WorldWideScience

Sample records for neuroblastoma cytogenetic studies

  1. Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous disease; tumors can spontaneously regress or mature, or display an aggressive, therapy-resistant phenotype. Increasing evidence indicates that the biologic and molecular features of neuroblastoma significantly influence and are highly predictive of clinical behavior. Because of this, neuroblastoma has served as a paradigm for biological risk assessment and treatment assignment. Most current clinical studies of neuroblastoma base therapy and its intensity on a ...

  2. Cytogenetic studies in Phaseolus L. (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Mercado-Ruaro

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the cytogenetic studies carried out on Phaseolus as well as the different proposals that have been suggested to explain the chromosomal changes in the group are presented. The importance of including wild species in cytogenetic studies and the collaboration between taxonomists and cytogeneticists in order to draw better conclusions are emphasized.

  3. Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also may be at higher risk for other cancers. Caring for Your Child Being told your child has neuroblastoma can be ... Cancer Center Use Finn's Story to Talk About Cancer Preparing Your Child for Surgery Late Effects of Cancer and Cancer ...

  4. Risk of unfavorable character among neuroblastomas detected through mass screening. The Japanese Infantile Neuroblastoma Cooperative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Matsumura, T; Iehara, T; Sawada, T

    2000-12-01

    Current study shows that about 50% of neuroblastomas (NBs) detected through mass screening had factor(s) indicating an unfavorable biological nature and that early intervention after the screening might improve clinical outcome of the patients. On the other hand, favorable properties were detected in the remaining half of the mass-screening NBs. Some of them might have the ability to regress spontaneously. Therapeutic modality should be determined according to their biological nature. Further investigation for their biologic properties is necessary to evaluate the benefits of the mass screening. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Technical Review: Cytogenetic Tools for Studying Mitotic Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačovský, Václaclav; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris

    2018-01-01

    Significant advances in chromosome preparation and other techniques have greatly increased the potential of plant cytogenetics in recent years. Increase in longitudinal resolution using DNA extended fibers as well as new developments in imaging and signal amplification technologies have enhanced the ability of FISH to detect small gene targets. The combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization with immunocytochemistry allows the investigation of cell events, chromosomal rearrangements and chromatin features typical for plant nuclei. Chromosome manipulation techniques using microdissection and flow sorting have accelerated the analysis of complex plant genomes. Together, the different cytogenetic approaches are invaluable for the unravelling of detailed structures of plant chromosomes, which are of utmost importance for the study of genome properties, DNA replication and gene regulation. In this technical review, different cytogenetic approaches are discussed for the analysis of plant chromosomes, with a focus on mitotic chromosomes.

  6. Advanced microtechnologies for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Shah, Pranjul Jaykumar

    2012-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses, which aim to detect chromosome abnormalities, are routinely performed in cytogenetic laboratories all over the world. Traditional cytogenetic studies are performed by analyzing the banding pattern of chromosomes, and are complemented by molecular cy...

  7. Birth and parental characteristics and risk of neuroblastoma in a population-based Norwegian cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bj?rge, T; Engeland, A; S. Tretli; Heuch, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this population-based Norwegian cohort study (2.1 million children), the impact of birth and parental characteristics on the risk of neuroblastoma (178 cases) was evaluated. In children below the age of 18 months, there was an increased neuroblastoma risk among those with congenital malformations and suggestion of increased risk when the mother had pre-eclampsia.

  8. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  9. An Integrated Cross-Platform Prognosis Study on Neuroblastoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Rong; Song, Young K.; Wei, Jun S.; Bilke, Sven; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C.; Khan, Javed

    2008-01-01

    There have been several reports about the potential for predicting prognosis of neuroblastoma patients using microarray gene expression profiling of the tumors. However these studies have revealed an apparent diversity in the identity of the genes in their predictive signatures. In order to test the contribution of the platform to this discrepancy we applied z-scoring method to minimize the impact of platform and combine gene expression profiles of neuroblastoma (NB) tumors from two different platforms, cDNA and Affymetrix. A total of 12442 genes were common to both cDNA and Affymetrix arrays in our dataset. Two-way ANOVA analysis was applied to the combined dataset for assessing the relative effect of prognosis and platform on gene expression. We found 26.6% (3307) of the genes had significant impact on survival. There was no significant impact of microarray platform on expression after application of z-scoring standardization procedure. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of the combined data set in a leave-one-out prediction strategy correctly predicted the outcome for 90% of the samples. Hierarchical clustering analysis using the top-ranked 160 genes showed the great separation of two clusters, and the majority of matched samples from the different platforms were clustered next to each other. The ANN classifier trained with our combined cross-platform data for these 160 genes could predict the prognosis of 102 independent test samples with 71% accuracy. Furthermore it correctly predicted the outcome for 85/102 (83%) NB patients through the leave-one-out cross validation approach. Our study showed that gene expression studies performed in different platforms could be integrated for prognosis analysis after removing variation resulting from different platforms. PMID:18598751

  10. An integrated cross-platform prognosis study on neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Rong; Song, Young K; Wei, Jun S; Bilke, Sven; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Seeger, Robert C; Khan, Javed

    2008-10-01

    There have been several reports about the potential for predicting prognosis of neuroblastoma patients using microarray gene expression profiling of the tumors. However these studies have revealed an apparent diversity in the identity of the genes in their predictive signatures. To test the contribution of the platform to this discrepancy we applied the z-scoring method to minimize the impact of platform and combine gene expression profiles of neuroblastoma (NB) tumors from two different platforms, cDNA and Affymetrix. A total of 12442 genes were common to both cDNA and Affymetrix arrays in our data set. Two-way ANOVA analysis was applied to the combined data set for assessing the relative effect of prognosis and platform on gene expression. We found that 26.6% (3307) of the genes had significant impact on survival. There was no significant impact of microarray platform on expression after application of z-scoring standardization procedure. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of the combined data set in a leave-one-out prediction strategy correctly predicted the outcome for 90% of the samples. Hierarchical clustering analysis using the top-ranked 160 genes showed the great separation of two clusters, and the majority of matched samples from the different platforms were clustered next to each other. The ANN classifier trained with our combined cross-platform data for these 160 genes could predict the prognosis of 102 independent test samples with 71% accuracy. Furthermore it correctly predicted the outcome for 85/102 (83%) NB patients through the leave-one-out cross-validation approach. Our study showed that gene expression studies performed in different platforms could be integrated for prognosis analysis after removing variation resulting from different platforms.

  11. Cytogenetic study of a pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, María J; Vargas, María T; Sánchez, Ana; Ibáñez, José; González-Cámpora, Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is an uncommon benign tumor that presents as a solitary asymptomatic and slow-growing nodule. It occurs in both young and old persons; peak incidence is in the fifth decade. Both sexes are affected by this tumor, but women more frequently than men. On histological examination, PSH shows prominent sclerotization and vascularization of the tissue. Recent studies conclude that PSH derives from type II pneumocytes, but the potential for progression and histogenesis remains controversial. We report a case of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma in a 61-year-old woman with a neoplastic node 1 cm in diameter. The karyotype was 46,XX,t(8;18),der(14;15),+14 in all the cells analyzed. PTEN (10q23) and IgH (14q32) probes were analyzed in interphase nuclei and paraffin-embedded tissues of tumor cells. These chromosome abnormalities could provide information about the relationship of genetic changes to the biological properties of sclerosing hemangioma tumors.

  12. Cytogenetic study on {sup 131} Iodine effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Claudia Lopes; Mello, Rossana Corbo; Gutfilen, Bianca [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Aranha, Ivar Pinheiro [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Celular e Genetica

    2001-07-01

    There are no conclusive results, to these days, on the effect of {sup 131} I dosage used in scintigraphy on thyroid patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of that dosage on human lymphocyte chromosomes. Cells from 21 patients were placed in 1640 RPMI medium with bovine calf serum and incubated for 48 and 72 h at 37 deg C. Blood was collected 24 hours after administration of the radioisotope. Blood collected from the same patients prior to the administration of {sup 131} I was used as control. Chromosomes were stained with Giemsa Gurr 2% pH=6.8 and analyzed under optical microscope. Of the 6,300 metaphases analyzed from the 48 h cultures, 1,146 gaps and 682 breaks were found, in the test group. Of the 6,300 analyzed from the control group, 291 gaps and 119 breaks were observed. In the 72 h cultures, of 6,300 metaphases analyzed, 216 gaps and 52 breaks were found in the test group. Of 6,300 metaphases analyzed from the control group, 10 gaps and no breaks were found. These results were significant in a paired t-test (p < 0,05). Our results show that {sup 131} I is responsible for the observed chromosome alterations. We suggest re-evaluating the use of {sup 131} I, mainly on those patients at fertile age. (author)

  13. Constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36.31-p36.13;q11.2-q12.1) in a neuroblastoma patient. Establishment of somatic cell hybrids and identification of PND/A12M2 on chromosome 1 and NF1/SCYA7 on chromosome 17 as breakpoint flanking single copy markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laureys, G.; Speleman, F.; Versteeg, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Leroy, J.; Francke, U.; Opdenakker, G.; van Roy, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cytogenetic and molecular studies in neuroblastoma suggest the presence of a tumor suppressor gene at the distal band p36 of human chromosome 1. We described a constitutional translocation t(1;17)(p36;q12-q21), involving the critical region 1p36, in a patient with neuroblastoma, and hypothesized

  14. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neuroblastoma Treatment for more information about neuroblastoma. Most cases of neuroblastoma are diagnosed before 1 year of ... to Use This Summary PDQ is a registered trademark. The content of PDQ documents can be used ...

  15. Cytogenetic studies of three Lycosidae species from Argentina (Arachnida, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Chemisquy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies of the family Lycosidae (Arachnida: Araneae are scarce. Less than 4% of the described species have been analyzed and the male haploid chromosome numbers ranged from 8+X 1 X 2 to 13+X 1 X 2 . Species formerly classified as Lycosa were the most studied ones. Our aim in this work was to perform a comparative analysis of the meiosis in " Lycosa " erythrognatha Lucas, " Lycosa " pampeana Holmberg and Schizocosa malitiosa (Tullgren. We also compared male and female karyotypes and characterized the heterochromatin of " L. " erythrognatha . The males of the three species had 2n = 22, n = 10+X 1 X 2 , all the chromosomes were telocentric and there was generally a single chiasma per bivalent. In " Lycosa " pampeana , which is described cytogenetically for the first time herein, the bivalents and sex chromosomes showed a clustered arrangement at prometaphase I. The comparison of the male/female karyotypes (2n = 22/24 of " Lycosa " erythrognatha revealed that the sex chromosomes were the largest of the complement and that the autosomes decreased gradually in size. The analysis of the amount, composition and distribution of heterochromatin with C-banding and staining with DAPI- and CMA 3 - showed that " Lycosa " erythrognatha had little GC-rich heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. In addition, the actual occurrence of the genus Lycosa in the Southern Hemisphere is discussed.

  16. Myeloid sarcomas: a histologic, immunohistochemical, and cytogenetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers William H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Context. - Myeloid sarcoma (MS is a neoplasm of immature granulocytes, monocytes, or both involving any extramedullary site. The correct diagnosis of MS is important for adequate therapy, which is often delayed because of a high misdiagnosis rate. Objective. - To evaluate the lineage differentiation of neoplastic cells in MS by immunohistochemistry, and to correlate the results with clinicopathologic findings and cytogenetic studies. Design. - Histologic and immunohistochemical examinations were performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 13 cases of MS. They were classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. Chromosomal analysis data were available in 11 cases. Clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic findings were analyzed. Results. - The study included six male and seven female patients with an age range of 25 to 72 years (mean, 49.3 years and a male to female ratio of 1:1.2. MS de novo occurred in 4/13 (31% of cases examined. The most sensitive immunohistochemical markers were CD43 and lysozyme present in all cases with MS (13/13, 100%. All de novo MS showed a normal karyotype, monoblastic differentiation, and lack of CD34. The most common chromosomal abnormalities in MS associated with a hematopoietic disorder were trisomy 8 and inv(16 (2/11, 18%. Conclusion. - An immunohistochemical panel including CD43, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase (MPO, CD68 (or CD163, CD117, CD3 and CD20 can successfully identify the vast majority of MS variants in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The present report expands the spectrum of our knowledge showing that de novo MS has frequent monoblastic differentiation and frequently carries a normal karyotype.

  17. Immunoproteomic studies on paediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus associated with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Durán-Moreno, María; Sánchez Del Pino, Manuel; Yáñez, Yania; Cañete, Adela; Castel, Victoria; López-Cuevas, Rogelio; Vílchez, Juan Jesús; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc; García Verdugo, José Manuel; Bataller, Luis

    2016-08-15

    We aimed to identify new cell-membrane antigens implicated in opsoclonus-myoclonus with neuroblastoma. The sera of 3 out of 14 patients showed IgG electron-microscopy immunogold reactivity on SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Immunoprecipitation experiments using rat brain synaptosomes and SH-SY5Y cells led to the identification of: (1) thirty-one nuclear/cytoplasmic proteins (including antigens HuB, HuC); (2) seven neuronal membrane proteins, including the Shaw-potassium channel Kv3.3 (KCNC3), whose genetic disruption in mice causes ataxia and generalized muscle twitching. Although cell-based assays did not demonstrate direct antigenicity, our findings point to Shaw-related subfamily of the potassium voltage-gated channels complexed proteins as hypothetical antigenic targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytogenetic study in workers occupationally exposed to mercury fulminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, W A; Gabal, M S

    1991-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the cytogenetic effects in male workers exposed to mercury fulminate. A total of 29 male workers and 29 age- and sex-matched controls were examined. The mean mercury level in urine from the exposed workers was 123.2 +/- 54.1 micrograms/l compared with 39.2 +/- 11.1 micrograms/l in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.001). Metaphase chromosomes were studied. Micronucleated peripheral blood lymphocytes were also analyzed in cytochalasin B blocked binucleated lymphocytes. The percentage of metaphases with chromosomal aberrations was significantly higher (P less than 0.001) in the exposed group (6.1 +/- 2.3) compared to the control group (2.8 +/- 0.7). The chromosomal aberrations detected were in the form of gaps, breaks and fragments. A significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated lymphocytes was found among the exposed group (7.1 +/- 4.2) compared to the control group (5.4 +/- 2.2) (P less than 0.01). The detected chromosomal damage correlated neither with the duration of exposure nor with the urinary mercury level.

  19. Neurospora as a model fungus for studies in cytogenetics and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dodge's early work (1927–1940) on Neurospora genetics and sexual biology inspired Beadle and Tatum at Stanford to use N. crassa for their landmark discovery that genes specify enzymes. Neurospora has since become a model organism for numerous genetic, cytogenetic, biochemical, molecular and population biology ...

  20. Cytogenetic study and serum protein characterization of Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... clariid fish may suggest an ongoing speciation while the presence of five common bands may also be used as a diagnostic marker for biochemical differentiation of the two fish species. Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, diploid chromosome number, cytogenetics, genetic variation, electrophoresis.

  1. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs. A report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, Lars; Stroemberg, Ulf; Mikoczy, Zoli; Tinnerberg, Hakan; Skerfving, Staffan [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, S-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Bonassi, Stefano; Lando, Cecilia [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Viale Benedetto XV, I-1016132 Genoa (Italy); Hansteen, Inger-Lise [Department of Occupational Medicine, Telemark Central Hospital, N-3710 Skien (Norway); Montagud, Alicia Huici [Centro Nacional de Condiciones de Trabajo, Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Dulcet 2-10, ES-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Knudsen, Lisbeth [National Institute of Occupational Health, Lersoe Parkalle 105, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Norppa, Hannu [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksekatu 41 aA, FIN-00250 Helsinki (Finland); Reuterwall, Christina [National Institute of Work Life, S-171 84 Solna (Sweden); Broegger, Anton [Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Forni, Alessandra [Istituto di Medicina del Lavoro Clinica del Lavoro `L. Devoto`, Milan (Italy); Hoegstedt, Benkt [Department of Occupational Medicine, Central Hospital, Halmstad (Sweden); Lambert, Bo [Department of Environmental Medicine, Centre for Nutrition and Toxicology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitelman, Felix [Department of Clinical Genetics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Nordenson, Ingrid [National Institute of Work Life, Umea (Sweden); Salomaa, Sisko [Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-09-20

    The cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) are established biomarkers of exposure for mutagens or carcinogens in the work environment. However, it is not clear whether these biomarkers also may serve as biomarkers for genotoxic effects which will result in an enhanced cancer risk. In order to assess this problem, Nordic and Italian cohorts were established, and preliminary results from these two studies indicated a predictive value of CA frequency for cancer risk, whereas no such associations were observed for SCE or MN. A collaborative study between the Nordic and Italian research groups, will enable a more thorough evaluation of the cancer predictivity of the cytogenetic endpoints. We here report on the establishment of a joint data base comprising 5271 subjects, examined 1965-1988 for at least one cytogenetic biomarker. Totally, 3540 subjects had been examined for CA, 2702 for SCE and 1496 for MN. These cohorts have been followed-up with respect to subsequent cancer mortality or cancer incidence, and the expected values have been calculated from rates derived from the general populations in each country. Stratified cohort analyses will be performed with respect to the levels of the cytogenetic biomarkers. The importance of potential effect modifiers such as gender, age at test, and time since test, will be evaluated using Poisson regression models. The remaining two potential effect modifiers, occupational exposures and smoking, will be assessed in a case-referent study within the study base

  2. CYTOGENETIC STUDIES ON SEVERAL HIPPOPHAƠ RHAMNOIDES L. GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Elena Maftei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea-buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides (2n=24 is a dioecious plant with a very obvious morpho-physiological polymorphism. This species is one of the most valuable fruit-bearing shrubs of the spontaneous and also of the cultivated flora, due to its content of biologically active substances of its leaves, fruit and shoots. The research has been accomplished on root apical meristems from germinated seeds that belong to four genotypes characteristic for Bacău county - Dospineúti, ùerpeni 11, ùerbăneúti 4, Sfiútofca 18, and to one genotype of the Danube Delta - Sfântul Gheorghe 5. Cytogenetical studies evinced that the mitotic index (MI was high, and it varied with the genotype. The highest MI was evinced in the ùerbăneúti 4 genotype (53.13, and the lowest – in ùerpeni 11 (40.08. Cell distribution per mitotic phases is approximately the same, the highest percentage was represented by cells in prophase, followed by metaphases, telophases and anaphases. There is a rather high frequency and a quite large spectrum of  chromosomal aberrations identified in this species (with variations due to the 5 different genotypes. Of all the chromosomal aberrations evinced during the ana-telophases of mitotic root apical meristems (bridges, delayed chromosomes, expelled chromosomes, fragments, micronuclei, the highest frequency was represented by ana-telophases with bridges. There has been noticed the presence of chromosomal abnormalities in metaphasic and prophasic cells.

  3. Cytogenetic study of down syndrome in Algeria: Report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayza Belmokhtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome (DS is the most common type of chromosomal trisomy found in newborn. It is associated with mental retardation and characteristic facial features. A clinical diagnosis of DS may be unconfirmed in one-third of cases. Objective: This study was conducted to confirm the clinical diagnosis of suspected cases with DS by a cytogenetic analysis and to evaluate several risk factors associated with trisomy 21 in a group of patients from West region of Algeria, Tlemcen. Materials and Methods: Karyotype analysis was carried out for 22 patients with the clinical diagnosis of DS. GTG-band and RTG-band have been made according to the standard protocols. Results: Among the 22 cases with DS, free trisomy 21 was presented in 20 cases (91%. One case (4.5% had translocation DS. One other case had mosaic DS. There was an excess of male than female; sex ratio was 1.75:1. The mean maternal age at birth of the affected children was 36.27 ± 7.59 years. It was significantly higher than this of mothers of nontrisomic children (27.83 ± 6.34 years; P = 0.0002. Higher parity was an important risk factor associated with trisomy 21, 81% of affected children were of last or second last birth order. Paternal age and consanguinity had no effect. Conclusion: The identification of specific types of chromosomal abnormalities in DS children is very significant. It greatly helped in the management of these children and to make aware the affected families about the recurrence risk and the options available.

  4. Phase I trial of lestaurtinib for children with refractory neuroblastoma: a new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy consortium study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minturn, Jane E; Evans, Audrey E; Villablanca, Judith G; Yanik, Gregory A; Park, Julie R; Shusterman, Suzanne; Groshen, Susan; Hellriegel, Edward T; Bensen-Kennedy, Debra; Matthay, Katherine K; Brodeur, Garrett M; Maris, John M

    2011-10-01

    TrkB acts as an oncogenic kinase in a subset of human neuroblastomas. Lestaurtinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor with potent activity against Trk kinases, has demonstrated activity in preclinical models of neuroblastoma. Patients with refractory high-risk neuroblastoma received lestaurtinib twice daily for 5 days out of seven in 28-day cycles, starting at 70% of the adult recommended Phase 2 dose. Lestaurtinib dose was escalated using a 3 + 3 design. Pharmacokinetics and plasma phospho-TrkB inhibitory activity were evaluated in the first cycle. Forty-seven subjects were enrolled, and 10 dose levels explored starting at 25 mg/M(2)/dose BID. Forty-six subjects were evaluable for response, and 42 subjects were fully evaluable for determination of dose escalation. Asymptomatic and reversible grade 3-4 transaminase elevation was dose limiting in 4 subjects. Reversible pancreatitis (grade 2) was observed in 3 subjects after prolonged treatment at higher dose levels. Other toxicities were mild and reversible. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed rapid drug absorption, however inter-patient variability was large. Plasma inhibition of phospho-TrkB activity was observed 1 h post-dosing at 85 mg/M(2) with uniform inhibition at 120 mg/M(2). There were two partial responses and nine subjects had prolonged stable disease at dose levels ≥ 5, (median: 6 cycles). A biologically effective and recommended phase 2 dose of 120 mg/M(2)/dose BID was established. Lestaurtinib was well tolerated in patients with refractory neuroblastoma, and a dose level sufficient to inhibit TrkB activity was established. Safety and signs of activity at the higher dose levels warrant further evaluation in neuroblastoma.

  5. [Cytogenetic study of 257 mentally deficient patients in psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, M; Bénézech, M; Tournier-Zerbid, N; Constant-Boy, M; Benazet-Rissou, J

    1975-11-01

    Cytogenetic survey of 257 mentally retarded individuals. A cytogenetic inquiry was undertaken among 257 patients with mental retardation of two psychiatric hospitals. 25 patients show chromosomes anomalies (10%). We found: --18 trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome); --3 sexual chromosome anomalies: 47, XYY syndrome; 47, XYY/46, XY mosaïcism; 47, XXY, or Klinefelter syndrom; --1 partial delection of long arm of chromosome number 18 (46, XX, 18 q--); --3 translocations; 45, XX, t (1, 13) (p 36, q 11); 46, XX, t (5 p--, 18 p+) (p 12, p 11); 46, XY, t (9, 19) (q 21, p 18). We also found 9 large Y chromosomes (46, XY q+), 8 cases of variant chromosomes, 1 case with chromosomes associations..., we report a case of masculine Turner phenotype or Noonan syndrom.

  6. Cytogenetic studies of 1232 patients with different sexual development abnormalities from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawi, Intisar; Goud, Tadakal Mallana; Al-Harasi, Salma; Rajab, Anna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cytogenetic findings in Omani patients who had been referred for suspicion of sex chromosome abnormalities that resulted in different clinical disorders. Furthermore, it sought to examine the frequency of chromosomal anomalies in these patients and to compare the obtained results with those reported elsewhere. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 1232 cases with variant characteristics of sexual development disorders who had been referred to the cytogenetic department, National Genetic Centre, Ministry of Health, from different hospitals in the Sultanate of Oman between 1999 and 2014. The karyotype results demonstrated chromosomal anomalies in 24.2% of the cases, where 67.5% of abnormalities were identified in referral females, whereas only 32.6% were in referral males. Of all sex chromosome anomalies detected, Turner syndrome was the most frequent (38.2%) followed by Klinefelter syndrome (24.9%) and XY phenotypic females (16%). XXX syndrome and XX phenotypic males represented 6.8% and 3.8% of all sex chromosome anomalies, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis of patients referred with various clinical suspicions of chromosomal abnormalities revealed a high rate of chromosomal anomalies. This is the first broad cytogenetic study reporting combined frequencies of sex chromosome anomalies in sex development disorders in Oman. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytogenetic studies of 11 meningiomas and their clinical significance. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsgård, L; Schrøder, H D; Rønne, M

    1990-01-01

    Cytogenetic analyses of 11 consecutive cases of meningiomas from 7 female and 4 male patients are reported. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in all cases. Only two of the cases showed cells with normal karyotype in addition to the abnormal stemline. Two of the cases displayed a more aggressive...... growth pattern than is usually seen in meningiomas. The first case was characterized by tumor invasion into the bone, a stemline with monosomy 22 and a hyperhaploid sideline. The second case was characterized by recurrency and a hypodiploid stemline. Extended clonal evolution was observed in one case....

  8. Cytogenetic studies of 19 meningiomas and their clinical significance. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsgård, L; Rønne, M; Schrøder, H D

    1989-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of 19 meningiomas from 10 female and 9 male patients are reported. Chromosomal abnormalities were found in all cases with a stemline karyotype 45, XY, -22 or 45, XX, -22. Three of these had additional sidelines: (a) 44, XX, -1, -4, -6, -8, -22, +19, +del(1) (:p33----q43), +dup......(1) (p24----q31) t(1;1) (pter----p33::ter): (b) 44, X, -9, -14, -22, -X, +4, +del(X) (pter----q26), and (c) 44, XY, -19, -22, respectively....

  9. [Cytogenetics role in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Marta S

    2011-08-01

    Cytogenetics has led to the discovery of multiple chromosomal anomalies associated with mental retardation and hemato-oncologic diseases. From the beginning till now, and with the contribution of the molecular biology, there has been an improvement of the classic cytogenetics, that allow cytogenetists to perform a more precise diagnosis. The present study briefly describe classic and molecular cytogenetic techniques, their advantages and disadvantages, and the application to clinic pediatrics diagnosis.

  10. CLASSICAL AND MOLECULAR CYTOGENETIC STUDIES FOR BREEDING AND SELECTION OF TULIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their extreme popularity as fresh cut flowers and garden plants, and being used extensively for landscaping, tulips undergone a continuous process of selective breeding. For almost nine decades, classical cytogenetic studies, mainly the chromosome counts, have been an important part in the breeding programme for polyploid tulips. The efficiency of breeding is greatly aided by a thorough knowledge of the occurrence of polyploidy in the plant material. While the traditional cytogenetic approaches are still highly useful in selecting polyploids and aneuploids arising from crosses involving (most often parents of different ploidy or from the material subjected to ploidy manipulation, the new strategies for inducing polyploidy in tulips, either in vivo or in vitro, and advances in molecular cytogenetics are expected to allow a significant increase in breeding efficiency. Together with the shortening of breeding cycle, major genetic improvements could be made for specific traits. In this we review the development of cytogenetic studies in tulips, and the most relevant achievements so far, providing an overview of what we consider to be valuable tools for the processes of selective breeding .

  11. Cytogenetic profiles of 2806 patients with acute myeloid leukemia-a retrospective multicenter nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ja Min; Kim, Young Jin; Yoon, Hwi-Joong; Kim, Si-Young; Kim, Hee-Je; Yoon, Jaeho; Min, Yoo Hong; Cheong, Jun-Won; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Hong, Dae Sik; Park, Seong Kyu; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Shin, Ho-Jin; Chung, Joo Seop; Lee, Won Sik; Lee, Sang Min; Park, Yong; Kim, Byung Soo; Lee, Je-Hwan; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun Ho; Min, Woo-Sung; Park, Tae Sung

    2016-08-01

    The cytogenetic and molecular data is recognized as the most valuable prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our aim was to systemically analyze the cytogenetics of Korean AML patients and to compare the cytogenetic profiles of various races to identify possible geographic heterogeneity. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 2806 AML patients diagnosed at 11 tertiary teaching hospitals in Korea between January 2007 and December 2011. The most common recurrent chromosomal abnormality was t(8;21) (8.8 %, 238/2717), but t(15;17) showed an almost same number (8.6 %,235/2717). Among de novo AML, the most frequent aberrations were t(15;17), observed in 229 (10.7 %). The most common French-American-British (FAB) classification type was M2 (32.2 %), and recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities correlated with the FAB subtypes. Among 283 secondary AML cases, myelodysplastic syndrome was the most common predisposing factor. About 67.1 % of the secondary AML cases were associated with chromosomal aberrations, and chromosome 7 abnormalities (n = 45, 15.9 %) were most common. The incidence of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutation was relatively low at 15 %. Our study reports certain similarities and differences in comparison to previous reports. Such discrepancies call for extensive epidemiological studies to clarify the role of genetic as well as geographic heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of AML.

  12. Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuchelli Juliana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of a large number of recently sequenced vertebrate genomes opens new avenues to integrate cytogenetics and genomics in comparative and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic mapping can offer alternative means to identify conserved synteny shared by distinct genomes and also to define genome regions that are still not fine characterized even after wide-ranging nucleotide sequence efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this report, to address the knowledge gap on the genome evolution in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG 1, 3, 5, and 7 were mapped onto the chromosomes of 9 African cichlid species. The cytogenetic mapping data were also integrated with BAC-end sequences information of O. niloticus and comparatively analyzed against the genome of other fish species and vertebrates. Results The location of BACs from LG1, 3, 5, and 7 revealed a strong chromosomal conservation among the analyzed cichlid species genomes, which evidenced a synteny of the markers of each LG. Comparative in silico analysis also identified large genomic blocks that were conserved in distantly related fish groups and also in other vertebrates. Conclusions Although it has been suggested that fishes contain plastic genomes with high rates of chromosomal rearrangements and probably low rates of synteny conservation, our results evidence that large syntenic chromosome segments have been maintained conserved during evolution, at least for the considered markers. Additionally, our current cytogenetic mapping efforts integrated with genomic approaches conduct to a new perspective to address important questions involving chromosome evolution in fishes.

  13. Lymph node sampling in localized neuroblastoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contador, M P; Johnston, S; Smith, E I; Shuster, J J; Hayes, F A; Castleberry, R P

    1999-06-01

    Lymph node (LN) sampling was required by the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) staging for neuroblastoma and currently is required as a part of the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS). This retrospective study of planned lymph node sampling in patients with localized neuroblastoma was carried out with the intent of assisting surgeons in carrying out this procedure. The report documents the POG experience where LN, both uninvolved and involved with tumor, were found based on site of primary. From 391 patients with localized neuroblastoma of the abdomen, chest, and neck, 238 patients had LN sampling at the primary operation, and these patients constitute the major part of the study. In addition, 89 patients had a carefully documented search for LN, and 64 had neither search nor biopsy. The operative note, pathology report, and surgical study sheet were used in the 238 patients based on the site of the primary tumor to determine which nodal groups or basins underwent biopsy, and in which groups tumor was found. The pattern of drainage, based on the primary site of abdominal tumors, favored an arterial rather than venous pathway. Primary tumors and metastatic LN were more numerous on the left side. The abdominal drainage followed three pathways: (1) infrarenal tumors from the left and midline were associated with paraaortic LN; (2) right infrarenal tumors were associated with LN in the paracaval basin; (3) with suprarenal primaries and with both adrenals, the superior mesenteric-portal-celiac basins were most productive for nodal sampling. Tumor was found most frequently in the left adrenal-renal basin and in the paraaortic basin. The actual number of LN sampled in a single case varied from 1 to 19 LN, with a mean number of LN based on stage and primary from one to seven LN. The tumor spread in LN was consistent with a "watershed" course, but this was not statistically significant. Patients for whom LN were sought had a better outcome, contrasting with the

  14. Assessment of Primary Site Response in Children With High-Risk Neuroblastoma: An International Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatell, Rochelle; McHugh, Kieran; Naranjo, Arlene; Van Ryn, Collin; Kirby, Chaim; Brock, Penelope; Lyons, Karen A; States, Lisa J; Rojas, Yesenia; Miller, Alexandra; Volchenboum, Sam L; Simon, Thorsten; Krug, Barbara; Sarnacki, Sabine; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Kammer, Birgit; Granata, Claudio; Pio, Luca; Park, Julie R; Nuchtern, Jed

    2016-03-01

    The International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria (INRC) require serial measurements of primary tumors in three dimensions, whereas the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) require measurement in one dimension. This study was conducted to identify the preferred method of primary tumor response assessment for use in revised INRC. Patients younger than 20 years with high-risk neuroblastoma were eligible if they were diagnosed between 2000 and 2012 and if three primary tumor measurements (antero-posterior, width, cranio-caudal) were recorded at least twice before resection. Responses were defined as ≥ 30% reduction in longest dimension as per RECIST, ≥ 50% reduction in volume as per INRC, or ≥ 65% reduction in volume. Three-year event-free survival for all patients (N = 229) was 44% and overall survival was 58%. The sensitivity of both volume response measures (ability to detect responses in patients who survived) exceeded the sensitivity of the single dimension measure, but the specificity of all response measures (ability to identify lack of response in patients who later died) was low. In multivariable analyses, none of the response measures studied was predictive of outcome, and none was predictive of the extent of resection. None of the methods of primary tumor response assessment was predictive of outcome. Measurement of three dimensions followed by calculation of resultant volume is more complex than measurement of a single dimension. Primary tumor response in children with high-risk neuroblastoma should therefore be evaluated in accordance with RECIST criteria, using the single longest dimension. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Anaplastic large cell neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowsky, Carlos R; Katzenstein, Howard M; Alvarado, Carlos S; Shehata, Bahig M

    2009-01-01

    absence or marked paucity of histologic clues for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma. Although all these tumors are strongly positive for NSE and synaptophysin, they also show Fli-1 positivity. However, they are negative by molecular testing for EWS transcripts, and they are immunohistochemically negative for CD99. The true neuroblastic nature of these tumors is supported by the N-MYC oncogene amplification in some of them, catecholamine production, immunohistological reactivity, and their posttherapy maturation to a more recognizable neuroblastic morphology. Although follow-up is still somewhat limited, the response and survival of the patients in our institution is better than a previous European study that indicated an aggressive clinical behavior of these tumors, although treatment modalities were not described in that report. Further study of this variant of neuroblastoma with more patients is required to determine optimal therapy, more accurately predict outcome, and to ascertain if ALCNB are a distinct biologic group of neuroblastomas.

  16. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  17. Angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pastorino, Fabio; Brignole, Chiara; Nico, Beatrice; Vacca, Angelo; Ponzoni, Mirco

    2004-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a biological process by which new capillaries are formed from preexisting vessels. It occurs in physiological and pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific turning point is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial cells able to stimulate the growth of the host's blood vessels. In neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of infancy and childhood, angiogenesis also appears to play an important role in determining tumor phenotype. The nature of the angiogenic balance in neuroblastoma is complex, and a spectrum of angiogenesis stimulators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and inhibitors, such as tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), have been detected in neuroblastoma tumors. Moreover, an increased production of MMP-2 and -9 has been also observed in advanced stages of tumor, favoring degradation of extracellular matrix and enhancing tumor dissemination. High tumor vascularity is correlated with widely disseminated disease, MYCN amplification, unfavorable histology, and poor outcome. In contrast, low tumor vascularity is associated with prognostically favorable features, such as a localized disease and favorable histology. It is becoming increasingly evident that agents that interfere with blood vessel formation also block tumor progression. Preclinical studies suggest that antiangiogenic strategies may be effective in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A major goal is the determination of whether inhibition of angiogenesis is a realistic way of inhibiting tumor cell dissemination and formation of metastasis in neuroblastoma.

  18. Papillary renal cell carcinoma. A morphologic and cytogenetic study of 11 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kovacs, G.

    1989-01-01

    Most renal cell carcinomas are characterized by constant loss of the 3p13-pter chromosome segment and a frequent gain of the 5q22-qter segment. A comparative histologic and cytogenetic investigation of large series of renal cell carcinomas now shows that purely papillary tumors differ from the more common nonpapillary form not only in their morphologic characteristic, but also in karyotype changes observed. All of the 11 papillary tumors of this study failed to show any rearrangement of the c...

  19. [Study on cytogenetic changes with relation to FAB classification in 397 patients with acute leukemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Fei-Fei; Liu, Xin; Sun, Zi-Min; Zhu, Wei-Bo; Zheng, Chang-Cheng; Wang, Jian; Wu, Zhi-Wei

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the cytogenetic abnormality of acute leukemias (AL), to analyze the relationship in the chromosomal abnormality and the AL FAB types, and to explore the impact of the chromosomal abnormalities on the prognostic factors of AL. The chromosome karyotypes of 397 patients with AL were analyzed by means of bone marrow short-term culture and G banding technique. The results showed that in 319 out of 397 patients, the chromosome karyotypes could be analyzed, and the chromosomal abnormality occurred in 175 patients (54.9%). In the patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute mixed-lineage leukemia (AMLL), the chromosomal abnormality occurred respectively in 33 of 120 patients (27.5%), 129 of 252 patients (51.2%) and 13 of 25 patients (52.0%). Hyper-diploids, hypo-diploids and diploids occurred in 41 of 175 patients (23.4%), 22 of 175 patients (12.5%), and 112 of 175 patients (64.0%) respectively. In patients with AML the FAB type-associated chromosomal abnormality occurred in 69 of 129 patients (53.5%). It is concluded that chromosomal abnormalities exist in about 55% AL patients. Some special chromosomal abnormalities are cytogenetic characteristics of AL, and obviously correlated with AL FAB types, the combination of chromosomal detection with cytogenetics is useful for the diagnosis of AL, and the evaluation of therapeutic effects and prognosis.

  20. [Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of central nervous system with features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifen; Guan, Wenbin; Wu, Xiangru; Zhang, Wenzhu; Jiang, Bo; Ma, Jie; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-06-01

    To study clinicopathologic features, immunohistochemical profile, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of childhood central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CNS PNETs) with the features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma. The clinical data, morphologic and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in 4 cases of pediatric CNS PNETs with features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma. EnVision method immunohistochemistry was applied. Four patients including three boys and one girl presented at the age from 12 month to 4 years and three tumors located in cerebrum, one in brain stem. All tumors showed typical combined histological patterns of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma, demonstrating zones of true rosettes, occasional pseudovascular rosettes, and undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells in a prominent background of mature neuropils. There was focal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) consistent with glial differentiation and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) consistent with ependymal differentiation. Necrosis was seen in three cases and calcification was present in one case. Immunohistochemically, the rosettes and undifferentiated neuroepithelial cells were positive for vimentin, partially positive for GFAP and EMA but negative for synaptophysin. The tumor cells were also positive for synaptophysin in neuropils. The Ki-67 label index ranged from 20% to 60%. CNS PNETs with the features of ependymoblastoma and neuroblastoma is a rare tumor with poor prognosis. The tumor primarily occurs in childhood, especially infant and belongs to the family of embryonal tumors of the CNS. The morphologic, immunohistochemical and genetic features are important in differential diagnosis from other tumors of the CNS.

  1. Phase I study of perifosine monotherapy in patients with recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Shichino, Hiroyuki; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Chin, Motoaki; Kato, Koji; Mugishima, Hideo

    2017-11-01

    Perifosine is an alkylphospholipid analog that inhibits or modulates signaling through signal transduction pathways such as Akt, which is enhanced in neuroblastoma (NB) by activation of tyrosine kinase receptors. We conducted a phase I study of perifosine in Japanese patients with recurrent or refractory NB. All patients enrolled were over 2 years of age; all had refractory or relapsed NB and a performance status of greater than 50%. Perifosine was orally administered at a loading dose (100-300 mg) on day 1 and at a maintenance dose (50-150 mg) from day 2 onward. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and pharmacokinetics were assessed in Step 1 and safety and efficacy in Step 2. Nineteen patients were recruited. No DLT was observed. Adverse reactions occurring in more than 30% of the patients were vomiting (63%), nausea (53%), and diarrhea (37%). The mean plasma concentration of perifosine was 27.5 ± 9.8 μM on day 15 and 27.3 ± 11.5 μM on day 29. The response rate (RR) in 18 patients evaluable according to modified International Neuroblastoma Response Criteria was 0%; the disease control rate (DCR) was 56%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 122 days. In 11 patients evaluable according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the RR and DCR were 9% and 55%, respectively. The median PFS was not reached. Perifosine monotherapy was well tolerated in Japanese patients with recurrent/refractory NB. Further investigations in combination with other anticancer or molecular targeted agents are warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rh factor is associated with individual radiosensitivity: A cytogenetic study

    OpenAIRE

    Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Borzoueisileh, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Radiosensitivity is an inherent trait, associated with a raised reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. In radiotherapy and radiation protection fields, individualization of the patient?s treatment is one of the main topics. With the goal of determining biomarkers capable of anticipating normal tissue side reactions, we studied the association between the Rh factor and radiosensitivity. Methods This experimental study was carried out from January to June 2014 among 50 n...

  3. Cytogenetic studies among Iranian infertile men: The first 20-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karyotyping was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes according to standard methods. Out of 829 patients, 557 patients (67.19%) had normal karyotype and 272 patients (32.81%) showed abnormal chromosomes. Klineferlter syndrome, found in 195 patients (23.52%), was the most frequent aberration in our study.

  4. CYTOGENETIC STUDY OF FOUR SPECIES OF LAND SNAILS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systematic characters which may be used to resolve some taxonomic problems in the group. However, literatures on karyotype analysis of molluscs are not abundant due to difficulties of obtaining mitotic fields with enough quality to carry out chromosome studies (Park et al., 1999). There is a dearth of cytological information ...

  5. CYTOGENETIC STUDY OF FOUR SPECIES OF LAND SNAILS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (O.F.Muller, 1774) ( Bivalvia: Veneroidea: Corbiculidae) : Taxonomic status. Assessment of a frteshwater clam. Folia biologica(Krakow) 57:3-4. Solem, A. 1984. A world model of land snail diversity and abundance, in Solem, A., van. Bruggen, A.C.(eds), World-wide snails: biogeographical studies on non-marine Mollusca.

  6. Cytogenetic studies in peripheral blood of bovines afflicted by papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Diniz, N; Campos, S R C; Ferraz, O P; Lindsey, C J; Rieger, T T; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2011-12-01

    Ten types of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) have been described and there are reports of viral transmission via blood. The presence of viral DNA in lymphocytes was described to be associated with chromosome instability in these cells. This study presents an evaluation of chromosome instability in short-term peripheral lymphocyte cultures from cows presenting skin papillomatosis, compared with asymptomatic infected animals and non-infected healthy bovines. In a total of 2203 cells, 918 (42%) showed at least one chromosome aberration: 42.7 (± 7.8) in animals with papillomatosis (BPV + W), 40.2 (± 11) in asymptomatic animals (BPV-W) and 4 (± 2) in control animals. Significant differences were found between the infected group (with or without symptoms) and the control group (P < 0.0001). The increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations suggest an interaction between the virus and host cell chromatin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Comparative cytogenetic study of the tetraploid Matricaria chamomilla L. and Matricaria inodora L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatadze, T E; Amosova, A V; Mel'nikova, N V; Suslina, S N; Zagumennikova, T N; Zelenin, A V; Bykov, V A; Muravenko, O N

    2014-01-01

    A comparative cytogenetic study of the autotetraploid breed of Matricaria chamomilla L. (M. recutita L.) and Matricaria inodora L. was carried out by DAPI-banding, fluorescent hybridization in situ (FISH) with 26S and 5S rDNA probes, and analysis of meiosis. All chromosomes were identified in both karyotypeson the basis of DAPI-banding images and 26S and 5S rDNA distribution, and species-specific idiograms were composed for both M. chamomilla and M. indora taking into account the polymorphous variants of DAPI-banding images, showing the location of the 26S and 5S rDNA sites.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  9. Cytogenetic effects of radioiodine therapy: a 20-year follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Gordon K. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khvostunov, Igor K. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Gregoire, Eric [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB, BP 17, Fontenay aux roses Cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan-Francesc [Universtitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Biociencies, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Shi, Lin; Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare cytogenetic data in a patient before and after treatment with radioiodine to evaluate the assays in the context of biological dosimetry. We studied a 34-year-old male patient who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by ablation therapy with {sup 131}I (19.28 GBq) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient provided blood samples before treatment and then serial samples at monthly intervals during the first year period and quarterly intervals for 5 years and finally 20 years after treatment. A micronucleus assay, dicentric assay, FISH method and G-banding were used to detect and measure DNA damage in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. The results showed that radiation-induced cytogenetic effects persisted for many years after treatment as shown by elevated micronuclei and chromosome aberrations as a result of exposure to {sup 131}I. At 5 years after treatment, the micronucleus count was tenfold higher than the pre-exposure frequency. Shortly after the treatment, micronucleus counts produced a dose estimate of 0.47 ± 0.09 Gy. The dose to the patient evaluated retrospectively using FISH-measured translocations was 0.70 ± 0.16 Gy. Overall, our results show that the micronucleus assay is a retrospective biomarker of low-dose radiation exposure. However, this method is not able to determine local dose to the target tissue which in this case was any residual thyroid cells plus metastases of thyroidal origin. (orig.)

  10. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  11. Frequent Chromosome Aberrations Revealed by Molecular Cytogenetic Studies in Patients with Aniridia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crolla, John A.; van Heyningen, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    Seventy-seven patients with aniridia, referred for cytogenetic analysis predominantly to assess Wilms tumor risk, were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), through use of a panel of cosmids encompassing the aniridia-associated PAX6 gene, the Wilms tumor predisposition gene WT1, and flanking markers, in distal chromosome 11p13. Thirty patients were found to be chromosomally abnormal. Cytogenetically visible interstitial deletions involving 11p13 were found in 13 patients, 11 of which included WT1. A further 13 patients had cryptic deletions detectable only by FISH, 3 of which included WT1. Six of these, with deletions aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation) region, and three balanced rearrangements with what appear to be position effect breakpoints 3′ of PAX6: (a) a t(7;11) with the 11p13 breakpoint ∼30 kb downstream of PAX6, (b) a dir ins(12;11) with a breakpoint >50 kb from PAX6, and (c) an inv(11)(p13q13) with a breakpoint >75 kb downstream of PAX6. The proportion and spectrum of chromosome anomalies in familial (4/14, or 28.5%) and sporadic (26/63, or 41%) cases are not significantly different. An unexpectedly high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements is associated with both sporadic and familial aniridia in this cohort. PMID:12386836

  12. [Cytogenetic analysis of the Bloom syndrome. A study of the exchange-break relationship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, P; Leroux, D; Sele, B; Jalbert, H; Pison, H; Augusseau, S

    1983-01-01

    Cytogenetic study of a case of Bloom's syndrome (number 46 of the international registry) confirms the excess of exchanges in all cellular types with the exception of a minority of lymphocytes and of two lymphoblastoid cell lines. These exchanges are produced in an X or U fashion between sister chromatids or between homologous chromatids and produce both simple and complex figures for which symmetry is the common feature. Some of these structures are rearranged secondarily, producing centric or acentric fragments and marker chromosomes. Triradial configurations are considered to be the result of exchanges rather than of partial endoreduplication. Chromatid and chromosome breaks are interpreted to result from incomplete exchanges. It is suggested that the general propensity for exchanges is the primary event responsible directly or indirectly for the cytogenetic observations rather than a defect in one of the DNA-repair mechanisms. No increase in mitomycin C sensitivity appears in vitro. The excess of SCEs is partially correlated by contact in vitro with normal cells and to a lesser degree by the culture medium in which the cells were grown.

  13. A phase 1 study of nifurtimox in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier Sholler, Giselle L; Bergendahl, Genevieve M; Brard, Laurent; Singh, Ajay P; Heath, Barry W; Bingham, Peter M; Ashikaga, Taka; Kamen, Barton A; Homans, Alan C; Slavik, Marni A; Lenox, Shannon R; Higgins, Timothy J; Ferguson, William S

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this phase 1 study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and evaluate the safety of nifurtimox alone and in combination with cyclophosphamide and topotecan in multiple relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma pediatric patients. The secondary aim was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nifurtimox and the treatment response. To these ends, we performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of daily oral nifurtimox with toxicity monitoring to determine the MTD, followed by 3 cycles of nifurtimox in combination with cyclophosphamide and topotecan. Samples were collected to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters maximum concentration, time at which maximum concentration is reached, and area under the curve between 0 and 8 hours. Treatment response was evaluated by radiographic and radionuclide (I-metaiodobenzylguanidine) imaging, measurement of urinary catecholamines, and clearance of bone marrow disease. We determined the MTD of nifurtimox to be 30 mg/kg/d. The non-dose-limiting toxicities were mainly nausea and neuropathy. The dose-limiting toxicities of 2 patients at 40 mg/kg/d were a grade 3 pulmonary hemorrhage and a grade 3 neuropathy (reversible). Overall, nifurtimox was well tolerated by pediatric patients at a dose of 30 mg/kg/d, and tumor responses were seen both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy. A Phase 2 study to determine the antitumor efficacy of nifurtimox is currently underway.

  14. Cancer predictive value of cytogenetic markers used in occupational health surveillance programs: a report from an ongoing study by the European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Bonassi, S; Strömberg, U

    1998-01-01

    The cytogenetic endpoints in peripheral blood lymphocytes: chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronuclei (MN) are established biomarkers of exposure for mutagens or carcinogens in the work environment. However, it is not clear whether these biomarkers also may serv...

  15. Application of mammalian cytogenetics to mutagenicity studies. [Triethylone melamine, x radiation, gamma radiation, LET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on induction of chromosome damage in germ cells by triethylene melamine (TEM) included determination of frequencies of chromosomal aberrations observed in human leukocytes after treating different stages of the cell cycle with TEM, frequencies of chromatid aberrations in metaphase I oocytes and the female pronuclear chromosomes following treatment of female mice with TEM, and frequencies of labeled diplotene-diakinesis figures and chromosome abberations at various intervals after treatment of primary spermatocytes with TEM and /sup 3/H-thymidine. Studies on effects of low linear energy transfer radiation on mouse oocytes showed that the frequency of aberrations increased as a function of time and remained constant 8 to 9 days post-exposure. It was concluded that cytogenetic procedures were adequate to evaluate certain mutagenic end points. (HLW)

  16. Imaging neuroblastoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kamini; Haller, Jack O; Legasto, Alan C

    2003-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common solid tumor of childhood that can involve the abdomen, thorax, pelvis, or the head and neck. The clinical manifestations are dependent on the widespread distribution of neural crest tissue and the length of the sympathetic chain involvement. Abdominal pain and hypertension may occur as a result of renal vasculature compression; respiratory distress may be evident in thoracic tumors; and Homer's syndrome or heterochromia of the iris may manifest from neuroblastoma of the head and neck. In addition, symptoms of cord compression and back pain may result from spinal cord compromise due to epidural invasion. Metastatic involvement of the liver, skin, periorbital regions, or bone may cause hepatomegaly, skin nodules, proptosis, or bone marrow failure, respectively. Clinical findings along with tumor metastasis may be studied by various imaging modalities to assess the nature and extent of the tumor. Diagnostic tests include plain radiography, ultrasonography, CT scanning, and MR imaging. Bone marrow studies, bone scans, and scintigraphy with 131I-metaiodobenzylmandelic may be utilized for metastatic evaluation. By using these imaging studies to detect the nature and behavior of neuroblastoma, early intervention may indeed improve patient survival.

  17. A correlation study of immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and clinical features of 180 AML patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jine; Wang, Xingbing; Hu, Yu; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jun; He, Yanli; Gong, Qing; Yao, Junxia; Li, Xiaoqing; Du, Wen; Huang, Shiang

    2008-01-01

    New WHO classification has been widely applied in the diagnosis of leukemia. To elucidate the immunophenotype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and characterize the correlation among morphological, immunological, cytogenetic, and clinical features, we studied the bone marrow immunophenotypes of 180 AML patients in China by flow cytometry. The results showed that CD34, CD2, CD14, CD19, CD56, and HLA-DR were correlated with FAB subtypes. Amongst the 180 patients enrolled in this study, 122 cases were also subjected to karyotype analysis by G-banding technology and abnormal karyotypes were detected in 69 out of 122 patients. Correlation assay showed that t(8;21) was only present in 16 AML-M2 patients, and strongly associated with the individual or combinational expressions of CD15/CD19/CD34/CD56. As to M3, although lymphoid lineage antigens were observed in a considerable number of patients, they were never detected in t(15;17) positive patients. The expressions of CD22, CD56, and TdT showed significant correlation with the overall presence of abnormal karyotype. Additionally, the expressions of CD4, CD7, CD14, CD56, and TdT were positively correlated with clinical features such as white blood cell count, platelet count, and patient's age. In conclusion, immunophenotype analysis was useful for AML diagnosis and classification. At the same time, the data also suggested that the karyotype abnormalities and clinical features were tightly linked with abnormal antigen expression characteristics in AML patients. As one of the largest correlative study performed in China, the results highlighted the importance of a morphological, immunological, and cytogenetic classification of AML that might constitute a working basis for future studies aimed at a better definition of clinicopathological features and optimal treatment strategy for these leukemias. (c) 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society

  18. Cytogenetic studies in 77 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: correlations with clinical, immunologic, and phenotypic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T; Sadamori, N; Ozer, H; Gajera, R; Gomez, G A; Henderson, E S; Bhargava, A; Fitzpatrick, J; Minowada, J; Bloom, M L

    1984-10-01

    Cytogenetic analyses by G-banding and/or Q-banding techniques of polyclonal B cell mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes in 77 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were carried out in the present study. Adequate metaphases were obtained in 65 patients (84%). Of 29 patients with abnormal karyotypes, ten (34%) had trisomy 12 as the sole abnormality, eight (28%) had trisomy 12 in combination with other karyotypic changes, and the remaining 11 had various karyotypic changes other than trisomy 12. There was a significant relationship between the abnormal karyotype and disease status, clinical stage, lymphocyte count, bone marrow infiltration pattern, monoclonal IgM gammopathy, and urinary monoclonal-free light chain status. Six of seven patients (87%) with trisomy 12 only had stage 0-11 disease, whereas all eight patients with trisomy 12 with other changes had stage III or IV disease (P less than .02). However, of nine patients with other karyotypic changes without trisomy 12, five had stage 0-II and four had stage III or IV disease. These observations suggest that trisomy 12 may be the primary or the earliest karyotypic change in a majority of aneuploid patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and that other karyotypic changes in addition to trisomy 12 may develop as a result of clonal evolution, dedifferentiation, or therapy. Of nine patients in whom autopsy studies were carried out, four were found to have diffuse histiocytic lymphoma or Richter's syndrome (three with trisomy 12 in combination with other chromosome changes and one with normal karyotype). Our findings clearly demonstrate that cytogenetic study may be of value in the clinical and prognostic evaluation of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  19. [Molecular-cytogenetic study of the aborted fetuses in women with reproductive function disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavokina, L V; Sopko, N I; Khazhilenko, K G; Baronova, E V

    2006-01-01

    It is known that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities among spontaneous miscarriages of the first trimester of pregnancy makes 50-60%. Research of karyotypes of chorionic villus cells of miscarriages has been conducted by combining the standard cytogenetic method and the FISH analysis on interphase nuclei of centromeric specific DNA samples by the tests to the chromosomes 13/21, 14/22, 15, 16, 18, X, Y. The described complex approach can be successfully applied for effective identification ofchromosomal abnormalities in the material of spontaneous miscarriages. The results specify the necessity of careful study of genomes of matrimonial pairs with the usual unmaturing in anamnesis and especially before treatment by IVF methods.

  20. Cytogenetic study in a mentally retarded child with Bloom syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Favre, C; Wyss, M; Cabrol, C; Félix, F; Guenin, R; Laufer, D; Engel, E

    1984-06-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) was diagnosed in a 7-year-old boy during hospitalization for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had most of the signs of BS along with some atypical manifestations: absence of telangiectases, obesity, and moderate mental retardation. Results of the cytogenetic studies were fully consistent with the diagnosis of BS: the occurrence of quadriradial figures and a very high incidence of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE). This child's ALL was of non-B, non-T type with the presence, at the time of diagnosis, of a marrow clone including two markers. A Yq - chromosome was detected in about 10% of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes but neither in bone marrow cells nor in skin fibroblasts. This case is the fifth instance of ALL out of 104 registered cases of BS.

  1. Molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, N J

    2001-09-01

    In the past decade, clinical cytogenetics has undergone remarkable advancement as molecular biology techniques have been applied to conventional chromosome analysis. The limitations of conventional banding analysis in the accurate diagnosis and interpretation of certain chromosome abnormalities have largely been overcome by these new technologies, which include fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multicolor FISH (M-FISH, SKY, and Rx-FISH). Clinical applications include diagnosis of microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, detection of subtelomeric rearrangements in idiopathic mental retardation, identification of marker and derivative chromosomes, prenatal diagnosis of trisomy syndromes, and gene rearrangements and gene amplification in tumors. Molecular cytogenetic methods have expanded the possibilities for precise genetic diagnoses, which are extremely important for clinical management of patients and appropriate counseling of their families.

