, instead of delivering interventions in a standardized way, these programs may benefit from an individualized approach that depends on the weaknesses and strengths of the neurocognitive characteristics of the child and the adolescent.

  8. 'Known unknowns - examining the burden of neurocognitive impairment in the end-stage renal failure population'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Dhar, Arup; Tregaskis, Peter; Lambert, Gavin; Barton, David; Walker, Rowan

    2018-01-18

    The burden of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in patients receiving maintenance dialysis represents a spectrum of deficits across multiple cognitive domains which are associated with hospitalisation, reduced quality-of-life, mortality and forced decision-making around dialysis withdrawal. Point prevalence data suggests that dialysis patients manifest NCI at rates 3-5 fold higher than the general population with executive function the most commonly affected cognitive domain. The unique physiology of the renal failure state and maintenance dialysis appears to drive an excess of vascular dementia subtype compared to the general population where classical Alzheimer's disease predominates. Despite the absence of evidence based cost-effective therapies for NCI, detecting it in this population creates opportunity to proactively personalise care through education, supported decision making and targeted communication strategies to cover specific areas of deficit and help define goals of care. This review discusses NCI in the dialysis setting, including developments in the definition of neurocognitive impairment, dialysis-specific epidemiology across modalities, screening strategies and opportunities for dialysis providers in this space. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Galdos,Mariana; Simons,Claudia J.P.; Wichers,Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas,Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi,Oscar; Lataster,Tineke; Amer,Guillermo; Myin-Germeys,Inez; Gonzalez-Torres,Miguel Angel; Os,Jim van

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. METHOD: Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals w...

  10. A Smartphone App to Screen for HIV-Related Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N; Brown, Henry; Ehlers, Andries; Joska, John A; Thomas, Kevin G F; Burgess, Rhonda; Byrd, Desiree; Morgello, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Neurocognitive Impairment (NCI) is one of the most common complications of HIV-infection, and has serious medical and functional consequences. However, screening for it is not routine and NCI often goes undiagnosed. Screening for NCI in HIV disease faces numerous challenges, such as limited screening tests, the need for specialized equipment and apparatuses, and highly trained personnel to administer, score and interpret screening tests. To address these challenges, we developed a novel smartphone-based screening tool, NeuroScreen , to detect HIV-related NCI that includes an easy-to-use graphical user interface with ten highly automated neuropsychological tests. To examine NeuroScreen's : 1) acceptability among patients and different potential users; 2) test construct and criterion validity; and 3) sensitivity and specificity to detect NCI. Fifty HIV+ individuals were administered a gold-standard neuropsychological test battery, designed to detect HIV-related NCI, and NeuroScreen . HIV+ test participants and eight potential provider-users of NeuroScreen were asked about its acceptability. There was a high level of acceptability of NeuroScreen by patients and potential provider-users. Moderate to high correlations between individual NeuroScreen tests and paper-and-pencil tests assessing the same cognitive domains were observed. NeuroScreen also demonstrated high sensitivity to detect NCI. NeuroScreen, a highly automated, easy-to-use smartphone-based screening test to detect NCI among HIV patients and usable by a range of healthcare personnel could help make routine screening for HIV-related NCI feasible. While NeuroScreen demonstrated robust psychometric properties and acceptability, further testing with larger and less neurocognitively impaired samples is warranted.

  11. Neurocognitive impairment in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Binnur Akdede, B; Alptekin, K

    2017-10-01

    Most studies suggested that patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairment compared with patients with non-deficit schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are associated with differential neurocognitive profiles. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare cognitive performances of deficit and non-deficit patients with each other and with healthy controls. In the current meta-analysis, differences in cognitive abilities between 897 deficit and 1636 non-deficit patients with schizophrenia were examined. Cognitive performances of 899 healthy controls were also compared with 350 patients with deficit and 592 non-deficit schizophrenia. Both deficit (d = 1.04-1.53) and non-deficit (d = 0.68-1.19) schizophrenia were associated with significant deficits in all cognitive domains. Deficit patients underperformed non-deficit patients in all cognitive domains (d = 0.24-0.84) and individual tasks (d = 0.39-0.93). The relationship between deficit syndrome and impairment in olfaction, social cognition, verbal fluency, and speed-based cognitive tasks were relatively stronger. Our findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for a significant relationship between deficit syndrome and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  12. Exercise ameliorates neurocognitive impairments in a translational model of pediatric radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahnoune, Iman; Inoue, Taeko; Kesler, Shelli R; Rodgers, Shaefali P; Sabek, Omaima M; Pedersen, Steen E; Zawaski, Janice A; Nelson, Katharine H; Ris, M Douglas; Leasure, J Leigh; Gaber, M Waleed

    2018-04-09

    While cranial radiation therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment, healthy areas surrounding irradiation sites are negatively affected. Frontal lobe functions involving attention, processing speed, and inhibition control are impaired. These deficits appear months to years after CRT and impair quality of life. Exercise has been shown to rejuvenate the brain and aid in recovery post-injury through its effects on neurogenesis and cognition. We developed a juvenile rodent CRT model that reproduces neurocognitive deficits. Next, we utilized the model to test whether exercise ameliorates these deficits. Fischer rats (31 days old) were irradiated with a fractionated dose of 4 Gy × 5 days, trained and tested at 6, 9, and 12 months post-CRT using 5-choice serial reaction time task. After testing, fixed rat brains were imaged using diffusion tensor imaging and immunohistochemistry. CRT caused early and lasting impairments in task acquisition, accuracy, and latency to correct response, as well as causing stunting of growth and changes in brain volume and diffusion. Exercising after irradiation improved acquisition, behavioral control, and processing speed, mitigated the stunting of brain size, and increased brain fiber numbers compared with sedentary CRT values. Further, exercise partially restored global connectome organization, including assortativity and characteristic path length, and while it did not improve the specific regional connections that were lowered by CRT, it appeared to remodel these connections by increasing connectivity between alternate regional pairs. Our data strongly suggest that exercise may be useful in combination with interventions aimed at improving cognitive outcome following pediatric CRT.

  13. Impaired behavioral and neurocognitive function in preschool children with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Yael E; Bar-Yishay, Orit; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldbart, Aviv D; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Tal, Asher

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to examine the hypothesis that behavioral and neurocognitive functions of preschool children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) are impaired compared to healthy children, and improve after adenotonsillectomy (TA). A comprehensive assessment battery was used to assess cognitive and behavioral functions, and quality of life in children with OSAS compared to matched controls. 45 children (mean age 45.5 ± 9 months, 73% boys, BMI 15.7 ± 2) with OSAS were compared to 26 healthy children (mean age 48.6 ± 8 months, 46% boys, BMI 16.4 ± 2). Mean AHI in the OSAS group was 13.2 ± 10.7 (ranging from 1.2 to 57). Significantly impaired planning and fluency (executive function) were found in children with OSAS, as well as impaired attention and receptive vocabulary. Parents and teachers described the OSAS group as having significantly more behavior problems. Quality of life questionnaire in children with OSAS (mean 2.3, range 0.7-4.3) was significantly worse compared to controls (mean 0, range: 0-4), P improvement was documented in verbal and motor fluency, sustained attention, and vocabulary. After TA, fewer behavioral problems were seen. Preschool children with OSAS present significantly impaired executive functions, impaired attention and receptive vocabulary, and more behavior problems. One year after TA, the prominent improvements were in behavior and quality of life. These findings suggest that the impact of OSAS on behavioral and cognitive functions begins in early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neurocognitive function in HIV-infected patients: comparison of two methods to define impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arenas-Pinto

    Full Text Available To compare two definitions of neurocognitive impairment (NCI in a large clinical trial of effectively-treated HIV-infected adults at baseline.Hopkins Verbal Learning test-Revised (HVLT-R, Colour Trail (CTT and Grooved Pegboard (GPT tests were applied exploring five cognitive domains. Raw scores were transformed into Z-scores and NCI defined as summary NPZ-5 score one standard deviation below the mean of the normative dataset (i.e. <-1SD or Z-scores <-1SD in at least two individual domains (categorical scale. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed to explore the contribution of individual tests to the total variance.Mean NPZ-5 score was -0.72 (SD 0.98 and 178/548 (32% participants had NPZ-5 scores <-1SD. When impairment was defined as <-1SD in at least two individual tests, 283 (52% patients were impaired. Strong correlations between the two components of the HVLT-R test (learning/recall (r = 0.73, and the CTT and (attention/executive functioning (r = 0.66 were observed. PCA showed a clustering with three components accounting for 88% of the total variance. When patients who scored <-1SD only in two correlated tests were considered as not impaired, prevalence of NCI was 43%. When correlated test scores were averaged, 36% of participants had NPZ-3 scores <-1SD and 32% underperformed in at least two individual tests.Controlling for differential contribution of individual test-scores on the overall performance and the level of correlation between components of the test battery used appear to be important when testing cognitive function. These two factors are likely to affect both summary scores and categorical scales in defining cognitive impairment.EUDRACT: 2007-006448-23 and ISRCTN04857074.

  15. Proteinuria is associated with neurocognitive impairment in antiretroviral therapy treated HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C; Wu, Kunling; Evans, Scott; Clifford, David B; Pallaki, Muraldihar; Currier, Judith S; Smryzynski, Marlene

    2014-09-01

    Proteinuria is a marker of vascular dysfunction that predicted increased cardiovascular mortality and is associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in population-based studies. We examined associations between proteinuria and HIV-associated NCI. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between NCI at the first neurocognitive assessment (baseline) and simultaneous, clinically significant proteinuria [as random spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (UP/Cr) ≥200 mg/g] in a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between baseline proteinuria and subsequent NCI among subjects without NCI at baseline. NCI was defined as a Z-score, derived from the combination of normalized scores from the Trailmaking A and B and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Digit Symbol tests. A total of 1972 subjects were included in this analysis. Baseline proteinuria was associated with increased odds of NCI [odds ratio (OR): 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08 to 1.85; P = 0.01] and with subsequent NCI among subjects without NCI at baseline (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.93; P = 0.046) in multivariable models adjusted for risk factors and potential confounders. Similar associations were evident when these analyses were limited to visits at which time study subjects maintained plasma HIV RNA levels <200 copies per milliliter. The association between proteinuria and NCI observed in this study adds to a growing body of evidence implicating contributions by vascular disease to NCI in antiretroviral treated individuals. Studies examining interventions that improve vascular function are warranted.

  16. Latent toxoplasmosis is associated with neurocognitive impairment in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, L; Marcotte, T D; Umlauf, A; Grancea, C; Temereanca, A; Bharti, A; Achim, C L; Letendre, S; Ruta, S M

    2016-10-15

    We evaluated the impact of latent toxoplasmosis (LT) on neurocognitive (NC) and neurobehavioural functioning in young adults with and without chronic HIV infection, using a standardised NC test battery, self-reported Beck Depression Inventory, Frontal System Behavior Scale, MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and risk-assessment battery. 194 young adults (median age 24years, 48.2% males) with chronic HIV infection (HIV+) since childhood and 51 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants were included. HIV+ individuals had good current immunological status (median CD4: 479 cells/μl) despite a low CD4 nadir (median: 93 cells/μl). LT (positive anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies) was present in one third of participants. The impairment rates in the HIV- with and without Toxo were not significantly different (p=0.17). However, we observed an increasing trend (pToxoplasmosis may contribute to NC impairment in young adults, including those with and without chronic HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bridging the gap between neurocognitive processing theory and performance validity assessment among the cognitively impaired: a review and methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Angela; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray

    2014-10-01

    Bigler (2012) and Larrabee (2012) recently addressed the state of the science surrounding performance validity tests (PVTs) in a dialogue highlighting evidence for the valid and increased use of PVTs, but also for unresolved problems. Specifically, Bigler criticized the lack of guidance from neurocognitive processing theory in the PVT literature. For example, individual PVTs have applied the simultaneous forced-choice methodology using a variety of test characteristics (e.g., word vs. picture stimuli) with known neurocognitive processing implications (e.g., the "picture superiority effect"). However, the influence of such variations on classification accuracy has been inadequately evaluated, particularly among cognitively impaired individuals. The current review places the PVT literature in the context of neurocognitive processing theory, and identifies potential methodological factors to account for the significant variability we identified in classification accuracy across current PVTs. We subsequently evaluated the utility of a well-known cognitive manipulation to provide a Clinical Analogue Methodology (CAM), that is, to alter the PVT performance of healthy individuals to be similar to that of a cognitively impaired group. Initial support was found, suggesting the CAM may be useful alongside other approaches (analogue malingering methodology) for the systematic evaluation of PVTs, particularly the influence of specific neurocognitive processing components on performance.

  18. Quantitative and Qualitative Differences in Neurocognitive Impairment Induced by 1 GeV 56Fe Ions and X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, R.; Mitchell, S.; Parris, B.; Johnson, A.; Singletary-Britten, S.; Lonart, G.; Drake, R.

    2008-10-01

    During the planned mission to Mars, Astronauts will be exposed to heavy charged particles (Hze). Our group has been determining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe, LET = 150 kev/um) with respect to neurocognitive impairment, specifically spatial memory, short-term working memory and attentional set shifting. Our current data suggest that Hze have RBE values of about 7 for hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks (Barnes Maze) and possibly even higher for certain attentional processes. We have also used MALDI-TOF serum profiling analysis to identify several proteins that are biomarkers of both the level and LET of the radiation exposure, and biomarkers of cognitive performance. Our data suggest that Hze particles have a distinctly different impact upon neurocognitive function in rats than do X-rays. From a mission perspective, attentional set shifting is the neurocognitive function most likely to be impacted by the predicted Hze exposure; unfortunately Set shifting underlies our ability to execute complex plans. The proteins identified could be used to monitor the Astronauts for radiation exposure and any associated loss of neurocognitive function, and some may actually give an insight into the complex processes that lead to radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  19. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, Mariana; Simons, Claudia J P; Wichers, Marieke; Fernandez-Rivas, Aranzazu; Martinez-Azumendi, Oscar; Lataster, Tineke; Amer, Guillermo; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; van Os, Jim

    2011-10-01

    Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30) and a reference control group (n=310) were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task). The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals were mediated by neurocognitive alterations was analyzed. The EASS task displayed convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to controls, patients displayed blunted emotional appraisal of social situations (B=0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74, Ppsychotic disorder may underlie misrepresentation of the social world, mediated by altered emotion recognition. A task assessing the social impact of cognitive alterations in clinical practice may be useful in detecting key alterations very early in the course of psychotic illness.

  20. Perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive impairments in preschool children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, Eva S.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; Livesey, David; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare a broad array of neurocognitive functions (processing speed, aspects of attention, executive functioning, visual-motor coordination, and both face and emotion recognition) in very preterm and term-born children and to identify perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive

  1. Perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive impairments in preschool very preterm children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potharst, E.S.; van Wassenaer, A.G.; Houtzager, B.A.; Kok, J.H.; Last, P.F.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare a broad array of neurocognitive functions (processing speed, aspects of attention, executive functioning, visual-motor coordination, and both face and emotion recognition) in very preterm and term-born children and to identify perinatal risk factors for neurocognitive

  2. Detecting altered connectivity patterns in HIV associated neurocognitive impairment using mutual connectivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Anas Zainul; D'Souza, Adora M.; Nagarajan, Mahesh B.; Wismüller, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The use of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has provided interesting insights into our understanding of the brain. In clinical setups these scans have been used to detect and study changes in the brain network properties in various neurological disorders. A large percentage of subjects infected with HIV present cognitive deficits, which are known as HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). In this study we propose to use our novel technique named Mutual Connectivity Analysis (MCA) to detect differences in brain networks in subjects with and without HIV infection. Resting state functional MRI scans acquired from 10 subjects (5 HIV+ and 5 HIV-) were subject to standard preprocessing routines. Subsequently, the average time-series for each brain region of the Automated Anatomic Labeling (AAL) atlas are extracted and used with the MCA framework to obtain a graph characterizing the interactions between them. The network graphs obtained for different subjects are then compared using Network-Based Statistics (NBS), which is an approach to detect differences between graphs edges while controlling for the family-wise error rate when mass univariate testing is performed. Applying this approach on the graphs obtained yields a single network encompassing 42 nodes and 65 edges, which is significantly different between the two subject groups. Specifically connections to the regions in and around the basal ganglia are significantly decreased. Also some nodes corresponding to the posterior cingulate cortex are affected. These results are inline with our current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND) and other HIV based fMRI connectivity studies. Hence, we illustrate the applicability of our novel approach with network-based statistics in a clinical case-control study to detect differences connectivity patterns.

  3. The Neurocognitive Basis for Impaired Dual-Task Performance in Senior Fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S; Hsu, C Liang; Voss, Michelle W; Chan, Alison; Bolandzadeh, Niousha; Handy, Todd C; Graf, Peter; Beattie, B Lynn; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Falls are a major health-care concern, and while dual-task performance is widely recognized as being impaired in those at-risk for falls, the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain unknown. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could lead to the refinement and development of behavioral, cognitive, or neuropharmacological interventions for falls prevention. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study with community-dwelling older adults aged 70-80 years with a history of falls (i.e., two or more falls in the past 12 months) or no history of falls (i.e., zero falls in the past 12 months); n = 28 per group. We compared functional activation during cognitive-based dual-task performance between fallers and non-fallers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Executive cognitive functioning was assessed via Stroop, Trail Making, and Digit Span. Mobility was assessed via the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). We found that non-fallers exhibited significantly greater functional activation compared with fallers during dual-task performance in key regions responsible for resolving dual-task interference, including precentral, postcentral, and lingual gyri. Further, we report slower reaction times during dual-task performance in fallers and significant correlations between level of functional activation and independent measures of executive cognitive functioning and mobility. Our study is the first neuroimaging study to examine dual-task performance in fallers, and supports the notion that fallers have reduced functional brain activation compared with non-fallers. Given that dual-task performance-and the underlying neural concomitants-appears to be malleable with relevant training, our study serves as a launching point for promising strategies to reduce falls in the future.

  4. Changes in Neuropsychological Status during the Initial Phase of Abstinence in Alcohol Use Disorder: Neurocognitive Impairment and Implications for Clinical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhauser, Kyler; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ruppert, Phillip; Benware, Jeffrey

    2018-05-12

    Neuropsychological deficits are common in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and impact daily functioning and AUD treatment outcomes. Longitudinal studies demonstrate that extended abstinence improves neuropsychological functioning. The effects of short-term abstinence are less clear. This study examined changes in neuropsychological functioning after acute detoxification over a 10-day period at the beginning of residential AUD treatment. Notably, this study evaluated cognitive functioning according to diagnostic classifications for neurocognitive disorder according to DSM-5. Using a within-subjects design, neuropsychological functioning of participants (N = 28) undergoing a 14-day residential AUD treatment program was assessed at two time points over 10 days (i.e., treatment entry, prior to treatment discharge). Tests of immediate memory, visuospatial abilities, attention, language abilities, delayed memory, and executive functioning were administered. After completing acute detoxification, almost all participants (93%) were clinically impaired in at least one of the five cognitive domains at residential treatment entry, with one third of the sample impaired on ≥3 domains. Ten days later, 71% remained clinically impaired in at least one of five cognitive domains, with 29% of the sample impaired on ≥3 domains. Significant improvement over the 10-day period was observed for immediate memory, visuospatial abilities, and overall cognitive functioning. Clinical significance of these changes is also reported. Conclusions/Importance: The results from this study help to characterize cognitive functioning in terms of neurocognitive impairment. A brief period of abstinence begins to ameliorate neuropsychological deficits, but many individuals remain cognitively impaired throughout treatment. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  5. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  6. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  7. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold

  8. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold

  9. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  10. Prevalence of DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in Dementia-Free Older Adults: Results of the Population-Based LIFE-Adult-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Schroeter, Matthias L; Witte, Veronica; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Thiery, Joachim; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2017-04-01

    The DSM-5 introduces mild neurocognitive disorder (miNCD) as a syndrome that recognizes the potential clinical importance of acquired cognitive deficits being too mild to qualify for diagnosis of dementia. We provide new empirical data on miNCD including total, age-, and sex-specific prevalence rates; number and types of neurocognitive domains being impaired; and diagnostic overlap with the well-established mild cognitive impairment (MCI) concept. Cross-sectional results of an observational cohort study (LIFE-Adult-Study). General population. A total of 1,080 dementia-free individuals, aged 60-79 years. We calculated weighted point prevalence rates with confidence intervals (95% CI) for miNCD and analyzed diagnostic overlap between miNCD and MCI by calculating overall percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa coefficient. Weighted total prevalence of miNCD was 20.3% (95% CI: 17.8-23.0). Prevalence was similar in both sexes, but significantly higher in older age. Two-thirds (66.2%) of the individuals with miNCD showed impairment restricted to only one out of six possible neurocognitive domains. Learning and memory was the most frequently (38.3%) impaired domain in all miNCD-cases, followed by social cognition (26.1%). Analysis of diagnostic overlap with MCI yielded an overall agreement of 98.6% and a kappa of 0.959. By considering all six predefined neurocognitive domains, our study observed a substantial proportion of dementia-free older adults having miNCD. Provision of information on the underlying etiology/ies may be of prime importance in future studies aiming at evaluating the clinical relevance of the miNCD syndrome. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling a Theory-Based Approach to Examine the Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment on HIV Risk Reduction Behaviors Among Drug Users in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Shrestha, Roman; Copenhaver, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Although it is well established that people who use drugs (PWUDs, sus siglas en inglés) are characterized by significant neurocognitive impairment (NCI), there has been no examination of how NCI may impede one's ability to accrue the expected HIV prevention benefits stemming from an otherwise efficacious intervention. This paper incorporated a theoretical Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change (IMB) to examine the potential influence of NCI on HIV prevention outcomes as significantly moderating the mediation defined in the original model. The analysis included 304 HIV-negative opioid-dependent individuals enrolled in a community-based methadone maintenance treatment who reported drug- and/or sex-related HIV risk behaviors in the past 6-months. Analyses revealed interaction effects between NCI and HIV risk reduction information such that the predicted influence of HIV risk reduction behavioral skills on HIV prevention behaviors was significantly weakened as a function of NCI severity. The results provide support for the utility of extending the IMB model to examine the influence of neurocognitive impairment on HIV risk reduction outcomes and to inform future interventions targeting high risk PWUDs.

  12. The effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on neurocognitive function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine group differences in neurocognitive status, we used Wilcoxon ranked sum tests to compare the performance between groups on neuropsychological test battery. Results: Out of 324, only 244 were studied. Results indicated significant neurocognitive impairment in PTB+/HIV+ group than PTB-/HIV+ in the GDS, ...

  13. Select neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected women: associations with HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus, and depression, but not leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection, to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations.Using matched-group methodology, we assessed 81 HIV-seropositive (HIV+ women with established neuropsychological measures validated for detection of HIV-related impairments, as well as additional detailed tests of executive function and decision-making from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB.On validated tests, the HIV+ women exhibited impairments that were limited to significantly slower information processing speed when compared with 45 HIV-seronegative (HIV- women with very similar demographic backgrounds and illness comorbidities. Additionally, select executive impairments in shifting attention (i.e., reversal learning and in decision-making quality were revealed in HIV+ participants. Modifiers of neurocognition in HIV-infected women included detectable HIV plasma viral load, active hepatitis C virus co-infection, and self-reported depression symptoms. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging, did not significantly differ between HIV+ and HIV- women, nor was LTL associated with overall neurocognition in the HIV+ group.The findings suggest that well-managed HIV infection may entail a more circumscribed neurocognitive deficit pattern than that reported in many norm-referenced studies, and that common comorbidities make a secondary contribution to HIV-related neurocognitive impairments.

  14. Dammarane Sapogenins Ameliorates Neurocognitive Functional Impairment Induced by Simulated Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates the occurrence of cognitive impairment in astronauts under spaceflight compound conditions, but the underlying mechanisms and countermeasures need to be explored. In this study, we found that learning and memory abilities were significantly reduced in rats under a simulated long-duration spaceflight environment (SLSE, which includes microgravity, isolation confinement, noises, and altered circadian rhythms. Dammarane sapogenins (DS, alkaline hydrolyzed products of ginsenosides, can enhance cognition function by regulating brain neurotransmitter levels and inhibiting SLSE-induced neuronal injury. Bioinformatics combined with experimental verification identified that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was inhibited and the MAPK pathway was activated during SLSE-induced cognition dysfunction, whereas DS substantially ameliorated the changes in brain. These findings defined the characteristics of SLSE-induced cognitive decline and the mechanisms by which DS improves it. The results provide an effective candidate for improving cognitive function in spaceflight missions.

  15. Sex Differences in Familiality Effects on Neurocognitive Performance in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E.; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Braff, David L.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Methods Participants (n=1,967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1,072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (CNB). Results Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable, across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in 6 of 7 domains, probands’ score predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, probands’ performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Conclusions Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male probands’ performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. PMID:23395246

  16. Higher Prevalence of Frailty Among a Sample of HIV-Infected Middle-aged and Older Chinese Adults Is Associated With Neurocognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingying; Lin, Haijiang; Liu, Xing; Wong, Frank Y; Sun, Yan V; Marconi, Vincent C; He, Na

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence and correlates of prefrailty/frailty, determined on the basis of the Fried criteria, in Chinese patients with and those without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV-infected patients were more likely to be frail or prefrail than controls, and this association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio, 3.79). After additional adjustment for neurocognitive impairment and depressive and insomnia symptoms, this association remained significant but attenuated (odds ratio, 2.16). In the HIV-infected group, these 3 variables were independently associated with prefrailty/frailty. These findings suggest that neurocognitive impairment and depressive and/or insomnia symptoms may account for a higher prevalence of prefrailty/frailty in HIV-infected patients but require further longitudinal investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sex differences in familiality effects on neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Monica E; Ray, Amrita; Gur, Ruben C; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Gur, Raquel E

    2013-05-15

    Numerous studies have documented that patients with schizophrenia show neurocognitive impairments, which are also heritable in schizophrenia families. In view of these findings, the current investigation tested the hypothesis that neurocognitive performance of schizophrenia probands can predict the neurocognitive performance of their unaffected family members. Participants (n=1967; schizophrenia=369; first-degree relatives=1072; community comparison subjects=526) in the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia were administered the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery. Consistent with prior work, probands showed significant neurocognitive impairment, and neurocognitive ability was significantly heritable across domains. On average, unaffected relatives did not differ from community comparison subjects in their neurocognitive performance. However, in six of seven domains, proband scores predicted the performance of their unaffected siblings. Male, but not female, proband performance was predictive of their unaffected relatives' (siblings and mothers) performance, most consistently in face memory and spatial processing. Using a novel approach in which individual probands are paired with their respective unaffected relatives within each family, we found that male proband performance predicted both sister and brother performance, an effect that was most powerfully observed for face memory and spatial processing. Results suggest that the familial transmission of sexually dimorphic neurocognitive domains, in which a particular sex tends to show a performance advantage over the other, may not itself be sex specific in schizophrenia families. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline Neurocognitive Test Results In Non-concussed Athletes: Does Sleep Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, D. Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L.; Kutscher, Scott J.; Gregory, Andrew; Solomon, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: When managing sport-related concussions (SRC), sports medicine physicians utilize serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories when evaluating athlete recovery and safety for returning to play (RTP). Since post-concussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and return to neurocognitive baseline, clinical decisions rest on an understanding of modifiers of baseline performance. Several studies have reported the influence of age, gender and sport on baseli...

  19. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year...... years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth...... year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal...

  20. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik; Fleckenstein, Katharina; Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, ≤ 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  1. Acute neurocognitive impairment during cranial radiation therapy in patients with intracranial tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, Grit; Mai, Sabine K.; Hermann, Brigitte; Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Wenz, Frederik [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Fleckenstein, Katharina [University Medical Center Mannheim, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology]|[Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2008-12-15

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the acute effects of cranial radiation therapy (CNS-RT) using different radiation doses (0, 1.8, 2, 3, {<=} 20 Gy) on cognitive function with special emphasis on memory. We assessed patients with and without intracranial tumors to distinguish between direct and indirect radiation effects on brain tissue. Eighty-two patients were evaluated with neuropsychological testing before and acutely after radiotherapy (RT). Sixty-four patients received RT to the brain (55 with, 9 without intracranial tumor). Eighteen patients treated with RT to the breast served as controls. Patients with intracranial tumor demonstrated attention (19-38th percentile) and verbal memory scores (34-46th percentile) below the population average at baseline. The average Verbal Memory score was significantly different between patients with intracranial tumor and controls both at baseline (38th vs. 58th percentile) and after irradiation (27th vs. 52th percentile). Patients with preexisting peritumoral edema performed worse than patients without edema and controls. Radiation dose-related deficits were seen for working memory performance in patients with intracranial tumor. Our data indicate no measurable impairment of cognitive functioning acutely after prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with intracranial tumor show a deterioration of almost all memory functions with a dose-dependent impairment in working memory. Patients with preexisting peritumoral brain edema show the strongest deterioration. (orig.)

  2. Low levels of neurocognitive impairment detected in screening HIV-infected men who have sex with men: The MSM Neurocog Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T J; Bansi, L; Pozniak, A; Asboe, D; Nelson, M; Moyle, G; Davies, N; Margetts, A; Ratcliffe, D; Catalan, J; Boffito, M; Gazzard, B

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected men who have sex with men aged 18-50 years, using a simple battery of screening tests in routine clinical appointments. Those with suspected abnormalities were referred on for further assessment. The cohort was also followed up over time to look at evolving changes. HIV-infected participants were recruited at three clinical sites in London during from routine clinical visits. They could be clinician or self-referred and did not need to be symptomatic. They completed questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and memory. They were then screened using the Brief Neurocognitive Screen (BNCS) and International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS). Two hundred and five HIV-infected subjects were recruited. Of these, 59 patients were excluded as having a mood disorder and two patients were excluded due to insufficient data, leaving 144 patients for analysis. One hundred and twenty-four (86.1%) had a normal composite z score (within 1 SD of mean) calculated for their scores on the three component tests of the BNCS. Twenty (13.9%) had an abnormal z score, of which seven (35%) were symptomatic and 13 (65%) asymptomatic. Current employment and previous educational level were significantly associated with BNCS scores. Of those referred onwards for diagnostic testing, only one participant was found to have impairment likely related to HIV infection. We were able to easily screen for mood disorders and cognitive impairment in routine clinical practice. We identified a high level of depression and anxiety in our cohort. Using simple screening tests in clinic and an onward referral process for further testing, we were not able to identify neurocognitive impairment in this cohort at levels consistent with published data.

  3. Comparing neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder using the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Gómez-Benito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las propiedades psicométricas del test Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP en pacientes diagnosticados de esquizofrenia (n = 126 o trastorno bipolar I (n = 76. Además, el deterioro cognitivo se comparó con un grupo control (n = 83 empleando el SCIP y una batería neuropsicológica completa. El test SCIP es una escala que evalúa rápida y fácilmente el deterioro cognitivo en trastornos psiquiátricos graves. En términos de consistencia interna, estabilidad temporal, estructura dimensional y validez de criterio, el SCIP proporciona resultados al mismo nivel de fiabilidad y validez en pacientes con esquizofrenia o trastorno bipolar I. Además, demostró que el deterioro cognitivo diferencial entre los dos grupos de pacientes se produce solo en la memoria verbal, aunque el tamaño del efecto de esta diferencia es pequeño. Por último, y frente al grupo control, se confirma el deterioro cognitivo a todos los niveles en ambos grupos de pacientes utilizando tanto el SCIP como la batería neuropsicológica, lo que indica que el SCIP es una buena herramienta de detección para los déficits cognitivos en esquizofrenia y trastorno bipolar, y útil en la práctica clínica habitual para profesionales de la salud. © 2013 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L. Todos los derechos reservados.

  4. Neurocognitive recovery of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Molchanova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. At present neurocognitive impairment is considered a core feature of schizophrenia. This statement is grounded on cognitive impairment stability, the persistence of cognitive impairment independently of the disease stage and other symptoms of schizophrenia. The relevance of the search for cognitive remediation methods is determined by the influence of cognitive functioning on the functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. In order to solve this problem, scientists are actively investigating such direction in the treatment of patients with this psychopathology as «neurocognitive therapy» or neurocognitive training. Objective.To evaluate the effectiveness of neurocognitive training in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Methods and materials. The patients who matched inclusion criteria were assessed on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Personal and Social Performance scale (PSP, neuropsychological tests (Trail Making Test part A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Luria test at the baseline, 1st and 6th month. All patients who were included in the study were randomly assigned into two groups. The intervention group (n=40 underwent a standard supportive treatment and neurocognitive training. The control group (n=31 received supportive medication treatment alone. Results. After 1st month, a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups was found both for the overall PANSS score improvement and improvement in several items, which represented the cognitive decline. Total PSP score increased significantly in the intervention group from 41-50 to 51-60 (р=0.0001. In Wisconsin Card Sorting Test the proportion of incorrect answers decreased by 31.4% (р=0.0001, perseverative errors by 20.1% (р=0.042, the number of completed categories increased by 33.5% (р=0.002. Conclusion. The proposed neurocognitive training program showed positive results, which was reflected in a statistically

  5. Impaired Neurocognitive Functions Affect Social Learning Processes in Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Walter; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.; Schutter, Dennis J. L. G.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, a conceptualization of oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is presented according to which social learning processes in these disorders are affected by neurocognitive dysfunctions. Neurobiological studies in ODD and CD suggest that the ability to make associations between behaviors and negative and positive…

  6. Neurocognitive Impairments Are More Severe in the Binge-Eating/Purging Anorexia Nervosa Subtype Than in the Restricting Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Hiroko; Ouchi, Atushi; Chen, Runshu; Miyazawa, Shiho; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Kaneda, Yasuhiro; Sora, Ichiro

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive function impairment in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) of either the restricting (ANR) or binge-eating/purging (ANBP) subtype. Method: We administered the Japanese version of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery to 22 patients with ANR, 18 patients with ANBP, and 69 healthy control subjects. Our participants were selected from among the patients at the Kobe University Hospital and community residents. Results: Compared to the healthy controls, the ANR group had significantly lower visual learning and social cognition scores, and the ANBP group had significantly lower processing speed, attention/vigilance, visual learning, reasoning/problem-solving, and social cognition scores. Compared to the ANR group, the ANBP group had significantly lower attention/vigilance scores. Discussion: The AN subtypes differed in cognitive function impairments. Participants with ANBP, which is associated with higher mortality rates than ANR, exhibited greater impairment severities, especially in the attention/vigilance domain, confirming the presence of impairments in continuous concentration. This may relate to the impulsivity, an ANBP characteristic reported in the personality research. Future studies can further clarify the cognitive impairments of each subtype by addressing the subtype cognitive functions and personality characteristics.

  7. EcoHIV infection of mice establishes latent viral reservoirs in T cells and active viral reservoirs in macrophages that are sufficient for induction of neurocognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao-Jiang; Borjabad, Alejandra; Hadas, Eran; Kelschenbach, Jennifer; Kim, Boe-Hyun; Chao, Wei; Arancio, Ottavio; Suh, Jin; Polsky, Bruce; McMillan, JoEllyn; Edagwa, Benson; Gendelman, Howard E; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2018-06-01

    Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy (ART) or host immunity can prevent AIDS but not other HIV-associated conditions including neurocognitive impairment (HIV-NCI). Pathogenesis in HIV-suppressed individuals has been attributed to reservoirs of latent-inducible virus in resting CD4+ T cells. Macrophages are persistently infected with HIV but their role as HIV reservoirs in vivo has not been fully explored. Here we show that infection of conventional mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV, reproduces physiological conditions for development of disease in people on ART including immunocompetence, stable suppression of HIV replication, persistence of integrated, replication-competent HIV in T cells and macrophages, and manifestation of learning and memory deficits in behavioral tests, termed here murine HIV-NCI. EcoHIV established latent reservoirs in CD4+ T lymphocytes in chronically-infected mice but could be induced by epigenetic modulators ex vivo and in mice. In contrast, macrophages expressed EcoHIV constitutively in mice for up to 16 months; murine leukemia virus (MLV), the donor of gp80 envelope in EcoHIV, did not infect macrophages. Both EcoHIV and MLV were found in brain tissue of infected mice but only EcoHIV induced NCI. Murine HIV-NCI was prevented by antiretroviral prophylaxis but once established neither persistent EcoHIV infection in mice nor NCI could be reversed by long-acting antiretroviral therapy. EcoHIV-infected, athymic mice were more permissive to virus replication in macrophages than were wild-type mice, suffered cognitive dysfunction, as well as increased numbers of monocytes and macrophages infiltrating the brain. Our results suggest an important role of HIV expressing macrophages in HIV neuropathogenesis in hosts with suppressed HIV replication.

  8. Comparison of neurocognitive results after coronary artery bypass grafting and thoracic aortic surgery using retrograde cerebral perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyairi, Takeshi; Takamoto, Shinichi; Kotsuka, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Yamanaka, Katsuo; Sato, Hajime

    2005-07-01

    difference between CABG and S-RCP. The neurocognitive outcome in patients undergoing RCP less than 60 min were comparable with patients undergoing CABG without circulatory arrest. Prolonged RCP of 60 min or more in patients undergoing surgery of the thoracic aorta was associated with postoperative neurocognitive impairment.

  9. Towards a new classification of stable phase schizophrenia into major and simple neuro-cognitive psychosis: Results of unsupervised machine learning analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sriswasdi, Sira; Thika, Supaksorn; Stoyanov, Drozdstoy; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Carvalho, André F; Geffard, Michel; Maes, Michael

    2018-05-23

    Deficit schizophrenia, as defined by the Schedule for Deficit Syndrome, may represent a distinct diagnostic class defined by neurocognitive impairments coupled with changes in IgA/IgM responses to tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs). Adequate classifications should be based on supervised and unsupervised learning rather than on consensus criteria. This study used machine learning as means to provide a more accurate classification of patients with stable phase schizophrenia. We found that using negative symptoms as discriminatory variables, schizophrenia patients may be divided into two distinct classes modelled by (A) impairments in IgA/IgM responses to noxious and generally more protective tryptophan catabolites, (B) impairments in episodic and semantic memory, paired associative learning and false memory creation, and (C) psychotic, excitation, hostility, mannerism, negative, and affective symptoms. The first cluster shows increased negative, psychotic, excitation, hostility, mannerism, depression and anxiety symptoms, and more neuroimmune and cognitive disorders and is therefore called "major neurocognitive psychosis" (MNP). The second cluster, called "simple neurocognitive psychosis" (SNP) is discriminated from normal controls by the same features although the impairments are less well developed than in MNP. The latter is additionally externally validated by lowered quality of life, body mass (reflecting a leptosome body type), and education (reflecting lower cognitive reserve). Previous distinctions including "type 1" (positive)/"type 2" (negative) and DSM-IV-TR (eg, paranoid) schizophrenia could not be validated using machine learning techniques. Previous names of the illness, including schizophrenia, are not very adequate because they do not describe the features of the illness, namely, interrelated neuroimmune, cognitive, and clinical features. Stable-phase schizophrenia consists of 2 relevant qualitatively distinct categories or nosological entities with SNP

  10. HIV and Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Spudich, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has been dramatically altered in the setting of widely available effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Once culminating in dementia in many individuals infected with HIV, HAND now typically manifests as more subtle, though still morbid, forms of cognitive impairment in persons surviving long-term with treated HIV infection. Despite the substantial improvement in severity of this disorder, the fact that neurologic injury persists ...

  11. Estimation of the contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced acute pain relief and neurocognitive impairment in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsen, Erik; Noppers, Ingeborg; Niesters, Marieke; Kharasch, Evan; Aarts, Leon; Sarton, Elise; Dahan, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background The N-methyl-D-receptor antagonist ketamine is metabolized in the liver into its active metabolite norketamine. No human data are available on the relative contribution of norketamine to ketamine-induced analgesia and side effects. One approach to assess the ketamine and norketamine contributions is by measuring ketamine-effect at varying ketamine and norketamine plasma concentrations using the CYP450 inducer rifampicin. Methods In 12 healthy male volunteers the effect of rifampicin versus placebo pretreatment on S-ketamine (a 2-h infusion of 20 mg/h)-induced analgesia and cognition was quantified. The relative ketamine and norketamine contribution to effect was estimated using a linear additive population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. Results S-ketamine produced significant analgesia, psychotropic effects (drug high), and cognitive impairment (including memory impairment, reduced psychomotor speed, reduced reaction time, reduced cognitive flexibility). Modeling revealed a negative contribution of S-norketamine to S-ketamine-induced analgesia and absence of contribution to cognitive impairment. At ketamine and norketamine effect concentrations of 100 ng/ml and 50 ng/ml, respectievly, the ketamine contribution to analgesia is −3.8 cm (visual analogue pain score) versus a contribution of norketamine of +1.5 cm, causing an overall effect −2.3 cm. The blood-effect-site equilibration half-life ranged from 0 (cognitive flexibility) to 11.8 (pain intensity) min, and averaged across all end-points was 6.1 min. Conclusions This first observation that norketamine produces effects in the opposite direction of ketamine requires further proof. It can explain the observation of ketamine-related excitatory phenomena (such as hyperalgesia and allodynia) upon the termination of ketamine infusions. PMID:22692377

  12. Neurocognitive functioning before and after the first psychotic episode: does psychosis result in cognitive deterioration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, H. E.; Nieman, D. H.; Wiltink, S.; Dingemans, P. M.; van de Fliert, J. R.; Velthorst, E.; de Haan, L.; van Amelsvoort, T. A.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is considered to be a core characteristic of schizophrenia. The relationship between psychosis and cognitive deterioration, however, remains unclear. This longitudinal study investigated the neuropsychological functioning of patients before and after their first psychotic

  13. [Gait speed and the appearance of neurocognitive disorders in older adults: Results of a Peruvian cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, José F; Nieto-Gutierrez, Wendy; Tellez, Walter A; Ventocilla-Gonzales, Iris; Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Taype-Rondan, Alvaro

    The prevention and management of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) among older adults can be improved by early identification of risk factors such as walking speed. The objective of the study is to assess the association between gait speed and NCD onset in a population of Peruvian older adults. Cohort conducted in older adults who attended the geriatrics service of Naval Medical Center (Callao, Peru). During the baseline assessment, participants' gait speed was recorded. Subsequently, participants were followed-up annually for 5 years, with a mean of 21 months. NCD onset was defined as the occurrence of a score ≤24 points on the Mini Mental State Examination (screening test) during follow-up. The hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Cox regression. The study included 657 participants, with a mean age of 73.4±9.2 (SD) years, of whom 47.0% were male, 47.8% had a gait speed <0.8 m/s, and 20.1% developed NCD during the follow up. It was found that older adults who had gait speed <0.8 m/s at baseline were more likely to develop NCD than those who had a gait speed ≥0.8 m/s (adjusted HR=1.41, 95% CI=1.34-1.47). A longitudinal association was found between decreased gait speed and NCD onset, suggesting that gait speed could be useful to identify patients at risk of NCD onset. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of an abbreviated test battery for detection of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in an early-managed HIV-infected cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Moore

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART, and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool.Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test, neuropsychological battery (∼120 min; neurocognitive impairment (NCI was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5. Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery.Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm(3 with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%. The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%; the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%. The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%.Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV.

  15. Exposure to low doses (20 cGy) of Hze results in spatial memory impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britten, Richard; Johnson, Angela; Davis, Leslie; Green-Mitchell, Shamina; Chabriol, Olivia; Sanford, Larry; Drake, Richard

    INTRODUCTION. Current models predict that the astronauts on a mission to a deep space destination, such as Mars, will be exposed to 25 cGy of Galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). The long-term consequence of exposure to such doses is largely unknown, but given that 1.3 Gy of X-rays has been reported to lead to long-term cognitive deficits (Shore et al, 1976) and that CGR have an RBE of 2-5, it is likely that the predicted 25 cGy of GCR will lead to defects in the cognitive ability of the astronauts during and after the mission. Our studies are designed to help define the GCR dose that will lead to defects in complex working memory, and also to elucidate the mechanisms whereby hadronic radiation diminishes neurocognitive function. The identification of such processes would provide an opportunity for post-mission surveillance, and hopefully will lead to intervention strategies that will ameliorate or attenuate GCR-induced neurocognitive deficits. MATERIALS METHODS. Four-week old male Wistar rats were exposed to either X-rays or 1 GeV 56Fe. At three or six months post exposure the performance of the rats in the Barnes' Maze (Spatial memory) was established. The duration and frequency of REM sleep was also monitored to determine if the neurocognitive deficits arose due to reduced memory consolidation as a result of diminished REM sleep. We used a novel, but maturing technique, called MALDI-MS imaging (or MALDI-MSI), to identify specific regions of the brain where the neuroproteome differs in rats that have developed spatial memory impairments. RESULTS. 11.5 Gy of X-rays led to reduced performance in the Barnes's maze. In contrast, exposure to 20 cGy of Hze (1 GeV 56Fe) resulted in a significant impairment of spatial memory performance as measured in the Barnes' Maze, which was manifested by an increase in relative escape latency REL over a 5 day testing period. Such an increase in REL could arise from the rats becoming less able, or perhaps less willing, to locate the

  16. Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L

    2016-04-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in

  17. Phototest for neurocognitive screening in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Lopes, Emanuela; Gonçalves, Gerly; Silva, Ângela; Carnero-Pardo; Peixoto, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders. Cognitive dysfunction is considered a clinical marker of MS, where approximately half of patients with MS have cognitive impairment. Objective: The Phototest (PT) is a brief cognitive test with high diagnostic sensitivity, accuracy and cost-effectiveness for detecting cognitive deterioration. Our aim was to test the utility of the PT as a neurocognitive screening instrument for MS. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with different types of MS from an outpatient clinic as well as 19 healthy participants. In conjunction with the PT, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Barthel Index (BI), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were administered. Results: The MS group obtained significantly lower results on all domains of the PT, except for the naming task. The PT showed good concurrent validity with the MoCA. In direct comparison to the MoCA, PT showed a greater area under the curve and higher levels of sensitivity and specificity for MS neurocognitive impairments. A cut-off score of 31 on the Phototest was associated with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 76.7%. Conclusion : The PT is a valid, specific, sensitive and brief test that is not dependent on motor functions. The instrument could be an option for neurocognitive screening in MS, especially in identifying cases for further neuropsychological assessment and intervention. PMID:29213425

  18. Neurocognition and Duration of Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Barder, Helene Eidsmo; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of schizophrenia-spectrum patients exhibit a cognitive impairment at illness onset. However, the long-term course of neurocognition and a possible neurotoxic effect of time spent in active psychosis, is a topic of controversy. Furthermore, it is of importance to find out...... assessed neuropsychologically on one or more occasions. Patients were tested after remission of psychotic symptoms and reassessed 1, 2, 5, and 10 years after inclusion. The neurocognitive battery consisted of California Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Controlled Oral Word Association...

  19. Prediction of Neurocognitive Deficits by Parkinsonian Motor Impairment in Schizophrenia: A Study in Neuroleptic-Naïve Subjects, Unaffected First-Degree Relatives and Healthy Controls From an Indigenous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Juan L; González Alemán, Gabriela; Florenzano, Néstor; Padilla, Eduardo; Calvó, María; Guerrero, Gonzalo; Kamis, Danielle; Stratton, Lee; Toranzo, Juan; Molina Rangeon, Beatriz; Hernández Cuervo, Helena; Bourdieu, Mercedes; Sedó, Manuel; Strejilevich, Sergio; Cloninger, Claude Robert; Escobar, Javier I; de Erausquin, Gabriel A

    2016-11-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are among the most debilitating and pervasive symptoms of schizophrenia, and are present also in unaffected first-degree relatives. Also, multiple reports reveal parkisonian motor deficits in untreated subjects with schizophrenia and in first-degree relatives of affected subjects. Yet, the relation between motor and cognitive impairment and its value as a classifier of endophenotypes has not been studied. To test the efficacy of midbrain hyperechogenicity (MHE) and parkinsonian motor impairment (PKM) as predictors of neurocognitive impairment in subjects with or at risk for schizophrenia, that could be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Seventy-six subjects with chronic schizophrenia never exposed to antipsychotic medication, 106 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 62 healthy controls were blindly assessed for cognitive and motor function, and transcranial ultrasound. Executive function, fluid intelligence, motor planning, and hand coordination showed group differences. PKM and MHE were significantly higher in untreated schizophrenia and unaffected relatives. Unaffected relatives showed milder impairment, but were different from controls. PKM and MHE predict cognitive impairment in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives and may be used to segregate them from first-degree relatives and healthy controls. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Increased Amplitude of the P3a ERP Component as a Neurocognitive Marker for Differentiating Amnestic Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia S. Correa-Jaraba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The event-related potential (ERP technique has been shown to be useful for evaluating changes in brain electrical activity associated with different cognitive processes, particularly in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Longitudinal studies have shown that a high proportion of people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI go on to develop AD. aMCI is divided into two subtypes according to the presence of memory impairment only (single-domain aMCI: sdaMCI or impairment of memory and other cognitive domains (multi-domain aMCI: mdaMCI. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of sdaMCI and mdaMCI on the P3a ERP component associated with the involuntary orientation of attention toward unattended infrequent novel auditory stimuli. Participants performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task, in which they were asked to ignore the auditory stimuli (standard, deviant, and novel and to attend to the visual stimuli (responding to some of them: Go stimuli. P3a was identified in the Novel minus Standard difference waveforms, and reaction times (RTs and hits (in response to Go stimuli were also analyzed. Participants were classified into three groups: Control, 20 adults (mean age (M: 65.8 years; sdaMCI, 19 adults (M: 67 years; and mdaMCI, 11 adults (M: 71 years. In all groups, the RTs were significantly longer when Go stimuli were preceded by novel (relative to standard auditory stimuli, suggesting a distraction effect triggered by novel stimuli; mdaMCI participants made significantly fewer hits than control and sdaMCI participants. P3a comprised two consecutive phases in all groups: early-P3a (e-P3a, which may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimuli, and late-P3a (l-P3a, which may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of these stimuli. The e-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI participants, and the l-P3a amplitude was significantly larger in mdaMCI than in sdaMCI and Control

  1. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  2. The Influence of Neurocognitive Impairment, Depression, and Alcohol Use Disorders on Health-Related Quality of Life among Incarcerated, HIV-Infected, Opioid Dependent Malaysian Men: A Moderated Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Roman; Weikum, Damian; Copenhaver, Michael; Altice, Frederick L

    2017-04-01

    Prior research has widely recognized neurocognitive impairment (NCI), depression, and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as important negative predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). No studies to date, however, have explored how these neuropsychological factors operate together and affect HRQoL. Incarcerated male PLWH (N = 301) meeting criteria for opioid dependence were recruited from Malaysia's largest prison. Standardized scales for NCI, depression, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and HRQoL were used to conduct a moderated mediation model to explore the extent to which depression mediated the relationship between NCI, HRQoL, and AUDs using an ordinary least squares regression-based path analytic framework. Results showed that increasing levels of NCI (B = -0.1773, p depression (B = -0.6147, p depression (B = -0.1230, p depression for individuals with AUDs was significant (B = -0.9099, p = 0.0087), suggesting a moderated mediation effect. The findings disentangle the complex relationship using a moderated mediation model, demonstrating that increasing levels of NCI, which can be reduced with HIV treatment, negatively influenced HRQoL via depression for individuals with AUDs. This highlights the need for future interventions to target these complex interplay between neuropsychological factors in order to improve HRQoL among PLWH, particularly incarcerated PLWH with AUDs.