  2. A lack of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome : A study from 11 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satge, D; Sasco, AJ; Carlsen, NLT; Stiller, CA; Rubie, H; Hero, B; de Bernardi, B; de Kraker, J; Coze, C; Kogner, P; Langmark, F; Hakvoort-Cammel, FGAJ; Beck, D; von der Weid, N; Parkes, S; Hartmann, O; Lippens, RJJ; Kamps, WA; Sommelet, D

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 European countries comprising a total childhood population of 54.1 million children and using 8 separate data sources was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of neuroblastoma in Down syndrome (DS). No cases of DS were detected among 6724 infants and children

  3. Mechanisms of neuroblastoma regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Garrett M.; Bagatell, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    Recent genomic and biological studies of neuroblastoma have shed light on the dramatic heterogeneity in the clinical behaviour of this disease, which spans from spontaneous regression or differentiation in some patients, to relentless disease progression in others, despite intensive multimodality therapy. This evidence also suggests several possible mechanisms to explain the phenomena of spontaneous regression in neuroblastomas, including neurotrophin deprivation, humoral or cellular immunity, loss of telomerase activity and alterations in epigenetic regulation. A better understanding of the mechanisms of spontaneous regression might help to identify optimal therapeutic approaches for patients with these tumours. Currently, the most druggable mechanism is the delayed activation of developmentally programmed cell death regulated by the tropomyosin receptor kinase A pathway. Indeed, targeted therapy aimed at inhibiting neurotrophin receptors might be used in lieu of conventional chemotherapy or radiation in infants with biologically favourable tumours that require treatment. Alternative approaches consist of breaking immune tolerance to tumour antigens or activating neurotrophin receptor pathways to induce neuronal differentiation. These approaches are likely to be most effective against biologically favourable tumours, but they might also provide insights into treatment of biologically unfavourable tumours. We describe the different mechanisms of spontaneous neuroblastoma regression and the consequent therapeutic approaches. PMID:25331179

  4. Cytogenetic and clinicobiological features of acute leukemia with stem cell phenotype: study of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, A; Ferrant, A; Michaux, J L; Bosly, A; Chatelain, B; Stul, M; Dal Cin, P; Dierlamm, J; Cassiman, J J; Hossfeld, D K; Castoldi, G; Van den Berghe, H

    1996-11-01

    Morphologic, immunologic, cytogenetic, and clinical features were studied in 9 cases of acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL). These patients were unclassifiable by FAB criteria, they were CD34+ and did not express myeloid- or lymphoid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33, CD14, CD15, CD61, CD19, CD10, CD22, CD7, CD2, CD5, CD3). Clonal abnormalities were seen in 8 of 9 cases. Del(5q) as the sole anomaly was observed in 3 cases; +13 was the primary change in 3 cases, and isolated trisomy 12 was found in 1 patient. A complex karyotype with trisomy 12q, in association with del 17p and trisomy 21q was detected in 1 case. One patient with 5q- relapsed with refractory anemia with excess of blasts; the presence of dysgranulopoiesis and a few blasts with possible monocytoid morphology in the remaining 2 patients point to a "myeloid nature" of these leukemias. Analysis of cytologic features in our 3 patients with +13, in combination with previously reported cases, suggests the occurrence of immature stem cell involvement with limited differentiation potential, possibly more along the myeloid than the lymphoid lineage. The significance of trisomy 12q in this subset of leukemia remains elusive; some clues of minimal differentiation towards the myeloid lineage in our cases are provided by positivity for the CD117 (c-kit) antigen and by relapse with acute myeloid leukemia without maturation (M1) in one patient. We conclude that, with presently available diagnostic techniques, AUL is a rare subset of leukemia, in which cytogenetic changes are confined to a few chromosomes, with prevalent involvement of 5q and of chromosomes 13 and 12. Chromosome findings may be of value in clinical practice, especially in those cases with "myeloid-oriented" karyotype.

  5. Cytogenetic studies in 32 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: insights to specific chromosomal abnormalities and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, M; Horiike, S; Inazawa, J; Nishida, K; Misawa, S; Takino, T; Abe, T

    1987-06-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed on a group of 32 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Five patients had refractory anemia (RA), four RA with ring sideroblasts (RARS), nine RA with excess blasts (RAEB), eight RAEB 'in transformation' (RAEB-T), three chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and three secondary MDS (SMDS). Two patients in the SMDS group had been treated with alkylating agents for lung cancer and polycythemia vera, respectively. The other had been exposed to thorotrast. Chromosome analyses were performed with Q and G bandings on bone marrow cells incubated for 24 hr. A clonal chromosomal abnormality was observed in the marrow cells from 19 of the 32 patients (59%). Chromosomal abnormalities of nos. 5 and/or 7 were found in five patients, and were probably specific for RAEB-T and SMDS. Among the twelve patients with solely abnormal metaphases (AA), eight (67%) progressed to acute leukemia, a higher proportion than the three from the 13 patients (23%) with solely normal metaphases (NN) (P less than 0.05). One of the seven patients (14%) with both normal and abnormal metaphases (AN) developed acute leukemia (AA v. AN, P less than 0.03). In only two of the 12 patients who progressed to acute leukemia (17%), was complete remission achieved. The median survival time was only 4.0 months for patients with karyotype AA compared with 18.0 months for AN and 24.0 months for NN (AA v. AN, P less than 0.05, AA v. NN, P less than 0.05). The absence of cytogenetically normal cells indicated a poor prognosis with frequent progression to acute leukemia which is resistant to chemotherapy. Progression to acute leukemia depended not only on chromosomal abnormalities but also on morphological subtype classified according to French-American-British co-operative group criteria. Morphological findings and karyotype combined gave a good indication of the outcome for patients with MDS.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activating mutations of the ALK kinase receptor in neuroblastoma. Nature. 2008 Oct 16;455(7215):967-70. doi: ... JM. Identification of ALK as a major familial neuroblastoma predisposition gene. Nature. 2008 Oct 16;455(7215):930-5. doi: ...

  7. Standardized fluorescence in situ hybridization testing based on an appropriate panel of probes more effectively identifies common cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes than conventional cytogenetic analysis: a multicenter prospective study of 2302 patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yue-Yun; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Juan; Zou, Ping; Xu, Ze-Feng; Sun, Hui; Shao, Zong-Hong; Zhou, Dao-Bin; Chen, Fang-Ping; Liu, Zhuo-Gang; Zhu, Huan-Ling; Wu, De-Pei; Wang, Chun; Zhang, Yin; Li, Yan; Hou, Ming; Du, Xin; Wang, Xin; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Rong; Zhou, Jin; Zhou, Yu-Hong; Fang, Mei-Yun; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Guang-Sen; Jiang, Ming; Liang, Ying-Min; Zhang, Lian-Sheng; Chen, Xie-Qun; Bai, Hai; Lin, Jin-Ying

    2015-05-01

    In an attempt to establish the advantages of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies over conventional cytogenetic (CC) analysis, a total of 2302 de novo MDS patients from 31 Chinese institutions were prospectively selected in the present study for both CC and standardized FISH analysis for +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities. CC analysis was successful in 94.0% of the patients; of these patients, 35.9% of the cases were abnormal. FISH analysis was successful in all 2302 patients and detected at least one type of common cytogenetic abnormality in 42.7% of the cases. The incidences of +8, -7/7q-, -5/5q-, 20q- and-Y chromosomal abnormalities by FISH were 4.1% to 8.7% higher than those by CC. FISH identified abnormalities in 23.6% of the patients exhibiting normal CC results and revealed that 20.7% of the patients with adequate normal metaphases (≥20) had abnormal clones. FISH identified cytogenetic abnormalities in 50.4% of the patients with failed CC analysis. In summary, our multicenter studies emphasised and confirmed the importance of applying standardized FISH testing based on an appropriate panel of probes to detect common cytogenetic abnormalities in Chinese de novo MDS patients, particularly those with normal or failed CC results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Molecular cytogenetic studies in the ladybird beetle Henosepilachnaargus Geoffroy, 1762 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Sanllorente, Olivia; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The ladybird Henosepilachnaargus Geoffroy, 1762 has been cytogenetically studied. In addition we have conducted a review of chromosome numbers and the chromosomal system of sex determination available in the literature in species belonging to the genus Henosepilachna and in its closely related genus Epilachna. Chromosome number of Henosepilachnaargus was 2n=18, including the sex chromosome pair, a common diploid chromosome number within the tribe Epilachnini. The study of prophase I meiotic chromosomes showed the typical Xyp "parachute" bivalent as in the majority of species of Coccinellidae. C-banding and fluorescent staining with AT-specific DAPI fluorochrome dye have been carried out for the first time in H. argus. C-banding technique revealed that heterochromatic blocks are pericentromerically located and DAPI staining showed that this heterochromatin is AT rich. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations using rDNA and the telomeric TTAGG sequence as probes have been carried out. FISH using rDNA showed that the nucleolar organizing region is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. FISH with the telomeric sequence revealed that in this species telomeres of chromosomes are composed of the pentanucleotide TTAGG repeats. This is the first study on the telomeric sequences in Coccinellidae.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic studies in the ladybird beetle Henosepilachna argus Geoffroy, 1762 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mora

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ladybird Henosepilachna argus Geoffroy, 1762 has been cytogenetically studied. In addition we have conducted a review of chromosome numbers and the chromosomal system of sex determination available in the literature in species belonging to the genus Henosepilachna and in its closely related genus Epilachna. Chromosome number of H. argus was 2n=18, including the sex chromosome pair, a common diploid chromosome number within the tribe Epilachnini. The study of prophase I meiotic chromosomes showed the typical Xyp “parachute” bivalent as in the majority of species of Coccinellidae. C-banding and fluorescent staining with AT-specific DAPI fluorochrome dye have been carried out for the first time in H. argus. C-banding technique revealed that heterochromatic blocks are pericentromerically located and DAPI staining showed that this heterochromatin is AT rich. Fluorescence in situ hybridizations using rDNA and the telomeric TTAGG sequence as probes have been carried out. FISH using rDNA showed that the nucleolar organizing region is located on the short arm of the X chromosome. FISH with the telomeric sequence revealed that in this species telomeres of chromosomes are composed of the pentanucleotide TTAGG repeats. This is the first study on the telomeric sequences in Coccinellidae.

  10. Management of neuroblastoma: a study of first- and second-line chemotherapy responses, a single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmad E. Habib

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a high-grade malignancy of childhood. It is chemo- and radio-sensitive but prone to relapse after initial remission. The aim of the current study was to study the results of the first- and second-line chemotherapy on the short-term response and long-term survival of children, and to further describe the side effects of treatment. Ninety-five children with advanced neuroblastoma were included in the study, divided into two groups according to the treatment strategy: 65 were treated by first-line chemotherapy alone, and 30 children who were not responding or relapsed after first-line chemotherapy were treated by second-line chemotherapy. External beam radiotherapy was given to bone and brain secondary cancers when detected. Staging workup was performed before, during and after management. Response was documented after surgery for the primary tumor. Median follow up was 32 months (range 24-60 months. Chemothe rapy was continued until toxicity or disease progression occurred, indicating interruption of chemotherapy. Patients received a maximum of 8 cycles. Toxicity was mainly myelo-suppression, with grade II-III severity in 60% of the firstline and 70% of the second-line chemotherapy patients. Median total actuarial survival was nearly 51 months for the first-line chemotherapy group and 30 months for the second-line line group, with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.01.

  11. A cytogenetic study of nonpolymalformed patients with mental retardation of clinically undefined etiology: application of a high resolution banding technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikkawa,Kiyoshi; Narahara,Kouji; Kimoto,Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    We performed a cytogenetic study on 140 nonpolymalformed patients with mental retardation of clinically undefined origin, using a high resolution banding technique, to determine how much chromosome abnormalities contribute to the etiology of this condition. A total of 15 patients (10.7%) were found to have autosomal or sex chromosomal abnormalities. Autosomal abnormalities included partial monosomy (5 cases), reciprocal translocation (one case), 13/14 robertsonian translocation (3 cases), unb...

  12. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. PMID:26507407

  13. Cytogenetic Studies of Rwandan Pediatric Patients Presenting with Global Developmental Delay, Intellectual Disability and/or Multiple Congenital Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwineza, Annette; Hitayezu, Janvier; Jamar, Mauricette; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Murorunkwere, Seraphine; Janvier, Ndinkabandi; Bours, Vincent; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-02-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) is defined as a significant delay in two or more developmental domains: gross or fine motor, speech/language, cognitive, social/personal and activities of daily living. Many of these children will go on to be diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID), which is most commonly defined as having an IQ Patau syndrome. Other identified chromosomal abnormalities included 47,XX,+del(9)(q11), 46,XY,del(13)(q34) and 46,XX,der(22)t(10;22)(p10;p10)mat. In conclusion, our results highlight the high frequency of cytogenetically detectable abnormalities in this series, with implications for the burden on the healthcare. This study demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic analysis in patients with GDD/ID and MCA. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A clinical, cytogenetic, FISH and molecular study of supernumerary marker 15 chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, N.R. [Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Crolla, J.A.; Harvey, J.F. [Salisbury District Hospital (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    We studied 17 patients with supernumerary marker chromosomes shown by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 15-centromere specific probe pTRA-25 to be 15-derived. Genetic constitution of the marker chromosomes was investigated using FISH, Southern blot analysis and PCR for proximal and distal loci on 15q as well as conventional cytogenetics. Eight of the 17 patients were mentally retarded. Six of the eight carried a de novo marker 15 containing one or two doses of loci known to be in or near the Prader-Willi/Angelman (PWS/AS) region, whereas none of the nine non-retarded patients had duplications of this region, and only two of the eight whose parents were available had a de novo marker. None of the mentally retarded patients had PWS or AS. In two retarded patients (one de novo, one familial) there was no duplication of the PWS/AS region. Uniparental disomy affecting the normal 15 homologs was excluded in 10 of the patients, including all eight with mental retardation.

  15. Cytogenetic alterations in renal tumors: a study of 38 Southeast Asian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Lai-Ching; Tan, Puay-Hoon; Chong, Tsung-Wen; Foo, Keng-Tatt; Yip, Sidney

    2007-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common cancer of the kidney. Cytogenetic studies of renal cell carcinoma have provided valuable insight into the chromosomal abnormalities involved in the genesis and progression of the disease, and have also helped in the classification of these tumors. Our objectives were to identify nonrandom chromosome abnormalities in renal tumors in a Southeast Asian population and also to determine if they differ from those in Western populations. Structural rearrangements of 3p were specific for clear cell RCC, with the most consistent structural rearrangement being a translocation between 3p13 and 5q22. Gains of chromosomes 7 and 17 were observed in three and two cases of papillary RCC, respectively. All male patients with papillary RCC were noted to have loss of the Y chromosome. Gains of chromosomes 3 and 7, and structural aberration of chromosome 3, were observed in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis (TCC). Chromosomal abnormalities in clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, and TCC did not differ between the Southeast Asian and Western populations. The aberrations seem to be common sporadic events, both geographically and racially.

  16. Intracranial hemangiopericytoma: Case study with cytogenetics and genome wide SNP-A analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Heidrun; Livrea, Michela; Ahnert, Peter; Koschny, Ronald; Kirsten, Holger; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Bauer, Manfred; Schober, Ralf; Fritzsch, Dominik; Krupp, Wolfgang

    2011-05-15

    The tumor entity of hemangiopericytoma is not universally recognized as a nosological entity by pathologists, and there is a trend toward reassigning it to other categories gradually. However, hemangiopericytomas occurring in the nervous system are included in the new WHO classification of brain tumors, and are distinguished from both meningioma and fibrous tumors. Since there are few genetic studies, we performed a comprehensive cytogenetic analysis of an infratentorial hemangiopericytoma in a 55-year-old female. It was originally classified as a grade II tumor but recurred as a grade III tumor with a proliferation index of 20%. Using trypsin-Giemsa staining (GTG-banding) and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH), we could confirm the loss of chromosomal material 10q, which has been previously described in hemangiopericytoma, and we identified de novo chromosomal aberrations on chromosome 8. Applying genome-wide high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analysis, we detected segments with loss or gain, as well as clonal deletions or regions suggestive of segmental uniparental disomy. These findings, together with the results of conventional histological and immunohistochemical characterization, provide additional evidence for the nosological separation of hemangiopericytoma in the central nervous system as a biologically different entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical, cytogenetic and toxicological studies in rural workers exposed to pesticides in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Marcia Bréga

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides can cause gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in exposed individuals. We have investigated 24 workers exposed to pesticides. Clinical examinations and cytogenetic and toxicological tests were performed. Ten non-exposed individuals were used as controls. Toxicological dosages of copper, zinc and manganese (metals found in some pesticides, hepatic enzyme dosage (GOT, GPT, AR and acetylcholinesterase activity were performed in 16 workers and 8 controls. In the exposed workers, the most relevant clinical symptoms were poor digestion with fullness sensation after meals, irritated eyes, headache and fasciculations. The exposed group showed significantly lower manganese dosage and acetylcholinesterase activity, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase. Cytogenetic studies showed significantly higher chromosomal aberrations in the exposed group compared to the control group. Although the workers used protection against the pesticide's fog, the results revealed that the workers were contaminated with the pesticides. Therefore, the cytogenetic, toxicological studies with clinical examination are necessary for monitoring workers who are exposed to pesticides in any situation.

  18. CYTOGENETIC STUDY OF A NODULAR HYPERPLASIA OF THE THYROID AFTER IRRADIATION FOR HODGKINS-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, E; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; OOSTERHUIS, JW; DEJONG, B; BUIST, J; VOS, AM; VERMEIJ, A; Dam, A.

    We describe cytogenetics of a case of nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid with papillary microcarcinoma following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. The chromosomal pattern found was very heterogeneous with a clonal abnormality of chromosome 10, among others. Together with some recent data from the

  19. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  20. Akt2 regulates metastatic potential in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Qiao

    Full Text Available Activation of PI3K/AKT pathway correlates with poor prognosis in patients with neuroblastoma. Our previous studies have demonstrated that PI3K/AKT signaling is critical for the oncogenic transformations induced by gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP and its receptor, GRP-R, in neuroblastoma. Moreover, PI3K/AKT-dependent oncogenic transformations require N-myc, an extensively studied oncogene in neuroblastoma. Whether AKT directly regulates the expression of N-myc oncogene is yet to be determined. Here, we report a novel finding that of the three AKT isoforms, AKT2 specifically regulated N-myc expression in neuroblastoma cells. We also confirmed that GRP-R is upstream of AKT2 and in turn, regulated N-myc expression via AKT2 in neuroblastoma cells. Functional assays demonstrated that attenuation of AKT2 impaired cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth, and decreased the secretion of angiogenic factor VEGF in vitro. Furthermore, silencing AKT2 inhibited migration and invasion of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Xenografts established by injecting AKT2 silenced human neuroblastoma cells into murine spleen expressed decreased levels of AKT2 and resulted in fewer liver metastases compared to controls in vivo. Hence, our study highlights the potential molecular mechanism(s mediating the oncogenic role of GRP/GRP-R and demonstrates a novel role for AKT2 in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, indicating that targeting the GRP/GRP-R/AKT2 axis may be important for developing novel therapeutics in the treatment of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma.

  1. Cancer Cytogenetics: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas S K

    2017-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome was the first chromosomal abnormality discovered in cancer using the cytogenetics technique in 1960, and was consistently associated with chronic myeloid leukemia. Over the past five decades, innovative technical advances in the field of cancer cytogenetics have greatly enhanced the detection ability of chromosomal alterations, and have facilitated the research and diagnostic potential of chromosomal studies in neoplasms. These developments notwithstanding, chromosome analysis of a single cell is still the easiest way to delineate and understand the relationship between clonal evolution and disease progression of cancer cells. The use of advanced fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques allows for the further identification of chromosomal alterations that are unresolved by the karyotyping method. It overcame many of the drawbacks of assessing the genetic alterations in cancer cells by karyotyping. Subsequently, the development of DNA microarray technologies provides a high-resolution view of the whole genome, which may add massive amounts of new information and opens the field of cancer cytogenomics. Strikingly, cancer cytogenetics does not only provide key information to improve the care of patients with malignancies, but also acts as a guide to identify the genes responsible for the development of these neoplastic states and has led to the emergence of molecularly targeted therapies in the field of personalized medicine.

  2. Studying the effect of antioxidants on cytogenetic manifestations of solvent exposure in the paint industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Aamal; Metwally, Fateheya Mohamed; Mohammed Samir, Aisha; ElShahawy, Amir; Raouf, Ehab Abdel

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the antioxidant role in reversing cytogenetic changes caused by solvent exposure in paint industry. A prospective controlled clinical trial was performed on 39 workers exposed to solvents and 39 workers not exposed to solvents by supplying a mixture of antioxidant vitamins (A, C, E and selenium) and the after effects of such regimen were analyzed. Environmental monitoring was carried out for air concentrations of different solvents at workplace. Exposed group was cytogenetically tested before and after giving the mixture of antioxidant vitamins for 1 month duration. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and the mean of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were statistically significantly higher among exposed workers than among controls. After the supplementation of antioxidants, there was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of CAs, and 88% abnormal levels of SCEs were back to normal levels. Antioxidant supplementation decreases the frequency of CAs and SCEs among exposed workers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Cytogenetic study in children with down syndrome among kosova Albanian population between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgeci, Selim; Kolgeci, Jehona; Azemi, Mehmedali; Shala-Beqiraj, Ruke; Gashi, Zafer; Sopjani, Mentor

    2013-01-01

    none declared. The aim of this research was to ascertain the frequency of three basic cytogenetical types of Down syndrome among Kosova Albanian population and to evaluate the maternal age effect on the frequency of births of children with Down syndrome. Cytogenetics diagnosis has been made according to the standard method of Moorhead and Seabright. In the time period 2000-2010 cytogenetics diagnosis of overall 305 children with Down syndrome has been realized. Of which in 285 children (93.4%) were found free trisomy 21 (regular type), and in three other children (~1.0%) were detected mosaic trisomy 21. Translocation trisomy 21 was detected in 17 children (5.6%), of which in 14 children it occurred de novo translocation, whereas in 3 other children translocation has been inherited by a parent translocation carrier. The highest number of children with Trisomy 21 due to translocation was caused by Robertsonian translocation created by a fusion of two homologous chromosomes 21 (3.3%). Analysis showed that the number of children born with Down's syndrome, from 2000 to 2010, was not decreasing among the Kosova Albanian population. Down syndrome resulted by an extra free chromosome 21 is the most common genetic cause for that condition. Robertsonian translocations present in Down syndrome children often are de novo or inherited from a carrier parent with translocation.

  4. Enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with LOX/COX inhibitors: an expression profiling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanova Marketa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed expression profiling of two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y, after combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX and cyclooxygenases (COX. This study is a continuation of our previous work confirming the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines by the application of LOX/COX inhibitors and brings more detailed information concerning the mechanisms of the enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Methods Caffeic acid, as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, and celecoxib, as an inhibitor on cyclooxygenase-2, were used in this study. Expression profiling was performed using Human Cancer Oligo GEArray membranes that cover 440 cancer-related genes. Results Cluster analyses of the changes in gene expression showed the concentration-dependent increase in genes known to be involved in the process of retinoid-induced neuronal differentiation, especially in cytoskeleton remodeling. These changes were detected in both cell lines, and they were independent of the type of specific inhibitors, suggesting a common mechanism of ATRA-induced differentiation enhancement. Furthermore, we also found overexpression of some genes in the same cell line (SK-N-BE(2 or SH-SY5Y after combined treatment with both ATRA and CA, or ATRA and CX. Finally, we also detected that gene expression was changed after treatment with the same inhibitor (CA or CX in combination with ATRA in both cell lines. Conclusions Obtained results confirmed our initial hypothesis of the common mechanism of enhancement in ATRA-induced cell differentiation via inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolic pathway.

  5. Radiolabeled metaiodobenzylguanidine for the treatment of neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Steven G. [Department of Pediatrics, UCSF School of Medicine, Box 0106, San Francisco, CA 94143-0106 (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [Department of Pediatrics, UCSF School of Medicine, Box 0106, San Francisco, CA 94143-0106 (United States)], E-mail: matthayk@peds.ucsf.edu

    2008-08-15

    Introduction: Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric extracranial solid cancer. This tumor is characterized by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity in 90% of cases, prompting the use of radiolabeled MIBG for targeted radiotherapy in these tumors. Methods: The available English language literature was reviewed for original research investigating in vitro, in vivo and clinical applications of radiolabeled MIBG for neuroblastoma. Results: MIBG is actively transported into neuroblastoma cells by the norepinephrine transporter. Preclinical studies demonstrate substantial activity of radiolabeled MIBG in neuroblastoma models, with {sup 131}I-MIBG showing enhanced activity in larger tumors compared to {sup 125}I-MIBG. Clinical studies of {sup 131}I-MIBG in patients with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma have identified myelosuppression as the main dose-limiting toxicity, necessitating stem cell reinfusion at higher doses. Most studies report a response rate of 30-40% with {sup 131}I-MIBG in this population. More recent studies have focused on the use of {sup 131}I-MIBG in combination with chemotherapy or myeloablative regimens. Conclusions: {sup 131}I-MIBG is an active agent for the treatment of patients with neuroblastoma. Future studies will need to define the optimal role of this targeted radiopharmaceutical in the therapy of this disease.

  6. Histone deacetylase 8 in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehme, Ina; Deubzer, Hedwig E; Wegener, Dennis; Pickert, Diana; Linke, Jan-Peter; Hero, Barbara; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Westermann, Frank; Ulrich, Scott M; von Deimling, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias; Witt, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on cancer cells have shown that HDACs are involved in fundamental tumor biological processes such as cell cycle control, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, because of the unselective nature of these compounds, little is known about the contribution of individual HDAC family members to tumorigenesis and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of individual HDACs in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We have investigated the mRNA expression of all HDAC1-11 family members in a large cohort of primary neuroblastoma samples covering the full spectrum of the disease. HDACs associated with disease stage and survival were subsequently functionally evaluated in cell culture models. Only HDAC8 expression was significantly correlated with advanced disease and metastasis and down-regulated in stage 4S neuroblastoma associated with spontaneous regression. High HDAC8 expression was associated with poor prognostic markers and poor overall and event-free survival. The knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in the inhibition of proliferation, reduced clonogenic growth, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation in cultured neuroblastoma cells. The treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines as well as short-term-culture neuroblastoma cells with an HDAC8-selective small-molecule inhibitor inhibited cell proliferation and clone formation, induced differentiation, and thus reproduced the HDAC8 knockdown phenotype. Global histone 4 acetylation was not affected by HDAC8 knockdown or by selective inhibitor treatment. Our data point toward an important role of HDAC8 in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and identify this HDAC family member as a specific drug target for the differentiation therapy of neuroblastoma.

  7. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    43:1–8 Hinegardner R (1974) Cellular DNA content of the mollusca. Comp Biochem Physiol 47A:447–460 FAO (2004) The state of the world fisheries and aquaculture. FAO, Roam Howell WM, Black DA (1980) Controlled silver staining of nucleolus organizing... of the Mollusca. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 337–359 Nakamura HK (1985) A review of molluscan cytogenetic information based on CISMOCH-Computerized Index System for Molluscan Chromosomes. Bivalvia Polyplacophora and Cephalopoda.Venus 44:193–226 Pasantes JJ...

  8. Cytogenetic studies of stainless steel welders using the tungsten inert gas and metal inert gas methods for welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelmert, O; Hansteen, I L; Langård, S

    1995-03-01

    Cytogenetic damage was studied in lymphocytes from 23 welders using the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), and 21 welders using the Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and/or Metal Active Gas (MAG) methods on stainless steel (SS). A matched reference group I, and a larger reference group II of 94 subjects studied during the same time period, was established for comparison. Whole blood conventional cultures (CC), cultures in which DNA synthesis and repair were inhibited (IC), and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay were applied in the study. For the CC a statistically significant decrease in chromosome breaks and cells with aberrations was found for both TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welders when compared with reference group II. A non-significant decrease was found for the corresponding parameters for the two groups of welders when compared with their matched referents. A statistically significant negative association was found between measurements of total chromium (Cr) in inhaled air and SCE, and a weaker negative correlation with hexavalent Cr (Cr(VI)) in air. In conclusion, no cytogenetic damage was found in welders exposed to the TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welding fumes with low content of Cr and Ni. On the contrary, a decline in the prevalence of chromosomal aberrations was indicated in the TIG/SS and MIG/MAG/SS welders, possibly related to the suggested enhancement of DNA repair capacity at slightly elevated exposures.

  9. CYTOGENETIC FINDINGS IN 11 GASTRIC CARCINOMAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SERUCA, R; CASTEDO, S; CORREIA, C; GOMES, P; CARNEIRO, F; SOARES, P; DEJONG, B; SOBRINHOSIMOES, M

    1993-01-01

    We describe the results of the cytogenetic study of 10 primary adenocarcinomas of the stomach and one lymph node metastasis of a gastric adenocarcinoma after direct harvesting or short-term in vitro culture. All cases showed a variable number of numerical and/or structural clonal cytogenetic

  10. Cytogenetic studies in human cells exposed in vitro to GSM-900 MHz radiofrequency radiation using R-banded karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourthoumieu, S; Joubert, V; Marin, B; Collin, A; Leveque, P; Terro, F; Yardin, C

    2010-12-01

    It is important to determine the possible effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the genetic material of cells since damage to the DNA of somatic cells may be linked to cancer development or cell death and damage to germ cells may lead to genetic damage in next and subsequent generations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to radiofrequency radiation similar to that emitted by mobile phones of second-generation standard Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) induces genotoxic effects in cultured human cells. The cytogenetic effects of GSM-900 MHz (GSM-900) RF radiation were investigated using R-banded karyotyping after in vitro exposure of human cells (amniotic cells) for 24 h. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.25 W/kg. The exposures were carried out in wire-patch cells (WPCs) under strictly controlled conditions of temperature. The genotoxic effect was assessed immediately or 24 h after exposure using four different samples. One hundred metaphase cells were analyzed per assay. Positive controls were provided by using bleomycin. We found no direct cytogenetic effects of GSM-900 either 0 h or 24 h after exposure. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to study genotoxicity using complete R-banded karyotyping, which allows visualizing all the chromosomal rearrangements, either numerical or structural.

  11. Drugs Approved for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for neuroblastoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neuroblastoma. We present preclinical research and clinical trials on several promising candidates such as IL-12, dendritic cell vaccines, anti-GD2 antibodies, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. An optimal treatment plan for neuroblastoma will most likely involve multimodal approaches and combinations of immune therapies. PMID:19342881

  13. A cytogenetic study of hospital workers occupationally exposed to radionuclides in Serbia. Premature centromere division as novel biomarker of exposure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajic, Jelena; Rakic, Boban [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Jovicic, Dubravka [Univ. ' ' Singidunum' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Genotoxicology Dept.; Milovanovic, Aleksandar [Serbian Institute of Occupational Health ' ' Dr Dragomir Karajovic' ' , Belgrade (Serbia). Biodosimetry Dept.; Belgrade Univ. (Serbia). Occupational Health Dept.

    2016-04-15

    The health risk of chronic exposure to radionuclides includes changes in the genome (e.g., chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) that increase chromosomal instability. There are also other phenomena, which seem to appear more frequently in metaphases of exposed persons (such as premature centromere division). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not there is correlation between incidence of named cytogenetic changes in persons occupationally exposed to radionuclides in comparison with unexposed control group, and if significant correlation is determined, can premature centromere division be consider as a biomarker of radiation exposure? The exposed group comprised 50 individuals occupationally exposed to radionuclides. The reference control group consisted of 40 unexposed individuals. Chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and premature centromere division were analyzed according to a standard International Atomic Energy Agency protocol. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 17.0 statistics.The means for analyzed cytogenetic changes were significantly higher in the exposed group. Positive correlation between them was found in exposed group. Premature centromere division parameter PCD5-10 was selected as particularly suitable for separating groups (exposed/unexposed). Identification of other phenomena related to radionuclide exposure, beside well known, may clarify recent problems in radiobiology concerning the biological response to low doses of ionizing radiation and its consequences.

  14. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae native to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Chirino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863, B. elongatum Montandon, 1908 and B. gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male. In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in B. dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in B. elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in B. gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus.

  15. Comparison of high resolution cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridisation, and DNA studies to validate the diagnosis of Prader-Willi and Angelman's syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Prasad, M; Deng, Z M; Robson, L; Woodage, T; Trent, R J

    1995-01-01

    Eighty seven referrals with Prader-Willi syndrome and 49 with Angelman's syndrome were studied. High resolution cytogenetics was performed on all probands. Molecular studies, performed on the proband and both parents in each case, utilised multiple probes from within and distal to the 15(q11-13) region in order to establish the presence of DNA deletion or uniparental disomy. In addition, FISH, with probes at D15S11 and GABR beta 3 from the Prader-Willi syndrome/Angelman's syndrome region, was performed on a subset of 25 of these patients. In the referral group with Prader-Willi syndrome, 62 patients had a normal karyotype and 25 were deleted on high resolution cytogenetics. Twenty nine were found to be deleted with DNA techniques. In the Angelman's syndrome group, 37 had a normal karyotype and 12 were deleted on high resolution cytogenetics while 26 were deleted on molecular studies. The diagnosis was reassessed in 35 referrals with Prader-Willi syndrome and 11 with Angelman's syndrome following a non-deleted, non-disomic result. Of individuals who were neither deleted nor disomic on DNA studies, a false positive rate of 11.4% (4/35) for Prader-Willi syndrome and 16.7% (2/12) for Angelman's syndrome was found for a cytogenetically detected deletion. The false negative rate for deletion detected on high resolution cytogenetics was 19.5% (12/62) for Prader-Willi syndrome and 35% (13/37) for Angelman's syndrome. Thus high resolution cytogenetics was shown to be unreliable for deletion detection and should not be used alone to diagnose either syndrome. There were no discrepancies with FISH in 25 cases when FISH was compared with the DNA results, indicating that FISH can be used reliably for deletion detection in both syndromes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7618904

  16. Immune Therapies for Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Navid, Fariba; Armstrong, Michael; Barfield, Raymond C

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, a solid tumor arising from developing cells of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common extracranial tumor in children. The prognosis for high-risk neuroblastoma remains poor with conventional treatment, and new approaches are therefore being explored to treat this disease. One such alternative therapy that holds promise is immune therapy. We review here the recent advances in 4 types of immune therapy – cytokine, vaccine, antibody, and cellular therapy – to treat neu...

  17. Cytogenetic studies on populations of Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius, 1775 and Camponotus renggeri Emery, 1894 (Formicidae: Formicinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso de Aguiar

    Full Text Available Two valid ant species, Camponotus rufipes and Camponotus renggeri, have recently been the subject of a broad discussion with reference to taxa synonymization. Both species are quite common among the Neotropical myrmecofauna and share some unique traits, such as the shape of the scape and the pilosity patterns of the tibiae and scapes. A single morphological trait can help distinguish these species; however, only a combination of different approaches can enlighten our view of the complex phylogenetic relationships prevailing in the different populations of these two taxa. Therefore, focusing on the taxonomic issues concerning these two species, a cytogenetic survey including 10 populations of C. rufipes and two populations of C. renggeri was performed. In order to better understand the extent of the relationship between C. rufipes and C. renggeri, two common Neotropical Camponotus species, C. atriceps and C. cingulatus were taken as outgroups. All four species of Camponotus that were studied had 2n = 40 chromosomes (4sm+34st+2t; however, the abundance of chromosome rearrangements observed, combined with several chromosome markers, suggest that C. rufipes and C. renggeri are two good distinct species although closely related. The already reported chromosome translocation 2n = 39 (1m+4sm+32st+2t for C. rufipes has been found in different populations as in the unprecedented chromosome inversions found both in C. rufipes and in C. renggeri populations. Within the C. renggeri chromosome inversions, both the heterozygous state 2n = 40 (1m+3sm+34st+2t and the homozygous state, 2n = 40 (2m+2sm+34st+2t were identified. However, only heterozygous specimens for chromosome inversions were found among C. rufipes, with karyotype configurations distinct from those found in C. renggeri, with 2n = 40 (1m+4sm+34st+2t. None of the populations studied showed signs of mosaic individuals. With respect to rDNA clusters, the 18S rDNA seemed to be more restricted inside

  18. Neuroblastoma treatment in the post-genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Aveic, Sanja; Seydel, Anke; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2017-02-08

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy of early childhood originating from neural crest cells and showing heterogeneous biological, morphological, genetic and clinical characteristics. The correct stratification of neuroblastoma patients within risk groups (low, intermediate, high and ultra-high) is critical for the adequate treatment of the patients.High-throughput technologies in the Omics disciplines are leading to significant insights into the molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. Nonetheless, further study of Omics data is necessary to better characterise neuroblastoma tumour biology. In the present review, we report an update of compounds that are used in preclinical tests and/or in Phase I-II trials for neuroblastoma. Furthermore, we recapitulate a number of compounds targeting proteins associated to neuroblastoma: MYCN (direct and indirect inhibitors) and downstream targets, Trk, ALK and its downstream signalling pathways. In particular, for the latter, given the frequency of ALK gene deregulation in neuroblastoma patients, we discuss on second-generation ALK inhibitors in preclinical or clinical phases developed for the treatment of neuroblastoma patients resistant to crizotinib.We summarise how Omics drive clinical trials for neuroblastoma treatment and how much the research of biological targets is useful for personalised medicine. Finally, we give an overview of the most recent druggable targets selected by Omics investigation and discuss how the Omics results can provide us additional advantages for overcoming tumour drug resistance.

  19. [Clinical and cytogenetical study on subacute myeloid leukemia in myelodysplastic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jing-ying; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Dao-pei; Lai, Yue-yun; He, Qi; Shi, Yan

    2005-06-01

    To discuss from the clinical and cytogenetic aspect that part of patients now diagnosed as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) could be diagnosed early as leukemia and be classified as subacute myeloid leukemia (Sub-AML). Totally 173 patients diagnosed as MDS according to FAB or WHO criteria with complete clinical and cytogenetical data were included in this research. Among them 42 had +8 chromosome aberration, 16 had -7/7q-, and 55 had normal karyotypes and more than 0.10 blast cells in the bone marrow. Short term culture and G-banding techniques and in some specimens fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method were used to do chromosome analysis. Among the detected chromosome aberrations, +8 was the most frequent (42.8%) and then -7/7q-(15.0%); 42 patients with +8 had median blast cell count of 0.08, within a median of 18 months follow-up period 40.0% of the patients evolved to frank leukemia (FL) and the median overall survival was 20 months. 16 patients with -7/7q- had higher blast cell count of 0.135; 43.8% of them developed into FL and the median overall survival was only 10 months within a 20-month follow-up period. 55 patients had normal karyotype but a median blast cell count of 0.148; 52.7% of them patients evolved to FL and the median overall survival was 34 months. Both the +8 and -7/7q- groups have malignant leukemic cell clone, and run a subacute and progressive clinical course; it is suggested they might be classified into Sub-AML. We should keep close watch on the patients who have normal karyotype yet more than 0.10 blast cells, part of whom might suffer from early Sub-AML.

  20. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in a case with partial trisomy 12p due to a de novo supernumerary ring chromosome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Schuil, J.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Pater, J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and molecular cytogenetic studies in a case with partial trisomy 12p due to a de novo supernumerary ring chromosome: We report on a girl with a mosaic karyotype containing a supernumerary ring chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies showed that this marker chromosome

  1. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yeung

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to include MSCs in mimicking the niche in neuroblastoma. Here we co-encapsulate and co-culture NBCs and MSCs in a 3D in vitro model and investigate the morphology, growth kinetics and matrix remodeling in the reconstituted stromal environment. Results showed that the incorporation of MSCs in the model lead to accelerated growth of cancer cells as well as recapitulation of at least partially the tumor microenvironment in vivo. The current study therefore demonstrates the feasibility for the collagen microsphere to act as a 3D in vitro cancer model for various topics in cancer studies.

  2. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Pan; Sin, Hoi Shun; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi Fung; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to include MSCs in mimicking the niche in neuroblastoma. Here we co-encapsulate and co-culture NBCs and MSCs in a 3D in vitro model and investigate the morphology, growth kinetics and matrix remodeling in the reconstituted stromal environment. Results showed that the incorporation of MSCs in the model lead to accelerated growth of cancer cells as well as recapitulation of at least partially the tumor microenvironment in vivo. The current study therefore demonstrates the feasibility for the collagen microsphere to act as a 3D in vitro cancer model for various topics in cancer studies.

  3. Profile of neuroblastoma detected by mass screening, resected after observation without treatment: results of the Wait and See pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oue, Takaharu; Inoue, Masami; Yoneda, Akihiro; Kubota, Akio; Okuyama, Hiroomi; Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Nishikawa, Masanori; Nakayama, Masahiro; Kawa, Keisei

    2005-02-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) detected by mass screening (MS) usually shows favorable prognosis and sometimes regresses spontaneously. Therefore, the authors started an observation program for these patients to avoid overtreatment. In this study, the authors analyzed the profile of NB resected after observation to elucidate the nature of NB detected by MS. Between 1994 and 2004, 22 NB patients matched the following criteria and entered the observation program after obtaining informed consent: stage I or II, less than 5 cm in diameter, and without involvement of large vessels or organs. If increase in size, elevation of tumor markers, or evidence of metastasis was observed, the tumor was immediately resected. Thirteen (59%) of 22 cases showed spontaneous regression. In the remaining 9 cases, tumors were resected because of parents' request, increase in size, and/or elevation of tumor markers. Four tumors had at least one unfavorable biologic feature, and 3 of them had more than 2. According to Shimada's system, 2 had unfavorable histology. One was diploid tumor, 3 had 1p deletion, and Trk-A expression was low in 4 tumors. All patients survived without evidence of recurrence. The observation program has shown that at least one third of the NB detected by MS regressed spontaneously. On the other hand, MS may detect some cases with unfavorable tumor in early stage, which benefit from screening.

  4. A Comprehensive Study of Progressive Cytogenetic Alterations in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and a New Model for ccRCC Tumorigenesis and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfa Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive study of cytogenetic alterations that occur during the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC. We used high-density high-throughput Affymetrix 100 K SNP arrays to obtain the whole genome SNP copy number information from 71 pretreatment tissue samples with RCC tumors; of those, 42 samples were of human ccRCC subtype. We analyzed patterns of cytogenetic loss and gain from different RCC subtypes and in particular, different stages and grades of ccRCC tumors, using a novel algorithm that we have designed. Based on patterns of cytogenetic alterations in chromosomal regions with frequent losses and gains, we inferred the involvement of candidate genes from these regions in ccRCC tumorigenesis and development. We then proposed a new model of ccRCC tumorigenesis and progression. Our study serves as a comprehensive overview of cytogenetic alterations in a collection of 572 ccRCC tumors from diversified studies and should facilitate the search for specific genes associated with the disease.

  5. [Cytological and cytogenetic studies of cells of Mongolian gerbils' retinal epithelium and marrow following 12-day space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Fedorenko, B S; Rakov, D V

    2011-01-01

    The paper report the results of studying mitotic activity and cytogenetic disorders in marrow and retinal epithelium cells of Mongolian gerbils in 21 - 23 hrs. of landing space apparatus Foton-M3, and the animals of synchronous and vivarium controls. Cells of the space flown gerbils displayed a statistically significant (p vivarium controls, where the ratio made up 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, respectively. Frequency of aberrant mytoses in the form of bridges was increased equally in both types of cells. Patterns of chromosome damages occurred in flight infer that the major portion of changes was not due to chromosome breakage but adhesion and ensuing wrong disjunction. These results seem to have been caused by acute g-stress to organism during re-entry and return from micro-g to the normal gravity.

  6. A Retrospective Study of Cytogenetic Results From Amniotic Fluid in 5328 Fetuses With Abnormal Obstetric Sonographic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Lei, Caixia; Wu, Junping; Sun, Haiyan; Yang, Yuezhou; Zhang, Yueping; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid for fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings and to determine the detection rates of abnormal karyotypes. We conducted a retrospective study of 5328 fetuses with abnormal sonographic findings in the first or second trimester enrolled from October 1998 and September 2015. Cytogenetic results from amniotic fluid were obtained in all of these pregnancies. Sonographic abnormalities were stratified according to anatomic system involvement. A total of 238 abnormal karyotypes were encountered in the 5328 fetuses (4.5%). The highest rate of chromosomal anomalies was in fetuses with structural abnormalities in multiple organ systems (25.7%), followed by an abnormal amniotic fluid volume (7.9%), structural abnormalities in a single system (7.3%), multiple nonstructural anomalies (7.2%), isolated placental abnormalities (7.1%), and isolated soft markers for aneuploidy (2.4%; P abnormalities in a single system, gastrointestinal and neck/body fluids had particularly high detection rates (26.1% and 26.2%, respectively). A detailed analysis suggested that the probability of an abnormal karyotype among every anatomic system was statistically significant (P abnormal rates: duodenal atresia (53.1%), holoprosencephaly (48.8%), fetal hydrops (39.5%), cerebellar hypoplasia (32.0%), cystic hygroma (31.5%), absent/short nasal bone (11.0%), and bilateral choroid plexus cysts (8.5%). Cytogenetic analysis has important clinical utility in a wide range of settings, such as prenatal diagnosis. For fetuses with indications of a highly abnormal detection rate, karyotype analysis should be suggested. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. [Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome associated with non-metastatic neuroblastoma. Long-term survival. Study of the French Society of Pediatric Oncologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantaz, D; Michon, J; Valteau-Couanet, D; Coze, C; Chastagner, P; Bergeron, C; Nelken, B; Martelli, H; Peyroulet, M C; Carpentier, A F; Armari-Alla, C; Pagnier, A; Rubie, H

    2000-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus is a rare syndrome characterized by multidirectional chaotic eye movements, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, it could be a paraneoplastic syndrome in association with neuroblastoma, usually with a high survival rate, but having a high frequency of neurologic and psychologic sequelae. The aim of this study was to describe oncologic outcome (prospectively) and neurologic outcome (retrospectively) in children with non-metastatic neuroblastoma, and to determine its best treatment. Data were collected on 21 children diagnosed with localized neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus between 1990-1999 from the French Society of Pediatric Oncology institutions. Median age at diagnosis was 18 months. Location of the tumor was abdominal in 14 cases, thoracic in three cases, pelvic in three cases, and cervical in the last case. There was a majority of small tumors with a maximal diameter children received chemotherapy. Twenty children remained in first complete remission, and one relapsed and died (the unique NMYC amplified case). Treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus varied widely. Only one child received no medical treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus, because of complete resolution of neurologic symptoms after exclusive surgery. The following agents were used: corticosteroids in 18 cases, intravenously immune globulin in five cases, and antiepileptic drugs in seven cases. Ten patients experienced relapses of opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms, mainly related to the decrease of steroid therapy (5/10). Ten of 16 assessable children had persistent neurologic deficits including speech delay or cognitive deficits (8/16), ataxia (6/16), motor delay (2/16), and behavioral problems (2/16). There is no correlation between neurologic outcome, and either age at diagnosis or duration of neurologic symptoms, or type of treatment of the tumor, particularly chemotherapy. Persistent neurologic deficits are characteristic for children with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus

  8. Renal oncocytosis: a clinicopathological and cytogenetic study of 42 tumours occurring in 11 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunchi, Francesca; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Vagnoni, Valerio; Capizzi, Elisa; Bertolo, Riccardo; Porpiglia, Francesco; Vatrano, Simona; Tamberi, Stefano; Schiavina, Riccardo; Papotti, Mauro; Bollito, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Renal oncocytosis is a rare pathological condition characterised by the presence of multiple oncocytic tumours with a spectrum of histological features ranging from renal oncocytoma, hybrid oncocytic tumour and rarely chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, sometimes overlapping. Here we retrospectively analysed histological, immunohistochemical (IHC), and cytogenetic features of 42 lesions in 11 patients with renal oncocytosis, not associated with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome. The histology of all the lesions was blindly reviewed by three dedicated genitourinary pathologists. IHC for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for copy number variation of chromosomes 1, 6, 7 and 17 were performed in all 42 nodules. Among the 42 lesions 36 (85.7%) were histologically renal oncocytomas, two (4.76%) 'hybrid oncocytic tumours' (HOT), one (2.4%) clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), one (2.4%) papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), one typical angiomyolipoma (2.4%), and one mixed epithelial/stromal tumour of the kidney (2.4%). FISH analysis confirmed the histological diagnosis of all the lesions. We show that most patients with renal oncocytosis harbour benign or low malignant potential tumours that can be treated conservatively. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MMSET is highly expressed and associated with aggressiveness in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudlebusch, Heidi Rye; Skotte, Julie; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Zimling, Zarah Glad; Lees, Michael James; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Rota, Rossella; De Ioris, Maria Antonietta; Quarto, Micaela; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Jørgensen, Mette; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Maroun, Lisa Leth; Schrøder, Henrik; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Helin, Kristian

    2011-06-15

    MMSET (WHSC1/NSD2) is a SET domain-containing histone lysine methyltransferase the expression of which is deregulated in a subgroup of multiple myelomas with the t(4;14)(p16;q32) translocation associated with poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that MMSET mRNA levels are increased in other tumor types as well. We have carried out immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and found that MMSET protein is frequently and highly expressed in neuroblastoma (MMSET positive in 75% of neuroblastomas, n = 164). The expression level of MMSET in neuroblastomas was significantly associated with poor survival, negative prognostic factors, and metastatic disease. Moreover, a subset of neuroblastomas for which pre- and postchemotherapy biopsies were available displayed a strong decrease in MMSET protein levels after chemotherapy. In agreement with neuroblastomas becoming more differentiated after treatment, we show that retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro also leads to a strong decrease in MMSET levels. Furthermore, we show that the high levels of MMSET in normal neural progenitor cells are strongly downregulated during differentiation. Importantly, we show that MMSET is required for proliferation of neuroblastoma cells and brain-derived neural stem cells. Taken together, our results suggest that MMSET is implicated in neuroblastomagenesis possibly by supporting proliferation of progenitor cells and negatively regulating their differentiation. In this respect, MMSET might be a strong candidate therapeutic target in a subset of neuroblastomas with unfavorable prognosis.

  10. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics-Pioneering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics - Pioneering Evolutionary Studies with Chromosomes. Bimalendu B Nath. General Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 61-65 ...

  11. DNA hybridization sensing for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dapra, Johannes; Brøgger, Anna Line

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis focuses on studying the cell structure, mainly in respect to chromosome content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders, but are also associated with heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are r...

  12. induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affiliated Hospital to Changchun Traditional Chinese Medicine University, 4Department of Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin. University, Changchun ... treatment of cancer using a neuroblastoma (NB) cell model. Method: Cell viability assay ... long-term survival rate in the late-stage patients is less than 40 % even with ...

  13. Cytogenetics and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A S; Hawkins, A L; Griffin, C A

    2000-01-01

    Techniques based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have bridged the gap between molecular genetics and conventional cytogenetics. Since its introduction in the late 1980s, advanced FISH-based methods have greatly enhanced the cytogenetic analysis of hematopoietic and solid tumors and are rapidly gaining ground in clinical cytogenetic diagnostics. As interest in FISH technologies has grown, it has inspired an era of new FISH-based technologies such as multiplex FISH, spectral karyotyping, and comparative genomic hybridization. In this review, the focus is on the impact of these technologies in the field of cancer genetics.

  14. Simultaneous Measurement of Neural Spike Recordings and Multi-Photon Calcium Imaging in Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeehyun Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the design and implementation of a micro-electrode array (MEA for neuroblastoma cell culturing. It also explains the implementation of a multi-photon microscope (MPM customized for neuroblastoma cell excitation and imaging under ambient light. Electrical signal and fluorescence images were simultaneously acquired from the neuroblastoma cells on the MEA. MPM calcium images of the cultured neuroblastoma cell on the MEA are presented and also the neural activity was acquired through the MEA recording. A calcium green-1 (CG-1 dextran conjugate of 10,000 D molecular weight was used in this experiment for calcium imaging. This study also evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spike recording of neuroblastoma cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in neuroblastoma cells with our proposed imaging modality, we report that neuroblastoma cells can be an important model for epileptic activity studies.

  15. Detection of MYCN Gene Amplification in Neuroblastoma by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: A Pediatric Oncology Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Mathew

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for analysis of MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma, we compared this assay with Southern blot analysis using tumor specimens collected from 232 patients with presenting characteristics typical of this disease. The FISH technique identified MYCN amplification in 47 cases, compared with 39 by Southern blotting, thus increasing the total number of positive cases by 21%. The major cause of discordancy was a low fraction of tumor cells (≤30% replacement in clinical specimens, which prevented an accurate estimate of MYCN copy number by Southern blotting. With FISH, by contrast, it was possible to analyze multiple interphase nuclei of tumor cells, regardless of the proportion of normal peripheral blood, bone marrow, or stromal cells in clinical samples. Thus, FISH could be performed accurately with very small numbers of tumor cells from touch preparations of needle biopsies. Moreover, this procedure allowed us to discern the heterogeneous pattern of MYCN amplification that is characteristic of neuroblastoma. We conclude that FISH improves the detection of MYCN gene amplification in childhood neuroblastomas in a clinical setting, thus facilitating therapeutic decisions based on the presence or absence of this prognostically important biologic marker.

  16. Antitumor activity of hu14.18-IL2 in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma: a Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, Suzanne; London, Wendy B; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Voss, Stephan D; Seeger, Robert C; Reynolds, C Patrick; Kimball, Jennifer; Albertini, Mark R; Wagner, Barrett; Gan, Jacek; Eickhoff, Jens; DeSantes, Kenneth B; Cohn, Susan L; Hecht, Toby; Gadbaw, Brian; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Maris, John M; Sondel, Paul M

    2010-11-20

    The hu14.18-IL2 fusion protein consists of interleukin-2 molecularly linked to a humanized monoclonal antibody that recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside expressed on neuroblastoma cells. This phase II study assessed the antitumor activity of hu14.18-IL2 in two strata of patients with recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma. Hu14.18-IL2 was given intravenously (12 mg/m(2)/daily) for 3 days every 4 weeks for patients with disease measurable by standard radiographic criteria (stratum 1) and for patients with disease evaluable only by [(123)I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and/or bone marrow (BM) histology (stratum 2). Response was established by independent radiology review as well as BM histology and immunocytology, and durability was assessed by repeat evaluation after more than 3 weeks. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled (36 evaluable). No responses were seen in stratum 1 (n = 13). Of 23 evaluable patients in stratum 2, five patients (21.7%) responded; all had a complete response (CR) of 9, 13, 20, 30, and 35+ months duration. Grade 3 and 4 nonhematologic toxicities included capillary leak, hypoxia, pain, rash, allergic reaction, elevated transaminases, and hyperbilirubinemia. Two patients required dopamine for hypotension, and one patient required ventilatory support for hypoxia. Most toxicities were reversible within a few days of completing a treatment course and were expected based on phase I results. Patients with disease evaluable only by MIBG and/or BM histology had a 21.7% CR rate to hu14.8-IL2, whereas patients with bulky disease did not respond. Hu14.18-IL2 warrants further testing in children with nonbulky high-risk neuroblastoma.

  17. Cytogenetics of Legumes in the Phaseoloid Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Iwata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics played an essential role in studies of chromosome structure, behavior, and evolution in numerous plant species. The advent of molecular cytogenetics combined with recent development of genomic resources has ushered in a new era of chromosome studies that have greatly advanced our knowledge of karyotypic diversity, genome and chromosome organization, and chromosomal evolution in legumes. This review summarizes some of the achievements of cytogenetic studies in legumes in the Phaseoloid clade, which includes several important legume crops such as common bean ( L., cowpea [ (L. Walp.], soybean [ (L. Merr.], and pigeonpea [ (L. Huth]. In the Phaseoloid clade, karyotypes are mostly stable. There are, however, several species with extensive chromosomal changes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization has been useful to reveal chromosomal structure by physically mapping transposons, satellite repeats, ribosomal DNA genes, and bacterial artificial chromosome clones onto chromosomes. Polytene chromosomes, which are much longer than the mitotic chromosomes, have been successfully found and used in cytogenetic studies in some and species. Molecular cytogenetics will continue to be an important tool in legume genetics and genomics, and we discuss future applications of molecular cytogenetics to better understand chromosome and genome structure and evolution in legumes.

  18. The history of human cytogenetics in India-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Usha R

    2016-09-10

    It is 60years since the discovery of the correct number of chromosomes in 1956; the field of cytogenetics had evolved. The late evolution of this field with respect to other fields is primarily due to the underdevelopment of lenses and imaging techniques. With the advent of the new technologies, especially automation and evolution of advanced compound microscopes, cytogenetics drastically leaped further to greater heights. This review describes the historic events that had led to the development of human cytogenetics with a special attention about the history of cytogenetics in India, its present status, and future. Apparently, this review provides a brief account into the insights of the early laboratory establishments, funding, and the German collaborations. The details of the Indian cytogeneticists establishing their labs, promoting the field, and offering the chromosomal diagnostic services are described. The detailed study of chromosomes helps in increasing the knowledge of the chromosome structure and function. The delineation of the chromosomal rearrangements using cytogenetics and molecular cytogenetic techniques pays way in identifying the molecular mechanisms involved in the chromosomal rearrangement. Although molecular cytogenetics is greatly developing, the conventional cytogenetics still remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of various numerical chromosomal aberrations and a few structural aberrations. The history of cytogenetics and its importance even in the era of molecular cytogenetics are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Progress of cytogenetic detection in myelodysplastic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing-Bing; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Liu, -Feng; Ma, Rou

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, significant progresses have been got in study on pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), especially on use of new technology, that has great importance for cytogenetics of MDS. Recently, the progress of cytogenetic detection in MDS is very remarkable. Based on the metaphase cytogenetics (MC) method, prognostic significance of cytogenetics in MDS was clarified gradually. For example, people have known the prognostic significance of 12 p-, 11 q-, +21, t(11(q23)), although these genetic abnormalities are rare in the MDS. In addition, chromosome mutation emerged in the process of MDS may indicate the poor prognosis. On the other hand, with the use of SNP-A and aCGH in the study of genetics, MDS cytogenetic abnormality detection rate has been further improved and can reach to 78%. At the same time, some of MDS patients with the "normal karyotype" detected by MC have new hidden aberrations through the SNP or CGH detection, and these patients have a poorer prognosis. In this review, the advances of study on cytogenetic detection for MDS based on MC and SNP-A or aCGH methods are summarized.