  3. Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling: A comparison with alcohol dependence, Tourette syndrome and normal controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, A.E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Beurs, de P.; Brink, van den W.

    2006-01-01

    Aims Neurocognitive functions in pathological gambling have relevance for the aetiology and treatment of this disorder, yet are poorly understood. This study therefore investigated neurocognitive impairments of executive functions in a group of carefully screened Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

  4. Neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eVaskinn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data suggests that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all schizophrenia cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC across intellectual level. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 & HC n = 13, intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 & HC n = 115 and intellectually superior (IQ > 120; SZ n = 20 & HC n = 50. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.

  5. New DSM-V neurocognitive disorders criteria and their impact on diagnostic classifications of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a memory clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Laura; Lim, Wee Shiong; Chan, Mark; Ali, Noorhazlina; Mahanum, Shariffah; Chew, Pamela; Lim, June; Chong, Mei Sian

    2015-08-01

    To examine diagnostic agreement between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V) Neurocognitive Disorders (NCDs) criteria and DSM, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for dementia and International Working Group (IWG) criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and DSM-V's impact on diagnostic classifications of NCDs. The authors further examined clinical factors for discrepancy in diagnostic classifications between the different operational definitions. Using a cross-sectional study in tertiary memory clinic, the authors studied consecutive new patients aged 55 years or older who presented with cognitive symptoms. Dementia severity was scored based on the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). All patients completed neuropsychological evaluation. Agreement in diagnostic classifications between DSM-IV/IWG and DSM-V was examined using the kappa test and AC1 statistic, with multinomial logistic regression for factors contributing to MCI reclassification as major NCDs as opposed to diagnostically concordant MCI and dementia groups. Of 234 patients studied, 166 patients achieved concordant diagnostic classifications, with overall kappa of 0.41. Eighty-six patients (36.7%) were diagnosed with MCI and 131 (56.0%) with DSM-IV-defined dementia. With DSM-V, 40 patients (17.1%) were classified as mild NCDs and 183 (78.2%) as major NCDs, representing a 39.7% increase in frequency of dementia diagnoses. CDR sum-of-boxes score contributed independently to differentiation of MCI patients reclassified as mild versus major NCDs (OR: 0.01; 95% CI: 0-0.09). CDR sum-of-boxes score (OR: 5.18; 95% CI: 2.04-13.15), performance in amnestic (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.06-0.34) and language (Boston naming: OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29-0.94) tests, were independent determinants of diagnostically concordant dementia diagnosis. The authors observed moderate agreement between the different operational definitions and a 40% increase in dementia diagnoses with

  6. Exploratory analysis of social cognition and neurocognition in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Emma; Barbato, Mariapaola; Penn, David L; Keefe, Richard S E; Woods, Scott W; Perkins, Diana O; Addington, Jean

    2014-08-15

    Neurocognition and social cognition are separate but related constructs known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to extend the current knowledge of the relationship between social cognition and neurocognition in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis by examining, in a large sample, the associations between a wide range of neurocognitive tasks and social cognition. Participants included 136 young people at CHR. Specific domains within neurocognition and social cognition were compared using Spearman correlations. Results showed that poor theory of mind correlated with low ratings on a wide range of neurocognitive tasks. Facial affect was more often associated with low ratings on spatial working memory and attention. These results support a link between neurocognition and social cognition even at this early stage of potential psychosis, with indication that poorer performance on social cognition may be associated with deficits in attention and working memory. Understanding these early associations may have implications for early intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Manavifar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available       Objective(s: Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy, cobalamin (vitamin B12 and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old, were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to October 2009. After blood sampling, data were collected by questionnaire, face to face interview and performing neurocognitive and psychological tests. The sera of 250 persons were analyzed for cobalamin and folate by RIA method. Amongst the aforementioned samples, 78 cases with cobalamin Results: Amongst the people, 126 (45% were male and 154 (55% were female. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy was 59.5% and 37.1% in male and female respectively (P -value =0.049. Hcy inversely correlated to cobalamin (r=-0.282, P=0.014 and to folate (r=-0.203, P=0.014. Hcy, cobalamin and folate correlations to neurocognitive and psychological impairments were not statically significant. Conclusion: Hyper Hcy or low cobalamin and folate in the elderly, are prevalent but their relationships with neurocognitive and psychological impairments is controversial. If these relationships had been confirmed, performing a single serum Hcy or cobalamin test would have been enough to diagnose and prevent neurocognitive impairments and inversely, neurocognitive-psychological sign and symptoms could have meant probable tissue vitamin deficiencies. However methods of assessing neurocognitive and psychological markers with validity and reliability of clinical and laboratory tests for finding aforementioned relationships should be revised.  

  8. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  9. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  10. Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non

  11. Analysis of Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Testing Results among 5–11-Year-Old Male and Female Children Playing Sports in Recreational Leagues in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen D. Liller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data related to sports injuries, concussions, and computerized neurocognitive testing (CNT among very young athletes playing sports in recreational settings. The purpose of this study was to report baseline CNT results among male and female children, ages 5–11, playing sports in Hillsborough County, Florida using ImPACT Pediatric, which is specifically designed for this population. Data were collected from 2016 to 2017. The results show that 657 baseline tests were conducted and t-tests and linear regression were used to assess mean significant differences in composite scores with sex and age. Results showed that females scored better on visual memory and in general as age increased, baseline scores improved. The results can be used to build further studies on the use of CNT in recreational settings and their role in concussion treatment, management, and interventions.

  12. Results of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children (ITVIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Statistical analyses of scores on subtests of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children were done for two groups of children, either with or without usable vision. Results suggest that the battery has differential factorial and predictive validity. (Author/DB)

  13. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir Vally

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with disturbances in brain function referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. This literature review outlines the recently revised diagnostic criteria for the range of HAND from the earliest to the more advanced stages: (i asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment; (ii mild neurocognitive disorder; and (iii HIV-associated dementia. Relevant literature is also reviewed regarding the differential impact upon component cognitive domains known to be affected in HAND, which in turn should ideally be targeted during clinical and neuropsychological assessments: psychomotor and information processing speed, learning and memory, attention and working memory, speech and language, executive functioning and visuospatial functioning. A discussion outlining the neuropsychological tools used in the diagnostic screening of HAND is also included. The central mechanisms of HAND appear to revolve primarily around psychomotor slowing and cognitive control over mental operations, possibly reflecting the influence of disrupted fronto-striatal circuits on distributed neural networks critical to cognitive functions. The accurate assessment and diagnosis of HAND depends on meeting the need for statistically sound neuropsychological assessment techniques that may be used confidently in assessing South African populations, as well as the development of relevant norms for comparison of test performance data.

  14. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  15. Neurocognitive and personality factors in homo- and heterosexual pedophiles and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Tillmann H C; Schiffer, Boris

    2011-06-01

    neurodevelopment in early life. These results enhance our knowledge about pedophilia-associated impairment in neurocognitive functioning and personality structure insofar as they allow a more detailed description of, and insight into, modulatory factors. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Neurological soft signs and their relationships to neurocognitive functions: a re-visit with the structural equation modeling design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C K Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs and neurocognitive impairments have long been considered important features of schizophrenia. Previous correlational studies have suggested that there is a significant relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the underlying relationships between these two distinct constructs with structural equation modeling (SEM. METHODS: 118 patients with schizophrenia and 160 healthy controls were recruited for the current study. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI and a set of neurocognitive function tests were administered to all participants. SEM was then conducted independently in these two samples to examine the relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. RESULTS: Both the measurement and structural models showed that the models fit well to the data in both patients and healthy controls. The structural equations also showed that there were modest to moderate associations among neurological soft signs, executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory, while the healthy controls showed more limited associations. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicate that motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition contribute to the latent construct of neurological soft signs, whereas the subset of neurocognitive function tests contribute to the latent constructs of executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory in the present sample. Greater evidence of neurological soft signs is associated with more severe impairment of executive attention and memory functions. Clinical and theoretical implications of the model findings are discussed.

  17. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  18. Neurocognitive profiles in MSUD school-age patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchereau, Juliette; Leduc-Leballeur, Julie; Pichard, Samia; Imbard, Apolline; Benoist, Jean-François; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Barbier, Valérie; Brassier, Anaïs; Broué, Pierre; Cano, Aline; Chabrol, Brigitte; Damon, Gilles; Gay, Claire; Guillain, Isabelle; Habarou, Florence; Lamireau, Delphine; Ottolenghi, Chris; Paermentier, Laetitia; Sabourdy, Frédérique; Touati, Guy; Ogier de Baulny, Hélène; de Lonlay, Pascale; Schiff, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an inborn error of amino acids catabolism is characterized by accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, valine and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. Impact on the cognitive development has been reported historically, with developmental delays of varying degree. Currently, earlier diagnosis and improved management allow a better neurodevelopment, without requirement of special education. However, specific impairments can be observed, and so far, results of detailed neurocognitive assessments are not available. The aim of this study was to analyse neurocognitive profiles of French MSUD patients. This was a multicentre retrospective study on MSUD patients who underwent neurocognitive evaluation at primary school age. Twenty-one patients with classical neonatal onset MSUD were included. The patients' mean age at the time of evaluation was 8.7 years. The mean intellectual quotient (IQ) score was in the normal range (95.1 ± 12.6). In a subset of eight patients, a consistent developmental pattern of higher verbal than performance IQ was observed (mean of the difference 25.7 ± 8.7, p < 0.0001). No correlation could be established between this pattern and long-term metabolic balance (BCAA blood levels), or severity of acute metabolic imbalances, or leucine blood levels at diagnosis and time to toxin removal procedure. These data show that some MSUD patients may exhibit an abnormal neurocognitive profile with higher verbal than performance abilities. This might suggest an executive dysfunction disorder that would need to be further investigated by specialized testing. This pattern is important to detect in MSUD, as appropriate neuropsychological treatment strategies should be proposed.

  19. Neurocognitive disorders in sentenced male offenders: implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuominen, Tiina; Korhonen, Tapio; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Temonen, Satu; Salo, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Lauerma, Hannu

    2014-02-01

    Neurocognitive deficits are frequent among male offenders and tend to be associated with a more serious risk of anti-social activity, but they are not systematically allowed for in rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive performance in a sample of sentenced Finnish male prisoners and consider the implications for prison programme entry. Seventy-five sentenced male prisoners were examined using a neurocognitive test battery. Depending on the neurocognitive domain, from 5% to 49% of the men demonstrated marked neurocognitive deficits in tests of motor dexterity, visuospatial/construction skills, verbal comprehension, verbal and visual memory and attention shift. Verbal IQ was more impaired than performance IQ. There was no association between most serious offence type and neurocognitive performance, but correlations between attention deficit indices and number of previous convictions suggested that recidivists may have an attention disorder profile. Cluster analysis identified two subgroups of offenders, separated by very poor or merely poor cognitive performance. Motor dexterity, visuo-construction and verbal memory deficits were not wholly explained by lower IQ measures. Our sample was small, but the nature and extent of the neurocognitive deficits found suggest that wider use of neurocognitive assessments, which the men generally tolerated well, could help select those most likely to need offender programmes and that the effectiveness of these may be enhanced by some specific cognitive remediation before progressing to more complex social tasks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-01-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in domains of daily activities, social functioning, and satisfaction with functioning, psadolescent sample with bipolar disorder experiences significantly poorer neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning compared to controls; however, psychosocial functioning appears to be more strongly related to mood symptoms than to neurocognition. Future work is needed to delineate the time course of neurocognitive functioning and its relation to psychosocial functioning across the course of illness. Adolescence may provide an ideal time for cognitive enhancement and intensive psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Theory of mind and neurocognition in early psychosis: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Connors, Michael H; Still, Megan; Ward, Philip B; Catts, Stanley

    2014-12-04

    People with chronic psychosis often display theory of mind impairments that are not fully accounted for by other, more general neurocognitive deficits. In these patients, both theory of mind and neurocognitive deficits contribute to poor functioning, independently of psychotic symptoms. In young people with recent-onset psychosis, however, it is unclear the extent to which theory of mind impairment is independent of neurocognitive deficits. The primary aim of this study was to examine the evidence for specific theory of mind impairments in early psychosis. A secondary aim was to explore the relations between theory of mind, neurocognition, symptom severity, and functional outcomes. Twenty-three patients who were within two years of their first psychotic episode and 19 healthy controls completed theory of mind and neurocognitive batteries. Social functioning, quality of life, and symptom severity were also assessed in patients. Patients demonstrated deficits in tasks assessing theory of mind and neurocognition relative to controls. Patients' deficits in theory of mind were evident even after adjusting for their deficits in neurocognition. Neither theory of mind nor neurocognition predicted social functioning or quality of life in this early psychosis sample. Severity of negative symptoms, however, was a significant predictor of both outcomes. While a specific theory of mind impairment was evident in this early psychosis sample, severity of negative symptoms emerged as the best predictor of poor functional outcome. Further early psychosis research is needed to examine the longitudinal progression of theory of mind impairments - independent of neurocognitive deficits - and their impact on psychosocial function.

  2. Neurocognitive effects of therapeutic irradiation for base of skull tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Christina A.; Geara, Fady; Wong Peifong; Morrison, William H.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether radiation therapy delivered to the paranasal sinuses causes any long-term impairment in neurocognitive function as a result of incidental brain irradiation. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients who received paranasal sinus irradiation at least 20 months and up to 20 years before assessment were given a battery of neuropsychologic tests of cognitive function. Radiation was delivered by a three-field (one anteroposterior and two lateral) technique. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range 50-68 Gy) in fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy. The volume of irradiated brain was calculated from planning computed tomography slices or simulation films. The results of the neuropsychologic tests were compared to normative control values. Results: Memory impairment was found in 80% of the patients, and one-third manifested difficulty with visual-motor speed, frontal lobe executive functions, and fine motor coordination. Two of the patients had frank brain necrosis with resultant dementia and blindness, and three had evidence of brain atrophy. Three of the fourteen patients without documented cerebral atrophy or necrosis were disabled from their normal activities. Three patients also developed pituitary dysfunction. Neurocognitive symptoms were related to the total dose of radiation delivered but not to the volume of brain irradiated, side of radiation boost, or chemotherapy treatment. The pattern of test findings was consistent with radiation injury to subcortical white matter. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for paranasal sinus cancer may cause delayed neurocognitive side effects. Currently, however, the development of severe adverse effects appears to be decreasing because of improvements in the techniques used to deliver radiation. Lowering the total dose and improving dose distributions should further decrease the incidence of delayed brain injury due to radiation

  3. Avoidant Personality Disorder Symptoms in First-Degree Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients Predict Performance on Neurocognitive Measures: The UCLA Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelson, D. L.; Asarnow, R. A.; Sugar, C. A.; Subotnik, K. L.; Jacobson, K. C.; Neale, M. C.; Kendler, K. S.; Kuppinger, H.; Nuechterlein, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia.

  4. Preliminary neurocognitive outcomes in Jeavons syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Goodnight, Ashley S; Gabriel, Marsha; Perry, M Scott

    2015-11-01

    Jeavons syndrome (JS, eyelid myoclonia with absences [EMA]) consists of a triad of symptoms including eyelid myoclonia that may be accompanied by absence seizures, eye closure-induced EEG paroxysms or seizures, and photosensitivity. The age of onset ranges between 2 and 14 years with symptoms peaking between 6 and 8 years of age. Though investigation of the clinical, EEG, and neurological features of JS has occurred, neurocognitive functioning has not been well-delineated despite suggestion that a subtype of the syndrome is characterized in part by cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to define neurocognitive functioning in a more detailed manner by examining global IQ and relevant neurocognitive domains (i.e., verbal and nonverbal reasoning, attention, executive functioning, memory) in pediatric patients. The sample (N=6, 4 females) ranged in age from 8 to 15 years (M=11, SD=2.82). All participants completed neuropsychological evaluations. Statistical analyses revealed performance that was below average on measures of global IQ, processing speed and rote, verbal learning coupled with average nonverbal reasoning, and sustained attention. There was also evidence of impaired higher-level verbal reasoning. While global IQ ranged from low average to borderline impaired, no participant could be accurately described as impaired or having intellectual disability (ID) given the consistently average performance noted on some higher-order tasks including nonverbal reasoning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael N. Kinuthia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting: This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05. The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function.

  6. Convergence and divergence of neurocognitive patterns in schizophrenia and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sugai; Brown, Matthew R G; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Li, Mingli; Hu, Xun; Juhas, Michal; Li, Xinmin; Greiner, Russell; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Li, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Neurocognitive impairments are frequently observed in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether reported neurocognitive abnormalities could objectively identify an individual as having schizophrenia or MDD. The current study included 220 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 110 patients with MDD and 240 demographically matched healthy controls (HC). All participants performed the short version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised in China; the immediate and delayed logical memory of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised in China; and seven tests from the computerized Cambridge Neurocognitive Test Automated Battery to evaluate neurocognitive performance. The three-class AdaBoost tree-based ensemble algorithm was employed to identify neurocognitive endophenotypes that may distinguish between subjects in the categories of schizophrenia, depression and HC. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to further explore the neurocognitive patterns in each group. The AdaBoost algorithm identified individual's diagnostic class with an average accuracy of 77.73% (80.81% for schizophrenia, 53.49% for depression and 86.21% for HC). The average area under ROC curve was 0.92 (0.96 in schizophrenia, 0.86 in depression and 0.92 in HC). Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed for MDD and schizophrenia, convergent altered neurocognition patterns related to shifting, sustained attention, planning, working memory and visual memory. Divergent neurocognition patterns for MDD and schizophrenia related to motor speed, general intelligence, perceptual sensitivity and reversal learning were identified. Neurocognitive abnormalities could predict whether the individual has schizophrenia, depression or neither with relatively high accuracy. Additionally, the neurocognitive features showed promise as endophenotypes for discriminating between schizophrenia and depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of neurocognitive disorders and depression in a Brazilian HIV population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trentin Troncoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Combined antiretroviral therapy has enabled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV carriers to live longer. This increased life expectancy is associated with the occurrence of degenerative diseases, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which are diagnosed via a complex neuropsychological assessment. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS is a screening instrument validated in Brazil for use in the absence of neuropsychological evaluation. HIV patients are frequently diagnosed with depression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment using the IHDS and depressive disorders using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, compare the IHDS performance with the performances on the Timed Gait Test (TGT, the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DS and the Brazilian version of the Scale of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL, and evaluate the association between the IHDS performance and clinical-demographic variables.METHODS:One hundred fourteen patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted in a public outpatient clinic for infectious diseases in Marília City, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected following consultation. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the nature and distribution of the data and hypotheses.RESULTS:According to the IHDS, 53.2% of the sampled patients were neuropsychologically impaired. According to the HAM-D17, 26.3% had depressive disorders. There were significant associations between the IHDS and the TGT and DS. Multiple regression analysis indicated that female gender, educational level, and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 levels were significantly and independently associated with neurocognitive impairment.CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of neurocognitive impairment according to the IHDS is high and associated with female gender, education level, and low CD4 levels.

  8. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenine and kynurenic acid concentrations are associated with coma duration and long-term neurocognitive impairment in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Dag; Franzén-Röhl, Elisabeth; Idro, Richard; Opoka, Robert O; Bangirana, Paul; Sellgren, Carl M; Wickström, Ronny; Färnert, Anna; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; John, Chandy C

    2017-07-28

    One-fourth of children with cerebral malaria (CM) retain cognitive sequelae up to 2 years after acute disease. The kynurenine pathway of the brain, forming neuroactive metabolites, e.g. the NMDA-receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (KYNA), has been implicated in long-term cognitive dysfunction in other CNS infections. In the present study, the association between the kynurenine pathway and neurologic/cognitive complications in children with CM was investigated. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of KYNA and its precursor kynurenine in 69 Ugandan children admitted for CM to Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, between 2008 and 2013 were assessed. CSF kynurenine and KYNA were compared to CSF cytokine levels, acute and long-term neurologic complications, and long-term cognitive impairments. CSF kynurenine and KYNA from eight Swedish children without neurological or infectious disease admitted to Astrid Lindgren's Children's Hospital were quantified and used for comparison. Children with CM had significantly higher CSF concentration of kynurenine and KYNA than Swedish children (P coma duration in children of all ages (P = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively), and CSF kynurenine concentrations were associated with worse overall cognition (P = 0.056) and attention (P = 0.003) at 12-month follow-up in children ≥5 years old. CSF KYNA and kynurenine are elevated in children with CM, indicating an inhibition of glutamatergic and cholinergic signaling. This inhibition may lead acutely to prolonged coma and long-term to impairment of attention and cognition.

  10. Relationship between neurocognition and functional recovery in first-episode schizophrenia: Results from the second year of the Oslo multi-follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

    2015-06-30

    Lack of control of confounding variables, high attrition rate, and too few neurocognitive domains completed at each assessment point are some of the limitations identified in studies of the relationship between cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In the ongoing Oslo multi-follow-up study 28 first episode schizophrenia patients and a pairwise matched control group (N=28) are assessed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning and criteria of remission and recovery at several follow-up points. The current paper describes the rate of remission and full recovery, and investigates the relationship between neurocognition and functional outcome. At 2-year follow-up, 80.0% of the patients were in remission and 16.0% of them fulfilled the criteria for full recovery. The attrition rate was very low. In the follow-up period, there was a statistically significant decline in Verbal Learning and a significant improvement on Reasoning/Problem Solving and Social Cognition in the schizophrenia group, but not in the control group. This indicates a differentiated neurocognitive course. In the schizophrenia group, Attention/Vigilance and years of education at baseline were significant predictors of social and role functioning 2 years later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurocognitive functions of pediatric kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar-Varga, Marta; Novak, Marta; Szabo, Attila J; Kelen, Kata; Streja, Elani; Remport, Adam; Mucsi, Istvan; Molnar, Miklos Z; Reusz, Gyorgy

    2016-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children is associated with impaired neurocognitive function and development. However, data on factors associated with neurocognitive dysfunctions in children with kidney transplants are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis comparing cognitive functions (using the Woodcock-Johnson International Edition, WJIE) in 35 kidney transplant and 35 healthy control children. Data on laboratory measurements, comorbidities, and social characteristics were collected. Transplant children had significantly worse scores on the intelligence quotient (IQ) test compared with controls [Full Scale IQ score 85 (26) vs 107 (10), p 9 months) were associated with lower test scores. Age-standardized duration of hospitalization was inversely correlated with IQ (r = -0.46, p <0.01) and was an independent significant predictor (Beta = -0.38, p = 0.02) of IQ scores in transplanted children. Child kidney transplant recipients have neurocognitive function impairments that are associated with markers of socioeconomic status (SES) and factors related to disease severity.

  12. The cross-talk of HIV-1 Tat and methamphetamine in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana T Valente

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART has dramatically improved the lives of HIV-1 infected individuals. Nonetheless, HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, which range from undetectable neurocognitive impairments to severe dementia, still affect approximately 50% of the infected population, hampering their quality of life.The persistence of HAND is promoted by several factors, including longer life expectancies, the residual levels of virus in the central nervous system and the continued presence of HIV-1 regulatory proteins such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat in the brain. Tat is a secreted viral protein that crosses the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system, where it has the ability to directly act on neurons and non-neuronal cells alike. These actions result in the release of soluble factors involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and excitotoxicity, ultimately resulting in neuronal damage. The percentage of methamphetamine abusers is high among the HIV-1-positive population compared to the general population. On the other hand, methamphetamine abuse is correlated with increased viral replication, enhanced Tat-mediated neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairments. Although several strategies have been investigated to reduce HAND and methamphetamine use, no clinically approved treatment is currently available. Here, we review the latest findings of the effects of Tat and methamphetamine in HAND and discuss a few promising potential therapeutic developments.

  13. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  14. Relationship of amotivation to neurocognition, self-efficacy and functioning in first-episode psychosis: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W C; Kwong, V W Y; Hui, C L M; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Chen, E Y H

    2017-03-01

    Better understanding of the complex interplay among key determinants of functional outcome is crucial to promoting recovery in psychotic disorders. However, this is understudied in the early course of illness. We aimed to examine the relationships among negative symptoms, neurocognition, general self-efficacy and global functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients using structural equation modeling (SEM). Three hundred and twenty-one Chinese patients aged 26-55 years presenting with FEP to an early intervention program in Hong Kong were recruited. Assessments encompassing symptom profiles, functioning, perceived general self-efficacy and a battery of neurocognitive tests were conducted. Negative symptom measurement was subdivided into amotivation and diminished expression (DE) domain scores based on the ratings in the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms. An initial SEM model showed no significant association between functioning and DE which was removed from further analysis. A final trimmed model yielded very good model fit (χ2 = 15.48, p = 0.63; comparative fit index = 1.00; root mean square error of approximation amotivation, neurocognition and general self-efficacy had a direct effect on global functioning. Amotivation was also found to mediate a significant indirect effect of neurocognition and general self-efficacy on functioning. Neurocognition was not significantly related to general self-efficacy. Our results indicate a critical intermediary role of amotivation in linking neurocognitive impairment to functioning in FEP. General self-efficacy may represent a promising treatment target for improvement of motivational deficits and functional outcome in the early illness stage.

  15. [Alcohol-related cognitive impairment and the DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, S.J.; Wester, A.J.; Doorakkers, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is evident from the dsm-iv-tr that alcohol-related impairment is extremely difficult to classify accurately. As a result, cognitive deficits can easily be overlooked. The dsm-5, however, incorporates a new category, namely 'neurocognitive disorders', which may lead to significant

  16. Recovery of neurocognitive functions following sustained abstinence after substance dependence and implications for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, Mieke H J; Cousijn, Janna; den Uyl, Tess E; Goudriaan, Anna E; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Schilt, Thelma; Wiers, Reinout W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) have been associated with impaired neurocognitive functioning, which may (partly) improve with sustained abstinence. New treatments are emerging, aimed at improving cognitive functions, and being tested. However, no integrated review is available regarding

  17. Insight change in psychosis: Relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Quee (P.); L. van der Meer (Lisette); L. Krabbendam (Lydia); L. de Haan (Lieuwe); W. Cahn (Wiepke); D. Wiersma (Durk); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); G.H.M. Pijnenborg (G. H M); C.L. Mulder (Niels); R. Bruggeman (Richard); A. Aleman (André)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and

  18. Prejuízos neurocognitivos na dependência alcoólica: um estudo de caso Neurocognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Tedeschi Vieira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A alta prevalência de indivíduos dependentes de álcool estimula a realização de estudos que ampliem o entendimento de seus efeitos sobre o organismo. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a preservação e prejuí­zo de funções neuropsicológicas em um caso de dependência alcoólica. Trata-se de estudo de caso de um alcoolista em tratamento medicamentoso no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo, que declarava encontrar-se abstêmio desde o início do tratamento há cerca de um ano. MÉTODOS: Os instrumentos utilizados neste estudo foram entrevistas e testes neuropsicológicos (WAIS-III, Figura de Rey e WRAML-II. RESULTADOS: Os resultados das funções visuomotoras, praxia construtiva, memórias visual e verbal e capacidade de aprendizagem apresentaram graves prejuízos. O paciente teve um desempenho ligeiramente melhor, embora ainda rebaixado, em linguagem, aritmética e memória para sentenças curtas. A atenção imediata teve resultado dentro da normalidade, dado consistente com achados anteriores. O resultado no Subteste Semelhanças reforça evidências da capacidade de generalização em indivíduos dependentes de álcool. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que os dados obtidos são consistentes com a literatura atual que apontam graves prejuízos na memória e funções visuomotoras paralelamente a manutenção da atenção e capacidade de generalização.BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of alcohol dependence asks for a better comprehension of its effects on the organism. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate prejudice and preservation of neuropsychological functions of alcohol dependence. It is presented a case report of a patient under drug treatment in Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The patient declared abstinence since the beginning of the treatment, about one year ago. METHODS: Interviews and neuropsycological tests (WAIS-III, Figure of Rey and WRAML-II. RESULTS: The

  19. Prevalence of HIV associated neurocognitive deficit among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV associated neurocognitive deficit impairs motor activity, neuropsychiatric functioning, daily activity and work activity usually due to the immune suppression effect of the virus. Sub-Saharan region including Ethiopia is the region with the highest burden of HIV. However, a few studies are found on this aspect ...

  20. Neurocognitive moderation of associations between cannabis use and psychoneuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive impairments and psychopathology. The strength of such associations does however appear to depend on many different factors, such as duration and intensity of use, but also differential susceptibility due to genetic make-up and

  1. Avoidant personality disorder symptoms in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients predict performance on neurocognitive measures: the UCLA family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, D L; Asarnow, R A; Sugar, C A; Subotnik, K L; Jacobson, K C; Neale, M C; Kendler, K S; Kuppinger, H; Nuechterlein, K H

    2010-07-01

    Whether avoidant personality disorder symptoms are related to neurocognitive impairments that aggregate in relatives of schizophrenics is unknown. We report the relationship between avoidant personality disorder symptoms and neurocognitive performance in the first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia. 367 first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia and 245 relatives of community controls were interviewed for the presence of avoidant personality symptoms and symptoms of paranoid and schizotypal personality disorders and administered neurocognitive measures. Relationships between neurocognitive measures and avoidant symptoms were analyzed using linear mixed models. Avoidant dimensional scores predicted performance on the span of apprehension (SPAN), 3-7 Continuous Performance Test (3-7 CPT), and Trail Making Test (TMT-B) in schizophrenia relatives. These relationships remained significant on the SPAN even after adjustment for paranoid or schizotypal dimensional scores and on the TMT-B after adjustment for paranoid dimensional scores. Moreover, in a second set of analyses comparing schizophrenia relatives to controls there were significant or trending differences in the degree of the relationship between avoidant symptoms and each of these neurocognitive measures even after adjustments for paranoid and schizotypal dimensional scores. The substantial correlation between avoidant and schizotypal symptoms suggests that these personality disorders are not independent. Avoidant and in some cases schizotypal dimensional scores are significant predictors of variability in these neurocognitive measures. In all analyses, higher levels of avoidant symptoms were associated with worse performance on the neurocognitive measures in relatives of schizophrenia probands. These results support the hypothesis that avoidant personality disorder may be a schizophrenia spectrum phenotype. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  3. Executive functions as a potential neurocognitive endophenotype in anxiety disorders: A systematic review considering DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lima Muller

    Full Text Available Evidence in the literature indicates that neurocognitive impairments may represent endophenotypes in psychiatric disorders.Objective:This study aimed to conduct a systematic review on executive functions as a potential neurocognitive endophenotype in anxiety disorder diagnosis according to the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classifications.Methods:A literature search of the LILACS, Cochrane Library, Index Psi Periódicos Técnico-Científicos, PubMed and PsycInfo databases was conducted, with no time limits. Of the 259 studies found, 14 were included in this review.Results:Only studies on obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD were found. The executive function components of decision-making, planning, response inhibition, behavioral reversal/alternation, reversal learning and set-shifting/cognitive flexibility were considered to be a neurocognitive endophenotypes in OCD.Conclusion:Further studies on executive functions as a neurocognitive endophenotype in other anxiety disorders are needed since these may have different neurocognitive endophenotypes and require other prevention and treatment approaches.

  4. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hippocampal dosimetry correlates with the change in neurocognitive function after hippocampal sparing during whole brain radiotherapy: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Ping-Fang; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Yi; Wu, Yi-Ming; Pai, Ping-Ching; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wu, Tung-Ho; Shen, Yi-Liang; Lin, Shinn-Yn

    2015-01-01

    Whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) has been the treatment of choice for patients with brain metastases. However, change/decline of neurocognitive functions (NCFs) resulting from impaired hippocampal neurogenesis might occur after WBRT. It is reported that conformal hippocampal sparing would provide the preservation of NCFs. Our study aims to investigate the hippocampal dosimetry and to demonstrate the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and neurocognitive outcomes in patients receiving hippocampal sparing during WBRT (HS-WBRT). Forty prospectively recruited cancer patients underwent HS-WBRT for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Before receiving HS-WBRT, all participants received a battery of baseline neurocognitive assessment, including memory, executive functions and psychomotor speed. The follow-up neurocognitive assessment at 4 months after HS-WBRT was also performed. For the delivery of HS-WBRT, Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) with two full arcs and two non-coplanar partial arcs was employed. For each treatment planning, dose volume histograms were generated for left hippocampus, right hippocampus, and the composite hippocampal structure respectively. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an alpha/beta ratio of 2 Gy were computed. To perform analyses addressing the correlation between hippocampal dosimetry and the change in scores of NCFs, pre- and post-HS-WBRT neurocognitive assessments were available in 24 patients in this study. Scores of NCFs were quite stable before and after HS-WBRT in terms of hippocampus-dependent memory. Regarding verbal memory, the corresponding EQD 2 values of 0, 10, 50, 80 % irradiating the composite hippocampal structure with <12.60 Gy, <8.81, <7.45 Gy and <5.83 Gy respectively were significantly associated with neurocognitive preservation indicated by the immediate recall of Word List Test of Wechsler Memory Scale-III. According to logistic regression analyses, it was noted that

  6. Neurocognitive effects of an omega-3 fatty acid and vitamins E+C in schizophrenia: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, H; Landrø, N I

    2017-10-16

    There is need for more efficient treatment of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In this 16 weeks randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we examined neurocognitive effects of adding ethyl-eicosapentaenoate 2g/day and/or vitamins E 364mg/day + C 1000mg/day to antipsychotics in 53 patients aged 18-39 years with acute schizophrenia. For the sake of validating neurocognitive tests, healthy subjects, not taking trial drugs, were also included in the study. Ethyl-EPA given alone to patients with low baseline RBC polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and Vitamins E+C given alone to high PUFA patients, impaired sustained attention (Continuous Performance Test, CPT-IP d prime score), standardised effect sizes d = 0.78 and d = 0.69, respectively. These adverse effects were paralleled by excessive increases in long-chain PUFA and serum alpha-tocopherol, respectively. They were counteracted by combining ethyl-EPA and vitamins, d = 0.80 and d = 0.74 in low and high PUFA patients, respectively. No other neurocognitive tests yielded significant results. Plausible mechanisms of harmful effects are oxidative stress and lipid raft disruption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Clarifying concepts of diagnostic dichotomy versus continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carissa Nadia Kuswanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kraepelinian dichotomy posits that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD present as two separate psychotic entities such that they differ in terms of clinical severity including neurocognitive functioning. Our study aimed to specifically compare and contrast the level of neurocognitive functioning between SCZ and BD patients and identify predictors of their poor neurocognitive functioning. We hypothesized that patients with SCZ had a similar level of neurcognitive impairment compared with BD. Forty-nine healthy controls (HC, 72 SCZ and 42 BD patients who were matched for age, gender, and premorbid IQ were administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition battery (BAC. Severity of psychopathology and socio-occupational functioning were assessed for both patients groups. Both BD and SCZ groups demonstrated similar patterns of neurocognitive deficits across several domains (verbal memory, working memory, semantic fluency, processing speed compared with HC subjects. However, no significant difference was found in neurocognitive functioning between BD and SCZ patients, suggesting that both patient groups suffer the same degree of neurocognitive impairment. Patients with lower level of psychosocial functioning (F(1,112 = 2.661, p = 0.009 and older age (F(1,112 = -2.625, p = 0.010, not diagnosis or doses of psychotropic medications, predicted poorer overall neurocognitive functioning as measured by the lower BAC composite score. Our findings of comparable neurocognitive impairments between SCZ and BD affirm our hypothesis and support less the Kraepelinian concept of dichotomy but more of a continuum of psychotic spectrum conditions. This should urge clinicians to investigate further the underlying neural basis of these neurocognitive deficits, and be attentive to the associated socio-demographic and clinical profile in order to recognize and optimize early the management of the widespread neurocognitive deficits in patients with

  8. Neurocognitive correlates of helplessness, hopelessness, and well-being in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, P H; Clements, C A; Wright, D E; Evans, J; Marks, K A

    2001-07-01

    Persons with schizophrenia are widely recognized to experience potent feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, and a fragile sense of well-being. Although these subjective experiences have been linked to positive symptoms, little is known about their relationship to neurocognition. Accordingly, this study examined the relationship of self-reports of hope, self-efficacy, and well-being to measures of neurocognition, symptoms, and coping among 49 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results suggest that poorer executive function, verbal memory, and a greater reliance on escape avoidance as a coping mechanism predicted significantly higher levels of hope and well being with multiple regressions accounting for 34% and 20% of the variance (p < .0001), respectively. Self-efficacy predicted lower levels of positive symptoms and greater preference for escape avoidance as a coping mechanism with a multiple repression accounting for 9% of the variance (p < .05). Results may suggest that higher levels of neurocognitive impairment and an avoidant coping style may shield some with schizophrenia from painful subjective experiences. Theoretical and practical implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  9. Long term neurocognitive improvement after "late" right hemispherectomy: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletto, Alessandra; Bagnasco, Irene; Dassi, Patrizia; Vigliano, Piernanda

    2018-03-21

    To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy. At the end of the follow-up, the full-scale IQ is stable and within the normal range (p = 88). As the discrepancy between verbal IQ (pp = 120) and performance IQ (pp = 71) is significantly high, the girl was subjected to neurocognitive evaluation with the following results: verbal problem solving, verbal short- and long-term memory, and executive functions are within normal range. The most fragile functional areas are visual and spatial reasoning, verbal working memory, short-term visuospatial memory, visual attention, and processing speed, all > 2 SD. The spatial tests, such as coding, matrix reasoning, picture concepts, and arithmetic reasoning (which are favored by other functions such as associative memory and learning ability), are less severely impaired. These findings show that good conceptual skills and verbal reasoning can compensate for some deficits in visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions.

  10. Intrinsic motivation, neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia: testing mediator and moderator effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Eri; Xie, Bin; Hoe, Maanse; Brekke, John S

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the nature of the relationships among neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning for persons with schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning both mediator and moderator mechanisms were tested. 120 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited as they entered outpatient psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Measures of psychosocial functioning and intrinsic motivation were administered at baseline. Measures of neurocognition were administered at baseline by testers blind to scores on other study variables. Data were analyzed using latent construct modeling to test for mediator and moderator effects. There were strong bivariate relationships between neurocognition, intrinsic motivation, and psychosocial functioning. The results demonstrated that intrinsic motivation strongly mediated the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. This mediation was evidenced by: (i) the direct path from neurocognition to functional outcome no longer being statistically significant after the introduction of motivation into the model, (ii) the statistical significance of the indirect path from neurocognition through motivation to functional outcome. There was no support for the two moderation hypotheses: the level of neurocognition did not influence the relationship between intrinsic motivation and psychosocial functioning, nor did the level of intrinsic motivation influence the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Neurocognition influences psychosocial functioning through its relationship with intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is a critical mechanism for explaining the relationship between neurocognition and psychosocial functioning. Implications for the theoretical understanding and psychosocial treatment of intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia are discussed.

  11. Neurocognitive functioning in pediatric craniopharyngioma: performance before treatment with proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Goodnight, Ashley S; Ashford, Jason M; Merchant, Thomas E; Boop, Frederick A; Indelicato, Daniel J; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Conklin, Heather M

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of patient-, disease-, and treatment-related variables upon neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma prior to treatment with proton therapy or observation after radical resection. For all participants (N = 104), relevant clinical and demographic variables were attained and neurocognitive evaluations completed prior to irradiation or planned observation. One-sample t-tests were conducted to compare performance to published normative data. Linear models were used to investigate predictors of performance on measures where performance was below normative expectations. Participants showed poorer performance in comparison to the normative group across neurocognitive domains including executive functions (e.g., working memory; Wechsler Digit Span Backward p = 0.03), learning and memory (e.g., California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT] Total T p = 0.00), and fine-motor coordination (e.g., Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand p = 0.00). Poor performance across areas was predicted by presurgical hypothalamic involvement (e.g., Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory Index Grade 2 β = -7.68, p = 0.03; CVLT Total T Grade 2 β = 7.94, p = 0.04; Grade 3 β = -9.80, p = 0.00), extent of surgery (e.g., CVLT Total T Resection β = -7.77, p = 0.04; Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand β = -1.58, p = 0.04), and vision status (e.g., CVLT Total T Reduced vision without impairment β = -10.01, p = 0.02; Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand Bilateral field defect β = -1.45, p = 0.01; Reduced vision without impairment β = -2.30, p = 0.00). This study demonstrated that patients with craniopharyngioma show weaker neurocognitive performance in comparison to the normative population resulting from tumor, events leading to diagnosis, and early surgical intervention. Systematic investigation of neurocognitive performance before

  12. Mathematics intervention for prevention of neurocognitive deficits in childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ida M; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Anhalt, Cynthia; McCarthy, Kathy; Krull, Kevin R

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence that CNS treatment is associated with cognitive and academic impairment, interventions to prevent or mitigate these problems are limited. The purpose was to determine if early intervention can prevent declines in mathematics abilities. Fifty-seven children with ALL were enrolled and randomized to a Mathematics Intervention or Standard Care. Subjects completed neurocognitive assessments prior to the intervention, post-intervention, and 1 year later. Parents received written results and recommendations for use with their school. The Mathematics Intervention was based on Multiple Representation Theory and delivered individually over 1 year. Thirty-two of 57 subjects completed the study and were included in data analyses. These 32 subjects completed all neurocognitive assessments and, for those in the Intervention Group, 40-50 hours of the Mathematics Intervention. There were no group differences on relevant demographic variables; risk stratification; number of intrathecal methotrexate injections; or high dose systemic methotrexate. Significant improvements in calculation and applied mathematics from Baseline to Post-Intervention (P = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively) and in visual working memory from Baseline to 1 year Follow-up (P = 0.02) were observed in the Intervention but not the Standard Care Group. Results from repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated significant between group differences for applied mathematics [F(2,29) = 12.47, P Mathematics Intervention improved mathematics abilities and visual working memory compared to standard care. Future studies are needed to translate the Mathematics Intervention into a "virtual" delivery method more readily available to parents and children. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Basic self-disturbance, neurocognition and metacognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koren, Dan; Scheyer, Ravit; Reznik, Noa

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help-seeking adol......AIM: The goal of this pilot study was to assess the association between basic self-disturbance (SD) and deficits in neurocognitive and metacognitive functioning among help-seeking adolescents with and without attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS). METHODS: Sixty-one non-psychotic, help...... recognition) domains. After each answer, subjects were also requested to indicate their level of confidence in the answer and to decide whether they desired it to be "counted" toward their total score on the task. Each volunteered answer earned a 5-cent gain if correct, but an equal fine if wrong. RESULTS......, it was not moderated by the presence of APS. CONCLUSIONS: These pilot results provide preliminary support a modest association between SD and metacognition, which is not reducible to neurocognition and APS. In addition, they raise an intriguing possibility regarding metacognitive monitoring and control being...

  14. The definition of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: are we overestimating the real prevalence?

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslén, Magnus; Price, Richard W; Nilsson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A substantial prevalence of mild neurocognitive disorders has been reported in HIV, also in patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This includes a new disorder that has been termed asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI). Discussion ANI is identified by performance on formal neuropsychological testing that is at least 1 SD below the mean of normative scores in at least two cognitive domains out of at least five examined in patients without as...

  15. A CONCISE PANEL OF BIOMARKERS IDENTIFIES NEUROCOGNITIVE FUNCTIONING CHANGES IN HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Michael, Benedict Daniel; Franklin, Donald; Cookson, Debra Rosario; Bharti, Ajay R.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive (NC) impairment (NCI) occurs commonly in people living with HIV. Despite substantial effort, no biomarkers have been sufficiently validated for diagnosis and prognosis of NCI in the clinic. The goal of this project was to identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers for NCI in a comprehensively characterized HIV cohort. Methods Multidisciplinary case review selected 98 HIV-infected individuals and categorized them into four NC groups using normative data: stably normal (SN), stably impaired (SI), worsening (Wo), or improving (Im). All subjects underwent comprehensive NC testing, phlebotomy, and lumbar puncture at two timepoints separated by a median of 6.2 months. Eight biomarkers were measured in CSF and blood by immunoassay. Results were analyzed using mixed model linear regression and staged recursive partitioning. Results At the first visit, subjects were mostly middle-aged (median 45) white (58%) men (84%) who had AIDS (70%). Of the 73% who took antiretroviral therapy (ART), 54% had HIV RNA levels below 50 c/mL in plasma. Mixed model linear regression identified that only MCP-1 in CSF was associated with neurocognitive change group. Recursive partitioning models aimed at diagnosis (i.e., correctly classifying neurocognitive status at the first visit) were complex and required most biomarkers to achieve misclassification limits. In contrast, prognostic models were more efficient. A combination of three biomarkers (sCD14, MCP-1, SDF-1α) correctly classified 82% of Wo and SN subjects, including 88% of SN subjects. A combination of two biomarkers (MCP-1, TNF-α) correctly classified 81% of Im and SI subjects, including 100% of SI subjects. Conclusions This analysis of well-characterized individuals identified concise panels of biomarkers associated with NC change. Across all analyses, the two most frequently identified biomarkers were sCD14 and MCP-1, indicators of monocyte/macrophage activation. While the panels differed depending on

  16. Can cochlear implantation improve neurocognition in the aging population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Stefan Dazert,1 Michael Falkenstein,2,3 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St. Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, Germany; 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Bochum, Germany; 3Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: The relationship between cognition and the ability to hear is well known. Due to changes in demographics, the number of people with sensorineural hearing loss and cognitive impairment is increasing. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of hearing rehabilitation via cochlear implantation on cognitive decline among the aging population. Patients and methods: This prospective study included 60 subjects aged between 50 and 84 years (mean 65.8 years, SD=8.9 with a severe to profound bilateral hearing impairment. A computer-based evaluation of short- and long-term memory, processing speed, attention, working memory and inhibition was performed prior to surgery as well as 6 and 12 months after cochlear implantation. Additionally, speech perception at 65 and 80 dB (Freiburger monosyllabic speech test as well as disease-related (Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire and general (WHOQOL-OLD quality of life were assessed. Results: Six months postimplantation, speech perception, quality of life and also neurocognitive abilities significantly increased. The most remarkable improvement after 6 months was detected in executive functions such as attention (p<0.001, inhibition (p=0.025 and working memory (n-back: p=0.002; operation span task: p=0.008, followed by delayed recall (p=0.03. In contrast, long-term memory showed a significant change of performance only after 12 months (p=0.021. After 6 months, most cognitive domains remained stable, except working memory assessed by the operation span task, which significantly improved between 6 and 12 months (p<0.001. No

  17. Core of schizophrenia: estrangement, dementia or neurocognitive disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urfer-Parnas, Annick; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef

    2010-01-01

    ) Is there empirical evidence pointing to a close similarity between schizophrenia and organic dementia? (3) Does empirical evidence support the view that intellectual impairment and/or more specific neuropsychological dysfunctions are core features of schizophrenia? The classic authors agreed that the intellectual......BACKGROUND: The recent literature frequently represents schizophrenia as a deteriorating neurocognitive process similar to organic degenerative dementia. METHODS: This study addresses the following questions: (1) Did the classic authors equate degenerative dementia with schizophrenia? (2...... dysfunctions were most likely a consequence rather than a primary, causal factor in the manifestation of schizophrenia despite their consensus on the assumption of its neurobiological origins. Rather, they considered impairments of intelligence and neurocognition as an expression of pseudodementia, i...

  18. Neonatal white matter abnormalities an important predictor of neurocognitive outcome for very preterm children.

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    Lianne J Woodward

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter abnormalities on term MRI are a strong predictor of motor disability in children born very preterm. However, their contribution to cognitive impairment is less certain. OBJECTIVE: Examine relationships between the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities on neonatal MRI and a range of neurocognitive outcomes assessed at ages 4 and 6 years. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consisted of a regionally representative cohort of 104 very preterm (≤32 weeks gestation infants born from 1998-2000 and a comparison group of 107 full-term infants. At term equivalent, all preterm infants underwent a structural MRI scan that was analyzed qualitatively for the presence and severity of cerebral white matter abnormalities, including cysts, signal abnormalities, loss of white matter volume, ventriculomegaly, and corpus callosal thinning/myelination. At corrected ages 4 and 6 years, all children underwent a comprehensive neurodevelopmental assessment that included measures of general intellectual ability, language development, and executive functioning. RESULTS: At 4 and 6 years, very preterm children without cerebral white matter abnormalities showed no apparent neurocognitive impairments relative to their full-term peers on any of the domain specific measures of intelligence, language, and executive functioning. In contrast, children born very preterm with mild and moderate-to-severe white matter abnormalities were characterized by performance impairments across all measures and time points, with more severe cerebral abnormalities being associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment. These associations persisted after adjustment for gender, neonatal medical risk factors, and family social risk. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of cerebral white matter connectivity for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm. Preterm born children without cerebral white

  19. Neurocognitive deficits as a barrier to psychosocial function in schizophrenia: effects on learning, coping, & self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Buck, Kelly D

    2007-07-01

    Recently, research has linked deficits in neurocognition, which emerge early in schizophrenia, with psychosocial impairments. However, it is uncertain how these deficits lead to sustained dysfunction. In this review, we explore how neurocognitive deficits could disrupt function at three levels: learning, coping preference, and self-concept. We offer a model in which neurocognitive impairment may directly limit skills acquisition and the development of a rich personal narrative. We suggest that both limited skills acquisition and an impoverished narrative may subsequently feed into a habitual style of avoidant coping, leading to a cycle of sustained dysfunction. Implications for cognitive, rehabilitation, and psychotherapeutic interventions are discussed.

  20. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and healthrelated quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

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    Juliana Molina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%, and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate and exhaustion phase (pathological of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future.

  1. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater improvement in neurocognition over time predicted higher rates of improvement in community functioning. 4. Theory of mind did not predict change in community functioning after controlling for neurocognition. 5. The effect of change in neurocognition on community functioning did not depend on the effect of baseline neurocognition. This study provides empirical support that individuals with SMI may experience improvement in community functioning, especially when they also experience improvement in neurocognition. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23995035

  2. Neurocognitive deficits in obsessive compulsive disorder: A state or trait phenomenon?

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    Sachin Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, there is impairment of neurocognitive functioning during the symptomatic phase. However, studies that explore the "state or trait" dependent nature of these neurocognitive deficits are largely lacking. By comparing the neuropsychological functions of the clinical and subclinical group of OCD patients and healthy controls; we tried to establish whether neuropsychological deficits in OCD were "state" dependent or independent. Materials and Methods: Twenty "mild to moderate" OCD patients, 15 subclinical (remitted OCD patients, and 20 matched healthy controls were compared and assessed on computerized battery of neuropsychological tests including Wisconsin card sorting test, continuous performance test, and spatial working memory test. The observations were statistically analyzed. Results: Executive functions in both the subclinical and clinical groups performed poorly when compared to healthy controls. The patient groups made significantly more wrong responses, more missed responses and took more time to respond. On the test of spatial working memory, the mild to moderate OCD patients showed significant impairment, but not the subclinical patients group. Conclusion: Thus, we conclude that cognitive dysfunctions are core and enduring deficits of OCD, they seem to continue into the subclinical- well state. Certain cognitive deficits, depending on their presence or absence in subclinical cases, may be identified as "state" or "trait" markers of OCD.

  3. Neurocognitive effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwijk, Esmée; Comijs, Hannie C; Kok, Rob M; Spaans, Harm-Pieter; Stek, Max L; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-11-01

    Neurocognitive functioning is well known to be affected after ECT. However quantified data about the severity of the cognitive impairment after ultrabrief pulse and brief pulse ECT are limited, which makes it hard to judge its clinical relevance. To review all prospective studies using right unilateral (ultra) brief pulse index electroconvulsive therapy published up until February 2011 which used at least one instrument for cognitive assessment before and after ECT. The severity and persistence of neurocognitive side effects immediately (one to seven days post ECT), between one and six months and after six months post ECT were assessed by calculating effect sizes using Cohen's d. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and provided detailed information to compute effect sizes. The results indicate loss of autobiographical memory and impairment of verbal fluency, anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory immediately after brief pulse RUL ECT. To a lesser extent impairment of working memory and reduced speed of processing is found. Autobiographical memory is the only domain still being impaired between one and six months post ECT, but improved in this period. Verbal fluency normalized to baseline performance between one and six months post ECT whereas anterograde verbal and non-verbal memory normalized or even improved. Speed of processing improved within six months after ECT. Long-term data on these cognitive domains were not available. Based on two of the ten included studies the results suggest that ultrabrief pulse RUL ECT causes less decline in autobiographical and anterograde memory after ECT than brief pulse RUL ECT. This review may be limited because of the small number of included studies and due to unreliable effect sizes. Furthermore, few data were available for non-memory domains and cognitive functioning after six months. Loss of autobiographical memory is still present between one and six months after unilateral brief pulse ECT. Ultrabrief pulse RUL

  4. Cognitive impairment and computer tomography image in patients with arterial hypertension -preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva-Sirakova, T.; Tarnovska-Kadreva, R.; Traykov, L.; Zlatareva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is the leading risk factor for cognitive impairment, but it is developed only in some of the patients with pour control. On the other hand, not all of the patents with white matter changes have cognitive deficit. There may be a variety of reasons for this: the accuracy of methods for blood pressure measurement, the specific brain localization or some other reason. Here are the preliminary results of a study (or the potential correlation between self-measured, office-, ambulatory monitored blood pressure, central aortic blood pressure, minimal cognitive impairment and the specific brain image on contrast computer tomography. We expect to answer, the question whether central aortic or self-measured blood pressure have the leading role for the development of cognitive impairment in the presence of a specific neuroimaging finding, as well as what is the prerequisite for the clinical manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in patients with computer tomographic pathology. (authors)

  5. Can lifestyle modification improve neurocognition? Rationale and design of the ENLIGHTEN clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, James A; Smith, Patrick J; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Babyak, Michael A; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Burke, James; Kraus, William; Hinderliter, Alan; Sherwood, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) not only increase the risk for clinical CVD events, but also are associated with a cascade of neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic changes that increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although epidemiological studies have shown that exercise and diet are associated with lower CVD risk and reduced incidence of dementia, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined the independent effects of exercise and diet on neurocognitive function among individuals at risk for dementia. The ENLIGHTEN trial is a RCT of patients with CVD risk factors who also are characterized by subjective cognitive complaints and objective evidence of neurocognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) STUDY DESIGN: A 2 by 2 design will examine the independent and combined effects of diet and exercise on neurocognition. 160 participants diagnosed with CIND will be randomly assigned to 6 months of aerobic exercise, the DASH diet, or a combination of both exercise and diet; a (control) group will receive health education but otherwise will maintain their usual dietary and activity habits. Participants will complete comprehensive assessments of neurocognitive functioning along with biomarkers of CVD risk including measures of blood pressure, glucose, endothelial function, and arterial stiffness. The ENLIGHTEN trial will (a) evaluate the effectiveness of aerobic exercise and the DASH diet in improving neurocognitive functioning in CIND patients with CVD risk factors; (b) examine possible mechanisms by which exercise and diet improve neurocognition; and (c) consider potential moderators of treatment, including subclinical CVD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fibroblast growth factors 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid are associated with HIV disease, methamphetamine use, and neurocognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti AR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ajay R Bharti,1 Steven Paul Woods,2 Ronald J Ellis,3 Mariana Cherner,2 Debra Rosario,3 Michael Potter,3 Robert K Heaton,2 Ian P Everall,4 Eliezer Masliah,5 Igor Grant,2 Scott L Letendre1 On behalf of the Translational Methamphetamine AIDS Research Center Group 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 5Department of Pathology, University of Californa San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and methamphetamine use commonly affect neurocognitive (NC functioning. We evaluated the relationships between NC functioning and two fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in volunteers who differed in HIV serostatus and methamphetamine dependence (MAD. Methods: A total of 100 volunteers were categorized into four groups based on HIV serostatus and MAD in the prior year. FGF-1 and FGF-2 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays along with two reference biomarkers (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1 and neopterin. Comprehensive NC testing was summarized by global and domain impairment ratings. Results: Sixty-three volunteers were HIV+ and 59 had a history of MAD. FGF-1, FGF-2, and both reference biomarkers differed by HIV and MAD status. For example, FGF-1 levels were lower in subjects who had either HIV or MAD than in HIV– and MAD– controls (P=0.003. Multivariable regression identified that global NC impairment was associated with an interaction between FGF-1 and FGF-2 (model R2=0.09, P=0.01: higher FGF-2 levels were only associated with neurocognitive impairment among subjects who had lower FGF-1 levels. Including other covariates in the model (including antidepressant use strengthened the model (model R2=0.18, P=0.004 but did not weaken the association with FGF-1 and FGF-2. Lower FGF-1 levels were associated with impairment

  7. Impact of aging on neurocognitive performance in previously antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals on their first suppressive regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hamza; Robertson, Kevin; Smurzynski, Marlene; Krishnan, Supriya; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J; Collier, Ann C; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-07-17

    Despite treatment with virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), neurocognitive impairment may persist or develop de novo in aging HIV-infected individuals. We evaluated advancing age as a predictor of neurocognitive impairment in a large cohort of previously ART-naive individuals on long-term ART. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials was a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected individuals originally enrolled in randomized ART trials. This analysis examined neurocognitive outcomes at least 2 years after ART initiation. All participants underwent annual neurocognitive testing consisting of Trail making A and B, the wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised Digit Symbol and Hopkins Verbal Learning Tests. Uni and multivariable repeated measures regression models evaluated factors associated with neurocognitive performance. Predictors at parent study entry (ART naive) included entry demographics, smoking, injection drug use, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus serostatus, history of stroke, ART regimen type, pre-ART nadir CD4 cell count, and plasma viral load and as well as time-updated plasma viral load and CD4 cell count. The cohort comprised 3313 individuals with median pre-ART age of 38 years, 20% women; 36% Black, non-Hispanic; 22% Hispanic. Virologic suppression was maintained at 91% of follow-up visits. Neurocognitive performance improved with years of ART. After adjusting for the expected effects of age using norms from HIV-negative individuals, the odds of neurocognitive impairment at follow-up visits among the HIV infected increased by nearly 20% for each decade of advancing age. Despite continued virologic suppression and neurocognitive improvement in the cohort as a whole, older individuals were more likely to have neurocognitive impairment than younger individuals.

  8. Social cognition and neurocognition as independent domains in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, S; Versmissen, D; Janssen, I; Myin-Germeys, I; à Campo, J; Mengelers, R; van Os, J; Krabbendam, L

    2008-08-01

    Patients with psychosis display alterations in social cognition as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is unclear, however, to what degree these cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions of liability or the pleiotropic expression of a single deficit. The purpose of the present study was to investigate (i) to what extent alterations in social cognition represent an independent area of vulnerability to psychosis, separate from neurocognitive deficits and (ii) whether social cognition is one construct or can be divided into several subcomponents. Five social cognition and three neurocognitive tasks were completed by 186 participants with different levels of vulnerability for psychosis: 44 patients with psychotic disorder; 47 subjects at familial risk; 41 subjects at psychometric risk and 54 control subjects. The social cognition tasks covered important basic subcomponents of social cognition, i.e. mentalisation (or theory of mind), data gathering bias (jumping to conclusions), source monitoring and attribution style. Neurocognitive tasks assessed speed of information processing, inhibition, cognitive shifting and strategy-driven retrieval from semantic memory. The results of factor analysis suggested that neurocognition and social cognition are two separate areas of vulnerability in psychosis. Furthermore, the social cognition measures lacked significant overlap, suggesting a multidimensional construct. Cognitive liabilities to psychosis are manifold, and include key processes underlying basic person-environment interactions in daily life, independent of cognition quantified by neuropsychological tests.

  9. The Lithium Battery: assessing the neurocognitive profile of lithium in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; McAulay, Claire; Gershon, Samuel; Gessler, Danielle; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the neurocognitive effects of lithium in bipolar disorder to inform clinical and research approaches for further investigation. Key words pertaining to neurocognition in bipolar disorder and lithium treatment were used to search recognized databases to identify relevant literature. The authors also retrieved gray literature (e.g., book chapters) known to them and examined pertinent articles from bibliographies. A limited number of studies have examined the effects of lithium on neurocognition in bipolar disorder and, although in some domains a consistent picture emerges, in many domains the findings are mixed. Lithium administration appears to reshape key components of neurocognition - in particular, psychomotor speed, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Notably, it has a sophisticated neurocognitive profile, such that while lithium impairs neurocognition across some domains, it seemingly preserves others - possibly those vulnerable to the effects of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, its effects are likely to be direct and indirect (via mood, for example) and cumulative with duration of treatment. Disentangling the components of neurocognition modulated by lithium in the context of a fluctuating and complex illness such as bipolar disorder is a significant challenge but one that therefore demands a stratified and systematic approach, such as that provided by the Lithium Battery. In order to delineate the effects of lithium therapy on neurocognition in bipolar disorder within both research and clinical practice, a greater understanding and measurement of the relatively stable neurocognitive components is needed to examine those that indeed change with lithium treatment. In order to achieve this, we propose a Lithium Battery-Clinical and a Lithium Battery-Research that can be applied to these respective settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aerobic physical exercise as a possible treatment for neurocognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Liauw, Samantha S; McIntyre, Roger S

    2010-11-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction associated with bipolar disorder (BD) is pervasive, persistent across illness phases, and is demonstrated to predispose and portend psychosocial impairment. Moreover, no approved therapies for various phases of BD have been shown to reliably improve any dimension of neurocognitive performance. In this article, we emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. The overarching aim of this review is to emphasize that aerobic physical exercise is a viable neurocognitive-enhancing adjunctive treatment for patients with BD. We conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches of all English-language articles published between January 1966 and February 2010 using the search terms bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, depression, exercise, and physical activity cross-referenced with each other and the following terms: cognition, executive function, learning, memory, attention, emotion, and behavior. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall quality. Available studies have documented an array of persisting neurocognitive deficits across disparate bipolar populations. Abnormalities in verbal working memory are highly replicated; deficits in executive function, learning, attention, and processing speed are also a consistent abnormality. The effect sizes of neurocognitive deficits in BD are intermediate between those reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Several original reports and reviews have documented the neurocognitive-enhancing effects of aerobic exercise in the general population as well as across diverse medical populations and ages. Proposed mechanisms involve nonexclusive effects on neurogenesis, neurotrophism, immunoinflammatory systems, insulin sensitivity, and neurotransmitter systems. Each of these effector systems are implicated

  11. Neurocognitive Function in Children with Primary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Marc B.; Batisky, Donald L.; Kupferman, Juan C.; Samuels, Joshua; Hooper, Stephen R.; Falkner, Bonita; Waldstein, Shari R.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Wang, Hongyue; Staskiewicz, Jennifer; Adams, Heather R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare neurocognitive test performance of children with primary hypertension to that of normotensive controls. Study design Seventy-five children (10-18 years of age) with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension and 75 frequency matched normotensive controls had baseline neurocognitive testing as part of a prospective multicenter study of cognition in primary hypertension. Subjects completed tests of general intelligence, attention, memory, executive function, and processing speed. Parents completed rating scales of executive function and the Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ-SRBD). Results Hypertension and control groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, maternal education, income, race, ethnicity, obesity, anxiety, depression, cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Subjects with hypertension had higher PSQ-SRBD scores (p = 0.04) and triglycerides (p = 0.037). Multivariate analyses showed that hypertension was independently associated with worse performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (List A Trial 1, p = 0.034; List A Total, p = 0.009; Short delay recall, p = 0.013), CogState Groton Maze Learning Test delayed recall (p = 0.002), Grooved Pegboard dominant hand (p = 0.045), and Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence Vocabulary (p = 0.016). Results indicated a significant interaction between disordered sleep (PSQ-SRBD score) and hypertension on ratings of executive function (p = 0.04), such that hypertension heightened the association between increased disordered sleep and worse executive function. Conclusions Youth with primary hypertension demonstrated significantly lower performance on neurocognitive testing compared with normotensive controls, in particular, on measures of memory, attention, and executive functions. PMID:27692987

  12. Cigarette Smoke Exposure Inhibits Bacterial Killing via TFEB-Mediated Autophagy Impairment and Resulting Phagocytosis Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Pehote

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cigarette smoke (CS exposure is the leading risk factor for COPD-emphysema pathogenesis. A common characteristic of COPD is impaired phagocytosis that causes frequent exacerbations in patients leading to increased morbidity. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. Hence, we investigated if CS exposure causes autophagy impairment as a mechanism for diminished bacterial clearance via phagocytosis by utilizing murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01-GFP as an experimental model. Methods. Briefly, RAW cells were treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE, chloroquine (autophagy inhibitor, TFEB-shRNA, CFTR(inh-172, and/or fisetin prior to bacterial infection for functional analysis. Results. Bacterial clearance of PA01-GFP was significantly impaired while its survival was promoted by CSE (p<0.01, autophagy inhibition (p<0.05; p<0.01, TFEB knockdown (p<0.01; p<0.001, and inhibition of CFTR function (p<0.001; p<0.01 in comparison to the control group(s that was significantly recovered by autophagy-inducing antioxidant drug, fisetin, treatment (p<0.05; p<0.01; and p<0.001. Moreover, investigations into other pharmacological properties of fisetin show that it has significant mucolytic and bactericidal activities (p<0.01; p<0.001, which warrants further investigation. Conclusions. Our data suggests that CS-mediated autophagy impairment as a critical mechanism involved in the resulting phagocytic defect, as well as the therapeutic potential of autophagy-inducing drugs in restoring is CS-impaired phagocytosis.

  13. Developmental maturation of dynamic causal control signals in higher-order cognition: a neurocognitive network model.

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    Kaustubh Supekar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills undergo protracted developmental changes resulting in proficiencies that are a hallmark of human cognition. One skill that develops over time is the ability to problem solve, which in turn relies on cognitive control and attention abilities. Here we use a novel multimodal neurocognitive network-based approach combining task-related fMRI, resting-state fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the maturation of control processes underlying problem solving skills in 7-9 year-old children. Our analysis focused on two key neurocognitive networks implicated in a wide range of cognitive tasks including control: the insula-cingulate salience network, anchored in anterior insula (AI, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, and the fronto-parietal central executive network, anchored in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. We found that, by age 9, the AI node of the salience network is a major causal hub initiating control signals during problem solving. Critically, despite stronger AI activation, the strength of causal regulatory influences from AI to the PPC node of the central executive network was significantly weaker and contributed to lower levels of behavioral performance in children compared to adults. These results were validated using two different analytic methods for estimating causal interactions in fMRI data. In parallel, DTI-based tractography revealed weaker AI-PPC structural connectivity in children. Our findings point to a crucial role of AI connectivity, and its causal cross-network influences, in the maturation of dynamic top-down control signals underlying cognitive development. Overall, our study demonstrates how a unified neurocognitive network model when combined with multimodal imaging enhances our ability to generalize beyond individual task-activated foci and provides a common framework for elucidating key features of brain and cognitive

  14. The role of major depression in neurocognitive functioning in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Mirjam J. Nijdam

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD frequently co-occur after traumatic experiences and share neurocognitive disturbances in verbal memory and executive functioning. However, few attempts have been made to systematically assess the role of a comorbid MDD diagnosis in neuropsychological studies in PTSD. Objective: The purpose of the current study is to investigate neurocognitive deficits in PTSD patients with and without MDD. We hypothesized that PTSD patients with comorbid MDD (PTSD+MDD would have significantly lower performance on measures of verbal memory and executive functioning than PTSD patients without MDD (PTSD–MDD. Method: Participants included in this study were 140 treatment-seeking outpatients who had a diagnosis of PTSD after various single traumatic events and participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing different treatment types. Baseline neuropsychological data were compared between patients with PTSD+MDD (n=84 and patients with PTSD–MDD (n=56. Results: The PTSD+MDD patients had more severe verbal memory deficits in learning and retrieving words than patients with PTSD alone. There were no differences between the groups in recall of a coherent paragraph, recognition, shifting of attention, and cognitive interference. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that a more impaired neurocognitive profile may be associated with the presence of comorbid MDD, with medium-sized group differences for verbal memory but not for executive functioning. From a clinical standpoint, being aware that certain verbal memory functions are more restricted in patients with comorbid PTSD and MDD may be relevant for treatment outcome of trauma-focused psychotherapy.

  15. Asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders in patients infected by HIV: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torti Carlo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurocognitive disorders are emerging as a possible complication in patients infected with HIV. Even if asymptomatic, neurocognitive abnormalities are frequently detected using a battery of tests. This supported the creation of asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI as a new entity. In a recent article published in BMC Infectious Diseases, Magnus Gisslén and colleagues applied a statistical approach, concluding that there is an overestimation of the actual problem. In fact, about 20% of patients are classified as neurocognitively impaired without a clear impact on daily activities. In the present commentary, we discuss the clinical implications of their findings. Although a cautious approach would indicate a stricter follow-up of patients affected by this disorder, it is premature to consider it as a proper disease. Based on a review of the data in the current literature we conclude that it is urgent to conduct more studies to estimate the overall risk of progression of the asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Moreover, it is important to understand whether new biomarkers or neuroimaging tools can help to identify better the most at risk population. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/11/356

  16. Nutritional status and social behavior in preschool children: the mediating effects of neurocognitive functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianghong; Raine, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Early malnutritional status has been associated with reduced cognitive ability in childhood. However, there are almost no studies on the effect of malnutrition on positive social behavior, and no tests of possible mediating mechanisms. This study tests the hypothesis that poor nutritional status is associated with impaired social functioning in childhood, and that neurocognitive ability mediates this relationship. We assessed 1553 male and female 3-year-olds from a birth cohort on measures of malnutrition, social behavior and verbal and spatial neurocognitive functions. Children with indicators of malnutrition showed impaired social behavior (p malnutrition and degree of social behavior, with increased malnutrition associated with more impaired social behavior. Neurocognitive ability was found to mediate the nutrition–social behavior relationship. The mediation effect of neurocognitive functioning suggests that poor nutrition negatively impacts brain areas that play important roles in developing positive social behavior. Findings suggest that reducing poor nutrition, alternatively promoting good nutrition, may help promote positive social behavior in early childhood during a critical period for social and neurocognitive development, with implications for improving positive health in adulthood. PMID:27133006

  17. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  18. Neurocognitive functioning in compulsive buying disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Katherine L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2014-02-01

    Compulsive buying (CB) is a fairly common behavioral problem estimated to affect 5.8% of the population. Although previous research has examined the clinical characteristics of CB, little research has examined whether people with CB manifest cognitive deficits. Twenty-three non-treatment-seeking compulsive buyers (mean age, 22.3±3.5; 60.9% female) and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 21.1±3.4, 60.9% female) underwent neurocognitive assessment. We predicted that the following cognitive domains would be impaired in CB: spatial working memory (Spatial Working Memory test), response inhibition (Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift task), and decision making (Cambridge Gambling Task). Compared with controls, individuals with CB exhibited significant impairments in response inhibition (P=.043), risk adjustment during decision making (P=.010), and spatial working memory (P=.041 total errors; P=.044 strategy scores). Deficits were of large effect size (Cohen's d, 0.6 to 1.05). These pilot data suggest that individuals with CB experience problems in several distinct cognitive domains, supporting a likely neurobiological overlap between CB and other putative behavioral and substance addictions. These findings may have implications for shared treatment approaches as well as how we currently classify and understand CB.

  19. Multifactorial Determinants of the Neurocognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Choi, Jimmy; Deng, Zhi-De; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation af...

  20. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function

    OpenAIRE

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Mathias Schlögl,1 Michael F Holick21University Center for Medicine of Aging Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin, and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decl...

  1. Compulsivity-related neurocognitive performance deficits in gambling disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Timmeren, Tim; Daams, Joost G; van Holst, Ruth J; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2018-01-01

    Compulsivity is a core feature of addictive disorders, including gambling disorder. However, it is unclear to what extent this compulsive behavior in gambling disorder is associated with abnormal compulsivity-related neurocognitive functioning. Here, we summarize and synthesize the evidence for compulsive behavior, as assessed by compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks, in individuals with gambling disorder compared to healthy controls (HCs). A total of 29 studies, comprising 41 task-results, were included in the systematic review; 32 datasets (n=1072 individuals with gambling disorder; n=1312 HCs) were also included in the meta-analyses, conducted for each cognitive task separately. Our meta-analyses indicate significant deficits in individuals with gambling disorder in cognitive flexibility, attentional set-shifting, and attentional bias. Overall, these findings support the idea that compulsivity-related performance deficits characterize gambling disorder. This association may provide a possible link between impairments in executive functions related to compulsive action. We discuss the practical relevance of these results, their implications for our understanding of gambling disorder and how they relate to neurobiological factors and other 'disorders of compulsivity'. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Neurocognitive Dysfunction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by chronic nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentations. Neurocognitive dysfunction, a significant and extraordinary complication of OSAS, influences patients’ career, family, and social life and reduces quality of life to some extent. Previous researches revealed that repetitive hypoxia and reoxygenation caused mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, overactivated NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupling nitric oxide synthase, induced an imbalance between prooxidants and antioxidants, and then got rise to a series of oxidative stress (OS responses, such as protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA oxidation along with inflammatory reaction. OS in brain could trigger neuron injury especially in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex regions. Those two regions are fairly susceptible to hypoxia and oxidative stress production which could consequently result in cognitive dysfunction. Apart from continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP, antioxidant may be a promising therapeutic method to improve partially reversible neurocognitive function. Understanding the role that OS played in the cognitive deficits is crucial for future research and therapeutic strategy development. In this paper, recent important literature concerning the relationship between oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in OSAS will be summarized and the results can provide a rewarding overview for future breakthrough in this field.

  3. Neurocognitive dysfunction in strategic and non-strategic gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-08-07

    It has been theorized that there may be subtypes of pathological gambling, particularly in relation to the main type of gambling activities undertaken. Whether or not putative pathological gambling subtypes differ in terms of their clinical and cognitive profiles has received little attention. Subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling were grouped into two categories of preferred forms of gambling - strategic (e.g., cards, dice, sports betting, stock market) and non-strategic (e.g., slots, video poker, pull tabs). Groups were compared on clinical characteristics (gambling severity, and time and money spent gambling), psychiatric comorbidity, and neurocognitive tests assessing motor impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Seventy-seven subjects were included in this sample (45.5% females; mean age: 42.7±14.9) which consisted of the following groups: strategic (n=22; 28.6%) and non-strategic (n=55; 71.4%). Non-strategic gamblers were significantly more likely to be older, female, and divorced. Money spent gambling did not differ significantly between groups although one measure of gambling severity reflected more severe problems for strategic gamblers. Strategic and non-strategic gamblers did not differ in terms of cognitive function; both groups showed impairments in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control relative to matched healthy volunteers. These preliminary results suggest that preferred form of gambling may be associated with specific clinical characteristics but are not dissociable in terms of cognitive inflexibility and motor impulsivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oligodendrocyte Injury and Pathogenesis of HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum, which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and resultant white matter damage is an interesting area of current HIV research. In this review, we tentatively address recent progress on oligodendrocyte dysregulation and HAND pathogenesis.

  5. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  6. Neurocognitive effects after brief pulse and ultrabrief pulse unilateral electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijk, E.; Comijs, H.C.; Kok, R.M.; Spaans, H.P.; Stek, M.L.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive functioning is well known to be affected after ECT. However quantified data about the severity of the cognitive impairment after ultrabrief pulse and brief pulse ECT are limited, which makes it hard to judge its clinical relevance. Methods: To review all prospective

  7. Insight change in psychosis : relationship with neurocognition, social cognition, clinical symptoms and phase of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quee, P. J.; van der Meer, L.; Krabbendam, L.; de Haan, L.; Cahn, W.; Wiersma, D.; van Beveren, N.; Pijnenborg, G. H. M.; Mulder, C. L.; Bruggeman, R.; Aleman, A.

    Objective: Impaired insight is an important and prevalent symptom of psychosis. It remains unclear whether cognitive disturbances hamper improvements in insight. We investigated the neurocognitive, social cognitive, and clinical correlates of changes in insight. Method: One hundred and fifty-four

  8. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurocognitive Predictions of Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-25

    feedback (see Section 1V.A). Many of these results, along with pilot analyses of intracerebral recordings using a. primate model, cannot be explained by...are subject to considerable distortion by the intervening media of cerebrum, cerebro -spinal fluid, skull, and scalp. The result is a smeaxing or...parietal component is consistent with evidence from primates and humans for neuronal firing in motor and somatost.nsory cortices prior to motor responses

  10. Neurocognitive Aspects of Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald T.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This literature review on neurocognitive functioning and learning of children with sickle cell disease found diffuse neurocognitive deficits, with much variability across subjects. Studies of psychosocial development of these children indicate that behavioral problems, low self-esteem, and body image disturbances are frequently characteristic.…

  11. Homocysteine, Cobalamin and Folate Status and their Relations to Neurocognitive and Psychological Markers in Elderly in Northeasten of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavifar, Lida; Nemati Karimooy, Habibollah; Jamali, Jamshid; Talebi Doluee, Morteza; Shirdel, Abbas; Nejat Shokohi, Amireh; Fatemi Nayyeri, Mahdie

    2013-06-01

    Incidence of neurocognitive and psychological disorders may be related to serum homocystein (Hcy), cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate levels in old people. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between Hcy, cobalamin, folate and neurocognitive and/or psychological disorders in the elderly. In this cross-sectional study, 280 subjects with ≥ 65 years old ,were evaluated. The subjects were selected from 12 regions of Mashhad, Iran, over March to October 2009. After blood sampling, data were collected by questionnaire, face to face interview and performing neurocognitive and psychological tests. The sera of 250 persons were analyzed for cobalamin and folate by RIA method. Amongst the aforementioned samples, 78 cases with cobalamin <300 pg/ml and folate <6.5 ng/ml were analyzed for Hcy by ELISA method. Amongst the people, 126 (45%) were male and 154 (55%) were female. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) was 59.5% and 37.1% in male and female respectively (P -value =0.049). Hcy inversely correlated to cobalamin (r=-0.282, P=0.014) and to folate (r=-0.203, P=0.014). Hcy, cobalamin and folate correlations to neurocognitive and psychological impairments were not statically significant. Hyper Hcy or low cobalamin and folate in the elderly, are prevalent but their relationships with neurocognitive and psychological impairments is controversial. If these relationships had been confirmed, performing a single serum Hcy or cobalamin test would have been enough enough to diagnose and prevent neurocognitive impairments and inversely, neurocognitive-psychological sign and symptoms could have meant probable tissue vitamin deficiencies. However methods of assessing neurocognitive and psychological markers with validity and reliability of clinical and laboratory tests for finding aforementioned relationships should be revised.

  12. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel

  13. Work impairment in bipolar disorder patients--results from a two-year observational study (EMBLEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C; Goetz, I; Vieta, E; Bassi, M; Haro, J M

    2010-10-01

    To explore factors associated with work impairment at 2 years following an acute episode. European Mania in Bipolar disorder Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) is a prospective, observational study on the outcomes of patients with a manic/mixed episode. Work impairment was measured using a Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (slice of LIFE) item and patients were categorised with either low or high work impairment at each observation. Baseline factors associated with work impairment at 2 years were assessed using multivariate modelling. At baseline (n=2289), 69% of patients had high work impairment. At 2 years (n=1393), high impairment reduced to 41%. Modelling identified rapid cycling as the strongest disease-related factor associated with high work impairment at 2 years, although high work impairment at baseline had the strongest association overall. Lower levels of education, recent admissions, CGI-BP overall severity in the 12 months prior to baseline and CGI-BP mania at baseline all predicted higher work impairment. Living together in a relationship and independent housing were both significantly associated with having low work impairment at 2 years. Work impairment in bipolar disorder is maintained over long periods, and is strongly associated with relationship status, living conditions and various disease-related factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Cannabis use and neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical sample of users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Arbid, Natalie; Sayegh, Philip

    2014-05-01

    With the recent debates over marijuana legalization and increases in use, it is critical to examine its role in cognition. While many studies generally support the adverse acute effects of cannabis on neurocognition, the non-acute effects remain less clear. The current study used a cross-sectional design to examine relationships between recent and past cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning in a non-clinical adult sample. One hundred and fifty-eight participants were recruited through fliers distributed around local college campuses and the community. All participants completed the Brief Drug Use History Form, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, and neurocognitive assessment, and underwent urine toxicology screening. Participants consisted of recent users (n=68), past users (n=41), and non-users (n=49). Recent users demonstrated significantly (pcannabis use in the last 4 weeks was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and all individual cognitive domains. Similarly, amount of daily cannabis use was negatively associated with global neurocognitive performance and individual cognitive domains. Our results support the widespread adverse effects of cannabis use on neurocognitive functioning. Although some of these adverse effects appear to attenuate with abstinence, past users' neurocognitive functioning was consistently lower than non-users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Introducing a Virtual Lesion Model of Dysphagia Resulting from Pharyngeal Sensory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Muhle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Performing neurophysiological and functional imaging studies in severely affected patients to investigate novel neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of neurogenic dysphagia is difficult. Therefore, basic research needs to be conducted in healthy subjects. Swallowing is a motor function highly dependent on sensory afferent input. Here we propose a virtual peripheral sensory lesion model to mimic pharyngeal sensory impairment, which is known as a major contributor to dysphagia in neurological disease. Methods: In this randomized crossover study on 11 healthy volunteers, cortical activation during pneumatic pharyngeal stimulation was measured applying magnetoencephalography in two separate sessions, with and without pharyngeal surface anesthesia. Results: Stimulation evoked bilateral event-related desynchronization (ERD mainly in the caudolateral pericentral cortex. In comparison to the no-anesthesia condition, topical anesthesia led to a reduction of ERD in beta (13-30 Hz and low gamma (30-60 Hz frequency ranges (p<0.05 in sensory but also motor cortical areas. Conclusions: Withdrawal of sensory afferent information by topical anesthesia leads to reduced response to pneumatic pharyngeal stimulation in a distributed cortical sensorimotor network in healthy subjects. The proposed paradigm may serve to investigate the effect of neuromodulatory treatments specifically on pharyngeal sensory impairment as relevant cause of neurogenic dysphagia.

  16. Neurocognitive performance in unmedicated patients with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Jennifer M; Noack, Carolyn G; Filoteo, J Vincent; Maddox, W Todd; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2016-02-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is an often incapacitating psychiatric illness associated with a wide range of neurocognitive abnormalities. Some prior neuropsychological studies have found executive dysfunction in HD, but no clear pattern has emerged. One potential reason for discrepant results in previous studies might be the inclusion of patients on psychotropic and other medications that can affect neurocognitive performance. Therefore, we examined neurocognitive functioning in medication-free HD patients. We also added a novel investigation of implicit learning, which has been found to be abnormal in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. Twenty-six participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) diagnostic criteria for HD and 23 normal controls were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests and symptom rating scales. All participants were free of psychotropic medications for at least 6 weeks prior to the study. HD participants showed no significant differences from normal controls on measures of verbal memory, attention, or executive functioning, including response inhibition, planning, organization, and decision making. However, HD participants demonstrated a trend toward less implicit learning and greater use of explicit learning strategies during perceptual categorization compared to normal controls. HD participants who used an implicit strategy performed significantly worse than controls who used an implicit strategy. Hoarding symptom severity was not associated with neurocognitive performance. HD patients may have a tendency to use explicit rather than implicit learning strategies for perceptual categorization but perform as well as normal controls on many other neurocognitive measures. Future studies should assess unmedicated participants and examine test strategies, not just outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Identifying at-risk states beyond positive symptoms: a brief task assessing how neurocognitive impairments impact on misrepresentation of the social world through blunted emotional appraisal Identificando estados de risco para além dos sintomas positivos: um teste breve que avalia o impacto de disfunções neurocognitivas sobre a interpretação errônea do mundo social resultante de avaliação emocional embotada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Galdos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive impairments observed in psychotic disorder may impact on emotion recognition and theory of mind, resulting in altered understanding of the social world. Early intervention efforts would be served by further elucidation of this mechanism. METHOD: Patients with a psychotic disorder (n=30 and a reference control group (n=310 were asked to offer emotional appraisals of images of social situations (EASS task. The degree to which case-control differences in appraisals were mediated by neurocognitive alterations was analyzed. RESULTS: The EASS task displayed convergent and discriminant validity. Compared to controls, patients displayed blunted emotional appraisal of social situations (B=0.52, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74, POBJETIVO: Melhoras neurocognitivas observadas no transtorno psicótico podem ter impacto no reconhecimento de emoções e na teoria da mente, resultando numa alteração na compreensão do mundo social. Esforços para uma intervenção precoce poderiam se beneficiar de uma maior elucidação deste mecanismo. MÉTODO: Pacientes com transtornos psicóticos (n=30 e um grupo controle de referência (n=310 foram convidados a realizar avaliações emocionais de imagens de situações sociais (teste AESS. A relação das diferenças entre casos e controles com as alterações neurocognitivas foi analisada. RESULTADOS: O teste AESS apresentou validade convergente e discriminatória. Quando comparados aos controles, os pacientes apresentaram avaliação emocional embotada das situações sociais (B=0,52, 95% CI: 0,30, 0,74, P<0,001; ajustado para a idade, sexo e número de anos de educação: B=0,44, 95% CI: 0,20, 0,68, P<0001, uma diferença de 0,88 (ajustado: 0,75 desvio-padrão. Após o ajuste para as variáveis neurocognitivas, as diferenças no estudo caso-controle foram reduzidas em quase 75% e deixaram de ser significativas (B=0,12, 95% CI: -0,14, 0.39, P=0,37. CONCLUSÕES: Disfunções neurocognitivas observadas em

  18. Sarcopenia and cognitive impairment in elderly women: results from the EPIDOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Cesari, Matteo; Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Dupuy, Charlotte; Nourhashémi, Fati; Schott, Anne-Marie; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2013-03-01

    common pathophysiological pathways are shared between age-related body composition changes and cognitive impairment. evaluate whether current operative sarcopenia definitions are associated with cognition in community-dwelling older women. cross-sectional analyses. a total of 3,025 women aged 75 years and older. body composition (assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and cognition (measured by short portable mental status questionnaire) were obtained in all participants. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association of six operative definitions of sarcopenia with cognitive impairment. Gait speed (GS, measured over a 6-meter track at usual pace) and handgrip strength (HG, measured by a hand-held dynamometer) were considered additional factors of interest. a total of 492 (16.3%) women were cognitively impaired. The prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3 to 18.8%. No sarcopenia definition was associated with cognitive impairment after controlling for potential confounders. To proof consistency, the analyses were performed using GS and HG, two well-established predictors of cognitive impairment. Low GS [odds ratio (OR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.40] and low HG (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) were associated with cognitive impairment. no significant association was evidenced between different operative sarcopenia definitions and cognitive impairment. The study suggests that the association between physical performance and cognitive impairment in not mediated by sarcopenia.

  19. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingler, Jennifer H; Butters, Meryl A; Gentry, Amanda L; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Klunk, William E; Mattos, Meghan K; Parker, Lisa A; Roberts, J Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-03-08

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test disclosures of amyloid imaging research results in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Using simulated sessions, persons with MCI and their family care partners (N = 10 dyads) received fictitious but realistic information regarding brain amyloid status, followed by an explanation of how results impact Alzheimer's disease risk. Satisfaction surveys, comprehension assessments, and focus group data were analyzed to evaluate the materials developed. The majority of persons with MCI and their care partners comprehended and were highly satisfied with the information presented. Focus group data reinforced findings of high satisfaction and included 6 recommendations for practice: 1) offer pre-test counseling, 2) use clear graphics, 3) review participants' own brain images during disclosures, 4) offer take-home materials, 5) call participants post-disclosure to address emerging questions, and 6) communicate seamlessly with primary care providers. Further analysis of focus group data revealed that participants understood the limitations of amyloid imaging, but nevertheless viewed the prospect of learning one's amyloid status as valuable and empowering.

  20. The effectiveness of ICT-based neurocognitive and psychosocial rehabilitation programmes in people with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment using GRADIOR and ehcoBUTLER: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanova, Martina; Irazoki, Eider; García-Casal, J Antonio; Martínez-Abad, Fernando; Botella, Cristina; Shiells, Kate R; Franco-Martín, Manuel A

    2018-02-12

    Cognitive rehabilitation is a highly individualised, non-pharmacological intervention for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia, which in recent years has also been developed for various IT platforms. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the cognitive rehabilitation software GRADIOR in a multi-centre, single-blinded randomised controlled trial with people with MCI and mild dementia. A total of 400 people with MCI and mild dementia will be randomly allocated to one of four groups. This trial will compare the cognitive rehabilitation treatment using the GRADIOR programme with a psychosocial stimulation intervention (PSS) using the ehcoBUTLER platform, with a combined treatment consisting of GRADIOR and ehcoBUTLER, and with a group receiving treatment as usual during a period of 1 year. The outcomes of this clinical trial will be to determine any relevant changes in cognition, mood, quality of life, activities of daily living and quality of patient-carer relationship after 4 months and 1 year of intervention in a cross-sectional group comparison. Participants will be followed-up for 1 year to investigate potential long-term effects of the conducted treatments. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN, ID: 15742788 . Registered on 12 June 2017.

  1. Objective and subjective psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an investigation of the relative importance of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-06-01

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of

  2. Negative symptoms mediate the relationship between neurocognition and function in individuals at ultrahigh risk for psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, L B; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Møllegaard; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    -Risk Social Challenge task and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms respectively. Four instruments were used to assess overall functioning, and one instrument assessed quality of life encompassing social functioning. RESULTS: The cross-sectional analyses revealed that neurocognition was related......OBJECTIVE: Neurocognition is known to impact functioning in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis, but studies investigating potential mediators of this relationship are scarce. Building on evidence from schizophrenia spectrum disorders, the study tested whether negative symptoms...... and social skills act as mediators between neurocognition and functional outcome in UHR individuals. METHODS: Ultrahigh risk participants (N = 84) underwent neurocognitive testing using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Social skills and negative symptoms were assessed using the High...

  3. Neurocognitive dysfunction in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rund, Bjørn Rishovd; Melle, Ingrid; Friis, Svein

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of neurocognitive function with duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid illness factors, and clinical symptoms to determine whether long duration of untreated psychosis independently compromises cognitive function....

  4. Validation of the Face-Name Pairs Task in Major Depression: Impaired recall but not recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Major depression can be associated with neurocognitive deficits which are believed in part to be related to medial temporal lobe pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate this impairment using a hippocampal-dependent neuropsychological task. The Face-Name pairs task was used to assess associative memory functioning in 19 patients with major depression. When compared to age-sex-and-education matched controls, patients with depression showed impaired learning, delayed cued-recall and delayed free-recall. However, they also showed preserved recognition of the verbal and nonverbal components of this task. Results indicate that the face-name pairs task is sensitive to neurocognitive deficits in major depression.

  5. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...... suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination....

  6. Persistent visual impairment in multiple sclerosis: prevalence, mechanisms and resulting disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasse, Laurence; Vukusic, Sandra; Durand-Dubief, Françoise; Vartin, Cristina; Piras, Carolina; Bernard, Martine; Pélisson, Denis; Confavreux, Christian; Vighetto, Alain; Tilikete, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients the prevalence of persistent complaints of visual disturbances and the mechanisms and resulting functional disability of persistent visual complaints (PVCs). Firstly, the prevalence of PVCs was calculated in 303 MS patients. MS-related data of patients with or without PVCs were compared. Secondly, 70 patients with PVCs performed an extensive neuro-ophthalmologic assessment and a vision-related quality of life questionnaire, the National Eye Institute Visual Functionary Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). PVCs were reported in 105 MS patients (34.6%). Patients with PVCs had more frequently primary progressive MS (30.5% vs 13.6%) and more neuro-ophthalmologic relapses (1.97 vs 1.36) than patients without PVCs. In the mechanisms/disability study, an afferent visual and an ocular-motor pathways dysfunction were respectively diagnosed in 41 and 59 patients, mostly related to bilateral optic neuropathy and bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. The NEI-VFQ 25 score was poor and significantly correlated with the number of impaired neuro-ophthalmologic tests. Our study emphasizes the high prevalence of PVC in MS patients. Regarding the nature of neuro-ophthalmologic deficit, our results suggest that persistent optic neuropathy, as part of the progressive evolution of the disease, is not rare. We also demonstrate that isolated ocular motor dysfunctions induce visual disability in daily life.

  7. The Differential Effects of Regular Shift Work and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Sleepiness, Mood and Neurocognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cori, Jennifer M; Jackson, Melinda L; Barnes, Maree; Westlake, Justine; Emerson, Paul; Lee, Jacen; Galante, Rosa; Hayley, Amie; Wilsmore, Nicholas; Kennedy, Gerard A; Howard, Mark

    2018-05-29

    To assess whether poor sleep quality experienced by regular shift workers and individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects neurobehavioral function similarly, or whether the different aetiologies have distinct patterns of impairment. 37 shift workers (> 24 hours after their last shift), 36 untreated patients with OSA and 39 healthy controls underwent assessment of sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Oxford Sleep Resistance Test), mood (Beck Depression Index, State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI], Profile of Mood States), vigilance (Psychomotor Vigilance Task [PVT], AusEd driving simulation), neurocognitive function (Logical Memory, Trails Making Task, Digit Span and Victoria Stroop Test) and polysomnography. There were no significant differences between the groups in respect to sleepiness (ESS score [median, IQR] = 10.5, 6.3-14 versus 7, 5-11.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively) or mood, with the exception of state anxiety which was elevated in the OSA group (STAI score [median, IQR] = 35, 29-43 versus 30, 24-33.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively). However, the OSA group performed significantly worse than the shift work group on the driving task (crash proportion = 46.9% versus 18.9% for OSA group and shift work group, respectively) and the PVT (lapses [median, IQR] = 3, 2-6 versus 2, 0-3.5 for OSA group and shift work group, respectively), as well as most of the neurocognitive measures. Participants with OSA had similar sleepiness and mood to the shift work group, but worse vigilance and neurocognitive function. These findings suggest that distinct causes of sleep disturbance likely result in different patterns of neurobehavioral dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronemer, Sharif I; Mandel, Jordan A; Sacktor, Ned C; Marvel, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing). Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  9. Impairments of Motor Function While Multitasking in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherie L. Marvel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV became a treatable illness with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART. As a result, patients with regular access to CART are expected to live decades with HIV. Long-term HIV infection presents unique challenges, including neurocognitive impairments defined by three major stages of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The current investigation aimed to study cognitive and motor impairments in HIV using a novel multitasking paradigm. Unlike current standard measures of cognitive and motor performance in HIV, multitasking increases real-world validity by mimicking the dual motor and cognitive demands that are part of daily professional and personal settings (e.g., driving, typing and writing. Moreover, multitask assessments can unmask compensatory mechanisms, normally used under single task conditions, to maintain performance. This investigation revealed that HIV+ participants were impaired on the motor component of the multitask, while cognitive performance was spared. A patient-specific positive interaction between motor performance and working memory recall was driven by poor HIV+ multitaskers. Surprisingly, HAND stage did not correspond with multitask performance and a variety of commonly used assessments indicated normal motor function among HIV+ participants with poor motor performance during the experimental task. These results support the use of multitasks to reveal otherwise hidden impairment in chronic HIV by expanding the sensitivity of clinical assessments used to determine HAND stage. Future studies should examine the capability of multitasks to predict performance in personal, professional and health-related behaviors and prognosis of patients living with chronic HIV.

  10. Language Impairment Resulting from a de novo Deletion of 7q32.1q33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, María S; Barcos-Martínez, Montserrat; Espejo-Portero, Isabel; Benítez-Burraco, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    We report on a girl who presents with hearing loss, behavioral disturbances (according to the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning) as well as motor and cognitive delay (according to Battelle Developmental Inventories) which have a significant impact on her speech and language abilities [according to the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (ed 3), and the Prueba de Lenguaje Oral de Navarra-Revisada (Navarra Oral Language Test, Revised)]. Five copy number variations (CNVs) were identified in the child: arr[hg18] 7q32.1q33(127109685-132492196)×1, 8p23.1(7156900-7359099) ×1, 15q13.1(26215673-26884937)×1, Xp22.33(17245- 102434)×3, and Xp22.33(964441-965024)×3. The pathogenicity of similar CNVs is mostly reported as unknown. The largest deletion is found in a hot spot for cognitive disease and language impairment and contains several genes involved in brain development and function, many of which have been related to developmental disorders encompassing language deficits (dyslexia, speech-sound disorder, and autism). Some of these genes interact with FOXP2 . The proband's phenotype may result from a reduced expression of some of these genes.