  20. A Phase I Study of the CDK4/6 Inhibitor Ribociclib (LEE011) in Pediatric Patients with Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors, Neuroblastoma, and Other Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoerger, Birgit; Bourdeaut, Franck; DuBois, Steven G; Fischer, Matthias; Geller, James I; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Marabelle, Aurélien; Pearson, Andrew D J; Modak, Shakeel; Cash, Thomas; Robinson, Giles W; Motta, Marlyane; Matano, Alessandro; Bhansali, Suraj G; Dobson, Jason R; Parasuraman, Sudha; Chi, Susan N

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor, ribociclib (LEE011), displayed preclinical activity in neuroblastoma and malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT) models. In this phase I study, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary activity of single-agent ribociclib were investigated in pediatric patients with neuroblastoma, MRT, or other cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-retinoblastoma pathway-altered tumors.Experimental Design: Patients (aged 1-21 years) received escalating once-daily oral doses of ribociclib (3-weeks-on/1-week-off). Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian logistic regression model with overdose control and real-time PK.Results: Thirty-two patients (median age, 5.5 years) received ribociclib 280, 350, or 470 mg/m(2) Three patients had dose-limiting toxicities of grade 3 fatigue (280 mg/m(2); n = 1) or grade 4 thrombocytopenia (470 mg/m(2); n = 2). Most common treatment-related adverse events (AE) were hematologic: neutropenia (72% all-grade/63% grade 3/4), leukopenia (63%/38%), anemia (44%/3%), thrombocytopenia (44%/28%), and lymphopenia (38%/19%), followed by vomiting (38%/0%), fatigue (25%/3%), nausea (25%/0%), and QTc prolongation (22%/0%). Ribociclib exposure was dose-dependent at 350 and 470 mg/m(2) [equivalent to 600 (RP2D)-900 mg in adults], with high interpatient variability. Best overall response was stable disease (SD) in nine patients (seven with neuroblastoma, two with primary CNS MRT); five patients achieved SD for more than 6, 6, 8, 12, and 13 cycles, respectively.Conclusions: Ribociclib demonstrated acceptable safety and PK in pediatric patients. MTD (470 mg/m(2)) and RP2D (350 mg/m(2)) were equivalent to those in adults. Observations of prolonged SD support further investigation of ribociclib combined with other agents in neuroblastoma and MRT. Clin Cancer Res; 23(10); 2433-41. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Correlations between cytogenetic and molecular monitoring among patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: post hoc analyses of the Rationale and Insight for Gleevec High-Dose Therapy study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akard, Luke P; Cortes, Jorge E; Albitar, Maher; Goldberg, Stuart L; Warsi, Ghulam; Wetzler, Meir; Ericson, Solveig G; Radich, Jerald P

    2014-01-01

    ...) monitoring methods may be more convenient. To conduct post hoc analyses of the Rationale and Insight for Gleevec High-Dose Therapy study to evaluate correlations between results of cytogenetic testing and molecular monitoring from BM and PB...

  2. Anti-angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2013-06-01

    The nature of the angiogenic balance in neuroblastoma is complex, and a spectrum of angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors have been detected in neuroblastoma tumours. The complex relationships between angiogenic cascade and anti-angiogenic agents in the tumour vascular phase have indicated that anti-angiogenesis can be considered as a strategy for the adjuvant therapy of neuroblastoma. The major goal is to establish if inhibition of angiogenesis is a realistic therapeutic strategy for inhibiting tumour cell dissemination and the formation of metastasis in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetic studies on Apareiodon affinis (Pisces, Characiformes) from Paraná river basin: sex chromosomes and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, L C; Moreira-Filho, O

    2000-01-01

    Comparative cytogenetic studies were carried out on Apareiodon affinis from an important hydrographic system at South America, the Paraná river basin. Two distant regions were chosen, which were separated by Guaíra Falls (formerly Sete Quedas); the region in the upper part of the hydrographic basin is called Upper Parana (Brazil), whereas and the other in the lower part is called Lower Parana (Argentina). Individuals from Upper Parana have diploid numbers of 2n = 54 (NF= 108) for males and 2n = 55 (NF = 110) for females, showing female heterogamety with a ZZ/ZW1W2 multiple sex chromosomes system that is endemic for the region. In different localities at Lower Paraná, the specimens presented diploid number of 2n = 54 for both sexes, without any sex chromosomes heteromorphism. However, they have an accentuated polymorphism characterized by variation in number of acrocentric chromosomes, constituting something new for family Parodontidae. The most likely hypothesis to explain the origin of such polymorphism is based on successive pericentric inversions giving rise to acrocentric chromosomes. Thus, it was possible to detect 10 cytotypes along the Lower Parana basin. Such chromosomal variations possibly are the consequence of an adaptative process. Our data probably indicate the occurrence of distinct species in each region that share the same denomination.

  4. Clinical and cytogenetic features of a Brazilian sample of patients with phenotype of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pawelec da Silva

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS is considered to be a defect of embryogenesis involving structures originating from the first branchial arches. Our objective was to describe the clinical and cytogenetic findings from a sample of patients with the phenotype of OAVS.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a referral hospital in southern Brazil.METHODS: The sample consisted of 23 patients who presented clinical findings in at least two of these four areas: orocraniofacial, ocular, auricular and vertebral. The patients underwent a clinical protocol and cytogenetic evaluation through high-resolution karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization for 5p and 22q11 microdeletions and investigation of chromosomal instability for Fanconi anemia.RESULTS: Cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in three cases (13% and consisted of: 47,XX,+mar; mos 47,XX,+mar/46,XX; and 46,XX,t(6;10(q13; q24. We observed cases of OAVS with histories of gestational exposition to fluoxetine, retinoic acid and crack. One of our patients was a discordant monozygotic twin who had shown asymmetrical growth restriction during pregnancy. Our patients with OAVS were characterized by a broad clinical spectrum and some presented atypical findings such as lower-limb reduction defect and a tumor in the right arm, suggestive of hemangioma/lymphangioma.CONCLUSIONS: We found a wide range of clinical characteristics among the patients with OAVS. Different chromosomal abnormalities and gestational expositions were also observed. Thus, our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the etiology of OAVS and the importance of these factors in the clinical and cytogenetic evaluation of these patients.

  5. Intermittent Hypoxia Effect on Osteoclastogenesis Stimulated by Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Mohanam, Indra; Gujrati, Meena; Mohanam, Sanjeeva

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor. Intermittent hypoxia, which is characterized by cyclic periods of hypoxia and reoxygenation, has been shown to positively modulate tumor development and thereby induce tumor growth, angiogenic processes, and metastasis. Bone is one of the target organs of metastasis in advanced neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma cells produce osteoclast-activating factors that increase bone resorption by the osteoclasts. The present study focuses on how intermittent hypoxia preconditioned SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells modulate osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells compared with neuroblastoma cells grown at normoxic conditions. Methods We inhibited HIF-1α and HIF-2α in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells by siRNA/shRNA approaches. Protein expression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α and MAPKs were investigated by western blotting. Expression of osteoclastogenic factors were determined by real-time RT-PCR. The influence of intermittent hypoxia and HIF-1α siRNA on migration of neuroblastoma cells and in vitro differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells were assessed. Intratibial injection was performed with SH-SY5Y stable luciferase-expressing cells and in vivo bioluminescence imaging was used in the analysis of tumor growth in bone. Results Upregulation of mRNAs of osteoclastogenic factors VEGF and RANKL was observed in intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells. Conditioned medium from the intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells was found to enhance osteoclastogenesis, up-regulate the mRNAs of osteoclast marker genes including TRAP, CaSR and cathepsin K and induce the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in RAW 264.7 cells. Intermittent hypoxia-exposed neuroblastoma cells showed an increased migratory pattern compared with the parental cells. A significant increase of tumor volume was found in animals that received the intermittent hypoxia-exposed cells intratibially compared with parental cells. Conclusions Intermittent hypoxic

  6. The emerging molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma: implications for improved risk assessment and targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, Nadine; De Preter, Katleen; Hoebeeck, Jasmien; Van Maerken, Tom; Pattyn, Filip; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Vandesompele, Jo; Speleman, Frank

    2009-07-27

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, arising from immature sympathetic nervous system cells. The clinical course of patients with neuroblastoma is highly variable, ranging from spontaneous regression to widespread metastatic disease. Although the outcome for children with cancer has improved considerably during the past decades, the prognosis of children with aggressive neuroblastoma remains dismal. The clinical heterogeneity of neuroblastoma mirrors the biological and genetic heterogeneity of these tumors. Ploidy and MYCN amplification have been used as genetic markers for risk stratification and therapeutic decision making, and, more recently, gene expression profiling and genome-wide DNA copy number analysis have come into the picture as sensitive and specific tools for assessing prognosis. The applica tion of new genetic tools also led to the discovery of an important familial neuroblastoma cancer gene, ALK, which is mutated in approximately 8% of sporadic tumors, and genome-wide association studies have unveiled loci with risk alleles for neuroblastoma development. For some of the genomic regions that are deleted in some neuroblastomas, on 1p, 3p and 11q, candidate tumor suppressor genes have been identified. In addition, evidence has emerged for the contribution of epigenetic disturbances in neuroblastoma oncogenesis. As in other cancer entities, altered microRNA expression is also being recognized as an important player in neuroblastoma. The recent successes in unraveling the genetic basis of neuroblastoma are now opening opportunities for development of targeted therapies.

  7. Physical location of SSR regions and cytogenetic instabilities in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-18

    Aug 18, 2014 ... Agrária: Systemas y Recursos Florestales 1, 317–335. Muratova E. N. 1994 Cytogenetical study on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Central Yakuria. In Cytogenetic studies of for- est trees and shrubs: review, present status, and outlook on the future. (ed. H. Guttenberger, Z. Borzan, S.C. Schlarbaum ...

  8. Comparison of different cytogenetic methods and tissue suitability for the study of chromosomes in Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera, Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadílek, David; Angus, Robert B.; Šťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the article we summarize the most common recent cytogenetic methods used in analysis of karyotypes in Heteroptera. We seek to show the pros and cons of the spreading method compared with the traditional squashing method. We discuss the suitability of gonad, midgut and embryo tissue in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 chromosome research and production of figures of whole mitosis and meiosis, using the spreading method. The hotplate spreading technique has many advantages in comparison with the squashing technique. Chromosomal slides prepared from the testes tissue gave the best results, tissues of eggs and midgut epithelium are not suitable. Metaphase II is the only division phase in which sex chromosomes can be clearly distinguished. Chromosome number determination is easy during metaphase I and metaphase II. Spreading of gonad tissue is a suitable method for the cytogenetic analysis of holokinetic chromosomes of Cimex lectularius. PMID:28123691

  9. Cancer cytogenetics: methodology revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas S K

    2014-11-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome was the first genetic abnormality discovered in cancer (in 1960), and it was found to be consistently associated with CML. The description of the Philadelphia chromosome ushered in a new era in the field of cancer cytogenetics. Accumulating genetic data have been shown to be intimately associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of neoplasms; thus, karyotyping is now considered a mandatory investigation for all newly diagnosed leukemias. The development of FISH in the 1980s overcame many of the drawbacks of assessing the genetic alterations in cancer cells by karyotyping. Karyotyping of cancer cells remains the gold standard since it provides a global analysis of the abnormalities in the entire genome of a single cell. However, subsequent methodological advances in molecular cytogenetics based on the principle of FISH that were initiated in the early 1990s have greatly enhanced the efficiency and accuracy of karyotype analysis by marrying conventional cytogenetics with molecular technologies. In this review, the development, current utilization, and technical pitfalls of both the conventional and molecular cytogenetics approaches used for cancer diagnosis over the past five decades will be discussed.

  10. MicroRNA-184-mediated inhibition of tumour growth in an orthotopic murine model of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivnan, Amanda; Foley, Niamh H; Tracey, Lorraine; Davidoff, Andrew M; Stallings, Raymond L

    2010-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is a paediatric cancer which originates from precursor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Previous studies have shown that miR-184 expression has anti-proliferative effects in neuroblastoma cells grown in culture. Therefore, it was of interest to evaluate this effect in vivo. Neuroblastoma cells overexpressing miR-184 were injected retroperitoneally into CB17-SCID mice and tumour burden was assessed by measuring bioluminescence. Overall survival was also evaluated. Ectopic overexpression of miR-184 in neuroblastoma cell lines is anti-proliferative. In addition, overexpression of miR-184 led to a significant reduction in tumour growth relative to negative control-treated cohorts in a xenograft model of neuroblastoma. This study demonstrated for the first time that miR-184 significantly reduces tumour growth and increases overall survival in an orthotopic murine model of neuroblastoma through assessment of tumour growth and moribundity relative to control miRNA-treated cohorts.

  11. Heterogeneous cytogenetic subgroups and outcomes in childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia: A retrospective international study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Inaba (Hiroto); Y. Zhou (Yinmei); O. Abla (Oussama); S. Adachi (Susumu); A. Auvrignon (Anne); H.B. Beverloo (Berna); E.S.J.M. de Bont (Eveline); T.-T. Chang (Tai-Tsung); U. Creutzig; M.N. Dworzak (Michael); S. Elitzur (Sarah); A. Fynn (Alcira); E. Forestier (Erik); H. Hasle (Henrik); D.-C. Liang (Der-Cherng); V. Lee (Vincent); F. Locatelli (Franco); R. Masetti (Riccardo); B. de Moerloose (Barbara); D. Reinhardt (Dirk); L. Rodriguez (Laura); N. van Roy (Nadine); S. Shen (Shuhong); T. Taga (Takashi); D. Tomizawa (Daisuke); A.E.J. Yeoh (Allen E. J.); M. Zimmermann (Martin); S.C. Raimondi (Susana)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractComprehensive clinical studies of patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) are lacking. We performed an international retrospective study on 490 patients (age ≤18 years) with non-Down syndrome de novo AMKL diagnosed from 1989 to 2009. Patients with AMKL (median age 1.53

  12. Benign monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis--a benign variant of CLL: clinical, immunologic, phenotypic, and cytogenetic studies in 20 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, T; Ozer, H; Gavigan, M; Gajera, R; Minowada, J; Bloom, M L; Sadamori, N; Sandberg, A A; Gomez, G A; Henderson, E S

    1984-07-01

    From 1951 through 1978, we have seen 20 cases of stage O chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) without disease progression for 6.5-24 years. The cohort included 7 males and 13 females, aged 48-77 years at the time of diagnosis. None presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, or neutropenia nor developed cytopenias during follow-up. Mean total lymphocyte count in these patients was 20,100/microL, with ranges from 10,000 to 43,700 at the time of diagnosis, and was 20,600, with ranges from 1,000 to 47,200, at last follow-up. Of 12 patients studied, 8 and 4 were phenotyped as heavy chain mu delta- and mu-type, respectively, with 7 kappa- and 4 gamma-type (no light chain was detectable in one patient). Of 13 patients studied, one had a slightly elevated IgG level and two had slightly depressed serum IgA and IgM levels. All patients had positive delayed hypersensitivity responses to at least one of five skin test antigens. Each of seven patients studied for an in vitro leukocyte thymidine uptake had a low level of [3H]thymidine incorporation. Nine of 12 patients studied had elevated total T cells, and the remaining 3 had normal T cell counts. In vitro unseparated lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin showed normal kinetics of DNA synthesis, with a peak response on day 3 or 4 of culture in 4 and slightly or moderately depressed and/or delayed kinetics in 8 patients studied. Cytogenetic analyses by Q- or G-banding techniques of polyclonal B cell mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes in all six patients studied showed normal karyotypes. These data are consistent with a previously undescribed syndrome involving a monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis, a prolonged asymptomatic or benign clinical course, and essentially normal humoral and cellular immunity and normal karyotype. Our observations indicate that these 20 patients with stage O CLL have a benign clinical course and that they may also be designated as benign monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis ( BMBL ), a benign variant of CLL.

  13. TOBACCO USE: A STUDY OF ITS CYTOGENETIC AND DNA DAMAGING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitra A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From times unknown tobacco and its consumable other forms have been fancied by man. Men suffered consequences but not until the second half of the twentieth century its side effects were studied. In the turn of the century cancer turned out to be the top killer worldwide and the tobacco use was found to be the main culprit of the above said condition. The study mainly aims to assess the harmful effects in the oral epithelial cells with each passing years. The sample size consisted of 60 people who were divided into four groups. All the volunteers were between 25 to 50 years. It is very clear in the study that the risk of having a carcinoma increases with the time of consumption of tobacco. The micronucleus study and the comet assay can be used to investigate and screen the population at risk

  14. Probable fatal drug interaction between intravenous fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen: a case report from a New Approaches to Neuroblastoma (NANT) Phase I study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with relapsed/refractory stage 4 high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled on a phase I study (NANT2004-03) of intravenous fenretinide emulsion. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected during and after the infusion, and the levels were measured using an HPLC system. A likely case of a fatal drug interaction between fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen is described, including the pharmacokinetics of fenretinide, laboratory data, and post-mortem autopsy in a pediatric neuroblastoma patient treated on this study. Case presentation On Day 4 of a scheduled 5-day-infusion of intravenous fenretinide, the patient developed a fever, acetaminophen was started, ceftriaxone initiated for possible bacteremia, and fenretinide level doubled from 56 to 110 μM. Over the next three days, although blood cultures remained negative, the patient’s condition deteriorated rapidly. Acute liver failure was diagnosed on Day 7, and the patient expired on Day 20 of fulminant hepatic failure with associated renal, cardiac, and hemorrhagic/coagulation toxicities. Autopsy showed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, marked bile duct proliferation, and abundant hemosiderin, consistent with cholestasis and drug toxicity. Conclusions After extensive review of patient data, the clinical course, and the literature, we conclude that observed hepatic toxicity was likely due to a drug interaction between fenretinide and concomitant ceftriaxone and acetaminophen. None of the other 16 patients treated on this study experienced significant hepatic toxicity. Although the prevalence of cholestasis with ceftriaxone usage is relatively high, the potential drug interaction with these concomitant medications has not been previously reported. Concomitant use of fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen should be avoided. PMID:24755475

  15. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  16. Molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia: review and case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Velloso,Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira; Motta,Carlos Henrique Ares Silveira da; Furtado,Juliana Braga; Bacal,Nydia Strachman; Silveira,Paulo Augusto Achucarro; Moyses,Cynthia Bachir; Sitnik,Roberta; Pinho,João Renato Rebello

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency of mutations that may lead to a good or bad prognosis, as well as their relation with the karyotype and immunophenotype in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Methods: Thirty samples of patients with acute myeloid leukemia were studied, in which FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD and NPM1 mutations were investigated. All samples were submitted to immunophenotyping and 25 to karyotyping. Results: An occurrence of 33.3% NPM1 mutation and an equal number of FLT3-ITD mutatio...

  17. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications,

  18. Somatic cytogenetic and azoospermia factor gene microdeletion studies in infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Pina-Neto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of somatic chromosomal anomalies and Y chromosomal microdeletions (azoospermia factor genes, AZF in infertile males who seek assisted reproduction. These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. These genetic abnormalities can cause in the offspring of these patients male infertility, ambiguous external genitalia, mental retardation, and other birth defects. We studied 165 infertile men whose infertility was attributable to testicular problems (60 were azoospermic, 100 were oligospermic and 5 were asthenospermic. We studied 100 metaphases per patient with GTG banding obtained from temporary lymphocyte culture for chromosomal abnormality detection and performed a genomic DNA analysis using 28 Y chromosome-specific sequence-tagged sites for Y AZF microdeletion detection. Karyotyping revealed somatic anomalies in 16 subjects (16/165 = 9.6%. Of these 16, 12 were in the azoospermic group (12/60 = 20% and 4 were in the oligospermic group (4/100 = 4%. The most common chromosomal anomaly was Klinefelter syndrome (10/165 = 6%. Microdeletions of AZF genes were detected in 12 subjects (12/160 = 7.5%. The frequencies detected are similar to those described previously. These results show the importance of genetic evaluation of infertile males prior to assisted reproduction. Such evaluation can lead to genetic counseling and, consequently, to primary and secondary prevention of mental retardation and birth defects.

  19. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoidea L., Sile...

  20. A Cytogenetical Study on Some Plants Taxa in Nizip Region (Aksaray, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Meryem; MARTİN, Esra; DİNÇ, Muhittin; DURAN, Ahmet; ÖZDEMİR, Ayşe; ÇETİN, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    This cytological study was performed in 19 taxa grown naturally in Nizip region (Aksaray). These taxa are Conringia perfoliata (C.A.Mey.) Busch, Alyssum strigosum Banks & Sol. subsp. strigosum, Alyssum murale Waldst. & Kit. subsp. murale var. murale, Matthiola longipetala (Vent.) DC. subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W.Ball., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss. subsp. thyrsoideum (Brassicaceae), Silene alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause subsp. divaricata (Reichb.) Walters, Silene conoi...

  1. Molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia: review and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Deolinda Rodrigues Pereira Velloso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the frequency of mutations that maylead to a good or bad prognosis, as well as their relation withthe karyotype and immunophenotype in patients with acutemyeloid leukemia. Methods: Thirty samples of patients withacute myeloid leukemia were studied, in which FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD and NPM1 mutations were investigated. All samples weresubmitted to immunophenotyping and 25 to karyotyping. Results:An occurrence of 33.3% NPM1 mutation and an equal numberof FLT3-ITD mutation were observed. When only the cases withnormal karyotype were studied, this figures increased to 50 and40%, respectively. Eight percent of cases with normal karyotypeand genotype NPM1+/FLT3- were included in the group of acutemyeloid leukemia with good prognosis. The typical phenotypeof acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype and mutatedNPM1 (HLA-DR and CD34 negative was not observed in thissmall series. Conclusion: Good prognosis cases were identifiedin this series, emphasizing the need to include new geneticmarkers in the diagnostic routine for the correct classification ofacute myeloid leukemia, to more properly estimate prognosis anddetermine treatment.

  2. Cytogenetic study on antlions (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae: first data on telomere structure and rDNA location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina G. Kuznetsova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Myrmeleontidae, commonly known as “antlions”, are the most diverse family of the insect order Neuroptera, with over 1700 described species (in 191 genera of which 37 species (in 21 genera have so far been studied in respect to standard karyotypes. In the present paper we provide first data on the occurrence of the “insect-type” telomeric repeat (TTAGGn and location of 18S rDNA clusters in the antlion karyotypes studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We show that males of Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764 (Palparinae, Acanthaclisis occitanica (Villers, 1789 (Acanthaclisinae and Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798 (Nemoleontinae have rDNA clusters on a large bivalent, two last species having an additional rDNA cluster on one of the sex chromosomes, most probably the X. (TTAGGn - containing telomeres are clearly characteristic of P. libelluloides and A. occitanica; the presence of this telomeric motif in D. tetragrammicus is questionable. In addition, we detected the presence of the (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in Libelloides macaronius (Scopoli, 1763 from the family Ascalaphidae (owlflies, a sister group to the Myrmeleontidae. We presume that the “insect” motif (TTAGGn was present in a common ancestor of the families Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae within the neuropteran suborder Myrmeleontiformia.

  3. Cytogenetic study on antlions (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae): first data on telomere structure and rDNA location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N; Anokhin, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    Myrmeleontidae, commonly known as "antlions", are the most diverse family of the insect order Neuroptera, with over 1700 described species (in 191 genera) of which 37 species (in 21 genera) have so far been studied in respect to standard karyotypes. In the present paper we provide first data on the occurrence of the "insect-type" telomeric repeat (TTAGG) n and location of 18S rDNA clusters in the antlion karyotypes studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We show that males of Palpares libelluloides (Linnaeus, 1764) (Palparinae), Acanthaclisis occitanica (Villers, 1789) (Acanthaclisinae) and Distoleon tetragrammicus (Fabricius, 1798) (Nemoleontinae) have rDNA clusters on a large bivalent, two last species having an additional rDNA cluster on one of the sex chromosomes, most probably the X. (TTAGG) n - containing telomeres are clearly characteristic of Palpares libelluloides and Acanthaclisis occitanica ; the presence of this telomeric motif in Distoleon tetragrammicus is questionable. In addition, we detected the presence of the (TTAGG) n telomeric repeat in Libelloides macaronius (Scopoli, 1763) from the family Ascalaphidae (owlflies), a sister group to the Myrmeleontidae. We presume that the "insect" motif (TTAGG) n was present in a common ancestor of the families Ascalaphidae and Myrmeleontidae within the neuropteran suborder Myrmeleontiformia.

  4. Cytogenetic studies in some species of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae: a review emphasizing Brazilian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Magalhães Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Passifloraceae is represented by species of tropical and subtropical origin. The Passiflora is the richest genus with approximately 450 species, 200 of them being native to Brazil. Recent karyological studies have reported the basic chromosome number for the Passiflora genus as x = 6, whereas x = 9, x = 10 and x = 12 were established as secondary basic numbers. High rates of fertility occur in most Passiflora species, since both meiotic index and pollen viability are above 90%. Unusual meiotic behavior has been described in some taxa. Unviable pollen were observed in some diploids species. The genome size varies from 1.83 to 5.36 pg, and significant interspecific variance has been observed. Studies using the FISH methodology have shown that there are two to three rDNA 45S sites and one 5S site in the species analyzed. In this review, information about the above-mentioned studies is presented and discussed in detail.A família Passifloraceae é representada por espécies de origem tropical e subtropical. Passiflora é o gênero mais rico, com aproximadamente 450 espécies, cerca de 200 delas nativas do Brasil. Recentes estudos cariológicos têm relatado o número básico de cromossomos para o gênero Passiflora como sendo x = 6, enquanto x = 9, x = 10 e x = 12 foram considerados números básicos secundários. Altas taxas de fertilidade são observadas na maioria das espécies de Passiflora, uma vez que o índice meiótico e a viabilidade polínica apresentam-se acima de 90%.Comportamento meiótico irregular tem sido descrito para alguns taxas. Grãos de pólen inviáveis foram observados em espécies diplóides. O tamanho do genoma varia de 1,83 a 5,36 pg, e variação interespecífica significativa tem sido observada. Estudos usando a metodologia de hibridização in situ (FISH tem demonstrado haver de dois a três sites de DNAr 45S e um site de DNAr 5S nas espécies analisadas. Nesta revisão, informações sobre os estudos acima

  5. A simple non-invasive protocol to establish primary cell lines from tail and toe explants for cytogenetic studies in Australian dragon lizards (Squamata: Agamidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Meally, Denis; Quinn, Alexander E.; Sarre, Stephen D.; Georges, Arthur; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Primary cell lines were established from cultures of tail and toe clips of five species of Australian dragon lizards: Tympanocryptis pinguicolla, Tympanocryptis sp., Ctenophorus fordi, Amphibolurus norrisi and Pogona vitticeps. The start of exponential cell growth ranged from 1 to 5 weeks. Cultures from all specimens had fibroblastic morphology. Cell lines were propagated continuously up to ten passages, cryopreserved and recovered successfully. We found no reduction in cell viability after short term (dragon lizards without sacrifice. The method is likely to be applicable to a range of species. Such cell lines provide a virtually unlimited source of material for cytogenetic, evolutionary and genomic studies. PMID:19199067

  6. Cytogenetic analysis after evaluation of 750 fetal deaths : proposal for diagnostic workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteweg, Fleurisca J.; Bouman, Katelijne; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Timmer, Albertus; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Ravise, Joke M.; Nijman, Thomas H.; Holm, Andjozien P.

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate success rates for cytogenetic analysis in different tissues after intrauterine fetal death, and study selection criteria and value of cytogenetic testing in determining cause of death. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses and the value of this test in determining cause by a

  7. XX SRY-negative true hermaphrodism in two dogs: clinical, morphological, genetic and cytogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppetti, D; Genualdo, V; Bosi, G; Pecile, A; Iannuzzi, A; Perucatti, A; De Lorenzi, L; Parma, P; Arrighi, S

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed at giving a deeper insight into peculiar cases of intersexuality occurring in dogs and known as XX true hermaphrodism due to the existence of both testicular and ovarian tissue in one or both gonads in the presence of an XX chromosome constitution. Clinical, histological and genetic approaches were used in the study of an 8-month-old Cocker Spaniel dog and a 3-year-old mixed-breed Pitbull, both showing a female phenotype, clitoromegaly and male behavior. A normal female karyotype (2n = 78,XX) was noticed, and polymerase chain reaction failed to detect SRY in genomic DNA obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of both dogs. The reproductive tract was removed by standard ovariohysterectomy and processed for histology. Thereafter, a normal female phenotype was reconstructed by vaginoplasty. Histological examination revealed bilateral ovotestis in both cases: the gonads showed immature testicular parenchyma containing seminiferous tubules, Sertoli and Leydig cells, but no signs of spermatogenesis, together with differently developed ovarian follicles containing oocytes. In the ovotestes, steroidogenesis was detected by P450c17-immunoreactivity in Leydig cells as well as in theca cells, whereas no MIS-immunoreactivity was shown by the Sertoli cells. Genital tracts of Wolffian and Müllerian origin co-existed in both subjects. Both dogs belong to the very rare cases in which testicular tissue develops in the absence of the key gene, SRY. Up to date very few genetic events have been associated with this abnormal sexual differentiation: SOX9 over-expression and RSPO1 mutation. Nevertheless, neither of them has been found in these dogs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpountoukas, Panagiotis; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Kostareli, Efterpi; Christodoulou, Pantelitsa; Kareli, Dimitra; Poliliou, Stamatia; Mourelatos, Costas; Lambropoulou, Vasso; Lialiaris, Theodore

    2010-10-01

    Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential. Amaranth at the highest concentration (8mM) demonstrates high genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. The frequency of SCEs/cell was increased 1.7 times over the control level. Additionally, erythrosine at 8, 4 and 2mM shows a high cytotoxicity and cytostaticity. Finally, tartrazine seems to be toxic at 8 and 4mM. No signs of genotoxicity were observed. Reversely, tartrazine showed cytotoxicity at 1 and 2mM. Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA. Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. PCR amplification of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes. Evaluation of the data and curves were obtained after quantitative and qualitative analysis of the lanes of the gel by an analyzer computer program. Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Double-hit lymphomas: clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical and cytogenetic study in a series of Brazilian patients with high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cristiano Claudino; Maciel-Guerra, Helena; Kucko, Luan; Hirama, Eric Jun; Brilhante, Américo Delgado; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; da Cunha, Isabela Werneck; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Dos Reis, Patrícia Pintor; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custodio

    2017-01-07

    Double-hit lymphomas (DHL) are rare high-grade neoplasms characterized by two translocations: one involving the gene MYC and another involving genes BCL2 or BCL6, whose diagnosis depends on cytogenetic examination. This research studied DHL and morphological and/or immunophenotypic factors associated with the detection of these translocations in a group of high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Clinical and morphological reviews of 120 cases diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma were conducted. Immunohistochemistry (CD20, CD79a, PAX5, CD10, Bcl6, Bcl2, MUM1, TDT and Myc) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6 gene translocations were performed in a tissue microarray platform. Three cases of DHL were detected: two with translocations of MYC and BCL2 and one with translocations of MYC and BCL6, all leading to death in less than six months. Among 90 cytogenetically evaluable biopsies, associations were determined between immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization for MYC (p = 0.036) and BCL2 (p = 0.001). However, these showed only regular agreement, indicated by Kappa values of 0.23 [0.0;0.49] and 0.35 [0.13;0.56], respectively. "Starry sky" morphology was strongly associated with MYC positivity (p = 0.01). The detection of three cases of DHL, all resulting in death, confirms the rarity and aggressiveness of this neoplasm. The "starry sky" morphological pattern and immunohistochemical expression of Myc and Bcl2 represent possible selection factors for additional cytogenetic diagnostic testing.

  10. Cytogenetic abnormalities in essential thrombocythemia at presentation and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Matjaz; Kantarjian, Hagop; Pierce, Sherry; Jain, Nitin; Estrov, Zeev; Cortes, Jorge; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2009-11-01

    Cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) are infrequent. Their role in survival of patients and disease transformation is not extensively studied. We describe cytogenetic abnormalities in 172 patients with ET at a single institution. At presentation nine (5.2%) patients had cytogenetic abnormality and three (1.7%) additional patients acquired them during follow-up. Survival of patients with cytogenetic changes at presentation did not differ when compared to the patients with normal karyotype. The more common were abnormalities of chromosome 9 (n = 4), 20 (n = 2), 5 (n = 2), and complex abnormalities (n = 2). Forty-one patients (23.8%) had additional cytogenetic tests performed for monitoring purposes during follow-up. Five patients (2.9%) with normal karyotype transformed to myelofibrosis (MF) without developing new cytogenetic changes at transformation. Two patients (1.2%) with normal karyotypes at presentation transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. Both acquired complex cytogenetic changes at the time of transformation. There is no rationale for repeating cytogenetic tests in ET patients on follow up, unless blood cell count changes suggest possible transformation.

  11. Neuroblastoma: Molecular Pathogenesis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Chrystal U; Shohet, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a developmental tumor of young children arising from the embryonic sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest. Currently neuroblastoma is the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer for children between the age of 1 and 5 years and accounts for approximately 13% of all pediatric cancer mortality. Its clinical impact and its unique biology have made this aggressive malignancy the focus of a large concerted translational research effort. New insights into tumor biology ar...

  12. Cytogenetics and experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toretsky, J A; Helman, L J

    1997-07-01

    The use of cytogenetics has led to significant improvement in the diagnoses and classification of sarcomas. Many of the major sarcomas have been to have characteristic tumor-specific chromosomal translocations that are currently used in the diagnosis of these tumors. In the past year, a subset of Ewing's family of tumors and myxoid liposarcomas, which lack one of the characteristic translocations, were found to carry related translocations. New technologies such as a spectral karyotyping will likely increase out ability to identify additional tumor-specific translocations. The emergence of genetic alterations as prognostic factors, as illustrated by Ewing's family of tumors, osteosarcoma, and p53 expression in soft tissue sarcomas in general, is discussed. The review concludes with laboratory applications derived from either tumor cytogenetic or gene function abnormalities that are related to tumor-specific translocations. It is anticipated that advances in diagnosis, prognosis, and modeling will translate into future therapeutic advances.

  13. Cancer Cytogenetics: Methodology Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Thomas S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome was the first genetic abnormality discovered in cancer (in 1960), and it was found to be consistently associated with CML. The description of the Philadelphia chromosome ushered in a new era in the field of cancer cytogenetics. Accumulating genetic data have been shown to be intimately associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of neoplasms; thus, karyotyping is now considered a mandatory investigation for all newly diagnosed leukemias. The development of FISH in ...

  14. [Cytogenetic study of Down syndrome cases in southern Hainan Province and report of a rare case of abnormal karyotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-feng; Lin, Ling; Chen, Ze-ya

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the distribution and characteristic of the karyotypes in Down syndrome (DS) patients in southern Hainan Province, China. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in 132 cases clinically suspected of DS. Eighty-six of the cases were diagnosed as DS with karyotype analysis. Among the DS patients in southern Hainan, 93.02% of the cases had typical trisomy 21, 3.49% had translocation, and 3.49% had mosaic karyotype. The percentage of DS babies born by younger mothers (karyotype is more frequent in DS cases than translocation and mosaic karyotypes in southern Hainan Province, where the mother delivering a child with DS tends to be younger.

  15. Cytogenetic characterization of Taphronota thaelephora Stal. 1873 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taphronota thaelephora Stal. 1873 is generating a lot of interest for biological and cytogenetic studies because it has demonstrated the potential for a future veritable pest in Cameroon. The lack of previously established karyotype for the species has necessitated this study. Testes from five adult individuals collected from ...

  16. Methods in molecular biology: plant cytogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytogenetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of genetics, biology, reproduction, and evolution. From early studies in basic chromosome behavior the field has expanded enabling whole genome analysis to the manipulation of chromosomes and their organization. This book covers a ran...

  17. A 46,X,inv(Y) young woman with gonadal dysgenesis and gonadoblastoma: cytogenetics, molecular, and methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Giorgio; Giorda, Roberto; Beri, Silvana; Gimelli, Stefania; Zuffardi, Orsetta

    2006-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of a young woman with gonadal dysgenesis and bilateral gonadoblastoma shared a male karyotype with a rearranged Y chromosome, interpreted as a pericentric inversion. The breakpoints, defined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), were located on the very distal short arm on band Yp11.31 and in the middle of the Yq12 long arm heterochromatic region. FISH analysis documented that the short arm breakpoint was 93 Kb distal to SRY and disrupted the CD99 gene, which was transposed to the distal portion of Yq12. The proposita's phenotype was similar to that of XY individuals with gonadal dysgenesis but without signs of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. There were no mutations in the SRY gene. Cytogenetic analysis in the proposita's father showed mosaicism of a normal Y chromosome and several different rearrangements, such as deletion of a heterochromatin portion at band Yq12.2, a fragile site at the same band, structural rearrangements between the Y-chromosome and other autosomes, Y-chromosome aneuploidies, and "Premature Centromere Division" (PCD) anomaly. The proposita's inverted Y chromosome appears to have originated from paternal Y chromosome instability. The patient's female phenotype could be due to SRY CpG methylation-mediated positional effects (PEV). (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic studies in three patients with partial trisomy 2p, including CGH from paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram-Goldring, A; Fritz, B; Bartsch, C; Steuber, E; Daniely, M; Lev, D; Chaki, R; Barkai, G; Frydman, M; Rehder, H

    2000-03-06

    We report on three cases of partial trisomy 2p in which the identification and exact localization of the duplicated chromosome segment was possible only by application of molecular cytogenetic techniques. These included fluorescence in situ hybridization by use of wcp2, N-myc, and subtelomeric 2p probes and comparative genomic hybridization with DNA isolated from blood samples, frozen fetal tendon, and formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal lung tissue. Two of the cases concerned fetuses of gestational week 20 and 24 with duplication of nonoverlapping terminal (2pter-->p24) and more proximal (2p25-->p23) segments and with distinctly different phenotypes. The third case was due to a de novo inverted duplication of 2p25-->p23, with loss of the subtelomeric region of 2p. This 53-month-old girl was a Bloom syndrome carrier. The patient had prenatal growth failure, borderline microcephaly, dilated lateral horns of the cerebral ventricles, transient cortical blindness, myopia, muscle hypotonia, and dilatation of the left renal collecting system. Dermal cysts were found on the glabella, the soles of both feet, and the vocal cord, causing respiratory embarrassment. Previously reported cases of pure trisomy 2p are reviewed, in an attempt to correlate clinical findings to overlapping regions in 2p. These cases illustrate the effectiveness of molecular cytogenetic methods in resolving subtle chromosomal aberrations in order to coordinate more accurately a chromosome regionspecific phenotype.

  19. CYTOGENETICS OF A CASE OF CARDIAC MYXOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJKHUIZEN, T; VANDENBERG, E; MOLENAAR, WM; MEUZELAAR, JJ; DEJONG, B

    1992-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of a case of cardiac myxoma revealed a 46,XY,der(7)t(7;17) (p21;p11),+der(10)t(10;?)(q22;?),+der(12)t(12;?)(p12;?),del(17)(p11) chromosomal pattern. This case adds a new example of chromosomal abnormalities in benign neoplasms.

  20. LMO1 Synergizes with MYCN to Promote Neuroblastoma Initiation and Metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.; Zhang, X.; Weichert-Leahey, N.; Dong, Z.; Zhang, C.; Lopez, G.; Tao, T.; He, S.; Wood, A.C.; Oldridge, D.; Ung, C.Y.; Ree, J.H. van; Khan, A.; Salazar, B.M.; Rocha, E.L. da; Zimmerman, M.W.; Guo, F.; Cao, H.; Hou, X.; Weroha, S.J.; Perez-Atayde, A.R.; Neuberg, D.S.; Meves, A.; McNiven, M.A.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Li, H.; Maris, J.M.; Look, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that dbetah promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN

  1. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Schanz, Julie; Braulke, Friederike; Haase, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression), of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable), -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis), or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q) that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  2. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Schanz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q, -7/del(7q, +8, complex karyotypes, or –Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R considers also some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q, isochromosome 17, +19, or 3q abnormalities. However, more than 600 different cytogenetic categories had been identified in a previous MDS study. This review aims to focus interest on selected rare cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with MDS. Examples are numerical gains of the chromosomes 11 (indicating rapid progression, of chromosome 14 or 14q (prognostically intermediate to favorable, -X (in females, with an intermediate prognosis, or numerical abnormalities of chromosome 21. Structural abnormalities are also considered, e.g. del(13q that is associated with bone marrow failure syndromes and favorable response to immunosuppressive therapy. These and other rare cytogenetic abnormalities should be integrated into existing prognostication systems such as the IPSS-R. However, due to the very low number of cases, this is clearly dependent on international collaboration. Hopefully, this article will help to inaugurate this process.

  3. Neuroblastoma: molecular pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Chrystal U; Shohet, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a developmental tumor of young children arising from the embryonic sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest. Neuroblastoma is the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer for children between the ages of one and five years and accounts for ∼13% of all pediatric cancer mortality. Its clinical impact and unique biology have made this aggressive malignancy the focus of a large concerted translational research effort. New insights into tumor biology are driving the development of new classification schemas. Novel targeted therapeutic approaches include small-molecule inhibitors as well as epigenetic, noncoding-RNA, and cell-based immunologic therapies. In this review, recent insights regarding the pathogenesis and biology of neuroblastoma are placed in context with the current understanding of tumor biology and tumor/host interactions. Systematic classification of patients coupled with therapeutic advances point to a future of improved clinical outcomes for this biologically distinct and highly aggressive pediatric malignancy.

  4. Neuroblastoma management in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Dong, Kuiran; Gao, Jiechun; Yao, Wei; Xiao, Xianmin; Zheng, Shan

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the clinical features of neuroblastoma and survival. Data for 98 patients between January 2000 and December 2006 at Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China, were retrospectively analyzed. Diagnostic methods included imaging, 24-hr urine catecholamines, bone marrow biopsies, and histopathology analyses. Treatment followed the modified Japanese Study Group Protocol. Clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were depicted, and difficulties encountered were analyzed. The median age of patients was 48 months. There were 3, 13, 31, 49, and 2 patients in stages 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4s disease, respectively. Positive urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) prevalence was low in localized disease (51.1%) and high in disseminated disease (70.6%, p = .03). Gross total resection rate was 60.8%. The five-year overall survival (OS) rate was 80% for stages 1 and 2, 48.3% for stage 3, and 20% for stage 4. The five-year OS rates significantly decreased in children older than 18 months (p indigence were the main causes for poorer outcome in late stages.

  5. Genomic Profiles of Neuroblastoma Associated With Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hero, Barbara; Clement, Nathalie; Øra, Ingrid; Pierron, Gaelle; Lapouble, Eve; Theissen, Jessica; Pasqualini, Claudia; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Plantaz, Dominique; Michon, Jean; Delattre, Olivier; Tardieu, Marc; Schleiermacher, Gudrun

    2017-11-13

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS), often called "dancing eyed syndrome," is a rare neurological condition associated with neuroblastoma in the majority of all childhood cases. Genomic copy number profiles have shown to be of prognostic significance for neuroblastoma patients. The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to analyze the genomic copy number profiles of tumors from children with neuroblastoma presenting with OMS at diagnosis. In 44 cases of neuroblastoma associated with OMS, overall genomic profiling by either array-comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array proved successful in 91% of the cases, distinguishing tumors harboring segmental chromosome alterations from those with numerical chromosome alterations only. A total of 23/44 (52%) tumors showed an segmental chromosome alterations genomic profile, 16/44 (36%) an numerical chromosome alterations genomic profile, and 1 case displayed an atypical profile (12q amplicon). No recurrently small interstitial copy number alterations were identified. With no tumor relapse nor disease-related deaths, the overall genomic profile was not of prognostic impact with regard to the oncological outcome in this series of patients. Thus, the observation of an excellent oncological outcome, even for those with an unfavorable genomic profile of neuroblastoma, supports the hypothesis that an immune response might be involved in tumor control in these patients with OMS.

  6. The new cytogenetics: blurring the boundaries with molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Michael R; Carter, Nigel P

    2005-10-01

    Exciting advances in fluorescence in situ hybridization and array-based techniques are changing the nature of cytogenetics, in both basic research and molecular diagnostics. Cytogenetic analysis now extends beyond the simple description of the chromosomal status of a genome and allows the study of fundamental biological questions, such as the nature of inherited syndromes, the genomic changes that are involved in tumorigenesis and the three-dimensional organization of the human genome. The high resolution that is achieved by these techniques, particularly by microarray technologies such as array comparative genomic hybridization, is blurring the traditional distinction between cytogenetics and molecular biology.

  7. Cytogenetic effects of orthopedic constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheremetjeva A.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: To estimate cytogenetic effect of dentures on the condition of buccal epithelium by means of the micronuclear test. Materials and methods: For this test the most convenient object of the research is nonkeratinized stratified epithelium which has been taken from 24 patients before prosthetics. Statistical data processing has been done by means of a package of statistical programs «Stadia». Results: The increase in frequency of occurrence of cells with micronuclei in buccal epithelium in patients after the prosthetics that testifies to stability disturbance of genetic material in the studied cells. Influence of fillings and dentures has been revealed. Conclusion: It allows to apply safe materials in stomatology, having reduced their side effects on an organism as a whole

  8. Cytogenetic analysis in the spermatogenesis of Triatoma melanosoma (Reduviidae; Heteroptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bardella, V B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Tartarotti, E

    2008-01-01

    .... This study presents an analysis of the species Triatoma melanosoma. The cytogenetic characteristics of triatomines include holocentric chromosomes, post-reductional meiosis in the sex chromosomes and nucleolar fragmentation in the meiotic cycle...

  9. Preclinical models for neuroblastoma: establishing a baseline for treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Teitz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical models of pediatric cancers are essential for testing new chemotherapeutic combinations for clinical trials. The most widely used genetic model for preclinical testing of neuroblastoma is the TH-MYCN mouse. This neuroblastoma-prone mouse recapitulates many of the features of human neuroblastoma. Limitations of this model include the low frequency of bone marrow metastasis, the lack of information on whether the gene expression patterns in this system parallels human neuroblastomas, the relatively slow rate of tumor formation and variability in tumor penetrance on different genetic backgrounds. As an alternative, preclinical studies are frequently performed using human cell lines xenografted into immunocompromised mice, either as flank implant or orthtotopically. Drawbacks of this system include the use of cell lines that have been in culture for years, the inappropriate microenvironment of the flank or difficult, time consuming surgery for orthotopic transplants and the absence of an intact immune system.Here we characterize and optimize both systems to increase their utility for preclinical studies. We show that TH-MYCN mice develop tumors in the paraspinal ganglia, but not in the adrenal, with cellular and gene expression patterns similar to human NB. In addition, we present a new ultrasound guided, minimally invasive orthotopic xenograft method. This injection technique is rapid, provides accurate targeting of the injected cells and leads to efficient engraftment. We also demonstrate that tumors can be detected, monitored and quantified prior to visualization using ultrasound, MRI and bioluminescence. Finally we develop and test a "standard of care" chemotherapy regimen. This protocol, which is based on current treatments for neuroblastoma, provides a baseline for comparison of new therapeutic agents.The studies suggest that use of both the TH-NMYC model of neuroblastoma and the orthotopic xenograft model provide the optimal

  10. Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Romy Tsuda; Rosimeire Segato; Waldênia Barbosa; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Spencer Luiz Marques Payão

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes o...

  11. Emerging molecular cytogenetic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S S; Mark, H F

    1997-01-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) as an adjunct technique to conventional banding techniques has been firmly established in the past few years. The many clinical and research applications of FISH include chromosome enumeration using alpha-satellite probes, marker identification, gene mapping and 'chromosome painting' in the delineation of complex structural chromosomal abnormalities. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a relatively new FISH-based technique which can detect gains and losses of whole chromosomes and subchromosomal regions. Like CGH, which can scan the whole genome without prior knowledge of specific chromosomal abnormalities, spectral karyotyping (SKY) confers on each chromosome a distinct colour to enable identification of even cryptic chromosomal rearrangements. The present paper introduces and summarizes these emerging molecular cytogenetic techniques.

  12. Brown Swiss cattle cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Maria Ladeira Pires

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available At 1985, a Brown Swiss herd from the Institute of Animal Science and Pastures, APTA/ SAA was cytogenetically analyzed and 1/29 Robertsonian translocation was observed. Such anomaly is related to fertility reduction. Quimeric abnormality such as 60,XX/60,XY in freemartin females. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cromossomic abnormalities in Brown Swiss animals, descending form herd karyotyped earlier. After 25 years, 127 animals (97 females and 30 males from this herd were karyotyped by metaphases obtained from blood lymphocyte cultures. The typical diploid number 2n=60, 58 acrocentric and two X submetacentric chromosomes were confirmed in 94 females and in 27 males the sexual complement X and Y, both submetacentric, although from different sizes. Four females from gemelar parturition whit males were karyotyped. Three of them presented quimerism 60,XX/60,XY (one with 25.8% of female cells (XX and 74.2% male cells (XY; one another with 10% of cells XX e 90% of XY and the third with 50% of each type showing genital masculinization, diagnosed as freemartism and discarded from herd. Two hundred and five cells were analyzed from another female twins and only 60,XX cells were found, diagnosed as normal. His sister also were normal (60,XY. The another three males were also analyzed from gemelar heterosexual parturition, with karyotype 60,XX/60,XY. Cytogenetic analysis are a safe methodology for freemartin abnormalities identification in female bovine twins with male bovine, giving the opportunity of selecting fertile animals, avoiding loses in the management of sterile animals. Robertsonian’s translocation was not observed in any of the animals analyzed.

  13. A case of intersex occurrence in Steindachneridion parahybae (Steindachner, 1877 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae under captivity condition: a cytogenetic and morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M. Honji

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Little is known about reproductive biology of endangered Steindachneridion parahybae , a gonochoristic teleost species inhabiting the Paraíba do Sul River Basin, and herein is the first description of intersex in S. parahybae juvenile. The normal appearance of ovaries and testes in juvenile from the same lot of breeding were also described for comparison, even as cytogenetic analysis was performed in these juveniles. One specimen was a priori classified as female due to the macroscopic characteristic of ovaries, with small yellow oocytes, without fringes (a main characteristic of catfish male, and larger than testes; however the microscopic analysis revealed the presence of ovotestes, including the complete spermatogenesis. S. parahybae had diploid number, 2n = 56 chromosomes with no evidence of differentiated sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes among them. These findings may be due to the result of exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds or may also be influenced by environmental conditions. The possibility of intersexes might also happen spontaneously and it cannot be ruled out. Therefore, the functional significance and reproductive consequences of this anomaly remain to be determined, suggesting that this species may be susceptible to endocrine disruption. These results contribute to gain expertise about reproductive biology of an endangered species in captivity.

  14. Constitutional 11q14-q22 chromosome deletion syndrome in a child with neuroblastoma MYCN single copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Annalisa; De Brasi, Daniele; Defferrari, Raffaella; Genesio, Rita; Tufano, Maria; Mazzocco, Katia; Capasso, Maria; Migliorati, Roberta; Martinsson, Tommy; Siani, Paolo; Nitsch, Lucio; Tonini, Gian Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Constitutional 11q deletion is a chromosome imbalance possibly found in MCA/MR patients analyzed for chromosomal anomalies. Its role in determining the phenotype depends on extension and position of deleted region. Loss of heterozygosity of 11q (region 11q23) is also associated with neuroblastoma, the most frequent extra cranial cancer in children. It represents one of the most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities observed in the tumor of patients with high-risk disease even if germline deletion of 11q in neuroblastoma is rare. Hereby, we describe a 18 months old girl presenting with trigonocephaly and dysmorphic facial features, including hypotelorism, broad depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia, synophrys, epicanthal folds, and with a stage 4 neuroblastoma without MYCN amplification, carrying a germline 11q deletion (11q14.1-q22.3), outside from Jacobsen syndrome and from neuroblastoma 11q critical regions. The role of 11q deletion in determining the clinical phenotype and its association with neuroblastoma development in the patient are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrative genomics identifies LMO1 as a neuroblastoma oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Diskin, Sharon J; Zhang, Haitao; Attiyeh, Edward F; Winter, Cynthia; Hou, Cuiping; Schnepp, Robert W; Diamond, Maura; Bosse, Kristopher; Mayes, Patrick A; Glessner, Joseph; Kim, Cecilia; Frackelton, Edward; Garris, Maria; Wang, Qun; Glaberson, Wendy; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Nguyen, Le; Jagannathan, Jayanti; Saeki, Norihisa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Grant, Struan F A; Iolascon, Achille; Mosse, Yael P; Cole, Kristina A; Li, Hongzhe; Devoto, Marcella; McGrady, Patrick W; London, Wendy B; Capasso, Mario; Rahman, Nazneen; Hakonarson, Hakon; Maris, John M

    2011-01-13

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for approximately 10% of all paediatric oncology deaths. To identify genetic risk factors for neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,251 patients and 6,097 control subjects of European ancestry from four case series. Here we report a significant association within LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) at 11p15.4 (rs110419, combined P = 5.2 × 10(-16), odds ratio of risk allele = 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44)). The signal was enriched in the subset of patients with the most aggressive form of the disease. LMO1 encodes a cysteine-rich transcriptional regulator, and its paralogues (LMO2, LMO3 and LMO4) have each been previously implicated in cancer. In parallel, we analysed genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 701 primary tumours. We found that the LMO1 locus was aberrant in 12.4% through a duplication event, and that this event was associated with more advanced disease (P neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of LMO1 inhibited growth of neuroblastoma cells with high LMO1 expression, whereas forced expression of LMO1 in neuroblastoma cells with low LMO1 expression enhanced proliferation. These data show that common polymorphisms at the LMO1 locus are strongly associated with susceptibility to developing neuroblastoma, but also may influence the likelihood of further somatic alterations at this locus, leading to malignant progression.

  16. Intrarenal neuroblastoma mimics Wilms' tumor; Neuroblastoma intrarenal mimetizando tumor de Wilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Maria T. Cartaxo; Soares, Andrezza B.; Freitas, Elizabete M. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz. Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas]. E-mail: tcartaxo@icb.upe.br; Araujo, Marcela [Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Molecular; Pureza, Leda M.M.; Morais, Adriana; Antunes, Consuelo; Salles, Terezinha de J. Marques; Borges, Josenilda C.; Morais, Vera L.L. de [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz; Romualdo Filho, Jose [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz. Centro Integrado de Anatomia Patologica; Magalhaes, Mario H. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Patologia

    2005-07-01

    This work reports the case history of a child with intrarenal neuroblastoma, initially diagnosed as Wilms' tumor. The patient, a one year and three months old girl, presented a hard abdominal mass on the left flank that extended to the meso gastric region, plus fever and paleness. The ultrasound of the entire abdomen revealed an intrarenal mass. Biopsy with fine needle in many points of the tumor revealed Wilms' tumor. The scarcely of the material, however, made immunohistoquemistry impossible at that moment. Because of the child's severe condition the SIOP protocol was started. As no clinical response was observed, an exploratory laparotomy was indicated with partial resection of the tumor and bone marrow aspiration (MO). The histopathologic study revealed a malignant neoplasia of small cells, poorly differentiated. IHQ was negative for WT-1 and positive for NB-84, synaptofisin, cromogranine. N-myc amplification was observed by molecular biology. The bone marrow aspiration identified metastatic small round cells infiltration. Intrarenal neuroblastoma is a rare entity that clinically and radiographically resembles Wilms' tumor. The objective of this case report is to show the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular analysis in the diagnosis of intrarenal neuroblastoma. (author)

  17. [Cytogenetics of myelodysplastic syndromes and its impact as prognostic factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjas-Gutiérrez, César; Domínguez-Cruz, Martín Daniel; González-García, Juan Ramón

    2017-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders of the hematopoietic stem cell. They are characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia of one or more cell lines, ineffective hematopoiesis, and an increased risk for developing acute myelogenous leukemia. The classification of MDS has been complicated due to the great heterogeneity in clinical phenotype as well as in the morphological and cytogenetic characteristics. The prognostic value of cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS has been analyzed in multicenter studies. This approach raised the development of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), which analyzes five prognostic variables, among which the cytogenetic study stands out. According to the cytogenetic findings, a classification of MDS in five subgroups was developed. Knowledge of the cytogenetic abnormalities has led to the study of genes involved in various chromosomal rearrangements. Moreover, DNA sequencing has helped to identify mutations in approximately 50 genes related to signal transduction, DNA methylation, transcriptional regulation, and RNA splicing. Therefore, the cytogenetic study should be used to improve the classification and therapeutic management of MDS. This approach will be an essential tool for the development of targeted therapy protocols.