  11. Impaired translocation of GLUT4 results in insulin resistance of atrophic soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Song, Zhen; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Jiao, Bo; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  12. Impaired Translocation of GLUT4 Results in Insulin Resistance of Atrophic Soleus Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Tao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not the atrophic skeletal muscle induces insulin resistance and its mechanisms are not resolved now. The antigravity soleus muscle showed a progressive atrophy in 1-week, 2-week, and 4-week tail-suspended rats. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp showed that the steady-state glucose infusion rate was lower in 4-week tail-suspended rats than that in the control rats. The glucose uptake rates under insulin- or contraction-stimulation were significantly decreased in 4-week unloaded soleus muscle. The key protein expressions of IRS-1, PI3K, and Akt on the insulin-dependent pathway and of AMPK, ERK, and p38 on the insulin-independent pathway were unchanged in unloaded soleus muscle. The unchanged phosphorylation of Akt and p38 suggested that the activity of two signal pathways was not altered in unloaded soleus muscle. The AS160 and GLUT4 expression on the common downstream pathway also was not changed in unloaded soleus muscle. But the GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma was inhibited during insulin stimulation in unloaded soleus muscle. The above results suggest that hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rat induces atrophy in antigravity soleus muscle. The impaired GLUT4 translocation to sarcolemma under insulin stimulation may mediate insulin resistance in unloaded soleus muscle and further affect the insulin sensitivity of whole body in tail-suspended rats.

  13. Neurocognitive testing and cochlear implantation: insights into performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosetti MK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maura K Cosetti,1,2 James B Pinkston,3 Jose M Flores,4 David R Friedmann,5 Callie B Jones,3 J Thomas Roland Jr,5,6 Susan B Waltzman5 1Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, 4Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MA, 5Department of Otolaryngology, 6Department of Neurosurgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Objective: The aim of this case series was to assess the impact of auditory rehabilitation with cochlear implantation on the cognitive function of elderly patients over time. Design: This is a longitudinal case series of prospective data assessing neurocognitive function and speech perception in an elderly cohort pre- and post-implantation. Setting: University cochlear implant center. Participants: The patients were post-lingually deafened elderly female (mean, 73.6 years; SD, 5.82; range, 67–81 years cochlear implant recipients (n=7. Measurements: A neurocognitive battery of 20 tests assessing intellectual function, learning, short- and long-term memory, verbal fluency, attention, mental flexibility, and processing speed was performed prior to and 2–4.1 years (mean, 3.7 after cochlear implant (CI. Speech perception testing using Consonant–Nucleus–Consonant words was performed prior to implantation and at regular intervals postoperatively. Individual and aggregate differences in cognitive function pre- and post-CI were estimated. Logistic regression with cluster adjustment was used to estimate the association (%improvement or %decline between speech understanding and years from implantation at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years post-CI. Results: Improvements after CI were observed in 14 (70% of all subtests administered. Declines occurred in five (25% subtests. In 55 individual tests (43%, post-CI performance improved

  14. The MCCB impairment profile for schizophrenia outpatients: results from the MATRICS psychometric and standardization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Gold, James M; Dickinson, Dwight; Green, Michael F; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Baade, Lyle E; Keefe, Richard S E; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Seidman, Larry J; Lee, Cathy; Sugar, Catherine A; Marder, Stephen R

    2011-03-01

    The MATRICS Psychometric and Standardization Study was conducted as a final stage in the development of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The study included 176 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 300 community residents. Data were analyzed to examine the cognitive profile of clinically stable schizophrenia patients on the MCCB. Secondarily, the data were analyzed to identify which combination of cognitive domains and corresponding cut-off scores best discriminated patients from community residents, and patients competitively employed vs. those not. Raw scores on the ten MCCB tests were entered into the MCCB scoring program which provided age- and gender-corrected T-scores on seven cognitive domains. To test for between-group differences, we conducted a 2 (group)×7 (cognitive domain) MANOVA with follow-up independent t-tests on the individual domains. Classification and regression trees (CART) were used for the discrimination analyses. Examination of patient T-scores across the seven cognitive domains revealed a relatively compact profile with T-scores ranging from 33.4 for speed of processing to 39.3 for reasoning and problem-solving. Speed of processing and social cognition best distinguished individuals with schizophrenia from community residents; speed of processing along with visual learning and attention/vigilance optimally distinguished patients competitively employed from those who were not. The cognitive profile findings provide a standard to which future studies can compare results from other schizophrenia samples and related disorders; the classification results point to specific areas and levels of cognitive impairment that may advance work rehabilitation efforts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Multifactorial Determinants of the Neurocognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Shawn M.; Choi, Jimmy; Deng, Zhi-De; Appelbaum, Lawrence G.; Krystal, Andrew D.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    For many patients with neuropsychiatric illnesses, standard psychiatric treatments with mono or combination pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and transcranial magnetic stimulation are ineffective. For these patients with treatment resistant neuropsychiatric illnesses, a main therapeutic option is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Decades of research have found ECT to be highly effective; however, it can also result in adverse neurocognitive effects. Specifically, ECT results in disorientation after each session, anterograde amnesia for recently learned information, and retrograde amnesia for previously learned information. Unfortunately, the neurocognitive effects and underlying mechanisms of action of ECT remain poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize the multiple moderating and mediating factors that are thought to underlie the neurocognitive effects of ECT into a coherent model. Such factors include demographic and neuropsychological characteristics, neuropsychiatric symptoms, ECT technical parameters, and ECT associated neurophysiological changes. Future research is warranted to evaluate and test this model, so that these findings may support the development of more refined clinical seizure therapy delivery approaches and efficacious cognitive remediation strategies to improve the utility of this important and widely used intervention tool for neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24820942

  16. Neuropsychological Correlates of Pre-Frailty in Neurocognitive Disorders: A Possible Role for Metacognitive Dysfunction and Mood Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Amanzio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have suggested that cognitive functions in patients with neurocognitive disorders have a significant role in the pathogenic mechanisms of frailty. Although pre-frailty is considered an intermediate, preclinical state, epidemiological research has begun to dislodge cognition and frailty into their specific subcomponents to understand the relationship among them. We aim to analyse the possible association between pre-frailty and neuropsychological variables to outline which factors can contribute to minor and major neurocognitive disorders.Methods60 subjects complaining of different cognitive deficits underwent a deep-in-wide frailty and neuropsychological assessment. We conducted three multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for a combination of demographic measures and involving several neuropsychological–behavioural parameters selected by the literature on physical frailty.ResultsWe found a significant association between frailty—as measured by the multidimensional prognostic index (MPI—and action monitoring and monetary gain (cognitive domain, depression and disinhibition (behavioural domain. Moreover, an association between MPI and impaired awareness for instrumental activities disabilities exists.ConclusionWe propose a novel framework for understanding frailty associated with metacognitive–executive dysfunction.

  17. Five factor model personality traits relate to adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder but not to their distinct neurocognitive profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Fiona E; Mostert, Jeannette; Glennon, Jeffrey; Onnink, Marten; Dammers, Janneke; Vasquez, Alejandro Arias; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in multiple neuropsychological domains and specific personality profiles have been observed in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we investigated whether personality traits are related to neurocognitive profiles in adults with ADHD. Neuropsychological performance and Five Factor Model (FFM) personality traits were measured in adults with ADHD (n = 133) and healthy controls (n = 132). Three neuropsychological profiles, derived from previous community detection analyses, were investigated for personality trait differences. Irrespective of cognitive profile, participants with ADHD showed significantly higher Neuroticism and lower Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness than healthy controls. Only the FFM personality factor Openness differed significantly between the three profiles. Higher Openness was more common in those with aberrant attention and inhibition than those with increased delay discounting and atypical working memory / verbal fluency. The results suggest that the personality trait Openness, but not any other FFM factor, is linked to neurocognitive profiles in ADHD. ADHD symptoms rather than profiles of cognitive impairment have associations with personality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway.We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures.Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  19. Clustering by neurocognition for fine-mapping of the schizophrenia susceptibility loci on chromosome 6p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Yu-Li; Fann, Cathy Shen-Jang; Hsiao, Po-Chang; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Hung, Shuen-Iu; Chen, Chun-Houh; Wu, Han-Ming; Jou, Yuh-Shan; Liu, Shi K.; Hwang, Tzung J.; Hsieh, Ming H.; Chang, Chien-Ching; Yang, Wei-Chih; Lin, Jin-Jia; Chou, Frank Huang-Chih; Faraone, Stephen V.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Chen, Wei J.

    2009-01-01

    Chromosome 6p is one of the most commonly implicated regions in the genome-wide linkage scans of schizophrenia, whereas further association studies for markers in this region were inconsistent likely due to heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify more homogeneous subgroups of families for fine mapping on regions around markers D6S296 and D6S309 (both in 6p24.3) as well as D6S274 (in 6p22.3) by means of similarity in neurocognitive functioning. A total of 160 families of patients with schizophrenia comprising at least two affected siblings who had data for 8 neurocognitive test variables of the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were subjected to cluster analysis with data visualization using the test scores of both affected siblings. Family clusters derived were then used separately in family-based association tests for 64 single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region of 6p24.3 and 6p22.3. Three clusters were derived from the family-based clustering, with deficit cluster 1 representing deficit on the CPT, deficit cluster 2 representing deficit on both the CPT and the WCST, and a third cluster of non-deficit. After adjustment using false discovery rate for multiple testing, SNP rs13873 and haplotype rs1225934-rs13873 on BMP6-TXNDC5 genes were significantly associated with schizophrenia for the deficit cluster 1 but not for the deficit cluster 2 or non-deficit cluster. Our results provide further evidence that the BMP6-TXNDC5 locus on 6p24.3 may play a role in the selective impairments on sustained attention of schizophrenia. PMID:19694819

  20. Impact of neurocognition on social and role functioning in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión, Ricardo E; Goldberg, Terry E; McLaughlin, Danielle; Auther, Andrea M; Correll, Christoph U; Cornblatt, Barbara A

    2011-08-01

    Cognitive deficits have been well documented in schizophrenia and have been shown to impair quality of life and to compromise everyday functioning. Recent studies of adolescents and young adults at high risk for developing psychosis show that neurocognitive impairments are detectable before the onset of psychotic symptoms. However, it remains unclear how cognitive impairments affect functioning before the onset of psychosis. The authors assessed cognitive impairment in adolescents at clinical high risk for psychosis and examined its impact on social and role functioning. A sample of 127 treatment-seeking patients at clinical high risk for psychosis and a group of 80 healthy comparison subjects were identified and recruited for research in the Recognition and Prevention Program. At baseline, participants were assessed with a comprehensive neurocognitive battery as well as measures of social and role functioning. Relative to healthy comparison subjects, clinical high-risk patients showed significant impairments in the domains of processing speed, verbal memory, executive function, working memory, visuospatial processing, motor speed, sustained attention, and language. Clinical high-risk patients also displayed impaired social and role functioning at baseline. Among patients with attenuated positive symptoms, processing speed was related to social and role functioning at baseline. These findings demonstrate that cognitive and functional impairments are detectable in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis before the onset of psychotic illness and that processing speed appears to be an important cognitive predictor of poor functioning.

  1. Modification of automatic alcohol-approach tendencies in alcohol-dependent patients with mild or major neurocognitive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loijen, A.; Rinck, M.; Walvoort, S.J.W.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Becker, E.S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced

  2. Neurocognitive functions and social functioning in young females with recent-onset anorexia nervosa and recovered individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard; Kjaersdam Telléus, Gry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Young individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) or recovered from AN display impairments of social function. To date, however, it is not clear whether they differ from controls with respect to neurocognitive performance and whether those functions contribute to the compromised social fun...

  3. Changes in asthma control, work productivity, and impairment with omalizumab: 5-year EXCELS study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzali, James L; Raimundo, Karina P; Trzaskoma, Benjamin; Rosén, Karin E; Schatz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Asthma poses a significant disease burden worldwide. Current guidelines emphasize achieving and maintaining asthma control. To describe longitudinal changes of asthma control and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment for patients with moderate-to-severe asthma treated with omalizumab and those who did not receive omalizumab in a real-world setting. This study used 5 years of data from patients ages ≥12 years old with moderate-to-severe persistent allergic asthma who were enrolled in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study. Asthma control was assessed with the Asthma Control Test for 5 years, and asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment was measured with the Work Productivity/Activity Impairment-Asthma questionnaire for the first 2 years. The percentage of patients treated with omalizumab (n = 4930) and with well-controlled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, >20) increased from 45% at baseline to 61% at month 60, and it was 49% (baseline) and 67% (month 60) for the non-omalizumab-treated cohort (n = 2779). For new starters to omalizumab (n = 576), the percentage with well-controlled asthma increased from 25% at baseline to 51% at month 6, and to 60% at month 60. Patients in the omalizumab-treated cohort and those in the non-omalizumab-treated cohort experienced a reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment. The amount of improvement in asthma control achieved and the reduction in asthma-related work, school, and activity impairment were similar, regardless of asthma severity. On average, patients in the Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness and Long-term Safety in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma observational study who initiated omalizumab experienced clinically significant improvement in asthma control, which was observed within 6 months and persisted for 5 years.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): gender- and age-related differences in neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bálint, S; Czobor, P; Komlósi, S; Mészáros, A; Simon, V; Bitter, I

    2009-08-01

    Despite the growing recognition that the clinical symptom characteristics associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood in a high proportion of subjects, little is known about the persistence of neurocognitive deficits in ADHD. The objective was twofold: (1) to conduct a meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies to characterize attentional performance in subjects with adult ADHD by examining differences in ADHD versus normal control subjects; and (2) to investigate whether these differences vary as a function of age and gender. Twenty-five neuropsychological studies comparing subjects with adult ADHD and healthy controls were evaluated. Statistical effect size was determined to characterize the difference between ADHD and control subjects. Meta-regression analysis was applied to investigate whether the difference between ADHD and control subjects varied as a function of age and gender across studies. Tests measuring focused and sustained attention yielded an effect size with medium to large magnitude whereas tests of simple attention resulted in a small to medium effect size in terms of poorer attention functioning of ADHD subjects versus controls. On some of the measures (e.g. Stroop interference), a lower level of attention functioning in the ADHD group versus the controls was associated with male gender. Adult ADHD subjects display significantly poorer functioning versus healthy controls on complex but not on simple tasks of attention, and the degree of impairment varies with gender, with males displaying a higher level of impairment.

  5. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and acade...

  6. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Eliane A; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (psleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (pattention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001), and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06). Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02). In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Drop-out rate. Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036.

  7. Computer-Based Cognitive Training for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results from a Pilot Randomized, Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Yaffe, Kristine; Belfor, Nataliya; Jagust, William J.; DeCarli, Charles; Reed, Bruce R.; Kramer, Joel H.

    2009-01-01

    We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial of intensive, computer-based cognitive training in 47 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The intervention group performed exercises specifically designed to improve auditory processing speed and accuracy for 100 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks; the control group performed more passive computer activities (reading, listening, visuospatial game) for similar amounts of time. Subjects had a mean age of 74 years and 60% were men; 7...

  8. Risk-taking decisions in pathological gamblers is not a result of their impaired inhibition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, Semion; Lidogoster, Helena; Aizer, Anat; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2011-06-30

    This work investigates whether inhibition impairments influence the decision making process in pathological gamblers (PGs). The PG (N=51) subjects performed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT as the measure of the decision making process) and two tests of inhibition: the Stroop (interference inhibition), and the Go/NoGo (response inhibition), and were compared with demographically matched healthy subjects (N=57). Performance in the IGT block 1 and block 2 did not differ between the groups, but the differences between the PGs and healthy controls began to be significant in block 3, block 4 and block 5. PGs learned the IGT task more slowly than the healthy controls and had non-optimal outcomes (more disadvantageous choices). Impaired IGT performance in PGs was not related to an inhibition ability measured by the Stroop (interference response time) and the Go/NoGo (number of commission errors) parameters. Further controlled studies with neuroimaging techniques may help to clarify the particular brain mechanisms underlying the impaired decision making process in PGs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Nonantiretroviral Medications That May Impact Neurocognition: Patterns and Predictors in a Large, Long-Term HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Kendra K; Bacchetti, Peter; Anastos, Kathryn; Merenstein, Daniel; Crystal, Howard; Karim, Roksana; Weber, Kathleen M; Edmonds, Andrew; Sheth, Anandi N; Fischl, Margaret A; Vance, David; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Rubin, Leah H

    2018-06-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a frequent and often disabling comorbidity of HIV infection. In addition to antiretroviral therapies, individuals with HIV infection may commonly use nonantiretroviral medications that are known to cause neurocognitive adverse effects (NC-AE). The contribution of NC-AE to neurocognitive impairment is rarely considered in the context of HIV and could explain part of the variability in neurocognitive performance among individuals with HIV. Women's Interagency HIV Study, a prospective, multisite, observational study of US women with and without HIV. After a literature review, 79 medications (excluding statins) with NC-AE were identified and reported by Women's Interagency HIV Study participants. We examined factors associated with self-reported use of these medications over a 10-year period. Generalized estimating equations for binary outcomes were used to assess sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics associated with NC-AE medication use. Three thousand three hundred women (71% with HIV) and data from ∼42,000 visits were studied. HIV infection was associated with NC-AE medication use (odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.35 to 1.71). After adjustment for HIV infection status, other predictors of NC-AE medication use included having health insurance, elevated depressive symptoms, prior clinical AIDS, noninjection recreational drug use, and an annual household income of <$12,000 (Ps < 0.004). NC-AE medication use was less likely among women who drank 1-7 or 8-12 alcoholic drinks/week (vs. abstaining) (P < 0.04). HIV infection was associated with NC-AE medication use, which may influence determinations of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment. Providers should consider the impact of NC-AE medications when evaluating patients with HIV and concurrent neurocognitive symptoms.

  10. Do neurocognitive deficits in decision making differentiate conduct disorder subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Kimonis, Eva R; Hadjicharalambous, Maria-Zoe; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether neurocognitive deficits involved in decision making underlie subtypes of conduct-disorder (CD) differentiated on the basis of callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Eighty-five participants (M age = 10.94 years) were selected from a sample of 1200 children based on repeated assessment of CD and CU traits. Participants completed a multi-method battery of well-validated measures of risky decision making and associated constructs of selective attention and future orientation (Stroop, Stoplight, and Delay-Discounting Tasks). Findings indicated that impaired decision making, selective attention, and future orientation contribute to the antisocial presentations displayed by children with CD, irrespective of level of CU traits. Youth high on CU traits without CD showed less risky decision making, as indicated by their performance on the Stoplight laboratory task, than those high on both CD and CU traits, suggesting a potential protective factor against the development of antisocial behavior.

  11. Virtual Reality Stroop Task for neurocognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G; Arizmendi, Brian; Dawson, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Given the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and the fact that many mild TBIs have no external marker of injury, there is a pressing need for innovative assessment technology. The demand for assessment that goes beyond traditional paper-and-pencil testing has resulted in the use of automated cognitive testing for increased precision and efficiency; and the use of virtual environment technology for enhanced ecological validity and increased function-based assessment. To address these issues, a Virtual Reality Stroop Task (VRST) that involves the subject being immersed in a virtual Humvee as Stroop stimuli appear on the windshield was developed. This study is an initial validation of the VRST as an assessment of neurocognitive functioning. When compared to the paper-and-pencil, as well as Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics versions of the Stroop, the VRST appears to have enhanced capacity for providing an indication of a participant's reaction time and ability to inhibit a prepotent response while immersed in a military relevant simulation that presents psychophysiologically arousing high and low threat stimuli.

  12. Iron deficiency in infancy and neurocognitive functioning at 19 years: evidence of long-term deficits in executive function and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Koss, Marlene; Burden, Matthew J; Jonides, John; Nelson, Charles A; Kaciroti, Niko; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2010-04-01

    Iron deficiency in infancy negatively impacts a variety of neurodevelopmental processes at the time of nutrient insufficiency, with persistent central nervous system alterations and deficits in behavioral functioning, despite iron therapy. In rodent models, early iron deficiency impairs the hippocampus and the dopamine system. We examined the possibility that young adults who had experienced chronic, severe, iron deficiency as infants would exhibit deficits on neurocognitive tests with documented frontostriatal (Trail Making Test, Intra-/Extra-dimensional Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing) and hippocampal specificity (Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory). Participants with chronic, severe iron deficiency in infancy performed less well on frontostriatal-mediated executive functions, including inhibitory control, set-shifting, and planning. Participants also exhibited impairment on a hippocampus-based recognition memory task. We suggest that these deficits may result from the long-term effects of early iron deficiency on the dopamine system, the hippocampus, and their interaction.

  13. Neurocognitive Correlates in Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Pellegrini, Manuela; Klein, Julia; di Luca, Natale M

    2017-01-01

    Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive compound in cannabis and is frequently identified in blood samples from apprehended drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs. Changing social norms towards cannabis and higher acceptability towards the drug emphasize the need for in-depth understanding of the acute neurocognitive and psychomotor effects caused by cannabis and how these effects are correlated to driving skills and performance. In this review, PubMed, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases were used to identify and select publications up to January 2017 dealing with acute and chronic neurocognitive effects induced by cannabis and ability to drive. Thirty-six publications were selected for this review. The studies conducted were experimental, using simulators or on-road studies and brain imaging (structural and functional) to better understand the acute and chronic effects on cognitive functions comprised in the short and long-term fitness to drive after cannabis consumption. In a case-crossover self-report study a significant odds ratio increase was found for driving- related injury after combined exposure to cannabis and alcohol compared to cannabis alone (OR of 10.9 and 5.8 respectively). Both, experimental and epidemiological studies have revealed that THC affects negatively both, psychomotor skills and cognitive functions. Studies of the acute effects of cannabis on driving have shown that drivers under the influence of this substance are impaired. Indeed, driving under the influence of cannabis doubles or triples the risk of a crash. Specifically, cannabis use impairs critical-tracking tasks, increases lane weaving, decreases reaction time, and divided attention. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. The neurocognition of conduct disorder behaviors: specificity to physical aggression and theft after controlling for ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Tremblay, Richard E; van Lier, Pol A C; Vitaro, Frank; Nagin, Daniel S; Assaad, Jean-Marc; Séguin, Jean R

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that among the different conduct disorder (CD) behaviors, physical aggression, but not theft, links to low neurocognitive abilities. Specifically, physical aggression has consistently been found to be negatively related to neurocognitive abilities, whereas theft has been shown to be either positively or not related to neurocognition. The specificity of these links needs further examination because attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) links to both physical aggression and neurocognitive variation. The development of self-reported physical aggression and theft, from age 11 to 17 years, was studied in a prospective at-risk male cohort via a dual process latent growth curve model. Seven neurocognitive tests at age 20 were regressed on the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft. The links between neurocognition and the growth parameters of physical aggression and theft were adjusted for ADHD symptoms at ages 11 and 15 (parent, child and teacher reports). Results indicated that verbal abilities were negatively related to physical aggression while they were positively associated with theft. However, inductive reasoning was negatively associated with increases in theft across adolescence. Symptoms of ADHD accounted for part of the neurocognitive test links with physical aggression but did not account for the associations with theft. These differences emphasize the importance of examining specific CD behaviors to better understand their neurodevelopmental mechanisms. They also suggest that youth who engage in different levels of physical aggression or theft behaviors may require different preventive and corrective interventions. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Neurocognition, insight and medication nonadherence in schizophrenia: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationships among neurocognition, insight and nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. DATA COLLECTION: Neurocognition was assessed using a global approach that addressed memory, attention, and executive functions; insight was analyzed using the multidimensional 'Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder;' and nonadherence was measured using the multidimensional 'Medication Adherence Rating Scale.' ANALYSIS: Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to examine the non-straightforward relationships among the following latent variables: neurocognition, 'awareness of positive symptoms' and 'negative symptoms', 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ(2 = 1.67, RMSEA = 0.063, CFI = 0.94, and SRMR = 0.092. The SEM revealed significant associations between (1 neurocognition and 'awareness of symptoms,' (2 'awareness of symptoms' and 'awareness of mental disorder' and (3 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence, mainly in the 'attitude toward taking medication' dimension. In contrast, there were no significant links between neurocognition and nonadherence, neurocognition and 'awareness of mental disorder,' and 'awareness of symptoms' and nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that neurocognition influences 'awareness of symptoms,' which must be integrated into a higher level of insight (i.e., the 'awareness of mental disorder' to have an impact on nonadherence. These findings have important implications for the development of effective strategies to enhance medication adherence.

  16. Effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Georgina; Ahmed-Leitao, Fatima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Cherner, Mariana; Seedat, Soraya

    2016-04-01

    A wide spectrum of neurocognitive deficits characterises HIV infection in adults. HIV infection is additionally associated with morphological brain abnormalities affecting neural substrates that subserve neurocognitive function. Early life stress (ELS) also has a direct influence on brain morphology. However, the combined impact of ELS and HIV on brain structure and neurocognitive function has not been examined in an all-female sample with advanced HIV disease. The present study examined the effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function. Structural data were acquired using a 3T Magnetom MRI scanner, and a battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to 124 women: HIV-positive with ELS (n = 32), HIV-positive without ELS (n = 30), HIV-negative with ELS (n = 31) and HIV-negative without ELS (n = 31). Results revealed significant group volumetric differences for right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral hippocampi, corpus callosum, left and right caudate and left and right putamen. Mean regional volumes were lowest in HIV-positive women with ELS compared to all other groups. Although causality cannot be inferred, findings also suggest that alterations in the left frontal lobe, right ACC, left hippocampus, corpus callosum, left and right amygdala and left caudate may be associated with poorer neurocognitive performance in the domains of processing speed, attention/working memory, abstraction/executive functions, motor skills, learning and language/fluency with these effects more pronounced in women living with both HIV and childhood trauma. This study highlights the potential contributory role of childhood trauma to brain alterations and neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  17. Renal impairment and moderate alcohol consumption in the elderly. Results from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, Alessandra; Scafato, Emanuele; Baggio, Bruno; Sergi, Giuseppe; Maggi, Stefania; Rausa, Giuseppe; Basile, Angela; Manzato, Enzo; Ghirini, Silvia; Perissinotto, Egle

    2011-11-01

    The influence of moderate alcohol consumption on renal function is not clear in elderly people. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and renal function, expressed as serum creatinine levels and glomerular filtration rates (GFR), in an elderly population. Perspective cohort study. Population-based study on an elderly Italian population. A sample of 3404 Italian people (1619 women and 1785 men), aged 65-84 years, from the Italian Longitudinal Study on Aging (ILSA). Prevalence and cumulative risk of impaired renal function (defined as GFR ≤ 60 ml/min) were estimated by sex and alcohol consumption groups. Logistic regression analysis adjusting for confounders (age, education, smoking, BMI and medications) and intermediate factors (blood cholesterol and fibrinogen, systolic hypertension and diabetes) showed that alcohol consumption level was not significantly related to the prevalence of mild renal impairment in elderly women. In men, both prevalence and incidence results seemed to suggest an inverse linear relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of mild renal impairment. A U-shaped association was shown for women at the incidence phase, suggesting a higher risk of developing renal impairment for women who drink more than 24 g alcohol/d. Our results suggest that, in accordance with the recommendations on alcohol consumption in the elderly, moderate quantities of alcohol are not injurious to renal function in elderly men.

  18. Neurocognitive function in clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder: Comparisons with schizophrenia patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the levels of the five domains of neurocognitive function—executive function, attention, memory, verbal comprehension, and perceptual organization—among clinically stable individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder, individuals with long-term schizophrenia, and a group of controls. We recruited a total of 93 clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder, 94 individuals with schizophrenia, and 106 controls in this study. Their neurocognitive function was measured using a series of neurocognitive function tests: the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—Third Edition (WAIS-III, Line Cancellation Test, Visual Form Discrimination, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Continuous Performance Task, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition. Neurocognitive function was compared among the three groups through a multivariate analysis of variance. The results indicated that when the effect of age was controlled, clinically stable individuals with bipolar I disorder and those with schizophrenia demonstrated poor neurocognitive function on all tests except for the WAIS-III Similarity and Information and the Line Cancellation Test. The individuals with bipolar I disorder had similar levels of neurocognitive function compared with the schizophrenia group, but higher levels of neurocognitive function on the WAIS-III Comprehension, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and Wechsler Memory Scale—Third Edition Auditory Immediate and Delayed Index and Visual Immediate and Delayed Index. The conclusions of this study suggest that compared with controls, individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have poorer neurocognitive function, even when clinically stable. Individuals with long-term bipolar I disorder and those with long-term schizophrenia have similar levels of deficits in several domains of neurocognitive function.

  19. Is Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease a Result of Multiple Gait Impairments? Implications for Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnik, Meir; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Several gait impairments have been associated with freezing of gait (FOG) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These include deteriorations in rhythm control, gait symmetry, bilateral coordination of gait, dynamic postural control and step scaling. We suggest that these seemingly independent gait features may have mutual interactions which, during certain circumstances, jointly drive the predisposed locomotion system into a FOG episode. This new theoretical framework is illustrated by the evaluation of the potential relationships between the so-called “sequence effect”, that is, impairments in step scaling, and gait asymmetry just prior to FOG. We further discuss what factors influence gait control to maintain functional gait. “Triggers”, for example, such as attention shifts or trajectory transitions, may precede FOG. We propose distinct categories of interventions and describe examples of existing work that support this idea: (a) interventions which aim to maintain a good level of locomotion control especially with respect to aspects related to FOG; (b) those that aim at avoiding FOG “triggers”; and (c) those that merely aim to escape from FOG once it occurs. The proposed theoretical framework sets the stage for testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms that lead to FOG and may also lead to new treatment ideas. PMID:22288021

  20. A population-based study of cognitive impairment in socially vulnerable adults in Argentina. The Matanza Riachuelo study preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoloni, Leonardo; Blatt, Graciela; Insua, Iván; Furman, Mariano; González, María Agustina; Hermann, Bárbara; Kesselman, Mariana; Massautis, Alicia; Reinado, Alejandra; Senas, Patricia; Yavitz, Claudia; Lejarraga, Horacio; Nunes, Fernando; Arizaga, Raúl Luciano; Allegri, Ricardo F

    2014-01-01

    Population aging has taken place intensively worldwide, even in developing countries. These countries have population groups with low resources and basic unmet needs that are frequently omitted from epidemiological studies. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment (CI) and dementia in an economic and socially vulnerable population from Argentina. Methods A door-to-door observational population-based survey among adults over 60 years of cognitive impairment and dementia in the social vulnerable area of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, in the suburban area of Buenos Aires, Argentina was conducted. Trained psychologists interviewed subjects and a proxy informant. A standardized protocol including a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale and a functional inventory for IADL and ADL was administered. Diagnoses were divided into three general categories: normal cognitive function, cognitive impairment-no dementia (CIND) and dementia. Results and Conclusions A total of 2437 elderly persons were assessed, of which 73.6% fulfilled inclusion criteria. The prevalence of CI among those over 60 was 26.4% (18.1% CIND and 8.3% dementia) with higher prevalence of dementia in younger individuals than rates reported in developed counties, probably due to low control of vascular risk factors. This information can help inform health public decisions in the generation of programs and plans for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment in this type of socially vulnerable population. PMID:29213923

  1. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia – a perspective based on differences between the genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabuba N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Norma Kabuba,1,2 J Anitha Menon,1 Donald R Franklin Jr,3 Robert K Heaton,3 Knut A Hestad2,4,5 1Department of Psychology, The University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI. However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+ adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]. Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV- controls. The norms corrected for effects of age, education, and gender in the general population, and the test battery measures domains of attention/working memory (learning and delayed recall, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. An overall comparison of the HIV+ male and female participants yielded no statistically significant differences. Analysis of covariance results controlling for disease characteristics showed that HIV+ female participants had worse delayed recall scores than males, F(1,117 =9.70, P=0.002, partial ƞ2=0.077. The females also evidenced a trend toward greater impairment on learning efficiency (P=0.015. The findings suggest that there are gender-related differences in NCI after controlling for disease characteristics. It was observed that although the HIV

  2. Visual Impairment Is Associated With Depressive Symptoms-Results From the Nationwide German DEGS1 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alexander K; Tesarz, Jonas; Rezapour, Jasmin; Beutel, Manfred E; Bertram, Bernd; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment (VI) is associated with a variety of comorbidities including physical and mental health in industrial countries. Our aim is to examine associations between self-reported impairment and depressive symptoms in the German population. The point prevalence of self-reported VI in Germany was computed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for adults from 2008 to 2011 ( N  = 7.783, 50.5% female, age range 18-79 years). VI was surveyed by two questions, one for seeing faces at a distance of 4 m and one for reading newspapers. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 questionnaire and 2-week prevalence was computed with weighted data. Depressive symptoms were defined by a value of ≥10. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze an association between self-reported VI and depressive symptoms. Multivariable analysis including adjustment for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and chronic diseases were carried out with weighted data. The 2-week prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.8% (95% CI: 16.6-25.7%) for some difficulties in distance vision and 14.4% (95% CI: 7.5-25.9%) for severe difficulties in distance vision, while 17.0% (95% CI: 13.3-21.4%), respectively, 16.7% (95% CI: 10.7-25.1%) for near vision. Analysis revealed that depressive symptoms were associated with self-reported VI for reading, respectively, with low VI for distance vision. Multivariable regression analysis including potential confounders confirmed these findings. Depressive symptoms are a frequent finding in subjects with difficulties in distance and near vision with a prevalence of up to 24%. Depressive comorbidity should therefore be evaluated in subjects reporting VI.

  3. Implications of Combined Exposure to Household Air Pollution and HIV on Neurocognition in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan K. Suter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposure and HIV infection can each cause neurocognitive insult in children. The purpose of this study was to test whether children with combined high air pollution exposure and perinatal HIV infection have even greater risk of neurocognitive impairment. This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-uninfected unexposed (HUU and HIV-infected children and their caregivers in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a detailed neuropsychological battery to evaluate neurocognitive functioning in several domains. We measured caregiver 24-h personal CO exposure as a proxy for child CO exposure and child urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP, a biomarker for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Median 24-h caregiver CO exposure was 6.1 and 3.7 ppm for 45 HIV-infected (mean age 6.6 years and 49 HUU (mean age 6.7 years, respectively; 48.5% of HIV-infected and 38.6% of HUU had caregiver 24-h CO levels exceeding the WHO recommended level. Median 1-OHP exposure was 0.6 and 0.7 µmol/mol creatinine among HIV-infected and HUU children, respectively. HIV-infected children with high urinary 1-OHP (exceeding 0.68 µmol/mol creatinine had significantly lower global cognition (p = 0.04, delayed memory (p = 0.01, and attention scores (p = 0.003. Among HUU children, urinary 1-OHP and caregiver 24-h caregiver CO were not significantly associated with neurocognitive function. Our findings suggest that combined chronic exposure to air pollutants and perinatal HIV infection may be associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes. High prevalence of air pollution exposure highlights the need to reduce these exposures.

  4. Neurocognitive profile of a young adolescent with DK phocomelia/von Voss phocomelia/von Voss Cherstvoy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Van Horn Kerne, Valerie; Axelrad, Marni E; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Schwartz, David D

    2015-07-01

    DK phocomelia/von Voss Cherstvoy syndrome is a rare condition characterized by upper limb and urogenital abnormalities and various brain anomalies. Previously reported cases have noted significant developmental delays, although no formal testing of cognitive abilities has been reported. In this paper we describe results from a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation of a 12-year-old male with DK phocomelia syndrome. Test findings indicated mild impairment in intellectual functioning, with more significant impairment in adaptive skills and academic achievement. The neuropsychological profile converged with neurological findings, showing a distinct pattern of strengths and weaknesses that suggests functional compromise of posterior brain regions with relatively well-preserved functioning of more anterior regions. Specifically, impairments were evident in perceptual reasoning, visual perception, and visuomotor integration, whereas normal or near normal functioning was evident in memory, receptive language, social cognition, attention, and most aspects of executive functioning. To our knowledge this is the first report to describe the neurocognitive profile of an individual with DK phocomelia syndrome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2012-12-01

    Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

  7. Neurocognitive, mental health, and glucose disorders in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Faghih, Mahya; Mirabdollahi, Mansuoreh; Kiani, Mahdi; Fathi, Arezoo; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    About 25 million agricultural workers in the developing world suffer from at least one episode of poisoning each year, mainly by anticholinesterase-like organophosphates (OPs). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to establish the OP toxicity in 187 occupationally exposed farmers in terms of neurocognitive impairment, mental health status, clinical symptoms, diabetes, and haematological factors. The exposed group was compared to 187 healthy age-, sex-, and education-matching controls. Neurocognitive impairment was measured using the Subjective Neurocognition Inventory (SNI) and mental health status using the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). The subjects were also tested for fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CL), triglycerides (TG), creatinine, oral glucose tolerance test (GTT), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The exposed farmers showed higher FBG (peczema, saliva secretion, fatigue, headache, sweating, abdominal pain, nausea, superior distal muscle weakness, inferior distal muscle weakness, inferior proximal muscle weakness, breath muscle weakness, hand tingling, foot tingling, epiphoria, polyuria, miosis, dyspnoea, bradycardia, and rhinorrhoea, which all significantly correlated with the number of working years. These findings indicate that farmers who work with OPs are prone to neuropsychological disorders and diabetes.

  8. Grammar-Lexicon Distinction in a Neurocognitive Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishkhanyan, Byurakn

    hypotheses and testing them through using various methods. The grammar-lexicon distinction and working memory are thus central topics of this thesis. The results suggest a potential for a successful integration of the two theories. The findings further provide evidence for Boye & Harder’s (2012......) understanding of the grammar-lexicon distinction, and for the involvement of working memory in language production, as the REF-model would predict. As a starting point for integrating the two theories, the present thesis gives directions for future research on the neurocognitive underpinning of language and its...... relation to working memory....

  9. Longitudinal Relationships between Neurocognition, Theory of Mind, and Community Functioning in Outpatients with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Elizabeth A.; Liu, Nancy H.; Tarasenko, Melissa; Davidson, Charlie A.; Spaulding, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between neurocognition, theory of mind, and community functioning in a sample of 43 outpatients with serious mental illness (SMI). Relationships between baseline values and changes over time were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Results showed that: 1. Neurocognition and theory of mind were each associated with community functioning at baseline. 2. Community functioning improved over approximately 12 months of treatment. 3. Greater imp...

  10. Habitat disturbance results in chronic stress and impaired health status in forest-dwelling paleotropical bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltmann, Anne; Czirják, Gábor Á; Courtiol, Alexandre; Bernard, Henry; Struebig, Matthew J; Voigt, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat disturbance is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. Yet, before population declines are detectable, individuals may suffer from chronic stress and impaired immunity in disturbed habitats, making them more susceptible to pathogens and adverse weather conditions. Here, we tested in a paleotropical forest with ongoing logging and fragmentation, whether habitat disturbance influences the body mass and immunity of bats. We measured and compared body mass, chronic stress (indicated by neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios) and the number of circulating immune cells between several bat species with different roost types living in recovering areas, actively logged forests, and fragmented forests in Sabah, Malaysia. In a cave-roosting species, chronic stress levels were higher in individuals from fragmented habitats compared with conspecifics from actively logged areas. Foliage-roosting species showed a reduced body mass and decrease in total white blood cell counts in actively logged areas and fragmented forests compared with conspecifics living in recovering habitats. Our study highlights that habitat disturbance may have species-specific effects on chronic stress and immunity in bats that are potentially related to the roost type. We identified foliage-roosting species as particularly sensitive to forest habitat deterioration. These species may face a heightened extinction risk in the near future if anthropogenic habitat alterations continue.

  11. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Saloua; Hällström, Tore; Brismar, Kerstin; Hellström, Per M; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2015-11-27

    Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child's early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head circumference and early neurocognitive development of the offspring. In a longitudinal cohort study, pregnant nulliparous non-smoking women with a history of anorexia nervosa (n = 20), bulimia nervosa (n = 17) and controls (n = 59) were followed during pregnancy and their children's growth and neurocognitive development were followed up to five years of age. We investigated maternal serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress (ferritin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 1) in blood samples collected during early pregnancy and compared between groups (ANOVA, LSD post-hoc test). The results were related to previous data on head circumference at birth and neurocognitive development at five years of age of the offspring (Spearman rank correlation or Pearson correlation test). Serum levels of ferritin in the women with previous anorexia nervosa, but not in those with a history of bulimia nervosa, were significantly lower than in the controls (p children (rs = -0.70, p children in the bulimia nervosa group (r = 0.48, p anorexia nervosa group (r = 0.42, p = 0.07), but not in the controls (r = 0.006). There were no significant differences in cortisol or the other biomarkers between groups. Low maternal serum ferritin in women with previous anorexia nervosa may be of importance for impaired memory capacity in the offspring at five years of age. Our results also indicate that thyroxin levels in pregnant women with previous eating disorders are positively associated with fetal head growth.

  12. [Neurocognitive disorders in DSM-5: pervasive changes in the diagnostics of dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, W; Barnikol, U B

    2014-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) proposes an innovative chapter on neurocognitive disorders (NCD) as a substitute for the dementia, delirium and amnestic disorders chapter in DSM-IV. This NCD chapter promotes a most innovative change compared to DSM-IV. While the term delirium is preserved, the commonly used term dementia does not occur as a diagnostic entity. Neurocognitive disorders are more inclusive than dementias; they also cover early prodromal stages of dementias below the DSM-IV threshold. The diagnosis of NCDs requires essentially neuropsychological testing preferentially with standardized instruments. Special focus is given to etiological subtyping taking former diagnostic consensus processes by expert groups into consideration. The subsequent more extensive concept of NCD also allows the diagnosis of etiological-specific prodromal states of cognitive impairments. The changes from DSM-IV to DSM-5 are critically discussed.

  13. Longterm neurocognitive sequellae of a prospectively followed cohort of low grade tumor patients treated by conformal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, C.; Ruffer, J.; Hopwood, C.; Montenegro, L.; Mollman, J.; Judy, K.; Alavi, J.; Corn, B.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Although many advances have been made in the use of therapeutic irradiation to treat patients with brain tumors, the neurocognitive effects of conformal radiation therapy (CRT) are poorly known and controversial. Retrospective studies of radiotherapy in children and adults have revealed both leukoencephalopathy and cognitive impairments in follow-up of months to 20 years after treatment. Most prospective studies have examined neurocognitive effects at one year post CRT, and our previous findings (1993,1995) suggest that this endpoint misses the first two phases of the delayed effects of CRT. We also propose that the effects of CRT can be characterized in terms of dissociated curvilinear slopes of neurocognitive impairments, which allow specific hypotheses about the multiple phases of the delayed effects. Materials/Methods: We have examined our neurocognitive model of radiotherapy effects in our current group of 20 patients who have supratentorial, low grade, primary brain tumors. Total CRT doses ranged between 46 to 63 Gy (med. dose of 54 Gy, with fractionations of 1.8-2.0 Gy). Healthy control subjects were matched to patients with respect to age and education. Patients were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline (6 weeks post resection/biopsy, immediately prior to CRT), at three month intervals for one year, and yearly; current analyses reflect three years post baseline. To test the hypothesis that long-term memory is generally impaired versus selective impairment of verbal/semantic memory processes, we used parallel tests of verbal/semantic and visual/perceptual long-term memory which require association to encode and retrieve the stimuli. The visual long-term memory test was available on 10 patients. Results: A specific treatment-dependent deficit in long-term memory retrieval of word lists was found in 18 of 20 patients at six weeks post completion of CRT, though it was a temporary impairment which rebounded by one

  14. Insight, Neurocognition, and Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanos, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of insight in schizophrenia is a key feature of the illness and is associated with both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Previous research supports that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to lack of insight, but studies have not examined how neurocognition relates to change in insight over time. Therefore, the current study sought to understand how performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) differed between participants with varying degrees of change in insight over a 6-month period. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the WCST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, and the PANSS was again administered at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that while neurocognition was related to insight at baseline, it was not related to subsequent change in insight. The implications of findings for conceptualization and assessment of insight are discussed. PMID:24303216

  15. Episodic memory impairment in Addison's disease: results from a telephonic cognitive assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Michelle; Thomas, Kevin G F; Ross, Ian L

    2014-06-01

    Patients with Addison's disease frequently self-report memory and attention difficulties, even when on standard replacement therapy. However, few published studies examine, using objective measures and assessing across multiple domains, the cognitive functioning of Addison's disease patients relative to healthy controls. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the previously reported subjective cognitive deficits in Addison's disease are confirmed by objective measures. Conducting comprehensive neuropsychological assessments of patients with relatively rare clinical disorders, such as Addison's disease, is challenging because access to those patients is often limited, and because their medical condition might prevent extended testing sessions. Brief telephonic cognitive assessments are a useful tool in such circumstances. Hence, we administered the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone to 27 Addison's disease patients and 27 matched healthy controls. The instrument provides objective assessment of episodic memory, working memory, executive functioning, reasoning, and speed of processing. Statistical analyses confirmed that, as expected, patients performed significantly more poorly than controls on the episodic memory subtest. There were, however, no significant between-group differences on the attention, executive functioning, reasoning, and speed of processing subtests. Furthermore, patients with a longer duration of illness performed more poorly across all domains of cognition. We conclude that, for Addison's disease patients, previously reported subjective cognitive deficits are matched by objective impairment, but only in the domain of episodic memory. Future research might investigate (a) whether these memory deficits are material-specific (i.e., whether non-verbal memory is also affected), and (b) the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these deficits.

  16. Association between Advanced Glycation End Products and Impaired Fasting Glucose: Results from the SALIA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Teichert

    Full Text Available Advanced glycation end products (AGEs may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and related complications, whereas their role in the early deterioration of glycaemia is unknown. While previous studies used antibody-based methods to quantify AGEs, data from tandem mass spectrometry coupled liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS-based measurements are limited to patients with known diabetes. Here, we used the LC-MS/MS method to test the hypothesis that plasma AGE levels are higher in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG than in those with normal fasting glucose (NFG. Secondary aims were to assess correlations of plasma AGEs with quantitative markers of glucose metabolism and biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. This study included on 60 women with NFG or IFG (n = 30 each, mean age 74 years from the German SALIA cohort. Plasma levels of free metabolites (3-deoxyfructose, 3-deoxypentosone, 3-deoxypentulose, two hydroimidazolones, oxidised adducts (carboxymethyllysine, carboxyethyllysine, methionine sulfoxide and Nε-fructosyllysine were measured using LC-MS/MS. Plasma concentrations of all tested AGEs did not differ between the NFG and IFG groups (all p>0.05. Associations between plasma levels of AGEs and fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR as a measure of insulin resistance were weak (r between -0.2 and 0.2, all p>0.05. The association between 3-deoxyglucosone-derived hydroimidazolone with several proinflammatory biomarkers disappeared upon adjustment for multiple testing. In conclusion, plasma AGEs assessed by LC-MS/MS were neither increased in IFG nor associated with parameters of glucose metabolism and subclinical inflammation in our study. Thus, these data argue against strong effects of AGEs in the early stages of deterioration of glucose metabolism.

  17. Vitamin B12 deficiency results in severe oxidative stress, leading to memory retention impairment in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Misaki, Taihei; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2017-04-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in various human diseases and conditions, such as a neurodegeneration, which is the major symptom of vitamin B 12 deficiency, although the underlying disease mechanisms associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency are poorly understood. Vitamin B 12 deficiency was found to significantly increase cellular H 2 O 2 and NO content in Caenorhabditis elegans and significantly decrease low molecular antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbic acid] levels and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities, indicating that vitamin B 12 deficiency induces severe oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage of various cellular components in worms. An NaCl chemotaxis associative learning assay indicated that vitamin B 12 deficiency did not affect learning ability but impaired memory retention ability, which decreased to approximately 58% of the control value. When worms were treated with 1mmol/L GSH, L-ascorbic acid, or vitamin E for three generations during vitamin B 12 deficiency, cellular malondialdehyde content as an index of oxidative stress decreased to the control level, but the impairment of memory retention ability was not completely reversed (up to approximately 50%). These results suggest that memory retention impairment formed during vitamin B 12 deficiency is partially attributable to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PPARγ agonists improve survival and neurocognitive outcomes in experimental cerebral malaria and induce neuroprotective pathways in human malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Serghides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria (CM is associated with a high mortality rate, and long-term neurocognitive impairment in approximately one third of survivors. Adjunctive therapies that modify the pathophysiological processes involved in CM may improve outcome over anti-malarial therapy alone. PPARγ agonists have been reported to have immunomodulatory effects in a variety of disease models. Here we report that adjunctive therapy with PPARγ agonists improved survival and long-term neurocognitive outcomes in the Plasmodium berghei ANKA experimental model of CM. Compared to anti-malarial therapy alone, PPARγ adjunctive therapy administered to mice at the onset of CM signs, was associated with reduced endothelial activation, and enhanced expression of the anti-oxidant enzymes SOD-1 and catalase and the neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and nerve growth factor (NGF in the brains of infected mice. Two months following infection, mice that were treated with anti-malarials alone demonstrated cognitive dysfunction, while mice that received PPARγ adjunctive therapy were completely protected from neurocognitive impairment and from PbA-infection induced brain atrophy. In humans with P. falciparum malaria, PPARγ therapy was associated with reduced endothelial activation and with induction of neuroprotective pathways, such as BDNF. These findings provide insight into mechanisms conferring improved survival and preventing neurocognitive injury in CM, and support the evaluation of PPARγ agonists in human CM.