  18. Nested polymerase chain reaction study of 53 cases with Turner`s syndrome: Is cytogenetically undetected Y mosaicism common?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, G.; Koch, A.; Ranke, M.B. [Univ. Children`s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Turner`s syndrome patients with Y mosaicism face a high risk of developing gonadoblastoma. Cytogenetic analysis can fail to detect rare cells bearing a normal or structurally abnormal Y chromosome (low level Y mosaicism). We screened 53 individuals with Turner`s syndrome for presence of sex-determining region Y (SRY), the testis-specific protein, Y encoded, gene, and the Y centromeric DYZ3 repeat using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thirty girls (57%) had the 45,X karyotype, determined through standard analysis of blood lymphocytes. The remaining 23 girls (43%) were mosaics and/or had structural abnormalities in 1 X-chromosome. Genomic DNA from blood leukocytes was amplified using 2 rounds of PCR. This method was sensitive enough to detect 0.0001% male DNA on a female background. None of 53 Turner`s syndrome cases was positive for Y-specific loci after the first round of PCR. After the second round, 2 of 53 Turner`s syndrome cases were positive for SRY mapping to the distal short arm of chromosome Y. In 1 SRY-positive subject, the karyotype was 45,X, and in the other, it was 46,Xi(Xq). None of 53 Turner`s syndrome individuals, including the 2 SRY-positive subjects, were positive for the testis-specific protein, Y encoded, gene on the proximal short arm of chromosome Y or the centromeric DYZ3 repeat. These data exclude low level Y mosaicism in almost all Turner`s syndrome cases tested. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Image-defined risk factors in unresectable neuroblastoma: SIOPEN study on incidence, chemotherapy-induced variation, and impact on surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Stefano; Pio, Luca; Erminio, Giovanni; Granata, Claudio; Holmes, Keith; Gambart, Marion; Buffa, Piero; Castel, Victoria; Valteau Couanet, Dominique; Garaventa, Alberto; Pistorio, Angela; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Martucciello, Giuseppe; Mattioli, Girolamo; Sarnacki, Sabine

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of image-defined risk factor (IDRF) modification after chemotherapy on surgical outcomes, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) among patients enrolled in the European Unresectable Neuroblastoma (EUNB) study. IDRFs were assigned according to the corresponding surgical risk factors list reported in the database. Surgical outcomes, EFS, and OS were related to IDRF modification with chemotherapy. The predictive value of preoperative IDRF for surgical outcomes was analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models for EFS and OS, including preoperative IDRF, surgical outcomes, and other known clinical risk factors, were created. Of the 160 patients enrolled in the EUNB study, 143 patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 228 IDRF were thus collected. Following chemotherapy, 76 (33%) IDRF disappeared in 32.2% of patients, 33 (14%) new IDRF appeared in 18.8% of patients, and 49% of patients did not show any IDRF change. Complete resection/minimal residual disease (71.2%) was more frequent among children who had disappearance/numerical reduction of IDRF (P = 0.005). Infiltration of the branches of the mesenteric artery was predictive of an unfavorable surgical outcome. Prolonged preoperative chemotherapy over five courses and encasement of the celiac axis and/or mesenteric artery origin impacted EFS and OS. The unchanged IDRF pattern in 50% of patients and the appearance of new IDRF during chemotherapy in approximately 20% of patients strengthens the idea that prolonged chemotherapy is useless for improving surgical resection in this population of patients. In addition, midline perivascular abdominal preoperative IDRF appeared to be predictive not only of surgical outcomes but also of EFS and OS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Intermittent Hypoxia Regulates Stem-like Characteristics and Differentiation of Neuroblastoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskara, Vasantha Kumar; Mohanam, Indra; Rao, Jasti S.; Mohanam, Sanjeeva

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuroblastomas are the most common extracranial solid tumors in children. Neuroblastomas are derived from immature cells of the sympathetic nervous system and are characterized by clinical and biological heterogeneity. Hypoxia has been linked to tumor progression and increased malignancy. Intermittent hypoxia or repeated episodes of hypoxia followed by re-oxygenation is a common phenomenon in solid tumors including neuroblastoma and it has a significant influence on the outcome of therapies. The present study focuses on how intermittent hypoxia modulates the stem-like properties and differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Methods and Findings Cell survival was assessed by clonogenic assay and cell differentiation was determined by morphological characterization. Hypoxia-inducible genes were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blotting were utilized to study stem cell markers. Analysis of neural crest / sympathetic nervous system (SNS) markers and neuronal differentiation markers were done by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Intermittent hypoxia stimulated the levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2 α proteins and enhanced stem-like properties of neuroblastoma cells. In intermittent hypoxia-conditioned cells, downregulation of SNS marker genes and upregulation of genes expressed in the neural crest were observed. Intermittent hypoxia suppressed the retinoic acid-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that intermittent hypoxia enhances stem-like characteristics and suppresses differentiation propensities in neuroblastoma cells. PMID:22363512

  1. Cytogenetics of Bloom's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, E M; Therman, E

    1986-05-01

    The quantitative aspects of Bloom's syndrome cytogenetics are reviewed. The most characteristic feature is an increased rate of homologous chromatid exchange, both sister chromatid exchange and mitotic crossing-over. Other phenomena are a tendency of somatic cells to fuse, an increased rate of chromosome breaks, often with sister chromatid reunion, formation of nonhomologous quadriradials, and occurrence of allocyclic and triradial chromosomes. Mitotic chiasmata are situated highly nonrandomly, preferably in Q-dark regions. Chromosomes containing chiasma "hot-spots" appear to contain more active genes than similarly sized control chromosomes. They also contain a high proportion of localized oncogenes. Bloom's syndrome homozygotes show a high incidence of cancer (1/4). This may depend on a) the high rate of homozygosity resulting from mitotic crossing-over, which would allow the expression of recessive cancer genes; b) unequal crossing-over would amplify these genes; c) chromosome structural changes that might transfer oncogenes to new locations and, thus, activate them; and d) immunodeficiency, which would promote malignant growth.

  2. Cerebellar neuroblastoma in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, S; Inamura, T; Morioka, T; Ishihara, S; Hirano, K; Murakami, N; Fukui, M

    2000-03-01

    A cerebellar neoplasm in an 8-month-old boy is reported. While this tumour was composed of small cells and had regions resembling desmoplastic medulloblastoma, it showed ultrastructural neuronal characteristics including bundles of microtubules in the cell processes, numerous synaptic vesicles, and occasional abortive or complete synapses. These characteristic features warranted the diagnosis of a neuroblastoma of the cerebellum. The nature of this rare intraparenchymal tumour in infants is also briefly discussed.

  3. Congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Kume, Ayako; Morikawa, Teppei; Ogawa, Makiko; Yamashita, Aki; Yamaguchi, Shunichi; Fukayama, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    We describe an extremely rare case of congenital neuroblastoma with placental involvement. A fetus with a left abdominal mass detected during ultrasonography at 23 weeks’ gestation developed hydrops fetalis by 26 weeks’ gestation. The mother developed hypertension at 26 5/7 weeks’ gestation. Based on a clinical diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, labor was induced at 26 6/7 weeks. However, intrauterine fetal death was diagnosed during delivery. Postmortern examination revealed a soli...

  4. Establishing a high-risk neuroblastoma cohort using the Pediatric Health Information System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ami V; Kavcic, Marko; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Herbst, Nicole; Fisher, Brian T; Seif, Alix E; Li, Yimei; Hennessy, Sean; Aplenc, Richard; Bagatell, Rochelle

    2014-06-01

    International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) code(s) for neuroblastoma do not exist, preventing identification of these patients in administrative databases. To overcome this challenge, a three-step algorithm, using ICD-9 codes, exclusion criteria, and manual review of chemotherapy billing data, was utilized to assemble a high-risk neuroblastoma cohort (n = 952) from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) Database and validated at a single institution [sensitivity 89.1%; positive predictive value (PPV) 96.1%]. This cohort provides a data source for future comparative effectiveness and clinical epidemiology studies in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. FLT3 Mutation as a Significant Prognostic Marker in de novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Incidence, Distribution and Association with Cytogenetic Findings in a Study from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi Sarojam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor that plays an important role in proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Internal tandem duplication and tyrosine kinase domain mutation are the two most common types of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutations frequently reported in acute myeloid leukemia associated with pathogenesis of this disease. The present study investigates the prevalence and distribution pattern in different acute myeloid leukemia sub- and cytogenetic groups, the association with clinical parameters and the prognostic importance of these mutations in acute myeloid leukemia patients from South India. Methods:Mutation analysis was performed in 276 de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism using specific restriction enzymes followed by sequencing to confirm the mutations. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to detect the prognosis. Results: Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication mutations were observed in 20%, tyrosine kinase domain mutation in 4% and dual mutations in 0.3% of the analyzed cases. The internal tandem duplication mutations ranged from 15-107 nucleotides with the majority at the juxta membrane domain of the receptor. Three types of tyrosine kinase domain point mutations were identified: D835Y, D835H and D835V. We observed a significant association between fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutations and increased WBC and LDH counts (P<0.001 and blast percentage but not with age, gender and FAB subtypes. A significant association with normal karyotype was observed for the mutants (P=0.002. Survival analysis revealed that the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene mutation was a negative prognostic marker for acute myeloid leukemia patients. The risk stratified analysis showed the mutation to be a risk factor for the intermediate karyotype group, especially for those with normal cytogenetics

  6. Will the new cytogenetics replace the old cytogenetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, M; Jhanwar, S C; Ostrer, H

    2004-10-01

    With the advent of array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology, the analog cytogenetic analysis that has been used for the past 100 years could be replaced by the quantitative, microarray-based molecular analysis. Major advantages of the new array-based cytogenetic technologies are the high resolution and the high throughput. This technology is the first to offer an autonomous whole-chromosome analysis in one hybridization reaction for the detection of submicroscopic gains/losses. However, as with any new technology, it needs to be validated with regard to its performance in various applications (e.g. clinical genetic testing and cancer applications), comparative cost, and the data interpretation.

  7. Human interphase chromosomes: a review of available molecular cytogenetic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human karyotype is usually studied by classical cytogenetic (banding techniques. To perform it, one has to obtain metaphase chromosomes of mitotic cells. This leads to the impossibility of analyzing all the cell types, to moderate cell scoring, and to the extrapolation of cytogenetic data retrieved from a couple of tens of mitotic cells to the whole organism, suggesting that all the remaining cells possess these genomes. However, this is far from being the case inasmuch as chromosome abnormalities can occur in any cell along ontogeny. Since somatic cells of eukaryotes are more likely to be in interphase, the solution of the problem concerning studying postmitotic cells and larger cell populations is interphase cytogenetics, which has become more or less applicable for specific biomedical tasks due to achievements in molecular cytogenetics (i.e. developments of fluorescence in situ hybridization -- FISH, and multicolor banding -- MCB. Numerous interphase molecular cytogenetic approaches are restricted to studying specific genomic loci (regions being, however, useful for identification of chromosome abnormalities (aneuploidy, polyploidy, deletions, inversions, duplications, translocations. Moreover, these techniques are the unique possibility to establish biological role and patterns of nuclear genome organization at suprachromosomal level in a given cell. Here, it is to note that this issue is incompletely worked out due to technical limitations. Nonetheless, a number of state-of-the-art molecular cytogenetic techniques (i.e multicolor interphase FISH or interpahase chromosome-specific MCB allow visualization of interphase chromosomes in their integrity at molecular resolutions. Thus, regardless numerous difficulties encountered during studying human interphase chromosomes, molecular cytogenetics does provide for high-resolution single-cell analysis of genome organization, structure and behavior at all stages of cell cycle.

  8. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS, mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells.

  9. Significance of pleural effusion in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himesh; Conrad, John; Khoury, Joseph D; McGregor, Lisa M; Krasin, Matthew J; Dome, Jeffrey S; Santana, Victor M; Davidoff, Andrew M

    2007-12-01

    Pleural effusion is uncommon at diagnosis of neuroblastoma in children. Because the presence of malignant cells in pleural fluid may significantly change the management and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of neuroblastoma patients who presented with pleural effusion at the time of diagnosis to determine the incidence, presentation, stage, treatment, and outcome of these patients. We reviewed the presenting features of 295 patients with the diagnosis of neuroblastoma who received treatment at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between 1991 and 2005. Patients were chosen for further analysis if pleural effusion had been identified on chest radiographs or computed tomography (CT) scans at diagnosis Thirty-one out of 295(10.5%) patients with neuroblastoma had pleural effusion identified at time of presentation. International neuroblastoma staging system (INSS) risk stratification was high risk in 29 cases and intermediate risk and low risk in 1 case each. The primary site of disease was abdomen in 26 patients; mediastinum in 5. We conducted cytologic analysis of pleural fluid of nine patients; the specimen of seven contained malignant cells. Eighteen of 31 patients died of progressive or recurrent disease. In patients with neuroblastoma, pleural effusion is usually associated with unfavorable biologic features and high-risk disease. Pleural fluid should be examined cytologically and at a time when the results would change the risk stratification. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the patients with high-risk neuroblastoma with or without malignant pleural effusion. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. Cytogenetic study on Thai brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi siamensis and Thamin brow-antlered deer, Cervus eldi thamin (Artiodactyla, Cervidae by conventional staining method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthira Monthatong1

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetics of Thai brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi siamensis were studied in comparison with those of Thamin brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi thamin. Blood samples were taken from the two subspecies kept in Khoa Kheow Open Zoo, Chonburi Province. After the standard whole blood lymphocyte were cultured in presence of colchicine, the metaphase spreads were performed on microscopic slides and air-dried. Conventional Giemsa’s staining were applied to stain chromosome. Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deers exhibited the same karyotype with diploid number of 2n = 58 (NF = 70 for females and 2n = 58 (NF = 71 for males. The types of autosome are 6 large metacentric, 6 large submetacentric, 8 large telocentric, 20 medium telocentric and 16 small telocentric chromosomes. In addition, satellites are clearly observed in terminal position on the short arm of a pair of chromosome 7. The X chromosome is the largest telocentric and the Y chromosome is the smallest metacentric chromosome. The karyotype formula of Thai and Thamin brow-antlered deer is as follows: 2n (58 = Lm6+Lsm6+Lt8+Mt20+St16+sex chromosome

  11. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  12. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A. N.; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L.; Bennett, John M.; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L.; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R.; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-01-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%–20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34+) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34+ peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34+ blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  13. Myeloid neoplasms secondary to plasma cell myeloma: an intrinsic predisposition or therapy-related phenomenon? A clinicopathologic study of 41 cases and correlation of cytogenetic features with treatment regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Deepti M; Lu, Chuanyi M; Fedoriw, George; Liu, Yen-Chun; Wang, Frances F; Ely, Scott; Boswell, Elizabeth L; Louissaint, Abner; Arcasoy, Murat O; Goodman, Barbara K; Wang, Endi

    2012-12-01

    We describe 41 cases of myeloid neoplasms (MNs) secondary to plasma cell myeloma (PCM). The types of MN included myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in 34 (82.9%), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 4 (9.8%), and myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or MDS/MPN in 3 (7.3%) cases. The latency from treatment to diagnosis of MN ranged from 9 to 384 months, with a median of 60 months. Of 37 cases with cytogenetic studies, complex abnormalities were detected in 22 (59.5%), -5(q)/-7(q) in 4 (10.8%), other abnormalities in 8 (21.6%), and normal karyotype in 3 (8.1%) cases. Complex abnormalities and -5(q)/-7(q) correlated directly with multiple chemotherapeutic regimens, particularly with combined melphalan/cyclophosphamide. Moreover, the features of cytogenetic abnormalities in our series were significantly different from those with concomitant PCM/MN who had significantly lower complex abnormalities. The latency, skewed proportion of MDS, and bias toward complex cytogenetic abnormalities/unbalanced aberrations of chromosomes 5/7 suggested an alkylating mutagenic effect on pathogenesis of secondary MN. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated a median survival of 19 months, which was better than that for therapy-related (t)-MDS/AML. In contrast to t-MDS, the survival in our patients appeared to depend on subtypes of MDS as seen in de novo diseases.

  14. Olfactory neuroblastoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Ogata, Keiko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Okajima, Ryoko; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kotani, Takao; Aoki, Mika

    2006-05-01

    An 11-year-old thoroughbred gelding was euthanatized because of right nasal cavity tumor. The tumor consisted of round to oval cells with a scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Homer-Wright rosettes and pseudorosettes, as well as microcysts were seen. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to vimentin, S-100 protein, and neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtube-associated protein in varying degrees, indicating neurogenic nature. Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as an olfactory neuroblastoma. Since this type is an uncommon tumor showing histological variety, the nature is discussed.

  15. The genetic landscape of high-risk neuroblastoma | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Neuroblastoma is a malignancy of the developing sympathetic nervous system that often presents with widespread metastatic disease, resulting in survival rates of less than 50%. To determine the spectrum of somatic mutation in high-risk neuroblastoma, we studied 240 affected individuals (cases) using a combination of whole-exome, genome and transcriptome sequencing as part of the Therapeutically Applicable Research to Generate Effective Treatments (TARGET) initiative.

  16. Lack of association between MDM2 promoter SNP309 and clinical outcome in patients with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, Ali; Van Maerken, Tom; De Wilde, Bram; Zeka, Fjoralba; Laureys, Geneviève; Norga, Koen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Coco, Simona; Versteeg, Rogier; Noguera, Rosa; Schulte, Johannes H; Eggert, Angelika; Stallings, Raymond L; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2014-10-01

    While a polymorphism located within the promoter region of the MDM2 proto-oncogene, SNP309 (T > G), has previously been associated with increased risk and aggressiveness of neuroblastoma and other tumor entities, a protective effect has also been reported in certain other cancers. In this study, we evaluated the association of MDM2 SNP309 with outcome in 496 patients with neuroblastoma and its effect on MDM2 expression. No significant difference in overall or event-free survival was observed among patients with neuroblastoma with or without MDM2 SNP309. The presence of SNP309 does not affect MDM2 expression in neuroblastoma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genetic instability and intratumoral heterogeneity in neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification plus 11q deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Villamón

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis in neuroblastoma has identified the profound influence of MYCN amplification and 11q deletion in patients' prognosis. These two features of high-risk neuroblastoma usually occur as mutually exclusive genetic markers, although in rare cases both are present in the same tumor. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic profile of these uncommon neuroblastomas harboring both these high-risk features.We selected 18 neuroblastomas with MNA plus 11q loss detected by FISH. Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism array techniques.This group of tumors has approximately the same high frequency of aberrations as found earlier for 11q deleted tumors. In some cases, DNA instability generates genetic heterogeneity, and must be taken into account in routine genetic diagnosis.

  18. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Yeung; Hoi Shun Sin; Shing Chan; Godfrey Chi Fung Chan; Barbara Pui Chan

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to in...

  19. A molecular study of pathways involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation in neuroblastoma B65 cells by the GSK-3 inhibitors lithium and SB-415286

    OpenAIRE

    Pizarro, Javier G; Folch, Jaume; Esparza, Jos? Luis; Jordan, J.; Pall?s, Merc?; Camins, Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacological GSK-3 inhibitors are potential drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes. We examined the antiproliferative effects of two GSK-3 inhibitors, lithium and SB-415286, on B65 neuroblastoma cell line. Treatment of B65 cells with either drug administered separately caused a decrease in cell proliferation that was associated with G2/M cell cycle arrest. Cell-cycle proteins such as cyclins D, E, A, cdk4 and cdk2 were up-regulated. Since lithium and SB-...

  20. Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stridsberg Mats

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk neuroblastoma has an overall five-year survival of less than 40%, indicating a need for new treatment strategies such as angiogenesis inhibition. Recent studies have shown that chemotherapeutic drugs can inhibit angiogenesis if administered in a continuous schedule. The aim of this study was primarily to characterize tumor spread in an orthotopic, metastatic model for aggressive, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and secondarily to study the effects of daily administration of the chemotherapeutic agent CHS 828 on tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spread. Methods MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, 2 × 106 were injected into the left adrenal gland in SCID mice through a flank incision. Nine weeks later, a new laparotomy was performed to confirm tumor establishment and to estimate tumor volume. Animals were randomized to either treatment with CHS 828 (20 mg/kg/day; p.o. or vehicle control. Differences between groups in tumor volume were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and in metastatic spread using Fisher's exact test. Differences with p Results The orthotopic model resembled clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread. Treatment with CHS 828 resulted in tumor regression (p Conclusion The metastatic animal model in this study resembled clinical neuroblastoma and is therefore clinically relevant for examining new treatment strategies for this malignancy. Our results indicate that daily scheduling of CHS 828 may be beneficial in treating patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  1. [Establishment of subcutaneously transplanted and metastatic neuroblastoma models in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong-ting; Dong, Qian; Gao, Qiang; Hao, Xi-wei; Song, Hua; Zhao, Nan

    2010-04-01

    To establish a tumor-bearing nude mouse model of human neuroblastoma in order to study the mechanisms of neuroblastoma invasion and metastasis, and to investigate potential therapeutic modalities in the experimental animal models. A human neuroblastoma cell line was cultured in vitro. 1 x 10(7) cells undergoing exponential growth were collected in 0.1 ml of suspension and subcutaneously inoculated into the right flank next to the forelimb in nude mice. The biological characteristics of the developed tumors were observed, and histopathological and DNA microarray analyses were performed. The expressions of NSE in the subcutaneous tumor, metastatic tumor and the primary neuroblastoma tumor tissues from a pediatric patient were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Tumors successfully grew in 36 out of 48 injected mice, with a total tumor-formation rate of 75.0%. Metastasis occurred in 10 cases, and the metastatic rate was 20.8%. Tumors in five injected mice grew locally without metastasis. These tumors had large volume and the tumor weight reached up to half of the body weight of the host animal. Four mice exhibited systemic metastasis without tumor growth at the primary inoculation site. There were six mice with locally growing tumor accompanied by metastasis. We have successfully established a human neuroblastoma xenograft model in nude mice with high tumor growth and metastatic rates. This model depicting the natural cell growth, local infiltration and distant metastasis characteristics of human neuroblastoma, providing an ideal animal model for in vivo studies of neuroblastoma. In addition, the results of this study indicate the heterogeneous nature of neuroblastoma, it may play an important role in metastasis of this tumor.

  2. Impact of the revised International Prognostic Scoring System, cytogenetics and monosomal karyotype on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia evolving from myelodysplastic syndromes: a retrospective multicenter study of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenecke, Christian; Göhring, Gudrun; de Wreede, Liesbeth C; van Biezen, Anja; Scheid, Christof; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan; Finke, Jürgen; Schaap, Nicolaas; Robin, Marie; Passweg, Jakob; Cornelissen, Jan; Beelen, Dietrich; Heuser, Michael; de Witte, Theo; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the revised 5-group International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary acute myeloid leukemia who were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database. A total of 903 patients had sufficient cytogenetic information available at stem cell transplantation to be classified according to the 5-group classification. Poor and very poor risk according to this classification was an independent predictor of shorter relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 1.40 and 2.14), overall survival (hazard ratio 1.38 and 2.14), and significantly higher cumulative incidence of relapse (hazard ratio 1.64 and 2.76), compared to patients with very good, good or intermediate risk. When comparing the predictive performance of a series of Cox models both for relapse-free survival and for overall survival, a model with simplified 5-group cytogenetics (merging very good, good and intermediate cytogenetics) performed best. Furthermore, monosomal karyotype is an additional negative predictor for outcome within patients of the poor, but not the very poor risk group of the 5-group classification. The revised International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification allows patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to be separated into three groups with clearly different outcomes after stem cell transplantation. Poor and very poor risk cytogenetics were strong predictors of poor patient outcome. The new cytogenetic classification added value to prediction of patient outcome compared to prediction models using only traditional risk factors or the 3-group International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic classification. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Conventional cytogenetics in myelofibrosis: literature review and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kebede; Van Dyke, Daniel L; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2009-05-01

    The clinical phenotype of myelofibrosis (MF) is recognized either de novo (primary) or in the setting of polycythemia vera (post-PV) or essential thrombocythemia (post-ET). Approximately one-third of patients with primary MF (PMF) present with cytogenetic abnormalities; the most frequent are del(20q), del(13q), trisomy 8 and 9, and abnormalities of chromosome 1 including duplication 1q. Other less frequent lesions include -7/del(7q), del(5q), del(12p), +21 and der(6)t(1;6)(q21;p21.3). In general, cytogenetic abnormalities are qualitatively similar among PMF, post-ET MF and post-PV MF although their individual frequencies may differ. Based on prognostic effect, cytogenetic findings in MF are classified as either 'favorable' or 'unfavorable'. The former include normal karyotype or isolated del(20q) or del(13q) and the latter all other abnormalities. Unfavorable cytogenetic profile in both PMF and post-PV/ET MF confers an independent adverse effect on survival; it is also associated with higher JAK2V617F mutational frequency. In addition to their prognostic value, cytogenetic studies in MF ensure diagnostic exclusion of other myeloid neoplasms that are sometimes associated with bone marrow fibrosis (e.g. BCR-ABL1-positive or PDGFRB-rearranged) and also assist in specific treatment selection (e.g. lenalidomide therapy is active in MF associated with del(5q).

  4. Oncogenic mutations of ALK kinase in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyan; Takita, Junko; Choi, Young Lim; Kato, Motohiro; Ohira, Miki; Sanada, Masashi; Wang, Lili; Soda, Manabu; Kikuchi, Akira; Igarashi, Takashi; Nakagawara, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Mano, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Seishi

    2008-10-16

    Neuroblastoma in advanced stages is one of the most intractable paediatric cancers, even with recent therapeutic advances. Neuroblastoma harbours a variety of genetic changes, including a high frequency of MYCN amplification, loss of heterozygosity at 1p36 and 11q, and gain of genetic material from 17q, all of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. However, the scarcity of reliable molecular targets has hampered the development of effective therapeutic agents targeting neuroblastoma. Here we show that the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), originally identified as a fusion kinase in a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NPM-ALK) and more recently in adenocarcinoma of lung (EML4-ALK), is also a frequent target of genetic alteration in advanced neuroblastoma. According to our genome-wide scans of genetic lesions in 215 primary neuroblastoma samples using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarrays, the ALK locus, centromeric to the MYCN locus, was identified as a recurrent target of copy number gain and gene amplification. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of ALK revealed eight novel missense mutations in 13 out of 215 (6.1%) fresh tumours and 8 out of 24 (33%) neuroblastoma-derived cell lines. All but one mutation in the primary samples (12 out of 13) were found in stages 3-4 of the disease and were harboured in the kinase domain. The mutated kinases were autophosphorylated and displayed increased kinase activity compared with the wild-type kinase. They were able to transform NIH3T3 fibroblasts as shown by their colony formation ability in soft agar and their capacity to form tumours in nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that downregulation of ALK through RNA interference suppresses proliferation of neuroblastoma cells harbouring mutated ALK. We anticipate that our findings will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of advanced neuroblastoma and that ALK-specific kinase inhibitors might improve its clinical outcome.

  5. Intracellular fragment of NLRR3 (NLRR3-ICD) stimulates ATRA-dependent neuroblastoma differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akter, Jesmin [Laboratory of Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Takatori, Atsushi, E-mail: atakatori@chiba-cc.jp [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Islam, Md. Sazzadul [Laboratory of Innovative Cancer Therapeutics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nakazawa, Atsuko [Department of Pathology, National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo (Japan); Ozaki, Toshinori, E-mail: tozaki@chiba-cc.jp [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nagase, Hiroki [Laboratory of Cancer Genetics, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Nakagawara, Akira [Saga Medical Centre, 840-8571 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • NLRR3 is a membrane protein highly expressed in favorable neuroblastoma. • NLRR3-ICD was produced through proteolytic processing by secretases. • NLRR3-ICD was induced to be translocated into cell nucleus following ATRA exposure. • NLRR3-ICD plays a pivotal role in ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. - Abstract: We have previously identified neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRR3) gene which is preferentially expressed in favorable human neuroblastomas as compared with unfavorable ones. In this study, we have found for the first time that NLRR3 is proteolytically processed by secretases and its intracellular domain (NLRR3-ICD) is then released to translocate into cell nucleus during ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. According to our present observations, NLRR3-ICD was induced to accumulate in cell nucleus of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following ATRA treatment. Since the proteolytic cleavage of NLRR3 was blocked by α- or γ-secretase inhibitor, it is likely that NLRR3-ICD is produced through the secretase-mediated processing of NLRR3. Intriguingly, forced expression of NLRR3-ICD in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells significantly suppressed their proliferation as examined by a live-cell imaging system and colony formation assay. Similar results were also obtained in neuroblastoma TGW cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRR3-ICD stimulated ATRA-dependent neurite elongation in SK-N-BE cells. Together, our present results strongly suggest that NLRR3-ICD produced by the secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of NLRR3 plays a crucial role in ATRA-mediated neuronal differentiation, and provide a clue to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against aggressive neuroblastomas.

  6. Iodine-131 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Therapy for Neuroblastoma: Reports So Far and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Kayano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, which derives from neural crest, is the most common extracranial solid cancer in childhood. The tumors express the norepinephrine (NE transporters on their cell membrane and take in metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG via a NE transporter. Since iodine-131 (I-131 MIBG therapy was firstly reported, many trails of MIBG therapy in patients with neuroblastoma were performed. Though monotherapy with a low dose of I-131 MIBG could achieve high-probability pain reduction, the objective response was poor. In contrast, more than 12 mCi/kg I-131 MIBG administrations with or without hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT obtain relatively good responses in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. The combination therapy with I-131 MIBG and other modalities such as nonmyeloablative chemotherapy and myeloablative chemotherapy with HCT improved the therapeutic response in patients with refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma. In addition, I-131 MIBG therapy incorporated in the induction therapy was proved to be feasible in patients with newly diagnosed neuroblastoma. To expand more the use of MIBG therapy for neuroblastoma, further studies will be needed especially in the use at an earlier stage from diagnosis, in the use with other radionuclide formations of MIBG, and in combined use with other therapeutic agents.

  7. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael D; Grupp, Stephan A

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastoma samples and demonstrated that 23% express NY-ESO-1. After confirming antigen-specific activity of T cells genetically engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 directed high-affinity transgenic T cell receptor in vitro , we performed xenograft mouse studies assessing the efficacy of NY-ESO-1-targeted T cells in both localized and disseminated models of neuroblastoma. Disease responses were monitored by tumor volume measurement and in vivo bioluminescence. After delivery of NY-ESO-1 transgenic TCR T cells, we observed significant delay of tumor progression in mice bearing localized and disseminated neuroblastoma, as well as enhanced animal survival. These data demonstrate that NY-ESO-1 is an antigen target in neuroblastoma and that targeted T cells represent a potential therapeutic option for patients with neuroblastoma.

  8. Main caregivers' experiences of managing pain for children with neuroblastoma in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Hui; Huang, Chu-Yu; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Lin, Hung-Ru; Lee, Ya-Ling; Cheng, Su-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common malignant tumor among children. Seventy percent of children with neuroblastoma have metastatic disease when the diagnosis is established. The aim of this study was to understand the main caregivers' lived experiences in managing pain for children with neuroblastoma. A descriptive qualitative design was used. Twelve main caregivers of children with neuroblastoma were interviewed. Two themes evolved: experiences of pain and coping with pain. Three subthemes were found under the theme "experience of pain": pain assessment based on language expressions and behavioral observations, tendency of misdiagnosing tumor metastasis-related pain, and unique manifestations of pain at various phases. Four subthemes evolved under the theme "coping with pain": utilization of pharmacological and nonpharmacological modalities for pain management, learning to confront pain, seeking mental and emotional support, and adjustment of family lifestyle. The results provide a description regarding the expression of pain in children with neuroblastoma and the pain management modalities used by the main caregivers. The findings serve as a reference for health care providers in Taiwan as they manage pain for children with neuroblastoma and seek to understand the needs of the main caregivers.

  9. P73 expression in neuroblastoma: a role in the biology of advanced tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, P; Isidro, G; Vieira, E; Lacerda, A F; Martins, A G; Boavida, M G

    2001-01-01

    p73, a recently identified gene showing high homology to p53 and mapping to 1p36.33, was presented as a candidate gene for neuroblastoma. In this study the authors evaluate the levels and allelic nature of p73 expression in primary neuroblastomas using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism strategies based on intragenic polymorphisms. From 32 neuroblastoma patients, 11 were heterozygous for the p73 polymorphisms analyzed. p73 expression was found to be low in the correspondent tumors and while all 6 stages 1 and 2 tumors presented biallelic expression, 4 out of the 5 stage 4 tumors showed only one active p73 allele. Analysis of blood samples from 8 healthy donors and 4 neuroblastoma patients revealed much higher levels of p73 expression, and exclusively of biallelic nature. These results are supportive of a role for p73 in the biology of neuroblastoma, particularly in some advanced tumors. Nevertheless, the G81A/C91T polymorphism, previously implicated in regulating the expression of p73, did not show any significant association with neuroblastoma development.

  10. Intracellular fragment of NLRR3 (NLRR3-ICD) stimulates ATRA-dependent neuroblastoma differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Jesmin; Takatori, Atsushi; Islam, Md Sazzadul; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ozaki, Toshinori; Nagase, Hiroki; Nakagawara, Akira

    2014-10-10

    We have previously identified neuronal leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRR3) gene which is preferentially expressed in favorable human neuroblastomas as compared with unfavorable ones. In this study, we have found for the first time that NLRR3 is proteolytically processed by secretases and its intracellular domain (NLRR3-ICD) is then released to translocate into cell nucleus during ATRA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation. According to our present observations, NLRR3-ICD was induced to accumulate in cell nucleus of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following ATRA treatment. Since the proteolytic cleavage of NLRR3 was blocked by α- or γ-secretase inhibitor, it is likely that NLRR3-ICD is produced through the secretase-mediated processing of NLRR3. Intriguingly, forced expression of NLRR3-ICD in neuroblastoma SK-N-BE cells significantly suppressed their proliferation as examined by a live-cell imaging system and colony formation assay. Similar results were also obtained in neuroblastoma TGW cells. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRR3-ICD stimulated ATRA-dependent neurite elongation in SK-N-BE cells. Together, our present results strongly suggest that NLRR3-ICD produced by the secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of NLRR3 plays a crucial role in ATRA-mediated neuronal differentiation, and provide a clue to develop a novel therapeutic strategy against aggressive neuroblastomas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  12. Narcolepsy/Cataplexy and Occult Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at the University of Chicago and Northwestern University, Chicago, IL; University Hospital Southampton, UK; and Kiev Paediatric Hospital, Ukraine, report three children with narcolepsy and cataplexy subsequently diagnosed with neuroblastoma.

  13. The regulation of angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlenski, Alexandre; Liu, Shuqing; Cohn, Susan L

    2003-07-18

    Angiogenesis is required for the growth and metastasis of malignant tumors, and high vascular density has been correlated with aggressive tumor growth in many types of cancer. This process is regulated by the local balance of stimulatory and inhibitory molecules produced by tumor cells, stromal cells, and the organ-specific environment. In neuroblastoma, a pediatric malignancy that is characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical behavior, angiogenesis also appears to play an important role in determining tumor phenotype. The nature of the angiogenic balance in neuroblastoma is complex, and a spectrum of angiogenesis stimulators and inhibitors has been detected in neuroblastoma tumors. This review summarizes our current understanding of the regulation of angiogenesis in neuroblastoma.

  14. Cytogenetic Prognostication Within Medulloblastoma Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, David J.H.; Northcott, Paul A.; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C.; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A. Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M.G.; Jones, David T.W.; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C.; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A.; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G.; Liau, Linda M.; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M.C.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Phillips, Joanna J.; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M.; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G.; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F.; Weiss, William A.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Rubin, Joshua B.; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M.; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J.; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L.; French, Pim J.; Kloosterhof, Nanne K.; Kros, Johan M.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Clifford, Steven C.; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F.; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A.; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Patients and Methods Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Results Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Conclusion Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials. PMID

  15. A phase I clinical trial of the hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) as a treatment for children with refractory or recurrent neuroblastoma and melanoma: a study of the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenga, Kaci L; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Albertini, Mark R; Gan, Jacek; Sternberg, Adam G; Eickhoff, Jens; Seeger, Robert C; Matthay, Katherine K; Reynolds, C Patrick; Twist, Clare; Krailo, Mark; Adamson, Peter C; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Sondel, Paul M

    2006-03-15

    Evaluate the clinical safety, toxicity, immune activation/modulation, and maximal tolerated dose of hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) in pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive solid tumors. Twenty-seven pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma and one with melanoma were treated with a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody linked to human interleukin 2 (IL-2). Cohorts of patients received hu14.18-IL2, administered i.v. over 4 hours for three consecutive days, at varying doses. Patients with stable disease, partial, or complete responses were eligible to receive up to three additional courses of therapy. Most of the clinical toxicities were anticipated and similar to those reported with IL-2 and anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy and to those noted in the initial phase I study of hu14.18-IL2 in adults with metastatic melanoma. The maximal tolerated dose was determined to be 12 mg/m2/d, with agent-related dose-limiting toxicities of hypotension, allergic reaction, blurred vision, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicity during course 1; seven patients in courses 2 to 4. Two patients required dopamine for hypotension. There were no treatment-related deaths, and all toxicity was reversible. Treatment with hu14.18-IL2 led to immune activation/modulation as evidenced by elevated serum levels of soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL2Ralpha) and lymphocytosis. The median half-life of hu14.18-IL2 was 3.1 hours. There were no measurable complete or partial responses to hu14.18-IL2 in this study; however, three patients did show evidence of antitumor activity. Hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) can be administered safely with reversible toxicities in pediatric patients at doses that induce immune activation. A phase II clinical trial of hu14.18-IL2, administered at a dose of 12 mg/m2/d x 3 days repeated every 28 days, will be done in pediatric patients with recurrent

  16. A Phase I Clinical Trial of the hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) as a Treatment for Children with Refractory or Recurrent Neuroblastoma and Melanoma: a Study of the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osenga, Kaci L.; Hank, Jacquelyn A.; Albertini, Mark R.; Gan, Jacek; Sternberg, Adam G.; Eickhoff, Jens; Seeger, Robert C.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Twist, Clare; Krailo, Mark; Adamson, Peter C.; Reisfeld, Ralph A.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Sondel, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Evaluate the clinical safety, toxicity, immune activation/modulation, and maximal tolerated dose of hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) in pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive solid tumors. Experimental Design Twenty-seven pediatric patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma and one with melanoma were treated with a humanized anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody linked to human interleukin 2 (IL-2). Cohorts of patients received hu14.18-IL2, administered i.v. over 4 hours for three consecutive days, at varying doses. Patients with stable disease, partial, or complete responses were eligible to receive up to three additional courses of therapy. Results Most of the clinical toxicities were anticipated and similar to those reported with IL-2 and anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy and to those noted in the initial phase I study of hu14.18-IL2 in adults with metastatic melanoma. The maximal tolerated dose was determined to be 12 mg/m2/d, with agent-related dose-limiting toxicities of hypotension, allergic reaction, blurred vision, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Three patients developed dose-limiting toxicity during course 1; seven patients in courses 2 to 4. Two patients required dopamine for hypotension. There were no treatment-related deaths, and all toxicity was reversible. Treatment with hu14.18-IL2 led to immune activation/modulation as evidenced by elevated serum levels of soluble IL-2 receptor α (sIL2Rα) and lymphocytosis. The median half-life of hu14.18-IL2 was 3.1 hours. There were no measurable complete or partial responses to hu14.18-IL2 in this study; however, three patients did show evidence of antitumor activity. Conclusion Hu14.18-IL2 (EMD 273063) can be administered safely with reversible toxicities in pediatric patients at doses that induce immune activation. A phase II clinical trial of hu14.18-IL2, administered at a dose of 12 mg/m2/d × 3 days repeated every 28 days, will be done in pediatric

  17. Further correlations of morphology according to FAB and WHO classification to cytogenetics in de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a study on 2,235 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Ulrike; Kern, Wolfgang; Schnittger, Susanne; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Schoch, Claudia; Haferlach, Torsten

    2005-11-01

    In routine diagnostic procedures of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the French-American-British (FAB) and World Health Organization (WHO) classifications both play a central role. Some morphologic subtypes are specifically associated to distinct cytogenetic and molecular aberrations; however, such close correlations do not exist for the majority of entities. We evaluated cytogenetics in 2,235 patients at diagnosis of AML with the FAB subtypes M0-2, M4, and M5-7. The cytogenetic patterns of these subtypes showed differences with respect to the clonal aberration rate and the incidence of complex aberrant karyotypes. The frequency of numerical gains and losses and of structural losses and the incidence of 11q23/MLL rearrangements differed. Thus, cytomorphology of AML may be helpful to support or even initiate other diagnostic procedures, e.g., interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the central role of morphology as defined by the FAB and WHO classification in AML at diagnosis is still justified in combination with other techniques.

  18. Neuroblastoma: Developmental Biology, Cancer Genomics, and Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Dyer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a solid tumor that arises from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Over the past decade, our understanding of this disease has advanced tremendously. The future challenge is to apply the knowledge gained toward developing risk-based therapies and ultimately improving outcome. Here we review the key discoveries in the developmental biology, molecular genetics, and immunology of neuroblastoma, as well as new translational tools to bring these promising scientific advances into the clinic. PMID:23702928

  19. Antitumor activity of nifurtimox observed in a patient with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier Sholler, Giselle L; Kalkunte, Satyan; Greenlaw, Carla; McCarten, Kathleen; Forman, Edwin

    2006-10-01

    Chemotherapy-resistant neuroblastoma is a difficult disease to treat with poor survival. We treated a patient with neuroblastoma who had progressed on conventional chemotherapy. This 5-year-old girl with chemotherapy-resistant neuroblastoma developed Chagas disease at the start of salvage chemotherapy for which she was also started on nifurtimox. The neuroblastoma response to these treatments resulted in clinical remission. In vitro, treatment of a neuroblastoma cell line with nifurtimox resulted in decreased cell viability whereas no effect was seen on an endothelial cell line. Nifurtimox shows promise as a potential new treatment for neuroblastoma and warrants further testing.

  20. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  1. Sodium valproate does not augment Prpsc in murine neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, C; Casagrande, F; Andrieu, T; Dormont, D; Clayette, P

    2007-10-01

    Sodium valproate (VPA) has been reported to increase the accumulation of the pathologic isoform of prion protein (PrPsc) in scrapie-infected murine neuroblastoma cells. In this study, the effect of VPA on PrPsc accumulation was investigated in murine N2a neuroblastoma cells chronically infected with scrapie strain 22L (N2a-22L). No accumulation of PrPsc was detected after short-term (3 days) or long-term (21 days) treatment of N2a-22L cells with 4.8, 12, 18 or 24 microM VPA. Higher VPA concentrations (240 and 600 microM) also failed to augment PrPsc expression. In conclusion, in our experimental conditions, no deleterious effect was induced by VPA on prions replication.

  2. Of mice and men: olfactory neuroblastoma among animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubojemska, A; Borejko, M; Czapiewski, P; Dziadziuszko, R; Biernat, W

    2016-09-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumour of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium and has unpredictable clinical course. As the sense of smell is phylogenetically one of the first senses and olfactory neuroepithelium is evolutionary conserved with striking similarities among different species, we performed an extensive analysis of the literature in order to evaluate the similarities and differences between animals and humans on the clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular level. Our analysis revealed that ONB was reported mainly in mammals and showed striking similarities to human ONB. These observations provide rationale for introduction of therapy modalities used in humans into the veterinary medicine. Animal models of neuroblastoma should be considered for the preclinical studies evaluating novel therapies for ONB. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Notes on the cytogenetics of some South African Xiphinema species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytogenetics of several South African species of Xiphinemawere studied and compared with the existing data for this genus from Europe. The process of oogenesis appears to be very similar in all species studied, with little interspecific and intraspecific differences. The ovaries of the South African specimens are larger, ...

  4. Interphase cytogenetics of workers exposed to benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, Yunxia; Venkatesh, P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median=31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (>31 ppm, n=22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p<0.01), but lower exposure (<31 ppm, n=21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperdiploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r= 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene close. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploicly and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r=-0.44, p=0.003) but not in controls (r=-0.09, P=0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations. 35 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes predict human cancer independently of exposure to carcinogens. European Study Group on Cytogenetic Biomarkers and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, S; Hagmar, L; Strömberg, U

    2000-01-01

    played by exposure to carcinogens is still uncertain because of the requisite information concerning occupation and lifestyle was lacking. We evaluated in the present study whether CAs predicted cancer because they were the result of past exposure to carcinogens or because they were an intermediate end...... in the regression model. The risk for high versus low levels of CAs was similar in subjects heavily exposed to carcinogens and in those who had never, to their knowledge, been exposed to any major carcinogenic agent during their lifetime, supporting the idea that chromosome damage itself is involved in the pathway...

  6. BIRICODAR (VX-710; Incel): an effective chemosensitizer in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, T; Newman, A; Coley, H; Renshaw, J; Pinkerton, C R; Pritchard-Jones, K

    1999-06-01

    Clinical studies have suggested that both MDR1 and MRP may play a significant role in the chemosensitivity and outcome of neuroblastoma. To clarify the nature of multidrug resistance (MDR) in this tumour a series of six neuroblastoma cell lines have been characterized with regard to P-glycoprotein, MRP and LRP expression using immunocytochemistry and expression of MDR1, MRP, LRP and topoisomerase II genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). By RT-PCR, all lines expressed MRP, five expressed LRP and four expressed MDR1, but protein levels of each of these were variable. Chemosensitization to a range of MDR-associated drugs (vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, taxotere, topotecan) and non-MDR-associated drugs (cisplatin, melphalan) by three modulating agents, cyclosporin A, PSC 833 and the novel Biricodar (VX-710; Incel), was evaluated using a colourimetric cytotoxicity assay (MTS). Alteration of daunorubicin efflux by these agents was evaluated using FACS analysis. Clonogenic assay was used to study the influence of these chemosensitizers on vincristine cytotoxicity. Marked sensitization to vincristine was observed in MDR1-positive lines, and a similar but less consistent effect was seen with taxotere, doxorubicin and etoposide. With MRP-positive, MDR-negative lines, only VX-710 caused consistent sensitization. These data confirm MDR1 and MRP expression as contributory factors in chemoresistance in neuroblastoma and indicate that VX-710 may be a useful modulator of both mechanisms and worthy of clinical evaluation in this tumour.

  7. Targeted immunotherapy for high-risk neuroblastoma--the role of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Kerry; Bernhardt, Brooke; Strickland, Brandy

    2013-02-01

    To systematically review clinical trials evaluating anti-disialoganglioside (GD2) antibodies in treating high-risk neuroblastoma in children. A literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (all searches 1990-August 2012) using the terms neuroblastoma, immunotherapy, 3F8, ch14.18, and hu14.18. Meeting abstracts presented between 1990 and 2012 from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, the American Society of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Society of Surgical Oncology, and the American Society of Hematology were also evaluated. All completed and ongoing clinical trials of anti-GD2 antibodies in neuroblastoma were included. References from selected articles were also reviewed to identify additional citations. In 1999, the results of a Children's Cancer Group trial established that consolidation therapy after induction, surgery, and radiation should include purged autologous stem cell rescue followed by maintenance with isotretinoin. Overall survival at 7 years with this regimen remains below 30%. Over the following decade, antibodies targeting GD2, a surface antigen found on the surface of neuroblastoma cells, have emerged as a major therapeutic development for high-risk neuroblastoma. Anti-GD2 antibodies incite immune-mediated cytotoxicity toward neuroblastoma cells when given as monotherapy or in combination with cytokines such as sargramostim (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) or aldesleukin (interleukin-2). Responses to anti-GD2 agents appear most notable in patients with minimal residual disease following standard therapy. A chimeric preparation, ch14.18, is the only anti-GD2 antibody to be evaluated in a large controlled clinical trial, in which it demonstrated overall survival of 86% at 2 years in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma. Older nonrandomized studies of ch14.18 monotherapy and 3F8, a

  8. Acute promyelocytic leukemia: the study of t(15;17 translocation by fluorescent in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and cytogenetic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.L.F. Chauffaille

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML M3 is a well-defined subtype of leukemia with specific and peculiar characteristics. Immediate identification of t(15;17 or the PML/RARA gene rearrangement is fundamental for treatment. The objective of the present study was to compare fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and karyotyping in 18 samples (12 at diagnosis and 6 after treatment from 13 AML M3 patients. Bone marrow samples were submitted to karyotype G-banding, FISH and RT-PCR. At diagnosis, cytogenetics was successful in 10 of 12 samples, 8 with t(15;17 and 2 without. FISH was positive in 11/12 cases (one had no cells for analysis and positivity varied from 25 to 93% (mean: 56%. RT-PCR was done in 6/12 cases and all were positive. Four of 8 patients with t(15;17 presented positive RT-PCR as well as 2 without metaphases. The lack of RT-PCR results in the other samples was due to poor quality RNA. When the three tests were compared at diagnosis, karyotyping presented the translocation in 80% of the tested samples while FISH and RT-PCR showed the PML/RARA rearrangement in 100% of them. Of 6 samples evaluated after treatment, 3 showed a normal karyotype, 1 persistence of an abnormal clone and 2 no metaphases. FISH was negative in 4 samples studied and 2 had no material for analysis. RT-PCR was positive in 4 (2 of which showed negative FISH, indicating residual disease and negative in 2. When the three tests were compared after treatment, they showed concordance in 2 of 6 samples or, when there were not enough cells for all tests, concordance between karyotype and RT-PCR in one. At remission, RT-PCR was the most sensitive test in detecting residual disease, as expected (positive in 4/6 samples. An incidence of about 40% of 5' breaks and 60% of 3' breaks, i.e., bcr3 and bcr1/bcr2, respectively, was observed.

  9. Fragile X syndrome: clinical and cytogenetic studies Síndrome de X frágil: estudo clínico e citogenético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TÊMIS MARIA FÉLIX

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Three families with the fragile X syndrome were studied with the aim to establish the most frequent clinical signs in the affected individuals and heterozygous women. The clinical evaluation, IQ level measurements and cytogenetic studies were performed in 40 subjects, 20 males and 20 females. The fragile X diagnosis was confirmed in all the male individuals with mental retardation. In the postpubertal subjects the most frequent clinical signs were inner canthal distance Três famílias com a síndrome do X frágil foram estudadas com o objetivo de estabelecer as características clínicas mais frequentes nos indivíduos afetados e nas mulheres heterozigotas. Avaliação clínica, de nível intelectual e citogenética visando a expressão do sítio frágil do cromosssomo X na região Xq27.3 foram empregadas em 40 indivíduos, 20 do sexo masculino e 20 do sexo feminino. Foi confirmado o diagnóstico da síndrome do X frágil em todos os indivíduos do sexo masculino com deficiência mental. Nos indivíduos pós-puberais as características clínicas mais frequentes foram: distância intercantal interna inferior a 3,5 cm, macroorquidia, face estreita e alongada, e palato alto. Nos indivíduos pré-puberais as características de comportamento como hiperatividade e pobre contato ocular foram observadas em todos os pacientes. Vinte e seis por cento das mulheres heterozigotas apresentaram deficiência mental e nestas as características clínicas foram mais importantes. Todos os indivíduos do sexo masculino com deficiência mental apresentaram o cromossomo X frágil [fra(X] em cultura de linfócitos. Sessenta e três por cento das mulheres demonstraram o fra(X. Houve correlação positiva entre a frequência de fra(X e as características clínicas. Enfatizamos a importância da avaliação clínica no estudo de deficiência mental familial e na triagem de casos isolados com suspeita da síndrome do X frágil.

  10. Cytogenetic and molecular studies of a familial paracentric inversion of Y chromosome present in a patient with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J D; Ma, Y Y; Gibson, L H; Su, H; Charest, N; Lau, Y F; Yang-Feng, T L

    1997-05-16

    Here we describe the first reported case of a patient with a familial paracentric inversion in the long arm of the Y chromosome and ambiguous genitalia. FISH analyses with Y chromosome YACs demonstrated that the inversion breakpoints of the patients and the father's Ys appear to be the same and lie within interval 5B of the Y chromosome. PCR and sequence analysis indicated that our patient carries a normal SRY gene. For an additional comparison of the patient's inv(Y) with the father, two other Y chromosome sequences were examined. Molecular studies of this familial inverted Y chromosome showed no differences in the ZFY and TSPY genes between the father and the patient suggesting that the short arm of our patient's inv(Y) is identical to that of the patient's father. Southern analysis using a probe of the DAX-1 gene indicated that a single copy of DSS (dosage sensitive sex reversal) locus was present in the patient. Our results suggest that the abnormal sexual development in our patient is likely attributable to (an)other mechanism(s) than mutation in the SRY gene and dosage alteration of the DAX-1 gene.

  11. A dye-based lymphocyte proliferation assay that permits multiple immunological analyses: mRNA, cytogenetic, apoptosis, and immunophenotyping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Jun, Y; Sriranganathan, N; Vaught, T; Arastu, S K; Ahmed, S A

    1997-12-15

    Alamar Blue in the microenvironment of activated cells, undergoes color change and also becomes fluorescent. By using the Alamar Blue dye, we have reported a non-radioactive colorimetric assay to indirectly determine proliferation of murine lymphocytes. We further show that the pattern of mitogen-induced proliferation assessed fluorometrically was comparable to the 3H-thymidine incorporation assay (3H-Tdr assay). Of practical importance is that the color/fluorescence changes were stable at 4 degrees C in the dark for 3-4 weeks. In immunological studies, it is important to further analyze lymphocytes that have undergone activation and/or proliferation. This is not possible with the standard 3H-Tdr assay, which requires lysis of cells. In contrast, the Alamar Blue-based non-radioactive assay does not require cell lysis. We therefore tested the hypothesis that further analysis of lymphocytes is possible, after assessing the proliferation using Alamar Blue. Following assessment of proliferation in a 72-h culture, the Alamar Blue dye was washed-off and cells were re-utilized to perform additional immunological analysis. Short-term exposure of lymphocytes to Alamar Blue was not detrimental to lymphocytes, as assessed by trypan blue exclusion and the propidium iodide (PI) assays. Exposure of dexamethasone-treated cells to Alamar Blue did not interfere with the performance of apoptosis assays, such as flow cytometric analysis of PI-stained cells and microscopic examination of ethidium bromide/acridine orange-stained cells. In addition, prior exposure of lymphocytes to Alamar Blue did not affect the analysis of chromosomal aberrations or the visualization of cell surface antigens by flow cytometry. Further, the expression of cytokine mRNA in lymphocytes previously exposed to Alamar Blue was similar to unexposed cells. Together, a notable advantage of this assay is that it now enables the investigator to maximize information by following or correlating proliferation with

  12. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on a recombinant human X chromosome: implications for the spreading of X chromosome inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandas, T.; Geller, R.L.; Yen, P.H.; Rosendorff, J.; Bernstein, R.; Yoshida, A.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1987-07-01

    A pericentric inversion of human X chromosome and a recombinant X chromosome (rec(X)) derived from crossing-over within the inversion was identified in a family. The rec(X) had a duplication of the segment Xq26.3 ..-->.. Xqter and a deletion of Xp22.3 ..-->.. Xpter and was interpreted to be Xqter ..-->.. Xq26.3::Xp22.3 ..-->.. Xqter. To characterize the rec(X) chromosome, dosage blots were done on genomic DNA from carriers of this rearranged X chromosome using a number of X chromosome probes. Results showed that anonymous sequences from the distal end of the long arm to which probes 4D8, Hx120A, DX13, and St14 bind as well as the locus for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) wee duplicated on the rec(X). Mouse-human cell hybrids were constructed that retained the rec(X) in the active or inactive state. Analyses of these hybrid clones for markers from the distal short arm of the X chromosome showed that the rec(X) retained the loci for steroid sulfatase (STS) and the cell surface antigen 12E7 (MIC2); but not the pseudoautosomal sequence 113D. These molecular studies confirm that the rec(X) is a duplication-deficiency chromosome as expected. In the inactive state in cell hybrids, STS and MIC2 (which usually escape X chromosome inactivation) were expressed from the rec(X), whereas G6PD was not. Therefore, in the rec(X) X chromosome inactivation has spread through STS and MIC2 leaving these loci unaffected and has inactivated G6PD in the absence of an inactivation center in the q26.3 ..-->.. qter region of the human X chromosome. The mechanism of spreading of inactivation appears to operate in a sequence-specific fashion. Alternatively, STS and MIC2 may have undergone inactivation initially but could not be maintained in an inactive state.