  19. HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in Malawian adults and effect on adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Kelly

    Full Text Available Little is known about the prevalence and burden of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HAND in adult Malawians on cART and investigated the relationship between HAND and adherence to cART.HIV positive adults in Blantyre, Malawi underwent a full medical history, neurocognitive test battery, depression score, Karnofsky Performance Score and adherence assessment. The Frascati criteria were used to diagnose HAND and the Global Deficit Score (GDS was also assessed. Blood was drawn for CD4 count and plasma nevirapine and efavirenz concentrations. HIV negative adults were recruited from the HIV testing clinic to provide normative scores for the neurocognitive battery.One hundred and six HIV positive patients, with median (range age 39 (18-71 years, 73% female and median (range CD4 count 323.5 (68-1039 cells/µl were studied. Symptomatic neurocognitive impairment was present in 15% (12% mild neurocognitive disorder [MND], 3% HIV associated dementia [HAD]. A further 55% fulfilled Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI; however factors other than neurocognitive impairment could have confounded this estimate. Neither the symptomatic (MND and HAD nor asymptomatic (ANI forms of HAND were associated with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz concentrations, adjusted odds ratio 1.44 (CI. 0.234, 8.798; p = 0.696 and aOR 0.577 (CI. 0.09, 3.605; p = 0.556 respectively. All patients with subtherapeutic nevirapine/efavirenz levels had a GDS of less than 0.6, consistent with normal neurocognition.Fifteen percent of adult Malawians on cART had a diagnosis of MND or HAD. Subtherapeutic drug concentrations were found exclusively in patients with normal neurocognitive function suggesting HAND did not affect cART adherence. Further study of HAND requires more robust locally derived normative neurocognitive values and

  20. Loss of renal SNX5 results in impaired IDE activity and insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmin; Yang, Jian; Villar, Van Anthony M; Asico, Laureano D; Ma, Xiaobo; Armando, Ines; Sanada, Hironobu; Yoneda, Minoru; Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-01

    We hypothesised that renal sorting nexin 5 (SNX5) regulates the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) and, thus, circulating insulin levels. We therefore studied the dynamic interaction between SNX5 and IDE in human renal proximal tubule cells (hRPTCs), as well as in rat and mouse kidneys. The regulation of IDE by SNX5 expressed in the kidney was studied in vitro and in vivo. Snx5 or mock siRNA was added to immortalised hRPTCs (passage <20) in culture or selectively infused, via osmotic mini-pump, into the remnant kidney of uninephrectomised mice and rats. SNX5 co-localised with IDE at the plasma membrane and perinuclear area of hRPTCs and in the brush border membrane of proximal tubules of human, rat, and mouse kidneys. Insulin increased the co-localisation and co-immunoprecipitation of SNX5 and IDE in hRPTCs. Silencing SNX5 in hRPTCs decreased IDE expression and activity. Renal-selective silencing of Snx5 (SNX5 protein: 100 ± 25 vs 29 ± 10, p < 0.05 [% of control]) in C57Bl/6J mice decreased IDE protein (100 ± 13 vs 57 ± 6, p < 0.05 [% of control]) and urinary insulin excretion, impaired the responses to insulin and glucose, and increased blood insulin and glucose levels. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) had increased blood insulin and glucose levels and decreased renal SNX5 (100 ± 27 vs 29 ± 6, p < 0.05 [% of control]) and IDE (100 ± 5 vs 75 ± 4, p < 0.05 [% of control]) proteins, compared with normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Kidney Snx5-depleted WKY rats also had increased blood insulin and glucose levels. The expression of SNX5 and IDE was decreased in RPTCs from SHRs and hypertensive humans compared with cells from normotensive volunteers, indicating a common cause for hyperinsulinaemia and hypertension. Renal SNX5 positively regulates IDE expression and function. This study is the first to demonstrate the novel and crucial role of renal SNX5 in insulin and glucose metabolism.

  1. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 ImPACT scores and report more symptoms. Because SRC management and RTP

  2. Neurocognitive consequences of cigarette smoking in young adults--a comparison with pre-drug performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined effects of current and past regular cigarette smoking in young adult subjects. One hundred and twelve 17-21-year-old subjects, assessed since infancy, were evaluated using a battery of neurocognitive tests for which commensurate measures were obtained at 9-12 years of age, prior to the initiation of regular smoking. Smokers, determined by urinalysis and self-report, were categorized as heavy (>9 cigarettes per day) and light (non-smokers in a variety of cognitive areas predicated upon verbal/auditory competence including receptive and expressive vocabulary, oral arithmetic, and auditory memory. This impact of current smoking appears to behave in a dose-response and duration-related fashion. In contrast, former smokers differed from the non-smokers only in the arithmetic task. These results suggest that regular smoking during early adulthood is associated with cognitive impairments in selected domains and that these deficits may be reversed upon cessation. Together, the findings add to the body of evidence to be used in persuading adolescents and young adults against the initiation of smoking and, if currently smoking, the advantages of stopping.

  3. Neurocognitive similarities between severe chronic schizophrenia and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hui-Minn; Stolwyk, Rene; Neath, Joanna; Kelso, Wendy; Walterfang, Mark; Mocellin, Ramon; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2015-02-28

    This study focuses on a group of patients with chronic schizophrenia who have a more severe form of the disorder, as indicated by socio-functional decline, treatment resistance, and recurrent hospitalisation. Previous research has suggested that the pattern and severity of cognitive deficits in people with severe chronic schizophrenia is similar to that observed in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). In the current study, we compared neurocognitive performance in 16 cognitive domains in 7 inpatients with severe chronic schizophrenia, 13 community-dwelling outpatients with chronic schizophrenia, 12 patients with bvFTD, and 18 healthy controls. Our findings revealed more similar cognitive profiles between the schizophrenia inpatient and bvFTD groups compared to the schizophrenia outpatient group, who outperformed the former groups. The current results provide preliminary evidence for a distinct schizophrenia subgroup, distinguishable from other chronic schizophrenia patients by poorer clinical and functional status, who have levels of cognitive impairment comparable to those seen in bvFTD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurocognitive dysfunction in problem gamblers with co-occurring antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Austin W; Leppink, Eric W; Grant, Jon E

    2017-07-01

    Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks. Findings were uncorrected for multiple comparisons. Effect sizes were calculated using Cohen's d. Problem gambling with ASPD was associated with significantly elevated gambling disorder symptoms, lower quality of life, greater psychiatric comorbidity, higher impulsivity questionnaire scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (d=0.4) and Eysenck Impulsivity Questionnaire (d=0.5), and impaired cognitive flexibility (d=0.4), executive planning (d=0.4), and an aspect of decision-making (d=0.6). Performance on measures of response inhibition, risk adjustment, and quality of decision making did not differ significantly between groups. These preliminary findings, though in need of replication, support the characterization of problem gambling with ASPD as a subtype of problem gambling associated with higher rates of impulsivity and executive function deficits. Taken together, these results may have treatment implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood Maltreatment and Its Effect on Neurocognitive Functioning: Timing and Chronicity Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Raquel A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a complex stressor, with the developmental timing, duration, frequency, and type of maltreatment varying with each child (Barnett, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1993; Cicchetti & Manly, 2001). Multiple brain regions and neural circuits are disrupted by the experience of child maltreatment (Cicchetti & Toth, in press; DeBellis et al., 2002; McCrory & Viding, 2010; Teicher, Anderson, & Polcari, 2012). These neurobiological compromises indicate the impairment of a number of important cognitive functions, including working memory and inhibitory control. The present study extends prior research by examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on neurocognitive functioning based on developmental timing of maltreatment, including onset, chronicity, and recency, in a sample of 3- to 9-year-old nonmaltreated (n = 136) and maltreated children (n = 223). Maltreated children performed more poorly on inhibitory control and working memory tasks than nonmaltreated children. Group differences between maltreated children based on the timing of maltreatment and the chronicity of maltreatment also were evident. Specifically, children who were maltreated during infancy, and children with a chronic history of maltreatment, exhibited significantly poorer inhibitory control and working memory performance than children without a history of maltreatment. The results suggest that maltreatment occurring during infancy, a period of major brain organization, disrupts normative structure and function, and these deficits are further instantiated by the prolonged stress of chronic maltreatment during the early years of life. PMID:25997769

  6. The role of nutrition in children’s neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett eNyaradi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the current evidence for a possible connection between nutritional intake (including micronutrients and whole diet and neurocognitive development in childhood. Earlier studies which have investigated the association between nutrition and cognitive development have focused on individual micronutrients, including omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, folic acid, choline, iron, iodine and zinc, and single aspects of diet. The research evidence from observational studies suggests that micronutrients may play an important role in the cognitive development of children. However, the results of intervention trials utilising single micronutrients are inconclusive. More generally, there is evidence that malnutrition can impair cognitive development, whilst breastfeeding appears to be beneficial for cognition. Eating breakfast is also beneficial for cognition. In contrast, there is currently inconclusive evidence regarding the association between obesity and cognition. Since individuals consume combinations of foods, more recently researchers have become interested in the cognitive impact of diet as a composite measure. Only a few studies to date have investigated the associations between dietary patterns and cognitive development. In future research, more well designed intervention trials are needed, with special consideration given to the interactive effects of nutrients.

  7. Neurocognitive predictors of remission of symptoms and social and role functioning in the early course of first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Mohn, Christine; Rishovd Rund, Bjørn

    2014-04-30

    In a Norwegian ongoing longitudinal study, we investigate the neurocognitive development in first-episode schizophrenia patients, and the influence of neurocognition on remission and real life functioning. In the present study, results from the early course of illness are reported. The sample includes 28 schizophrenia spectrum patients and 28 pairwise matched healthy controls. The patients were recruited from mental health service institutions and data on psychosocial functioning, remission and neurocognition were obtained through a clinical interview, an inventory on social and role functioning, operational criteria of remission, and a standardized neurocognitive test battery, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Large effect size differences between patients and controls were observed at baseline on every cognitive domain, as well as statistically significant improvements on overall cognitive function at follow-up for the patient group. A remission rate of 61% was found. The neurocognitive baseline measure of Attention significantly predicted remission status at follow-up, whereas Attention and Working Memory at baseline predicted levels of social and role functioning. In the early course of the illness, more than half of the group of first-episode patients were in remission, and neurocognitive functions are significantly associated with both remission of symptoms and social and role functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  9. Combined social cognitive and neurocognitive rehabilitation strategies in schizophrenia: neuropsychological and psychopathological influences on Theory of Mind improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechi, M; Bosia, M; Spangaro, M; Buonocore, M; Cocchi, F; Pigoni, A; Piantanida, M; Guglielmino, C; Bianchi, L; Smeraldi, E; Cavallaro, R

    2015-11-01

    Neurocognitive and social cognitive impairments represent important treatment targets in schizophrenia, as they are significant predictors of functional outcome. Different rehabilitative interventions have recently been developed, addressing both cognitive and psychosocial domains. Although promising, results are still heterogeneous and predictors of treatment outcome are not yet identified. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of two newly developed social cognitive interventions, respectively based on the use of videotaped material and comic strips, combined with domain-specific Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). We also analysed possible predictors of training outcome, including basal neurocognitive performance, the degree of cognitive improvement after CRT and psychopathological variables. Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia treated with CRT, were randomly assigned to: social cognitive training (SCT) group, Theory of Mind Intervention (ToMI) group, and active control group (ACG). ANOVAs showed that SCT and ToMI groups improved significantly in ToM measures, whereas the ACG did not. We reported no influences of neuropsychological measures and improvement after CRT on changes in ToM. Both paranoid and non-paranoid subjects improved significantly after ToMI and SCT, without differences between groups, despite the better performance in basal ToM found among paranoid patients. In the ACG only non-paranoid patients showed an improvement in non-verbal ToM. Results showed that both ToMI and SCT are effective in improving ToM in schizophrenia with no influence of neuropsychological domains. Our data also suggest that paranoid symptoms may discriminate between different types of ToM difficulties in schizophrenia.

  10. Chronic Iron Overload Results in Impaired Bacterial Killing of THP-1 Derived Macrophage through the Inhibition of Lysosomal Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Jun-Kai; Wang, Shih-Chung; Ho, Li-Wei; Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Ke, Yu-Yuan; Wu, Chun-Ying; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for living organisms and the disturbance of iron homeostasis is associated with altered immune function. Additionally, bacterial infections can cause major complications in instances of chronic iron overload, such as patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia. Monocytes and macrophages play important roles in maintaining systemic iron homoeostasis and in defense against invading pathogens. However, the effect of iron overload on the function of monocytes and macrophages is unclear. We elucidated the effects of chronic iron overload on human monocytic cell line (THP-1) and THP-1 derived macrophages (TDM) by continuously exposing them to high levels of iron (100 μM) to create I-THP-1 and I-TDM, respectively. Our results show that iron overload did not affect morphology or granularity of I-THP-1, but increased the granularity of I-TDM. Bactericidal assays for non-pathogenic E. coli DH5α, JM109 and pathogenic P. aeruginosa all revealed decreased efficiency with increasing iron concentration in I-TDM. The impaired P. aeruginosa killing ability of human primary monocyte derived macrophages (hMDM) was also found when cells are cultured in iron contained medium. Further studies on the bactericidal activity of I-TDM revealed lysosomal dysfunction associated with the inhibition of lysosomal acidification resulting in increasing lysosomal pH, the impairment of post-translational processing of cathepsins (especially cathepsin D), and decreased autophagic flux. These findings may explain the impaired innate immunity of thalassemic patients with chronic iron overload, suggesting the manipulation of lysosomal function as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27244448

  11. Treatment choices for managing glucose control in impaired renal function: Interim Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Davies

    2017-04-01

    The project methods and coding structure are well place to provide anticipated results as soon as pathology data arrives. The percentage of ABMU patients having type 2 diabetes is in line with other literature for adults in the UK.

  12. Development of a Standardized Approach to Disclosing Amyloid Imaging Research Results in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Lingler, Jennifer H.; Butters, Meryl A.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Hu, Lu; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Klunk, William E.; Mattos, Meghan K.; Parker, Lisa A.; Roberts, J. Scott; Schulz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of PET amyloid imaging in clinical research has sparked numerous concerns about whether and how to return such research test results to study participants. Chief among these is the question of how best to disclose amyloid imaging research results to individuals who have cognitive symptoms that could impede comprehension of the information conveyed. We systematically developed and evaluated informational materials for use in pre-test counseling and post-test...

  13. Evaluation of a research diagnostic algorithm for DSM-5 neurocognitive disorders in a population-based cohort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Mortby, Moyra E; Sachdev, Perminder; Meslin, Chantal; Kumar, Rajeev; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2017-03-04

    There is little information on the application and impact of revised criteria for diagnosing dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), now termed major and mild neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in the DSM-5. We evaluate a psychometric algorithm for diagnosing DSM-5 NCDs in a community-dwelling sample, and characterize the neuropsychological and functional profile of expert-diagnosed DSM-5 NCDs relative to DSM-IV dementia and International Working Group criteria for MCI. A population-based sample of 1644 adults aged 72-78 years was assessed. Algorithmic diagnostic criteria used detailed neuropsychological data, medical history, longitudinal cognitive performance, and informant interview. Those meeting all criteria for at least one diagnosis had data reviewed by a neurologist (expert diagnosis) who achieved consensus with a psychiatrist for complex cases. The algorithm accurately classified DSM-5 major NCD (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.97), DSM-IV dementia (AUC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97), DSM-5 mild NCD (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.80), and MCI (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) when compared to expert diagnosis. Expert diagnosis of dementia using DSM-5 criteria overlapped with 90% of DSM-IV dementia cases, but resulted in a 127% increase in diagnosis relative to DSM-IV. Additional cases had less severe memory, language impairment, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairments compared to cases meeting DSM-IV criteria for dementia. DSM-5 mild NCD overlapped with 83% of MCI cases and resulted in a 19% increase in diagnosis. These additional cases had a subtly different neurocognitive profile to MCI cases, including poorer social cognition. DSM-5 NCD criteria can be operationalized in a psychometric algorithm in a population setting. Expert diagnosis using DSM-5 NCD criteria captured most cases with DSM-IV dementia and MCI in our sample, but included many additional cases suggesting that DSM-5

  14. Results from a national survey of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel on impaired driving in Canada: a "System Improvements" perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Robyn; Vanlaar, Ward; Simpson, Herb; Boase, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings from a study designed to examine the legal process in Canada as it applies to alcohol-impaired driving from the point of view of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel, and to identify evidentiary or procedural factors that may impact the legal process, the rights of the accused, and interactions of all parts in the legal process. The data in this study were collected by means of a survey that was mailed out to the population of Crown prosecutors and defense counsel in Canada. In total, 765 prosecutors and 270 defense lawyers or an estimated 33% of all Canadian prosecutors and 15% of defense lawyers completed and returned the questionnaire. The "systems improvement" paradigm was used to interpret the findings and draw conclusions. Such an approach acknowledges the importance of the context in which countermeasures are implemented and delivered and the structures or entities used to deliver countermeasures to a designated target group. Results on type of charges and breath alcohol concentration, caseload, case outcomes, case preparation time, conviction rate at trial and overall conviction rate, reasons for acquittals and time to resolve cases are described. The findings from this national survey suggest that there are important challenges within the criminal justice system that impede the effective and efficient processing of impaired driving cases. Some of these challenges occur as a function of practices and policies, while others occur as a function of legislation. This study illustrates that a "system improvements" approach that acknowledges the importance of all elements of the criminal justice system and the interaction between those elements, can be beneficial in overcoming the alcohol-impaired driving problem.

  15. Social attribution test--multiple choice (SAT-MC) in schizophrenia: comparison with community sample and relationship to neurocognitive, social cognitive and symptom measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Greig, Tamasine C; Wexler, Bruce E

    2010-09-01

    This is the first report on the use of the Social Attribution Task - Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) to assess social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The SAT-MC was originally developed for autism research, and consists of a 64-second animation showing geometric figures enacting a social drama, with 19 multiple choice questions about the interactions. Responses from 85 community-dwelling participants and 66 participants with SCID confirmed schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders (Scz) revealed highly significant group differences. When the two samples were combined, SAT-MC scores were significantly correlated with other social cognitive measures, including measures of affect recognition, theory of mind, self-report of egocentricity and the Social Cognition Index from the MATRICS battery. Using a cut-off score, 53% of Scz were significantly impaired on SAT-MC compared with 9% of the community sample. Most Scz participants with impairment on SAT-MC also had impairment on affect recognition. Significant correlations were also found with neurocognitive measures but with less dependence on verbal processes than other social cognitive measures. Logistic regression using SAT-MC scores correctly classified 75% of both samples. Results suggest that this measure may have promise, but alternative versions will be needed before it can be used in pre-post or longitudinal designs. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavior and neurocognitive performance in children aged 5-10 years who snore compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, S; Lushington, K; Kennedy, D; Martin, J; Dawson, D

    2000-10-01

    Sleep disordered breathing in children is a common but largely underdiagnosed problem. It ranges in severity from primary snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Preliminary evidence suggests that children with severe OSAS show reduced neurocognitive performance, however, less is known about children who snore but do not have severe upper airway obstruction. Participants included 16 children referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat/Respiratory departments of a Children's Hospital for evaluation of snoring and 16 non-snoring controls aged 5-10 years. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was carried out in 13 children who snored and 13 controls. The PSG confirmed the presence of primary snoring in seven and very mild OSAS (as evidenced by chest wall paradox) in eight children referred for snoring while controls showed a normal sleep pattern. To test for group differences in neurocognitive functioning and behavior, children underwent one day of testing during which measures of intelligence, memory, attention, social competency, and problematic behavior were collected. Compared to controls, children who snored showed significantly impaired attention and, although within the normal range, lower memory and intelligence scores. No significant group differences were observed for social competency and problematic behavior. These findings suggest that neurocognitive performance is reduced in children who snore but are otherwise healthy and who do not have severe OSAS. They further imply that the impact of mild sleep disordered breathing on daytime functioning may be more significant than previously realized with subsequent implications for successful academic and developmental progress.

  17. Motivational and neurocognitive deficits are central to the prediction of longitudinal functional outcome in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, G; Foussias, G; Agid, O; Remington, G

    2014-10-01

    Functional impairment is characteristic of most individuals with schizophrenia; however, the key variables that undermine community functioning are not well understood. This study evaluated the association between selected clinical variables and one-year longitudinal functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. The sample included 754 patients with schizophrenia who completed both baseline and one-year follow-up visits in the CATIE study. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of assessments capturing symptom severity and cognitive performance among other variables. The primary outcome variable was functional status one-year postbaseline measured using the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale. Factor analysis of negative symptom items revealed two factors reflecting diminished expression and amotivation. Multivariate regression modeling revealed several significant independent predictors of longitudinal functioning scores. The strongest predictors were baseline amotivation and neurocognition. Both amotivation and neurocognition also had independent predictive value for each of the domains of functioning assessed (e.g., vocational). Both motivational and neurocognitive deficits independently contribute to longitudinal functional outcomes assessed 1 year later among patients with schizophrenia. Both of these domains of psychopathology impede functional recovery; hence, it follows that treatments ameliorating each of these symptoms should promote community functioning among individuals with schizophrenia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Correlation of neurocognitive function and brain parenchyma volumes in children surviving cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddick, Wilburn E.; White, Holly A.; Glass, John O.; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2002-04-01

    This research builds on our hypothesis that white matter damage and associated neurocognitive symptoms, in children treated for cancer with cranial spinal irradiation, spans a continuum of severity that can be reliably probed using non-invasive MR technology. Quantitative volumetric assessments of MR imaging and psychological assessments were obtained in 40 long-term survivors of malignant brain tumors treated with cranial irradiation. Neurocognitive assessments included a test of intellect (Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), attention (Conner's Continuous Performance Test), and memory (California Verbal Learning Test). One-sample t-tests were conducted to evaluate test performance of survivors against age-adjusted scores from the test norms; these analyses revealed significant impairments in all apriori selected measures of intelligence, attention, and memory. Partial correlation analyses were performed to assess the relationships between brain tissues volumes (normal appearing white matter (NAWM), gray matter, and CSF) and neurocognitive function. Global intelligence (r = 0.32, p = 0.05) and global attentional (r = 0.49, p attentional deficits, whereas overall parenchyma loss, as reflected by increased CSF and decreased white matter, is associated with memory-related deficits.

  19. Epoxygenase inactivation exacerbates diet and aging-associated metabolic dysfunction resulting from impaired adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Olona

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions. Methods: We took advantage of the simpler genetic architecture of the Cyp2j locus in the rat and used a Cyp2j4 (orthologue of human CYP2J2 knockout rat in two models of metabolic dysfunction: physiological aging and cafeteria diet (CAF. The phenotyping of Cyp2j4−/− rats under CAF was integrated with proteomics (LC-MS/MS and lipidomics (LC-MS analyses in the liver and the adipose tissue. Results: We report that Cyp2j4 deletion causes adipocyte dysfunction under metabolic challenges. This is characterized by (i down-regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT PPARγ and C/EBPα, (ii adipocyte hypertrophy, (iii extracellular matrix remodeling, and (iv alternative usage of AA pathway. Specifically, in Cyp2j4−/− rats treated with a cafeteria diet, the dysfunctional adipogenesis is accompanied by exacerbated weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation, and dysregulated gluconeogenesis. Conclusion: These results suggest that AA epoxygenases are essential regulators of healthy adipogenesis. Our results uncover their synergistic role in fine-tuning AA pathway in obesity-mediated hepatic steatosis. Keywords: Adipogenesis, Cytochrome P450 2j4, Cafeteria diet, Aging, Steatosis, Arachidonic acid

  20. Prospective cohort study of the relationship between neuro-cognition, social cognition and violence in forensic patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, Ken

    2015-07-10

    There is a broad literature suggesting that cognitive difficulties are associated with violence across a variety of groups. Although neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, evidence of a relationship between cognitive impairments and violence within this patient population has been mixed.

  1. Controversies in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Sam; Winsto, Alan; Letendre, Scott; Michael, Benedict D; McArthur, Justin C; Khoo, Saye; Solomon, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that around half of individuals infected with HIV-1 have some degree of cognitive impairment despite the use of antiretroviral drugs. However, prevalence estimates vary depending on the population and methods used to assess cognitive impairment. Whether asymptomatic patients would benefit from routine screening for cognitive difficulties is unclear and the appropriate screening method and subsequent management is the subject of debate. In some patients, HIV-1 RNA can be found at higher concentrations in CSF than in blood, which potentially results from the poor distribution of antiretroviral drugs into the CNS. However, the clinical relevance of so-called CSF viral escape is not well understood. The extent to which antiretroviral drug distribution and toxicity in the CNS affect clinical decision making is also debated. PMID:25316020

  2. A Jacob/Nsmf Gene Knockout Results in Hippocampal Dysplasia and Impaired BDNF Signaling in Dendritogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Spilker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jacob, the protein encoded by the Nsmf gene, is involved in synapto-nuclear signaling and docks an N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR-derived signalosome to nuclear target sites like the transcription factor cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB. Several reports indicate that mutations in NSMF are related to Kallmann syndrome (KS, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH associated with anosmia or hyposmia. It has also been reported that a protein knockdown results in migration deficits of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH positive neurons from the olfactory bulb to the hypothalamus during early neuronal development. Here we show that mice that are constitutively deficient for the Nsmf gene do not present phenotypic characteristics related to KS. Instead, these mice exhibit hippocampal dysplasia with a reduced number of synapses and simplification of dendrites, reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP at CA1 synapses and deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF activation of CREB-activated gene expression plays a documented role in hippocampal CA1 synapse and dendrite formation. We found that BDNF induces the nuclear translocation of Jacob in an NMDAR-dependent manner in early development, which results in increased phosphorylation of CREB and enhanced CREB-dependent Bdnf gene transcription. Nsmf knockout (ko mice show reduced hippocampal Bdnf mRNA and protein levels as well as reduced pCREB levels during dendritogenesis. Moreover, BDNF application can rescue the morphological deficits in hippocampal pyramidal neurons devoid of Jacob. Taken together, the data suggest that the absence of Jacob in early development interrupts a positive feedback loop between BDNF signaling, subsequent nuclear import of Jacob, activation of CREB and enhanced Bdnf gene transcription, ultimately leading to hippocampal dysplasia.

  3. Language Impairments in ASD Resulting from a Failed Domestication of the Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, Antonio; Lattanzi, Wanda; Murphy, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders entailing social and cognitive deficits, including marked problems with language. Numerous genes have been associated with ASD, but it is unclear how language deficits arise from gene mutation or dysregulation. It is also unclear why ASD shows such high prevalence within human populations. Interestingly, the emergence of a modern faculty of language has been hypothesized to be linked to changes in the human brain/skull, but also to the process of self-domestication of the human species. It is our intention to show that people with ASD exhibit less marked domesticated traits at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels. We also discuss many ASD candidates represented among the genes known to be involved in the “domestication syndrome” (the constellation of traits exhibited by domesticated mammals, which seemingly results from the hypofunction of the neural crest) and among the set of genes involved in language function closely connected to them. Moreover, many of these genes show altered expression profiles in the brain of autists. In addition, some candidates for domestication and language-readiness show the same expression profile in people with ASD and chimps in different brain areas involved in language processing. Similarities regarding the brain oscillatory behavior of these areas can be expected too. We conclude that ASD may represent an abnormal ontogenetic itinerary for the human faculty of language resulting in part from changes in genes important for the “domestication syndrome” and, ultimately, from the normal functioning of the neural crest. PMID:27621700

  4. Parsing trait and state effects of depression severity on neurocognition: Evidence from a 26-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Shankman, Stewart A; Harrow, Martin; Goldberg, Joseph F

    2012-11-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in mood disorders falls along a continuum, such that more severe current depression is associated with greater cognitive impairment. It is not clear whether this association reflects transient state effects of current symptoms on cognitive performance, or persistent, trait-like differences in cognition that are related to overall disorder severity. We addressed this question in 42 unipolar and 47 bipolar participants drawn from a 26-year longitudinal study of psychopathology, using measures of attention/psychomotor processing speed, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, and verbal memory. We assessed (a) the extent to which current symptom severity and past average disorder severity predicted unique variance in cognitive performance; (b) whether cognitive performance covaried with within-individual changes in symptom severity; and (c) the stability of neurocognitive measures over six years. We also tested for differences among unipolar and bipolar groups and published norms. Past average depression severity predicted performance on attention/psychomotor processing speed in both groups, and in cognitive flexibility among unipolar participants, even after controlling for current symptom severity, which did not independently predict cognition. Within-participant state changes in depressive symptoms did not predict change in any cognitive domain. All domains were stable over the course of six years. Both groups showed generalized impairment relative to published norms, and bipolar participants performed more poorly than unipolar participants on attention/psychomotor processing speed. The results suggest a stable relationship between mood disorder severity and cognitive deficits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A; Chapman, C; Tsien, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal vascular

  6. TH-E-BRF-03: A Multivariate Interaction Model for Assessment of Hippocampal Vascular Dose-Response and Early Prediction of Radiation-Induced Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, R; Pramanik, P; Srinivasan, A; Chapman, C; Tsien, C; Lawrence, T; Cao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular injury could be a cause of hippocampal dysfunction leading to late neurocognitive decline in patients receiving brain radiotherapy (RT). Hence, our aim was to develop a multivariate interaction model for characterization of hippocampal vascular dose-response and early prediction of radiation-induced late neurocognitive impairments. Methods: 27 patients (17 males and 10 females, age 31–80 years) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. All patients were diagnosed with a low-grade glioma or benign tumor and treated by 3-D conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4–59.4 Gy in 1.8− Gy fractions). Six DCE-MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18 months post-RT. DCE data were fitted to the modified Toft model to obtain the transfer constant of gadolinium influx from the intravascular space into the extravascular extracellular space, Ktrans, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, Vp. The hippocampus vascular property alterations after starting RT were characterized by changes in the hippocampal mean values of, μh(Ktrans)τ and μh(Vp)τ. The dose-response, Δμh(Ktrans/Vp)pre->τ, was modeled using a multivariate linear regression considering integrations of doses with age, sex, hippocampal laterality and presence of tumor/edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose-response in hippocampus was correlated with neurocognitive decline 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The μh(Ktrans) increased significantly from pre-RT to 1 month post-RT (p<0.0004). The multivariate model showed that the dose effect on Δμh(Ktrans)pre->1M post-RT was interacted with sex (p<0.0007) and age (p<0.00004), with the dose-response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose-response in the left hippocampus of females was significantly correlated with memory function decline at 6 (r = − 0.95, p<0.0006) and 18 (r = −0.88, p<0.02) months post-RT. Conclusion: The hippocampal vascular

  7. Application of a computer-based neurocognitive assessment battery in the elderly with and without hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Völter C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Völter,1 Lisa Götze,1 Michael Falkenstein,2 Stefan Dazert,1 Jan Peter Thomas1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr University Bochum, St Elisabeth-Hospital, Bochum, 2Institute for Work, Learning and Ageing (ALA, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany Introduction: Due to demographic changes, the number of people suffering not only from dementia illness but also from hearing impairment with the need for hearing rehabilitation have increased noticeably. Even with the association between hearing, age, and cognitive decline being well known, this issue has so far not played an important role in daily clinical Ear Nose Throat settings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a computer-based battery of tests of neurocognitive abilities in older patients with and without hearing loss.Patients and methods: A total of 120 patients aged 50 years and older were enrolled in this prospective clinical study: 40 patients suffered from severe bilateral hearing loss and were tested before cochlear implantation and 80 patients showed normal hearing thresholds between 500 and 4,000 Hz bilaterally. The test battery covered a wide range of cognitive abilities such as long- and short-term memory, working memory (WM, attention, inhibition, and other executive functions. Individuals with severe depression or cognitive impairment were excluded.Results: Hearing status was a significant predictor of performance on delayed recall (P=0.0082 and verbal fluency after adjusting for age (P=0.0016. Age predominantly impacted on inhibition (P=0.0039 and processing speed (P<0.0001, whereas WM measured by the Operation Span task (OSPAN and the attention were influenced by both age and hearing. The battery of tests was feasible and practical for testing older patients without prior computer skills.Conclusion: A computerized neurocognitive assessment battery may be a suitable tool

  8. Persistent quality of life impairments in differentiated thyroid cancer patients: results from a monitoring programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innsbruck (Austria); Wintner, Lisa M.; Holzner, Bernhard [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Innsbruck (Austria); Rodrigues, Margarida; Buxbaum, Sabine; Nilica, Bernhard; Virgolini, Irene [Medical University Innsbruck, Department for Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Singer, Susanne [University of Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, Mainz (Germany); Giesinger, Johannes M. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) research has so far received little attention and available results are conflicting. We studied the HRQOL of radioiodine-naive DTC patients in comparison with the general population (GP), investigated the course of HRQOL up to 30 months after radioiodine remnant ablation (RAA) and sought to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQOL. We analysed data from routine HRQOL monitoring at a nuclear medicine department. Between 2005 and 2013, a total of 439 thyroid cancer patients (all histologies) completed the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) at least once during their treatment at the department. We compared patients' baseline HRQOL scores before RAA with scores from age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Austrian GP. We then determined the course of HRQOL over the 30 months after RAA and assessed the impact of the following clinical variables on HRQOL: method of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation, histology (papillary vs. follicular) and disease stage. A total of 284 patients (mean age 48.3 years, SD 15.0 years; 71.6 % women; 80.7 % papillary type) with a baseline HRQOL assessment before RAA were available. We found clinically meaningful differences in the detriment in patients on almost all domains. These were largest for fatigue (23 points) and role functioning (25 points). Data from 241 patients (mean age 48.6 years, SD 15.9 years; 68.9 % women; 76.3 % papillary type) were included in the longitudinal analysis. Investigating the course of HRQOL, a significant improvement over time was found for role and emotional functioning, fatigue, pain, and dyspnoea. A range of HRQOL scores were improved in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation, but some scores both in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and in those followed for 30 months, especially fatigue and role functioning, did not reach levels in the GP sample. Our results show that

  9. Persistent quality of life impairments in differentiated thyroid cancer patients: results from a monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamper, Eva-Maria; Wintner, Lisa M.; Holzner, Bernhard; Rodrigues, Margarida; Buxbaum, Sabine; Nilica, Bernhard; Virgolini, Irene; Singer, Susanne; Giesinger, Johannes M.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) research has so far received little attention and available results are conflicting. We studied the HRQOL of radioiodine-naive DTC patients in comparison with the general population (GP), investigated the course of HRQOL up to 30 months after radioiodine remnant ablation (RAA) and sought to identify patient characteristics associated with HRQOL. We analysed data from routine HRQOL monitoring at a nuclear medicine department. Between 2005 and 2013, a total of 439 thyroid cancer patients (all histologies) completed the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30) at least once during their treatment at the department. We compared patients' baseline HRQOL scores before RAA with scores from age-matched and sex-matched controls from the Austrian GP. We then determined the course of HRQOL over the 30 months after RAA and assessed the impact of the following clinical variables on HRQOL: method of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation, histology (papillary vs. follicular) and disease stage. A total of 284 patients (mean age 48.3 years, SD 15.0 years; 71.6 % women; 80.7 % papillary type) with a baseline HRQOL assessment before RAA were available. We found clinically meaningful differences in the detriment in patients on almost all domains. These were largest for fatigue (23 points) and role functioning (25 points). Data from 241 patients (mean age 48.6 years, SD 15.9 years; 68.9 % women; 76.3 % papillary type) were included in the longitudinal analysis. Investigating the course of HRQOL, a significant improvement over time was found for role and emotional functioning, fatigue, pain, and dyspnoea. A range of HRQOL scores were improved in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation, but some scores both in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and in those followed for 30 months, especially fatigue and role functioning, did not reach levels in the GP sample. Our results show that

  10. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  11. Validation of a brief telephone battery for neurocognitive assessment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palevsky Harold I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension on brain function are not understood, despite patients' frequent complaints of cognitive difficulties. Using clinical instruments normally administered during standard in-person assessment of neurocognitive function in adults, we assembled a battery of tests designed for administration over the telephone. The purpose was to improve patient participation, facilitate repeated test administration, and reduce the cost of research on the neuropsychological consequences of acute and chronic cardiorespiratory diseases. We undertook this study to validate telephone administration of the tests. Methods 23 adults with pulmonary arterial hypertension underwent neurocognitive assessment using both standard in-person and telephone test administration, and the results of the two methods compared using interclass correlations. Results For most of the tests in the battery, scores from the telephone assessment correlated strongly with those obtained by in-person administration of the same tests. Interclass correlations between 0.5 and 0.8 were observed for tests that assessed attention, memory, concentration/working memory, reasoning, and language/crystallized intelligence (p ≤ 0.05 for each. Interclass correlations for the Hayling Sentence Completion test of executive function approached significance (p = 0.09. All telephone tests were completed within one hour. Conclusion Administration of this neurocognitive test battery by telephone should facilitate assessment of neuropsychological deficits among patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension living across broad geographical areas, and may be useful for monitoring changes in neurocognitive function in response to PAH-specific therapy or disease progression.

  12. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  13. Prospective memory in schizophrenia: relationship to medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Sarah A; Maye, Jacqueline; Rogers, Alexandra; Correll, David; Zamroziewicz, Marta; Kurtz, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Impaired adherence to medication regimens is a serious concern for individuals with schizophrenia linked to relapse and poorer outcomes. One possible reason for poor adherence to medication is poor ability to remember future intentions, labeled prospective memory skills. It has been demonstrated in several studies that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in prospective memory that are linked to everyday life skills. However, there have been no studies, to our knowledge, examining the relationship of a clinical measure of prospective memory to medication management skills, a key element of successful adherence. In this Study 41 individuals with schizophrenia and 25 healthy adults were administered a standardized test battery that included measures of prospective memory, medication management skills, neurocognition, and symptoms. Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrated impairments in prospective memory (both time and event-based) relative to healthy controls. Performance on the test of prospective memory was correlated with the standardized measure of medication management in individuals with schizophrenia. Moreover, the test of prospective memory predicted skills in medication adherence even after measures of neurocognition were accounted for. This suggests that prospective memory may play a key role in medication management skills and thus should be a target of cognitive remediation programs.

  14. Concussion symptoms and neurocognitive performance of high school and college athletes who incur multiple concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Wilhelm, Kristyn

    2013-12-01

    Multiple concussions have been associated with prolonged symptoms, recovery time, and risk for future concussions. However, very few studies have examined the effect of multiple concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters using a large database. To examine concussed athletes with a history of 0, 1, 2, or ≥3 concussions on neurocognitive performance and the recently revised symptom clusters. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. The independent variables were concussion group (0, 1, 2, and ≥3 concussions) and time (baseline, 3 days, and 8 days). The dependent variables were neurocognitive test scores as measured by the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test battery (verbal and visual memory, processing speed, and reaction time) and 4 concussion symptom clusters (migraine-cognitive-fatigue, affective, somatic, and sleep). All concussed athletes (n = 596) were administered the ImPACT test at a mean 2.67 ± 1.98 and 7.95 ± 4.46 days after injury. A series of 4 (concussion group) × 3 (time) repeated-measures analyses of covariance (age = covariate) were performed on ImPACT composite scores and symptom clusters. Concussed athletes with ≥3 concussions were still impaired 8 days after a concussion compared with baseline scores on verbal memory (P Concussed athletes with a history of ≥3 concussions take longer to recover than athletes with 1 or no previous concussion. Future research should concentrate on validating the new symptom clusters on multiple concussed athletes, examining longer recovery times (ie, >8 days) among athletes with multiple concussions.

  15. Sleep extension improves neurocognitive functions in chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane A Lucassen

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals.To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center.A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night obese (BMI 30-55 kg/m(2 men and pre-menopausal women.Sleep extension (468±88 days with life-style modifications.Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration.At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0-39. Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p = 0.02, and lower urinary dopamine levels (p = 0.001. Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N = 74, subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001, self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001 and by 4% by diaries (p = 0.04, and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p = 0.10. Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p = 0.001, and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p = 0.07 and p = 0.06. Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p = 0.02. In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function.Drop-out rate.Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population.www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898

  16. The Effect of Hypertension on Neurocognitive Functioning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of hypertension on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Design: The study was ... Conclusion: Quality of life seems to be more affected than neurocognitive functioning in the hypertensives in this study.

  17. Does docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in term infants enhance neurocognitive functioning in infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Alexandra E; Meldrum, Suzanne J; Foster, Jonathan K; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2013-11-20

    The proposal that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances neurocognitive functioning in term infants is controversial. Theoretical evidence, laboratory research and human epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that DHA deficiency can negatively impact neurocognitive development. However, the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of DHA supplementation in human term-born infants have been inconsistent. This article will (i) discuss the role of DHA in the human diet, (ii) explore the physiological mechanisms by which DHA plausibly influences neurocognitive capacity, and (iii) seek to characterize the optimal intake of DHA during infancy for neurocognitive functioning, based on existing research that has been undertaken in developed countries (specifically, within Australia). The major observational studies and RCTs that have examined dietary DHA in human infants and animals are presented, and we consider suggestions that DHA requirements vary across individuals according to genetic profile. It is important that the current evidence concerning DHA supplementation is carefully evaluated so that appropriate recommendations can be made and future directions of research can be strategically planned.

  18. Does docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in term infants enhance neurocognitive functioning in infancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Elizabeth Heaton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposal that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA enhances neurocognitive functioning in term infants is controversial. Theoretical evidence, laboratory research and human epidemiological studies have convincingly demonstrated that DHA deficiency can negatively impact neurocognitive development. However, the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs of DHA supplementation in human term-born infants have been inconsistent. This article will i discuss the role of DHA in the human diet, ii explore the physiological mechanisms by which DHA plausibly influences neurocognitive capacity and iii seek to characterize the optimal intake of DHA during infancy for neurocognitive functioning, based on existing research that has been undertaken in developed countries (specifically, within Australia. The major observational studies and RCTs that have examined dietary DHA in human infants and animals are presented, and we consider suggestions that DHA requirements vary across individuals according to genetic profile. It is important that the current evidence concerning DHA supplementation is carefully evaluated so that appropriate recommendations can be made and future directions of research can be strategically planned.

  19. Current approaches to diagnosing and treating major neurocognitive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 replaces the term «dementia» with «major neurocognitive disorder» (MNCD, which can reduce the  stigmatization of patients and focus the attention of specialists on  the preserved abilities of patients rather than deficit symptoms. In  the next 35 years, the number of patients with MNCD in the world is  predicted to almost triple. The article considers the concept,  epidemiology, and etiological pattern of this syndrome. It  characterizes in detail Alzheimer's disease (AD that is a cause of  MNCD in 50–70% of cases. The current diagnostic criteria and  clinical presentations of the disease are given. The presence of early and significant episodic memory disorders as both alone or  concurrent with other cognitive and behavioral changes reflects the  main clinical phenotype of AD. Magnetic resonance morphometry,  amyloid positron emission tomography, and estimation of  cerebrospinal fluid β-amyloid and tau protein levels find increasing  applications in research and routine practice. Drug and non-drug  treatments for MNCD are considered. The use of akatinol memantine to treat this disorder and the issues related to the comprehensive management of patients with severe cognitive impairment are analyzed.

  20. Neurocognitive architecture of working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Johan; Vogel, Edward K.; Lansner, Anders; Bergström, Fredrik; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The crucial role of working memory for temporary information processing and guidance of complex behavior has been recognized for many decades. There is emerging consensus that working memory maintenance results from the interactions among long-term memory representations and basic processes, including attention, that are instantiated as reentrant loops between frontal and posterior cortical areas, as well as subcortical structures. The nature of such interactions can account for capacity limitations, lifespan changes, and restricted transfer after working-memory training. Recent data and models indicate that working memory may also be based on synaptic plasticity, and that working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information. PMID:26447571

  1. Amnesiacs might get the gist: reduced false recognition in amnesia may be the result of impaired item-specific memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Jack; Abrahams, Sharon; Sala, Sergio Della

    2013-01-01

    It is a common finding in tests of false recognition that amnesic patients recognize fewer related lures than healthy controls, and this has led to assumptions that gist memory is damaged in these patients (Schacter, Verfaellie, & Anes, 1997, Neuropsychology, 11; Schacter, Verfaellie, Anes, & Racine, 1998, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10; Schacter, Verfaellie, & Pradere, 1996, Journal of Memory and Language, 35). However, clinical observations find that amnesic patients typically hold meaningful conversations and make relevant remarks, and there is some experimental evidence highlighting preserved immediate recall of prose (Baddeley & Wilson, 2002, Neuropsychologia, 40; Gooding, Isaac, & Mayes, 2005, Neuropsychologia, 43; Rosenbaum, Gilboa, Levine, Winocur, & Moscovitch, 2009, Neuropsychologia, 47), which suggests that amnesiacs can get the gist. The present experiment used false recognition paradigms to assess whether the reduced rate of false recognition found in amnesic patients may be a consequence of their impaired item-specific memory. It examined the effect of increasing the item-specific memory of amnesic patient DA by bringing her to criterion on relevant study-lists and compared her performance on a false recognition paradigm with a group of 32 healthy young adults. Results indicated that when DA's item-specific memory was increased she was more able to gist and her performance was no different to the healthy young adults. Previous assumptions that gist memory is necessarily damaged in amnesia might therefore be revisited, since the reduced rate of false recognition could be caused by impaired item-specific memory. The experiment also highlights a positive relationship between item-specific and gist memory which has not previously been accounted for in false-recognition experiments.

  2. Radiation-induced signaling results in mitochondrial impairment in mouse heart at 4 weeks after exposure to X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Schmaltz, Dominik; Shyla, Alena; Azimzadeh, Omid; Schulz, Sabine; Haagen, Julia; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sarioglu, Hakan; Schäfer, Alexander; Atkinson, Michael J; Zischka, Hans; Tapio, Soile

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's disease or childhood cancers expose the heart to high local radiation doses, causing an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the survivors decades after the treatment. The mechanisms that underlie the radiation damage remain poorly understood so far. Previous data show that impairment of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is directly linked to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, the radiation-induced in vivo effects on cardiac mitochondrial proteome and function were investigated. C57BL/6N mice were exposed to local irradiation of the heart with doses of 0.2 Gy or 2 Gy (X-ray, 200 kV) at the age of eight weeks, the control mice were sham-irradiated. After four weeks the cardiac mitochondria were isolated and tested for proteomic and functional alterations. Two complementary proteomics approaches using both peptide and protein quantification strategies showed radiation-induced deregulation of 25 proteins in total. Three main biological categories were affected: the oxidative phophorylation, the pyruvate metabolism, and the cytoskeletal structure. The mitochondria exposed to high-dose irradiation showed functional impairment reflected as partial deactivation of Complex I (32%) and Complex III (11%), decreased succinate-driven respiratory capacity (13%), increased level of reactive oxygen species and enhanced oxidation of mitochondrial proteins. The changes in the pyruvate metabolism and structural proteins were seen with both low and high radiation doses. This is the first study showing the biological alterations in the murine heart mitochondria several weeks after the exposure to low- and high-dose of ionizing radiation. Our results show that doses, equivalent to a single dose in radiotherapy, cause long-lasting changes in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitochondria-associated cytoskeleton. This prompts us to propose that these first pathological changes lead to an increased

  3. Effects of alcoholism severity and smoking on executive neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer M; Buu, Anne; Adams, Kenneth M; Nigg, Joel T; Puttler, Leon I; Jester, Jennifer M; Zucker, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in chronic alcoholic men are well documented. Impairments include memory, visual-spatial processing, problem solving and executive function. The cause of impairment could include direct effects of alcohol toxicity, pre-existing cognitive deficits that predispose towards substance abuse, comorbid psychiatric disorders and abuse of substances other than alcohol. Cigarette smoking occurs at higher rates in alcoholism and has been linked to poor cognitive performance, yet the effects of smoking on cognitive function in alcoholism are often ignored. We examined whether chronic alcoholism and chronic smoking have effects on executive function. Alcoholism and smoking were examined in a community-recruited sample of alcoholic and non-alcoholic men (n = 240) using standard neuropsychological and reaction-time measures of executive function. Alcoholism was measured as the average level of alcoholism diagnoses across the study duration (12 years). Smoking was measured in pack-years. Both alcoholism and smoking were correlated negatively with a composite executive function score. For component measures, alcoholism was correlated negatively with a broad range of measures, whereas smoking was correlated negatively with measures that emphasize response speed. In regression analyses, both smoking and alcoholism were significant predictors of executive function composite. However, when IQ is included in the regression analyses, alcoholism severity is no longer significant. Both smoking and alcoholism were related to executive function. However, the effect of alcoholism was not independent of IQ, suggesting a generalized effect, perhaps affecting a wide range of cognitive abilities of which executive function is a component. On the other hand, the effect of smoking on measures relying on response speed were independent of IQ, suggesting a more specific processing speed deficit associated with chronic smoking.

  4. Long term neurocognitive impact of low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hugh Simon; Kwok, Ka Ming; Chan, Peggy Hiu Ying; So, Hung Kwan; Li, Albert Martin; Ng, Pak Cheung; Fok, Tai Fai

    2013-04-01

    International studies suggest that low dose prenatal methylmercury exposure (>29 nmol/L) has long-term adverse neurocognitive effects. There is evidence that the majority of children in Hong Kong exceed this level as a result of high fish consumption of mothers during pregnancy. To study whether there are any associations between low-dose prenatal methylmercury exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in Hong Kong children. All 1057 children from the original birth cohort were eligible for entry into the study, except children with conditions that would affect neurocognitive development, but were unrelated to methylmercury exposure. Subjects were assessed by a wide panel of tests covering a broad range of neurocognitive functions: Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (HK-WISC), Hong Kong List Learning Test (HKLLT), Tests of Everyday Attention for Children (TEACH), Boston Naming Test, and Grooved Pegboard Test. 608 subjects were recruited (median age 8.2 years, IQR 7.3, 8.8; 53.9% boys). After correction by confounders including child age and sex, multivariate analysis showed that cord blood mercury concentration was significantly associated with three subtests: Picture Arrangement of HK-WISC (coefficient -0.944, P=0.049) and Short and Long Delay Recall Difference of the HKLLT (coefficient -1.087, P=0.007 and coefficient -1.161, P=0.005, respectively), i.e., performance worsened with increasing prenatal methylmercury exposure in these subtests. Small, but statistically significant adverse associations between prenatal methylmercury exposure and long-term neurocognitive effects (a visual sequencing task and retention ability of verbal memory) were found in our study. These effects are compatible with findings of studies with higher prenatal methylmercury exposure levels and suggest that safe strategies to further reduce exposure levels in Hong Kong are desirable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Jacobs

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  6. Quantifying the Beauty of Words: A Neurocognitive Poetics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I would like to pave the ground for future studies in Computational Stylistics and (Neuro-)Cognitive Poetics by describing procedures for predicting the subjective beauty of words. A set of eight tentative word features is computed via Quantitative Narrative Analysis (QNA) and a novel metric for quantifying word beauty, the aesthetic potential is proposed. Application of machine learning algorithms fed with this QNA data shows that a classifier of the decision tree family excellently learns to split words into beautiful vs. ugly ones. The results shed light on surface and semantic features theoretically relevant for affective-aesthetic processes in literary reading and generate quantitative predictions for neuroaesthetic studies of verbal materials.

  7. Exploring the Factor Structure of Neurocognitive Measures in Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the “best fit” model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate. PMID:25880732

  8. Online neurocognitive remediation therapy to improve cognition in community-living individuals with a history of depression: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Semkovska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a highly prevalent psychopathology with high relapse rates. Following remission from a depressive episode, neurocognitive difficulties in attention, working memory and executive function often persist, preventing full clinical recovery. These neurocognitive deficits are often present since the first depressive episode and have been shown to predict relapse. The efficacy of computerised neurocognitive remediation therapy (NCRT to improve attention, memory and executive function has been demonstrated in several clinical populations but randomised controlled trials (RCT have not been conducted in depression. The present study aimed to conduct a pilot, randomised study, of computerised NCRT for individuals with past depression, currently in remission. Twenty two individuals remitted from depression were randomly assigned to receive 20 one-hour sessions over 5 week of ether computerised NCRT or a component-equivalent allocation (play online computer games. The NCRT group showed significantly larger improvements in performance relative to the Games group in the three targeted neurocognitive domains: divided attention, verbal working memory, and planning, but also in non-targeted domains of long-term verbal memory and switching abilities. No significant effect was observed in the NCRT-targeted domain visual working memory. These preliminary results suggest computerised NCRT efficacy to improve targeted neurocognitive processes during depression remission and support its potential value as preventative connected intervention tool.

  9. Reversal of diuretic-associated impaired glucose tolerance and new-onset diabetes: results of the STAR-LET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George; Molitch, Mark; Zhou, Qian; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Champion, Annette; Bacher, Peter; Sowers, James R

    2008-01-01

    Reversal of new-onset diabetes secondary to thiazide diuretic use remains questionable. STAR-LET was a 6-month extension of the Study of Trandolapril/Verapamil SR and Insulin Resistance (STAR), which assessed the effects of a fixed-dose renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination on changes in 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. STAR-LET explored whether the glycemic impact of HCTZ could be reversed by conversion to a RASI/verapamil combination. The primary outcome was change in 2-hour OGTT results. Fifty-one percent of the STAR patients were enrolled in STAR-LET. The 2-hour OGTT value (mmol/L) was unchanged from STAR baseline in the RASI/verapamil group (7.7+/-2.4 vs 8.1+/-3.3; P=.18) and improved in those who were switched from RASI/HCTZ to RASI/verapamil (8.5+/-3.0 vs 7.2+/-2.3; P<.001). This exploratory study suggests that the impairment in glycemic control seen with use of a thiazide diuretic combined with a RASI can be reversed by switching to a regimen that does not include a diuretic.

  10. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Leopold Busse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISDirect and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG. Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021 and in musclestrength (p < 0.001, with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.

  11. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure.

  12. Violence Exposure and the Development of School-Related Functioning: Mental Health, Neurocognition, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Suzanne; Graham-Bermann, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The relation between history of violence exposure and the development of academic and mental health problems is explored. Violence exposed children have an increased risk of developing school-related problems including: mental health problems, learning disabilities, language impairments, and other neurocognitive problems. These problems interact to create a complex web of deficits and disabilities where intervention access points are difficult to assess. Often mental health problems and academic problems develop in parallel. Timing of violence exposure and the developmental stage of the child during exposure complicate our understanding of the underlying mechanism. A model is presented that explores pathways linking violence exposure to aspects of school-related functioning, both academically and behaviorally. Early life stress, in the form of violence exposure, is related to neurocognitive deficits, including executive functioning and problems in self-regulation. Deficits in self-regulation at the level of behavior, and cognitive control and executive functioning, at the level of brain processing, are related to both academic and mental health problems, suggesting a possible psychological mechanism. Biological mechanisms are also included in the model to illustrate the contribution of the stress response, neuroendocrine system response, and neuroanatomical structural and functional impairments associated with violence exposure. PMID:22837647

  13. Subsyndromal depressive symptoms are associated with functional impairment in patients with bipolar disorder : Results of a large, multisite study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, Lori L.; Post, Robert M.; Black, David O.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Kupka, Ralph W.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; McElroy, Susan L.; Walden, Joerg; Mintz, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Studies of patients with unipolar depression have demonstrated a relationship between subthreshold depressive symptoms and impairment in role functioning. Research examining this relationship in persons with bipolar disorder is rare. This study sought to evaluate the association between

  14. Affective symptoms in schizophrenia are strongly associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, visual memory, attention and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Thika, Supaksorn; Anderson, George; Galecki, Piotr; Maes, Michael

    2018-01-03

    The aim of this study was to assess the neurocognitive correlates of affective symptoms in schizophrenia. Towards this end, 40 healthy controls and 80 schizophrenia patients were investigated with six tests of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), assessing spatial working memory, paired-association learning, one touch stocking, rapid visual information (RVP), emotional recognition test and intra/extradimensional set shifting. The Hamilton Depression (HDRS) and Anxiety (HAMA) Rating Scales and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) as well as the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were also used. There were highly significant associations between all 6 CANTAB tests and HDRS, HAMA and CDSS (except RVP) scores. The most significant items associating with neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia were self-depreciation (CDSS), fatigue, psychomotor retardation and agitation, psychic and somatic anxiety (HDRS), fears, cognitive symptoms, somatic-muscular, genito-urinary and autonomic symptoms and anxious behavior (HAMA). The selected HDRS and HAMA symptoms indicate fatigue, fears, anxiety, agitation, retardation, somatization and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) and are therefore labeled "FAARS". Up to 28.8% of the variance in the 6 CANTAB measurements was explained by FAARS, which are better predictors of neurocognitive impairments than the PANSS negative subscale score. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are best predicted by FAARS combined with difficulties in abstract thinking. In conclusion, depression and anxiety symptoms accompanying the negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with neurocognitive deficits indicating disorders in executive functions, attention, visual memory, and social cognition. Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia reflect difficulties in abstract thinking and FAARS, including subjective cognitive complaints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Clinical and neurocognitive outcome in symptomatic isovaleric acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its first description over 40 years ago, knowledge of the clinical course of isovaleric acidemia (IVA, a disorder predisposing to severe acidotic episodes during catabolic stress, is still anecdotal. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic presentation and factors determining the neurological and neurocognitive outcomes of patients diagnosed with IVA following clinical manifestation. Methods Retrospective data on 21 children and adults with symptomatic IVA diagnosed from 1976 to 1999 were analyzed for outcome determinants including age at diagnosis and number of catabolic episodes. Sixteen of 21 patients were evaluated cross-sectionally focusing on the neurological and neurocognitive status. Additionally, 155 cases of patients with IVA published in the international literature were reviewed and analyzed for outcome parameters including mortality. Results 57% of study patients (12/21 were diagnosed within the first weeks of life and 43% (9/21 in childhood. An acute metabolic attack was the main cause of diagnostic work-up. 44% of investigated study patients (7/16 showed mild motor dysfunction and only 19% (3/16 had cognitive deficits. No other organ complications were found. The patients' intelligence quotient was not related to the number of catabolic episodes but was inversely related to age at diagnosis. In published cases, mortality was high (33% if associated with neonatal diagnosis, following manifestation at an average age of 7 days. Conclusions Within the group of "classical" organic acidurias, IVA appears to be exceptional considering its milder neuropathologic implications. The potential to avoid neonatal mortality and to improve neurologic and cognitive outcome under early treatment reinforces IVA to be qualified for newborn screening.

  16. The relationship of neurocognition and negative symptoms to social and role functioning over time in individuals at clinical high risk in the first phase of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric C; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Heinssen, Robert; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-11-01

    Impaired social, role, and neurocognitive functioning are preillness characteristics of people who later develop psychosis. In people with schizophrenia, neurocognition and negative symptoms are associated with functional impairment. We examined the relative contributions of neurocognition and symptoms to social and role functioning over time in clinically high-risk (CHR) individuals and determined if negative symptoms mediated the influence of cognition on functioning. Social, role, and neurocognitive functioning and positive, negative, and disorganized symptoms were assessed in 167 individuals at CHR for psychosis in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Phase 1 (NAPLS-1), of whom 96 were reassessed at 12 months. Regression analyses indicated that negative symptoms accounted for unique variance in social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up. Composite neurocognition accounted for unique, but modest, variance in social and role functioning at baseline and in role functioning at follow-up. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between composite neurocognition and social and role functioning across time points. In exploratory analyses, individual tests (IQ estimate, Digit Symbol/Coding, verbal memory) selectively accounted for social and role functioning at baseline and follow-up after accounting for symptoms. When negative symptom items with content overlapping with social and role functioning measures were removed, the relationship between neurocognition and social and role functioning was strengthened. The modest overlap among neurocognition, negative symptoms, and social and role functioning indicates that these domains make substantially separate contributions to CHR individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults: Results from the HOPE HOME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstak, Emily; Johnson, Julene K; Tieu, Lina; Guzman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Lee, Christopher T; Jamora, Christina Weyer; Kushel, Margot

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated cognitive function and factors associated with cognitive impairment in a cohort of older homeless adults. We hypothesized that substance use and a history of traumatic brain injury would be associated with cognitive impairment. We recruited 350 homeless individuals aged ≥50 years using population-based sampling and conducted structured interviews and neuropsychological testing. We evaluated alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, defining high-severity alcohol use as a total score ≥16 or ≥4 on the alcohol dependency sub-scale. We assessed global cognition with the Modified Mini-Mental State Test (3MS) and processing speed and executive function with the Trail Making Test (TMTB), defining impairment as performing 1.5 standard deviations below the standardized mean. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between alcohol use and cognition. Participants had a median age of 58 years [IQR 54-61], 76.7% were men, and 79.9% were African American. A quarter (25.1%) of participants met criteria for impairment on the 3MS; 32.9% met criteria for impairment on TMTB. In models adjusted for sociodemographic variables and health conditions, high-severity alcohol use was associated with global cognitive impairment (AOR 2.39, CI 1.19-4.79) and executive dysfunction (AOR 3.09, CI 1.61-5.92). Older homeless adults displayed a prevalence of cognitive impairment 3-4 times higher than has been observed in general population adults aged 70 and older. Impaired cognition in older homeless adults could impact access to housing programs and the treatment of health conditions, including the treatment of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in visual vs. verbal memory impairments as a result of focal temporal lobe damage in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Mar; Pueyo, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Mataró, María; Poca, María Antonia; Mena, Maria Pau; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2006-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the type of lesion in a sample of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) was related to material-specific memory impairment. Fifty-nine patients with TBI were classified into three groups according to whether the site of the lesion was right temporal, left temporal or diffuse. Six-months post-injury, visual (Warrington's Facial Recognition Memory Test and Rey's Complex Figure Test) and verbal (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test) memories were assessed. Visual memory deficits assessed by facial memory were associated with right temporal lobe lesion, whereas verbal memory performance assessed with a list of words was related to left temporal lobe lesion. The group with diffuse injury showed both verbal and visual memory impairment. These results suggest a material-specific memory impairment in moderate and severe TBI after focal temporal lesions and a non-specific memory impairment after diffuse damage.

  19. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  20. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Blair

    Full Text Available Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  1. Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Effective early education is essential for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, particularly for children in poverty. Advances in neuroscience suggest that a focus on self-regulation in education can enhance children's engagement in learning and establish beneficial academic trajectories in the early elementary grades. Here, we experimentally evaluate an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten that embeds support for self-regulation, particularly executive functions, into literacy, mathematics, and science learning activities. Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children indicated positive effects on executive functions, reasoning ability, the control of attention, and levels of salivary cortisol and alpha amylase. Results also demonstrated improvements in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten that increased into the first grade. A number of effects were specific to high-poverty schools, suggesting that a focus on executive functions and associated aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education holds promise for closing the achievement gap.

  2. Association Between a Single General Anesthesia Exposure Before Age 36 Months and Neurocognitive Outcomes in Later Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lena S; Li, Guohua; Miller, Tonya L K; Salorio, Cynthia; Byrne, Mary W; Bellinger, David C; Ing, Caleb; Park, Raymond; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Hays, Stephen R; DiMaggio, Charles J; Cooper, Timothy J; Rauh, Virginia; Maxwell, Lynne G; Youn, Ahrim; McGowan, Francis X

    2016-06-07

    Exposure of young animals to commonly used anesthetics causes neurotoxicity including impaired neurocognitive function and abnormal behavior. The potential neurocognitive and behavioral effects of anesthesia exposure in young children are thus important to understand. To examine if a single anesthesia exposure in otherwise healthy young children was associated with impaired neurocognitive development and abnormal behavior in later childhood. Sibling-matched cohort study conducted between May 2009 and April 2015 at 4 university-based US pediatric tertiary care hospitals. The study cohort included sibling pairs within 36 months in age and currently 8 to 15 years old. The exposed siblings were healthy at surgery/anesthesia. Neurocognitive and behavior outcomes were prospectively assessed with retrospectively documented anesthesia exposure data. A single exposure to general anesthesia during inguinal hernia surgery in the exposed sibling and no anesthesia exposure in the unexposed sibling, before age 36 months. The primary outcome was global cognitive function (IQ). Secondary outcomes included domain-specific neurocognitive functions and behavior. A detailed neuropsychological battery assessed IQ and domain-specific neurocognitive functions. Parents completed validated, standardized reports of behavior. Among the 105 sibling pairs, the exposed siblings (mean age, 17.3 months at surgery/anesthesia; 9.5% female) and the unexposed siblings (44% female) had IQ testing at mean ages of 10.6 and 10.9 years, respectively. All exposed children received inhaled anesthetic agents, and anesthesia duration ranged from 20 to 240 minutes, with a median duration of 80 minutes. Mean IQ scores between exposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 108; verbal = 111) and unexposed siblings (scores: full scale = 111; performance = 107; verbal = 111) were not statistically significantly different. Differences in mean IQ scores between sibling pairs were

  3. the effect of pulmonary tuberculosis on neurocognitive function

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    2Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University Teaching Hospital. 3Department of ... Tuberculosis on neurocognitive functions in HIV+ adults in Lusaka ... look for sex differences in neuropsychological functions. 12 over time in ...

  4. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computerised neurocognitive baseline testing in the sports concus- sion context,. 1 ... testing for athletes at this time is scientifically unfounded, financially irresponsible and .... medical management in respect of the sports concussive injury. It.

  5. Community environment, cognitive impairment and dementia in later life: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andrew P; Barnes, Linda E; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of the community environment, as distinct from area deprivation, on cognition in later life. This study explores cross-sectional associations between cognitive impairment and dementia and environmental features at the community level in older people. The postcodes of the 2,424 participants in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study in England were mapped into small area level geographical units (Lower-layer Super Output Areas) and linked to environmental data in government statistics. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to investigate associations between cognitive impairment (defined as MMSE ≤ 25), dementia (organicity level ≥3 in GMS-AGECAT) and community level measurements including area deprivation, natural environment, land use mix and crime. Sensitivity analyses tested the impact of people moving residence within the last two years. Higher levels of area deprivation and crime were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment and dementia after accounting for individual level factors. Living in areas with high land use mix was significantly associated with a nearly 60% reduced odds of dementia (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) after adjusting for individual level factors and area deprivation, but there was no linear trend for cognitive impairment. Increased odds of dementia (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.2) and cognitive impairment (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.0) were found in the highest quartile of natural environment availability. Findings were robust to exclusion of the recently relocated. Features of land use have complex associations with cognitive impairment and dementia. Further investigations should focus on environmental influences on cognition to inform health and social policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  6. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Ting; Brinkman, Tara M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Mzayek, Yasmin; Liu, Wei; Banerjee, Pia; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Srivastava, Deokumar; Pui, Ching-Hon; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Krull, Kevin R

    2017-09-01

    Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which may be associated with fatigue, sleep problems, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress. We examined these associations among survivors of childhood ALL treated with chemotherapy only. Survivors of childhood ALL (male, n = 35 and female, n = 35; mean age, 14.3 years [standard deviation, 4.7 years] and mean years from diagnosis, 7.4 years [standard deviation, 1.9 years]) completed neurocognitive testing, behavioral ratings, and reported sleep quality and fatigue symptoms 5 years after diagnosis. Serum was collected concurrently and assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. General linear modeling was used to assess associations among biomarkers and functional outcomes, adjusting for age and stratified by sex. Survivors performed worse than population norms on executive function and processing speed and reported more behavioral problems (P fatigue was associated with poor executive function (r = 0.41; P = .02), processing speed (r = 0.56; P fatigue measures were observed. Neurocognitive function in female survivors of childhood ALL appears more susceptible to the effects of sleep disturbance and fatigue. Systemic inflammation may play a role in neurocognitive impairment and behavioral symptoms. Cancer 2017;123:3410-9. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Systematic review of the neurocognitive outcomes used in studies of paediatric anaesthesia neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nicola Groes

    2018-01-01

    Summary Neurotoxicity of anaesthetics in developing brain cells is well documented in preclinical studies, yet results are conflicting in humans. The use of many and different outcome measures in human studies may contribute to this disagreement. We conducted a systematic review to identify all...... for studies investigating neurocognitive outcome after GA in children countries during 1990-2017. Most assessments were performed within cognition, sensory-motor development, academic achievement or neuropsychological diagnosis. Few studies assessed other...... Anaesthesia, General; Child Development; Infant; Review...

  8. Neurocognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Wall

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is estimated that 30% to 40% of adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD do not receive full benefit from current antidepressant therapies. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a novel therapy approved by the US FDA to treat adults with MDD. Research suggests rTMS is not associated with adverse neurocognitive effects in adult populations; however, there is no documentation of its neurocognitive effects in adolescents. This is a secondary post hoc analysis of neurocognitive outcome in adolescents who were treated with open label rTMS in two separate studies. Methods: Eighteen patients (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; 11 females, 7 males with MDD who failed to adequately respond to at least 1 antidepressant agent were enrolled in the studies. Fourteen patients completed all 30 rTMS treatments (5 days/week, 120% of motor threshold, 10 Hz, 3,000 stimulations per session applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC. Depression was rated using the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R. Neurocognitive evaluation was performed at baseline and after completion of 30 rTMS treatments with the Children’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test (CAVLT and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (DKEFS Trail Making Test. Results: Over the course of 30 rTMS treatments, adolescents showed a substantial decrease in depression severity and a statistically significant improvement in memory and delayed verbal recall. Other learning and memory indices and executive function remained intact. Neither participants nor their family members reported clinically meaningful changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest rTMS does not adversely impact neurocognitive functioning in adolescents and may provide subtle enhancement of verbal memory as measured by the CAVLT. Further controlled investigations are warranted to confirm and extend these findings.

  9. Neurocognitive predictors of transition to psychosis: medium- to long-term findings from a sample at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A; Yung, A R; Nelson, B; Brewer, W J; Riley, R; Simmons, M; Pantelis, C; Wood, S J

    2013-11-01

    Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show reduced neurocognitive performance across domains but it is unclear which reductions are associated with transition to frank psychosis. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in baseline neurocognitive performance between UHR participants with (UHR-P) and without transition to psychosis (UHR-NP) and a healthy control (HC) group and examine neurocognitive predictors of transition over the medium to long term. A sample of 325 UHR participants recruited consecutively from the Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic in Melbourne and 66 HCs completed a neurocognitive assessment at baseline. The UHR group was followed up between 2.39 and 14.86 (median = 6.45) years later. Cox regression was used to investigate candidate neurocognitive predictors of psychosis onset. The UHR group performed more poorly than the HC group across a range of neurocognitive domains but only performance on digit symbol coding and picture completion differed between the groups. The risk of transition was only significantly associated with poorer performance on visual reproduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.919, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.876-0.965, p = 0.001] and matrix reasoning (HR 0.938, 95% CI 0.883-0.996, p = 0.037). These remained significant even after controlling for psychopathology at baseline. This study is the longest follow-up of an UHR sample to date. UHR status was associated with poorer neurocognitive performance compared to HCs on some tasks. Cognition at identification as UHR was not a strong predictor of risk for transition to psychosis. The results suggests the need to include more experimental paradigms that isolate discrete cognitive processes to better understand neurocognition at this early stage of illness.

  10. Effects of social cognitive impairment on speech disorder in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Nancy M; McCleery, Amanda; Divilbiss, Marielle; Schumann, Emily B; Moe, Aubrey; Shakeel, Mohammed K

    2013-05-01

    Disordered speech in schizophrenia impairs social functioning because it impedes communication with others. Treatment approaches targeting this symptom have been limited by an incomplete understanding of its causes. This study examined the process underpinnings of speech disorder, assessed in terms of communication failure. Contributions of impairments in 2 social cognitive abilities, emotion perception and theory of mind (ToM), to speech disorder were assessed in 63 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 21 nonpsychiatric participants, after controlling for the effects of verbal intelligence and impairments in basic language-related neurocognitive abilities. After removal of the effects of the neurocognitive variables, impairments in emotion perception and ToM each explained additional variance in speech disorder in the patients but not the controls. The neurocognitive and social cognitive variables, taken together, explained 51% of the variance in speech disorder in the patients. Schizophrenic disordered speech may be less a concomitant of "positive" psychotic process than of illness-related limitations in neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning.

  11. Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

  12. Targeting Complex Sentences in Older School Children with Specific Language Impairment: Results from an Early-Phase Treatment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Catherine H.; Scott, Cheryl M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effects of a complex sentence treatment at 2 dosage levels on language performance of 30 school-age children ages 10-14 years with specific language impairment. Method: Three types of complex sentences (adverbial, object complement, relative) were taught in sequence in once or twice weekly dosage conditions.…

  13. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, Giesje; Donga, Esther; van Someren, Eus; Bot, Mariska; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, François

    AIMS: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  14. Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.; Donga, E.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Bot, M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of

  15. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying social learning in infancy: infants' neural processing of the effects of others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-10-01

    Social transmission of knowledge is one of the reasons for human evolutionary success, and it has been suggested that already human infants possess eminent social learning abilities. However, nothing is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms that subserve infants' acquisition of novel action knowledge through the observation of other people's actions and their consequences in the physical world. In an electroencephalogram study on social learning in infancy, we demonstrate that 9-month-old infants represent the environmental effects of others' actions in their own motor system, although they never achieved these effects themselves before. The results provide first insights into the neurocognitive basis of human infants' unique ability for social learning of novel action knowledge.

  16. The role of self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity versus neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making in the prediction of relapse in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudriaan, A E; Oosterlaan, J; De Beurs, E; Van Den Brink, W

    2008-01-01

    Disinhibition and decision-making skills play an important role in theories on the cause and outcome of addictive behaviors such as substance use disorders and pathological gambling. In recent studies, both disinhibition and disadvantageous decision-making strategies, as measured by neurocognitive tests, have been found to influence the course of substance use disorders. Research on factors affecting relapse in pathological gambling is scarce. This study investigated the effect of both self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity, and neurocognitively assessed disinhibition and decision-making under conflicting contingencies, on relapse in a group of 46 pathological gamblers. Logistic regression analysis indicated that longer duration of the disorder and neurocognitive indicators of disinhibition (Stop Signal Reaction Time) and decision-making (Card Playing Task) were significant predictors of relapse (explaining 53% of the variance in relapse), whereas self-reported impulsivity and reward sensitivity did not significantly predict relapse. Overall classification accuracy was 76%, with a positive classification accuracy of 76% and a negative classification accuracy of 75%. Duration of the disorder and neurocognitive measures of disinhibition and decision-making are powerful predictors of relapse in pathological gambling. The results suggest that endophenotypical neurocognitive characteristics are more promising in the prediction of relapse in pathological gambling than phenotypical personality characteristics. Neurocognitive predictors may be useful to guide treatment planning of follow-up contacts and booster sessions.

  17. Theory of Mind as a mediator variable between neurocognition and functioning in young individuals in treatment with secondary services for non-psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Carrión, Ricardo E; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Parisi, Maurizio; Rullo, Santo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Biondi, Massimo; Cadenhead, Kristin

    2016-12-30

    A large body of studies provides evidence for a link between neurocognition, theory of mind (ToM) and functioning in psychotic spectrum disorders (PSDs), with ToM mediating the effect that neurocognition has on functioning. These three constructs and the related mediation effect may characterize different psychiatric syndromes other than PSDs. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to baseline data from a longitudinal study of 138 young individuals with a recent-onset psychiatric disorder. Using SEM, we tested the hypothesis that ToM mediates the effect of neurocognition on functioning independent of the level of psychosis risk and the diagnostic category. In the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a significant indirect effect that was the association of social cognition with neurocognition and with functional outcome. ToM was significantly associated with neurocognition and the path from neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as soon as the mediator (ToM) was entered into the mediation model consistent with a complete mediation effect through ToM. This mediation was independent of the psychosis-risk status and the psychiatric diagnoses. Our results provide useful information on a young psychiatric sample, in which specific therapeutic interventions have the potential to significantly limit functional disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do Elite and Amateur Soccer Players Outperform Non-Athletes on Neurocognitive Functioning? A Study Among 8-12 Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgh, Lot; Scherder, Erik J A; Van Lange, Paul A M; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children. A total of 168 preadolescent boys, aged 8 to 12 years, were recruited from various locations, including primary schools, an amateur soccer club, and a professional soccer club, to increase variability in the amount of participation in sports. All children performed neurocognitive tasks measuring inhibition, short term memory, working memory, attention and information processing speed. Regression analyses examined the predictive power of a broad range of physical activities, including sports, active transport to school, physical education (PE), outdoor play, and sedentary behaviour such as TV-watching and gaming, for neurocognitive functioning. Time spent in sports significantly accounted for the variance in inhibition, short term memory, working memory and lapses of attention, where more time spent in sports was associated with better performance. Outdoor play was also positively associated with working memory. In contrast, time spent on the computer was negatively associated with inhibition. Results of the current study suggest a positive relationship between participation in sports and several important neurocognitive functions. Interventions are recommended to increase sports participation and to reduce sedentary behaviour in preadolescent children.

  19. Do Elite and Amateur Soccer Players Outperform Non-Athletes on Neurocognitive Functioning? A Study Among 8-12 Year Old Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lot Verburgh

    Full Text Available Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children.A total of 168 preadolescent boys, aged 8 to 12 years, were recruited from various locations, including primary schools, an amateur soccer club, and a professional soccer club, to increase variability in the amount of participation in sports. All children performed neurocognitive tasks measuring inhibition, short term memory, working memory, attention and information processing speed. Regression analyses examined the predictive power of a broad range of physical activities, including sports, active transport to school, physical education (PE, outdoor play, and sedentary behaviour such as TV-watching and gaming, for neurocognitive functioning.Time spent in sports significantly accounted for the variance in inhibition, short term memory, working memory and lapses of attention, where more time spent in sports was associated with better performance. Outdoor play was also positively associated with working memory. In contrast, time spent on the computer was negatively associated with inhibition.Results of the current study suggest a positive relationship between participation in sports and several important neurocognitive functions. Interventions are recommended to increase sports participation and to reduce sedentary behaviour in preadolescent children.

  20. The role of low cognitive effort and negative symptoms in neuropsychological impairment in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Morra, Lindsay F; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether insufficient effort, negative symptoms (e.g., avolition, anhedonia), and psychological variables (e.g., anhedonia and perception of low cognitive resources) predict generalized neurocognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia (SZ). In Experiment 1, participants included 97 individuals with SZ and 63 healthy controls (CN) who completed the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and self-report anhedonia questionnaires. In Experiment 2, participants included 46 individuals with SZ and 33 CN who completed Green's Word Memory Test (WMT), the MCCB, and self-reports of anhedonia, defeatist performance beliefs, and negative expectancy appraisals. RESULTS indicated that a low proportion of individuals with SZ failed effort testing (1.0% Experiment 1; 15.2% Experiment 2); however, global neurocognitive impairment was significantly predicted by low effort and negative symptoms. Findings indicate that low effort does not threaten the validity of neuropsychological test results in the majority of individuals with schizophrenia; however, effort testing may be useful in SZ patients with severe negative symptoms who may be more likely to put forth insufficient effort due to motivational problems. Although the base rate of failure is relatively low, it may be beneficial to screen for insufficient effort in SZ and exclude individuals who fail effort testing from pharmacological or cognitive remediation trials. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Identifying HIV associated neurocognitive disorder using large-scale Granger causality analysis on resting-state functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M.; Abidin, Anas Z.; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the applicability of large-scale Granger Causality (lsGC) for extracting a measure of multivariate information flow between pairs of regional brain activities from resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and test the effectiveness of these measures for predicting a disease state. Such pairwise multivariate measures of interaction provide high-dimensional representations of connectivity profiles for each subject and are used in a machine learning task to distinguish between healthy controls and individuals presenting with symptoms of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Cognitive impairment in several domains can occur as a result of HIV infection of the central nervous system. The current paradigm for assessing such impairment is through neuropsychological testing. With fMRI data analysis, we aim at non-invasively capturing differences in brain connectivity patterns between healthy subjects and subjects presenting with symptoms of HAND. To classify the extracted interaction patterns among brain regions, we use a prototype-based learning algorithm called Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization (GMLVQ). Our approach to characterize connectivity using lsGC followed by GMLVQ for subsequent classification yields good prediction results with an accuracy of 87% and an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of up to 0.90. We obtain a statistically significant improvement (p<0.01) over a conventional Granger causality approach (accuracy = 0.76, AUC = 0.74). High accuracy and AUC values using our multivariate method to connectivity analysis suggests that our approach is able to better capture changes in interaction patterns between different brain regions when compared to conventional Granger causality analysis known from the literature.

  2. Distinct alterations in value-based decision-making and cognitive control in suicide attempters: toward a dual neurocognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Olié, Emilie; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bechara, Antoine; Courtet, Philippe; Jollant, Fabrice

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that many suicide attempters show impairment in both decision-making and cognitive control. However, it is not clear if these deficits are linked to each other, and if they may be related to more basic alterations in attention. This is a relevant question in the perspective of future interventions targeting cognitive deficits to prevent suicidal acts. Two different populations of patients with histories of suicide attempts were assessed (N=142 and 119). The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to measure decision-making in both populations. We used a D2 cancellation task and a verbal working memory task in population 1; the Stroop test, the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test, and the Hayling Sentence Completion test in population 2. Regarding decision-making, we only found a small negative correlation between the Hayling test error score (r=-0.24; p=0.01), and the net score from the second half of the IGT. In contrast, working memory, cognitive flexibility and cognitive inhibition measures were largely inter-correlated. Most patients were medicated. Only patients with mood disorders. These results add to previous findings suggesting that the neurocognitive vulnerability to suicidal behavior may rely on impairments in two distinct anatomical systems, one processing value-based decision-making (associated with ventral prefrontal cortex, among others) and one underlying cognitive control (associated with more dorsal prefrontal regions). This distinction may result in tailored-made cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Open- and Closed-Skill Exercise Interventions Produce Different Neurocognitive Effects on Executive Functions in the Elderly: A 6-Month Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Liang Tsai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the effects of open- and closed-skill exercise interventions on the neurocognitive performance of executive functions in the elderly. Sixty-four healthy elderly males were randomly assigned to either a closed-skill (bike riding or brisk walking/jogging, n = 22, open-skill (table tennis, n = 21, or control (n = 21 group. Various neuropsychological [e.g., accuracy rates (AR and reaction time (RT] and electrophysiological [e.g., event-related potential (ERP P3 component] measures were assessed during a variant of the task-switching paradigm, as well as an N-back task at baseline and after either a 6-month exercise intervention or control period. The results showed that, when performing the task-switching paradigm, the two exercise groups relative to control group showed significantly faster RTs in the switch trials after the exercise intervention. However, the RT facilitation in the non-switch and switch trials post-exercise relative to pre-exercise only emerged in the open-skill group. In terms of the N-back task, the two exercise groups significantly increased ARs in the 1-back condition after the exercise intervention, and the beneficial AR effect on the 2-back condition only emerged in the closed-skill group. In addition, the two exercise groups exhibited significantly larger P3 amplitudes on the frontal-to-parietal cortex areas after the exercise intervention relative to the baseline when performing the two cognitive tasks. These neurocognitive results still remained unchanged even when the confounding factors (e.g., cardiorespiratory fitness, social participation, and BMI were controlled for. The present study concluded that, although 6-month open- and closed-skill exercise interventions facilitate overall electrophysiological effects (i.e., increased ERP P3 amplitudes on the frontal-to-parietal cortices in the elderly, the two exercise modes produced different levels of neuropsychologically beneficial effects on

  4. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C.; Braff, David L.; Calkins, Monica E.; Dobie, Dorcas J.; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D.; Seidman, Larry J.; Siever, Larry J.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Swerdlow, Neal R.; Tsuang, Debby W.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Turetsky, Bruce I.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. Methods The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Results Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs. PMID:25432636

  5. Repeated mild closed head injury impairs short-term visuospatial memory and complex learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylin, Michael J; Orsi, Sara A; Rozas, Natalia S; Hill, Julia L; Zhao, Jing; Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2013-05-01

    Concussive force can cause neurocognitive and neurobehavioral dysfunction by inducing functional, electrophysiological, and/or ultrastructural changes within the brain. Although concussion-triggered symptoms typically subside within days to weeks in most people, in 15%-20% of the cases, symptomology can continue beyond this time point. Problems with memory, attention, processing speed, and cognitive flexibility (e.g., problem solving, conflict resolution) are some of the prominent post-concussive cognitive symptoms. Repeated concussions (with loss or altered consciousness), which are common to many contact sports, can exacerbate these symptoms. The pathophysiology of repeated concussions is not well understood, nor is an effective treatment available. In order to facilitate drug discovery to treat post-concussive symptoms (PCSs), there is a need to determine if animal models of repeated mild closed head injury (mCHI) can mimic the neurocognitive and histopathological consequences of repeated concussions. To this end, we employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device to deliver a mCHI directly to the skull of mice daily for 4 days, and examined the ensuing neurological and neurocognitive functions using beam balance, foot-fault, an abbreviated Morris water maze test, context discrimination, and active place avoidance tasks. Repeated mCHI exacerbated vestibulomotor, motor, short-term memory and conflict learning impairments as compared to a single mCHI. Learning and memory impairments were still observed in repeated mCHI mice when tested 3 months post-injury. Repeated mCHI also reduced cerebral perfusion, prolonged the inflammatory response, and in some animals, caused hippocampal neuronal loss. Our results show that repeated mCHI can reproduce some of the deficits seen after repeated concussions in humans and may be suitable for drug discovery studies and translational research.

  6. HIV-Related Cognitive Impairment of Orphans in Myanmar With Vertically Transmitted HIV Taking Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Kyaw; Fay, Alexander; Meddles, Katherine; Isbell, Sara; Lin, Phyo Nay; Thair, Cho; Heaps, Jodi; Paul, Robert; Mar, Soe Soe

    2015-12-01

    We determined the effect of perinatally acquired HIV on neurocognition in Myanmar children treated with antiretroviral therapy by comparison to demographically matched seronegative children. Myanmar has one of the highest HIV-1 prevalence rates in Southeast Asia. Studies from other resource-poor countries have shown that HIV-infected children differ in socioeconomic, nutritional and caregiver status compared to normal controls. Some vertically infected orphans in Myanmar reside separately from HIV-uninfected children in separate orphanages, thus the demographic variables of interest are naturally controlled. This study provides a unique evaluation of the neurocognitive effects of HIV in children, with control over key demographic variables. We hypothesized that HIV-infected orphans would perform significantly worse on cognitive indices compared with HIV-negative orphans. A battery of cognitive tests sensitive to HIV-associated impairments in children was administered to 28 perinatally acquired HIV-positive children and 31 HIV-negative children from two orphanages in Myanmar; 21 children from each cohort underwent testing at baseline and again after 12 months. Baseline comparison of the two groups indicated that the HIV-infected children performed poorly across all tests, with significant group differences in executive function, visuospatial reasoning, fine motor dexterity, and visual motor integration. On subsequent testing, both cohorts of children showed improvements across multiple domains, with no significant effect of age at treatment initiation. Our results demonstrate a strong effect of HIV infection on specific neurocognitive deficits in vertically infected children. Understanding viral and host determinants and timing and choice of antiretroviral therapy on cognition will be critical to preventing cognitive impairment of children with HIV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysaker Paul H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has indicated that stable individual differences in personality exist among persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders predating illness onset that are linked to symptoms and self appraised quality of life. Less is known about how closely individual differences in personality are uniquely related to levels of social relationships, a domain of dysfunction in schizophrenia more often linked in the literature with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits. This study tested the hypothesis that trait levels of personality as defined using the five-factor model of personality would be linked to social function in schizophrenia. Methods A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Results Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p 2 = .67, p Conclusions Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.

  8. Prospective Evaluation of Quality of Life and Neurocognitive Effects in Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases Receiving Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With or Without Thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Fox, Sherry W.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Curran, Walter J.; Robins, H. Ian; Brachman, David G.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0118 randomized patients with multiple brain metastases to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± thalidomide. This secondary analysis of 156 patients examined neurocognitive and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. Methods and Materials: Quality of life was determined with the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI). The Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) assessed neurocognitive function. SQLI and MMSE were administered at baseline and at 2-month intervals. MMSE was scored with a threshold value associated with neurocognitive functioning (absolute cutoff level of 23) and with the use of corrections for age and educational level. Results: Baseline SQLI predicted survival. Patients with SQLI of 7-10 vs. <7 had median survival time (MST) of 4.8 vs. 3.1 months, p = 0.05. Both arms showed steady neurocognitive declines, but SQLI scores remained stable. Higher levels of neurocognitive decline were observed with age and education-level corrections. Of patients considered baseline age/educational level neurocognitive failures, 32% died of intracranial progression. Conclusions: Quality of life and neuropsychological testing can be prospectively administered on a Phase III cooperative group trial. The MMSE should be evaluated with adjustments for age and educational level. Baseline SQLI is predictive of survival. Despite neurocognitive declines, QOL remained stable during treatment and follow-up. Poor neurocognitive function may predict clinical deterioration. Lack of an untreated control arm makes it difficult to determine the contribution of the respective interventions (i.e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population

  9. Neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of social problems in ADHD: A Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Harmon, Sherelle L; Aduen, Paula A; Day, Taylor N; Austin, Kristin E; Spiegel, Jamie A; Irwin, Lauren; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-03-01

    Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports. Bayesian linear regressions revealed strong support for working memory and cross-informant interfering behaviors (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) as predictors of parent- and teacher-reported social problems. Working memory was also implicated in social skills acquisition deficits, performance deficits, and strengths based on parent and/or teacher report; inattention and/or hyperactivity showed strong correspondence with cross-informant social problems in all models. There was no evidence for, and in most models strong evidence against, effects of inhibitory control and processing speed. The ADHD group was impaired relative to the non-ADHD group on social skills (d = 0.82-0.88), visuospatial working memory (d = 0.89), and phonological working memory (d = 0.58). In contrast, the Bayesian ANOVAs indicated that the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were equivalent on processing speed, IQ, age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). There was no support for or against group differences in inhibition. These findings confirm that ADHD is associated with impaired social performance, and implicate working memory and core ADHD symptoms in the acquisition and performance of socially skilled behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Course of Neurocognitive Changes in Acute Psychosis: Relation to Symptomatic Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liss Anda

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a core aspect of psychosis, but the course of cognitive functioning during acute psychosis remains poorly understood, as does the association between symptom change and neurocognitive change. Some studies have found cognitive improvement to be related to improvement in negative symptoms, but few have examined cognitive changes in the early acute phase, when clinical improvement mainly happens. This study's aim was to investigate the relation between cognitive and symptomatic change in clinically heterogeneous patients during the early acute phase of psychosis.Participants (n = 84, including both first-episode and previously ill patients, were recruited from consecutive admissions to the acute psychiatric emergency ward of Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, as part of the Bergen Psychosis Project (BPP. The RBANS neurocognitive test battery was administered on admission and again at discharge from the acute ward (mean time 4.1 weeks, SD 1.86 weeks. Symptomatic change was measured by PANSS.The proportion of subjects with cognitive impairment (t < 35 was 28.6% in the acute phase and 13.1% at follow-up. A sequential multiple linear regression model with RBANS change as the dependent variable found PANSS negative symptoms change to significantly predict total RBANS performance improvement (beta = -.307, p = .016. There was no significant difference between subjects with schizophrenia and those with other psychotic disorders in terms of cognitive change.The proportion of subjects with mild to moderate impairment in cognitive test performance is reduced across the acute phase of psychosis, with improvement related to amelioration of negative symptoms.

  11. "Theory of food" as a neurocognitive adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John S

    2012-01-01

    Human adult cognition emerges over the course of development via the interaction of multiple critical neurocognitive networks. These networks evolved in response to various selection pressures, many of which were modified or intensified by the intellectual, technological, and sociocultural environments that arose in connection with the evolution of genus Homo. Networks related to language and theory of mind clearly play an important role in adult cognition. Given the critical importance of food to both basic survival and cultural interaction, a "theory of food" (analogous to theory of mind) may represent another complex network essential for normal cognition. I propose that theory of food evolved as an internal, cognitive representation of our diets in our minds. Like other complex cognitive abilities, it relies on complex and overlapping dedicated neural networks that develop in childhood under familial and cultural influences. Normative diets are analogous to first languages in that they are acquired without overt teaching; they are also difficult to change or modify once a critical period in development is passed. Theory of food suggests that cognitive activities related to food may be cognitive enhancers, which could have implications for maintaining healthy brain function in aging. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Neurocognitive mechanisms of the flow state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David J; Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2017-01-01

    While the experience of flow is often described in attentional terms-focused concentration or task absorption-specific cognitive mechanisms have received limited interest. We propose that an attentional explanation provides the best way to advance theoretical models and produce practical applications, as well as providing potential solutions to core issues such as how an objectively difficult task can be subjectively effortless. Recent research has begun to utilize brain-imaging techniques to investigate neurocognitive changes during flow, which enables attentional mechanisms to be understood in greater detail. Some tensions within flow research are discussed; including the dissociation between psychophysiological and experiential measures, and the equivocal neuroimaging findings supporting prominent accounts of hypofrontality. While flow has received only preliminary investigation from a neuroscientific perspective, findings already provide important insights into the crucial role played by higher-order attentional networks, and clear indications of reduced activity in brain regions linked to self-referential processing. The manner in which these processes may benefit sporting performance are discussed. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: 3-Year Follow-Up Shows Cognitive Development Lagging behind Healthy Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; West, Amy; Hill, Kristian; Jindal, Kittu; Sweeney, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The comparison of the neurocognitive functioning of people with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) with a control group shows that the developmental progress in executive functions and verbal memory of those with PBD was significantly less than those in the control group. The results were seen after comparing data from baseline cognitive tests and a…

  14. Symptoms versus neurocognition as predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after outpatient rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Wexler, Bruce E; Fujimoto, Marco; Shagan, Dana S; Seltzer, James C

    2008-07-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia account for 20-60% of the variance in measures of outcome, and in many studies are more closely related to outcome than symptoms [Green, M.F., Kern, R.S., Braff, D.L., Mintz, J., 2000. Neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia: are we measuring the "right stuff"? Schizophr. Bull. 26(1), 119-136; Green, M.F., Kern, R.S., Heaton, R.K., 2004. Longitudinal studies of cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: implications for MATRICS. Schizophr. Res. 72(1), 41-51]. Most of these studies have been cross-sectional, few longitudinal studies have investigated the degree to which neurocognition and symptoms predict ability to benefit from outpatient rehabilitation, and no longitudinal studies use measures of everyday life skills that are performance-based. In the current study we investigated the relationship between five measures of neurocognitive function, crystallized verbal ability, visual sustained vigilance, verbal learning, problem-solving, and processing speed, and two measures of symptoms, total positive and negative symptoms, and change on a performance-based measure of everyday life skills after a year of outpatient rehabilitation. Rehabilitation consisted of both psychosocial and cognitive interventions. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were studied. Results of a linear regression model revealed that verbal learning predicted a significant amount of the variance in change in performance-based measures of everyday life skills after outpatient rehabilitation, even when variance for all other variables in the model was accounted for. Measures of crystallized verbal ability, sustained visual vigilance, problem-solving, processing speed and symptoms were not linked to functional status change. These findings emphasize the importance of verbal learning for benefiting from psychosocial and cognitive rehabilitation

  15. Neurocognitive performance in family-based and case-control studies of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Ruben C; Braff, David L; Calkins, Monica E; Dobie, Dorcas J; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Sprock, Joyce; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Gur, Raquel E

    2015-04-01

    Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are established and the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS) investigated such measures as endophenotypes in family-based (COGS-1) and case-control (COGS-2) studies. By requiring family participation, family-based sampling may result in samples that vary demographically and perform better on neurocognitive measures. The Penn computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) evaluates accuracy and speed of performance for several domains and was administered across sites in COGS-1 and COGS-2. Most tests were included in both studies. COGS-1 included 328 patients with SZ and 497 healthy comparison subjects (HCS) and COGS-2 included 1195 patients and 1009 HCS. Demographically, COGS-1 participants were younger, more educated, with more educated parents and higher estimated IQ compared to COGS-2 participants. After controlling for demographics, the two samples produced very similar performance profiles compared to their respective controls. As expected, performance was better and with smaller effect sizes compared to controls in COGS-1 relative to COGS-2. Better performance was most pronounced for spatial processing while emotion identification had large effect sizes for both accuracy and speed in both samples. Performance was positively correlated with functioning and negatively with negative and positive symptoms in both samples, but correlations were attenuated in COGS-2, especially with positive symptoms. Patients ascertained through family-based design have more favorable demographics and better performance on some neurocognitive domains. Thus, studies that use case-control ascertainment may tap into populations with more severe forms of illness that are exposed to less favorable factors compared to those ascertained with family-based designs.

  16. Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Servatius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Coast Guard (CG personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI temperament, and distressed (Type D personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11–20% and 8% (95% CI: 3–9% for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

  17. A Preliminary Multiple Case Report of Neurocognitive Training for Children With AD/HD in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary multiple case study examined the behavioral outcomes of neurocognitive training on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD in China, as well as parent acceptance of the treatment. The training approach targeted working memory, impulse control, and attention/relaxation (via brain electrical activity. Outcome measures included overt behavior as rated by parents and teachers, AD/HD symptom frequency, and parent opinion/feedback. Training was completed by five individuals and delivered via a themed computer game with electroencephalogram (EEG input via a wireless, single-channel, dry-sensor, portable measurement device. The objective (i.e., training outcomes and EEG and subjective (i.e., parent ratings/feedback and teacher ratings data suggested that use of the neurocognitive training resulted in reduced AD/HD behaviors and improvement in socially meaningful outcomes. The parents expressed satisfaction with the training procedure and outcomes. It is concluded that the innovative neurocognitive training approach is effective for improving behavior and reducing symptoms of AD/HD for children in China.