  13. GAS6 Oncogene and Reverse MLLT3-KMT2A Duplications in an Infant with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and a Novel Complex Hyperdiploid Karyotype: Detailed High-Resolution Molecular Cytogenetic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capela de Matos, Roberto R; Ney Garcia, Daniela R; Cifoni, Elaine; Othman, Moneeb A K; Tavares de Souza, Mariana; Carboni, Edna K; Ferreira, Gerson M; Liehr, Thomas; Ribeiro, Raul C; M Silva, Maria Luiza

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous disease, presenting cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities which turned out to be critical prognostic factors. Ploidy changes as gain or loss of individual chromosomes are rare in AML, occurring only in about 1-2% of the affected children. Hyperdiploid karyotypes are exceedingly rare in infants less than 12 months of age. In this age group, structural rearrangements involving the KMT2A gene occur in about 58% of the cases. Among them, the translocation t(9;11)(p22;q23), KMT2A-MLLT3, is the most common abnormality accounting for approximately 22% of KMT2A rearrangements in infant AML cases. Here, we describe a 7- month-old girl with a history of fever and severe diarrhea, and a physical examination remarkable for pallor and hepatosplenomegaly. A novel complex hyperdiploid karyotype 53,XX,+X,+6,t(9;11)(p21.3;q23.3),+der(9)t(9;11)(p21.3;q23.3),dup(13)(q31q34),+14,+19,+21,+22 was characterized by high-resolution molecular cytogenetic approaches. Fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex-FISH, and multicolor chromosome banding were applied, revealing 2 reverse MLLT3-KMT2A fusions and a duplication of the GAS6 oncogene. Our work suggests that molecular cytogenetic studies are crucial for the planning of a proper strategy for risk therapy in AML infants with hyperdiploid karyotypes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. De novo acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2): a clinicopathologic and cytogenetic study of an entity recently added to the WHO classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianlan; Konoplev, Sergej N; Wang, Xuemei; Cui, Wei; Chen, Su S; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Lin, Pei

    2011-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3)(q21q26.2) or t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) is a rare type of leukemia recently added to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification scheme. In this study, we analyzed the clinicopathologic and cytogenetic features of 30 cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia with inv(3)/t(3;3). The median patient age was 53 years (range, 27-77 years). The platelet count was variable (range, 21-597 × 10(9)/l, median: 128 × 10(9)/l), and two (6.7%) patients presented with thrombocytosis (>450 × 10(9)/l). Morphologically, these neoplasms showed a spectrum of findings. Myelomonocytic differentiation was most common in 11 (37%) cases. Morphological evidence of dysplasia was observed in at least one lineage in 23 of 25 (92%) cases in which maturing elements could be assessed. In all, 5 (17%) patients had isolated inv(3) or t(3;3) and 25 (83%) patients had additional cytogenetic abnormalities, most often monosomy 7 (40%). Eleven (37%) patients had a complex karyotype (≥ 3 additional abnormalities). FLT3 gene mutation by internal tandem duplication was identified in 2 of 23 (9%) cases assessed. No clinical, pathological, or cytogenetic features independent of inv(3) or t(3;3) correlated with a worse outcome. However, patients treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (n=11) had a significantly better survival than did those treated with chemotherapy alone (n=17) (13.8 vs 8.0 months, P=0.041). We conclude that de novo acute myeloid leukemia associated with inv(3)/t(3;3) is an aggressive type of leukemia regardless of morphological or karyotypic findings, supporting the inclusion of this disease as a specific entity defined by inv(3)/t(3;3) in the WHO classification. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation seems to improve outcome in patients with this disease.

  15. Correlations between cytogenetic and molecular monitoring among patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase: post hoc analyses of the Rationale and Insight for Gleevec High-Dose Therapy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Luke P; Cortes, Jorge E; Albitar, Maher; Goldberg, Stuart L; Warsi, Ghulam; Wetzler, Meir; Ericson, Solveig G; Radich, Jerald P

    2014-09-01

    Although bone marrow (BM) karyotyping has been the standard in monitoring patients with chronic myeloid leukemia, peripheral blood (PB) monitoring methods may be more convenient. To conduct post hoc analyses of the Rationale and Insight for Gleevec High-Dose Therapy study to evaluate correlations between results of cytogenetic testing and molecular monitoring from BM and PB during the first 18 months of high-dose imatinib therapy, and between early and late molecular responses. Newly diagnosed patients with chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia received imatinib 400 mg twice daily and were monitored quarterly for up to 18 months. Cytogenetic testing was performed by karyotyping using BM or by fluorescence in situ hybridization using PB. Molecular testing was performed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using BM and PB. Significant pairwise correlations were found between results obtained by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using PB or BM (all pairwise correlations >0.8; P < .001). At 12 months, cytogenetic response by karyotyping correlated well with response by fluorescence in situ hybridization. A median 2.579-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 level from a standardized baseline correlated with fluorescence in situ hybridization-negative status. Patients with greater than 2-log reduction in BCR-ABL1 level at 3, 6, and 9 months were more likely to achieve major molecular response at 18 months than those with 2-log reduction or less. Our findings support the feasibility of molecular monitoring using PB and suggest that molecular monitoring conducted at a single reliable reference laboratory can adequately track response without invasive BM testing. Our findings are consistent with other work indicating that early response to imatinib predicts favorable long-term outcome.

  16. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  17. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a wheat–Thinopyrum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 70) serves as a valuable gene pool for wheat improvement. Line SN0224, derived from crosses between Th. ponticum and the common wheat cultivar Yannong15, was identified in the present study. Cytogenetic observations showed that SN0224 contains 42 chromosomes in the root-tip cells ...

  18. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of introgression in Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a molecular cytogenetic investigation of the process of introgression in Alstroemeria . The aim of this study was to transfer chromosomes or genes from one Alstroemeria species into another. For this, two

  19. Cytogenetic profile of aplastic anaemia in Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeta Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Five (11.9% patients with acquired aplastic anaemia had chromosomal abnormalities. Trisomy was found to be the commonest abnormality. Cytogenetic abnormalities may be significant in acquired aplastic anaemia although further studies on a large sample are required to confirm the findings.

  20. Functional polymorphisms in FAS/FASL system increase the risk of neuroblastoma in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    Full Text Available The FAS and FASL system plays a substantial role in apoptosis and immune escape of cells. Three polymorphisms located in the promoter regions of FAS (-1377G/A and -670A/G and FASL (-844T/C have been shown to alter the transcriptional activity of the genes, respectively. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of these polymorphisms on the susceptibility of neuroblastoma in the Chinese population. A total of 203 patients with neuroblastoma and 411 controls were recruited in this case-control study. Polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was applied for genotyping. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate cancer risk by calculating odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. It was observed that significantly increased risks of neuroblastoma associated with FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C polymorphisms, with ORs equal to 1.55 (95% CI, 1.10-2.20 for FAS -1377 A allele and 2.90 (95% CI, 2.04-4.12 for FASL -844CC genotype carriers compared with non-carriers, respectively. However, no association was found between the polymorphisms of FAS -670A/G and risk of neuroblastoma. In addition, the cumulative effect of FAS and FASL polymorphisms on risk of neuroblastoma was observed (P for trend = 2.502×10(-10, with OR for the carriers of both FAS -1377A allele and FASL -844CC genotypes equaled to 3.95 (95% CI, 2.40-6.51. This work reveals that polymorphisms of FAS -1377G/A and FASL -844T/C but not FAS -670A/G are associated with risk of neuroblastoma in Chinese. These findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphism in FAS/FASL death system may influence individual susceptibility to neuroblastoma.

  1. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  2. Identification of epigenetically regulated genes that predict patient outcome in neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enström Camilla

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are important regulators of gene expression and are frequently involved in silencing tumor suppressor genes. Methods In order to identify genes that are epigenetically regulated in neuroblastoma tumors, we treated four neuroblastoma cell lines with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC either separately or in conjunction with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA. Expression was analyzed using whole-genome expression arrays to identify genes activated by the treatment. These data were then combined with data from genome-wide DNA methylation arrays to identify candidate genes silenced in neuroblastoma due to DNA methylation. Results We present eight genes (KRT19, PRKCDBP, SCNN1A, POU2F2, TGFBI, COL1A2, DHRS3 and DUSP23 that are methylated in neuroblastoma, most of them not previously reported as such, some of which also distinguish between biological subsets of neuroblastoma tumors. Differential methylation was observed for the genes SCNN1A (p PRKCDBP (p KRT19 (p KRT19 and PRKCDBP was significantly lower in patients that have died from the disease compared with patients with no evidence of disease (fold change -8.3, p = 0.01 for KRT19 and fold change -2.4, p = 0.04 for PRKCDBP. Conclusions In our study, a low methylation frequency of SCNN1A, PRKCDBP and KRT19 is significantly associated with favorable outcome in neuroblastoma. It is likely that analysis of specific DNA methylation will be one of several methods in future patient therapy stratification protocols for treatment of childhood neuroblastomas.

  3. Copy number variation at 1q21.1 associated with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, Sharon J; Hou, Cuiping; Glessner, Joseph T; Attiyeh, Edward F; Laudenslager, Marci; Bosse, Kristopher; Cole, Kristina; Mossé, Yaël P; Wood, Andrew; Lynch, Jill E; Pecor, Katlyn; Diamond, Maura; Winter, Cynthia; Wang, Kai; Kim, Cecilia; Geiger, Elizabeth A; McGrady, Patrick W; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; London, Wendy B; Shaikh, Tamim H; Bradfield, Jonathan; Grant, Struan F A; Li, Hongzhe; Devoto, Marcella; Rappaport, Eric R; Hakonarson, Hakon; Maris, John M

    2009-06-18

    Common copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant source of genetic diversity, yet their influence on phenotypic variability, including disease susceptibility, remains poorly understood. To address this problem in human cancer, we performed a genome-wide association study of CNVs in the childhood cancer neuroblastoma, a disease in which single nucleotide polymorphism variations are known to influence susceptibility. We first genotyped 846 Caucasian neuroblastoma patients and 803 healthy Caucasian controls at approximately 550,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, and performed a CNV-based test for association. We then replicated significant observations in two independent sample sets comprised of a total of 595 cases and 3,357 controls. Here we describe the identification of a common CNV at chromosome 1q21.1 associated with neuroblastoma in the discovery set, which was confirmed in both replication sets. This CNV was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization and analysis of matched tumour specimens, and was shown to be heritable in an independent set of 713 cancer-free parent-offspring trios. We identified a previously unknown transcript within the CNV that showed high sequence similarity to several neuroblastoma breakpoint family (NBPF) genes and represents a new member of this gene family (NBPF23). This transcript was preferentially expressed in fetal brain and fetal sympathetic nervous tissues, and the expression level was strictly correlated with CNV state in neuroblastoma cells. These data demonstrate that inherited copy number variation at 1q21.1 is associated with neuroblastoma and implicate a previously unknown neuroblastoma breakpoint family gene in early tumorigenesis of this childhood cancer.

  4. A high-resolution cucumber cytogenetic map integrated with the genome assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianying; Zhang, Zhonghua; Zong, Xu; Huang, Sanwen; Li, Zongyun; Han, Yonghua

    2013-07-09

    High-resolution cytogenetic map can provide not only important biological information on genome organization but also solid foundation for genetic and genomic research. The progress in the molecular and cytogenetic studies has created the basis for developing the cytogenetic map in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Here, the cytogenetic maps of four cucumber chromosomes (chromosomes 1, 3-5) were constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis on cucumber pachytene chromosomes. Together with our previously constructed cytogenetic maps of three cucumber chromosomes (chromosomes 2, 6-7), cucumber has a complete cytogenetic map with 76 anchoring points between the genetic, the cytogenetic and the draft genome assembly maps. To compare our pachytene FISH map directly to the genetic linkage and draft genome assembly maps, we used a standardized map unit-relative map position (RMP) to produce the comparative map alignments. The alignments allowed a global view of the relationship of genetic and physical distances along each cucumber chromosome, and accuracy and coverage of the draft genome assembly map. We demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers in the linkage and physical maps, and essentially complete coverage of chromosome arms by the draft genome assembly. Our study not only provides essential information for the improvement of sequence assembly but also offers molecular tools for cucumber genomics research, comparative genomics and evolutionary study.

  5. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS IN SLOVENIAN ACUTE LEUKEMIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Podgornik

    2008-04-01

    Using molecular cytogenetic and genetic methods a possibility that some of chromosomalchanges were overlooked was considerably minimized. On the basis of the analyzed datawe can be confident that the cytogenetic diagnostic approach in our acute leukemia patients is in accordance with international guidelines

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy in a child with abdominal neuroblastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Dilated cardiomyopathy as an initial presentation of neuroblastoma is rare. We report the case of a three-year-old child with giant abdominal neuroblastoma encasing the abdominal aorta who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy in heart failure ...

  7. Temporal proteomics of NGF-TrkA signaling identifies an inhibitory role for the E3 ligase Cbl-b in neuroblastoma cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emdal, Kristina B; Pedersen, Anna-Kathrine; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B

    2015-01-01

    SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells respond to nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated activation of the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) with neurite outgrowth, thereby providing a model to study neuronal differentiation. We performed a time-resolved analysis of NGF-TrkA signaling in neuroblastoma cells...

  8. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    called adaptation. Certain individuals might possess character- istics that better fit the environment and consequently such individuals survive longer and reproduce more. If these ... phism in all natural populations and how populations use this reservoir of .... cellent method for the experimental study of natural selection in.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of neuroblastoma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durinck, Kaat; Speleman, Frank

    2018-01-19

    In recent years, technological advances have enabled a detailed landscaping of the epigenome and the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation that drive normal cell function, development and cancer. Rather than merely a structural entity to support genome compaction, we now look at chromatin as a very dynamic and essential constellation that is actively participating in the tight orchestration of transcriptional regulation as well as DNA replication and repair. The unique feature of chromatin flexibility enabling fast switches towards more or less restricted epigenetic cellular states is, not surprisingly, intimately connected to cancer development and treatment resistance, and the central role of epigenetic alterations in cancer is illustrated by the finding that up to 50% of all mutations across cancer entities affect proteins controlling the chromatin status. We summarize recent insights into epigenetic rewiring underlying neuroblastoma (NB) tumor formation ranging from changes in DNA methylation patterns and mutations in epigenetic regulators to global effects on transcriptional regulatory circuits that involve key players in NB oncogenesis. Insights into the disruption of the homeostatic epigenetic balance contributing to developmental arrest of sympathetic progenitor cells and subsequent NB oncogenesis are rapidly growing and will be exploited towards the development of novel therapeutic strategies to increase current survival rates of patients with high-risk NB.

  10. The mutational oncoprint of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in adult patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisfeld, A-K; Mrózek, K; Kohlschmidt, J; Nicolet, D; Orwick, S; Walker, C J; Kroll, K W; Blachly, J S; Carroll, A J; Kolitz, J E; Powell, B L; Wang, E S; Stone, R M; de la Chapelle, A; Byrd, J C; Bloomfield, C D

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations detected at the time of diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are associated with particular disease features, treatment response and survival of AML patients, and are used to denote specific disease entities in the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. However, large studies that integrate cytogenetic and comprehensive mutational information are scarce. We created a comprehensive oncoprint of mutations associated with recurrent cytogenetic findings by combining the information on mutational patterns of 80 cancer- and leukemia-associated genes with cytogenetic findings in 1603 adult patients with de novo AML. We show unique differences in the mutational profiles among major cytogenetic subsets, identify novel associations between recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities and both specific gene mutations and gene functional groups, and reveal differences in cytogenetic and mutational features between patients younger than 60 years and those aged 60 years or older. The identified associations between cytogenetic and molecular genetic data may help guide mutation testing in AML, and result in more focused application of targeted therapy in patients with de novo AML.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action of garlic compounds in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-05-01

    The medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been well known and widely used since historical times. Garlic compounds have received increasing attention during the last few years due to their cancer chemopreventive properties. The anti-cancer activity of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are extensively reported in many cancers but only a few in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma, which warrants exploration of new therapy for its management. There are some recent reports suggesting that garlic-derived OSCs cause cell cycle arrest, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate stress kinases, and also stimulate the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma. The comprehensive mechanisms of anti-cancer action of OSCs still remain unclear and require more studies in neuroblastoma. This review is designed to highlight the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of garlic-derived OSCs in neuroblastoma and as well as in several other cancers. Further studies should be conducted to establish the clinical expediency of garlic-derived OSCs for treatment of malignant neuroblastoma in humans.

  12. Extracellular matrix rigidity modulates neuroblastoma cell differentiation and N-myc expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wilbur A; Cao, Lizhi; Umesh, Vaibhavi; Keung, Albert J; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Sanjay

    2010-02-10

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric malignancy characterized by tremendous clinical heterogeneity, in which some tumors are extremely aggressive while others spontaneously differentiate into benign forms. Because the degree of differentiation correlates with prognosis, and because differentiating agents such as retinoic acid (RA) have proven to decrease mortality, much effort has been devoted to identifying critical regulators of neuroblastoma differentiation in the cellular microenvironment, including cues encoded in the extracellular matrix (ECM). While signaling between tumor cells and the ECM is classically regarded to be based purely on biochemical recognition of ECM ligands by specific cellular receptors, a number of recent studies have made it increasingly clear that the biophysical properties of the ECM may also play an important role in this cross-talk. Given that RA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation is accompanied by profound changes in cell morphology and neurite extension, both of which presumably rely upon mechanotransductive signaling systems, it occurred to us that mechanical cues from the ECM might also influence RA-mediated differentiation, which in turn might regulate clinically-relevant aspects of neuroblastoma biology. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by subjecting a series of neuroblastoma culture models to ECM microenvironments of varying mechanical stiffness and examined the regulatory role of ECM stiffness in proliferation, differentiation, and expression of tumor markers. We find that increasing ECM stiffness enhances neuritogenesis and suppresses cell proliferation. Remarkably, increasing ECM stiffness also reduces expression of N-Myc, a transcription factor involved in multiple aspects of oncogenic proliferation that is used for evaluating prognosis and clinical grading of neuroblastoma. Furthermore, the addition of RA enhances all of these effects for all ECM stiffnesses tested. Together, our data strongly support the notion that

  13. Common variations within HACE1 gene and neuroblastoma susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhuorong Zhang,1,2,* Ruizhong Zhang,1,* Jinhong Zhu,3 Fenghua Wang,1 Tianyou Yang,1 Yan Zou,1 Jing He,1 Huimin Xia1,2 1Department of Pediatric Surgery, Guangzhou Institute of Pediatrics, Guangzhou Women and Children’s Medical Center, Guangzhou Medical University, 2Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 3Molecular Epidemiology Laboratory and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, Heilongjiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Neuroblastoma is a common fatal pediatric cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system, which accounts for ~10% of all pediatric cancer deaths. To investigate genetic risk factors related to neuroblastoma, many genome-wide association studies have been performed, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within HACE1 gene have been identified to associate with neuroblastoma risk. However, the association of the HACE1 SNPs with neuroblastoma needs to be validated in Southern Chinese children. We genotyped five SNPs located in the HACE1 gene (rs4336470 C>T, rs9404576 T>G, rs4079063 A>G, rs2499663 T>C, and rs2499667 A>G in 256 Southern Chinese patients in comparison with 531 ethnically matched healthy controls. Single locus analysis showed no significant association between any of HACE1 SNPs and neuroblastoma risk in Southern Chinese children. However, when all the risk genotypes were combined, we found a borderline significant trend toward an increased neuroblastoma risk with 4–5 risk genotypes (adjusted odds ratio =1.36, 95% confidence interval =0.98–1.89, P=0.065. Moreover, stratified analysis found that carriers of 4–5 risk genotypes tended to develop neuroblastoma in the retroperitoneal region and have more aggressive tumors, progressing to advanced clinical stages III/IV, when compared with those of 0–3 risk genotypes. In conclusion, HACE1 gene may have weak effect on neuroblastoma risk in

  14. Limited flow cytometry panels on bone marrow specimens reduce costs and predict negative cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Douglas G; Kim, Burton H

    2014-01-01

    To determine the clinical and financial impact and predictive value of a limited flow cytometry strategy in the evaluation of bone marrow specimens. Consecutive bone marrow cases (n = 1,242) were reviewed following the independent, prospective application of two flow cytometry protocols: a limited marker strategy and a multimarker strategy. Combined morphologic and flow cytometry findings were also compared with cytogenetic results. A limited flow cytometry strategy did not have a negative impact on disease detection and resulted in reduced utilization and cost. In addition, negative combined morphology and flow cytometry had a 98.4% predictive value for negative cytogenetics (P flow cytometric and cytogenetic studies on these samples.

  15. Transcribed-ultra conserved region expression is associated with outcome in high-risk neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garaventa Alberto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma is the most common, pediatric, extra-cranial, malignant solid tumor. Despite multimodal therapeutic protocols, outcome for children with a high-risk clinical phenotype remains poor, with long-term survival still less than 40%. Hereby, we evaluated the potential of non-coding RNA expression to predict outcome in high-risk, stage 4 neuroblastoma. Methods We analyzed expression of 481 Ultra Conserved Regions (UCRs by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR and of 723 microRNAs by microarrays in 34 high-risk, stage 4 neuroblastoma patients. Results First, the comparison of 8 short- versus 12 long-term survivors showed that 54 UCRs were significantly (P P P P Conclusions Our pilot study suggests that a deregulation of the microRNA/T-UCR network may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. After further validation on a larger independent set of samples, such findings may be applied as the first T-UCR prognostic signature for high-risk neuroblastoma patients.

  16. Nifurtimox induces apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier Sholler, Giselle L; Brard, Laurent; Straub, Jennifer A; Dorf, Lee; Illeyne, Sharon; Koto, Karen; Kalkunte, Satyan; Bosenberg, Marcus; Ashikaga, Taka; Nishi, Rae

    2009-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and, when disseminated, carries a poor prognosis. Even with aggressive combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, autologous bone marrow transplant, and radiation, long-term survival remains at 30% and new therapies are needed. Recently, a patient with neuroblastoma who acquired Chagas disease was treated with nifurtimox with subsequent reduction in tumor size. The effect of nifurtimox on the neuroblastoma cell lines CHLA-90, LA1-55n, LA-N2, SMS-KCNR, and SY5Y was examined. Nifurtimox decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell morphology, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, and caspase-3 activation indicate that cell death was primarily due to apoptosis. Nifurtimox also suppressed basal and TrkB-mediated Akt phosphorylation, and the cytotoxicity of nifurtimox was attenuated by a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor (alpha-methyl-tyrosine). Nifurtimox killed catecholaminergic, but not cholinergic, autonomic neurons in culture. In vivo xenograft models showed inhibition of tumor growth with a histologic decrease in proliferation and increase in apoptosis. These results suggest that nifurtimox induces cell death in neuroblastoma. Therefore, further studies are warranted to develop nifurtimox as a promising new treatment for neuroblastoma.

  17. Improved antitumour immunity in murine neuroblastoma using a combination of IL-2 and IL-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siapati, K E; Barker, S; Kinnon, C; Michalski, A; Anderson, R; Brickell, P; Thrasher, A J; Hart, S L

    2003-05-19

    Neuroblastoma immunotherapy using cytokine-modified tumour cells has been tested in clinical trials. However, because of the complex nature of antitumour immune responses, a number of therapies may be required for complete tumour eradication and generation of systemic immunity. We report here the improved antitumour effect of two cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-12 (IL-12), when coexpressed by neuroblastoma cell lines. Initially, transfection of human and mouse neuroblastoma cell lines resulted in high expression levels of biologically active IL-2 and IL-12 in vitro. These cytokines when expressed by transfected Neuro-2A cells completely abolished their in vivo tumorigenicity in a syngeneic neuroblastoma model. Vaccination of established tumours with IL-12-producing cells exhibited a clear effect with reduced tumour growth in the presence of IL-2. In vivo depletion studies showed that CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells mediate the response against cytokine-producing cells. These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-12, when cotransfected in tumour cells, are effective against established disease and provide a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  18. A multidisciplinary team care approach improves outcomes in high-risk pediatric neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiu-Hao; Liu, Yen-Lin; Lu, Meng-Yao; Jou, Shiann-Tarng; Yang, Yung-Li; Lin, Dong-Tsamn; Lin, Kai-Hsin; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Lu, Ching-Chu; Liu, Chia-Ju; Peng, Steven Shinn-Forng; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Lee, Hsinyu; Juan, Hsueh-Fen; Huang, Min-Chuan; Liao, Yung-Feng; Lee, Ya-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Ming

    2017-01-17

    We assessed the impact of a multidisciplinary team care program on treatment outcomes in neuroblastoma patients. Newly diagnosed neuroblastoma patients received treatment under the Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG) N2002 protocol at the National Taiwan University Hospital beginning in 2002. A multidisciplinary team care approach that included nurse-led case management for patients treated under this protocol began in January 2010. Fifty-eight neuroblastoma patients, including 29 treated between 2002 and 2009 (Group 1) and 29 treated between 2010 and 2014 (Group 2), were enrolled in the study. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates for all 58 patients were 59% and 54.7%, respectively. Group 2 patients, who were treated after implementation of the multidisciplinary team care program, had better 3-year EFS (P = 0.046), but not OS (P = 0.16), rates than Group 1 patients. In a multivariate analysis, implementation of the multidisciplinary team approach was the only significant independent prognostic factor for neuroblastoma patients. In further subgroup analyses, the multidisciplinary team approach improved EFS, but not OS, in patients with stage 4 disease, those in the high-risk group, and those with non-MYCN amplified tumors. These data indicate a multidisciplinary team care approach improved survival outcomes in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. However, further investigation will be required to evaluate the long-term effects of this approach over longer follow-up periods.

  19. Phenolic diterpenes derived from Hyptis incana induce apoptosis and G(2)/M arrest of neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Keiichi; Kim, Myongjun; Makino, Mitsuko; Satoh, Mitsuru; Satoh, Yoshio; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most commonly encountered solid tumors in the pediatric age group, and the prognosis of patients with advanced neuroblastoma is very poor. In this study, the antitumor effects of five phenolic diterpenes derived from Hyptis incana (Lamiaceae), a Brazilian medicinal plant, were examined on neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptotic nuclear shrinkage was monitored by Hoechst 33342 staining. The cell-cycle status was evaluated by flow cytometry and protein alterations were monitored by western blotting. Differentiated cells were photographed and counted in a randomized fashion. All of the examined compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity towards the neuroblastoma cells. In particular, 7-ethoxyrosmanol had a high degree of efficacy. Nuclear condensation and degradation of procaspase-3 and -9 were observed after treatment of the cells with these compounds. Moreover, phenolic diterpenes induced cell-cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase. Rosmanol and epirosmanol tended to induce differentiation. Phenolic diterpenes isolated from H. incana have multiple antitumor effects on neuroblastoma cells.

  20. LMNA knock-down affects differentiation and progression of human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Maresca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB is one of the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood. Although genes, such as MYCN, have been shown to be involved in the aggressiveness of the disease, the identification of new biological markers is still desirable. The induction of differentiation is one of the strategies used in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A-type lamins are components of the nuclear lamina and are involved in differentiation. We studied the role of Lamin A/C in the differentiation and progression of neuroblastoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Knock-down of Lamin A/C (LMNA-KD in neuroblastoma cells blocked retinoic acid-induced differentiation, preventing neurites outgrowth and the expression of neural markers. The genome-wide gene-expression profile and the proteomic analysis of LMNA-KD cells confirmed the inhibition of differentiation and demonstrated an increase of aggressiveness-related genes and molecules resulting in augmented migration/invasion, and increasing the drug resistance of the cells. The more aggressive phenotype acquired by LMNA-KD cells was also maintained in vivo after injection into nude mice. A preliminary immunohistochemistry analysis of Lamin A/C expression in nine primary stages human NB indicated that this protein is poorly expressed in most of these cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time in neuroblastoma cells that Lamin A/C plays a central role in the differentiation, and that the loss of this protein gave rise to a more aggressive tumor phenotype.

  1. Immune Thrombocytopenia in a Child with Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tarkan Ikizoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytopenia is a frequent finding in patients with solid tumors. It is usually caused by bone marrow infiltration or by myelosuppression due to anticancer therapy; however immune thrombocytopenia (ITP associated with solid tumors is rare. Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Here we report the case of a two-year-nine-month-old patient with adrenal neuroblastoma who presented with ITP. Paraneoplastic ITP was considered in the differential diagnosis. Bone marrow infiltration and other causes of thrombocytopenia were excluded and the patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and tumor resection. Platelet count increased rapidly after surgery and complete remission of ITP was achieved.

  2. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Johannes Morscher; Sepideh Aminzadeh-Gohari; René Gunther Feichtinger; Johannes Adalbert Mayr; Roland Lang; Daniel Neureiter; Wolfgang Sperl; Barbara Kofler

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer?s oxidative phosphorylation system. Methods Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two ne...

  3. Hox-C9 activates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and is associated with spontaneous regression in neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kocak, H.; Ackermann, S.; Hero, B.; Kahlert, Y; Oberthuer, A; Juraeva, D.; Roels, F; Theissen, J.; Westermann, F; Deubzer, H; Ehemann, V.; Brors, B.; Odenthal, M.; Berthold, F.; Fischer, M

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. Spontaneous regression and differentiation of neuroblastoma is observed in a subset of patients, and has been suggested to represent delayed activation of physiologic molecular programs of fetal neuroblasts. Homeobox genes constitute an important family of transcription factors, which play a fundamental role in morphogenesis and cell differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that expression o...

  4. Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuroblastoma is a paediatric malignancy that typically arises in early childhood, and is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Clinical phenotypes range from localized tumours with excellent outcomes to widely metastatic disease in which long-term survival is approximately 40% despite intensive therapy. A previous genome-wide association study identified common polymorphisms at the LMO1 gene locus that are highly associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenic addiction to LMO1 in the tumour cells.

  5. Cytogenetics investigation in different populations of Anthemis tinctoria L. (yellow camomile) accessions from Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javadi, Hamideh; Alizadeh, Mohamad Ali; Emami, Hosein; Shanjani, Parvin Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Twelve populations of Anthemis tinctoria L. (yellow camomile) medicinal plant belonging to the tribe Anthemideae within the family Compositae, from different Iranian origins were studied in aspect of cytogenetical marker...

  6. Branchio-otic syndrome caused by a genomic rearrangement: clinical findings and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Bierhals, T; Kortüm, F; Bartels, I; Liehr, T; Burfeind, P; Shoukier, M; Frank, V; Bergmann, C; Kutsche, K

    2014-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited developmental disorder, which is characterized by anomalies of the ears, the branchial arches and the kidneys. It is caused by mutations in the genes EYA1,SIX1 and SIX5. Genomic rearrangements of chromosome 8 affecting the EYA1 gene have also been described. Owing to this fact, methods for the identification of abnormal copy numbers such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have been introduced as routine laboratory techniques for molecular diagnostics of BOR syndrome. The advantages of these techniques are clear compared to standard cytogenetic and array approaches as well as Southern blot. MLPA detects deletions or duplications of a part or the entire gene of interest, but not balanced structural aberrations such as inversions and translocations. Consequently, disruption of a gene by a genomic rearrangement may escape detection by a molecular genetic analysis, although this gene interruption results in haploinsufficiency and, therefore, causes the disease. In a patient with clinical features of BOR syndrome, such as hearing loss, preauricular fistulas and facial dysmorphisms, but no renal anomalies, neither sequencing of the 3 genes linked to BOR syndrome nor array comparative genomic hybridization and MLPA were able to uncover a causative mutation. By routine cytogenetic analysis, we finally identified a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 in the affected female. High-resolution multicolor banding confirmed the chromosome 8 inversion and narrowed down the karyotype to 46,XX,inv(8)(p22q13). By applying fluorescence in situ hybridization, we narrowed down both breakpoints on chromosome 8 and found the EYA1 gene in q13.3 to be directly disrupted. We conclude that standard karyotyping should not be neglected in the genetic diagnostics of BOR syndrome or other Mendelian disorders, particularly when molecular testing failed to detect any causative alteration in patients with

  7. Therapeutically targeting glypican-2 via single-domain antibody-based chimeric antigen receptors and immunotoxins in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Fu, Haiying; Hewitt, Stephen M; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Ho, Mitchell

    2017-08-08

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that is fatal in almost half of patients despite intense multimodality treatment. This cancer is derived from neuroendocrine tissue located in the sympathetic nervous system. Glypican-2 (GPC2) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is important for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. In this study, we find that GPC2 protein is highly expressed in about half of neuroblastoma cases and that high GPC2 expression correlates with poor overall survival compared with patients with low GPC2 expression. We demonstrate that silencing of GPC2 by CRISPR-Cas9 or siRNA results in the inhibition of neuroblastoma tumor cell growth. GPC2 silencing inactivates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and reduces the expression of the target gene N-Myc, an oncogenic driver of neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We have isolated human single-domain antibodies specific for GPC2 by phage display technology and found that the single-domain antibodies can inhibit active β-catenin signaling by disrupting the interaction of GPC2 and Wnt3a. To explore GPC2 as a potential target in neuroblastoma, we have developed two forms of antibody therapeutics, immunotoxins and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. Immunotoxin treatment was demonstrated to inhibit neuroblastoma growth in mice. CAR T cells targeting GPC2 eliminated tumors in a disseminated neuroblastoma mouse model where tumor metastasis had spread to multiple clinically relevant sites, including spine, skull, legs, and pelvis. This study suggests GPC2 as a promising therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

  8. Comparison of cytogenetic abnormalities and deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy of benign, borderline malignant, and different grades of malignant soft tissue tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eva; Oven, M W Van; de Jong, Bauke; Dam, Anke; Wiersema, J; Dijkhuizen, T; Hoekstra, H J; Molenaar, W M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both DNA flow cytometry and cytogenetic analysis have been used to study soft tissue tumors. With flow cytometry, the DNA content of a relatively large number of cells can be examined, but cytogenetic analysis gives more detailed information about genomic changes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In

  9. Clinical Responses to Rituximab in a Case of Neuroblastoma with Refractory Opsoclonus Myoclonus Ataxia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Alavi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMS is a rare neurologic syndrome. In a high proportion of children, it is associated with neuroblastoma. The etiology of this condition is thought to be immune mediated. In children, immunotherapy with conventional treatments such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and even antiepileptic drugs has been tried. Recently rituximab has been used safely for refractory OMS in children with neuroblastoma. Our patient was a 3.5-year-old girl referred for ataxia and dancing eye movements starting since 1.5 years ago. She was diagnosed with neuroblastoma on imaging studies on admission. The OMS was refractory to surgical resection, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Patient received rituximab simultaneously with chemotherapy. The total severity score decreased by 61.1% after rituximab. Patient's ataxia markedly improved that she was able to walk independently after 6 months. Our case confirmed the clinical efficacy and safety of rituximab in a refractory case of OMS.

  10. CASP8 SNP D302H (rs1045485) is associated with worse survival in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, Ali; De Wilde, Bram; Zeka, Fjoralba; Laureys, Geneviève; Francotte, Nadine; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Coco, Simona; Versteeg, Rogier; Noguera, Rosa; Schulte, Johannes H; Eggert, Angelika; Stallings, Raymond L; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Van Maerken, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer that exhibits a wide clinical spectrum ranging from spontaneous regression in low-risk patients to fatal disease in high-risk patients. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may help explain the heterogeneity of neuroblastoma and assist in identifying patients at higher risk for poor survival. SNPs in the TP53 pathway are of special importance, as several studies have reported associations between TP53 pathway SNPs and cancer. Of note, less than 2% of neuroblastoma tumors have a TP53 mutation at diagnosis. We selected 21 of the most frequently studied SNPs in the TP53 pathway and evaluated their association with outcome in 500 neuroblastoma patients using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. We investigated the impact of 21 SNPs on overall survival, event-free survival, age at diagnosis, MYCN status, and stage of the disease in 500 neuroblastoma patients. A missense SNP in exon 10 of the CASP8 gene SNP D302H was associated with worse overall and event-free survival in patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma tumors.

  11. CASP8 SNP D302H (rs1045485 is associated with worse survival in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rihani

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer that exhibits a wide clinical spectrum ranging from spontaneous regression in low-risk patients to fatal disease in high-risk patients. The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may help explain the heterogeneity of neuroblastoma and assist in identifying patients at higher risk for poor survival. SNPs in the TP53 pathway are of special importance, as several studies have reported associations between TP53 pathway SNPs and cancer. Of note, less than 2% of neuroblastoma tumors have a TP53 mutation at diagnosis.We selected 21 of the most frequently studied SNPs in the TP53 pathway and evaluated their association with outcome in 500 neuroblastoma patients using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays.We investigated the impact of 21 SNPs on overall survival, event-free survival, age at diagnosis, MYCN status, and stage of the disease in 500 neuroblastoma patients. A missense SNP in exon 10 of the CASP8 gene SNP D302H was associated with worse overall and event-free survival in patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma tumors.

  12. Next generation sequencing of microRNAs from isogenic neuroblastoma cell lines isolated before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Sarah Andrea; Knutsen, Erik; Fiskaa, Tonje; Utnes, Peter; Bhavsar, Swapnil; Hald, Øyvind H; Løkke, Cecilie; Mestdagh, Pieter; Johansen, Steinar D; Flægstad, Trond; Einvik, Christer

    2016-03-01

    Neuroblastoma is a pediatric cancer of the developing sympathetic nervous system. High risk neuroblastoma patients typically undergo an initial remission in response to treatment, followed by recurrence of aggressive tumors that have become refractory to further treatment. Recent works have underlined the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neuroblastoma development and evolution of drug resistance. In this study we have used deep sequencing technology to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in neuroblastoma cell lines isolated from 6 patients at diagnosis and at relapse after intensive treatments. This approach revealed a panel of 42 differentially expressed miRNAs, 8 of which were upregulated and 34 were downregulated. Most strikingly, the 14q32 miRNA clusters encode 22 of the downregulated miRNAs. Reduced expression of 14q32 miRNAs in tumors associated with poor prognosis factors was confirmed in a cohort consisting of 226 primary neuroblastomas. In order to gain insight into the nature of the genes that may be affected by the differentially expressed miRNAs we utilized Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). This analysis revealed several biological functions and canonical pathways associated with cancer progression and drug resistance. The results of this study contribute to the identification of miRNAs involved in the complex processes of surviving therapeutic treatment and developing drug resistance in neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  14. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  15. Immunocombination therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesen, M.; Lindau, D.; Hoogerbrugge, P.; Adema, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is an aggressive malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. Advanced-stage NBLs prove fatal in approximately 50% of patients within 5 years. Therefore, new treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is a treatment modality that can be combined with established

  16. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Advanced Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is sponsoring two clinical trials of a monoclonal antibody called ch14.18, in combination with other drugs, to see if the antibody may be helpful for children or young adults (up to age 21) with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma.

  17. Cervical neonatal neuroblastoma with recurrent SVT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shammari, N F; Redha, E; Al Hajeri, M H

    2009-07-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood and the third most common paediatric malignancy after leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. It constitutes 10% of all paediatric malignancies and 75% of them present in children below 4 years of age. Seventy five percent of neuroblastoma arise in the abdomen and pelvis, 20% in the thorax and 5% in the neck. The median age at diagnosis is 22 months. Up to 95% of cases are diagnosed by the age of ten years. Neuroblastomas have been diagnosed in utero as early as 19 weeks of gestational age. They can arise anywhere along the sympathetic chain. They occur most commonly in the adrenal medulla (35%). Neuroblastomas also occur as primary tumors in the extra-adrenal retroperitoneum in 30% of cases, in the posterior mediastinum in 20% of cases , in the neck up to 5% of cases and in the pelvis in 5% of cases. Approximately 50% of patients will have metastasis at presentation.

  18. Peripheral neuroblastomas in dogs: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, A M; Tanabe, M; Edwards, J; Storts, R

    2014-05-01

    The peripheral neuroblastic tumours (PNTs) include neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuromas. These subtypes reflect a spectrum of differentiation of progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system from tumours with predominant undifferentiated neuroblasts to those consisting of neuronal cell bodies that are well differentiated. Peripheral neuroblastoma is a tumour composed of neuroblastic cells with no or limited neuronal differentiation. In dogs, peripheral neuroblastoma is rare. The present report documents nine cases of canine peripheral neuroblastoma, the majority occurring as large masses in the craniodorsal abdominal cavity of young dogs (mean age of 3 years at diagnosis). Microscopically, all of the masses consisted of round to oval cells with a scant cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Homer-Wright rosettes and pseudorosettes were evident in three of the nine cases. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive in varying degrees to S100, neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, tyrosine hydroxylase (one case) and were negative for vimentin, cytokeratin, CD3 and CD79a, indicating a neurogenic nature. Four of the nine cases occurred in Labrador retrievers (44%) and two (22%) in boxers, suggesting a possible breed predisposition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular events during tumor progression in neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernards, R.A.; Lenardo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The N-myc oncogene was first identified as an amplified DNA element with homology to c-myc in human neuroblastoma. Since this initial observation, amplification of N-myc has also been observed in other types of human cancer, predominantly in retinoblastoma and small cell lung cancer. The

  20. Detection of human aneuploidies in prenatal and postnatal diagnosis using molecular cytogenetics

    OpenAIRE

    Kucheria Kiran; Jobanputra Vaidehi; Talwar Rashmi; Ahmed M; Dada Rima; Sivakumaran T

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal aneuploidies especially trisomies 13, 18, 21, monosomy X and 47, XXY account for up to 95% of live born cytogenetic abnormalities. The diagnosis of aneuploidies usually done by conventional cytogenetic analysis (CCA) is associated with technical difficulties and requires about 1-3 weeks for providing a result, especially in prenatal diagnosis. In the present study, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) was used on interphase cells for rapid prenatal and postnatal detect...

  1. The Checkpoint Kinase 1 Inhibitor Prexasertib Induces Regression of Preclinical Models of Human Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Caitlin D; VanWye, Alle B; Dowless, Michele; Blosser, Wayne; Falcon, Beverly L; Stewart, Julie; Stephens, Jennifer; Beckmann, Richard P; Bence Lin, Aimee; Stancato, Louis F

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a key regulator of the DNA damage response and a mediator of replication stress through modulation of replication fork licensing and activation of S and G2-M cell-cycle checkpoints. We evaluated prexasertib (LY2606368), a small-molecule CHK1 inhibitor currently in clinical testing, in multiple preclinical models of pediatric cancer. Following an initial assessment of prexasertib activity, this study focused on the preclinical models of neuroblastoma.Experimental Design: We evaluated the antiproliferative activity of prexasertib in a panel of cancer cell lines; neuroblastoma cell lines were among the most sensitive. Subsequent Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses measured DNA damage and DNA repair protein activation. Prexasertib was investigated in several cell line-derived xenograft mouse models of neuroblastoma.Results: Within 24 hours, single-agent prexasertib promoted γH2AX-positive double-strand DNA breaks and phosphorylation of DNA damage sensors ATM and DNA-PKcs, leading to neuroblastoma cell death. Knockdown of CHK1 and/or CHK2 by siRNA verified that the double-strand DNA breaks and cell death elicited by prexasertib were due to specific CHK1 inhibition. Neuroblastoma xenografts rapidly regressed following prexasertib administration, independent of starting tumor volume. Decreased Ki67 and increased immunostaining of endothelial and pericyte markers were observed in xenografts after only 6 days of exposure to prexasertib, potentially indicating a swift reduction in tumor volume and/or a direct effect on tumor vasculature.Conclusions: Overall, these data demonstrate that prexasertib is a specific inhibitor of CHK1 in neuroblastoma and leads to DNA damage and cell death in preclinical models of this devastating pediatric malignancy. Clin Cancer Res; 23(15); 4354-63. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Design of a multi-signature ensemble classifier predicting neuroblastoma patients' outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornero, Andrea; Acquaviva, Massimo; Fardin, Paolo; Versteeg, Rogier; Schramm, Alexander; Eva, Alessandra; Bosco, Maria Carla; Blengio, Fabiola; Barzaghi, Sara; Varesio, Luigi

    2012-03-28

    Neuroblastoma is the most common pediatric solid tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. Development of improved predictive tools for patients stratification is a crucial requirement for neuroblastoma therapy. Several studies utilized gene expression-based signatures to stratify neuroblastoma patients and demonstrated a clear advantage of adding genomic analysis to risk assessment. There is little overlapping among signatures and merging their prognostic potential would be advantageous. Here, we describe a new strategy to merge published neuroblastoma related gene signatures into a single, highly accurate, Multi-Signature Ensemble (MuSE)-classifier of neuroblastoma (NB) patients outcome. Gene expression profiles of 182 neuroblastoma tumors, subdivided into three independent datasets, were used in the various phases of development and validation of neuroblastoma NB-MuSE-classifier. Thirty three signatures were evaluated for patients' outcome prediction using 22 classification algorithms each and generating 726 classifiers and prediction results. The best-performing algorithm for each signature was selected, validated on an independent dataset and the 20 signatures performing with an accuracy > = 80% were retained. We combined the 20 predictions associated to the corresponding signatures through the selection of the best performing algorithm into a single outcome predictor. The best performance was obtained by the Decision Table algorithm that produced the NB-MuSE-classifier characterized by an external validation accuracy of 94%. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test demonstrated that patients with good and poor outcome prediction by the NB-MuSE-classifier have a significantly different survival (p < 0.0001). Survival curves constructed on subgroups of patients divided on the bases of known prognostic marker suggested an excellent stratification of localized and stage 4s tumors but more data are needed to prove this point. The NB-MuSE-classifier is based on an

  3. Cytogenetic analysis in the spermatogenesis of Triatoma melanosoma (Reduviidae; Heteroptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Bardella, V. B. [UNESP; Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo; Tartarotti, E.

    2008-01-01

    Triatomines are of great concern in public health because they are vectors of Chagas' disease. This study presents an analysis of the species Triatoma melanosoma. The cytogenetic characteristics of triatomines include holocentric chromosomes, post-reductional meiosis in the sex chromosomes and nucleolar fragmentation in the meiotic cycle. The methodology utilized consisted of the techniques of lacto-acetic orcein staining and silver ion impregnation. The organs analyzed were adult testicles. ...

  4. Imatinib Mesylate Effectiveness in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Additional Cytogenetic Abnormalities at Diagnosis among Black Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïssata, Tolo Diebkilé; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Meité, N'dogomo; Emeuraude, N'Dhatz; Roméo, Ayémou; Yassongui Mamadou, Sekongo; Kouéhion, Paul; Mozart, Konan; Koffi, Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate provides good results in the treatment of CML in general. But what about the results of this treatment in CML associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis among black Africans? For this, we retrospectively studied 27 cases of CML associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities, diagnosed in the department of clinical hematology of the University Hospital of Yopougon in Côte d'Ivoire, from May 2005 to October 2011. The age of patients ranged from 13 to 68 years, with a mean age of 38 years and a sex ratio of 2. Patients were severely symptomatic with a high Sokal score of 67%. CML in chronic phase accounted for 67%. The prevalence of additional cytogenetic abnormalities was 29.7%. There were variants of the Philadelphia chromosome (18.5%), trisomy 8 (14.8%), complex cytogenetic abnormalities (18.5%), second Philadelphia chromosome (14.8%), and minor cytogenetic abnormalities (44.4%). Complete hematologic remission was achieved in 59%, with 52% of major cytogenetic remission. The outcome was fatal in 37% of patients. Death was related in 40% to hematologic toxicity and in 30% to acutisation. The median survival was 40 months. PMID:23802015

  5. [EVALUATION OF THE CYTOGENETIC AND MUTAGEN-MODIFYING ACTIVITY OF CAFFEINE IN MOUSE BONE MARROW CELLS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnev, A D; Kulakova, A V; Zhanataev, A K; Oganesiants, L A

    2015-01-01

    The cytogenetic and mutagen-modifying activity of caffeine was studied with the method of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells of mice hybrids F1 CBAxC57BL/6. Caffeine per se was administered intragastrically or intraperitoneally, and in combination with mutagens--intragastrically. Mutagens injected intraperitoneally. Caffeine at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg (single dose) and 10 mg/kg (five days) in parenteral administration and oral introduction failed to possess cytogenetic activity. In combination with mutagens caffeine (1, 10 and 100 mg/kg) had no effect on the cytogenetic activity of dioxydine (200 mg/kg/intraperitoneally) for a single coadministration, five-day pre or five-day coadministration. In combination with other mutagens under the same processing conditions caffeine at doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg significantly increased cytogenetic effects of cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg) in the pretreatment of the animals and at the dose of 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated the cytogenetic effect of cisplatin (5 mg/kg) in single and repeated co-administration. Thus we have shown the absence of caffeine cytogenetic activity in vivo and showed the multidirectional effect of caffeine in doses far exceeding its daily consumption, to the manifestation ofcytogenetic effects of certain chemical mutagens in some modes of processing animals.

  6. More than the genes, the tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Lucia; Seeger, Robert C.; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; DeClerck, Yves A.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor in children. Since the seminal discovery of the role of amplification of the MYCN oncogene in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma in the 1980s, much focus has been on the contribution of genetic alterations in the progression of this cancer. However it is now clear that not only genetic events play a role but that the tumor microenvironment (TME) substantially contributes to the biology of neuroblastoma. In this article, we present a comprehensive review of the literature on the contribution of the TME to the ten hallmarks of cancer in neuroblastoma and discuss the mechanisms of communication between neuroblastoma cells and the TME that underlie the influence of the TME on neuroblastoma progression. We end our review by discussing how the knowledge acquired over the last two decades in this field is now leading to new clinical trials targeting the TME. PMID:26597947

  7. Cytogenetic index and functional genome alterations in Chironomus piger Strenzke (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the assessment of sediment pollution: a case study of Bulgarian and UK rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailova, P; Ilkova, J; Dean, A P; White, K N

    2015-01-01

    The genotoxicity of trace metals in the sediments from a number of polluted sites on UK and Bulgarian rivers to Chironomus piger was assessed by an examination of genome instability as demonstrated by structural and functional changes to the salivary glands chromosomes. Based on the metal assays, the sediments were characterized to range from 'extremely' to 'strongly contaminated'. The cytogenetic index calculated on the basis of somatic structural chromosome alterations in the polytene chromosomes indicates a high level of pollution (0.07-0.06 in Bulgarian and 0.10-0.13 in UK stations). Exposure of C. piger to contaminated sediments resulted in a high level of chromosome damage as indicated by a somatic index of between 1.96 and 4.0. The transcription mechanism of the Balbiani rings and nucleolar organizer was damaged as their activity was either partially or completely suppressed. We have demonstrated that the C. piger genome is a sensitive sublethal indicator of sediment contamination, and is a highly suitable candidate for ecotoxicological monitoring of running waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The use of cytogenetics in understanding ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, M; Weberpals, J; Squire, J A

    2004-01-01

    The future of cancer research is no longer limited to epidemiological data and clinical management, but rather encompasses a new dimension of understanding, that involves genetics of the tumors themselves. This has been exemplified most prominently in hematological tumors where alterations at the DNA level have been found to play key roles in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis of these tumors. It has been shown over the last 20 years that recurrent chromosomal rearrangements are strongly associated with the activation of oncogenes, acquisition of drug resistance and loss of tumor suppressor gene function. Chromosomal alterations have also been shown to characterize many solid tumors, including epithelial ovarian cancer [Cancer Res. 62 (2002) 3466; Cancer 91 (2001) 534; Genes Chromosomes Cancer 25 (1999) 290]. Despite these findings, however, there are currently few examples of specific cytogenetic studies that have contributed to the clinical management of solid tumors such as ovarian cancer. The limiting factor to date is the resolution of available techniques. With time, as the technology improves, so will our ability to focus on specific findings that may be applicable to future clinical management. The intention of this report is to familiarize the reader with the evolution of cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques used in the study of ovarian cancer, the early formulations from these studies and their use in answering specific clinical questions such as association with pathologic subtype, the relevance of drug resistance, the impact of BRCA mutations, and finally to guide the reader into the future of this ever growing field.

  9. An overview of cytogenetics of the tribe Meliponini (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Mara Garcia; Lopes, Denilce Meneses; Campos, L A O

    2017-06-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive review of cytogenetic data on Meliponini and their chromosomal evolution. The compiled data show that only 104 species of stingless bees, representing 32 of the 54 living genera have been studied cytogenetically and that among these species, it is possible to recognize three main groups with n = 9, 15 and 17, respectively. The first group comprises the species of the genus Melipona, whereas karyotypes with n = 15 and n = 17 have been detected in species from different genera. Karyotypes with n = 17 are the most common among the Meliponini studied to date. Cytogenetic information on Meliponini also shows that although chromosome number, in general, is conserved among species of a certain genus, other aspects, such as chromosome morphology, quantity, distribution and composition of heterochromatin, may vary between them. This reinforces the fact that the variations observed in the karyotypes of different Meliponini groups cannot be explained by a single theory or a single type of structural change. In addition, we present a discussion about how these karyotype variations are related to the phylogenetic relationships among the different genera of this tribe.

  10. [The cytogenetics of human oocytes: 40 years of progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellestor, F; Andréo, B; Anahory, T; Déchaud, H; Hédon, B; Hamamah, S

    2005-05-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities account for the majority of pre- and post- implantation embryo wastage in humans. Most of these abnormalities result from maternal meiotic errors, which preferentially occur during the first meiotic division. Consequently, the cytogenetic analysis of human oocytes has then been considered as a highly valuable source of data for the investigation of both the occurrence and the origin of chromosomal abnormalities in human. During the last 4 decades, the cytogenetic analysis of human oocytes has never stopped progressing, according to the advents of new technologies. Both karyotyping and molecular cytogenetic studies have been reported to date, providing a large body of data on the incidence and the distribution of chromosomal abnormalities in human female gametes. However, these studies display a great variability in results, which may be essentially attributable to the limitations of these techniques when applied to human oocytes. The most relevant analysis have led to the estimate that 15-20% of human oocytes present chromosome abnormalities, and they have emphasized the implication of both whole chromosome non-disjunction and chromatid separation in the occurrence of aneuploidy in human oocytes. The effect of advanced maternal age on the incidence of aneuploidy in human oocytes has also been clearly evidenced by recent reports based on large sample of oocytes or polar bodies.

  11. Differential Analysis of Genetic, Epigenetic, and Cytogenetic Abnormalities in AML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirazul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a haematological malignancy characterized by the excessive proliferation of immature myeloid cells coupled with impaired differentiation. Many AML cases have been reported without any known cytogenetic abnormalities and carry no mutation in known AML-associated driver genes. In this study, 200 AML cases were selected from a publicly available cohort and differentially analyzed for genetic, epigenetic, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Three genes (FLT3, DNMT3A, and NPMc are found to be predominantly mutated. We identified several aberrations to be associated with genome-wide methylation changes. These include Del (5q, T (15; 17, and NPMc mutations. Four aberrations—Del (5q, T (15; 17, T (9; 22, and T (9; 11—are significantly associated with patient survival. Del (5q-positive patients have an average survival of less than 1 year, whereas T (15; 17-positive patients have a significantly better prognosis. Combining the methylation and mutation data reveals three distinct patient groups and four clusters of genes. We speculate that combined signatures have the better potential to be used for subclassification of AML, complementing cytogenetic signatures. A larger sample cohort and further investigation of the effects observed in this study are required to enable the clinical application of our patient classification aided by DNA methylation.

  12. No mutations found by RET mutation scanning in sporadic and hereditary neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, RMW; Cheng, NC; Stulp, RP; Stelwagen, T; Clausen, N; Tommerup, N; Caron, H; Westerveld, A; Buys, CHCM

    Neuroblastoma occasionally occurs in diseases associated with abnormal neurocrest differentiation, e.g. Hirschsprung disease. Expression studies in developing mice suggest that the proto-oncogene RET plays a role in neurocrest differentiation. In humans expression of RT is limited to certain tumor

  13. No mutations found by RET mutation scanning in sporadic and hereditary neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, R. M.; Cheng, N. C.; Hansen, C.; Stulp, R. P.; Stelwagen, T.; Clausen, N.; Tommerup, N.; Caron, H.; Westerveld, A.; Versteeg, R.; Buys, C. H.

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma occasionally occurs in diseases associated with abnormal neurocrest differentiation, e.g. Hirschsprung disease. Expression studies in developing mice suggest that the proto-oncogene RET plays a role in neurocrest differentiation. In humans expression of RET is limited to certain tumor

  14. Intraoperative search for neuroblastoma by MIBG and radioguided surgery with the gamma detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heij, H. A.; Rutgers, E. J.; de Kraker, J.; Vos, A.