  18. Combined neurocognitive and metacognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: Effects on bias against disconfirmatory evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, M; Bosia, M; Riccaboni, R; Bechi, M; Spangaro, M; Piantanida, M; Cocchi, F; Guglielmino, C; Bianchi, L; Smeraldi, E; Cavallaro, R

    2015-07-01

    A Metacognitive Training for Schizophrenia patients (MCT) was developed to target the cognitive biases that characterize the illness. Results suggest positive MCT effects encompassing several aspects of psychopathology and subjective well-being. There are still open questions concerning the effect on different cognitive biases and the interplay between them and both psychopathology and neurocognition. Specifically, the bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) has never been tested in previous trials on MCT. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of MCT combined with a cognitive remediation therapy (CACR) in schizophrenia and its effect on BADE. Moreover, we investigated the relationships between BADE and both neuropsychology and psychopathology, taking into account mutual influences on the degree of improvement. Fifty-seven schizophrenia outpatients were randomly assigned to CACR + control group or MCT+CACR and assessed at baseline and after treatment for psychopathology, neurocognition and BADE. After MCT+CACR patients showed significantly greater improvements on BADE. Although BADE baseline performances correlated with several cognitive domains, no association was found between BADE improvement and neurocognitive nor psychopathological measures. This study enlightened for the first time the efficacy of MCT+CACR on BADE in schizophrenia, suggesting the importance to develop a more specific intervention tailored on individual needs of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal relations between symptoms, neurocognition and self-concept in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eHesse

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cognitive models suggest that the self-concept of persons with psychosis can be fundamentally affected. Self-concepts were found to be related to different symptom domains when measured concurrently. Longitudinal investigations to disentangle the possible causal associations are rare. Method: We examined a sample of 160 people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who took part in a psychotherapy study. All participants had the DSM-IV diagnosis of a schizophrenia and pronounced negative symptoms. Neurocognition, symptoms and self-concepts were assessed at two time points twelve months apart. Structural equation modelling was used to test whether symptoms influence self-concepts (scar-model or self-concepts affect symptoms (vulnerability model. Results: Negative symptoms correlated concurrently with self-concepts. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with more negative self-concepts twelve months later. Interpersonal self-concepts were found to be relevant for paranoia. Conclusion: The findings implicate that if deficits in neurocognition are present, fostering a positive self-concept should be an issue in therapy. Negative interpersonal self-concept indicates an increased risk for paranoid delusions in the course of one year. New aspects for cognitive models in schizophrenia and clinical implications are discussed

  20. Relationships among neurocognition, symptoms and functioning in patients with schizophrenia: a path-analytic approach for associations at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keefe Richard SE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurocognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms have been associated with deficits in psychosocial and occupational functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis evaluates the relationships among cognition, psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia at baseline and following sustained treatment with antipsychotic drugs. Methods Data were obtained from a clinical trial assessing the cognitive effects of selected antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with olanzapine (n = 159, risperidone (n = 158, or haloperidol (n = 97. Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale [QLS], cognition with a standard battery of neurocognitive tests; and psychiatric symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]. A path-analytic approach was used to evaluate the effects of changes in cognitive functioning on subdomains of quality of life, and to determine whether such effects were direct or mediated via changes in psychiatric symptoms. Results At baseline, processing speed affected functioning mainly indirectly via negative symptoms. Positive symptoms also affected functioning at baseline although independent of cognition. At 24 weeks, changes in processing speed affected changes in functioning both directly and indirectly via PANSS negative subscale scores. Positive symptoms no longer contributed to the path-analytic models. Although a consistent relationship was observed between processing speed and the 3 functional domains, variation existed as to whether the paths were direct and/or indirect. Working memory and verbal memory did not significantly contribute to any of the path-analytic models studied. Conclusion Processing speed demonstrated direct and indirect effects via negative symptoms on three domains of functioning as measured by the QLS at baseline and

  1. Spontaneous mutation of Dock7 results in lower trabecular bone mass and impaired periosteal expansion in aged female Misty mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong T; Bishop, Kathleen A; Maridas, David E; Motyl, Katherine J; Brooks, Daniel J; Nagano, Kenichi; Baron, Roland; Bouxsein, Mary L; Rosen, Clifford J

    2017-12-01

    adipocytes were elevated 3.5 fold over +/+ (p=0.014). Consistent with reduced bone formation, osteoblast gene expression of Alp, Col1a1, Runx-2, Sp7, and Bglap was significantly decreased in m/m whole bone. Furthermore, markers of osteoclasts were either unchanged or suppressed. Bone marrow stromal cell migration and motility were inhibited in culture and changes in senescence markers suggest that osteoblast function may also be inhibited with loss of Dock7 expression in m/m. Finally, increased Oil Red O staining in m/m ear mesenchymal stem cells during adipogenesis highlights a potential shift of cells from the osteogenic to adipogenic lineages. In summary, loss of Dock7 in the aging m/m resulted in an impairment of periosteal and endocortical envelope expansion, but did not alter age-related trabecular bone loss. These studies establish Dock7 as a critical regulator of both cortical and trabecular bone mass, and demonstrate for the first time a novel role of Dock7 in modulating compensatory changes in the periosteum with aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impaired self-agency inferences in schizophrenia: The role of cognitive capacity and causal reasoning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikken, M; van der Weiden, A; Kahn, R S; Aarts, H; van Haren, N E M

    2018-01-01

    The sense of self-agency, i.e., experiencing oneself as the cause of one's own actions, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Normally, inferences of self-agency are enhanced when actual outcomes match with pre-activated outcome information, where this pre-activation can result from explicitly set goals (i.e., goal-based route) or implicitly primed outcome information (i.e., prime-based route). Previous research suggests that patients show specific impairments in the prime-based route, implicating that they do not rely on matches between implicitly available outcome information and actual action-outcomes when inferring self-agency. The question remains: Why? Here, we examine whether neurocognitive functioning and self-serving bias (SSB) may explain abnormalities in patients' agency inferences. Thirty-six patients and 36 healthy controls performed a commonly used agency inference task to measure goal- and prime-based self-agency inferences. Neurocognitive functioning was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the SSB was assessed with the Internal Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire. Results showed a substantial smaller effect of primed outcome information on agency experiences in patients compared with healthy controls. Whereas patients and controls differed on BACS and marginally on SSB scores, these differences were not related to patients' impairments in prime-based agency inferences. Patients showed impairments in prime-based agency inferences, thereby replicating previous studies. This finding could not be explained by cognitive dysfunction or SSB. Results are discussed in the context of the recent surge to understand and examine deficits in agency experiences in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Reward Learning, Neurocognition, Social Cognition, and Symptomatology in Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Whitton, Alexis E; Pizzagalli, Diego A; Norris, Lesley A; Ongur, Dost; Hall, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with psychosis spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social and neurocognition, as well as hallmark abnormalities in motivation and reward processing. Aspects of reward processing may overlap behaviorally and neurobiologically with some elements of cognitive functioning, and abnormalities in these processes may share partially overlapping etiologies in patients. However, whether reward processing and cognition are associated across the psychoses and linked to state and trait clinical symptomatology is unclear. The present study examined associations between cognitive functioning, reward learning, and clinical symptomatology in a cross-diagnostic sample. Patients with schizophrenia (SZ; n = 37), bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BD; n = 42), and healthy controls (n = 29) were assessed for clinical symptoms (patients only), neurocognitive functioning using the MATRICS Battery (MCCB) and reward learning using the probabilistic reward task (PRT). Groups were compared on neurocognition and PRT response bias, and associations between PRT response bias and neurocognition or clinical symptoms were examined controlling for demographic variables and PRT task difficulty (discriminability). Patients with SZ performed worse than controls on most measures of neurocognition; patients with BD exhibited deficits in some domains between the level of patients with SZ and controls. The SZ - but not BD - group exhibited deficits in social cognition compared to controls. Patients and controls did not differ on PRT response bias, but did differ on PRT discriminability. Better response bias across the sample was associated with poorer social cognition, but not neurocognition; conversely, discriminability was associated with neurocognition but not social cognition. Symptoms of psychosis, particularly negative symptoms, were associated with poorer response bias across patient groups. Reward learning was associated with symptoms of psychosis - in particular negative

  4. The impact of transsphenoidal surgery on neurocognitive function: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsumali, Adnan; Cote, David J; Regestein, Quentin R; Crocker, Erin; Alzarea, Abdulaziz; Zaidi, Hasan A; Bi, Wenya Linda; Dawood, Hassan Y; Broekman, Marike L; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Mekary, Rania A; Smith, Timothy R

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive impairment following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) among patients with pituitary tumors has been intermittently reported and is not well established. We performed a systematic review to summarize the impact of TSS on cognitive function. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using the PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases through October 2014. Studies were selected if they reported cognitive status after surgery and included at least 10 adult patients with pituitary tumors undergoing either endoscopic or microscopic TSS. After removing 69 duplicates, 758 articles were identified, of which 24 were selected for full text review after screening titles and abstracts. After reviewing full texts, nine studies with a combined total of 682 patients were included in the final analysis. Eight studies were cross-sectional and one was longitudinal. These studies used a wide variety of neurocognitive tests to assess memory, attention and executive function post-operatively. Of the eight studies, six reported impairments in verbal and non-verbal memory post-operatively, while others found no association related to memory, and some reported an improvement in episodic, verbal, or logical memory. While four studies found an impaired association between TSS and attention or executive function, another four studies did not. The current literature on cognitive impairments after TSS is limited and inconsistent. This review demonstrates that patients undergoing TSS may experience a variety of effects on executive function and memory post-operatively, but changes in verbal memory are most common. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurobiological and neurocognitive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2007-05-01

    Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with adverse effects on cardiac, pulmonary, and vascular function as well as the increased risk for various forms of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of chronic smoking on human brain function. Although smoking rates have decreased in the developed world, they remain high in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Despite the high prevalence of chronic smoking in AUD, few studies have addressed the potential neurobiological or neurocognitive consequences of chronic smoking in alcohol use disorders. Here, we review the the neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in both AUD and chronic cigarette smoking, followed by a review of the effects of comorbid cigarette smoking on neurobiology and neurocognition in AUD. Recent research suggests that comorbid chronic cigarette smoking modulates magnetic resonance-detectable brain injury and neurocognition in alcohol use disorders and adversely affects neurobiological and neurocognitive recovery in abstinent alcoholics.. Consideration of the potential separate and interactive effects of chronic smoking and alcohol use disorders may have significant implications for pharmacological and behavioral treatment interventions.

  6. Apolipoprotein E4 Allele and Gait Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryota; Montero-Odasso, Manuel

    2017-11-09

    The apolipoprotein E polymorphism ε4 allele (ApoE4) and gait impairment are both known risk factors for developing cognitive decline and dementia. However, it is unclear the interrelationship between these factors, particularly among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are considered as prodromal for Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to determine whether ApoE4 carrier individuals with MCI may experience greater impairment in gait performance. Fifty-six older adults with MCI from the "Gait and Brain Study" who were identified as either ApoE4 carriers (n = 20) or non-ApoE4 carriers (n = 36) with 1 year of follow-up were included. Gait variability, the main outcome variable, was assessed as stride time variability with an electronic walkway. Additional gait variables and cognitive performance (mini-mental state examination [MMSE] and Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) were also recorded. Covariates included age, sex, education level, body mass index, and number of comorbidities. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed that gait stride time and stride length variabilities significantly increased in ApoE4 carriers but was maintained in the non-ApoE4 carriers. Similarly, ApoE4 carriers showed greater decrease in MMSE score at follow-up. In this sample of older adults with MCI, the presence of at least one copy of ApoE4 was associated with the development of both increased gait variability and cognitive decline during 1 year of follow-up. ApoE4 genotype might be considered as a potential mediator of decline in mobility function in MCI; future studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our preliminary findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Prevalence and causes of musculoskeletal impairment in Mahabubnagar District, Telangana State, India: results of a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Tracey; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Murthy, G V S; Lavy, Christopher; Polack, Sarah

    2017-11-01

    Musculoskeletal impairments (MSI) are the leading contributor to global years lived with disability. Comparable epidemiological data on MSI is lacking, and are needed to inform health and rehabilitative services. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and causes of MSI in Telangana State, India. A population-based survey used probability proportionate to size and compact-segment sampling to select 51 clusters of 80 individuals (all ages). Participants were screened using seven questions and any participant who screened positive underwent standardized examination by a physiotherapist for MSI presence, severity and diagnosis. Data were also collected on vision and hearing impairment, depression and self-reported difficulties with physical functioning. The prevalence of MSI was 19.6% (95% CI: 16.7-22.8%) and this increased with age. The majority (82%; 574/699) of MSI was classified as mild, 11% as moderate and 7% as severe. Over half (57%) of MSI diagnoses were acquired non-traumatic causes, with degenerative joint disease being the most common. There was a high unmet need for physiotherapy services (3% attended vs. 40% recommended). One-fifth (21%) of MSI cases also had at least one of vision (10%) or hearing (11%) impairment or depression (3%). MSI is common among persons living in Mahabubnagar District, particularly older adults. These estimates can inform public health initiatives for the planning of health and rehabilitation services. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Advantages and Drawbacks of Smartphones and Tablets for Visually Impaired People : Analysis of ICT User Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Toshimitsu; Minatani, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted on the use of ICT by visually impaired people. Among 304 respondents, 81 used smartphones and 44, tablets. Blind people used feature phones at a higher rate and smartphones and tablets at lower rates than people with low vision. The most popular smartphone model was iPhone and the most popular tablet model was iPad. While almost all blind users used the speech output accessibility feature and only a few of them used visual features, low vision users used both visual fea...

  9. The neurocognitive nature of children with ADHD comorbid sluggish cognitive tempo: Might SCT be a disorder of vigilance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytunca, Muharrem Burak; Inci, Sevim Berrin; Ipci, Melis; Kardas, Burcu; Bolat, Gul Unsel; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2018-03-21

    Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) refers to a clinical construct including several symptoms such as sluggishness, absentmindedness, low energy. In the present study, we compared neurocognitive laboratory outcomes of ADHD children with or without SCT. The CNS Vital Signs Battery was utilized to measure neurocognitive measure of the participants. The SCT+ADHD group comprised of 42 subjects, ADHD group was 41 subjects and control group was 24 subjects. The cognitive flexibility score was found to be more severely impaired in ADHD children with SCT in comparison to the ADHD-only. Additionally, greater deficits in the Shifting Attention Test (p = 0.014) and the Continuous Performance Test (reaction time score, p SCT+ADHD group relative to ADHD group. Processing speed, visual/auditory memory, psychomotor speed and reaction time were not found to more impaired in those comorbid with SCT. Impairments in the cognitive flexibility and more specifically shifting attention and continuous performance may be indicative of vigilance and orientation problems rather than executive functions for the SCT construct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  11. Incidental Learning of Sound Categories is Impaired in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. PMID:26409017

  12. Incidental learning of sound categories is impaired in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Yafit; Holt, Lori L

    2015-12-01

    Developmental dyslexia is commonly thought to arise from specific phonological impairments. However, recent evidence is consistent with the possibility that phonological impairments arise as symptoms of an underlying dysfunction of procedural learning. The nature of the link between impaired procedural learning and phonological dysfunction is unresolved. Motivated by the observation that speech processing involves the acquisition of procedural category knowledge, the present study investigates the possibility that procedural learning impairment may affect phonological processing by interfering with the typical course of phonetic category learning. The present study tests this hypothesis while controlling for linguistic experience and possible speech-specific deficits by comparing auditory category learning across artificial, nonlinguistic sounds among dyslexic adults and matched controls in a specialized first-person shooter videogame that has been shown to engage procedural learning. Nonspeech auditory category learning was assessed online via within-game measures and also with a post-training task involving overt categorization of familiar and novel sound exemplars. Each measure reveals that dyslexic participants do not acquire procedural category knowledge as effectively as age- and cognitive-ability matched controls. This difference cannot be explained by differences in perceptual acuity for the sounds. Moreover, poor nonspeech category learning is associated with slower phonological processing. Whereas phonological processing impairments have been emphasized as the cause of dyslexia, the current results suggest that impaired auditory category learning, general in nature and not specific to speech signals, could contribute to phonological deficits in dyslexia with subsequent negative effects on language acquisition and reading. Implications for the neuro-cognitive mechanisms of developmental dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Age-related changes in conventional and magnetization transfer MR imaging in elderly people: comparison with neurocognitive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Yeol; Kim, Taik Kun; Park, Min Kyu; Ko, Sung Yu; Song, In Chan; Cho, Ik Hwan

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to compare three different measures of the elderly human brain; the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram, the percentage of brain parenchymal volume, and the volume of T2 hyperintense areas in terms of correlations with the study subjects'neurocognitive performance. Thirty-five healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers aged 60-82 years underwent dual fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging and magnetization transfer imaging. A semi-automated technique was used to generate the MTR histogram, the brain parenchymal volume, and the T2 lesion volume. The subjects'neurocognitive performance was assessed by using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and additional tests. The peak height of the MTR (PHMTR), the percentage of brain parenchymal volume (PBV), and the normalized T2 lesion volume (T2LV) were compared between the normal group. (Z score on the K-MMSE ≥ -2, n=23) and the mild cognitive impairment group (Z score on the K-MMSE < -2, N=12), and these parameters were correlated with age and various neurocognitive performance scores. The PHMTR was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired subjects than the PHMTR in the normal subjects (ρ = 0.005). The PBV scores were lower in the cognitively impaired subjects than in the normal subjects (ρ = 0.02). The T2LV scores were significantly higher in the cognitively impaired subjects (ρ = 0.01). An inverse correlation was found between the PHMTR and T2LV (r = -0.747, ρ < 0.001), and also between the PBV and T2LV (r = -0.823, ρ < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between the PHMTR and the PBV (r = 0.846, ρ < 0.001). Scores on the various neurocognitive tests were positively correlated with the PHMTR (6 of 7 items) and the PBV (5 of 7 items), and they were negatively correlated with the T2LV (5 of 7 items). Our findings of a correlation among the PBV, the T2LV, and the PHMTR suggest that MTR histograms and the PBV and T2LV can be used as a reliable method and valid

  14. Sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity affect transition to and from obesity over time: results from the Alameda county study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Maria; Kaplan, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the impact of development in sleep continuity on transition to and from obesity over time. The study used self-reported sleep and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1994 waves of the longitudinal Alameda County Study. Sleep continuity was assessed by a question on whether the participants had any troubles falling or staying asleep. Change in sleep and BMI were estimated from the sleep and BMI questions in 1965 and 1994 respectively. Multinomial regression analyses were used to examine the risk/chance for a transition to and from obesity (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) due to development in sleep continuity. After adjustment for confounding variables, consistent sleep discontinuity both increases the risk for a transition to obesity and reduces the chance of losing weight, whereas impaired sleep continuity lowers the chance for weight loss. Effects for obesity were non-significant for those with improved sleep continuity. Consistent sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity increases the risk of transition to obesity or of remaining obese.

  15. Neurocognition and symptoms identify links between facial recognition and emotion processing in schizophrenia: meta-analytic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Wood, Rachel C; Jimenez, Amy M; Hellemann, Gerhard S

    2013-12-01

    In schizophrenia patients, one of the most commonly studied deficits of social cognition is emotion processing (EP), which has documented links to facial recognition (FR). But, how are deficits in facial recognition linked to emotion processing deficits? Can neurocognitive and symptom correlates of FR and EP help differentiate the unique contribution of FR to the domain of social cognition? A meta-analysis of 102 studies (combined n=4826) in schizophrenia patients was conducted to determine the magnitude and pattern of relationships between facial recognition, emotion processing, neurocognition, and type of symptom. Meta-analytic results indicated that facial recognition and emotion processing are strongly interrelated (r=.51). In addition, the relationship between FR and EP through voice prosody (r=.58) is as strong as the relationship between FR and EP based on facial stimuli (r=.53). Further, the relationship between emotion recognition, neurocognition, and symptoms is independent of the emotion processing modality - facial stimuli and voice prosody. The association between FR and EP that occurs through voice prosody suggests that FR is a fundamental cognitive process. The observed links between FR and EP might be due to bottom-up associations between neurocognition and EP, and not simply because most emotion recognition tasks use visual facial stimuli. In addition, links with symptoms, especially negative symptoms and disorganization, suggest possible symptom mechanisms that contribute to FR and EP deficits. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: "vascular mild cognitive impairment" OR "vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" OR "vascular mild neurocognitive disorder" AND "dysexecutive" OR "executive function". Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.

  17. Maternal Body Mass Index during Pregnancy and Offspring Neurocognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Wendy Y; Palomaki, Glenn E; Neveux, Louis M; Haddow, James E

    2013-03-01

    This hypothesis generating study explores second trimester maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy and offspring neurocognitive development. Mothers and offspring served as controls in two earlier studies: 101 children at age two years and 118 children at age eight years. Frequency of maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 increased from 10% in 1987-1990 to 30% in 2004-2006 ( P language scores and BMI ( P = 0.054). Among eight-year-olds, one or more WISC-III (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition) scores children's neurocognitive development. Further study is indicated.

  18. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first-episode schizop...... are comparable to the implicit and explicit mentalising discussed in the developmental literature. The two forms of social cognitive deficits are likely to require quite different social cognitive interventions.......BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown a significant impact of social cognitive domains on real world functioning and prognosis in schizophrenia. However, the correlations between specific aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, IQ and clinical symptoms remain unclear in first...

  19. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Neurocognitive function in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Winston

    Full Text Available To describe factors associated with neurocognitive (NC function in HIV-positive patients on stable combination antiretroviral therapy.We undertook a cross-sectional analysis assessing NC data obtained at baseline in patients entering the Protease-Inhibitor-Monotherapy-Versus-Ongoing-Triple therapy (PIVOT trial.NC testing comprised of 5 domains. Raw results were z-transformed using standard and demographically adjusted normative datasets (ND. Global z-scores (NPZ-5 were derived from averaging the 5 domains and percentage of subjects with test scores >1 standard deviation (SD below population means in at least two domains (abnormal Frascati score calculated. Patient characteristics associated with NC results were assessed using multivariable linear regression.Of the 587 patients in PIVOT, 557 had full NC results and were included. 77% were male, 68% Caucasian and 28% of Black ethnicity. Mean (SD baseline and nadir CD4+ lymphocyte counts were 553(217 and 177(117 cells/µL, respectively, and HIV RNA was <50 copies/mL in all. Median (IQR NPZ-5 score was -0.5 (-1.2/-0 overall, and -0.3 (-0.7/0.1 and -1.4 (-2/-0.8 in subjects of Caucasian and Black ethnicity, respectively. Abnormal Frascati scores using the standard-ND were observed in 51%, 38%, and 81%, respectively, of subjects overall, Caucasian and Black ethnicity (p<0.001, but in 62% and 69% of Caucasian and Black subjects using demographically adjusted-ND (p = 0.20. In the multivariate analysis, only Black ethnicity was associated with poorer NPZ-5 scores (P<0.001.In this large group of HIV-infected subjects with viral load suppression, ethnicity but not HIV-disease factors is closely associated with NC results. The prevalence of abnormal results is highly dependent on control datasets utilised.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01230580.

  1. Loss of insulin-induced activation of TRPM6 magnesium channels results in impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Anil V.; Hocher, Berthold; Verkaart, Sjoerd; van Zeeland, Femke; Pfab, Thiemo; Slowinski, Torsten; Chen, You-Peng; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Schaller, André; Gallati, Sabina; Bindels, René J.; Konrad, Martin; Hoenderop, Joost G.

    2012-01-01

    Hypomagnesemia affects insulin resistance and is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the epithelial magnesium channel TRPM6 (V1393I, K1584E) were predicted to confer susceptibility for DM2. Here, we show using patch clamp analysis and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, that insulin stimulates TRPM6 activity via a phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Rac1-mediated elevation of cell surface expression of TRPM6. Interestingly, insulin failed to activate the genetic variants TRPM6(V1393I) and TRPM6(K1584E), which is likely due to the inability of the insulin signaling pathway to phosphorylate TRPM6(T1391) and TRPM6(S1583). Moreover, by measuring total glycosylated hemoglobin (TGH) in 997 pregnant women as a measure of glucose control, we demonstrate that TRPM6(V1393I) and TRPM6(K1584E) are associated with higher TGH and confer a higher likelihood of developing GDM. The impaired response of TRPM6(V1393I) and TRPM6(K1584E) to insulin represents a unique molecular pathway leading to GDM where the defect is located in TRPM6. PMID:22733750

  2. Detection threshold for sound distortion resulting from noise reduction in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, Inge; Dreschler, Wouter A; Houben, Rolph

    2014-09-01

    Hearing-aid noise reduction should reduce background noise, but not disturb the target speech. This objective is difficult because noise reduction suffers from a trade-off between the amount of noise removed and signal distortion. It is unknown if this important trade-off differs between normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. This study separated the negative effect of noise reduction (distortion) from the positive effect (reduction of noise) to allow the measurement of the detection threshold for noise-reduction (NR) distortion. Twelve NH subjects and 12 subjects with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss participated in this study. The detection thresholds for distortion were determined using an adaptive procedure with a three-interval, two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Different levels of distortion were obtained by changing the maximum amount of noise reduction. Participants were also asked to indicate their preferred NR strength. The detection threshold for overall distortion was higher for HI subjects than for NH subjects, suggesting that stronger noise reduction can be applied for HI listeners without affecting the perceived sound quality. However, the preferred NR strength of HI listeners was closer to their individual detection threshold for distortion than in NH listeners. This implies that HI listeners tolerate fewer audible distortions than NH listeners.

  3. Early malnutrition results in long-lasting impairments in pattern-separation for overlapping novel object and novel location memories and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Georgina; Guzmán-Quevedo, Omar; Da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Bolaños-Jiménez, Francisco

    2016-02-17

    Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that malnutrition during in utero development and/or childhood induces long-lasting learning disabilities and enhanced susceptibility to develop psychiatric disorders. However, animal studies aimed to address this question have yielded inconsistent results due to the use of learning tasks involving negative or positive reinforces that interfere with the enduring changes in emotional reactivity and motivation produced by in utero and neonatal malnutrition. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying the learning deficits associated with malnutrition in early life remain unknown. Here we implemented a behavioural paradigm based on the combination of the novel object recognition and the novel object location tasks to define the impact of early protein-restriction on the behavioural, cellular and molecular basis of memory processing. Adult rats born to dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, exhibited impaired encoding and consolidation of memory resulting from impaired pattern separation. This learning deficit was associated with reduced production of newly born hippocampal neurons and down regulation of BDNF gene expression. These data sustain the existence of a causal relationship between early malnutrition and impaired learning in adulthood and show that decreased adult neurogenesis is associated to the cognitive deficits induced by childhood exposure to poor nutrition.

  4. Right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy does not cause more cognitive impairment than pharmacologic treatment in treatment-resistant bipolar depression: A 6-month randomized controlled trial follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoerke-Bertheussen, Jeanette; Schoeyen, Helle; Andreassen, Ole A; Malt, Ulrik F; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Morken, Gunnar; Sundet, Kjetil; Vaaler, Arne E; Auestad, Bjoern; Kessler, Ute

    2017-12-21

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective treatment for bipolar depression, but there are concerns about whether it causes long-term neurocognitive impairment. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, in-patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression were randomized to either algorithm-based pharmacologic treatment or right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. After the 6-week treatment period, all of the patients received maintenance pharmacotherapy as recommended by their clinician guided by a relevant treatment algorithm. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6 months. Neurocognitive functions were assessed using the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery, and autobiographical memory consistency was assessed using the Autobiographical Memory Interview-Short Form. Seventy-three patients entered the trial, of whom 51 and 26 completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 6 months, respectively. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery composite score improved by 4.1 points in both groups (P = .042) from baseline to 6 months (from 40.8 to 44.9 and from 41.9 to 46.0 in the algorithm-based pharmacologic treatment and electroconvulsive therapy groups, respectively). The Autobiographical Memory Interview-Short Form consistency scores were reduced in both groups (72.3% vs 64.3% in the algorithm-based pharmacologic treatment and electroconvulsive therapy groups, respectively; P = .085). This study did not find that right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy caused long-term impairment in neurocognitive functions compared to algorithm-based pharmacologic treatment in bipolar depression as measured using standard neuropsychological tests, but due to the low number of patients in the study the results should be interpreted with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664976. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neurocognitive disorder in hypertensive patients. Heart-Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, A; Cerezo, G H; Del Sueldo, M; Zilberman, J; Pawluk, S M; Lódolo, N; De Cerchio, A E; Ruffa, R M; Plunkett, R; Giuliano, M E; Forcada, P; Hauad, S; Flores, R

    2018-02-15

    The relation between hypertension and cognitive impairment is an undisputable fact. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of cognitive impairment in hypertensive patients, to identify the most affected cognitive domain, and to observe the association with different parameters of hypertension and other vascular risk factors. A multicentre study was carried out, and 1281 hypertensive patients of both genders and ≥21 years of age were included. Data on the following parameters were obtained: cognitive status (Minimal Cognitive Examination), behavioural status (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), blood pressure, anthropometry, and biochemical profile. The average age was 60.2±13.5 years (71% female), and the educational level was 9.9±5.1 years. Global cognitive impairment was seen in 22.1%, executive dysfunction in 36.2%, and semantic memory impairment in 48.9%. Cognitive impairment was higher in males (36.8% vs. 30.06%) within both the 70-79-year-old and the ≥80-year-old (50% vs. 40%) age groups. Abnormal Clock Drawing Test results were related to high pulse pressure (p24), 29.4% presented executive dysfunction, and 41.5% semantic memory impairment. Cognitive impairment was higher in hypertensive patients than in the general population. Executive functions and semantic memory were the most affected cognitive domains. High systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were associated with abnormal results in cognitive tests. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Neurocognitive Correlates of White Matter Quality in Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Mahmood, Omar; Yang, Tony T.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Progressive myelination during adolescence implicates an increased vulnerability to neurotoxic substances and enduring neurocognitive consequences. This study examined the cognitive manifestations of altered white matter microstructure in chronic marijuana and alcohol-using (MJ + ALC) adolescents. Methods: Thirty-six MJ + ALC…

  7. Neurocognitive capabilities modulate the integration of evidence in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eifler, Sarah; Rausch, Franziska; Schirmbeck, Frederike; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Englisch, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter; Zink, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a cognitive bias in the integration of disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) in patients with schizophrenia. This bias has been associated with delusions. So far, it is unclear how the integration of evidence is associated with neurocognitive capabilities. In the current

  8. The importance of measurement invariance in neurocognitive ability testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive test batteries such as recent editions of the Wechsler’s Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III/WAIS-IV) typically use nation-level population-based norms. The question is whether these batteries function in the same manner across different subgroups based on gender, age,

  9. NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF ALCOHOL INPATIENTSDURING RECOVERY FROM ALCOHOLISM*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Šprah

    2008-05-01

    Our study demonstrated that some alcohol-related cognitive, emotional and motivationaldeficits can also persist to certain extent after several weeks of sobriety. Especially alcoholabstainers with suicidal history revealed a specific neuropsychological profile in this regard. Employed neurocognitive assessment proved as useful approach for clinical evaluation of alcohol abstainers functioning, since cognitive deficits have been also hypothesizedto affect the efficacy of alcoholism treatment

  10. Neurocognitive endophenotypes of impulsivity and compulsivity: towards dimensional psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robbins, T.W.; Gillan, C.M.; Smith, D.G.; de Wit, S.; Ersche, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    A key criticism of the main diagnostic tool in psychiatry, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-IV), is that it lacks a biological footing. In this article, we argue for a biological approach to psychiatry based on ‘neurocognitive endophenotypes’, whereby changes in

  11. Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders necessitates community-based screening. In recent years, progress has been made in developing more localised comparative data for use in such screening on the African continent. These studies used measurements that are considered fair, easily accessible, ...

  12. The effect of hypertension on neurocognitive functioning and quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Hypertension has been reported as one of the most important etiologic factors in cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of hypertension on neurocognitive functioning and quality of life. Design: The study was cross sectional, and clinic based. The sample comprised of 50 ...

  13. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use ...

  14. Neurocognitive Performance in Children with ADHD and OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Kahraman-Lanzerath, Berrak; Zepf, Florian D.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have both been linked to dysfunction in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry (CSTCC). However, the exact nature of neurocognitive deficits remains to be investigated in both disorders. We applied two neuropsychological tasks that tap into different…

  15. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  16. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  17. Neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria in adults: a pilot study in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Bruno; Kalei, Isabel

    2013-07-01

    To characterize the neurocognitive sequelae of cerebral malaria (CM) in an adult sample of the city of Benguela, Angola. A neuropsychological assessment was carried out in 22 subjects with prior history of CM ranging from 6 to 12 months after the infection. The obtained results were compared to a control group with no previous history of cerebral malaria. The study was conducted in Benguela Central Hospital, Angola in 2011. CM group obtained lower results on the two last trials of a verbal learning task and on an abstract reasoning test. CM is associated to a slower verbal learning rate and to difficulties in the ability to discriminate and perceive relations between new elements.

  18. Dysconnectivity of neurocognitive networks at rest in very-preterm born adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P. White

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in a larger proportion of preterm-born individuals reaching adulthood. Their increased liability to psychiatric illness and impairments of cognition and behaviour intimate lasting cerebral consequences; however, the central physiological disturbances remain unclear. Of fundamental importance to efficient brain function is the coordination and contextually-relevant recruitment of neural networks. Large-scale distributed networks emerge perinatally and increase in hierarchical complexity through development. Preterm-born individuals exhibit systematic reductions in correlation strength within these networks during infancy. Here, we investigate resting-state functional connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 29 very-preterm (VPT-born adults and 23 term-born controls. Neurocognitive networks were identified with spatial independent component analysis conducted using the Infomax algorithm and employing Icasso procedures to enhance component robustness. Network spatial focus and spectral power were not generally significantly affected by preterm birth. By contrast, Granger-causality analysis of the time courses of network activity revealed widespread reductions in between-network connectivity in the preterm group, particularly along paths including salience-network features. The potential clinical relevance of these Granger-causal measurements was suggested by linear discriminant analysis of topological representations of connection strength, which classified individuals by group with a maximal accuracy of 86%. Functional connections from the striatal salience network to the posterior default mode network informed this classification most powerfully. In the VPT-born group it was additionally found that perinatal factors significantly moderated the relationship between executive function (which was reduced in the VPT-born as compared with the term-born group and generalised partial

  19. Amastin Knockdown in Leishmania braziliensis Affects Parasite-Macrophage Interaction and Results in Impaired Viability of Intracellular Amastigotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marcia Cardoso de Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, a human parasitic disease with manifestations ranging from cutaneous ulcerations to fatal visceral infection, is caused by several Leishmania species. These protozoan parasites replicate as extracellular, flagellated promastigotes in the gut of a sandfly vector and as amastigotes inside the parasitophorous vacuole of vertebrate host macrophages. Amastins are surface glycoproteins encoded by large gene families present in the genomes of several trypanosomatids and highly expressed in the intracellular amastigote stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. Here, we showed that the genome of L. braziliensis contains 52 amastin genes belonging to all four previously described amastin subfamilies and that the expression of members of all subfamilies is upregulated in L. braziliensis amastigotes. Although primary sequence alignments showed no homology to any known protein sequence, homology searches based on secondary structure predictions indicate that amastins are related to claudins, a group of proteins that are components of eukaryotic tight junction complexes. By knocking-down the expression of δ-amastins in L. braziliensis, their essential role during infection became evident. δ-amastin knockdown parasites showed impaired growth after in vitro infection of mouse macrophages and completely failed to produce infection when inoculated in BALB/c mice, an attenuated phenotype that was reverted by the re-expression of an RNAi-resistant amastin gene. Further highlighting their essential role in host-parasite interactions, electron microscopy analyses of macrophages infected with amastin knockdown parasites showed significant alterations in the tight contact that is normally observed between the surface of wild type amastigotes and the membrane of the parasitophorous vacuole.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 ablation in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles reduces angiogenesis resulting in impaired growth of regenerated muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daigo; Nakamura, Akinori; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2011-05-01

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a family of endopeptidases classified into subgroups based on substrate preference in normal physiological processes such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in various disease processes via degradation of extracellular matrix components. Among the MMPs, MMP-9 and MMP-2 have been reported to be up-regulated in skeletal muscles in the lethal X-linked muscle disorder Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), which is caused by loss of dystrophin. A recent study showed that deletion of the MMP9 gene in mdx, a mouse model for DMD, improved skeletal muscle pathology and function; however, the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle is not well known. In this study, we aimed at verifying the role of MMP-2 in the dystrophin-deficient muscle by using mdx mice with genetic ablation of MMP-2 (mdx/MMP-2(-/-)). We found impairment of regenerated muscle fiber growth with reduction of angiogenesis in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), an important angiogenesis-related factor, decreased in mdx/MMP-2(-/-) mice at 3 months of age. MMP-2 had not a critical role in the degradation of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) components such as β-dystroglycan and β-sarcoglycan in the regeneration process of the dystrophic muscle. Accordingly, MMP-2 may be essential for growth of regenerated muscle fibers through VEGF-associated angiogenesis in the dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle.

  1. Association of Dual-Task Gait With Incident Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Gait and Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, Manuel M; Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina; Speechley, Mark; Borrie, Michael J; Hachinski, Vladimir C; Wells, Jennie; Riccio, Patricia M; Schapira, Marcelo; Sejdic, Ervin; Camicioli, Richard M; Bartha, Robert; McIlroy, William E; Muir-Hunter, Susan

    2017-07-01

    Gait performance is affected by neurodegeneration in aging and has the potential to be used as a clinical marker for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. A dual-task gait test evaluating the cognitive-motor interface may predict dementia progression in older adults with MCI. To determine whether a dual-task gait test is associated with incident dementia in MCI. The Gait and Brain Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults that enrolled 112 older adults with MCI. Participants were followed up for 6 years, with biannual visits including neurologic, cognitive, and gait assessments. Data were collected from July 2007 to March 2016. Incident all-cause dementia was the main outcome measure, and single- and dual-task gait velocity and dual-task gait costs were the independent variables. A neuropsychological test battery was used to assess cognition. Gait velocity was recorded under single-task and 3 separate dual-task conditions using an electronic walkway. Dual-task gait cost was defined as the percentage change between single- and dual-task gait velocities: ([single-task gait velocity - dual-task gait velocity]/ single-task gait velocity) × 100. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association between risk of progression to dementia and the independent variables, adjusted for age, sex, education, comorbidities, and cognition. Among 112 study participants with MCI, mean (SD) age was 76.6 (6.9) years, 55 were women (49.1%), and 27 progressed to dementia (24.1%), with an incidence rate of 121 per 1000 person-years. Slow single-task gait velocity (gait cost while counting backward (HR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.57-9.15; P = .003) and naming animals (HR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.04-5.59; P = .04) were associated with dementia progression (incidence rate, 155 per 1000 person-years). The models remained robust after adjusting by baseline cognition except for dual-task gait cost when dichotomized. Dual

  2. An Endogenous Circadian Rhythm in Sleep Inertia Results in Greatest Cognitive Impairment upon Awakening during the Biological Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Shea, Thomas J.; Hilton, Michael F.; Shea, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep inertia is the impaired cognitive performance immediately upon awakening, which decays over tens of minutes. This phenomenon has relevance to people who need to make important decisions soon after awakening, such as on-call emergency workers. Such awakenings can occur at varied times of day or night, so the objective of the study was to determine whether or not the magnitude of sleep inertia varies according to the phase of the endogenous circadian cycle. Twelve adults (mean, 24 years; 7 men) with no medical disorders other than mild asthma were studied. Following 2 baseline days and nights, subjects underwent a forced desynchrony protocol composed of seven 28-h sleep/wake cycles, while maintaining a sleep/wakefulness ratio of 1:2 throughout. Subjects were awakened by a standardized auditory stimulus 3 times each sleep period for sleep inertia assessments. The magnitude of sleep inertia was quantified as the change in cognitive performance (number of correct additions in a 2-min serial addition test) across the first 20 min of wakefulness. Circadian phase was estimated from core body temperature (fitted temperature minimum assigned 0°). Data were segregated according to: (1) circadian phase (60° bins); (2) sleep stage; and (3) 3rd of the night after which awakenings occurred (i.e., tertiary 1, 2, or 3). To control for any effect of sleep stage, the circadian rhythm of sleep inertia was initially assessed following awakenings from Stage 2 (62% of awakening occurred from this stage; n = 110). This revealed a significant circadian rhythm in the sleep inertia of cognitive performance (p = 0.007), which was 3.6 times larger during the biological night (circadian bin 300°, ~2300–0300 h in these subjects) than during the biological day (bin 180°, ~1500–1900 h). The circadian rhythm in sleep inertia was still present when awakenings from all sleep stages were included (p = 0.004), and this rhythm could not be explained by changes in underlying sleep drive

  3. Transcriptomics of maternal and fetal membranes can discriminate between gestational-age matched preterm neonates with and without cognitive impairment diagnosed at 18-24 months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Pappas

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive impairment among children born preterm may arise from complex interactions between genes and the intra-uterine environment.(1 To characterize the transcriptomic profiles of chorioamniotic membranes in preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment via microarrays and (2 to determine if neonates with neurocognitive impairment can be identified at birth.A retrospective case-control study was conducted to examine the chorioamniotic transcriptome of gestational-age matched very preterm neonates with and without neurocognitive impairment at 18-24 months' corrected-age defined by a Bayley-III Cognitive Composite Score 1.5; 2 Gene ontology analysis indicated enrichment of 19 biological processes and 3 molecular functions; 3PADOG identified 4 significantly perturbed KEGG pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease (q-value <0.1; 4 48 of 90 selected differentially expressed genes were confirmed by qRT-PCR, including genes implicated in energy metabolism, neuronal signaling, vascular permeability and response to injury (e.g., up-regulation of SEPP1, APOE, DAB2, CD163, CXCL12, VWF; down-regulation of HAND1, OSR1(p<0.05; and 5 a multi-gene model predicted 18-24 month neurocognitive impairment (using the ratios of OSR1/VWF and HAND1/VWF at birth in a larger, independent set (sensitivity = 74%, at specificity = 83%.Gene expression patterns in the chorioamniotic membranes link neurocognitive impairment in preterm infants to neurodegenerative disease pathways and might be used to predict neurocognitive impairment. Further prospective studies are needed.

  4. The Effect of Pretest Exercise on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between

  5. Metacognition in schizophrenia: the relationship of mastery to coping, insight, self-esteem, social anxiety, and various facets of neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Erickson, Molly; Ringer, Jamie; Buck, Kelly D; Semerari, Antonio; Carcione, Antonino; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Deficits in metacognition, or the ability to think about thinking, are common in schizophrenia and associated with functional impairment. Unknown are what elements of function are affected by what aspects of metacognition. DESIGN. This study explored whether participants with differing capacities for Mastery, a domain of metacognition that reflects the ability to use knowledge about mental states to respond to psychological challenges, had difficulties in different elements of daily function. METHODS. Participants were 98 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a non-acute phase, classified into three groups on the basis of ratings of their capacity for metacognitive Mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale: low Mastery (those unable to plausibly represent psychological challenges), Intermediate Mastery (those able to plausibly represent psychological problems but cope primarily through passive measures or avoidance), and high Mastery (those able to cope with plausible problems through cognitive means). Participants completed assessments of coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety. RESULTS. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed that the high-Mastery group had a greater preference for coping with stressors by thinking and talking about them, and greater insight than all other groups, and higher levels of feeling accepted by peers than the intermediate-Mastery group. The intermediate-Mastery group reported higher levels of resignation when facing stressors and more social phobia than the other two groups. These findings of Mastery group differences in self-esteem and anxiety persisted when neurocognition was controlled for in an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). CONCLUSIONS. Mastery appears linked to coping preference, insight, self-esteem, and anxiety in a generally non-linear manner. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction in Indian population on FDG PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Tripathi, Madhavi; D’Souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Varshney, Raunak; Panwar, Puja; Kaushik, Aruna; Saw, Sanjeev; Seher, Romana; Pandey, Santosh; Singh, Dinesh; Solanki, Yachna; Mishra, Anil K; Mondal, Anupam; Tripathi, RP

    2011-01-01

    A variety of neurodegenerative disorders produce significant abnormal brain function which can be detected using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan even when structural changes are not detected on CT or MRI Scan. A study was undertaken at our institute to evaluate the FDG PET/CT findings in Indian population suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD), fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), dementia with lewy body disease (DLBD) and other miscellaneous causes of dementia. 117 subjects having neurocognitive deficits and 36 normals were included in our study. All patients underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. This was followed by a mini mental state examination. Subsequently an FDG brain PET scan and an MRI were done. In the patient population included in our study group 36 were normal, 39 had MCI, 40 had AD, 14 had FTD, and 13 had DLBD and 11 dementia due to other miscellaneous causes. MCI patients showed primarily reduced tracer uptake in the mesio-temporal cortex. AD patients showed reduced tracer concentration in temporo-parietal lobes, while patients with advanced diseases showed frontal lobe disease additionally. In subjects of FTD, reduced radiotracer uptake in the fronto-temporal lobes was noted. In addition, FTD patients also showed basal ganglia defects. In contrast the DLBD patients showed globally reduced FDG uptake including severely affecting the occipital cortices. In the current study the F18-FDG PET scans have been shown to be highly useful in the diagnosis of various neurocognitive disorders of the brain. AD was found to be the most common dementia in the Indian population followed by MCI. Diffuse Lewy body disease, FTD and other miscellaneous categories of dementia had a near similar incidence

  7. Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Pouwels, Petra Jw; Ernest van Heurn, L W; Bakx, Roel; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Carel Goslings, J; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van der Wees, Marleen; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF+ , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression). Functional outcome was measured using Common Data Elements for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning. The results show that intracranial pathology on acute CT-scans was more prevalent after moderate/severe TBI (65%) than after mild RF+ TBI (35%; p = .035), while both groups had decreased white matter volume on conventional MRI (ps ≤ .029, ds ≥ -0.74). The moderate/severe TBI group further showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread cluster affecting all white matter tracts, in which regional associations with neurocognitive functioning were observed (FSIQ, Digit Span and RAVLT Encoding) that consistently involved the corpus callosum. FA had superior predictive value for functional outcome (i.e. intelligence, attention and working memory, encoding in verbal memory and internalizing problems) relative to acute CT-scanning (i.e. internalizing problems) and conventional MRI (no predictive value). We conclude that children with mild RF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI are at risk of persistent white matter abnormality. Furthermore, DTI has superior predictive value for neurocognitive out-come relative to conventional neuroimaging.

  8. Altered intrinsic functional coupling between core neurocognitive networks in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Putcha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is largely attributed to disruptions in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. These neurodegenerative changes may also have a more global effect on intrinsic brain organization at the cortical level. Functional brain connectivity between neurocognitive systems related to cognitive processing is critical for effective neural communication, and is disrupted across neurological disorders. Three core neurocognitive networks have been established as playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of many neurological disorders: the default-mode network (DMN, the salience network (SN, and the central executive network (CEN. In healthy adults, DMN–CEN interactions are anti-correlated while SN–CEN interactions are strongly positively correlated even at rest, when individuals are not engaging in any task. These intrinsic between-network interactions at rest are necessary for efficient suppression of the DMN and activation of the CEN during a range of cognitive tasks. To identify whether these network interactions are disrupted in individuals with PD, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI to compare between-network connectivity between 24 PD participants and 20 age-matched controls (MC. In comparison to the MC, individuals with PD showed significantly less SN–CEN coupling and greater DMN–CEN coupling during rest. Disease severity, an index of striatal dysfunction, was related to reduced functional coupling between the striatum and SN. These results demonstrate that individuals with PD have a dysfunctional pattern of interaction between core neurocognitive networks compared to what is found in healthy individuals, and that interaction between the SN and the striatum is even more profoundly disrupted in those with greater disease severity.

  9. Pharmacomodulation of microRNA Expression in Neurocognitive Diseases: Obstacles and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, Viorel; Nadim, Wissem Deraredj; Benedetti, Helene; Pichon, Chantal; Morisset-Lopez, Severine; Baril, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Given the importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in modulating brain functions and their implications in neurocognitive disorders there are currently significant efforts devoted in the field of miRNA-based therapeutics to correct and/or to treat these brain diseases. The observation that miRNA 29a/b-1 cluster, miRNA 10b and miRNA 7, for instance, are frequently deregulated in the brains of patients with neurocognitive diseases and in animal models of Alzheimer, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases, suggest that correction of miRNA expression using agonist or antagonist miRNA oligonucleotides might be a promising approach to correct or even to cure such diseases. The encouraging results from recent clinical trials allow envisioning that pharmacological approaches based on miRNAs might, in a near future, reach the requirements for successful therapeutic outcomes and will improve the healthcare of patients with brain injuries or disorders. This review will focus on the current strategies used to modulate pharmacological function of miRNA using chemically modified oligonucleotides. We will then review the recent literature on strategies to improve nucleic acid delivery across the blood-brain barrier which remains a severe obstacle to the widespread application of miRNA therapeutics to treat brain diseases. Finally, we provide a state-of-art of current preclinical research performed in animal models for the treatment of neurocognitive disorders using miRNA as therapeutic agents and discuss future developments of miRNA therapeutics.

  10. Relationship between neurometabolite derangement and neurocognitive dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W M; Jung, R E; Ford, C C; Greinel, E J; Sibbitt, W L

    1999-01-01

    To determine the relationship between neurochemical markers of brain injury and brain dysfunction associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients with SLE (n = 12) were studied using magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 1.5 Tesla to determine neurochemistry and a neurocognitive testing battery to determine brain dysfunction. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cre), and choline (Cho) concentrations were measured in white (WM) and gray (GM) matter and expressed as the ratios NAA/Cho, NAA/Cre, and Cho/Cre. Neurocognitive testing results were expressed as a composite z score. Disease activity was quantified by SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and disease injury by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index. Neurochemical measures of brain injury were correlated with neurocognitive testing z scores: NAA/Cho in WM (r = 0.77, p = 0.003) and GM (r = 0.67, p = 0.017); WM Cho/Cre also correlated with total z score (r = -0.74, p = 0.006). Neurometabolite ratios and SLICC were correlated: GM NAA/Cho (r = -0.70, p = 0.011 ) and NAA/Cre (r = -0.71, p = 0.01) and WM Cho/Cre (r = 0.66, p = 0.02). Correlations between neurometabolite ratios and SLEDAI did not reach significance. Brain function is closely correlated with brain injury assessed noninvasively by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This important finding further supports the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate brain injury in SLE.