    1997-01-01

    Administration of a tumour-seeking compound labeled with a low-energy isotope and intraoperative screening with the gamma probe (radioguided surgery, RGS) could be useful in reoperations for advanced neuroblastoma when the normal anatomy is altered. A pilot study was performed to test the

  15. Lack of association between MDM2 promoter SNP309 and clinical outcome in patients with neuroblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rihani, Ali; van Maerken, Tom; de Wilde, Bram; Zeka, Fjoralba; Laureys, Geneviève; Norga, Koen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Coco, Simona; Versteeg, Rogier; Noguera, Rosa; Schulte, Johannes H.; Eggert, Angelika; Stallings, Raymond L.; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2014-01-01

    While a polymorphism located within the promoter region of the MDM2 proto-oncogene, SNP309 (T > G), has previously been associated with increased risk and aggressiveness of neuroblastoma and other tumor entities, a protective effect has also been reported in certain other cancers. In this study, we

  16. miRNA expression profiling enables risk stratification in archived and fresh neuroblastoma tumor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Zeka, Fjoralba; Naranjo, Arlene; Bray, Isabella; Castel, Victoria; Chen, Caifu; Drozynska, Elzbieta; Eggert, Angelika; Hogarty, Michael D.; Izycka-Swieszewska, Ewa; London, Wendy B.; Noguera, Rosa; Piqueras, Marta; Bryan, Kenneth; Schowe, Benjamin; van Sluis, Peter; Molenaar, Jan J.; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H.; Stallings, Raymond L.; Versteeg, Rogier; Laureys, Geneviève; van Roy, Nadine; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2011-01-01

    More accurate assessment of prognosis is important to further improve the choice of risk-related therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) patients. In this study, we aimed to establish and validate a prognostic miRNA signature for children with NB and tested it in both fresh frozen and archived formalin-fixed

  17. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Program in High-Risk Human Neuroblastoma and Mouse Neuroblastoma Sphere-Forming Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains one of the deadliest childhood cancers. Identification of metabolic pathways that drive or maintain high-risk neuroblastoma may open new avenues of therapeutic interventions. Here, we report the isolation and propagation of neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells with self-renewal and differentiation potential from tumors of the TH-MYCN mouse, an animal model of high-risk neuroblastoma with MYCN amplification. Transcriptional profiling reveals that mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells acquire a metabolic program characterized by transcriptional activation of the cholesterol and serine-glycine synthesis pathways, primarily as a result of increased expression of sterol regulatory element binding factors and Atf4, respectively. This metabolic reprogramming is recapitulated in high-risk human neuroblastomas and is prognostic for poor clinical outcome. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the metabolic program markedly decreases the growth and tumorigenicity of both mouse neuroblastoma sphere-forming cells and human neuroblastoma cell lines. These findings suggest a therapeutic strategy for targeting the metabolic program of high-risk neuroblastoma.

  18. Daily life physical activity in long-term survivors of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waas, Marjolein; Wijnen, Mark; Hartman, Annelies; de Vries, Andrica C H; Pieters, Rob; Neggers, Sebastian J C M M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2013-07-01

    The risk of metabolic late effects after childhood cancer, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, can be positively influenced by a healthy lifestyle with sufficient physical activity. Nevertheless, studies on physical activity in adult survivors of childhood cancer are scarce and involve different and often nonvalidated questionnaires. We used the Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH), which was developed and validated to assess daily life physical activity in the Dutch adult population. The aim of the study was to assess daily life physical activity in Dutch adult long-term nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma survivors. Sixty-seven nephroblastoma and 36 neuroblastoma survivors (median age, 30 y; range, 18 to 51 y) and 60 sociodemographically similar healthy control subjects (median age, 32 y; range, 18 to 62 y) were asked to complete the SQUASH during their regular follow-up visit. The adjusted mean physical activity score in male neuroblastoma survivors (mean, 7155; P=0.004) was significantly lower than in male controls (mean, 10,574), whereas it was not significantly lower in male nephroblastoma survivors (mean, 9122; P=0.108). Adjusted means for physical activity scores in females were not different from their controls. In conclusions, male neuroblastoma survivors were identified as performing less daily physical activity.

  19. New insights into neuroblastoma cisplatin resistance: a comparative proteomic and meta-mining investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aguanno, Simona; D'Alessandro, Annamaria; Pieroni, Luisa; Roveri, Antonella; Zaccarin, Mattia; Marzano, Valeria; De Canio, Michele; Bernardini, Sergio; Federici, Giorgio; Urbani, Andrea

    2011-02-04

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most aggressive solid tumors in the childhood. Therapy resistance to anticancer drugs represents the major limitation to the effectiveness of clinical treatment. To better understand the mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance, we performed a comparative proteomic study of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and its cisplatin resistant counterpart by both the classical 2-DE electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry and the more innovative label-free nLC-MS(E). The differentially expressed proteins were classified by bioinformatic tools according to their biological functions and their involvement in several cellular processes. Moreover, a meta-mining investigation of protein ontologies was also performed on available data from previously published proteomics studies to highlight the modulation of significant cellular pathways, which may regulate the sensitivity of neuroblastoma to cisplatin. In particular, we hypothesized a major role of the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Confocal microscopy experiments, enzyme assay, and Western blotting of proteins regulated by Nrf2 provided evidences that this pathway, playing a protective role in normal cells, may represent a potential novel target to control cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal acute myeloid leukemia Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) is one form of a cancer ...

  1. [Fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of cytogenetic aberrations of multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jian-Yong; Chen, Li-Juan; Qian, Si-Xuan; Hong, Ming; Qiao, Chun; Zhang, Jian-Fu; Xu, Wei; Lu, Hua

    2008-12-01

    This study was aimed to establish the technique of fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of neoplasms (FICTION) used to smear of bone marrow, so as to develop a new technique for detection of the molecular cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM). By using the bone marrow smear as the carrier and the anti-CD138 antibody linked with FITC, direct fluorescence staining was applied to mark plasma cells (PCs) and differences were compared in the proportion of both PCs marked by fluorescence staining and PCs detected in morphology. At the same time, the chromosome 8 centromere probe was used in interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) for detection of the chromosome 8 abnormalities in PCs marked by fluorescence staining. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the proportions of both PCs marked by fluorescence staining and PCs detected in morphology on smear (p>0.05). 4 out of 9 patients (44%) had the chromosome 8 abnormalities, including 3 cases with -8 (33%) and one case with +8 (11%). It is concluded that the FICTION technique on the basis of bone marrow smear is characterized by convenience, specificity and accuracy. Therefore, it can be used for molecular cytogenetic research in MM.

  2. Clinical utility of contemporary molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, Bassem A; Shaffer, Lisa G

    2008-01-01

    The development of microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) methods represents a critical new advance in molecular cytogenetics. This new technology has driven a technical convergence between molecular diagnostics and clinical cytogenetics, questioned our naïve understanding of the complexity of the human genome, revolutionized the practice of medical genetics, challenged conventional wisdom related to the genetic bases of multifactorial and sporadic conditions, and is poised to impact all areas of medicine. The use of contemporary molecular cytogenetic techniques in research and diagnostics has resulted in the identification of many new syndromes, expanded our knowledge about the phenotypic spectrum of recognizable syndromes, elucidated the genomic bases of well-established clinical conditions, and refined our view about the molecular mechanisms of some chromosomal aberrations. Newer methodologies are being developed, which will likely lead to a new understanding of the genome and its relationship to health and disease.

  3. Excellent prognosis of patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma and residual tumor postchemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hizuru; Uchida, Hiroo; Tanaka, Yujiro; Tainaka, Takahisa; Mori, Makiko; Oguma, Eiji; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Yuki; Hanada, Ryoji; Koh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-09

    The prognosis of patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma is favorable; therefore, a reduction therapy is desired. However, the long-term prognosis of those with residual tumor is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the necessity of residual tumor resection. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients diagnosed with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma who either were treated by chemotherapy only (nonresection group; n=16), or received postchemotherapy tumor resection (resection group; n=9). In the nonresection group, tumor size decreased in 14 patients; 5 had no detectable local tumor at the end of the follow-up period. Tumor size increased in 2 patients 1.5-2.5years postchemotherapy. Both patients received additional treatment and survived. All patients survived during the median follow-up time of 127months. In the resection group, 5 patients received complete resections and 4 patients received nearly complete resections. All patients survived during the median follow-up time of 84months. In 8 out of 9 resected tumors, regression or maturation was pathologically induced by chemotherapy-only treatment. Patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma with or without postchemotherapy residual tumor resection had an excellent long-term outcome. The tumor pathology with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma might be susceptible to change to regression or maturation by chemotherapy. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  5. Treatment of Neuroblastoma with an Engineered "Obligate" Anaerobic Salmonella typhimurium Strain YB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Bo-Tao; Yu, Bin; Chan, Shing; Chan, Jian-Liang; Huang, Jian-Dong; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma is an embryonic solid tumor derived from the progenitors of the sympathetic nervous system. More than half of the patients developed metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis and had poor outcome with current therapeutic approaches. In recent years, some obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria were reported to target the hypoxic and necrotic region of solid tumor models and caused tumor regression. We recently successfully constructed an "obligate" anaerobic Salmonella strain YB1 that was applied in breast cancer nude mice model by us. Here, we report the application of YB1 in neuroblastoma treatment. Methods The anti-cancer effect and side-effects of YB1 was examined in both in vitro and in vivo experiment. Previous established orthotopic neuroblastoma SCID/beige murine model using SK-NLP/luciferase cell line was adopted. ResultsIn vitro, YB1 induced apoptosis for up to 31.4% of the neuroblastoma cells under anaerobic condition, three times more than that under aerobic condition (10.9%). The expression of both Toll like Receptor 4 and 5 (TLR4 and TLR5) in cancer cells were significantly up-regulated (pnature of tumor core. Tumor growth was significantly retarded in YB1 treatment group (n=6, Pneuroblastoma. Future study can be extended to other common cancer types to verify the relative efficacy on different neoplastic cells.

  6. Generation of reactive oxygen species mediates butein-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Hui; Yeh, Chi-Wei; Lo, Hui-Chen; Su, Shih-Li; Hseu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Li-Sung

    2012-04-01

    Flavonoids exhibit chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. Butein, a bioactive flavonoid isolated from numerous native plants, has been shown to induce apoptosis in human cancer cells. In the current study, the molecular mechanisms of butein action on cell proliferation and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells were evaluated. Treatment with butein decreased the viability of Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The dose-dependent nature of butein-induced apoptosis was characterized by an increase in the sub-G1 phase population. Treatment with butein significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)levels and reduced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, triggering the cleavage of pro-caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Pre-treatment with the antioxidant agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), blocks butein-induced ROS generation and cell death. NAC also recovers butein-induced apoptosis-related protein alteration. In conclusion, butein-triggered neuroblastoma cells undergo apoptosis via generation of ROS, alteration of the Bcl‑2/Bax ratio, and cleavage of pro-caspase 3 and PARP. Our results suggest that butein may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neuroblastoma.

  7. Withania somnifera water extract as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of human neuroblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Hardeep; Wadhwa, Renu; Kaul, Sunil C; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.

  8. Survival of children with neuroblastoma treated at the Institute of oncology in Ljubljana in two periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Perković

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, representning about 5 % of all childhood malignancies. The aim of our study was to compare the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated in Slovenia in two time periods, 1994–2007 and 1980–1993, and analyze the influence of different factors on survival. The hypothesis was that there has been an improvement in the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated after 1994.Methods: Seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients, treated at the Department of Pediatrics and at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana in the period 1980–2007 were included in the retrospective study. The list of patients and their basic data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Furtjer data about the patients, tumor characteristics and treatment were collected from patients’ records.Results: Thirty-nine (50 % out of seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients included in the study are alive; of the 39 (50 % dead, 23 (29.5 % died during primary tumor treatment, 15 (19.2 % died after recurrent disease, and the cause of death in one (1.3 % patient remained unknown. The survival rates according to stage of disease, site of primary tumor and tumor size have improved in children treated after 1994, as compared to those treated before 1994. The most important factors influencing the prognosis in both time periods were stage of disease, patients’ age and tumor size at diagnosis while there was no statistical difference in survival according to age at diagnosis and the extent of surgery.Conclusions: The retrospective study confirmed our hypothesis that the survival of our patients treated after 1994 was better than the survival of those treated before. The most important prognostic factors in both periods were stage of the disease, age at diagnosis and tumor size.

  9. Knockdown of astrocyte elevated gene-1 inhibits proliferation and enhancing chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin or doxorubicin in neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Li

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1 was originally characterized as a HIV-1-inducible gene in primary human fetal astrocyte. Recent studies highlight a potential role of AEG-1 in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate if AEG-1 serves as a potential therapeutic target of human neuroblastoma. Methods We employed RNA interference to reduce AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cell lines and analyzed their phenotypic changes. Results We found that the knockdown of AEG-1 expression in human neuroblastoma cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and apoptosis. The specific downregulation induced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we also observed a significant enhancement of chemo-sensitivity to cisplatin and doxorubicin by knockdown of AEG-1. Conclusion Our study suggests that overexpressed AEG-1 enhance the tumorogenic properties of neuroblastoma cells. The inhibition of AEG-1 expression could be a new adjuvant therapy for neuroblastoma.

  10. The cytogenetic architecture of the aphid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro; Blackman, Roger L

    2015-02-01

    In recent years aphids, with their well-defined polyphenism, have become favoured as model organisms for the study of epigenetic processes. The availability of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome sequence has engendered much research aimed at elucidating the mechanisms by which the phenotypic plasticity of aphids is inherited and controlled. Yet so far this research effort has paid little attention to the cytogenetic processes that play a vital part in the organisation, expression and inheritance of the aphid genome. Aphids have holocentric chromosomes, which have very different properties from the chromosomes with localised centromeres that are found in most other organisms. Here we review the diverse forms of aphid chromosome behaviour that occur during sex determination and male and female meiosis, often in response to environmental changes and mediated by endocrine factors. Remarkable differences occur, even between related species, that could have significant effects on the inheritance of all or parts of the genome. In relation to this, we review the particular features of the distribution of heterochromatin, rDNA genes and other repetitive DNA in aphid chromosomes, and discuss the part that these may play in the epigenetic modification of chromatin structure and function. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Immunofluorescence in cytogenetic analysis: method and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppesen Peter

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of the genetic information encoded by DNA in mammalian chromosomes is mediated by proteins, some of which are only transiently attached, although others are intrinsically associated with nucleic acid in the complex mixture known as chromatin. Chromatin-associated proteins range from the ubiquitous and abundant histones down to the most specific and rare of transcription factors. Although many chromatin proteins are probably excluded from highly condensed mitotic chromosomes, a number are retained throughout the cell cycle and can be detected on chromosomes in metaphase spreads. Comparing the distribution of a chromosomal protein with known cytogenetic markers on metaphase chromosomes can provide an important and potentially highly informative first source of data on the function of the protein under consideration. The aim of the present study is to summarize some of the principles involved in obtaining suitable chromosome preparations for subsequent immunolocalization of protein antigens. Some applications of the method will be included to illustrate how this approach has increased our understanding of chromosome structure and genetic regulation.

  12. MicroRNA-34a is a potent tumor suppressor molecule in vivo in neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tivnan, Amanda

    2011-01-25

    be similar regardless of the mechanism involved. Most notably, in vivo studies showed that tumor growth was significantly repressed after exogenous miR-34a administration in retroperitoneal neuroblastoma tumors. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that miR-34a significantly reduces tumor growth in an in vivo orthotopic murine model of neuroblastoma and identified novel effects that miR-34a has on phospho-activation of key proteins involved with apoptosis.

  13. Clinical significance of pretreatment FDG PET/CT IN MOBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seo Young; Kim, Yong Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Shin, Hee Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, E. Edmund [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rahim, Muhammad Kashif [Nishtar Medical College and Hospital, Multan (Pakistan)

    2017-06-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is well known to have clinical significance in the initial staging and response evaluation of the many kinds of neoplasms. However, its role in the pediatric neuroblastoma is not clearly defined. In the present study, the clinical significance of FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) in 123I- or 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG)-avid pediatric neuroblastoma was investigated. Twenty patients with neuroblastoma who undertook pretreatment FDG PET/CT at our institute between 2008 and 2015 and showed MIBG avidity were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. Clinical information—including histopathology, and serum markers—and several PET parameters—including SUVmax of the primary lesion (Psuv), target-to-background ratio (TBR), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and coefficient of variation (CV)—were analyzed. The prognostic effect of PET parameters was evaluated in terms of progression-free survival (PFS). Total 20 patients (4.5 ± 3.5 years) were divided as two groups by disease progression. Six patients (30.0 %) experienced disease progression and one patient (5.0 %) died during follow-up period. There were not statistically significant in age, stage, MYCN status, primary tumor size, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and ferritin level between two groups with progression or no progression. However, Psuv (p = 0.017), TBR (p = 0.09), MTV (p = 0.02), and CV (p = 0.036) showed significant differences between two groups. In univariate analysis, PFS was significantly associated with Psuv (p = 0.021) and TBR (p = 0.023). FDG-PET parameters were significantly related with progression of neuroblastoma. FDG-PET/CT may have the potential as a valuable modality for evaluating prognosis in the patients with MIBG-avid pediatric neuroblastoma.

  14. Positional and functional mapping of a neuroblastoma differentiation gene on chromosome 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Scott

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of chromosome 11q defines a subset of high-stage aggressive neuroblastomas. Deletions are typically large and mapping efforts have thus far not lead to a well defined consensus region, which hampers the identification of positional candidate tumour suppressor genes. In a previous study, functional evidence for a neuroblastoma suppressor gene on chromosome 11 was obtained through microcell mediated chromosome transfer, indicated by differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with loss of distal 11q upon introduction of chromosome 11. Interestingly, some of these microcell hybrid clones were shown to harbour deletions in the transferred chromosome 11. We decided to further exploit this model system as a means to identify candidate tumour suppressor or differentiation genes located on chromosome 11. Results In a first step, we performed high-resolution arrayCGH DNA copy-number analysis in order to evaluate the chromosome 11 status in the hybrids. Several deletions in both parental and transferred chromosomes in the investigated microcell hybrids were observed. Subsequent correlation of these deletion events with the observed morphological changes lead to the delineation of three putative regions on chromosome 11: 11q25, 11p13->11p15.1 and 11p15.3, that may harbour the responsible differentiation gene. Conclusion Using an available model system, we were able to put forward some candidate regions that may be involved in neuroblastoma. Additional studies will be required to clarify the putative role of the genes located in these chromosomal segments in the observed differentiation phenotype specifically or in neuroblastoma pathogenesis in general.

  15. CASE REPORT Proptosis as a manifestation of neuroblastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cause was orbital cellulitis, followed by thyroid eye disease and optic nerve/chiasm glioma.3. Ophthalmic involvement by neuroblastoma is defined by the. International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS)2 as stage 4 disease. Treatment of the primary disease is based on the Children's Oncology.

  16. Rho-associated kinase is a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyberg, Cecilia; Fransson, Susanne; Andonova, Teodora; Sveinbjörnsson, Baldur; Lännerholm-Palm, Jessika; Olsen, Thale K; Forsberg, David; Herlenius, Eric; Martinsson, Tommy; Brodin, Bertha; Kogner, Per; Johnsen, John Inge; Wickström, Malin

    2017-08-08

    Neuroblastoma is a peripheral neural system tumor that originates from the neural crest and is the most common and deadly tumor of infancy. Here we show that neuroblastoma harbors frequent mutations of genes controlling the Rac/Rho signaling cascade important for proper migration and differentiation of neural crest cells during neuritogenesis. RhoA is activated in tumors from neuroblastoma patients, and elevated expression of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)2 is associated with poor patient survival. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ROCK1 and 2, key molecules in Rho signaling, resulted in neuroblastoma cell differentiation and inhibition of neuroblastoma cell growth, migration, and invasion. Molecularly, ROCK inhibition induced glycogen synthase kinase 3β-dependent phosphorylation and degradation of MYCN protein. Small-molecule inhibition of ROCK suppressed MYCN-driven neuroblastoma growth in TH-MYCN homozygous transgenic mice and MYCN gene-amplified neuroblastoma xenograft growth in nude mice. Interference with Rho/Rac signaling might offer therapeutic perspectives for high-risk neuroblastoma.

  17. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of cytogenetics in adult primary myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, M; Parlier, V

    1996-10-01

    Cytogenetic analysis has proven to be a mandatory part of the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) as well as a major indicator for predicting clinical course and outcome. This review concentrates on the cytogenetic classifications, the incidence and types of chromosome defects and the prognostic significance of the karyotype in adult primary MDS. Two cytogenetic classifications are currently used: one is based on the karyotype complexity (normal, single, double or complex defects), the other on clonal status (all metaphases normal, abnormal or admixture of normal and abnormal clones). Chromosome abnormalities are of both numerical and structural types. Aside from the 5q-syndrome, no specific clinico-cytogenetic entity has been reported. However, several distinct clinical and cellular features have been identified that correlate with the presence of specific chromosome defects such as inv(3)/t(3;3), +6, t(5;12), del(17p) and del(20q). The presence of complex defects is associated with reduced survival and a high risk of leukemic transformation. Among single defects, specific abnormalities may define distinct prognostic groups. Patients with del(5q) as a sole chromosome defect and a refractory anemia without excess of blasts have a favourable prognosis. For patients with trisomy 8 or monosomy 7 there may be distinct types of clinical evolution. Most patients with the 3q21q26 syndrome have a short survival. The presence of two chromosome defects may constitute an independent cytogenetic entity probably associated with relative poor prognosis. Karyotypic evolution generally represents a poor risk factor. The combination of cytogenetics with clinical and hematological features has proven to provide for a better prediction of patients' survival, leukemic transformation and response to treatment. Several scoring systems have been developed. They have to be improved by the study of new patients according to strict clinical and cytogenetic criteria and by the

  18. Accelerating drug development for neuroblastoma - New Drug Development Strategy: an Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer, European Network for Cancer Research in Children and Adolescents and International Society of Paediatric Oncology Europe Neuroblastoma project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Caron, Hubert; Geoerger, Birgit; Eggert, Angelika; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Brock, Penelope; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Chesler, Louis; Schulte, Johannes H; De Preter, Katleen; Molenaar, Jan; Schramm, Alexander; Eilers, Martin; Van Maerken, Tom; Johnsen, John Inge; Garrett, Michelle; George, Sally L; Tweddle, Deborah A; Kogner, Per; Berthold, Frank; Koster, Jan; Barone, Giuseppe; Tucker, Elizabeth R; Marshall, Lynley; Herold, Ralf; Sterba, Jaroslav; Norga, Koen; Vassal, Gilles; Pearson, Andrew Dj

    2017-08-01

    Neuroblastoma, the commonest paediatric extra-cranial tumour, remains a leading cause of death from cancer in children. There is an urgent need to develop new drugs to improve cure rates and reduce long-term toxicity and to incorporate molecularly targeted therapies into treatment. Many potential drugs are becoming available, but have to be prioritised for clinical trials due to the relatively small numbers of patients. Areas covered: The current drug development model has been slow, associated with significant attrition, and few new drugs have been developed for neuroblastoma. The Neuroblastoma New Drug Development Strategy (NDDS) has: 1) established a group with expertise in drug development; 2) prioritised targets and drugs according to tumour biology (target expression, dependency, pre-clinical data; potential combinations; biomarkers), identifying as priority targets ALK, MEK, CDK4/6, MDM2, MYCN (druggable by BET bromodomain, aurora kinase, mTORC1/2) BIRC5 and checkpoint kinase 1; 3) promoted clinical trials with target-prioritised drugs. Drugs showing activity can be rapidly transitioned via parallel randomised trials into front-line studies. Expert opinion: The Neuroblastoma NDDS is based on the premise that optimal drug development is reliant on knowledge of tumour biology and prioritisation. This approach will accelerate neuroblastoma drug development and other poor prognosis childhood malignancies.

  19. Sex chromosome aneuploidy in cytogenetic findings of referral patients from south of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouyan, Najmeh; Davoudi Dehaghani, Elham; Senemar, Sara; Shojaee, Ashraf; Mozdarani, Hossein

    2012-03-01

    Chromosome abnormality (CA) including Sex chromosomes abnormality (SCAs) is one of the most important causes of disordered sexual development and infertility. SCAs formed by numerical or structural alteration in X and Y chromosomes, are the most frequently CA encountered at both prenatal diagnosis and at birth. This study describes cytogenetic findings of cases suspected with CA referred for cytogenetic study. Blood samples of 4151 patients referred for cytogenetic analysis were cultured for chromosome preparation. Karyotypes were prepared for all samples and G-Banded chromosomes were analyzed using x100 objective lens. Sex chromosome aneuploidy cases were analyzed and categorized in two groups of Turners and Klinefelter's syndrome (KFS). Out of 230 (5.54%) cases with chromosomally abnormal karyotype, 122 (30%) cases suspected of sexual disorder showed SCA including 46% Turner's syndrome, 46% KFS and the remaining other sex chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of classic and mosaic form of Turner's syndrome was 33% and 67%, this was 55% and 45% for KFS, respectively. This study shows a relatively high sex chromosome abnormality in this region and provides cytogenetic data to assist clinicians and genetic counselors to determine the priority of requesting cytogenetic study. Differences between results from various reports can be due to different genetic background or ethnicity.

  20. Sex chromosome aneuploidy in cytogenetic findings of referral patients from south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jouyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chromosome abnormality (CA including Sex chromosomes abnormality (SCAs is one of the most important causes of disordered sexual development and infertility. SCAs formed by numerical or structural alteration in X and Y chromosomes, are the most frequently CA encountered at both prenatal diagnosis and at birth. Objective: This study describes cytogenetic findings of cases suspected with CA referred for cytogenetic study. Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 4151 patients referred for cytogenetic analysis were cultured for chromosome preparation. Karyotypes were prepared for all samples and G-Banded chromosomes were analyzed using x100 objective lens. Sex chromosome aneuploidy cases were analyzed and categorized in two groups of Turners and Klinefelter’s syndrome (KFS. Results: Out of 230 (5.54% cases with chromosomally abnormal karyotype, 122 (30% cases suspected of sexual disorder showed SCA including 46% Turner’s syndrome, 46% KFS and the remaining other sex chromosome abnormalities. The frequency of classic and mosaic form of Turner’s syndrome was 33% and 67%, this was 55% and 45% for KFS, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows a relatively high sex chromosome abnormality in this region and provides cytogenetic data to assist clinicians and genetic counselors to determine the priority of requesting cytogenetic study. Differences between results from various reports can be due to different genetic background or ethnicity.

  1. Dinutuximab: An Anti-GD2 Monoclonal Antibody for High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploessl, Cady; Pan, Alice; Maples, Kathryn T; Lowe, Denise K

    2016-05-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, dosage and administration, and formulary considerations for dinutuximab. MEDLINE was searched (1964 to January 2016) using the terms ch14.18, dinutuximab, immunotherapy, and neuroblastoma. Other information was identified from package insert, Biologics License Application, abstracts, news releases, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Identified English-language articles were reviewed. Selected studies included phase I through III. High-risk neuroblastoma is primarily a childhood cancer with 5-year survival rates of 40% to 50%. Treatment for high-risk neuroblastoma includes induction chemotherapy, surgery, myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and radiation therapy. For patients achieving clinical remission, limited treatments exist for preventing relapse. Dinutuximab is a chimeric, human-murine, anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody approved in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), aldesleukin (interleukin-2 [IL-2]), and isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid [RA]) for maintenance treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who achieve at least a partial response to first-line multiagent, multimodality therapy. In phase III trials, dinutuximab increased 2-year event-free survival and overall survival when compared to standard treatment. Severe adverse effects of dinutuximab include pain, hypersensitivity reactions, capillary leak syndrome, and hypotension. Dinutuximab is the first anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody approved in combination with GM-CSF, IL-2, and RA for maintenance treatment of pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma who achieve at least a partial response to first-line multiagent, multimodality therapy. Ongoing research will determine if dinutuximab could be used earlier in treatment, in nonresponders to initial therapies, in combination with chemotherapy, or in other cancers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Nifurtimox reduces N-Myc expression and aerobic glycolysis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Bruchelt, Gernot; Handgretinger, Rupert; Holzer, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors in childhood and usually accompanied with poor prognosis and rapid tumor progression when diagnosed with amplification of the proto-oncogene N-Myc. The amplification of N-Myc has major influence on the maintenance of aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. This specific switch in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate instead of the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A even in the presence of oxygen has important benefits for the tumor, e.g. increased production of enzymes and enzyme substrates that are involved in tumor progression, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. The antiprotozoal drug nifurtimox, which is generally used for the treatment of infections with the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, has been reported to have cytotoxic properties in the therapy of neuroblastoma. However, its action of mechanism has not been described in detail yet. The presented in vitro study on the neuroblastoma cell lines LA-N-1, IMR-32, LS and SK-N-SH shows an increased production of oxidative stress, a reduced lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity and reduced lactate production after nifurtimox treatment. Furthermore, nifurtimox leads to reduced mRNA and protein levels of the proto-oncogene protein N-Myc. Thus, the current work gives new insights into the effect of nifurtimox on tumor metabolism revealing a shifted glucose metabolism from production of lactate to oxidative phosphorylation and a reduced expression of the major molecular prognostic factor in neuroblastoma N-Myc, presenting nifurtimox as a possible adjuvant therapeutic agent against (high risk) neuroblastoma.

  3. Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldridge, Derek A; Wood, Andrew C; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Crimmins, Ian; Sussman, Robyn; Winter, Cynthia; McDaniel, Lee D; Diamond, Maura; Hart, Lori S; Zhu, Shizhen; Durbin, Adam D; Abraham, Brian J; Anders, Lars; Tian, Lifeng; Zhang, Shile; Wei, Jun S; Khan, Javed; Bramlett, Kelli; Rahman, Nazneen; Capasso, Mario; Iolascon, Achille; Gerhard, Daniela S; Guidry Auvil, Jaime M; Young, Richard A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Diskin, Sharon J; Look, A Thomas; Maris, John M

    2015-12-17

    Neuroblastoma is a paediatric malignancy that typically arises in early childhood, and is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Clinical phenotypes range from localized tumours with excellent outcomes to widely metastatic disease in which long-term survival is approximately 40% despite intensive therapy. A previous genome-wide association study identified common polymorphisms at the LMO1 gene locus that are highly associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenic addiction to LMO1 in the tumour cells. Here we investigate the causal DNA variant at this locus and the mechanism by which it leads to neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We first imputed all possible genotypes across the LMO1 locus and then mapped highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to areas of chromatin accessibility, evolutionary conservation and transcription factor binding sites. We show that SNP rs2168101 G>T is the most highly associated variant (combined P = 7.47 × 10(-29), odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.70), and resides in a super-enhancer defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 within the first intron of LMO1. The ancestral G allele that is associated with tumour formation resides in a conserved GATA transcription factor binding motif. We show that the newly evolved protective TATA allele is associated with decreased total LMO1 expression (P = 0.028) in neuroblastoma primary tumours, and ablates GATA3 binding (P neuroblastoma susceptibility through differential GATA transcription factor binding and direct modulation of LMO1 expression in cis, and this leads to an oncogenic dependency in tumour cells.

  4. Cytogenetic heterogeneity and their serial dynamic changes during acquisition of cytogenetic aberrations in cultured mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung-Ah [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kyong Ok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Ji Seok [Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Young [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Keunhee; Lee, Dong-Sup [Laboratory of Immunology and Cancer Biology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Seong Who [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi; Lee, Gene [Lab of Molecular Genetics, School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang Do [Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asthma Center and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soon, E-mail: soonlee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We evaluated cytogenetic aberrations of MSC during culture using G-banding and FISH. • We tracked the quantitative changes of each clone among heterogeneity upon passages. • The changes of cytogenetic profile upon passages were similar to cancer stem cell. - Abstract: To minimize the risk of tumorigenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), G-banding analysis is widely used to detect chromosomal aberrations in MSCs. However, a critical limitation of G-banding is that it only reflects the status of metaphase cells, which can represent as few as 0.01% of tested cells. During routine cytogenetic testing in MSCs, we often detect chromosomal aberrations in minor cell populations. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether such a minority of cells can expand over time or if they ultimately disappear during MSC passaging. We passaged MSCs serially while monitoring quantitative changes for each aberrant clone among heterogeneous MSCs. To investigate the cytogenetic status of interphase cells, which represent the main population, we also performed interphase FISH analysis, in combination with G-banding and telomere length determination. In human adipose tissue-derived MSCs, 4 types of chromosomal aberrations were found during culturing, and in umbilical cord MSCs, 2 types of chromosomal aberrations were observed. Sequential dynamic changes among heterogeneous aberrant clones during passaging were similar to the dynamic changes observed in cancer stem cells during disease progression. Throughout all passages, the quantitative G-banding results were inconsistent with those of the interphase FISH analysis. Interphase FISH revealed hidden aberrations in stem cell populations with normal karyotypes by G-banding analysis. We found that telomere length gradually decreased during passaging until the point at which cytogenetic aberrations appeared. The present study demonstrates that rare aberrant clones at earlier passages can become predominant clones during

  5. The effect of the additional cytogenetic abnormalities on major molecular response and BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations in long-term follow-up chronic myeloid leukemia patients, a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savasoglu, Kaan; Payzin, Kadriye Bahriye; Ozdemirkiran, Fusun; Subasioglu, Asli; Yilmaz, Asu Fergun

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relation between additional chromosomal aberrations (ACAs) with major molecular response (MMR) and BCR-ABL kinase domain (KD) mutations in the long-term follow-up of the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease. The study design was cross-sectional observational and used the CML patients' data of Izmir Ataturk Education and Research Hospital from 2011 to 2015. Conventional cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) test results from 89 CML patients' and pyrosequencing analysis results from 17 patients' were set up for comparison analysis. The chi-square test was used in statistical analysis of the experimental data. There were no statistically significant correlations between ACAs and MMR (p = .361, p > .05) groups or BCR-ABL KD mutations (p = .576, p > .05) groups observed in the study. This study has revealed that MMR and BCR-ABL KD mutations did not correlate with ACAs.

  6. Fifty years of cytogenetics: a parallel view of the evolution of cytogenetics and genotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sagredo, J M

    2008-01-01

    A parallelism exists between human cytogenetics and cytogenetic toxicology. The breakthroughs, mostly coming from and used in clinical genetics, are widely used in genetic toxicology. The birth of human cytogenetics occurred in 1956 when it was published that the diploid number of chromosomes in humans is 46. The first stage in chromosome-induced mutagenesis began in 1938 when Sax published the effects of X-rays on the chromosomes of Drosophila. In 1959, the cytogenetic anomalies for Down, Klinefelter, and Turner syndromes were described, and parallelly in 1960, the first publication on chromosomal aberrations in man caused by ionizing radiation appeared. The cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal aberrations in cell cultures is considered one of the primary methods to evaluate induced mutagenesis. At the end of the 1960s, banding techniques allowed chromosomes to be individually identified, in parallel, the sister chromatid exchange analysis technology was described. Another milestone in the history of induced mutagenesis was the discovery that mutagenic agents were able to alter chromosomal division and segregation in gonads inducing meiotic nondisjunction. Here we review new approaches and applications such as biological dosimetry, translocation scoring using FISH, and micronucleus test. Chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus test are now effective cytogenetic biomarkers of early effect used as cancer predictors. Human cytogenetics has proven to be effective over its 50-year lifespan and, although each new technique that has appeared seemed to announce its end, the fact is that the current state of cytogenetics is in reality a collection of techniques that, while common, are cheap, fast, and wide-ranging. Therefore, in genotoxicology, they continue to be useful to identify mutagenic agents as well as to evaluate and analyze exposed populations.

  7. The use of microarray technology for cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejjani, Bassem A; Shaffer, Lisa G; Ballif, Blake C

    2010-01-01

    The use of microarray technology is revolutionizing the field of clinical cytogenetics. This new technology has transformed the cytogenetics laboratory by adapting techniques that have heretofore been the province of molecular geneticists. Intimate knowledge and comfortable familiarity with these techniques are now a must for the modern cytogeneticist, rather than a stimulating but discretionary intellectual exercise or an elective luxury. The cytogenetic laboratory of the future will likely have more scanners than microscopes, more software packages than darkrooms, and more technologists, supervisors, and directors with molecular training than ever before. This technical convergence between molecular diagnostics and clinical cytogenetics is exciting and has already resulted in many stimulating discoveries. However, the traditional skills of the cytogeneticist are needed now more than ever before. As our ability to inspect the genome increases, so does the variety of abnormalities that we uncover. Understanding the mechanisms of these aberrations to guide additional testing of the parents and genetic counseling of the patients and their families requires the expertise of individuals who are well-versed in meiotic mechanisms and chromosomal structures that may lead to these abnormalities. Cytogeneticists are uniquely positioned to understand these mechanisms and assist genetic counselors and clinicians in their daily interactions with patients and families.

  8. Spinal deformity in children treated for neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, J.K.; Riseborough, E.J.; Jaffe, N.; Nehme, M.E.

    1981-02-01

    Of seventy-four children who were treated at a mean age of seventeen months for neuroblastoma and survived more than five years, fifty-six had spinal deformity due either to the disease or to the treatment after a mean follow-up of 12.9 years. Of these fifty-six, 50 per cent had post-radiation scoliosis, and 16 per cent had post-radiation kyphosis, most frequently at the thoracolumbar junction, at the time of follow-up. Two kyphotic thoracolumbar curve patterns were identified: an angular kyphosis with a short radius of curvature and its apex at the twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae, and a thoracic kyphosis with a long radius of curvature that extended into the lumbar spine. The post-radiation deformity - both the scoliosis and the kyphosis - progressed with growth, the scoliosis at a rate of 1 degree per year and the kyphosis at a rate of 3 degrees per year. Epidural spread of the neuroblastoma was associated with most of the cases of severe scoliosis and kyphosis. The deformity was due either to the laminectomy or to the paraplegia acting in conjunction with the radiation. Eighteen per cent of 419 children with this malignant disease survived more than five years, and of the survivors, 20 per cent had spinal deformity severe enough to warrant treatment. The factors associated with the development of spinal deformity in patient treated for neuroblastoma were: orthovoltage radiation exceeding 3000 rads, asymmetrical radiation of the spine, thoracolumbar kyphosis, and epidural spread of the tumor.

  9. Distinct evolutionary mechanisms for genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk neuroblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øra Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common extracranial solid tumour of childhood. Several genomic imbalances correlate to prognosis in NB, with structural rearrangements, including gene amplification, in a near-diploid setting typically signifying high-risk tumours and numerical changes in a near-triploid setting signifying low-risk tumours. Little is known about the temporal sequence in which these imbalances occur during the carcinogenic process. Methods We have reconstructed the appearance of cytogenetic imbalances in 270 NBs by first grouping tumours and imbalances through principal component analysis and then using the number of imbalances in each tumour as an indicator of evolutionary progression. Results Tumours clustered in four sub-groups, dominated respectively by (1 gene amplification in double minute chromosomes and few other aberrations, (2 gene amplification and loss of 1p sequences, (3 loss of 1p and other structural aberrations including gain of 17q, and (4 whole-chromosome gains and losses. Temporal analysis showed that the structural changes in groups 1–3 were acquired in a step-wise fashion, with loss of 1p sequences and the emergence of double minute chromosomes as the earliest cytogenetic events. In contrast, the gains and losses of whole chromosomes in group 4 occurred through multiple simultaneous events leading to a near-triploid chromosome number. Conclusion The finding of different temporal patterns for the acquisition of genomic imbalances in high-risk and low-risk NBs lends strong support to the hypothesis that these tumours are biologically diverse entities, evolving through distinct genetic mechanisms.

  10. Metformin impairs Rho GTPase signaling to induce apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells and inhibits growth of tumors in the xenograft mouse model of neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ambrish; Al-Sammarraie, Nadia; DiPette, Donald J.; Singh, Ugra S.

    2014-01-01

    Metformin has been shown to inhibit tumor growth in xenograft rodent models of adult cancers, and various human clinical trials are in progress. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of metformin action are largely unknown. In the present study we examined the anti-tumor activity of metformin against neuroblastoma, and determined the underlying signaling mechanisms. Using human neuroblastoma xenograft mice, we demonstrated that oral administration of metformin (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight) significantly inhibited the growth of tumors. The interference of metformin in spheroid formation further confirmed the anti-tumor activity of metformin. In tumors, the activation of Rac1 (GTP-Rac1) and Cdc42 (GTP-Cdc42) was increased while RhoA activation (GTP-RhoA) was decreased by metformin. It also induced phosphorylation of JNK and inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 without affecting p38 MAP Kinase. Infection of cells by adenoviruses expressing dominant negative Rac1 (Rac1-N17), Cdc42 (Cdc42-N17) or constitutively active RhoA (RhoA-V14), or incubation of cells with pharmacological inhibitors of Rac1 (NSC23766) or Cdc42 (ML141) significantly protected neuroblastoma cells from metformin-induced apoptosis. Additionally, inhibition of JNK activity along with Rac1 or Cdc42 attenuated cytotoxic effects of metformin. These studies demonstrated that metformin impairs Rho GTPases signaling to induce apoptosis via JNK pathway. PMID:25365944

  11. The fragile X-chromosome : an evaluation of the results in a routine cytogenetic laboratory in the period 1981-1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H; Beverstock, G C; de Koning, T; Pearson, P L; van de Kamp, J J

    We report on the cytogenetic studies, performed in a routine cytogenetic laboratory between 1981 and 1986, on 428 subjects: 291 probands with non-specific mental retardation, 101 first-degree relatives of fra(X) positive patients and 36 non-retarded patients, referred for other reasons. As a rule 50

  12. Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Romy Tsuda

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes of patients with different hematological malignancies using G-band analyses to identify possible cytogenetical alterations. METHODS: The peripheral blood of 18 patients with hematological malignancies and 18 controls was collected in heparinized tubes. 5-azacytidine was added, at a final concentration of 10-5M, to cultures 7 hours prior to harvest. RESULTS: Uncoiled centromeric/pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes-1, 9 and 16 occurred more frequently in the patients than in controls. This higher frequency of uncoiled heterochromatin was statistically significant (p-value = 0.004 for chromosome-9. Conversely, we observed that the fragile site at 19q13 was more frequent in controls (p-value = 0.0468. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that satellite sequences, located in the heterochromatin of chromosome-9, are hypomethylated in hematological malignancies. This hypomethylation may contribute to the disease, activating transposable elements and/or promoting genomic instability, enabling the loss of heterozygosity of important tumor suppressor genes. An investigation of the 19q13 region may help to understand whether or not the predominant occurrence of the fragile site at 19q13 in controls is due to hypermethylation of this region.

  13. Cytogenetic effect of 5-azacytidine in patients with hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Jessica Romy; Segato, Rosimeire; Barbosa, Waldênia; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the importance of cytogenetics has grown in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. 5-azacytidine is a drug that has well-known cytogenetical effects and is approved in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. To date, no studies have been performed to evaluate the impact of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of patients with hematological neoplasias. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-azacytidine on chromosomes of patients with different hematological malignancies using G-band analyses to identify possible cytogenetical alterations. The peripheral blood of 18 patients with hematological malignancies and 18 controls was collected in heparinized tubes. 5-azacytidine was added, at a final concentration of 10-5M, to cultures 7 hours prior to harvest. Uncoiled centromeric/pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes-1, 9 and 16 occurred more frequently in the patients than in controls. This higher frequency of uncoiled heterochromatin was statistically significant (p-value = 0.004) for chromosome-9. Conversely, we observed that the fragile site at 19q13 was more frequent in controls (p-value = 0.0468). The results of this study suggest that satellite sequences, located in the heterochromatin of chromosome-9, are hypomethylated in hematological malignancies. This hypomethylation may contribute to the disease, activating transposable elements and/or promoting genomic instability, enabling the loss of heterozygosity of important tumor suppressor genes. An investigation of the 19q13 region may help to understand whether or not the predominant occurrence of the fragile site at 19q13 in controls is due to hypermethylation of this region.

  14. Genetic and cytogenetic structure of wild lemon grass (Elionurus muticus populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanise Nogueira Füller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Elionurus muticus is a native aromatic grass from the Pampa biome that produces an essential oil that is rich in citral. Despite the importance of citral, few studies have examined this species. The aims of this work were to evaluate the genetic structure and to characterize cytogenetically natural populations collected from Brazil. Genetic characterization was performed using AFLP markers, and cytogenetics assessed the chromosome number, karyotype and meiosis. The studied populations had genetic variability, especially within populations, indicating the possibility of selecting plants with relevant characters. High variability also suggests the preferential occurrence of outcrossing in natural populations. Regular meiosis was observed in the cytogenetic analysis with chromosome number 2n=20. The karyotype of the species is presented for the first time, with the karyotype formula 3sm + 4a + 1saSAT.

  15. Comparative cytogenetic and morphological analysis of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae (Pisces, Characidae, Tetragonopterinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maistro Edson Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and morphological studies were carried out on nine local populations of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae. All populations exhibited 2n = 50 chromosomes as well as conspicuous differences involving karyotype morphology, number and position of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and amount and/or locations of constitutive heterochromatin blocks. A quantitative study of the cytogenetic data showed that eight populations possessed different karyotypes. Morphological analyses based on nine measurements and two meristic parameters were effective in establishing clear identification of five populations. Comparative analysis of cytogenetic and morphological traits suggests that chromosomal changes have occurred at a more rapid rate than morphological differentiation. Despite the close morphological similarity found among some populations, chromosomal differentiation was identified in all of them, even in those presenting only small morphological differences.

  16. The role of apoptosis in Listeria monocytogenes neural infection: listeriolysin O interaction with neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Maria C; Baquero, Fernando; Perez-Diaz, Jose C

    2008-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is the etiological agent of meningitis that affects individuals at high risk such as pregnant women, neonates, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Infection by this intracellular pathogen can be lethal if not diagnosed and treated. Mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, a neuron-like cell line, were infected with L. monocytogenes. In this study apoptotic changes of neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells infected with strains of Listeria producing different listeriolysin O levels are investigated by cytotoxicity assay, cellular viability assay, DAPI staining, intranucleosomal DNA fragmentation test, and monoclonal antibodies against ss-DNA. Results show that after internalization, the bacteria induced morphological, functional and genetic changes in the cells characteristic of apoptosis, which was dose-and time-dependent on listeriolysin O. Neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells represent an interesting model cell line to further the understanding of Listeria pathogenesis within the central nervous system.

  17. Polysulfide promotes neuroblastoma cell differentiation by accelerating calcium influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shin; Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Hideo; Ishii, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Yuki

    2015-04-10

    Polysulfides are a typical type of bound sulfur, which is physiologically stable form of sulfur species, derived from the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) that is generated endogenously in cells. We previously reported that bound sulfur protects neuronal cells from oxidative injury. In the present study, we demonstrated that polysulfides inhibited cell growth and promoted neurite outgrowth in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells. However, Na2S showed no effect on neurite outgrowth in N2A cells. Furthermore, 2-APB and SKF96365, which are typical transient receptor potential (TRP) channel inhibitors, suppressed the neurite outgrowth induced by Na2S4. These new findings suggest that bound sulfur could induce neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation of N2A cells by accelerating calcium influx. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RFC-1 80G>A polymorphism in case-mother/control-mother dyads is associated with risk of nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvão-de-Azevedo, Rafaela; Vasconcelos, Gisele M; Vargas, Fernando R; Thuler, Luiz Claudio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2015-02-01

    Embryonic tumors are associated with an interruption during normal organ development; they may be related to disturbances in the folate pathway involved in DNA synthesis, methylation, and repair. Prenatal supplementation with folic acid is associated with a decreased risk of neuroblastoma, brain tumors, retinoblastoma, and nephroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MTHFR rs1801133 (C677T) and RFC-1 rs1051266 (G80A) genotypes with the risk of developing nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma. Case-mother/control-mother dyad study. Samples from Brazilian children with nephroblastoma (n=80), neuroblastoma (n=66), healthy controls (n=453), and their mothers (case n=93; control n=75) were analyzed. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood cells and/or buccal cells and genotyped to identify MTHFR C677T and RFC-1 G80A polymorphisms. Differences in genotype distribution between patients and controls were tested by multiple logistic regression analysis. Risk for nephroblastoma and neuroblastoma was two- to fourfold increased among children with RFC-1 polymorphisms. An increased four- to eightfold risk for neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma was seen when the child and maternal genotypes were combined. Our results suggest that mother and child RFC-1 G80A genotypes play a role on the risk of neuroblastoma and nephroblastoma since this polymorphism may impair the intracellular levels of folate, through carrying fewer folate molecules to the cell interior, and thus, the intracellular concentration is not enough to maintain regular DNA synthesis and methylation pathways.

  19. Prenatal screening of cytogenetic anomalies - a Western Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Frenny; Rahman, Mizanur; Liehr, Thomas; Desai, Manisha; Patel, Bhumika; Modi, Chirag; Trivedi, Sunil; Sheth, Jayesh

    2015-04-12

    Children born with congenital anomalies present a very high rate of perinatal death and neonatal mortality. Cytogenetic analysis is a convincing investigation along with clinical suspicion and biochemical screening tests. The current study was designed to characterize the prevalence and types of chromosomal abnormalities in high risk prenatal samples using different cytogenetic techniques. This study was conducted on a total of 1,728 prenatal samples (1,324 amniotic fluids, 366 chorionic villi and 38 cord blood samples) from 1994 to 2014 at Institute of Human Genetics, Ahmedabad, India. Conventional karyotyping was conducted with GTG-banding. Molecular approaches were used (fluorescence in situ hybridization = FISH and/ or array-comparative genomic hybridization = aCGH) when indicated to detect karyotypic abnormalities. Abnormal karyotypes were detected in 125/1,728 (7.2%) cases. Trisomy 21 was the most common abnormality detected in 46 (2.7%) followed by trisomy 18 in 11 (0.6%) and trisomy 13 in 2 (0.1%) samples. Besides, structural abnormalities such as reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation were detected in 20 [1.2%] cases. Turner syndrome was diagnosed in seven (0.4%) cases; in six (0.34%) cases there was an inversion in the Y-chromosome. Heteromorphic variants were diagnosed in 22 (1.3%) cases. Finally, small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) were found in six (0.34%) cases. Conventional GTG-banding along with molecular cytogenetic techniques is useful in detecting genomic alterations and rearrangements. Comprehensive characterization of chromosomal rearrangements like sSMC has the potential to save potentially healthy fetuses from being terminated.

  20. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abel, Frida

    2011-04-14

    Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.

  1. Primary cerebral neuroblastoma: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuş, Volkan; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Sav, Aydin; Ilbay, Konuralp; Ceylan, Savaş

    2002-05-01

    Primitive neuroepithelial tumors are the least common among supratentorial tumors in children. They pose great diagnostic difficulty, preoperatively as well as pathologically. Being quite rare, cerebral neuroblastomas are accepted as a distinct pathological entity, which differs from other neuroectodermal tumors, although clinically, radiologically, and morphologically at operation they are indistinguishable. Also differentiation between primary cerebral neuroblastoma and the other primitive neuroectodermal tumors may be difficult on light microscopy and be misleading. A 9-year-old girl with primary cerebral neuroblastoma who was initially misdiagnosed is reported. The other cases from the literature are reviewed and the nature of this rare tumor and its differential diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Molecular cytogenetic of the Amoy croaker, Argyrosomus amoyensis (Teleostei, Sciaenidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mengxiang; Zheng, Jiao; Wang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yilei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Mingyi

    2017-08-01

    The family Sciaenidae is remarkable for its species richness and economic importance. However, the cytogenetic data available in this fish group are still limited, especially those obtained using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In the present study, the chromosome characteristics of a sciaenid species, Argyrosomus amoyensis, were examined with several cytogenetic methods, including dual-FISH with 18S and 5S rDNA probes, and a self-genomic in situ hybridization procedure (Self-GISH). The karyotype of A. amoyensis comprised 2n=48 acrocentric chromosomes. A single pair of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) was located at the proximal position of chromosome 1, which was positive for silver nitrate impregnation (AgNO3) staining and denaturation-propidium iodide (DPI) staining but negative for Giemsa staining and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, and was confirmed by FISH with 18S rDNA probes. The 5S rDNA sites were located at the centromeric region of chromosome 3. Telomeric FISH signals were detected at all chromosome ends with different intensities, but internal telomeric sequences (ITSs) were not found. Self-GISH resulted in strong signals distributed at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes. C-banding revealed not only centromeric heterochromatin, but also heterochromatin that located on NORs, in interstitial and distal telomeric regions of specific chromosomes. These results suggest that the karyotype of Amoy croaker was relatively conserved and primitive. By comparison with the reported cytogenetic data of other sciaenids, it can be deduced that although the karyotypic macrostructure and chromosomal localization of 18S rDNA are conserved, the distribution of 5S rDNA varies dynamically among sciaenid species. Thus, the 5S rDNA sites may have different evolutionary dynamics in relation to other chromosomal regions, and have the potential to be effective cytotaxonomic markers in Sciaenidae.

  3. Decreased aortic growth and middle aortic syndrome in patients with neuroblastoma after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Elizabeth J. [Harvard University, Department of Radiology, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Tong, Ricky T. [Stanford University, Department of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Gillis, Amy M.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiation Oncology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D.; Boddington, Sophie; Sha, Vinil; Gooding, Charles; Coakley, Fergus V.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Weinberg, Vivian A. [University of California, San Francisco, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Biostatistics Core, San Francisco, CA (United States); Matthay, Katherine [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatrics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Long-term CT follow-up studies are required in pediatric patients who have received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to assess vascular toxicities and to determine the exact complication rate. To analyze with CT the effects of radiation therapy (RT) on the growth of the aorta in neuroblastoma patients. Abdominal CT scans of 31 patients with intraabdominal neuroblastoma (stage II-IV), treated with RT (20 IORT{+-}EBRT, 11 EBRT alone), were analyzed retrospectively. The diameter of the abdominal aorta was measured before and after RT. These data were compared to normal and predicted normal aortic diameters of children, according to the model of Fitzgerald, Donaldson and Poznanski (aortic diameter in centimeters = 0.844+0.0599 x age in years), and to the diameters of a control group of children who had not undergone RT. Statistical analyses for the primary aims were performed using the chi-squared test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test, nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs test and analysis of variance for repeated measures. Clinical files and imaging studies were evaluated for signs of late vascular complications of neuroblastoma patients who had received RT. The mean diameter before and after RT and the growth of the aorta were significantly lower than expected in patients with neuroblastoma (P<0.05 for each) and when compared to the growth in a control group with normal and nonirradiated aortas. Among the patients who had received RT, there was no difference due to the type of RT. Seven patients from the IORT{+-}EBRT group developed vascular complications, which included hypertension (five), middle aortic syndrome (two), death due to mesenteric ischemia (one) and critical aortic stenosis, which required aortic bypass surgery (two). Patients with neuroblastoma who had received RT showed impaired growth of the abdominal aorta. Significant long-term vascular complications occurred in seven patients who received IORT

  4. Modulation of neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis by an extensive network of epigenetically regulated microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Bryan, K; Buckley, P G; Piskareva, O; Bray, I M; Foley, N; Ryan, J; Lynch, J; Creevey, L; Fay, J; Prenter, S; Koster, J; van Sluis, P; Versteeg, R; Eggert, A; Schulte, J H; Schramm, A; Mestdagh, P; Vandesompele, J; Speleman, F; Stallings, R L

    2013-06-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of cancer, including the pediatric cancer neuroblastoma, but the underlying mechanisms leading to altered miRNA expression are often unknown. Here, a novel integrated approach for analyzing DNA methylation coupled with miRNA and mRNA expression data sets identified 67 epigenetically regulated miRNA in neuroblastoma. A large proportion (42%) of these miRNAs was associated with poor patient survival when underexpressed in tumors. Moreover, we demonstrate that this panel of epigenetically silenced miRNAs targets a large set of genes that are overexpressed in tumors from patients with poor survival in a highly redundant manner. The genes targeted by the epigenetically regulated miRNAs are enriched for a number of biological processes, including regulation of cell differentiation. Functional studies involving ectopic overexpression of several of the epigenetically silenced miRNAs had a negative impact on neuroblastoma cell viability, providing further support to the concept that inactivation of these miRNAs is important for neuroblastoma disease pathogenesis. One locus, miR-340, induced either differentiation or apoptosis in a cell context dependent manner, indicating a tumor suppressive function for this miRNA. Intriguingly, it was determined that miR-340 is upregulated by demethylation of an upstream genomic region that occurs during the process of neuroblastoma cell differentiation induced by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Further biological studies of miR-340 revealed that it directly represses the SOX2 transcription factor by targeting of its 3'-untranslated region, explaining the mechanism by which SOX2 is downregulated by ATRA. Although SOX2 contributes to the maintenance of stem cells in an undifferentiated state, we demonstrate that miR-340-mediated downregulation of SOX2 is not required for ATRA induced differentiation to occur. In summary, our results exemplify the dynamic nature of the mi

  5. Dielectrophoretic capture and genetic analysis of single neuroblastoma tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L Carpenter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the diversity of cells that escape the primary tumor and seed micrometastases remains rudimentary, and approaches for studying circulating and disseminated tumor cells have been limited by low throughput and sensitivity, reliance on single parameter sorting, and a focus on enumeration rather than phenotypic and genetic characterization. Here we utilize a highly sensitive microfluidic and dielectrophoretic approach for the isolation and genetic analysis of individual tumor cells. We employed fluorescence labeling to isolate 208 single cells from spiking experiments conducted with 11 cell lines, including 8 neuroblastoma cell lines, and achieved a capture sensitivity of 1 tumor cell per 106 white blood cells. Sample fixation or freezing had no detectable effect on cell capture. Point mutations were accurately detected in the whole genome amplification product of captured single tumor cells but not in negative control white blood cells. We applied this approach to capture 144 single tumor cells from 10 bone marrow samples from patients suffering from neuroblastoma. In this pediatric malignancy, high-risk patients often exhibit wide-spread hematogenous metastasis, but access to primary tumor can be difficult or impossible. Here we used flow-based sorting to pre-enrich samples with tumor involvement below 0.02%. For all patients for whom a mutation in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase gene had already been detected in their primary tumor, the same mutation was detected in single cells from their marrow. These findings demonstrate a novel, non-invasive, and adaptable method for the capture and genetic analysis of single tumor cells from cancer patients.

  6. [Surgical approach of retroperitoneal neuroblastoma in infancy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrilla, J G; Monereo, J; Domínguez, J; Benchi, F

    1976-11-01

    Rarely retroperitoneal neuroblastoma is a well localized, encapsulated tumor, like it my appear somewhere else, as in the pelvic floor or mediastinum. Even with the same histological findings they are different from de point of view of invasion. Therefore the surgical approach should be different in each case. This is our main conclusion after de study performed in 48 cases operated upon in the last 8 years. We have tried three kinds of operations. 1. The so called curative, total resections. Performing a surgical ablation of the tumor and the organs macroscopically involved, either prior or after radiotherapy or quimiotherapy. At any risk, even of life in the early postoperative period. This kind of surgery has been undertaken in 34 cases with an early mortality of 9. The main aim of this technique is to divide the tumor in two across the supraaortic line well below the renal vessels and up to the diaphragm. In 18 cases the homolateral kidney was resected with the suprarrenal gland. Spleen and pancreas in 5 cases, colon in 4, and the inferior vena cava in 3. The survivors over 2 years are 19 cases. 2. Paliative resection, taking out the main tumor only, has been achieved in 4 cases, with the highest mortality because postoperative hemorrhage. We believed is a dangerous procedure. None of these children survived more than one year. 3. Biopsy and surgical macroscopic diagnosis of invasion plus placing clips at their margin has been carried out in 12 occasions. This had naturally the best early postoperative but not in the long run, none survived more than 2 years. A second look up with resection was undertaken in 3 cases with mortality of one. Most surgeons are puzzled when dealing with retroperitoneal neuroblastoma and some how disappointed before undertaking a long, difficult and highly risk operation, but in many instances still is about the only hope they may have.

  7. Progress in treatment and risk stratification of neuroblastoma: impact on future clinical and basic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øra, Ingrid; Eggert, Angelika

    2011-10-01

    Close international collaboration between pediatric oncologists has led to marked improvements in the cure of patients, seen as a long-term overall survival rate of about 80%. Despite this progress, neuroblastoma remains a challenging disease for both clinicians and researchers. Major clinical problems include lack of acceptable cure rates in high-risk neuroblastoma and potential overtreatment of subsets of patients at low and intermediate risk of the disease. Many years of intensive international cooperation have recently led to a promising joint effort to further improve risk classification for treatment stratification, the new International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Classification System. This approach will facilitate comparison of the results of clinical trials performed by different international collaborative groups. This, in turn, should accelerate refinement of risk stratification and thereby aid selection of appropriate therapies for individual patients. To be able to identify new therapeutic modalities, it will be necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of the different subtypes of neuroblastoma. Basic and translational research have provided new tools for molecular characterization of blood and tumor samples including high-throughput technologies for analysis of DNA, mRNAs, microRNAs and other non-coding RNAs, as well as proteins and epigenetic markers. Most of these studies are array-based in design. In neuroblastoma research they aim to refine risk group stratification through incorporation of molecular tumor fingerprints and also to enable personalized treatment modalities by describing the underlying pathogenesis and aberrant signaling pathways in individual tumors. To make optimal use of these new technologies for the benefit of the patient, it is crucial to have a systematic and detailed documentation of both clinical and molecular data from diagnosis through treatment to follow-up. Close collaboration between clinicians and basic scientists will

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular markers reveal the complexity of the genus Piabina Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Felix Pazian

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and molecular analyses were carried out in fish representative of the genus Piabina. This study specifically involved the species P. argentea and P. anhembi collected from areas of the Paranapanema and Tietê River basins, Brazil. Our findings suggest that fish classified as Piabina argentea in the Paranapanema and Tietê Rivers may represent more than one species. The samples analyzed differed by cytogenetic particularities and molecular analyses using partial sequences of the genes COI and CytB as genetic markers revealed three distinct groups of P. argentea with genetic distances sufficient to support the conclusion that the three samples analyzed are three distinct taxonomic units.

  9. Panobinostat synergistically enhances the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin, doxorubicin or etoposide on high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan Wang

    Full Text Available High-risk neuroblastoma remains a therapeutic challenge with a long-term survival rate of less than 40%. Therefore, new agents are urgently needed to overcome chemotherapy resistance so as to improve the treatment outcome of this deadly disease. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs represent a novel class of anticancer drugs. Recent studies demonstrated that HDACIs can down-regulate the CHK1 pathway by which cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional chemotherapy drugs. This prompted our hypothesis that combining HDACIs with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs for treating neuroblastoma would result in enhanced anti-tumor activities of these drugs. Treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines with a novel pan-HDACI, panobinostat (LBH589, resulted in dose-dependent growth arrest and apoptosis in 4 high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines. Further, the combination of panobinostat with cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide resulted in highly synergistic antitumor interactions in the high-risk neuroblastoma cell lines, independent of the sequence of drug administration. This was accompanied by cooperative induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, panobinostat treatment resulted in substantial down-regulation of CHK1 and its downstream pathway and abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint. Synergistic antitumor interactions were also observed when the DNA damaging agents were combined with a CHK1-specific inhibitor, LY2603618. Contrary to panobinostat treatment, LY2603618 treatments neither resulted in abrogation of the G2 cell cycle checkpoint nor enhanced cisplatin, doxorubicin, or etoposide-induced apoptosis in the high-risk neuroblastoma cells. Surprisingly, LY2603618 treatments caused substantial down-regulation of total CDK1. Despite this discrepancy between panobinostat and LY2603618, our results indicate that suppression of the CHK1 pathway by panobinostat is at least partially responsible for the synergistic antitumor interactions

  10. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... colorectal carcinomas, and del(10)(q22) and add(16)(p13), which so far have not been associated with primary tumors and which may play a particular pathogenetic role in the metastatic process....

  11. Comparative genomic hybridization in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryndorf, T.; Kirchhoff, M.; Rose, H. [and others

    1995-11-01

    We report the results of applying comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in a cytogenetic service laboratory for (1) determination of the origin of extra and missing chromosomal material in intricate cases of unbalanced aberrations and (2) detection of common prenatal numerical chromosome aberrations. A total of 11 fetal samples were analyzed. Seven cases of complex unbalanced aberrations that could not be identified reliably by conventional cytogenetics were successfully resolved by CGH analysis. CGH results were validated by using FISH with chromosome-specific probes. Four cases representing common prenatal numerical aberrations (trisomy 21, 18, and 13 and monosomy X) were also successfully diagnosed by CGH. We conclude that CGH is a powerful adjunct to traditional cytogenetic techniques that makes it possible to solve clinical cases of intricate unbalanced aberrations in a single hybridization. CGH may also be a useful adjunct to screen for euchromatic involvement in marker chromosomes. Further technical development may render CGH applicable for routine aberration screening. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Cytogenetic contribution to uniparental disomy (UPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liehr Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uniparental disomy (UPD is often considered as an event to be characterized exclusively by molecular genetic or epigenetic approaches. This review shows that at least one third of UPD cases emerge in connection with or due to a chromosomal rearrangement. Thus, additional (molecular cytogenetic characterization of UPD cases is essential. Up to now > 1,100 UPD cases detected in clinical, non-tumor cases are reported in the literature. Recently, these cases were summarized in a regularly updated, freely available online database http://www.med.uni-jena.de/fish/sSMC/00START-UPD.htm. Based of this, here the presently known imprinting syndromes, the chromosomal contribution to UPD phenomenon, and the cytogenetic subgroups of UPD, including cases with normal, abnormal balanced or unbalanced karyotype (like e.g. small supernumerary marker chromosomes and Robertsonian translocations and segmental UPD are reviewed. Furthermore, chromosome fragmentation as a possible mechanism of trisomic rescue is discussed, which might help to explain the observed 1:9 rate of maternal versus paternal UPD present in cases with original trisomic karyotypes. Overall, as UPD is more but an interesting rarity, the genetic background of each "UPD-patient" needs to be characterized besides by molecular methods, also by molecular cytogenetics in detail.

  13. Factors associated with achievement and durability of cytogenetic response in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with imatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćojbašić Irena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Imatinib mesylate, a selective Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has revolutionized the treatment of Bcr-Abl positive chronic myeloid leukemia and become the standard of care for this disease. The aim of this study was evaluation and analysis of cytogenetic response in different intervals and risk groups as well as finding association between pre-treatment characteristics and later probability of achievement of major cytogenetic response. Methods. We analyzed a total of 22 adult patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia positive early chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia treated at our institution from June 2006 to December 2009. Results. The median follow-up time for patients during treatment with imatinib was 25.7 months (range, 12-42 months. A complete hematologic response was achieved in all of the analyzed patients within 6 months from the start of the treatment. The major cytogenetic response rate was 81.8%, and the complete cytogenetic response rate was 72.7%. The patients with low or moderate relative risk had the rate of complementary achieving major and complete cytogenetic response of 75-90%. A multivariate analysis identified the following independent prognostic factors for achieving major cytogenetic response: the absence of splenomegaly, white blood cell count less than 10 × 109/L, the platelet count less than 450 × 109/L, the presence of less than 5% of bone marrow blasts and basophils, the absence of blasts in peripheral blood, the presence of less than 7% of basophils in peripheral blood. Conclusion. Patients who early achieve complete and major cytogenetic response as well as those with low and moderate relative risk have a higher rate of achieving and maintaining complete cytogenetic response. There are also characteristics of patients before treatment that may indicate the treatment outcome.

  14. Immune response to racotumomab in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA VANESA SAMPOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Immunotherapy targeting ganglioside antigens is a powerful tool for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. However, only treatment with anti-GD2 antibodies has been used in clinical practice and other options may be pursued. We report the use of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype vaccine against N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (NeuGc- containing gangliosides, eliciting an immune response in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma expressing the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside.

  15. Neuroblastoma: morphological pattern, molecular genetic features, and prognostic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Stroganova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial tumor of childhood, arises from the developing neurons of the sympathetic nervous system (neural cress stem cells and has various biological and clinical characteristics. The mean age at disease onset is 18 months. Neuroblastoma has a number of unique characteristics: a capacity for spontaneous regression in babies younger than 12 months even in the presence of distant metastases, for differentiation (maturation into ganglioneuroma in infants after the first year of life, and for swift aggressive development and rapid metastasis. There are 2 clinical classifications of neuroblastoma: the International neuroblastoma staging system that is based on surgical results and the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Staging System. One of the fundamentally important problems for the clinical picture of neuroblastoma is difficulties making its prognosis. Along with clinical parameters (a patient’s age, tumor extent and site, some histological, molecular biochemical (ploidy and genetic (chromosomal aberrations, MYCN gene status, deletion of the locus 1p36 and 11q, the longer arm of chromosome 17, etc. characteristics of tumor cells are of considerable promise. MYCN gene amplification is observed in 20–30 % of primary neuroblastomas and it is one of the major indicators of disease aggressiveness, early chemotherapy resistance, and a poor prognosis. There are 2 types of MYCN gene amplification: extrachromosomal (double acentric chromosomes and intrachromosomal (homogenically painted regions. Examination of double acentric chromosomes revealed an interesting fact that it may be eliminated (removed from the nucleus through the formation of micronuclei. MYCN oncogene amplification is accompanied frequently by 1p36 locus deletion and longer 17q arm and less frequently by 11q23 deletion; these are poor prognostic factors for the disease. The paper considers in detail the specific, unique characteristics of the

  16. Activating mutations in ALK provide a therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rani E; Sanda, Takaomi; Hanna, Megan; Fröhling, Stefan; Luther, William; Zhang, Jianming; Ahn, Yebin; Zhou, Wenjun; London, Wendy B; McGrady, Patrick; Xue, Liquan; Zozulya, Sergey; Gregor, Vlad E; Webb, Thomas R; Gray, Nathanael S; Gilliland, D Gary; Diller, Lisa; Greulich, Heidi; Morris, Stephan W; Meyerson, Matthew; Look, A Thomas

    2008-10-16

    Neuroblastoma, an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, accounts for approximately 15% of all deaths due to childhood cancer. High-risk neuroblastomas are rapidly progressive; even with intensive myeloablative chemotherapy, relapse is common and almost uniformly fatal. Here we report the detection of previously unknown mutations in the ALK gene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, in 8% of primary neuroblastomas. Five non-synonymous sequence variations were identified in the kinase domain of ALK, of which three were somatic and two were germ line. The most frequent mutation, F1174L, was also identified in three different neuroblastoma cell lines. ALK complementary DNAs encoding the F1174L and R1275Q variants, but not the wild-type ALK cDNA, transformed interleukin-3-dependent murine haematopoietic Ba/F3 cells to cytokine-independent growth. Ba/F3 cells expressing these mutations were sensitive to the small-molecule inhibitor of ALK, TAE684 (ref. 4). Furthermore, two human neuroblastoma cell lines harbouring the F1174L mutation were also sensitive to the inhibitor. Cytotoxicity was associated with increased amounts of apoptosis as measured by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of ALK expression in neuroblastoma cell lines with the F1174L mutation also resulted in apoptosis and impaired cell proliferation. Thus, activating alleles of the ALK receptor tyrosine kinase are present in primary neuroblastoma tumours and in established neuroblastoma cell lines, and confer sensitivity to ALK inhibition with small molecules, providing a molecular rationale for targeted therapy of this disease.

  17. Ku70 Acetylation in Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Castle, Valerie; Kwok, Roland; Opipari, Anthony; Subramanian, Chitra

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a cancer that occurs in children. It develops from stem cells that normally give rise to parts of the peripheral nervous system and adrenal glands. Although most children with localized neuroblastoma are cured, children with wide-spread disease have a small chance of survival even after surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and bone marrow transplantation. Ten to fifteen percent of patients die from treatment complications, and long-term survival is less than 30%. Although contemp...

  18. Increasing the intracellular availability of all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J. L.; Ruiz, M.; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Pearson, A D J; Veal, G J

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid bi...

  19. Mesenchymal change and drug resistance in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiditch, Jessica A; Jie, Chunfa; Lautz, Timothy B; Yu, Songtao; Clark, Sandra; Voronov, Dimitry; Chu, Fei; Madonna, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic initiation has many phenotypic similarities to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, including loss of cell-cell adhesion, increased invasiveness, and increased cell mobility. We have previously demonstrated that drug resistance is associated with a metastatic phenotype in neuroblastoma (NB). The purpose of this project was to determine if the development of doxorubicin resistance is associated with characteristics of mesenchymal change in human NB cells. Total RNA was isolated from wild type (WT) and doxorubicin-resistant (DoxR) human NB cell lines (SK-N-SH and SK-N-BE(2)C) and analyzed using the Illumina Human HT-12 version 4 Expression BeadChip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Volcano plots and heat maps were generated. Genes of interest with a fold change in expression >1.5 and an adjusted P change via multiple pathways in the transition to a drug-resistant state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of novel autism candidate regions through analysis of reported cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstman, JAS; Staal, WG; van Daalen, E; van Engeland, H; Hochstenbach, PFR; Franke, L

    The identification of the candidate genes for autism through linkage and association studies has proven to be a difficult enterprise. An alternative approach is the analysis of cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism. We present a review of all studies to date that relate patients with

  1. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, Birgitte; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells....... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  2. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and similar to 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  3. Cytogenetic Analysis of 65 Women with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ates

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI is characterized as amenorrhea for more than 6 months, occurring before the age of 40, with an increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. The aim of our study is to determine the types and distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities among women with POI. Material and Method: The study is based on the retrospective karyotype analysis of 65 women with idiopathic POI referred to the Medical Genetics Department at the Bezmialem Vakif University Hospital. Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 12 of 65 cases (18.4%. All of them had numerical abnormalities of the X chromosome. The most frequently detected abnormalities were X chromosome mosaicisms. Two cases had fragile X premutation carriers. Eight (12.3% women were considered as familial POI. Discussion: Our results underline the essential role of the X chromosome in the etiology of POI. Therefore, regardless of clinical features and woman%u2019s age, cytogenetic investigations should be routinely performed in cases with POI.

  4. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Brandal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT is a disease of disputed etiology and pathogenesis. Some investigations indicate a neoplastic origin of the tumors; others indicate that they are polyclonal and inflammatory. The cytogenetic and molecular genetic features of TSGCTs are largely unknown, as only some 20 localized and 30 diffuse tumors with cytogenetic aberrations have been reported. The most common karyotypic aberrations have been trisomy for chromosomes 5 and 7 and translocations involving chromosomal area 1 pi 1-13. We decided to screen the genomes of TSGCTs by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH to perform interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (IP-FISH, looking for numerical aberrations of chromosomes 1, 5, and 7, and to analyze the tumors for microsatellite instability. Except for two diffuse TSGCTs that came fresh to us, and which, by karyotyping, exhibited t(1;22(p13;g12 and a t(1;1(g21;p11 and +7, respectively, all studies had to be performed on formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded material. DNA was extracted from 51 localized and nine diffuse TSGCTs. CGH was successful for 24 tumors, but none of them showed copy number changes. The IP-FISH studies showed trisomy 7 in 56% of the tumors (15/27, whereas chromosomes 1 and 5 seemed to be disomic in all TSGCTs. All informative tumors were wild-type by microsatellite instability analysis.

  5. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two established ESFT cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Masako; Yuki, Mutsumi; Fukushige, Tomoko; Mizoguchi, Mikio; Kaneko, Yasuhiko; Morishige, Takeshita; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Askin's tumor (Ewing`s sarcoma family of tumors: ESFT) is the most common type of malignant tumor of bone and soft tissue in children and young adults, and morphologically is a member of a group of small round cell tumors. We report, here, on the establishment of two human ESFT cell lines, FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4, from the iliac and the chest wall, respectively, the cells of both cell lines were tumorigenic in immunodeficient mice. Histologically, both original and xenograft tumors and cultured cells were composed of small round cells with positive immunoreactivity for CD99 and Nkx2.2. Molecular biological examination demonstrated chimeric transcripts of EWSR1 exon 7 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-3 cells, and EWSR1 exon 10 to FLI1 exon 6 in FU-PNET-4 cells. Cytogenetic analysis revealed chromosome translocation t(11;22)(q24;q12) and some secondary changes in both cultured cells. These histological, molecular biological, and cytogenetical findings indicate ESFT in both cell lines. ESFT is well studied, but its recurrent fusion genes are heterogeneous and its biological behaviors are unclear. The FU-PNET-3 and FU-PNET-4 cell lines have been well examined and may become useful tools for studying the genetic and biological behavioral properties of ESFT.

  6. Potentiation of neuroblastoma metastasis by loss of caspase-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupack, Dwayne G; Teitz, Tal; Potter, Matthew D; Mikolon, David; Houghton, Peter J; Kidd, Vincent J; Lahti, Jill M; Cheresh, David A

    2006-01-05

    Neuroblastoma, the most common paediatric solid tumour, arises from defective neural crest cells. Genetic alterations occur frequently in the most aggressive neuroblastomas. In particular, deletion or suppression of the proapoptotic enzyme caspase-8 is common in malignant, disseminated disease, although the effect of this loss on disease progression is unclear. Here we show that suppression of caspase-8 expression occurs during the establishment of neuroblastoma metastases in vivo, and that reconstitution of caspase-8 expression in deficient neuroblastoma cells suppressed their metastases. Caspase-8 status was not a predictor of primary tumour growth; rather, caspase-8 selectively potentiated apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells invading the collagenous stroma at the tumour margin. Apoptosis was initiated by unligated integrins by means of a process known as integrin-mediated death. Loss of caspase-8 or integrin rendered these cells refractory to integrin-mediated death, allowed cellular survival in the stromal microenvironment, and promoted metastases. These findings define caspase-8 as a metastasis suppressor gene that, together with integrins, regulates the survival and invasive capacity of neuroblastoma cells.

  7. Sequencing of neuroblastoma identifies chromothripsis and defects in neuritogenesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Jan J; Koster, Jan; Zwijnenburg, Danny A; van Sluis, Peter; Valentijn, Linda J; van der Ploeg, Ida; Hamdi, Mohamed; van Nes, Johan; Westerman, Bart A; van Arkel, Jennemiek; Ebus, Marli E; Haneveld, Franciska; Lakeman, Arjan; Schild, Linda; Molenaar, Piet; Stroeken, Peter; van Noesel, Max M; Ora, Ingrid; Santo, Evan E; Caron, Huib N; Westerhout, Ellen M; Versteeg, Rogier

    2012-02-22

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The pathogenesis has for a long time been quite enigmatic, as only very few gene defects were identified in this often lethal tumour. Frequently detected gene alterations are limited to MYCN amplification (20%) and ALK activations (7%). Here we present a whole-genome sequence analysis of 87 neuroblastoma of all stages. Few recurrent amino-acid-changing mutations were found. In contrast, analysis of structural defects identified a local shredding of chromosomes, known as chromothripsis, in 18% of high-stage neuroblastoma. These tumours are associated with a poor outcome. Structural alterations recurrently affected ODZ3, PTPRD and CSMD1, which are involved in neuronal growth cone stabilization. In addition, ATRX, TIAM1 and a series of regulators of the Rac/Rho pathway were mutated, further implicating defects in neuritogenesis in neuroblastoma. Most tumours with defects in these genes were aggressive high-stage neuroblastomas, but did not carry MYCN amplifications. The genomic landscape of neuroblastoma therefore reveals two novel molecular defects, chromothripsis and neuritogenesis gene alterations, which frequently occur in high-risk tumours.

  8. Pre-clinical evaluation of rHDL encapsulated retinoids for the treatment of Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama eSabnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite major advances in pediatric cancer research, there has been only modest progress in the survival of children with high risk neuroblastoma (HRNB. The long term survival rates of HRNB in the United States are still only 30-50%. Due to resistance that often develops during therapy, development of new effective strategies is essential to improve the survival and overcome the tendency of HRNB patients to relapse subsequent to initial treatment. Current chemotherapy regimens also have a serious limitation due to off target toxicity. In the present work, we evaluated the potential application of reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL containing fenretinide (FR nanoparticles as a novel approach to current neuroblastoma therapeutics. The characterization and stability studies of rHDL-FR nanoparticles showed small size (<40nm and high encapsulation efficiency. The cytotoxicity studies of free FR vs. rHDL/ FR towards the neuroblastoma cell lines SK-N-SH and SMS-KCNR showed 2.8 and 2 fold lower IC50 values for the rHDL encapsulated FR vs. free FR. More importantly, the IC50 value for retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19, a recipient of off target toxicity during FR therapy, was over 40 times higher for the rHDL/ FR as compared to that of free FR. The overall improvement in in vitro selective therapeutic efficiency was thus about 100 fold upon encapsulation of the drug into the rHDL nanoparticles. These studies support the potential value of this novel drug delivery platform for treating pediatric cancers in general, and neuroblastoma in particular

  9. Long-term follow-up of neuroblastoma-associated opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grandis, E; Parodi, S; Conte, M; Angelini, P; Battaglia, F; Gandolfo, C; Pessagno, A; Pistoia, V; Mitchell, W G; Pike, M; Haupt, R; Veneselli, E

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the long-term neurological, neuropsychological and neuroradiological sequelae and to determine prognostic factors for neurological outcome in children with neuroblastoma-associated opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) syndrome. Data on medical history were collected for the study patients. Examinations with grading of neurological signs, neuropsychological tests and brain magnetic resonance imaging with spectroscopy were performed during a follow-up clinic. Fourteen subjects entered the study. All had localized neuroblastoma and they were evaluated after a median of 7.8 years. Patients with a chronic/multiphasic neurological course received steroids combined with intravenous immunoglobulins in the majority of cases. 71% presented neurological sequelae and 62% had a full-scale IQ below the normal range. All patients showed at least some deficit in the neuropsychological functions assessed (language, visual-motor integration, memory, attention and motor ability). Long-term deficits were more frequently detected in patients with an interval of more than 2 months between OMA onset and its diagnosis, even if in most comparisons statistical significance was not reached. Cerebellar atrophy, observed in 36% of patients, was not associated with the neurological outcome. Persisting disability is present in most children with neuroblastoma-associated OMA. However, our results support the role of an early diagnosis of OMA in reducing sequelae and encourage the use of new immunosuppressive therapies.

  10. Activating ALK mutations found in neuroblastoma are inhibited by Crizotinib and NVP-TAE684.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, Christina; Ruuth, Kristina; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Eriksson, Therese; Christensen, James; Palmer, Ruth H; Hallberg, Bengt

    2011-12-15

    Mutations in the kinase domain of ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) have recently been shown to be important for the progression of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma. In the present study we investigate six of the putative reported constitutively active ALK mutations, in positions G1128A, I1171N, F1174L, R1192P, F1245C and R1275Q. Our analyses were performed in cell-culture-based systems with both mouse and human ALK mutant variants and subsequently in a Drosophila melanogaster model system. Our investigation addressed the transforming potential of the putative gain-of-function ALK mutations as well as their signalling potential and the ability of two ATP-competitive inhibitors, Crizotinib (PF-02341066) and NVP-TAE684, to abrogate the activity of ALK. The results of the present study indicate that all mutations tested are of an activating nature and thus are implicated in tumour initiation or progression of neuroblastoma. Importantly for neuroblastoma patients, all ALK mutations used in the present study can be blocked by the inhibitors, although some mutants exhibited higher levels of drug sensitivity than others.

  11. Whole body dosimetry for treatment individualized neuroblastoma with {sup 1}31I-MIBG; Dosimetria de cuerpo entero para el tratamiento individualizado del neuroblastoma con {sup 1}31I-MIBG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Gracia, C.; Luquero Llopis, N.; Sanchez Munoz, F.; Plaza Aparicio, R.; Huerga Cabrerizo, C.; Corredoira Silva, E.; Serrada Hierro, A.

    2013-07-01

    It according to in this study, that in therapy with {sup 1}31I-MIBG for the treatment of neuroblastoma, it can prescribe and manage dose whole body accurately, allowing individualized treatments and major activities that in the treatments based on a fixed activity according to weight management. (Author)

  12. Clinical Significance of Tumor-Associated Inflammatory Cells in Metastatic Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Salo, Jill A.; Ji, Lingyun; Oberthuer, André; Fischer, Matthias; Berthold, Frank; Hadjidaniel, Michael; Liu, Cathy Wei-Yao; Metelitsa, Leonid S.; Pique-Regi, Roger; Wakamatsu, Peter; Villablanca, Judith G.; Kreissman, Susan G.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Shimada, Hiroyuki; London, Wendy B.; Sposto, Richard; Seeger, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with metastatic MYCN-nonamplified neuroblastoma (NBL-NA) are at high risk for disease relapse, whereas those diagnosed at age < 18 months are nearly always cured. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that expression of genes related to tumor-associated inflammatory cells correlates with the observed differences in survival by age at diagnosis and contributes to a prognostic signature. Methods Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in localized and metastatic neuroblastomas (n = 71) were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Expression of 44 genes representing tumor and inflammatory cells was quantified in 133 metastatic NBL-NAs to assess age-dependent expression and to develop a logistic regression model to provide low- and high-risk scores for predicting progression-free survival (PFS). Tumors from high-risk patients enrolled onto two additional studies (n = 91) served as independent validation cohorts. Results Metastatic neuroblastomas had higher infiltration of TAMs than locoregional tumors, and metastatic tumors diagnosed in patients at age ≥ 18 months had higher expression of inflammation-related genes than those in patients diagnosed at age < 18 months. Expression of genes representing TAMs (CD33/CD16/IL6R/IL10/FCGR3) contributed to 25% of the accuracy of a novel 14-gene tumor classification score. PFS at 5 years for children diagnosed at age ≥ 18 months with NBL-NA with a low- versus high-risk score was 47% versus 12%, 57% versus 8%, and 50% versus 20% in three independent clinical trials, respectively. Conclusion These data suggest that interactions between tumor and inflammatory cells may contribute to the clinical metastatic neuroblastoma phenotype, improve prognostication, and reveal novel therapeutic targets. PMID:22927533

  13. [Chronic myeloid leukemia: from cytogenetics to molecular biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissaoui, Z; Lai, J; Fenaux, P; Kerckaert, J P

    1990-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is an excellent model for the study of molecular rearrangements caused by a cytogenetic anomaly associated with a disease. The formation of a Philadelphia chromosome by translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 provokes the breaking and migration of a cellular oncogen (ABL), located in the 9q34 region, towards chromosome 22 and the 22q11 region where the PHL gene is situated. This gene is broken in the bcr area the rearrangements of which are specific to CML. The ABL and PHL genes fragments fuse together, creating a new hybrid gene which is transcribed into an 8.5 kilobase messenger RNA specific to CML. This RNA is translated into a 210 kilodalton protein whose abnormally high tyrosine kinase activity seems to contribute to the development of the disease. Genetic engineering techniques improve our understanding of CML molecular mechanisms and can be very useful to clinicians as they permit the diagnosis of CML in some cases devoid of chromosomal markers, and the detection of a possible relapse in marrow-grafted patients with a much greater sensitivity (one in 100,000 cells) than that of cytogenetics.

  14. Molecular and cytogenetic assessment of Dipterygium glaucum genotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADA H. ALTWATY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to assess the genotoxicity of Dipterygium glaucum grows widely in Saudi Arabia desert to produce safety herbal products. This work is considered the first and pioneer report so far due to the lack and poor evaluated reports of the plant species for their mutagensity, genotoxicity and cytogenetics effects. Cytogenetic effects of D. glaucum on mitotic in roots of Vicia faba showed reduction in mitotic activity using three extracts; water, ethanol and ethyl acetate. Chromosomal abnormalities were recorded that included stickiness of chromosomes, chromatin bridge, fragments, lagging chromosome and micronuclei. Protein bands and RAPD analyses of V. faba treated with three D. glaucum extracts revealed some newly induced proteins and DNA fragments and other disappeared. Chemical constitution of the plant species should be identified with their biological activities against human and animal cells like HeLa cancer cell line. We are recommending using additional genotoxicity tests and other toxicity tests on animal culture with different concentrations and also utilizing several drought and heat tolerant genes of the plant species in gene cloning to develop and improve other economical crop plants instead of using the species as oral herbal remedy

  15. Cytogenetic effects of cadmium accumulation on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, I; Carbajal, M E; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Belmont, R; Villalobos-Pietrini, R

    1984-04-01

    Cadmium was bioassayed to observe cytogenetic effects in the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Plants were exposed for 96 hr to freshwater containing 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 1.5, and 10 mg/liter of cadmium. Metal concentrations in tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The highest level was found in roots, thus root-tip cells were used for cytogenetic studies; after 24 hr of exposure, micronuclei, c-mitotic effects, and pycnosis were detected and after 48 hr polyploidy was observed. A linear relationship between frequencies of micronuclei and cadmium concentrations was found: at 1.5, and 10 mg/liter micronuclei numbers were always the lowest. The inhibition of cell proliferation. shown by the low mitotic index, was proportional to the concentration and time of exposure. From the results presented in this paper it may be concluded that water hyacinth is a good sensor, due to its fast rate of metal accumulation, which allows an easy way to determine the presence of potential mutagenic compounds in water.

  16. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Isamu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  17. Genome-wide methylation profiling identifies novel methylated genes in neuroblastoma tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Maja; Beck, Stephan; Kogner, Per; Martinsson, Tommy; Carén, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a very heterogeneous tumor of childhood. The clinical spectra range from very aggressive metastatic disease to spontaneous regression, even without therapy. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a common feature of most cancers. For neuroblastoma, it has been demonstrated both for single genes as well as genome-wide, where a so-called methylator phenotype has been described. Here, we present a study using Illumina 450K methylation arrays on 60 neuroblastoma tumors. We show that aggressive tumors, characterized by International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) as stage M, are hypermethylated compared to low-grade tumors. On the contrary, INRG stage L tumors display more non-CpG methylation. The genes with the highest number of hypermethylated CpG sites in INRG M tumors are TERT, PCDHGA4, DLX5, and DLX6-AS1. Gene ontology analysis showed a representation of neuronal tumor relevant gene functions among the differentially methylated genes. For validation, we used a set of independent tumors previously analyzed with the Illumina 27K methylation arrays, which confirmed the differentially methylated sites. Top candidate genes with aberrant methylation were analyzed for altered gene expression through the R2 platform ( http://r2.amc.nl), and for correlations between methylation and gene expression in a public dataset. Altered expression in nonsurvivors was found for the genes B3GALT4 and KIAA1949, CLIC5, DLX6-AS, TERT, and PIRT, and strongest correlations were found for TRIM36, KIAA0513, and PIRT. Our data indicate that methylation profiling can be used for patient stratification and informs on epigenetically deregulated genes with the potential of increasing our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of tumor development.

  18. Cytogenetics of monosomes in Zea mays. Comprehensive report, February 1, 1977-May 15, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, D. F.

    1980-02-01

    Progress is reported in research on the cytogenetics of maize. The study has identified genetic factors that control the meiotic process, genetic recombination, lipid biosynthesis, and the free amino acid pool. It has also been determined that distributive pairing, gene compensation, and gene magnification do not occur in maize. (ACR)

  19. On the Xq13 breakpoint: clinical and cytogenetic observations in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessarego, M; Bianchi Scarrà, G; Giuntini, P; Ajmar, F

    1983-01-01

    Cytogenetic study in a case of acute myelogenous leukemia revealed the presence of two identical dicentric marker chromosomes derived from an X with Xq13 breakpoints. Clinical and cytochemical findings suggest that the patient was affected by idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anemia before the acute leukemia.

  20. A Semi-Closed Device for Chromosome Spreading for Cytogenetic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Mednova, Olga; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2014-01-01

    Metaphase chromosome spreading is the most crucial step required for successful karyotyping and FISH analysis. These two techniques are routinely used in cytogenetics to assess the chromosome abnormalities. The spreading process has been studied for years but it is still considered an art more than...

  1. ABCC4/MRP4: a MYCN-regulated transporter and potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony eHuynh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.

  2. The effects of radiation therapy on height and spine MRI characteristics in children with neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Sang Hoon; Sung, Ki Woong; Yoo, So-Young; Nam, Heerim

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on height and spine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis in children with neuroblastoma and to identify parameters related to patient height. We performed a retrospective cohort study of neuroblastoma patients treated between January 1997 and December 2007. Twenty-seven children were enrolled. Whole spine MRI was completed and height percentiles were compared with national growth charts. The median ages were 28, 43, and 126 months at diagnosis, RT, and analysis, respectively. All of the enrolled children received local RT, and 15 patients received total body irradiation (TBI). Median growth percentiles were 67.0, 54.0, and 4.9 at diagnosis, RT, and analysis, respectively. The number of irradiated vertebrae (P=0.009) and having undergone TBI (P=0.03) were significantly associated with shorter stature. Among the MRI parameters for irradiated vertebrae, signal intensity was higher (P=0.05) and more heterogeneous (P=0.02) in T1-weighted images and roundness was lower (P=0.03) in T2-weighted images. Height of children with neuroblastoma was significantly affected by RT. The number of irradiated vertebrae and having undergone TBI were significantly associated with lower height. Irradiated spine showed changes in both signal and shape on MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structurally diverse MDM2-p53 antagonists act as modulators of MDR-1 function in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Zhao, Y; Halliday, G C; Berry, P; Rousseau, R F; Middleton, S A; Nichols, G L; Del Bello, F; Piergentili, A; Newell, D R; Lunec, J; Tweddle, D A

    2014-08-12

    A frequent mechanism of acquired multidrug resistance in human cancers is overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as the Multi-Drug Resistance Protein 1 (MDR-1). Nutlin-3, an MDM2-p53 antagonist, has previously been reported to be a competitive MDR-1 inhibitor. This study assessed whether the structurally diverse MDM2-p53 antagonists, MI-63, NDD0005, and RG7388 are also able to modulate MDR-1 function, particularly in p53 mutant neuroblastoma cells, using XTT-based cell viability assays, western blotting, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Verapamil and the MDM2-p53 antagonists potentiated vincristine-mediated growth inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner when used in combination with high MDR-1-expressing p53 mutant neuroblastoma cell lines at concentrations that did not affect the viability of cells when given alone. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed that verapamil, Nutlin-3, MI-63 and NDD0005, but not RG7388, led to increased intracellular levels of vincristine in high MDR-1-expressing cell lines. These results show that in addition to Nutlin-3, other structurally unrelated MDM2-p53 antagonists can also act as MDR-1 inhibitors and reverse MDR-1-mediated multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma cell lines in a p53-independent manner. These findings are important for future clinical trial design with MDM2-p53 antagonists when used in combination with agents that are MDR-1 substrates.

  4. Identification of ALK as the Major Familial Neuroblastoma Predisposition Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossë, Yalë P; Laudenslager, Marci; Longo, Luca; Cole, Kristina A; Wood, Andrew; Attiyeh, Edward F; Laquaglia, Michael J; Sennett, Rachel; Lynch, Jill E; Perri, Patrizia; Laureys, Geneviève; Speleman, Frank; Hakonarson, Hakon; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J; Brodeur, Garrett M; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Rappaport, Eric; Devoto, Marcella; Maris, John M

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Survival rates for the childhood cancer neuroblastoma have not substantively improved despite dramatic escalation in chemotherapy intensity. Like most human cancers, this embryonal malignancy can be inherited, but the genetic etiology of familial and sporadically occurring neuroblastoma was largely unknown. Here we show that germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) explain the majority of hereditary neuroblastomas, and that activating mutations can also be somatically acquired. We first identified a significant linkage signal at the short arm of chromosome 2 (maximum nonparametric LOD=4.23 at rs1344063) using a whole-genome scan in neuroblastoma pedigrees. Resequencing of regional candidate genes identified three separate missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK (G1128A, R1192P and R1275Q) that segregated with the disease in eight separate families. Examination of 491 sporadically occurring human neuroblastoma samples showed that the ALK locus was gained in 22.8%, and highly amplified in an additional 3.3%, and that these aberrations were highly associated with death from disease (P=0.0003). Resequencing of 194 high-risk neuroblastoma samples showed somatically acquired mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain in 12.4%. Nine of the ten mutations map to critical regions of the kinase domain and were predicted to be oncogenic drivers with high probability. Mutations resulted in constitutive phosphorylation consistent with activation, and targeted knockdown of ALK mRNA resulted in profound growth inhibition of 4 of 4 cell lines harboring mutant or amplified ALK, as well as 2 of 6 wild type for ALK. Our results demonstrate that heritable mutations of ALK are the major cause of familial neuroblastoma, and that germline or acquired activation of this cell surface kinase is a tractable therapeutic target for this lethal pediatric malignancy. PMID:18724359

  5. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peifer, Martin; Hertwig, Falk; Roels, Frederik; Dreidax, Daniel; Gartlgruber, Moritz; Menon, Roopika; Krämer, Andrea; Roncaioli, Justin L; Sand, Frederik; Heuckmann, Johannes M; Ikram, Fakhera; Schmidt, Rene; Ackermann, Sandra; Engesser, Anne; Kahlert, Yvonne; Vogel, Wenzel; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Thierry-Mieg, Jean; Thierry-Mieg, Danielle; Mariappan, Aruljothi; Heynck, Stefanie; Mariotti, Erika; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Gloeckner, Christian; Bosco, Graziella; Leuschner, Ivo; Schweiger, Michal R; Savelyeva, Larissa; Watkins, Simon C; Shao, Chunxuan; Bell, Emma; Höfer, Thomas; Achter, Viktor; Lang, Ulrich; Theissen, Jessica; Volland, Ruth; Saadati, Maral; Eggert, Angelika; de Wilde, Bram; Berthold, Frank; Peng, Zhiyu; Zhao, Chen; Shi, Leming; Ortmann, Monika; Büttner, Reinhard; Perner, Sven; Hero, Barbara; Schramm, Alexander; Schulte, Johannes H; Herrmann, Carl; O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Westermann, Frank; Thomas, Roman K; Fischer, Matthias

    2015-10-29

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant paediatric tumour of the sympathetic nervous system. Roughly half of these tumours regress spontaneously or are cured by limited therapy. By contrast, high-risk neuroblastomas have an unfavourable clinical course despite intensive multimodal treatment, and their molecular basis has remained largely elusive. Here we have performed whole-genome sequencing of 56 neuroblastomas (high-risk, n = 39; low-risk, n = 17) and discovered recurrent genomic rearrangements affecting a chromosomal region at 5p15.33 proximal of the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT). These rearrangements occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type. In an extended case series (n = 217), TERT rearrangements defined a subgroup of high-risk tumours with particularly poor outcome. Despite a large structural diversity of these rearrangements, they all induced massive transcriptional upregulation of TERT. In the remaining high-risk tumours, TERT expression was also elevated in MYCN-amplified tumours, whereas alternative lengthening of telomeres was present in neuroblastomas without TERT or MYCN alterations, suggesting that telomere lengthening represents a central mechanism defining this subtype. The 5p15.33 rearrangements juxtapose the TERT coding sequence to strong enhancer elements, resulting in massive chromatin remodelling and DNA methylation of the affected region. Supporting a functional role of TERT, neuroblastoma cell lines bearing rearrangements or amplified MYCN exhibited both upregulated TERT expression and enzymatic telomerase activity. In summary, our findings show that remodelling of the genomic context abrogates transcriptional silencing of TERT in high-risk neuroblastoma and places telomerase activation in the centre of transformation in a large fraction of these tumours.

  6. RARE CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITIES IN MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Schanz; Friederike Braulke; Detlef Haase

    2015-01-01

    The karyotype represents one of the main cornerstones for the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the revised IPSS-R (IPSS-R) that are most widely used for prognostication in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The most frequent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS, i.e. del(5q), -7/del(7q), +8, complex karyotypes, or -Y have been extensively explored for their prognostic impact. The IPSS-R also considers some less frequent abnormalities such as del(11q), isochromosome 1...

  7. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...

  8. Cytogenetics And Its Relevance to the Practice of Modern Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review outlines the importance of cytogenetics in modern medicine, the need to develop the application to the level of a full discipline in Nigeria to prevent and control these disorders and reawaken the interest of scientists and postgraduate students in this all-important discipline. Keywords: Human cytogenetics ...

  9. The emerging molecular pathogenesis of neuroblastoma: implications for improved risk assessment and targeted therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Roy, Nadine; De Preter, Katleen; Hoebeeck, Jasmien; Van Maerken, Tom; Pattyn, Filip; Mestdagh, Pieter; Vermeulen, Joëlle; Vandesompele, Jo; Speleman, Franki

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, arising from immature sympathetic nervous system cells. The clinical course of patients with neuroblastoma is highly variable, ranging from spontaneous regression to widespread metastatic disease. Although the outcome for children with cancer has improved considerably during the past decades, the prognosis of children with aggressive neuroblastoma remains dismal. The clinical heterogeneity of neuroblastoma mirrors the biologic...

  10. Inferring Diversity and Evolution in Fish by Means of Integrative Molecular Cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ferreira Artoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish constitute a paraphyletic and profusely diversified group that has historically puzzled ichthyologists. Hard efforts are necessary to better understand this group, due to its extensive diversity. New species are often identified and it leads to questions about their phylogenetic aspects. Cytogenetics is becoming an important biodiversity-detection tool also used to measure biodiversity evolutionary aspects. Molecular cytogenetics by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH allowed integrating quantitative and qualitative data from DNA sequences and their physical location in chromosomes and genomes. Although there is no intention on presenting a broader review, the current study presents some evidences on the need of integrating molecular cytogenetic data to other evolutionary biology tools to more precisely infer cryptic species detection, population structuring in marine environments, intra- and interspecific karyoevolutionary aspects of freshwater groups, evolutionary dynamics of marine fish chromosomes, and the origin and differentiation of sexual and B chromosomes. The new cytogenetic field, called cytogenomics, is spreading due to its capacity to give resolute answers to countless questions that cannot be answered by traditional methodologies. Indeed, the association between chromosomal markers and DNA sequencing as well as between biological diversity analysis methodologies and phylogenetics triggers the will to search for answers about fish evolutionary, taxonomic, and structural features.

  11. Cytogenetic abnormalities in tumors of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, D K; Patil, S R; Divelbiss, J E; Vemuganti, S; Headley, C; Waziri, M H; Gurll, N J

    1989-10-15

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant disorder that causes the development of benign and malignant tumors in several organ systems. Tumors causing significant morbidity include retinal angioma, cerebellar hemangioblastoma (CH), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and pheochromocytoma (Pheo). Cytogenetic studies of tumors in VHL patients are rare. Cytogenetic findings in tumors from 12 patients with VHL disease, including four RCCs, three CHs, and five Pheos are presented. Three of the four RCC cases were abnormal. Monosomy 3 or a deletion of 3p was present in all three abnormal cases. Complete or partial trisomy of chromosome 5 was present in two cases. A deletion of 14q, trisomy 7, and a missing Y were each observed in one case. These findings indicate that a deletion of 3p may be a primary cytogenetic change in RCCs associated with VHL disease in addition to playing a role in sporadic RCC. Duplications of 5q and deletions of 14q may be important secondary changes in the progression of the malignant phenotype. No visible cytogenetic abnormalities were observed in the three CHs, or in four of the Pheos. One of the five Pheos was found to exhibit mosaic trisomy 7; its significance is unclear at the present time.

  12. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Histone Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX74382...6,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 All antigens Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX...743843,SRX743826,SRX743827,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Input control Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743827,SR...X743843 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Histone Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX74382...6,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 All antigens Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX...743827,SRX743843,SRX743826,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Input control Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743843,SR...X743827 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Input control Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743827,SR...X743843 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 All antigens Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX...743826,SRX743827,SRX743843,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Histone Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX74382...6,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Input control Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743827,SR...X743843 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 All antigens Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX...743826,SRX743827,SRX743843,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma hg19 Histone Neural Neuroblastoma SRX743842,SRX74382...6,SRX743841 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neuroblastoma.bed ...

  4. A comprehensive characterization of rare mitochondrial DNA variants in neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Piero; Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Hogarty, Michael D.; Castellano, Aurora; Conte, Massimo; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroblastoma, a tumor of the developing sympathetic nervous system, is a common childhood neoplasm that is often lethal. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in most tumors including neuroblastoma. We extracted mtDNA data from a cohort of neuroblastoma samples that had undergone Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and also used snap-frozen samples in which mtDNA was entirely sequenced by Sanger technology. We next undertook the challenge of determining those mutations that are relevant to, or arisen during tumor development. The bioinformatics pipeline used to extract mitochondrial variants from matched tumor/blood samples was enriched by a set of filters inclusive of heteroplasmic fraction, nucleotide variability, and in silico prediction of pathogenicity. Results Our in silico multistep workflow applied both on WES and Sanger-sequenced neuroblastoma samples, allowed us to identify a limited burden of somatic and germline mitochondrial mutations with a potential pathogenic impact. Conclusions The few singleton germline and somatic mitochondrial mutations emerged, according to our in silico analysis, do not appear to impact on the development of neuroblastoma. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that most mitochondrial somatic mutations can be considered as ‘passengers’ and consequently have no discernible effect in this type of cancer. PMID:27351283

  5. A comprehensive characterization of rare mitochondrial DNA variants in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Clima, Rosanna; Pignataro, Piero; Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Hogarty, Michael D; Castellano, Aurora; Conte, Massimo; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Capasso, Mario

    2016-08-02

    Neuroblastoma, a tumor of the developing sympathetic nervous system, is a common childhood neoplasm that is often lethal. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in most tumors including neuroblastoma. We extracted mtDNA data from a cohort of neuroblastoma samples that had undergone Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and also used snap-frozen samples in which mtDNA was entirely sequenced by Sanger technology. We next undertook the challenge of determining those mutations that are relevant to, or arisen during tumor development. The bioinformatics pipeline used to extract mitochondrial variants from matched tumor/blood samples was enriched by a set of filters inclusive of heteroplasmic fraction, nucleotide variability, and in silico prediction of pathogenicity. Our in silico multistep workflow applied both on WES and Sanger-sequenced neuroblastoma samples, allowed us to identify a limited burden of somatic and germline mitochondrial mutations with a potential pathogenic impact. The few singleton germline and somatic mitochondrial mutations emerged, according to our in silico analysis, do not appear to impact on the development of neuroblastoma. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that most mitochondrial somatic mutations can be considered as 'passengers' and consequently have no discernible effect in this type of cancer.

  6. Identification of ALK as a major familial neuroblastoma predisposition gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossé, Yaël P; Laudenslager, Marci; Longo, Luca; Cole, Kristina A; Wood, Andrew; Attiyeh, Edward F; Laquaglia, Michael J; Sennett, Rachel; Lynch, Jill E; Perri, Patrizia; Laureys, Geneviève; Speleman, Frank; Kim, Cecilia; Hou, Cuiping; Hakonarson, Hakon; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J; Brodeur, Garrett M; Tonini, Gian P; Rappaport, Eric; Devoto, Marcella; Maris, John M

    2008-10-16

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that can be inherited, but the genetic aetiology is largely unknown. Here we show that germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene explain most hereditary neuroblastomas, and that activating mutations can also be somatically acquired. We first identified a significant linkage signal at chromosome bands 2p23-24 using a whole-genome scan in neuroblastoma pedigrees. Resequencing of regional candidate genes identified three separate germline missense mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK that segregated with the disease in eight separate families. Resequencing in 194 high-risk neuroblastoma samples showed somatically acquired mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain in 12.4% of samples. Nine of the ten mutations map to critical regions of the kinase domain and were predicted, with high probability, to be oncogenic drivers. Mutations resulted in constitutive phosphorylation, and targeted knockdown of ALK messenger RNA resulted in profound inhibition of growth in all cell lines harbouring mutant or amplified ALK, as well as in two out of six wild-type cell lines for ALK. Our results demonstrate that heritable mutations of ALK are the main cause of familial neuroblastoma, and that germline or acquired activation of this cell-surface kinase is a tractable therapeutic target for this lethal paediatric malignancy.

  7. Cytogenetics of Triatominae: III - A study on male sterility induced through hybridization of Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schreiber

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Males from bilateral crosses between Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata were unable to give offspring, as shown by subsequent backcrosses (BC between hybrid males and parental females. This kind of sterility indueed through interspecific hybridization seems to be due to lack of sperm migration from the bursa copulatrix to the spermateca, thus suggesting primarily failure on the part of hybrid males to produce and/or to incorporate male accessory secretions into the spermatophore bulb. Addicional proof that sterility induced in hybrid males is at the sperm level has been afforded by the spermatogenesis herein studied. The anomalous processes like; 1 prophases of spermatogonia with the chromosomes scattered in the cytoplasm, 2 first metaphases with unpaired tetrades, 3 spermatids differing in size and 4 spermatozoa of abnormal shape and generdlly of giant size, can be taken as an indicator of the degree of departure from the normal course of spermatogenesis.

  8. Molecular cytogenetics using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Lucas, J.; Pinkel, D.; Weier, H-U.; Yu, Loh-Chung.

    1990-12-07

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome-specific probes enables several new areas of cytogenetic investigation by allowing visual determination of the presence and normality of specific genetic sequences in single metaphase or interphase cells. in this approach, termed molecular cytogenetics, the genetic loci to be analyzed are made microscopically visible in single cells using in situ hybridization with nucleic acid probes specific to these loci. To accomplish this, the DNA in the target cells is made single stranded by thermal denaturation and incubated with single-stranded, chemically modified probe under conditions where the probe will anneal only with DNA sequences to which it has high DNA sequence homology. The bound probe is then made visible by treatment with a fluorescent reagent such as fluorescein that binds to the chemical modification carried by the probe. The DNA to which the probe does not bind is made visible by staining with a dye such as propidium iodide that fluoresces at a wavelength different from that of the reagent used for probe visualization. We show in this report that probes are now available that make this technique useful for biological dosimetry, prenatal diagnosis and cancer biology. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Recurrent Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, John J; Park, Tae Sung; Wan, Thomas S K

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of chromosomal abnormality associated with leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is broad and heterogeneous when compared to chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Recurrent chromosomal translocations such as t(8;21), t(15;17), and inv(16) are frequently detected, but hundreds of other uncommon chromosomal aberrations from AML also exist. This chapter discusses 22 chromosomal abnormalities that are common structural, numerical aberrations, and other important but infrequent (less than 1 %) translocations emphasized in the WHO classification. Brief morphologic, cytogenetic, and clinical characteristics are summarized, so as to provide a concise reference to cancer cytogenetic laboratories. Morphology based on FAB classification is used together with the current WHO classification due to frequent mentioning in a vast number of reference literatures. Characteristic chromosomal aberrations of other myeloid neoplasms such as myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm will be discussed in separate chapters-except for certain abnormalities such as t(9;22) in de novo AML. Gene mutations detected in normal karyotype AML by cutting edge next generation sequencing technology are also briefly mentioned.

  10. Meiotic cytogenetics in Coprinus cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolan, Miriam E; Pukkila, Patricia J

    2009-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Coprinus cinereus has naturally synchronous meiosis and is amenable to analysis using an array of well-developed genetic and molecular tools. In this chapter, we explain in detail the two methods most commonly employed for C. cinereus, staining of intact gill segments and chromosome spreads, with an example of the application of each. We describe iron-hematoxylin staining of intact gill segments for the brightfield examination of meiotic progression, and the use of surface spreads and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to investigate meiotic chromosome pairing. Gill segments can alternatively be stained with DAPI for the determination of meiotic stage, or propidium iodide for the quantitation of nuclear DNA content, and the chromosome fixation and spreading techniques used for FISH are also suitable for immunolocalization studies of chromosomal proteins.

  11. Mucinous carcinoma of the colon in a 16-year-old Turkish boy with Bloom syndrome: cytogenetic, histopathologic, TP53 gene and protein expression studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, S; Aktas, D

    1999-05-01

    A 17-year-old Turkish boy with Bloom syndrome (BS) developed mucinous carcinoma of the transverse colon. He was followed from 2 to 17 years of age. Increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) were observed, and he was diagnosed with BS at the age of 7. Sun-sensitive skin lesions were examined by skin biopsy, and histopathological studies of these lesions were done. During the follow-up period, an intraabdominal mass at the transverse colon was found, and mucinous carcinoma of colon was diagnosed at the age of 16. We examined TP53 protein expression from paraffin-embedded colon tissue of the patient with an immunohistochemical method. Polymerase chain reaction products of exons 4-9 of the TP53 gene were examined by SSCP. No evidence of overexpression of TP53 protein or mutations of the TP53 gene was observed. The patient in this report is the first case with a mucinous carcinoma of colon diagnosed at an early age in the Bloom Syndrome Registry. Based on our results, carcinoma of the colon in BS patient may occur earlier than 35 years of age and the TP53 gene may not be directly related to carcinoma in Bloom syndrome.

  12. Cytopathogenicity of Naegleria for cultured neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulford, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The cytopathic activity of live Naegleria amoebae and cell-free lysates of Naegleria for B-103 rat neuroblastoma cells was investigated using a /sup 51/Cr release assay. Live amoebae and cell-free lysates of N. fowleri, N. australiensis, N. lovaniensis, and N. gruberi all induced sufficient damage to radiolabeled B-103 cells to cause a significant release of chromium. The cytotoxic activity present in the cell-free lysates of N. fowleri can be recovered in the supernatant fluid following centrifugation at 100,000xg and precipitation of the 100,000xg supernatant fluid with ammonium sulfate. Initial characterization of the cytotoxic factor indicates that it is a heat labile, pH sensitive, soluble protein. The cytotoxic activity is abolished by either extraction, unaffected by repeated freeze-thawing, and is not sensitive to inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes. Phospholipase A activity was detected in the cytotoxic ammonium sulfate precipitable material, suggesting that this enzyme activity may have a role in the cytotoxic activity of the cell-free lysates.