  11. A Radiation-Induced Hippocampal Vascular Injury Surrogate Marker Predicts Late Neurocognitive Dysfunction

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    Farjam, Reza [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Pramanik, Priyanka; Aryal, Madhava P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Srinivasan, Ashok [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Chapman, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Tsien, Christina I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: We aimed to develop a hippocampal vascular injury surrogate marker for early prediction of late neurocognitive dysfunction in patients receiving brain radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females, 31-80 years of age) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective longitudinal study. Patients received diagnoses of low-grade glioma or benign tumor and were treated by (3D) conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4-59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Six dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18-month post-RT, and quantified for vascular parameters related to blood-brain barrier permeability, K{sup trans}, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, V{sub p}. The temporal changes in the means of hippocampal transfer constant K{sup trans} and V{sub p} after starting RT were modeled by integrating the dose effects with age, sex, hippocampal laterality, and presence of tumor or edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose response in hippocampi was correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction at 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The mean K{sup trans} Increased significantly from pre-RT to 1-month post-RT (P<.0004), which significantly depended on sex (P<.0007) and age (P<.00004), with the dose response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose response in the left hippocampus of females correlated significantly with changes in memory function at 6 (r=−0.95, P<.0006) and 18-months (r=−0.88, P<.02) post-RT. Conclusions: The early hippocampal vascular dose response could be a predictor of late neurocognitive dysfunction. A personalized hippocampus sparing strategy may be considered in the future.

  12. A Radiation-Induced Hippocampal Vascular Injury Surrogate Marker Predicts Late Neurocognitive Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, Reza; Pramanik, Priyanka; Aryal, Madhava P.; Srinivasan, Ashok; Chapman, Christopher H.; Tsien, Christina I.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Cao, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to develop a hippocampal vascular injury surrogate marker for early prediction of late neurocognitive dysfunction in patients receiving brain radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (17 males and 10 females, 31-80 years of age) were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective longitudinal study. Patients received diagnoses of low-grade glioma or benign tumor and were treated by (3D) conformal or intensity-modulated RT with a median dose of 54 Gy (50.4-59.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Six dynamic-contrast enhanced MRI scans were performed from pre-RT to 18-month post-RT, and quantified for vascular parameters related to blood-brain barrier permeability, K"t"r"a"n"s, and the fraction of blood plasma volume, V_p. The temporal changes in the means of hippocampal transfer constant K"t"r"a"n"s and V_p after starting RT were modeled by integrating the dose effects with age, sex, hippocampal laterality, and presence of tumor or edema near a hippocampus. Finally, the early vascular dose response in hippocampi was correlated with neurocognitive dysfunction at 6 and 18 months post-RT. Results: The mean K"t"r"a"n"s Increased significantly from pre-RT to 1-month post-RT (P<.0004), which significantly depended on sex (P<.0007) and age (P<.00004), with the dose response more pronounced in older females. Also, the vascular dose response in the left hippocampus of females correlated significantly with changes in memory function at 6 (r=−0.95, P<.0006) and 18-months (r=−0.88, P<.02) post-RT. Conclusions: The early hippocampal vascular dose response could be a predictor of late neurocognitive dysfunction. A personalized hippocampus sparing strategy may be considered in the future.

  13. S68. SYMPTOMS, NEUROCOGNITION, SOCIAL COGNITION AND METACOGNITION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: A NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Goldzweig, Gil; Lavie, Adi; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Schizophrenia is associated with broad range of phenomena which affect function and represent significant barriers to recovery. These include semi-independent forms of psychopathology, disturbances in neurocognition, social cognition and metacognition. The current study explores the paths through which these constructs affect each other and whether some of these phenomena play a relatively more or less central role than others as they interact. Answers to these questions seem essential to choosing which of a dizzying array of problems should be targeted by treatment. Methods Data was collected from 81 adult outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recruited at a Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center and a community mental health center in Indiana, USA. Network analysis which explored the relative relationships of five groups of symptoms (positive, negative, disorganization, hostility and emotional discomfort), six domains of neurocognition, four domains of social cognition and four domains of metacognition with one another was conducted. The analysis produces the following centrality measures: 1) strength of items within a network according to their sum weighted connections; 2) closeness between items that reflect the distance from a particular item to all others; 3) betweenness which reflect the number of times that an item appears on the shortest path between two other items. Results A clear differentiation between metacognition, social cognition, neurocognition and symptoms was observed. The only outliers were social cognition attribution, which was close to the symptoms area, and the cognitive symptoms factor that was found close to the neuro-cognition area. The social cognition was found in an “intermediate” area between the metacognition and neurocognition. Metacognition variables were the closest to the symptoms variables. The strongest nodes are: metacognition-self reflectivity, theory of mind measures of social

  14. Sympathetic arousal, but not disturbed executive functioning, mediates the impairment of cognitive flexibility under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Martin; Riečanský, Igor

    2018-05-01

    Cognitive flexibility emerges from an interplay of multiple cognitive systems, of which lexical-semantic and executive are thought to be the most important. Yet this has not been addressed by previous studies demonstrating that such forms of flexible thought deteriorate under stress. Motivated by these shortcomings, the present study evaluated several candidate mechanisms implied to mediate the impairing effects of stress on flexible thinking. Fifty-seven healthy adults were randomly assigned to psychosocial stress or control condition while assessed for performance on cognitive flexibility, working memory capacity, semantic fluency, and self-reported cognitive interference. Stress response was indicated by changes in skin conductance, hearth rate, and state anxiety. Our analyses showed that acute stress impaired cognitive flexibility via a concomitant increase in sympathetic arousal, while this mediator was positively associated with semantic fluency. Stress also decreased working memory capacity, which was partially mediated by elevated cognitive interference, but neither of these two measures were associated with cognitive flexibility or sympathetic arousal. Following these findings, we conclude that acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility via sympathetic arousal that modulates lexical-semantic and associative processes. In particular, the results indicate that stress-level of sympathetic activation may restrict the accessibility and integration of remote associates and bias the response competition towards prepotent and dominant ideas. Importantly, our results indicate that stress-induced impairments of cognitive flexibility and executive functions are mediated by distinct neurocognitive mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Neurocognitive functioning in parents of schizophrenia patients: Attentional and executive performance vary with genetic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Rauschenbach, Svenja; Lennertz, Leonhard; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Pukrop, Ralf; Dreher, Jan; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

    2015-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits are candidate endophenotypes of schizophrenia which can assist to explain the neurocognitive impact of genetic risk variants. The identification of endophenotypes is often based on the familiality of these phenotypes. Several studies demonstrate neuropsychological deficits in unaffected biological relatives of schizophrenia patients without differentiating between genetic and non-genetic factors underlying these deficits. We assessed N=129 unaffected biological parents of schizophrenia patients, N=28 schizophrenia patients (paranoid subtype), and N=143 controls without a family history of schizophrenia with an extensive neuropsychological test battery. Direct comparison of N=22 parents with an ancestral history of schizophrenia (more likely carriers, MLC) and N=17 of their spouses without such a history (less likely carriers, LLC) allowed the separation of genetic and non-genetic aspects in cognition. Overall, parents showed significant deficits in neuropsychological tasks from all cognitive domains with medium effect sizes. Direct comparisons of MLC- and LLC-parents showed that attentional and executive tasks were most strongly affected by genetic loading. To conclude, unaffected parents of schizophrenia patients showed modest yet significant impairments in attention, memory, and executive functioning. In particular, attentional and executive impairments varied most strongly with genetic loading for schizophrenia, prioritising these dysfunctions for genotype-endophenotype analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more than normal may

  18. Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 Methyltransferase, Result in Insulin Resistance and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, David; Matthews, Helen C.; Bogani, Debora; Moir, Lee; Long, Anna; Church, Christopher; Hugill, Alison; Anstee, Quentin M.; Goldin, Rob; Thursz, Mark; Hollfelder, Florian; Cox, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    We employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify novel monogenic determinants of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that haplo-insufficiency of the histone methyltransferase myeloid-lineage leukemia (Mll2/Wbp7) gene causes type 2 diabetes in the mouse. We have shown that mice heterozygous for two separate mutations in the SET domain of Mll2 or heterozygous Mll2 knockout mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consistent with previous Mll2 knockout studies, mice homozygous for either ENU mutation (or compound heterozygotes) died during embryonic development at 9.5–14.5 days post coitum. Heterozygous deletion of Mll2 induced in the adult mouse results in a normal phenotype suggesting that changes in chromatin methylation during development result in the adult phenotype. Mll2 has been shown to regulate a small subset of genes, a number of which Neurod1, Enpp1, Slc27a2, and Plcxd1 are downregulated in adult mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that histone H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is a component of the genetic regulation necessary for glucose homeostasis, resulting in a specific disease pattern linking chromatin modification with causes and progression of type 2 diabetes, providing a basis for its further understanding at the molecular level. PMID:23826075

  19. Mutations in Mll2, an H3K4 methyltransferase, result in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Goldsworthy

    Full Text Available We employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify novel monogenic determinants of type 2 diabetes. Here we show that haplo-insufficiency of the histone methyltransferase myeloid-lineage leukemia (Mll2/Wbp7 gene causes type 2 diabetes in the mouse. We have shown that mice heterozygous for two separate mutations in the SET domain of Mll2 or heterozygous Mll2 knockout mice were hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and developed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Consistent with previous Mll2 knockout studies, mice homozygous for either ENU mutation (or compound heterozygotes died during embryonic development at 9.5-14.5 days post coitum. Heterozygous deletion of Mll2 induced in the adult mouse results in a normal phenotype suggesting that changes in chromatin methylation during development result in the adult phenotype. Mll2 has been shown to regulate a small subset of genes, a number of which Neurod1, Enpp1, Slc27a2, and Plcxd1 are downregulated in adult mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that histone H3K4 methyltransferase Mll2 is a component of the genetic regulation necessary for glucose homeostasis, resulting in a specific disease pattern linking chromatin modification with causes and progression of type 2 diabetes, providing a basis for its further understanding at the molecular level.

  20. International Neurocognitive Normative Study: Neurocognitive Comparison Data in Diverse Resource Limited Settings: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5271

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, K; Jiang, H; Evans, SR; Marra, CM; Berzins, B; Hakim, J; Sacktor, N; Silva, M Tulius; Campbell, TB; Nair, A; Schouten, J; Kumwenda, J; Supparatpinyo, K; Tripathy, S.; Kumarasamy, N; La Rosa, A; Montano, S; Mwafongo, A; Firnhaber, C; Sanne, I; Naini, L.; Amod, F; Walawander, A

    2016-01-01

    Summary ACTG A5271 collected neurocognitive normative comparison test data in 2400 at-risk HIV seronegative participants from Brazil, India, Malawi, Peru, South Africa, Thailand and Zimbabwe. The participants were enrolled in strata by site (10 levels), age (2 levels), education (2 levels), and gender (2 levels). These data provide necessary normative data infrastructure for future clinical research and care in these diverse resource limited settings. Infrastructure for conducting neurological research in resource limited settings (RLS) is limited. The lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) assessment, and normative data needed for clinical interpretation impede research and clinical care. Here we report on ACTG 5271, which provided neurological training of clinical site personnel, and collected neurocognitive normative comparison data in diverse settings. At 10 sites in seven RLS countries, we provided training for NP assessments. We collected normative comparison data on HIV- participants from Brazil (n=240), India (n=480), Malawi (n=481), Peru (n=239), South Africa (480), Thailand (n=240) and Zimbabwe (n=240). Participants had a negative HIV test within 30 days before standardized NP exams were administered at baseline, and 770 at six-months. Participants were enrolled in 8 strata, gender (female and male), education (<10 years and ≥ 10 years), and age (<35 years and ≥35 years). Of 2400 enrolled, 770 completed the six-month follow up. As expected, significant between-country differences were evident in all the neurocognitive test scores (p<.0001). There was variation between the age, gender and education strata on the neurocognitive tests. Age and education were important variables for all tests; older participants had poorer performance and those with higher education had better performance. Women had better performance on verbal learning/memory and speed of processing tests, while men performed better on motor tests. This study provides the

  1. Post-Amputation Pain Is Associated with the Recall of an Impaired Body Representation in Dreams—Results from a Nation-Wide Survey on Limb Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person’s well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model. PMID

  2. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory) as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate body model.

  3. Post-amputation pain is associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams-results from a nation-wide survey on limb amputees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Bekrater-Bodmann

    Full Text Available The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP and residual limb pain (RLP, is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person's well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed the presence of post-amputation pain and other amputation-related information as well as recalled body representation in dreams in a sample of 3,234 unilateral limb amputees. Data on the site and time of amputation, residual limb length, prosthesis use, lifetime prevalence of mental disorders, presence of post-amputation pain, and presence of non-painful phantom phenomena were included in logistic regression analyses using recalled body representation in dreams (impaired, intact, no memory as dependent variable. The effects of age, sex, and frequency of dream recall were controlled for. About 22% of the subjects indicated that they were not able to remember their body representation in dreams, another 24% of the amputees recalled themselves as always intact, and only a minority of less than 3% recalled themselves as always impaired. Almost 35% of the amputees dreamed of themselves in a mixed fashion. We found that lower-limb amputation as well as the presence of PLP and RLP was positively associated with the recall of an impaired body representation in dreams. The presence of non-painful phantom phenomena, however, had no influence. These results complement previous findings and indicate complex interactions of physical body appearance and mental body representation, probably modulated by distress in the waking state. The findings are discussed against the background of alterations in cognitive processes after amputation and hypotheses suggesting an innate

  4. Retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell complex thickness assessment in patients with Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Preliminary results

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    A. S. Tiganov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC in patients with Alzheimer`s disease and mild cognitive impairment.Methods: this study included 10 patients (20 eyes with Alzheimer`s disease, 10 patients with mild cognitive impairment and 10 age- and sex-matched healthy controls that had no history of dementia. All the subjects underwent psychiatric examination, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and complete ophthalmological examination, comprising optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry.Results: there was a significant decrease in GCC thickness in patients with Alzheimer`s disease compared to the control group, global loss volume of ganglion cells was higher than in control group. there was no significant difference among the groups in terms of RNFL thickness. Weak positive correlation of GCC thickness and MMSE results was observed.Conclusion: Our data confirm the retinal involvement in Alzheimer`s disease, as reflected by loss of ganglion cells. Further studies will clear up the role and contribution of dementia in pathogenesis of optic neuropathy.

  5. The Effectiveness of Neurocognitive Rehabilitation On the Math Performance and Working Memory of Students with Dyscalculia

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    Fatemeh Bazzaz Monsef

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cognitive functions are one of the most important effective factors in students with dyscalculia. The present research aims to investigate the effectiveness of neurocognitive rehabilitation program on math performance and working memory of students with dyscalculia. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design. Thirty elementary students with dyscalculia were selected using convenience sampling, and then the experimental and control groups (each 15 individuals, were matched in terms of age, gender, intelligence, and school grade. The subjects of the experimental group received twenty 45-minute sessions of neurocognitive rehabilitation. To collect the data, Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-R test, Iran Key Math Diagnostic test, Digit Span test, Counting Span task, and Corsi Blocks task, were used. Results: In this study, the results of covariance analysis showed that the scores of the experimental group in working memory (digit span, counting span posttest and in Key-Math posttest, were higher than the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study is indicative of the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation in working memory (phonological loop, central executive and math performance (operation and applications in students with dyscalculia.

  6. The Relationship between Tests of Neurocognition and Performance on a Laparoscopic Simulator

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    Oumar Kuzbari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate if there is a relationship between the results of tests of neurocognition and performance on a laparoscopic surgery simulator. Methods and Materials. Twenty participants with no prior laparoscopic experience had baseline cognitive tests administered (Trail Making Test, Part A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test, completed a demographic questionnaire, and then performed laparoscopy using a simulator. We correlated the results of cognitive tests with laparoscopic surgical performance. Results. One cognitive test sensitive to frontal lobe function, TMT-A, significantly correlated with laparoscopic surgical performance on the simulator (correlation coefficient of 0.534 with P<.05. However, the correlation between performance and other cognitive tests (TMT-B, Grooved Peg Board Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Symbol Digit Recall Test, and Stroop Interference Test was not statistically significant. Conclusion. Laparoscopic performance may be related to measures of frontal lobe function. Neurocognitive tests may predict motor skills abilities and performance on laparoscopic simulator.

  7. Impaired Expression of Cytokines as a Result of Viral Infections with an Emphasis on Small Ruminant Lentivirus Infection in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Jarczak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing about the genes involved in immunity, and being able to identify the factors influencing their expressions, helps in gaining awareness of the immune processes. The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. Caprine arthritis encephalitis, a disease caused by small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV, causes economic losses in goat breeding, and there is no therapy against SRLV. The results of studies on vaccines against other viruses are promising. Moreover, the Marker-Assisted Selection strategy against SRLV is possible, as has been shown in sheep breeding. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge on the caprine immune response to infection. All types of cytokines play pivotal roles in immunity, and SRLV infection influences the expression of many cytokines in different types of cells. This information encouraged the authors to examine the results of studies conducted on SRLV and other viral infections, with an emphasis on the expression of cytokine genes. This review attempts to summarize the results of studies on the expression of cytokines in the context of the SRLV infection.

  8. Neurocognitive and Neuroplastic Mechanisms of Novel Clinical Signs in CRPS

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    Anoop eKuttikat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, debilitating pain condition that usually arises after trauma to a limb, but its precise etiology remains elusive. Novel clinical signs based on body perceptual disturbances have been reported, but their pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Investigators have used functional neuroimaging techniques (including MEG, EEG, fMRI and PET to study changes mainly within the somatosensory and motor cortices. Here we provide a focused review of the neuroimaging research findings that have generated insights into the potential neurocognitive and neuroplastic mechanisms underlying perceptual disturbances in CRPS. Neuroimaging findings, particularly with regard to somatosensory processing, have been promising but limited by a number of technique-specific factors (such as the complexity of neuroimaging investigations, poor spatial resolution of EEG/MEG, and use of modelling procedures that do not draw causal inferences and more general factors including small samples sizes and poorly characterized patients. These factors have led to an underappreciation of the potential heterogeneity of pathophysiology that may underlie variable clinical presentation in CRPS. Also, until now, neurological deficits have been predominantly investigated separately from perceptual and cognitive disturbances. Here, we highlight the need to identify neurocognitive phenotypes of patients with CRPS that are underpinned by causal explanations for perceptual disturbances. We suggest that a combination of larger cohorts, patient phenotyping, the use of both high temporal and spatial resolution neuroimaging methods, and the identification of simplified biomarkers is likely to be the most fruitful approach to identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in CRPS. Based on our review, we explain how such phenotypes could be characterized in terms of hierarchical models of perception and corresponding disturbances in recurrent

  9. Neurocognitive and Neuroplastic Mechanisms of Novel Clinical Signs in CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttikat, Anoop; Noreika, Valdas; Shenker, Nicholas; Chennu, Srivas; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Brown, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic, debilitating pain condition that usually arises after trauma to a limb, but its precise etiology remains elusive. Novel clinical signs based on body perceptual disturbances have been reported, but their pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Investigators have used functional neuroimaging techniques (including MEG, EEG, fMRI, and PET) to study changes mainly within the somatosensory and motor cortices. Here, we provide a focused review of the neuroimaging research findings that have generated insights into the potential neurocognitive and neuroplastic mechanisms underlying perceptual disturbances in CRPS. Neuroimaging findings, particularly with regard to somatosensory processing, have been promising but limited by a number of technique-specific factors (such as the complexity of neuroimaging investigations, poor spatial resolution of EEG/MEG, and use of modeling procedures that do not draw causal inferences) and more general factors including small samples sizes and poorly characterized patients. These factors have led to an underappreciation of the potential heterogeneity of pathophysiology that may underlie variable clinical presentation in CRPS. Also, until now, neurological deficits have been predominantly investigated separately from perceptual and cognitive disturbances. Here, we highlight the need to identify neurocognitive phenotypes of patients with CRPS that are underpinned by causal explanations for perceptual disturbances. We suggest that a combination of larger cohorts, patient phenotyping, the use of both high temporal, and spatial resolution neuroimaging methods, and the identification of simplified biomarkers is likely to be the most fruitful approach to identifying neurocognitive phenotypes in CRPS. Based on our review, we explain how such phenotypes could be characterized in terms of hierarchical models of perception and corresponding disturbances in recurrent processing

  10. Neurocognitive Correlates of Young Drivers' Performance in a Driving Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Schultheis, Maria T; Graefe, Anna C; Bishai, David M

    2016-04-01

    Differences in neurocognitive functioning may contribute to driving performance among young drivers. However, few studies have examined this relation. This pilot study investigated whether common neurocognitive measures were associated with driving performance among young drivers in a driving simulator. Young drivers (19.8 years (standard deviation [SD] = 1.9; N = 74)) participated in a battery of neurocognitive assessments measuring general intellectual capacity (Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient, FSIQ) and executive functioning, including the Stroop Color-Word Test (cognitive inhibition), Wisconsin Card Sort Test-64 (cognitive flexibility), and Attention Network Task (alerting, orienting, and executive attention). Participants then drove in a simulated vehicle under two conditions-a baseline and driving challenge. During the driving challenge, participants completed a verbal working memory task to increase demand on executive attention. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relations between the neurocognitive measures and driving performance under the two conditions. FSIQ, cognitive inhibition, and alerting were associated with better driving performance at baseline. FSIQ and cognitive inhibition were also associated with better driving performance during the verbal challenge. Measures of cognitive flexibility, orienting, and conflict executive control were not associated with driving performance under either condition. FSIQ and, to some extent, measures of executive function are associated with driving performance in a driving simulator. Further research is needed to determine if executive function is associated with more advanced driving performance under conditions that demand greater cognitive load. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptom Dimensions and Neurocognitive Functioning in Adult ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Andrew Timothy

    2000-01-01

    Ongoing controversies regarding the clinical and nosological status of ADHD in adults emphasize the need for studies examining whether DSM-IV ADHD symptom dimensions and subtypes identified in research with children are valid for adults. Firm symptom criteria validated by data from adult samples have not been developed. Moreover, many clinic-referred adults present with attentional complaints and exhibit symptoms, neurocognitive weaknesses, and secondary problems similar to those seen in A...

  12. Development of an Individualized Occupational Therapy Programme and its Effects on the Neurocognition, Symptoms and Social Functioning of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Nishi, Ai; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Tanaka, Sachie; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-12-01

    We described an individualized occupational therapy (IOT) programme and examined the effects of adding IOT to group OT (GOT) on improving neurocognition, symptoms and social functioning among recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia-Japanese version (BACS-J), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale were used for outcome evaluations. Fifty-one patients were voluntarily assigned to either the GOT + IOT (n = 30) or GOT alone (n = 21) groups based on their preferences. Retention in the GOT + IOT group was 100%. Three-month baseline to discharge assessments in the GOT + IOT group showed significant improvements in BACS-J verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention, executive function and composite score, and in PANSS positive subscale, general psychopathology subscale, and total score compared to the GOT alone group. Study limitations notwithstanding, the present findings provide preliminary support for the feasibility of implementing IOT and its effectiveness for improving cognitive impairment and symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The results of this study indicate that IOT in psychiatric facilities may improve psychosocial treatment of schizophrenia. Additional study is warranted to replicate the effects of IOT as demonstrated in this Japanese study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Theory of mind deficits partly mediate impaired social decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Li, Peifu; Mao, Haiying; Wang, Huiling; Shu, Chang; Bliksted, Vibeke; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-05-05

    Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory. Additionally, we assessed ToM using the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task, a mental state attribution task, and assessed neurocognition using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Mediation analyses were performed on the data. In contrast to the behavioral pattern of healthy controls in the mini UG, the patients with schizophrenia significantly accepted more disadvantageous offers and rejected more advantageous offers, and showed reduced sensitivity to the fairness-related context changes in the mini UG. Impaired ToM and neurocognition were also found in the patients. Mediation analyses indicated that ToM but not neurocognition partially mediated the group differences on the disadvantageous and advantageous offers in the mini UG. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited impaired social decision-making. This impairment can be partly explained by their ToM deficits rather than neurocognitive deficits. However, the exact nature of the ToM deficits that mediate impaired social decision-making needs to be identified in future.

  14. Dopamine transporter density by [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT and neurocognitive performance - a preliminary pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Ming C; Amaro, Edson Jr; Souza, Sayuri de E

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive deficits are associated with functional impairment as well as with poor quality of life in Parkinson's disease (PD). The main brain alteration in PD is a progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons. Both animal and human studies have demonstrated that basal ganglia dopamine system is important for cognitive and motor functioning. Dopamine transporter (DAT) PET and SPECT radiotracers have been successfully used to estimate, in vivo, dopamine neuronal loss in humans. Objectives: The present study is aimed to examine the relationship between cognitive impairment and striatal dopamine neuronal loss, as estimated by [ 99m Tc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT in PD patients. Methods: Fifteen PD patients were scanned with [ 99m Tc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT (Dual-Head-SPECT Hwakeye, GE). SPECT images were reconstructed with FBP and Butterworth filter 0,40c/px order 10. Regions of interest (ROIs) were striatum (STR) and occipital lobe (BKG nonspecific binding) and were delineated in 3-mm transaxials slices analyzed according to this formula BP=([STR-BKG]/BKG), where BP is the striatal DAT binding potential. Neurocognitive tests, including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Ravens Progressive Matrices, Digit Span and Tavis 3, were applied to all subjects by trained neuropsychologists. Results: Striatal DAT binding potential (BP) was negatively correlated with the RAVLT tests 4 (R= 0.57, p≤0.05) and 5 (R=0.57, p≤0.05), which evaluate verbal learning. Striatal DAT BP was also negatively correlated with the WCST learning item (R=0.54, p≤0.05) and the Tavis 3 items, action error (R=0.52, p≤0.05) and number of correct responses (R=0.47, p≤0.05). Conclusions: Although preliminary, the present findings suggest that striatal DAT loss is associated with a poorer performance on verbal learning and cognitive flexibility tasks. These results are in line with a previous study that examined healthy volunteers and found a relationship between

  15. Neurocognition in early-onset schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Giuliano, Anthony J; Youngstrom, Eric A; Breiger, David; Sikich, Linmarie; Frazier, Jean A; Findling, Robert L; McClellan, Jon; Hamer, Robert M; Vitiello, Benedetto; Lieberman, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    We examined the neuropsychological functioning of youth enrolled in the NIMH funded trial, Treatment of Early-Onset Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (TEOSS). We compared the baseline neuropsychological functioning of youth with schizophrenia (SZ, n = 79) to those with schizoaffective disorder (SA, n = 40), and examined the relationship of different variables of illness severity and adaptive behavior to neuropsychological functioning. Participants ranged in age from 8 to 19 years. Diagnostic status was confirmed via structured interview over multiple time points. Domains of neuropsychological functioning included fine-motor, attention, working memory, problem-solving efficiency, inhibitory control, and social cognition. Other variables included intelligence (IQ), academic achievement skills, adaptive behavior, and different measures of illness severity. The two groups did not differ on IQ or on any of the neuropsychological domains. The SZ group performed significantly lower in spelling. A high proportion of individuals in both groups reflected significant intellectual and academic achievement skill deficits. Significant correlations were found between the neurocognitive domains and both illness severity and adaptive behavior variables. There were few differences between the SZ and SA groups on IQ, achievement, or neuropsychological functioning; however, both groups showed significantly high rates of deficits in IQ and basic academic skills. Correlations of the neurocognitive functions with illness severity and adaptive behavior were small to moderate in magnitude. These findings continue to implicate the importance of neurocognitive functioning as a key area of vulnerability in the study of youth with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

  16. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  17. Neurocognitive profiles of learning disabled children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladys eOrraca-Castillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 is a genetic condition generally associated with intellectual deficiency and learning disabilities. Although there have been groundbreaking advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular, and neural systems underlying learning deficits associated to NF1 in animal models, much remains to be learned about the spectrum of neurocognitive phenotype associated with the NF1 clinical syndrome. In the present study, 32 children with NF1 ranging from 7 to 14 years were evaluated with neurocognitive tests dedicated to assess basic capacities which are involved in reading and mathematical achievement. Deficits in lexical and phonological strategies and poor number facts retrieval were found underlying reading and arithmetic disorders, respectively. Additionally, efficiencies in lexical/phonological strategies and mental arithmetic were significant predictors of individual differences in reading attainment and math. However, deficits in core numeric capacities were not found in the sample, suggesting that it is not responsible for calculation dysfluency. The estimated prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia was 18.8%, and the male:female ratio was 5:1. On the other hand, the prevalence of Developmental Dyslexia was almost 3 times as high (50%, and no gender differences were found (male:female ratio=1:1. This study offers new evidence to the neurocognitive phenotype of NF1 contributing to an in depth understanding of this condition, but also to possible treatments for the cognitive deficits associated with NF1.

  18. Neurocognitive outcome in young adults born late-preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Sammallahti, Sara; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki; Andersson, Sture; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Raikkonen, Katri

    2018-03-01

    This study examined whether late-preterm birth (34+0 to 36+6wks+d gestational age) was associated with neurocognitive deficit in young adulthood, and whether small for gestational age (SGA) birth amplified any adversity. Participants derived from the prospective regional cohort study, the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=786; 398 females, 388 males) (mean age 25y 4mo, SD 8mo), born 1985 to 1986 late-preterm (n=119; 21 SGA, intelligence, executive functioning, attention, and memory, and reported their education. Those born late-preterm scored -3.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] -6.71 to -0.72) and -3.11 (95% CI -6.01 to -0.22) points lower on Full-scale and Verbal IQ than peers born at term. Compared with those born at term and appropriate for gestational age (≥-2 to increase the risk of poorer neurocognitive functioning in adulthood. But the double burden of being born late-preterm and SGA seems to increase this risk. Late-preterm birth did not increase the risk of poorer neurocognitive functioning in adulthood. But the double burden of being born late-preterm and being small for gestational age did increase this risk. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Presurgery resting-state local graph-theory measures predict neurocognitive outcomes after brain surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Rider, Robert; Taylor, Nathan; Skidmore, Christopher; Sharan, Ashwini; Sperling, Michael; Tracy, Joseph I

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the ability of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) graph-theory measures to predict neurocognitive status postsurgery in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). A presurgical resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) condition was collected in 16 left and 16 right TLE patients who underwent ATL. In addition, patients received neuropsychological testing pre- and postsurgery in verbal and nonverbal episodic memory, language, working memory, and attention domains. Regarding the functional data, we investigated three graph-theory properties (local efficiency, distance, and participation), measuring segregation, integration and centrality, respectively. These measures were only computed in regions of functional relevance to the ictal pathology, or the cognitive domain. Linear regression analyses were computed to predict the change in each neurocognitive domain. Our analyses revealed that cognitive outcome was successfully predicted with at least 68% of the variance explained in each model, for both TLE groups. The only model not significantly predictive involved nonverbal episodic memory outcome in right TLE. Measures involving the healthy hippocampus were the most common among the predictors, suggesting that enhanced integration of this structure with the rest of the brain may improve cognitive outcomes. Regardless of TLE group, left inferior frontal regions were the best predictors of language outcome. Working memory outcome was predicted mostly by right-sided regions, in both groups. Overall, the results indicated our integration measure was the most predictive of neurocognitive outcome. In contrast, our segregation measure was the least predictive. This study provides evidence that presurgery rsFC measures may help determine neurocognitive outcomes following ATL. The results have implications for refining our understanding of compensatory reorganization and predicting

  20. Adolescent neurocognitive development, self-regulation, and school-based drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.

  1. Defective IL-10 signaling in hyper-IgE syndrome results in impaired generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells and induced regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masako; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Shigeru; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawamura, Nobuaki; Ariga, Tadashi; Tsuge, Ikuya; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections and atopic dermatitis associated with elevated serum IgE levels. Although defective differentiation of IL-17–producing CD4+ T cells (Th17) partly accounts for the susceptibility to staphylococcal skin abscesses and pneumonia, the pathogenesis of atopic manifestations in HIES still remains an enigma. In this study, we examined the differentiation and function of Th1, Th2, regulatory T cells (Treg cells), and dendritic cells (DCs) in HIES patients carrying either STAT3 or TYK2 mutations. Although the in vitro differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cells and the number and function of Treg cells in the peripheral blood were normal in HIES patients with STAT3 mutations, primary and monocyte-derived DCs showed defective responses to IL-10 and thus failed to become tolerogenic. When treated with IL-10, patient DCs showed impaired up-regulation of inhibitory molecules on their surface, including PD-L1 and ILT-4, compared with control DCs. Moreover, IL-10–treated DCs from patients displayed impaired ability to induce the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells to FOXP3+ induced Treg cells (iTreg cells). These results suggest that the defective generation of IL-10–induced tolerogenic DCs and iTreg cells may contribute to inflammatory changes in HIES. PMID:21300911

  2. Neurocognitive Function of Patients with Brain Metastasis Who Received Either Whole Brain Radiotherapy Plus Stereotactic Radiosurgery or Radiosurgery Alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi; Tago, Masao; Kato, Norio; Toyoda, Tatsuya; Kenjyo, Masahiro; Hirota, Saeko; Shioura, Hiroki; Inomata, Taisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Kobashi, Gen; Shirato, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine how the omission of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) affects the neurocognitive function of patients with one to four brain metastases who have been treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: In a prospective randomized trial between WBRT+SRS and SRS alone for patients with one to four brain metastases, we assessed the neurocognitive function using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Of the 132 enrolled patients, MMSE scores were available for 110. Results: In the baseline MMSE analyses, statistically significant differences were observed for total tumor volume, extent of tumor edema, age, and Karnofsky performance status. Of the 92 patients who underwent the follow-up MMSE, 39 had a baseline MMSE score of ≤27 (17 in the WBRT+SRS group and 22 in the SRS-alone group). Improvements of ≥3 points in the MMSEs of 9 WBRT+SRS patients and 11 SRS-alone patients (p = 0.85) were observed. Of the 82 patients with a baseline MMSE score of ≥27 or whose baseline MMSE score was ≤26 but had improved to ≥27 after the initial brain treatment, the 12-, 24-, and 36-month actuarial free rate of the 3-point drop in the MMSE was 76.1%, 68.5%, and 14.7% in the WBRT+SRS group and 59.3%, 51.9%, and 51.9% in the SRS-alone group, respectively. The average duration until deterioration was 16.5 months in the WBRT+SRS group and 7.6 months in the SRS-alone group (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The results of the present study have revealed that, for most brain metastatic patients, control of the brain tumor is the most important factor for stabilizing neurocognitive function. However, the long-term adverse effects of WBRT on neurocognitive function might not be negligible

  3. Factors Contributing to Disparities in Baseline Neurocognitive Performance and Concussion Symptom Scores Between Black and White Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jessica; Covassin, Tracey; Moran, Ryan; Deitrick, Jamie McAllister

    2017-11-02

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) concussion guidelines state that all NCAA athletes must have a concussion baseline test prior to commencing their competitive season. To date, little research has examined potential racial differences on baseline neurocognitive performance among NCAA athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between Black and White collegiate athletes on baseline neurocognitive performance and self-reported symptoms. A total of 597 collegiate athletes (400 White, 197 Black) participated in this study. Athletes self-reported their race on the demographic section of their pre-participation physical examination and were administered the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) neurocognitive battery in a supervised, quiet room. Controlling for sex, data were analyzed using separate one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) on symptom score, verbal and visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time composite scores. Results revealed significant differences between White and Black athletes on baseline symptom score (F (1,542)  = 5.82, p = .01), visual motor processing speed (F (1,542)  = 14.89, p baseline visual motor processing speed and reaction time. Black athletes reported higher baseline symptom scores compared to Whites. There was no statistical difference between race on verbal memory (p = .08) and that on visual memory (p = .06). Black athletes demonstrated disparities on some neurocognitive measures at baseline. These results suggest capturing an individual baseline on each athlete, as normative data comparisons may be inappropriate for athletes of a racial minority.

  4. An overview of the biological and psychosocial context surrounding neurocognition in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Randazza, Jason; Fogger, Suzanne; Slater, Larry Z; Humphrey, Shameka C; Keltner, Norman L

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a psychiatric illness increases the risk of exposure to HIV and disease complications; however, effective treatments have substantially reduced mortality in adults with HIV. Despite such effective treatments, nearly half of adults with HIV experience neurocognitive deficits that can affect job-related and everyday tasks, thus reducing their quality of life. This article provides an overview of the context in which neurocognitive deficits occur in adults with HIV; it also includes implications for treatment and mitigation of such neurocognitive deficits. Understanding the underlying neurocognitive changes related to HIV can help psychiatric nurses provide better care to patients that may improve medication compliance and everyday functioning.

  5. Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. PMID:23596103

  6. Existential neuroscience: effects of mortality salience on the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Sarita; Graupmann, Verena; Agthe, Maria; Gutyrchik, Evgeny; Blautzik, Janusch; Demirçapa, Idil; Berndt, Andrea; Pöppel, Ernst; Frey, Dieter; Reiser, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Being reminded of the inherently finite nature of human existence has been demonstrated to elicit strivings for sexual reproduction and the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships. Recently, it has been proposed that the perception of potential mating partners is influenced by mortality salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neurocognitive processing of attractive opposite-sex faces after priming with death-related words for heterosexual men and women. Significant modulations of behavioral and neural responses were found when participants were requested to decide whether they would like to meet the presented person. Men were more in favor of meeting attractive women after being primed with death-related words compared to a no-prime condition. Increased neural activation could be found under mortality salience in the left anterior insula and the adjacent lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) for both men and women. As previously suggested, we believe that the lPFC activation reflects an approach-motivated defense mechanism to overcome concerns that are induced by being reminded of death and dying. Our results provide insight on a neurocognitive level that approach motivation in general, and mating motivation in particular is modulated by mortality salience. PMID:24078106

  7. Single aortic clamping in coronary artery bypass surgery reduces cerebral embolism and improves neurocognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparovic, Hrvoje; Borojevic, Marko; Malojcic, Branko; Gasparovic, Kristina; Biocina, Bojan

    2013-10-01

    Aortic manipulation releases embolic material, thereby enhancing the probability of adverse neurologic outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We prospectively evaluated 59 patients undergoing CABG. Patients in the single (SC, n = 37) and multiple clamp (MC, n = 22) groups were comparable in relation to age and operative risk (p > 0.05). Neurocognitive evaluation consisted of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Color Trails Test A, the Grooved Pegboard test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Data acquisition was performed preoperatively, early postoperatively and at the 4-month follow-up. Intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring was used to quantify the embolic load in relation to different aortic clamping strategies. Preoperative neurocognitive results were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of postoperative delirium was greater in the MC group but this failed to reach statistical significance (23% vs 8%, p = 0.14). SC patients had fewer embolization signals (270 ± 181 vs 465 ± 160, p cognitive depression was greater in the MC group (p cognition deficits and superior late restoration of function.

  8. Chronic post-concussion neurocognitive deficits. II. Relationship with persistent symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eMaruta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who sustain a concussion may continue to experience problems long after their injury. However, it has been postulated in the literature that the relationship between a concussive injury and persistent complaints attributed to it is mediated largely by the development of symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. We sought to characterize cognitive deficits of adult patients who had persistent symptoms after a concussion and determine whether the original injury retains associations with these deficits after accounting for the developed symptoms that overlap with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. We compared the results of neurocognitive testing from 33 patients of both genders aged 18-55 at three months to five years post-injury with those from 140 control subjects. Statistical comparisons revealed that patients generally produced accurate responses on reaction time-based tests, but with reduced efficiency. On visual tracking, patients increased gaze position error variability following an attention demanding task, an effect that may reflect greater fatigability. When neurocognitive performance was examined in the context of demographic- and symptom-related variables, the original injury retained associations with reduced performance at a statistically significant level. For some patients, reduced cognitive efficiency and fatigability may represent key elements of interference when interacting with the environment, leading to varied paths of recovery after a concussion. Poor recovery may be better understood when these deficits are taken into consideration.

  9. Long-term neurophysiologic impact of childhood sleep disordered breathing on neurocognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. To determine the impact of sleep disordered breathing (SDB in children on neurocognitive function 5 years later.Design, Setting, and Participants. A subgroup of 43 children from the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea Study (TuCASA who had SDB (RDI > 6 events/hour at their initial exam (ages 6-11 years were matched on the basis of age (within 1 year, gender and ethnicity (Anglo/Hispanic to 43 children without SDB (Control, RDI < 4 events/hour. The Sustained Working Memory Task (SWMT which combines tests of working memory (1-Back Task, reaction time (Simple Reaction Time and attention (Multiplexing Task with concurrent electroencephalographic monitoring was administered approximately 5 years later.Results. There were no differences in performance on the working memory, reaction time and attention tests between the SDB and Control groups. However, the SDB group exhibited lower P300 evoked potential amplitudes during the Simple Reaction Time and Multiplexing Tasks. Additionally, peak alpha power during the Multiplexing Task was lower in the SDB Group with a similar trend in the Simple Reaction Time Task (p=0.08.Conclusions. SDB in children may cause subtle long-term changes in executive function that are not detectable with conventional neurocognitive testing and are only evident during neuroelectrophysiologic monitoring.

  10. Dopamine receptor D5 deficiency results in a selective reduction of hippocampal NMDA receptor subunit NR2B expression and impaired memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-Amaro, Rodrigo; González, Hugo; Ugalde, Valentina; Donoso-Ramos, Juan Pablo; Quintana-Donoso, Daisy; Lara, Marcelo; Morales, Bernardo; Rojas, Patricio; Pacheco, Rodrigo; Stehberg, Jimmy

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacological evidence associates type I dopamine receptors, including subtypes D1 and D5, with learning and memory. Analyses using genetic approaches have determined the relative contribution of dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) in cognitive tasks. However, the lack of drugs that can discriminate between D1R and D5R has made the pharmacological distinction between the two receptors difficult. Here, we aimed to determine the role of D5R in learning and memory. In this study we tested D5R knockout mice and wild-type littermates in a battery of behavioral tests, including memory, attention, locomotion, anxiety and motivational evaluations. Our results show that genetic deficiency of D5R significantly impairs performance in the Morris water maze paradigm, object location and object recognition memory, indicating a relevant role for D5R in spatial memory and recognition memory. Moreover, the lack of D5R resulted in decreased exploration and locomotion. In contrast, D5R deficiency had no impact on working memory, anxiety and depressive-like behavior, measured using the spontaneous alternation, open-field, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Electrophysiological analyses performed on hippocampal slices showed impairment in long-term-potentiation in mice lacking D5R. Further analyses at the molecular level showed that genetic deficiency of D5R results in a strong and selective reduction in the expression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate the relevant contribution of D5R in memory and suggest a functional interaction of D5R with hippocampal glutamatergic pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  12. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  13. Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: A Consensus Report of the Mind Exchange Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Andrea; Arendt, Gabriele; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Chair; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Eggers, Christian; Brew, Bruce; Brouillette, Marie-Josée; Bernal-Cano, Francisco; Carvalhal, Adriana; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Cinque, Paola; Cysique, Lucette; Ellis, Ronald; Everall, Ian; Gasnault, Jacques; Husstedt, Ingo; Korten, Volkan; Machala, Ladislav; Obermann, Mark; Ouakinin, Silvia; Podzamczer, Daniel; Portegies, Peter; Rackstraw, Simon; Rourke, Sean; Sherr, Lorraine; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Winston, Alan; Wojna, Valerie; Yazdanpannah, Yazdan; Arbess, Gordon; Baril, Jean-Guy; Begovac, Josip; Bergin, Colm; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Brinkman, Kees; Canestri, Ana; Cholewińska-Szymańska, Graźyna; Chowers, Michal; Cooney, John; Corti, Marcelo; Doherty, Colin; Elbirt, Daniel; Esser, Stefan; Florence, Eric; Force, Gilles; Gill, John; Goffard, Jean-Christophe; Harrer, Thomas; Li, Patrick; de Kerckhove, Linos Van; Knecht, Gaby; Matsushita, Shuzo; Matulionyte, Raimonda; McConkey, Sam; Mouglignier, Antoine; Oka, Shinichi; Penalva, Augusto; Riesenberg, Klaris; Sambatakou, Helen; Tozzi, Valerio; Vassallo, Matteo; Wetterberg, Peter; Drapato, Alicia Wiercińska

    2013-01-01

    Many practical clinical questions regarding the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) remain unanswered. We sought to identify and develop practical answers to key clinical questions in HAND management. Sixty-six specialists from 30 countries provided input into the program, which was overseen by a steering committee. Fourteen questions were rated as being of greatest clinical importance. Answers were drafted by an expert group based on a comprehensive literature review. Sixty-three experts convened to determine consensus and level of evidence for the answers. Consensus was reached on all answers. For instance, good practice suggests that all HIV patients should be screened for HAND early in disease using standardized tools. Follow-up frequency depends on whether HAND is already present or whether clinical data suggest risk for developing HAND. Worsening neurocognitive impairment may trigger consideration of antiretroviral modification when other causes have been excluded. The Mind Exchange program provides practical guidance in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of HAND. PMID:23175555

  14. Methamphetamine and inflammatory cytokines increase neuronal Na+/K+-ATPase isoform 3: relevance for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Pendyala

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (METH abuse in conjunction with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV exacerbates neuropathogenesis and accelerates neurocognitive impairments in the central nervous system (CNS, collectively termed HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND. Since both HIV and METH have been implicated in altering the synaptic architecture, this study focused on investigating alterations in synaptic proteins. Employing a quantitative proteomics approach on synaptosomes isolated from the caudate nucleus from two groups of rhesus monkeys chronically infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV differing by one regimen, METH treatment, we identified the neuron specific Na(+/K(+-ATPase alpha 1 isoform 3 (ATP1A3 to be up regulated after METH treatment, and validated its up regulation by METH in vitro. Further studies on signaling mechanisms revealed that the activation of ATP1A3 involves the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK pathway. Given its function in maintaining ionic gradients and emerging role as a signaling molecule, changes in ATP1A3 yields insights into the mechanisms associated with HAND and interactions with drugs of abuse.

  15. A path model investigation of neurocognition, theory of mind, social competence, negative symptoms and real-world functioning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, Shannon M; Granholm, Eric L; Fish, Scott C

    2011-02-01

    Problems in real-world functioning are pervasive in schizophrenia and much recent effort has been devoted to uncovering factors which contribute to poor functioning. The goal of this study was to examine the role of four such factors: social cognition (theory of mind), neurocognition, negative symptoms, and functional capacity (social competence). 178 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of theory of mind, neurocognition, negative symptoms, social competence, and self-reported functioning. Path models sought to determine the relationships among these variables. Theory of mind as indexed by the Hinting Task partially mediated the relationship between neurocognition and social competence, and negative symptoms and social competence demonstrated significant direct paths with self-reported functioning. Study results suggest theory of mind serves as an important mediator in addition to previously investigated social cognitive domains of emotional and social perception. The current study also highlights the need to determine variables which mediate the relationship between functional capacity and real-world functioning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive functioning and well-being in euthyroid patients on thyroxine replacement therapy for primary hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, Ellie M.; Appelhof, Bente C.; Fliers, Eric; Schene, Aart H.; Huyser, Jochanan; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypothyroidism is associated with neurocognitive impairment. Sparse data suggest that treatment of hypothyroidism, resulting in a return to euthyroidism, may be associated with only partial recovery of overall neurocognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to assess neurocognitive

  17. Relations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in those with mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the utility of VSRAD (Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease) for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or AD-related studies, correlations between VSRAD-based parahippocampal atrophy and results of neuropsychological tests were investigated. Subjects comprised 18 and 12 patients with probable AD and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to a cerebral degeneration near AD, respectively. Neuropsychological tests consisted of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS)-J cog., Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised (HDS-R), Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-Revised or -IIIrd (WAIS-R/-III) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R). Subjects received these tests within one month before or after cranial MRI scans, and correlations between Z-scores of VSRAD reflecting the parahippocampal atrophy and results of these neuropsychological tests were statistically examined. The Z-scores had a significant positive correlation with scores of ADAS (p=.0129) and an inverse correlation with scores of ''Information'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III (p=.0294). Further, the Z-scores showed a tendency to weak, inverse correlations with the scores of HDS-R, ''Similarity'' as a subtest of WAIS-R/-III and ''Visual Reproduction II'' as a subtest of WMS-R (p=.0532, .0635, and .0609, respectively). Usefulness of VSRAD for the diagnosis of AD was indicated by the significant correlations hoted with ADAS and HDS-R, and it was further suggested that parahippocampal atrophy was related to semantic and visual memory impairments of AD, judging from the correlations with subtests of WAIS-R/-III and WMS-R. (author)

  18. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per Normann; Hovik, Kjell Tore; Skogli, Erik Winther; Egeland, Jens; Oie, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC). Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17) were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+) or without (HFA-) "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition that children with HFA+, HFA-, and ADHD differ not only on a clinical level but also on a neurocognitive level which may have implications for treatment.

  19. Symptoms of ADHD in children with high-functioning autism are related to impaired verbal working memory and verbal delayed recall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Normann Andersen

    Full Text Available Symptoms similar to those found in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD often occur in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. The objective of the current study was to compare verbal working memory, acquisition and delayed recall in children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA to children with ADHD and typically developing children (TDC. Thirty-eight children with HFA, 79 with ADHD and 50 TDC (age 8-17 were assessed with a letter/number sequencing task and a verbal list-learning task. To investigate the possible influence of attention problems in children with HFA, we divided the HFA group into children with (HFA+ or without (HFA- "attention problems" according to the Child Behaviour Checklist 6-18. The children with HFA+ displayed significant impairment compared to TDC on all three neurocognitive measures, while the children with HFA- were significantly impaired compared to TDC only on the working memory and acquisition measures. In addition, the HFA+ group scored significantly below the HFA- group and the ADHD group on the verbal working memory and delayed recall measures. The results support the proposition tha