  13. [Genomic profiling: from molecular cytogenetics to DNA arrays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theillet, C; Orsetti, B; Redon, R; Manoir, S D

    2001-03-01

    Genetic instability results, in a large majority of solid tumors, in deep chromosomal rearrangements. However, because chromosomal instability produces highly complex caryotypes, rarely showing stereotypic aberrations, it has not been possible to characterize solid cancers according to specific patterns of chromosomal rearrangements. This contrasts with the situation in hematological malignancies, where cytogenetics has allowed to lay out the basis of a renewed classification. New insights have been brought by the development of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). This molecular cytogenetics approach was originally devised to detect regions in the genome of tumor cells undergoing quantitative changes, i.e. gains or losses of copy numbers. The large body of studies based on CGH show that solid tumors undergo frequent gains and losses and that every chromosomes show at least one region of anomaly. Furthermore, different tumor types present distinct CGH patterns of gains and losses. These observations favor the idea that it may be possible to type human solid cancers according to their patterns of genomic aberrations. However, despite the fact that a number of CGH based studies present data suggesting that different tumor types or cancers at different stages of evolution show distinct patterns of gains and losses, it has proven difficult to be conclusive. This can be mainly attributed to the lack of spatial resolution of CGH. Indeed, CGH uses metaphase chromosomes as hybridization targets and therefore its resolution is at the level of chromosomal banding. The recent adaptation of DNA array technology to CGH will allow to pass this limitation. In DNA array based CGH (array-CGH) metaphase chromosomes have been replaced by spots of cloned DNA. These DNA clones may either be genomic (BACs, YACs or cosmids) or coding (cDNAs). The resolution of array-CGH is therefore determined by the size of the cloned DNA insert (100 Kb for BACs, 1-2 kb for cDNAs). Data

  14. Rapid sex determination using PCR technique compared to classic cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settin, Ahmad; Elsobky, Ezzat; Hammad, Ayman; Al-Erany, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Fetal sexual differentiation relies on the translation of chromosomal sex established at fertilization into gonadal sex and somatic sex as development proceeds. In cases where chromosomal, gonadal, and somatic sex are incongruent in human infants and children, rapid establishment of the diagnosis and implementation of medical and surgical management is of paramount importance, since the gender identity is so important to the psychological well-being throughout life. This work was done in order to test the value of PCR technique for rapid sex determination compared to classic cytogenetic technique. Subjects included 20, cases including 10 neonates with ambiguous genitalia, 2 adult females with delayed puberty and 8 adult males with infertility, in addition to 20 normal infants of both sexes as a control group. The diagnosis of sex was attempted through examination, cytogenetic study, ultrasonography, gonadal biopsy and hormonal analysis, in addition to PCR amplification for the detection of SRY and ATL1 gene loci on Y and X chromosomes respectively. Four neonates were diagnosed as partial testicular feminization showed both positive bands for the Y and X chromosomes and a karyogram of 46/XY. Three neonates were diagnosed as true hermaphrodites showed positive amplification for both Y and X chromosomes with a mosaic karyogram 46,XX/XY. Three neonates were diagnosed as cases of adrenogenital syndrome showed positive amplification of only the Xchromosome and had a karyogram of 46/XX. One of the two adult females was diagnosed as turner syndrome showed positive amplification of the X chromosome and a karyogram of 45/XO; the other one was diagnosed as complete testicular feminization had a positive amplification of X and Y chromosomes and a karyogram of 46/XY. The 8 adult males with infertility showed a positive amplification of X and Y chromosome and a karyogram of 47/XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) in 7 cases and 46/XY gonadal dysgenesis in one case. We concluded that PCR

  15. Cytogenetics of Triatominae: III - A study on male sterility induced through hybridization of Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Schreiber

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Males from bilateral crosses between Triatoma sórdida and Triatoma pseudomaculata were unable to give offspring, as shown by subsequent backcrosses (BC between hybrid males and parental females. This kind of sterility indueed through interspecific hybridization seems to be due to lack of sperm migration from the bursa copulatrix to the spermateca, thus suggesting primarily failure on the part of hybrid males to produce and/or to incorporate male accessory secretions into the spermatophore bulb. Addicional proof that sterility induced in hybrid males is at the sperm level has been afforded by the spermatogenesis herein studied. The anomalous processes like; 1 prophases of spermatogonia with the chromosomes scattered in the cytoplasm, 2 first metaphases with unpaired tetrades, 3 spermatids differing in size and 4 spermatozoa of abnormal shape and generdlly of giant size, can be taken as an indicator of the degree of departure from the normal course of spermatogenesis.Os machos provenientes de cruzamentos bilaterais entre Triatoma sórdida e Triatoma pseudomaculata revelaram a incapacidade de produzir progênie, como se demonstra nos retrocruzamentos de machos híbridos com fêmeas das espécies paternas. Esta modalidade de esterilidade induzida através da hibridação interespecífica, parece ser devida à ausência de migração do esperma, determinada pela incapacidade dos híbridos machos produzirem a secreção opaca em suas glândulas acessórias e/ou incorporá-la à luz do espermatóforo. A prova adicional de que a incompatibilidade induzida em triatomíneos, através da hibridação inter específica, está no nível do esperma é fornecida pelo tipo anômalo de espermatogênese em híbridos aqui descrito, mostrando deste modo que: as prófases espermatogoniais têm os núcleos disruptos e os cromossomos espelhados no citoplasma. As primeiras metáfases meióticas têm as tétrades desemparelhadas. Os grupos de cromatídes assim obtidos

  16. Elevated TIMP-1 expression is associated with a prometastatic phenotype, disease relapse, and poor survival in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Pritha; Rellinger, Eric J; Qiao, Jingbo; Lee, Sora; Volny, Natasha; Padmanabhan, Chandrasekhar; Romain, Carmelle V; Mobley, Bret; Correa, Hernan; Chung, Dai H

    2017-10-10

    Approximately two-thirds of patients with neuroblastoma are found to have metastatic disease at time of diagnosis with frequent skeletal, lymph node, central nervous system, and liver involvement. Using a serial in vivo splenic injection model, we have isolated an aggressive subclone (BE(2)-C/LM2) from MYCN-amplified neuroblastomas that demonstrate an enhanced propensity to develop metastatic liver lesions. BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone cells demonstrate increased adherent, soft agar colony and tumorsphere growth in vitro. Components of the tumor microenvironment regulate cancer progression, via networks of cytokines and growth factors. Cytokine array analysis identified increased TIMP-1 in the plasma of mice injected with BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone cells, leading us to hypothesize that TIMP-1 may play a role in our observed prometastatic phenotype. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated enhanced endogenous TIMP-1 expression in our isolated neuroblastoma subclone. Silencing endogenous TIMP-1 successfully blocked in vitro proliferation, soft agar colony formation and tumorsphere formation by BE(2)-C/LM2 cells. Stable RNA interference of endogenous TIMP-1 failed to reverse the prometastatic phenotype of our BE(2)-C/LM2 subclone in our liver metastasis model, suggesting that endogenous TIMP-1 levels may not be an essential component of this in vivo behavior. Notably, tissue microarray analysis and Kaplan-Meier by gene expression demonstrates that elevated TIMP-1 expression is correlated with increased disease relapse and mortality in patients with neuroblastoma. Taken together, our study identifies TIMP-1 as a novel soluble factor that is associated with a prometastatic phenotype in our in vivo model and adverse outcomes in patients with neuroblastoma.

  17. Comparative molecular cytogenetic characterization of seven Deschampsia (Poaceae species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V Amosova

    Full Text Available The genus Deschampsia P. Beauv (Poaceae involves a group of widespread polymorphic species. Some of them are highly tolerant to stressful and variable environmental conditions, and D. antarctica is one of the only two vascular plants growing in Antarctic. This species is a source of useful for selection traits and a valuable model for studying an environmental stress tolerance in plants. Genome diversity and comparative chromosomal phylogeny within the genus have not been studied yet as karyotypes of most Deschampsia species are poorly investigated. We firstly conducted a comparative molecular cytogenetic analysis of D. antarctica (Antarctic Peninsula and related species from various localities (D. cespitosa, D. danthonioides, D. elongata, D. flexuosa (= Avenella flexuosa, D. parvula and D. sukatschewii by fluorescence in situ hybridization with 45S and 5S rDNA, DAPI-banding and sequential rapid in situ hybridization with genomic DNA of D. antarctica, D. cespitosa, and D. flexuosa. Based on patterns of distribution of the examined markers, chromosomes of the studied species were identified. Within these species, common features as well as species peculiarities in their karyotypic structure and chromosomal distribution of molecular cytogenetic markers were characterized. Different chromosomal rearrangements were detected in D. antarctica, D. flexuosa, D. elongata and D. sukatschewii. In karyotypes of D. antarctica, D. cespitosa, D. elongata and D. sukatschewii, 0-3 B chromosomes possessed distinct DAPI-bands were observed. Our findings suggest that the genome evolution of the genus Deschampsia involved polyploidy and also different chromosomal rearrangements. The obtained results will help clarify the relationships within the genus Deschampsia, and can be a basis for the further genetic and biotechnological studies as well as for selection of plants tolerant to extreme habitats.

  18. Cytogenetic and molecular study in intersex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soheir S. Abou El Ella

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... Genetic counseling;. Cortisol;. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone. Abstract ''Disorders of Sex Development'' (DSD) is the state of a person whose sex chromosomes, genitalia and/or .... Anthropometric measurements (Table 2) showed that 4 patients were ..... plinary evaluation before rushing to an arbitrary gender.

  19. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  20. A leukocyte cryopreservation technique for cytogenetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte José Maurício Barbanti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Several culture, cryopreservation, freezing and thawing methods were tested to develop an efficient technique for storing cervid and ovine leukocytes. The best results were obtained with McCoy or Vega y Martinez (VYM solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, horse serum and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP as cryopreservatives. The best protocol for freezing was 4°C for 30 min followed by 15 min in liquid nitrogen vapor. To thaw, the still frozen material was placed onto cultivation medium for propagation.

  1. A Hybrid Robotic Control System Using Neuroblastoma Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, J. M.; Lorente, V.; Cuadra, J. M.; Delapaz, F.; Álvarez-Sánchez, José Ramón; Fernández, E.

    The main objective of this work is to analyze the computing capabilities of human neuroblastoma cultured cells and to define connection schemes for controlling a robot behavior. Multielectrode Array (MEA) setups have been designed for direct culturing neural cells over silicon or glass substrates, providing the capability to stimulate and record simultaneously populations of neural cells. This paper describes the process of growing human neuroblastoma cells over MEA substrates and tries to modulate the natural physiologic responses of these cells by tetanic stimulation of the culture. We show that the large neuroblastoma networks developed in cultured MEAs are capable of learning: establishing numerous and dynamic connections, with modifiability induced by external stimuli and we propose an hybrid system for controlling a robot to avoid obstacles.

  2. PPAR Gamma in Neuroblastoma: The Translational Perspectives of Hypoglycemic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Vella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common and aggressive pediatric cancer, characterized by a remarkable phenotypic diversity and high malignancy. The heterogeneous clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to fatal metastatic disease, is attributable to NB biology and genetics. Despite major advances in therapies, NB is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches are required, mainly to improve treatment outcomes of high-risk NB patients. Among neuroepithelial cancers, NB is the most studied tumor as far as PPAR ligands are concerned. PPAR ligands are endowed with antitumoral effects, mainly acting on cancer stem cells, and constitute a possible add-on therapy to antiblastic drugs, in particular for NB with unfavourable prognosis. While discussing clinical background, this review will provide a synopsis of the major studies about PPAR expression in NB, focusing on the potential beneficial effects of hypoglycemic drugs, thiazolidinediones and metformin, to reduce the occurrence of relapses as well as tumor regrowth in NB patients.

  3. Evaluation of potential prognostic value of Bmi-1 gene product and selected markers of proliferation (Ki-67 and apoptosis (p53 in the neuroblastoma group of tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Taran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cancer in children is a very important issue in pediatrics. The least satisfactory treatment outcome occurs among patients with clinically advanced neuroblastomas. Despite much research, the biology of this tumor still remains unclear, and new prognostic factors are sought. The Bmi-1 gene product is a currently highly investigated protein which belongs to the Polycomb group (PcG and has been identified as a regulator of primary neural crest cells. It is believed that Bmi‑1 and N-myc act together and are both involved in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. The aim of the study was to assess the potential prognostic value of Bmi-1 protein and its relations with mechanisms of proliferation and apoptosis in the neuroblastoma group of tumors.Material/Methods: 29 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded neuroblastoma tissue sections were examined using mouse monoclonal antibodies anti-Bmi-1, anti-p53 and anti-Ki-67 according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Results: There were found statistically significant correlations between Bmi-1 expression and tumor histology and age of patients.Conclusions: Bmi-1 seems to be a promising marker in the neuroblastoma group of tumors whose expression correlates with widely accepted prognostic parameters. The pattern of BMI-1 expression may indicate that the examined protein is also involved in maturation processes in tumor tissue.

  4. Cytogenetic effects of benzimidazoles in mouse bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barale, R; Scapoli, C; Meli, C; Casini, D; Minunni, M; Marrazzini, A; Loprieno, N; Barrai, I

    1993-06-01

    The cytogenetic effects of three benzimidazoles, i.e., benomyl, methyl thiophanate and methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC), were studied in mouse bone marrow cells by analyzing three genetic endpoints: micronuclei, structural chromosome aberrations plus or minus gaps, and aneugenic effects (hyperdiploidy or polyploidy). In general, the effects were small, but it was observed that benomyl and MBC significantly induced micronuclei as well as aneugenic effects, hyperdiploidy (no metaphases with more than one or two extra chromosomes, 2n + 1 or 2n + 2, were observed) and polyploidy (4n). The induction of chromosome gaps and breaks was less evident. Methyl thiophanate significantly induced micronuclei, but it was less effective than benomyl and MBC. Our results showed that micronuclei are a good indicator of aneugenic effects in mouse bone marrow cells. A curvilinear trend test has been devised to fit the curves originating from the time-dependent responses.

  5. Immunophenotypic characterisation and cytogenetic analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from equine bone marrow and foal umbilical cords during in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurkevych Anatoliy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of the study was immunophenotypic and cytogenetic analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from equine bone marrow and foal umbilical cords during in vitro culture.

  6. Prolonged Isotretinoin in Ultra High-Risk Neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Thomas; Alazraki, Adina; Qayed, Muna; Katzenstein, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma remain a therapeutic challenge with significant numbers of patients failing to respond sufficiently to initial therapy. These patients with poor response to induction are considered as ultra high-risk and are in need of novel treatment strategies. Isotretinoin is part of the standard of care treatment for patients with high-risk disease who undergo high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue although some have questioned the optimal administration schedule. Prolonged use of isotretinoin was well tolerated and may have contributed to long-term survival in a group of patients with ultra high-risk neuroblastoma.

  7. Probenecid Sensitizes Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem Cells to Cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Maldonado, Vilma; Bahena, Ivan; Quintanar, Valeria; Patiño, Nelly; Carlos Martinez-Lazcano, Juan; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We used both in vitro cultures of neuroblastoma cell lines and nude-mice xenotransplants to explore the effects of co-administration of cisplatin and probenecid. Probenecid sensitized neuroblastoma cells, including tumor cells with stem features, to the effects of cisplatin, both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was mediated by an increase in the apoptotic cell death and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. This effect is accompanied by modulation of the mRNA and protein of the drug efflux transporters MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP. The co-administration of probenecid with cisplatin should be explored as a possible therapeutic strategy.

  8. Identifying microRNAs that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    prognostic marker in neuroblastoma, Cancer Res 71, 4314-4324. 6. Le, M. T., Xie, H., Zhou, B., Chia , P. H., Rizk, P., Um, M., Udolph, G., Yang, H...matter,   or   any   new   and   useful   improvement   thereof,   which,  taken  together,  include   practically  everything...is  an   important   therapeutic   strategy   for  neuroblastoma.  We  developed  a  direct   functional  high-­‐content

  9. Neuroblastoma GOTO cells are hypersensitive to disruption of lipid rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Ryosaku; Minami, Natsumi; Kushida, Ai; Horibe, Shiho; Izumi, Ippei; Kato, Akira; Fukushima, Keiko; Ideo, Hiroko; Yamashita, Katsuko; Hirose, Shigehisa; Saito, Yuji

    2009-11-06

    GOTO cells, a neuroblastoma cell line retaining the ability to differentiate into neuronal or Schwann cells, were found to be rich in membrane rafts containing ganglioside GM2 and hypersensitive to lipid raft-disrupting methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD); the GM2-rich rafts and sensitivity to MbetaCD were markedly diminished upon their differentiation into Schwann cells. We first raised a monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to GOTO cells but not to differentiated Schwann cells and determined its target antigen as ganglioside GM2, which was shown to be highly concentrated in lipid rafts by its colocalization with flotillin, a marker protein of rafts. Disturbance of normal structure of the lipid raft by depleting its major constituent, cholesterol, with MbetaCD resulted in acute apoptotic cell death of GOTO cells, but little effects were seen on differentiated Schwann cells. Until this study, GM2-rich rafts are poorly characterized and MbetaCD hypersensitivity, which may have clinical implications, has not been reported.

  10. B chromosomes: from cytogenetics to systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Guilherme T; Nakajima, Rafael T; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Marques, Diego F; Almeida, Rodrigo O; Simões, Rafael P; Martins, Cesar

    2017-02-01

    Though hundreds to thousands of reports have described the distribution of B chromosomes among diverse eukaryote groups, a comprehensive theory of their biological role has not yet clearly emerged. B chromosomes are classically understood as a sea of repetitive DNA sequences that are poor in genes and are maintained by a parasitic-drive mechanism during cell division. Recent developments in high-throughput DNA/RNA analyses have increased the resolution of B chromosome biology beyond those of classical and molecular cytogenetic methods; B chromosomes contain many transcriptionally active sequences, including genes, and can modulate the activity of autosomal genes. Furthermore, the most recent knowledge obtained from omics analyses, which is associated with a systemic view, has demonstrated that B chromosomes can influence cell biology in a complex way, possibly favoring their own maintenance and perpetuation.

  11. Karyotype Learning Center: A Software For Teaching And Learning Cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Freire De Mesquita

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cultivation of human cells is an essential part of the work of every diagnostic cytoge-netics laboratory. Almost all human cytogenetic studies involve the examination of dividing bloodcell population by blocking cell division at metaphase with subsequent processing and staining bybanding techniques. The chromosome constitution is described as Karyotype that states the totalnumber of chromosomes and the sex chromosome constitution. Karyotypes are prepared by cuttingup a photograph of the spread metaphase chromosomes, matching up homologous chromosomes andsticking them back down on a card or nowadays more often by getting an image analysis computerto do the job. Chromosomes are identied by their size, centromere position and banding pattern.Teaching a student how to detect and interpret even the most common chromosome abnormaliti-es is a major challenge: mainly, in a developing country where the laboratorial facilities are notalways available for a big number of students. Therefore, in this work we present an educationalsoftware for teaching undergraduate students of Medical and Life Sciences Courses how to arrangenormal and abnormal chromosomes in the form of karyotype. The user, using drag-and-drop, is da-red to match up homologous chromosome. For that, we have developed a free full access web site(http://www.biomol.net/cariotipo/ for hosting the software. The latter has proved to be light andfast even under slow dial-up connections. This web site also oers a theoretical introductory sectionwith basic concepts about karyotype. Up to now the software has been successfully applied to un-dergraduate courses at the University of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO. The students have approved thesoftware; to them the similarities with the well-known game solitaire turns the exercise more excitingand provides additional stimulus to learn and understand karyotype. Professors have also used thesoftware as complementary material in their regular classes

  12. Cytogenetic analysis in western Atlantic snappers (Perciformes, Lutjanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Cruz Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lutjanidae or snappers are a family of perciform fishes, mainly marine but with some members living in estuaries and entering fresh water to feed. Some are important food fish. Cytogenetic data for Lutjanidae are scarce. In the present work, we cytogenetically characterized through conventional Giemsa staining techniques, Ag-NOR and C-banding the species Ocyurus chrysurus, Lutjanus analis, L. alexandrei, L. cyanopterus, L. jocu and L. synagris, all found along the Brazilian coast. Karyotype analysis of all six species showed a modal value of 2n = 48 acrocentric chromosomes. Single NORs were found at pericentromeric position on the long arms of the 2nd pair in O. chrysurus, L. alexandrei and L. cyanopterus, on the 5th pair in L. analis and on the 23rd pair in L. synagris. The species L. jocu presented multiple NORs located on the 2nd pair at a pericentromeric region and on the 5th pair at a telomeric region. Heterochromatic blocks were identified at the centromeric region of all chromosomes of the studied species. These results indicate that, despite of the chromosomal stability of this family, a relative structural diversification seems to have occurred in the chromosome evolution of the group. Such diversification was evidenced by divergent number and location of ribosomal sites among species. The NOR-bearing pairs represented an efficient cytotaxonomic marker for most of the analyzed species. The data suggest that the presence of interstitially located single NORs on a large acrocentric pair should represent a basal condition for lutjanids.

  13. International evaluation of unrecognizably uglifying human faces in late and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic kidney disease. Sagliker syndrome. A unique catastrophic entity, cytogenetic studies for chromosomal abnormalities, calcium-sensing receptor gene and GNAS1 mutations. Striking and promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Ismail; Sagliker, Yahya; Demirhan, Osman; Tunc, Erdal; Inandiklioglu, Nihal; Tasdemir, Deniz; Acharya, Vidya; Zhang, Ling; Golea, Ovidia; Sabry, Alaa; Ookalkar, Dhananjay S; Capusa, Cristina; Radulescu, Dana; Garneata, Liliana; Mircescu, Gabriel; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Chen, Cheng Hsu; Prado Rome, Jorge; Benzegoutta, Mansour; Paylar, Nuray; Eyuboglu, Kamil; Karatepe, Ersin; Esenturk, Mustafa; Yavascan, Onder; Grzegorzevska, Alicza; Shilo, Valery; Mazdeh, Mitra Mahdavi; Francesco, Ramos Carillo; Gouda, Zaghloul; Adam, Siddik Momin; Emir, Idris; Ocal, Faith; Usta, Erol; Kiralp, Necati; Sagliker, Cemal; Ozkaynak, Piril Sagliker; Sagliker, Hasan Sabit; Bassuoni, Mahmoud; Sekin, Oktay

    2012-01-01

    Hypotheses explaining pathogenesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SH) in late and severe CKD as a unique entity called Sagliker syndrome (SS) are still unclear. This international study contains 60 patients from Turkey, India, Malaysia, China, Romania, Egypt, Tunisia, Taiwan, Mexico, Algeria, Poland, Russia, and Iran. We examined patients and first degree relatives for cytogenetic chromosomal abnormalities, calcium sensing receptor (Ca SR) genes in exons 2 and 3 abnormalities and GNAS1 genes mutations in exons 1, 4, 5, 7, 10, 13. Our syndrome could be a new syndrome in between SH, CKD, and hereditary bone dystrophies. We could not find chromosomal abnormalities in cytogenetics and on Ca SR gene exons 2 and 3. Interestingly, we did find promising missense mutations on the GNAS1 gene exons 1, 4, 10, 4. We finally thought that those catastrophic bone diseases were severe SH and its late treatments due to monetary deficiencies and iatrogenic mistreatments not started as early as possible. This was a sine qua non humanity task. Those brand new striking GNAS1 genes missense mutations have to be considered from now on for the genesis of SS. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular cytogenetics of lymphoma : where do we stand in 2010?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Philip; Schuuring, Ed

    For the past 20 years most malignant lymphomas have been classified as clinicopathological entities, each with its own combination of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular genetic characteristics. Molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities can be detected by a wide range of

  15. Cytogenetics of paediatric and adolescent acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christine J

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetics has determined the incidence and prognostic significance of chromosomal abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The development of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array technologies has led to the discovery of novel aberrations. Five 'hot topics' are presented in which cytogenetics and related techniques have been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in leukaemogenesis: (i) genetic changes are integral to the biology of T-cell ALL; (ii) intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a new recurrent abnormality in precursor-B ALL (BCP-ALL); (iii) the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH@) is significant in BCP-ALL; (iv) alterations in genes involved in B-cell development and cell cycle control contribute to the pathogenesis of BCP-ALL; (v) age-related cytogenetic profiles define ALL in children and adolescents as distinct biological entities. In this molecular era, cytogenetics continues to be integral to our understanding of the genetics of this disease.

  16. Cytogenetic, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and agronomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F3 generations of a wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica intergeneric cross. Their agronomic traits were evaluated in the field and their meiotic behaviors and chromosome composition were analyzed by cytogenetic and GISH (genomic in situ ...

  17. The 2016 revised World Health Organization definition of 'myelodysplastic syndrome with isolated del(5q)'; prognostic implications of single versus double cytogenetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, Mark; Patnaik, Mrinal M; Hanson, Curtis A; Litzow, Mark R; Al-Kali, Aref; Ketterling, Rhett P; Tefferi, Ayalew; Gangat, Naseema

    2017-07-01

    The definition of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) subtype 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' was expanded to include cases with one additional non-chromosome 7 based cytogenetic abnormality in the 2016 revised World Health Organization classification. This study applied the revised definition to a large primary MDS cohort, and evaluated the prognostic impact of the additional cytogenetic abnormality. Seventy-two of 1067 patients (7%) met the 'MDS with isolated del(5q)' criteria, 11 (1%) of whom had an additional cytogenetic abnormality. There was no survival difference between patients in whom del(5q) occurred alone, compared to those with one additional cytogenetic abnormality (P = 0·52). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Sphingolipids in neuroblastoma : Their role in drug resistance mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sietsma, H; Dijkhuis, AJ; Kamps, W; Kok, JW

    Disseminated neuroblastoma usually calls for chemotherapy as the primary approach for treatment. Treatment failure is often attributable to drug resistance. This involves a variety of cellular mechanisms, including increased drug efflux through expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters (e.g.,

  19. Thymic Neuroblastoma within a Thymic Cyst in an Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Case Presentation: A 65-year-old female patient with no clinical manifestations was hospitalized for examination and treatment of an anterior mediastinal tumor found at the time of a regular health checkup. Enhanced computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion containing a solid tumor. Positron emission tomography-CT demonstrated increased uptake in the solid lesion. Tumor resection with total thymectomy was performed. A pathological diagnosis of thymic neuroblastoma within a thymic cyst was made. Micorscopic examination revealed that tumor cells of the solid component were lined with thymic epithelial cells of the inner cyst wall. Furthermore, some tumor cells of the solid component had melanin granules. These findings suggest that this tumor arose from progenitors of the thymic epithelial cells with the potential to differentiate along neural lines. Conclusions: Neuroblastoma commonly occurs in children. However, the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in adults has been reported in several case reports. We report an adult case of histogenetically informative thymic neuroblastoma within a thymic cyst. There are no standard treatment strategies and chemotherapy protocols. Complete surgical resection might be important for a better outcome.

  20. Neuroblastoma: a challenge for pediatric oncology of the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimo, Luisa

    2002-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the only cancer of childhood considered in this conference on hormone-related tumors, because the percentage of deaths in children with this rare type of cancer is still very high. Pediatricians feel the need for help from basic researchers to better understand the biological nature of this disease and to improve protocols and the challenge of cure.

  1. Sequencing of neuroblastoma identifies chromothripsis and defects in neuritogenesis genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Molenaar (Jan); J. Koster (Jan); D. Zwijnenburg (Danny); P. van Sluis (Peter); L.J. Valentijn (Linda); I. van der Ploeg (Ida); M. Hamdi (Mohamed); J. van Nes (Johan); B.A. Westerman (Bart); J. van Arkel (Jennemiek); M.E. Ebus; F. Haneveld (Franciska); A. Lakeman (Arjan); L. Schild (Linda); P. Molenaar (Piet); P. Stroeken (Peter); M.M. van Noesel (Max); I. Øra (Ingrid); J.P. di Santo (James); H.N. Caron (Huib); E.M. Westerhout (Ellen); R. Versteeg (Rogier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractNeuroblastoma is a childhood tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The pathogenesis has for a long time been quite enigmatic, as only very few gene defects were identified in this often lethal tumour. Frequently detected gene alterations are limited to MYCN amplification

  2. Cytokines Synergize to Combat Metastatic Neuroblastoma | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, and clinical outcomes of patients with this disease are quite variable. Prognosis is particularly poor for patients with high-risk tumors (classification based on patients’ age, extent of disease spread, and other biological features).

  3. Mucopolysaccharide in the blood of a patient with neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, P. M. G.; Dykes, J. R. W.; Holt, Shirley; Ridley, J. W.; Steel, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    In a case of neuroblastoma the presence of an abnormal blood constituent was suspected from the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sludging of the red cells, marked rouleaux formation, an atypical Leishman stain, increased plasma viscosity, and a distorted protein electrophoresis pattern. The abnormal constituent was shown to be a mucopolysaccharide which was either hyaluronic acid or chondroitin sulphate. Images PMID:4192677

  4. Microdontia after chemotherapy in a child treated for neuroblastoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, D.; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy used on paediatric oncology patients often causes disturbances in dental development. Aim of this case report is to present the late effects of chemotherapy on dental development in a patient treated for neuroblastoma at early age. DESIGN: Case report. RESULTS: This paper

  5. MOLECULAR CYTOGENETICS OF LYMPHOMA. WHERE DO WE STAND IN 2010?

    OpenAIRE

    Kluin, Philip M.; Schuuring, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since approximately 20 years most malignant lymphomas are classified by the recognition of clinico-pathologic entities, each with its own combination of clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular genetic characteristics. Obviously, in many instances molecular cytogenetics is of great help for classification and in some lymphomas it is even a prerequisite. Molecular cytogenetic alterations can be detected by a large variety of techniques, ranging from conventiona...

  6. How adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins-1 and -3 attain cell specificity: case study defining their target on neuroblastoma cells (SK-N-MC) and marked affinity regulation by affecting microdomain organization of the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopitz, Jürgen; Bergmann, Marion; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-08-01

    Galectins are potent effectors with conspicuous cell-type-specific activity profile. Its occurrence poses the question on the nature of the underlying biochemical determinants, in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells involved in negative growth regulation. Since increase of surface presentation of ganglioside GM1 and homodimeric galectin-1 precedes growth inhibition, a direct interaction is suggested. We thus examined cell binding depending on glucosylceramide synthesis. It was drastically reduced by N-butyldeoxynojirimycin and threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol, adding decisive evidence for the assumed galectin/ganglioside binding. Glycoproteins do not compensate ganglioside depletion which was verified by measuring lipid-bound sialic acid. Binding affinity is significantly lowered by disrupting microdomain integrity, also effective for the competitive inhibitor galectin-3. This was caused by cell treatment with either 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin or filipin III. In this cell system, target specificity and topology of ligand presentation act together to enable high-affinity binding. (c) 2010 IUBMB

  7. Development and application of camelid molecular cytogenetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly. © The American Genetic Association. 2012. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Development and Application of Camelid Molecular Cytogenetic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J.; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E.

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human–camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly. PMID:23109720

  9. Anti-cancer effect of HIV-1 viral protein R on doxorubicin resistant neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Y Zhao

    Full Text Available Several unique biological features of HIV-1 Vpr make it a potentially powerful agent for anti-cancer therapy. First, Vpr inhibits cell proliferation by induction of cell cycle G2 arrest. Second, it induces apoptosis through multiple mechanisms, which could be significant as it may be able to overcome apoptotic resistance exhibited by many cancerous cells, and, finally, Vpr selectively kills fast growing cells in a p53-independent manner. To demonstrate the potential utility of Vpr as an anti-cancer agent, we carried out proof-of-concept studies in vitro and in vivo. Results of our preliminary studies demonstrated that Vpr induces cell cycle G2 arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer types. Moreover, the same Vpr effects could also be detected in some cancer cells that are resistant to anti-cancer drugs such as doxorubicin (DOX. To further illustrate the potential value of Vpr in tumor growth inhibition, we adopted a DOX-resistant neuroblastoma model by injecting SK-N-SH cells into C57BL/6N and C57BL/6J-scid/scid mice. We hypothesized that Vpr is able to block cell proliferation and induce apoptosis regardless of the drug resistance status of the tumors. Indeed, production of Vpr via adenoviral delivery to neuroblastoma cells caused G2 arrest and apoptosis in both drug naïve and DOX-resistant cells. In addition, pre-infection or intratumoral injection of vpr-expressing adenoviral particles into neuroblastoma tumors in SCID mice markedly inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, Vpr could possibly be used as a supplemental viral therapeutic agent for selective inhibition of tumor growth in anti-cancer therapy especially when other therapies stop working.

  10. The Arctic Alzheimer mutation enhances sensitivity to toxic stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Nilsberth, Camilla; Stenh, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    The E693G (Arctic) mutation of the amyloid precursor protein was recently found to lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Swedish family. In the present study, we report that the Arctic mutation decreases cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability, as measured by the MTT...... their secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein. The enhanced sensitivity to toxic stress in cells with the Arctic mutation most likely contributes to the pathogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease....

  11. Cytogenetic analysis of gingival epithelial cells, as related to smoking habits and occurrence of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini, Francesco; Calcagno, Enrico; Micale, Rosanna T; La Maestra, Sebastiano; De Flora, Silvio; Cingano, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease, progressing from gingivitis to periodontitis, affects the majority of the world population. Its pathogenesis is related to a complex interaction between environmental, microbial, genetic and other host factors, tobacco smoking being the most important environmental risk factor. Conflicting results are reported in the literature regarding the effects of smoking habits on cytogenetic damage in exfoliated oral cells. We report herein the results of a study evaluating, for the first time, the frequency of micronucleated and binucleated cells in the gingival epithelium. There was no significant elevation of these cytogenetic end-points in 43 subjects as related to smoking habits (never-smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers) and periodontal disease (mild, moderate, or severe forms of gingivitis and periodontitis). Therefore, the overall data emerging from the present study do not support the evidence for an association between smoking habits, periodontal disease and genotoxic damage in gingival epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation and structural analysis of peptide mimotopes for the disialoganglioside GD2, a neuroblastoma tumor antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Riemer, Angelika B; Dehof, Anna Katharina; Neumann, Dirk; Brämswig, Kira; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Pehamberger, Hubert; Zielinski, Christoph C; Scheiner, Otto; Pollak, Arnold; Lode, Holger; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2005-02-01

    The disialoganglioside GalAcbeta1-4(NeuAcalpha2-8NeuAcalpha2-3)Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer (GD2) is expressed on various tumors, including neuroblastoma, and was defined as a relevant tumor antigen. The monoclonal anti-GD2 antibody 14.18 is widely used for diagnostic purposes in neuroblastoma, and in its mouse/human chimeric form (ch14.18) now enters passive immunotherapeutic regimens in phase II clinical trials. This study aimed to generate structural mimics of the 14.18 epitope of GD2. Therefore, we used the ch14.18 antibody for selecting immunoreactive GD2 peptide mimotopes from a decamer phage display library. In all, 13 GD2 peptide mimics could be determined by biopanning and their specificity was demonstrated by exclusive recognition by the ch14.18 antibody. Furthermore, their nature of being GD2 mimics and their degree of mimicry was confirmed by competition with the natural antigen. When performing a comparative visualization of the GD2 epitope and selected mimotopes using a three-dimensional computer modeling system (BALLView), we demonstrated fitting of the GD2 molecule and the mimotopes in the antigen-binding pouch of a GD2 specific antibody. Moreover, the computer modeling argued for optimal affinity of the GD2 mimotopes. We thus provide evidence that the generation of GD2 peptide mimotopes is successful when using the neuroblastoma antibody ch14.18 for selection, and that this approach might offer a tool to develop a vaccination strategy against this malignant pediatric tumor.

  13. Hypertension complicating {sup 131}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine therapy for neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosmin, Michael A.; Cork, Nicholas J.; Gaze, Mark N. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); Bomanji, Jamshed B. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Shankar, Ananth [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Paediatric Oncology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Radiolabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG), used as targeted therapy for neuroblastoma, is known to have effects on blood pressure (BP). In this study we audited BP changes in patients receiving {sup 131}I-mIBG therapy for neuroblastoma to identify BP-related adverse events (AE) and possible predictive factors. Between 2003 and 2010, 50 patients with neuroblastoma received 110 {sup 131}I-mIBG administrations. BP measurements before and after administration were compared with age- and sex-matched centile values. AE were analysed, and possible predisposing factors identified. This population had a baseline BP distribution higher than that of their age- and sex-matched peers, with 16% of preadministration systolic BP values above the 95th centile. Changes in BP after administration showed an approximately normal distribution with similar numbers of reduced and increased values. Four AE, all related to hypertension, occurred with one patient having generalized seizures. One AE was immediate, others occurred between 20 and 25 h after administration. No significant association between AE and patient age or sex was demonstrated. However, a significant association between AE and high preadministration BP was shown, both above the 90th centile (p = 0.0022) and above the 95th centile (p = 0.0135). Clinically relevant hypertension following {sup 131}I-mIBG therapy affected less than 5% of administrations, but was more common in those patients with preexisting hypertension. As hypertensive episodes may occur many hours after treatment, close monitoring of BP needs to be continued for at least 48 h after administration of {sup 131}I-mIBG. (orig.)

  14. Cytogenetic and clinical features of a 13 year old male with trisomy 8

    OpenAIRE

    Balkan, Mahmut; Fidanboy, Mehmet; Özmen, Cihan; Özbek, M. Nuri; Otçu, Selçuk; Kapı, Emin; Budak, Turgay

    2012-01-01

    Trisomy 8 is a relatively rare chromosomal abnormality. The majority of cases present with the mosaic form. Regular trisomy 8 is usually lethal and frequently results in miscarriage, while those with “trisomy 8 mosaicism” are more likely to survive. We report clinical observations and cytogenetic studies of a 13-year-old male with regular trisomy 8 and compared with those of other known cases of trisomy 8. The most discriminating findings for this condition are skeletal anomalies, restricted ...

  15. Molecular Cytogenetics: Genomic Imbalances in Colorectal Cancer and their Clinical Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Grade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal aberrations play a dominant role in colorectal carcinogenesis. The application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH based techniques such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed that colorectal carcinomas are characterized by a specific pattern of chromosomal imbalances which sequentially accumulate during cancer progression. This review aims to summarize molecular cytogenetic studies, provides a background on the functional relevance of chromosomal aberrations for colorectal cancer progression and discusses their potential clinical impact.

  16. Contribution of Cytogenetics to the Debate on the Paraphyly of Pachycondyla spp. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ponerinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cléa dos Santos Ferreira Mariano; Silvia das Graças Pompolo; Janisete Gomes Silva; Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie

    2012-01-01

    We present evidence of the paraphyly of the ant genus Pachycondyla resulting from our cytogenetic studies on 29 populations in 18 species from Brazil and French Guyana. It is likely that karyotypes with a large number of chromosomes and comprising mostly small acrocentric chromosomes in species within the Pachycondyla stricto sensu group resulted from a succession of centric fission events. On the other hand, karyotypes with a small chromosome number comprising mostly metacentric chromosomes ...

  17. Chromosome 15 anomalies and the Prader-Willi syndrome: cytogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, M G; Souiah, N; Mattei, J F

    1984-01-01

    The behaviour of chromosome 15 is very different from that of the other acrocentric chromosomes. The cytogenetic characteristics of rearrangements associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are analyzed as similar rearrangements irrespective of the associated phenotype (reciprocal translocations of chromosome 15, small bisatellited additional chromosomes, Robertsonian translocations, interstitial deletions, pericentric inversions). This study suggests that: (1) The proximal ( 15q ) region and PWS seem to be indissociable ; (2) chromosome 15 has an indisputable cytogenetic originality which could be related to its histochemical properties. Chromosome 15 constitutive heterochromatin usually contains much 5-methylcytosine-rich DNA and a large amount of each of the four satellite DNAs. Furthermore the existence in the proximal ( 15q ) region of one or several palindromic sequences could be postulated to explain the great lability of this region of chromosome 15.

  18. Genetic and cytogenetic characterization of genetic sexing strains of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharopoulou, A; Franz, G

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we performed genetic and cytogenetic analyses of two genetic sexing strains (GSSs), one for Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. and one for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, the first such strains ever constructed in these species. In both strains, the genetic sexing mechanism is based on a pupal color dimorphism (white or brown) and is the result of a reciprocal translocation between the Y chromosome and the autosome bearing the white pupae (wp) locus. Based on genetic analysis and cytological data on mitotic metaphases and larval salivary gland polytene chromosomes, we succeeded in mapping the autosome breakpoints in the two Y-autosome translocations even though the Y chromosome is not visible in polytene nuclei. We show that polytene chromosomes can be used in cytogenetic analyses toward the development of genetic control methods in these pest species. The results of the genetic analysis are in full agreement with the cytological description of the strains.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis: molecular genetics and cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, The-Hung; Blennow, Elisabeth; Nordenskjöld, Magnus

    2002-10-01

    The technologies developed for the Human Genome Project, the recent surge of available DNA sequences resulting from it and the increasing pace of gene discoveries and characterization have all contributed to new technical platforms that have enhanced the spectrum of disorders that can be diagnosed prenatally. The importance of determining the disease-causing mutation or the informativeness of linked genetic markers before embarking upon a DNA-based prenatal diagnosis is, however, still emphasized. Different fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technologies provide increased resolution for the elucidation of structural chromosome abnormalities that cannot be resolved by more conventional cytogenetic analyses, including microdeletion syndromes, cryptic or subtle duplications and translocations, complex rearrangements involving many chromosomes, and marker chromosomes. Interphase FISH and the quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction are efficient tools for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of selected aneuploidies, the latter being considered to be most cost-effective if analyses are performed on a large scale. There is some debate surrounding whether this approach should be employed as an adjunct to karyotyping or whether it should be used as a stand-alone test in selected groups of women.

  20. Effect of adrenergic receptor ligands on metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake and storage in neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babich, J.W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Graham, W. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fischman, A.J. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The effects of adrenergic receptor ligands on uptake and storage of the radiopharmaceutical [{sup 125}I]metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) were studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. For uptake studies, cells were with varying concentrations of {alpha}-agonist (clonidine, methoxamine, and xylazine), {alpha}-antagonist (phentolamine, tolazoline, phenoxybenzamine, yohimbine, and prazosin), {beta}-antagonist (propranolol, atenolol), {beta}-agonist (isoprenaline and salbutamol), mixed {alpha}/{beta} antagonist (labetalol), or the neuronal blocking agent guanethidine, prior to the addition of [{sup 125}I]MIBG (0.1 {mu}M). The incubation was continued for 2 h and specific cell-associated radioactivity was measured. For the storage studies, cells were incubated with [{sup 125}I]MIBG for 2 h, followed by replacement with fresh medium with or without drug (MIBG, clonidine, or yohimbine). Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at various times over the next 20 h. Propanolol reduced [{sup 125}I]MIBG uptake by approximately 30% (P<0.01) at all concentrations tested, most likely due to nonspecific membrane changes. In conclusion, the results of this study establish that selected adrenergic ligands can significantly influence the pattern of uptake and storage of MIBG in cultured neuroblastoma cells, most likely through inhibition of uptake or through noncompetitive inhibition. The potential inplications of these findings justify further study. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Sesquiterpene lactones derived from Saussurea lappa induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion and migration in neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Tabata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is among the most fatal of solid tumors in the pediatric age group, even when treated aggressively. Therefore, a new effective therapeutic drug(s for neuroblastoma is urgently needed. To clarify the anticancer effects of the sesquiterpene lactones dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide, derived from Saussurea lappa, we examined the cytotoxic and migration/invasion-inhibitory effects of these compounds against neuroblastoma cell lines. Both the compounds exerted significant cytotoxicity against the neuroblastoma cell lines IMR-32, NB-39, SK-N-SH, and LA-N-1. Evidence of cellular apoptosis, such as nuclear condensation and membrane inversion, were observed after treatment with these compounds. Both compounds induced caspase-7 activation and PARP cleavage as confirmed by Western blotting. Furthermore, the sesquiterpene lactones also suppressed invasion and migration of the neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that dehydrocostus lactone and costunolide are promising candidates for being developed into novel anticancer drugs effective against neuroblastoma.

  2. Multiple mechanisms disrupt the let-7 microRNA family in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John T; Tsanov, Kaloyan M; Pearson, Daniel S; Roels, Frederik; Spina, Catherine S; Ebright, Richard; Seligson, Marc; de Soysa, Yvanka; Cahan, Patrick; Theißen, Jessica; Tu, Ho-Chou; Han, Areum; Kurek, Kyle C; LaPier, Grace S; Osborne, Jihan K; Ross, Samantha J; Cesana, Marcella; Collins, James J; Berthold, Frank; Daley, George Q

    2016-07-14

    Poor prognosis in neuroblastoma is associated with genetic amplification of MYCN. MYCN is itself a target of let-7, a tumour suppressor family of microRNAs implicated in numerous cancers. LIN28B, an inhibitor of let-7 biogenesis, is overexpressed in neuroblastoma and has been reported to regulate MYCN. Here we show, however, that LIN28B is dispensable in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines, despite de-repression of let-7. We further demonstrate that MYCN messenger RNA levels in amplified disease are exceptionally high and sufficient to sponge let-7, which reconciles the dispensability of LIN28B. We found that genetic loss of let-7 is common in neuroblastoma, inversely associated with MYCN amplification, and independently associated with poor outcomes, providing a rationale for chromosomal loss patterns in neuroblastoma. We propose that let-7 disruption by LIN28B, MYCN sponging, or genetic loss is a unifying mechanism of neuroblastoma development with broad implications for cancer pathogenesis.

  3. CaMKII-mediated Beclin 1 phosphorylation regulates autophagy that promotes degradation of Id and neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Wu, Xiao-Qi; Deng, Rong; Li, Dan-Dan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Wen-Dan; Chen, Jing-Hong; Ji, Jiao; Jiao, Lin; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Fen; Feng, Gong-Kan; Senthilkumar, Ravichandran; Yue, Fei; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Wu, Rui-Yan; Yu, Yan; Xu, Xue-Lian; Mai, Jia; Li, Zhi-Ling; Peng, Xiao-Dan; Huang, Yun; Huang, Xiang; Ma, Ning-Fang; Tao, Qian; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2017-10-27

    Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cellular components to the lysosome for degradation. The role of autophagy in cell differentiation is poorly understood. Here we show that CaMKII can directly phosphorylate Beclin 1 at Ser90 to promote K63-linked ubiquitination of Beclin 1 and activation of autophagy. Meanwhile, CaMKII can also promote K63-linked ubiquitination of inhibitor of differentiation 1/2 (Id-1/2) by catalyzing phosphorylation of Id proteins and recruiting TRAF-6. Ubiquitinated Id-1/Id-2 can then bind to p62 and be transported to autolysosomes for degradation. Id degradation promotes the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and reduces the proportion of stem-like cells. Our study proposes a mechanism by which autophagic degradation of Id proteins can regulate cell differentiation. This suggests that targeting of CaMKII and the regulation of autophagic degradation of Id may be an effective therapeutic strategy to induce cell differentiation in neuroblastoma.

  4. A protein involved in central nervous system myelination: localization in the extracellular matrix and induction in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notterpek, L M; Rome, L H

    1994-01-01

    G21.3, a monoclonal antibody previously shown to block central nervous system (CNS) myelination, is now demonstrated to recognize an extracellular matrix (ECM) component. The antigen is present on the surface of neurons but not oligodendrocytes and is highly abundant in the white matter of the adult rat brain; however, it is not found in isolated myelin. Double immunostaining studies indicate a neuronal and ependymal cell source of the G21.3 antigen and a developmental expression pattern distinct from known markers of CNS myelination. The antigen is found at low levels in non-neuronal tissue and is mainly localized to basement membranes. G21.3 immunoreactive proteins are upregulated by retinoic acid-induced differentiation of SK-N-SHF neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that the G21.3 antigen is an axolemma-associated ECM component with roles in postnatal CNS development and cell-matrix interactions during morphological differentiation of neuroblastoma cells.

  5. Identification of Multiple Hypoxia Signatures in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines by l1-l2 Regularization and Data Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fardin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor and negatively correlated with the progression of the disease. We studied the gene expression profiles of nine neuroblastoma cell lines grown under hypoxic conditions to define gene signatures that characterize hypoxic neuroblastoma. The l1-l2 regularization applied to the entire transcriptome identified a single signature of 11 probesets discriminating the hypoxic state. We demonstrate that new hypoxia signatures, with similar discriminatory power, can be generated by a prior knowledge-based filtering in which a much smaller number of probesets, characterizing hypoxia-related biochemical pathways, are analyzed. l1-l2 regularization identified novel and robust hypoxia signatures within apoptosis, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation Gene Ontology classes. We conclude that the filtering approach overcomes the noisy nature of the microarray data and allows generating robust signatures suitable for biomarker discovery and patients risk assessment in a fraction of computer time.

  6. Identification of multiple hypoxia signatures in neuroblastoma cell lines by l1-l2 regularization and data reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin, Paolo; Cornero, Andrea; Barla, Annalisa; Mosci, Sofia; Acquaviva, Massimo; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Gambini, Claudio; Verri, Alessandro; Varesio, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia is a condition of low oxygen tension occurring in the tumor and negatively correlated with the progression of the disease. We studied the gene expression profiles of nine neuroblastoma cell lines grown under hypoxic conditions to define gene signatures that characterize hypoxic neuroblastoma. The l(1)-l(2) regularization applied to the entire transcriptome identified a single signature of 11 probesets discriminating the hypoxic state. We demonstrate that new hypoxia signatures, with similar discriminatory power, can be generated by a prior knowledge-based filtering in which a much smaller number of probesets, characterizing hypoxia-related biochemical pathways, are analyzed. l(1)-l(2) regularization identified novel and robust hypoxia signatures within apoptosis, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation Gene Ontology classes. We conclude that the filtering approach overcomes the noisy nature of the microarray data and allows generating robust signatures suitable for biomarker discovery and patients risk assessment in a fraction of computer time.

  7. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian Bolitoglossa paraensis (Unterstein, 1930 salamanders (Caudata, Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Barata da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plethodontid salamanders of genus Bolitoglossa constitute the largest and most diverse group of salamanders, including around 20% of living caudate species. Recent studies have indicated the occurrence of five recognized species in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. We present here the first cytogenetic data of a Brazilian salamander, which may prove to be a useful by contribution to the cytotaxonomy of the genus. Specimens were collected near the "type" locality (Utinga, Belém, PA, Brazil. Chromosomal preparations from duodenal epithelial cells and testes were subjected to Giemsa staining, C-banding and DAPI/CMA3 fluorochrome staining. All specimens showed a karyotype with 13 bi-armed chromosome pairs (2n = 26. Nucleolar Organizer Regions, evidenced by CMA3, were located distally on the long arm of pair 7 (7q. DAPI+ heterochromatin was predominantly centromeric, with some small pericentromeric bands. Although the C-banding patterns of other Bolitoglossa species are so far unknown, cytogenetic studies conducted in other Plethodontid salamanders have demonstrated that pericentromeric heterochromatin is a useful cytological marker for identifying interspecific homeologies. Species diversification is usually accompanied by chromosomal changes. Therefore, the cytogenetic characterization of Bolitoglossa populations from the middle and western Brazilian Amazon Basin could identify differences which may lead to the identification of new species.

  8. An integrated molecular cytogenetic map of Cucumis sativus L. chromosome 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Sanwen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of molecular, genetic and cytological maps is still a challenge for most plant species. Recent progress in molecular and cytogenetic studies created a basis for developing integrated maps in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.. Results In this study, eleven fosmid clones and three plasmids containing 45S rDNA, the centromeric satellite repeat Type III and the pericentriomeric repeat CsRP1 sequences respectively were hybridized to cucumber metaphase chromosomes to assign their cytological location on chromosome 2. Moreover, an integrated molecular cytogenetic map of cucumber chromosomes 2 was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH mapping of 11 fosmid clones together with the cucumber centromere-specific Type III sequence on meiotic pachytene chromosomes. The cytogenetic map was fully integrated with genetic linkage map since each fosmid clone was anchored by a genetically mapped simple sequence repeat marker (SSR. The relationship between the genetic and physical distances along chromosome was analyzed. Conclusions Recombination was not evenly distributed along the physical length of chromosome 2. Suppression of recombination was found in centromeric and pericentromeric regions. Our results also indicated that the molecular markers composing the linkage map for chromosome 2 provided excellent coverage of the chromosome.

  9. FISH and GISH: molecular cytogenetic tools and their applications in ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Ramzan, Fahad; Hwang, Yoon-Jung; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2015-09-01

    The innovations in chromosome engineering have improved the efficiency of interrogation breeding, and the identification and transfer of resistance genes from alien to native species. Recent advances in molecular biology and cytogenetics have brought revolutionary, conceptual developments in mitosis and meiosis research, chromosome structure and manipulation, gene expression and regulation, and gene silencing. Cytogenetic studies offer integrative tools for imaging, genetics, epigenetics, and cytological information that can be employed to enhance chromosome and molecular genomic research in plant taxa. In situ hybridization techniques, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), can identify chromosome morphologies and sequences, amount and distribution of various types of chromatin in chromosomes, and genome organization during the metaphase stage of meiosis. Over the past few decades, various new molecular cytogenetic applications have been developed. The FISH and GISH techniques present an authentic model for analyzing the individual chromosome, chromosomal segments, or the genomes of natural and artificial hybrid plants. These have become the most reliable techniques for studying allopolyploids, because most cultivated plants have been developed through hybridization or polyploidization. Moreover, introgression of the genes and chromatin from the wild types into cultivated species can also be analyzed. Since hybrid derivatives may have variable alien chromosome numbers or chromosome arms, the use of these approaches opens new avenues for accurately identifying genome differences.

  10. PI3K/AKT and ERK regulate retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Jingbo [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Qiao, Lan; Josifi, Erlena; Tiao, Joshua R. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Chung, Dai H., E-mail: dai.chung@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retinoic acid (RA) induces neuroblastoma cells differentiation, which is accompanied by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA resulted in neuroblastoma cell survival and inhibition of DNA fragmentation; this is regulated by PI3K pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RA activates PI3K and ERK1/2 pathway; PI3K pathway mediates RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of p21 is necessary for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. -- Abstract: Neuroblastoma, the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children, is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous remissions in infancy. Retinoic acid (RA) has been known to induce neuroblastoma differentiation; however, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that are responsible for RA-mediated neuroblastoma cell differentiation remain unclear. Here, we sought to determine the cell signaling processes involved in RA-induced cellular differentiation. Upon RA administration, human neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-SH and BE(2)-C, demonstrated neurite extensions, which is an indicator of neuronal cell differentiation. Moreover, cell cycle arrest occurred in G1/G0 phase. The protein levels of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21 and p27{sup Kip}, which inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle progression at G1/S phase, increased after RA treatment. Interestingly, RA promoted cell survival during the differentiation process, hence suggesting a potential mechanism for neuroblastoma resistance to RA therapy. Importantly, we found that the PI3K/AKT pathway is required for RA-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Our results elucidated the molecular mechanism of RA-induced neuroblastoma cellular differentiation, which may be important for developing novel therapeutic strategy against poorly differentiated neuroblastoma.

  11. Adult Neuroblastoma Complicated by Increased Intracranial Pressure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Patrick L.; Johnson, Douglas B.; Thompson, Mary Ann; Keedy, Vicki L.; Frangoul, Haydar A.; Snyder, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most commonly occurring malignancy of the pediatric population, although it is extremely rare in the adult population. In adults, neuroblastoma is often metastatic and portends an extremely poor overall survival. Our case report documents metastatic neuroblastoma occurring in a healthy 29-year-old woman whose course was complicated by an unusual presentation of elevated intracranial pressures. The patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, I131 metaiodobenzylgu...

  12. Association of congenital neuroblastoma and congenital heart disease. Is there a common embryologic basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, R.; D' Andrea, A.; Darillis, E.; Fellows, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Several authors have reported an association between neuroblastoma and congenital heart disease; others contend that, unlike specific wellknown associations between malignancy and congenital defects (Wilm's tumor and aniridia, leukemia and Down's syndrome), no real relationship exists. We present three cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease in which subclinical neuroblastoma was found. We speculate that abnormal neural crest cell migration and development may be a common link between cardiac malformations and congenital neuroblastoma.

  13. Nifurtimox Induces Apoptosis of Neuroblastoma Cells in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sholler, Giselle L Saulnier; Brard, Laurent; Straub, Jennifer A; Dorf, Lee; Illyene, Sharon; Koto, Karen; Kalkunte, Satyan; Bosenberg, Marcus; Ashikaga, Taka; Nishi, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children and, when disseminated, carries a poor prognosis. Even with aggressive combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, autologous bone marrow transplant and radiation, long-term survival remains at 30% and new therapies are needed. Recently, a patient with neuroblastoma who acquired Chagas disease was treated with nifurtimox with subsequent reduction in tumor size. The effect of nifurtimox on the neuroblastoma cell lines CHLA-90, LA...

  14. Sample tracking in an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory for radiation mass casualties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.R.; Berdychevski, R.E.; Subramanian, U.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Prasanna, P.G.S. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)], E-mail: prasanna@afrri.usuhs.mil

    2007-07-15

    Chromosome-aberration-based dicentric assay is expected to be used after mass-casualty life-threatening radiation exposures to assess radiation dose to individuals. This will require processing of a large number of samples for individual dose assessment and clinical triage to aid treatment decisions. We have established an automated, high-throughput, cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory to process a large number of samples for conducting the dicentric assay using peripheral blood from exposed individuals according to internationally accepted laboratory protocols (i.e., within days following radiation exposures). The components of an automated cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory include blood collection kits for sample shipment, a cell viability analyzer, a robotic liquid handler, an automated metaphase harvester, a metaphase spreader, high-throughput slide stainer and coverslipper, a high-throughput metaphase finder, multiple satellite chromosome-aberration analysis systems, and a computerized sample-tracking system. Laboratory automation using commercially available, off-the-shelf technologies, customized technology integration, and implementation of a laboratory information management system (LIMS) for cytogenetic analysis will significantly increase throughput. This paper focuses on our efforts to eliminate data-transcription errors, increase efficiency, and maintain samples' positive chain-of-custody by sample tracking during sample processing and data analysis. This sample-tracking system represents a 'beta' version, which can be modeled elsewhere in a cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory, and includes a customized LIMS with a central server, personal computer workstations, barcode printers, fixed station and wireless hand-held devices to scan barcodes at various critical steps, and data transmission over a private intra-laboratory computer network. Our studies will improve diagnostic biodosimetry response, aid confirmation of clinical triage, and

  15. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Guo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae, commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGGn in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers.

  16. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of two cases with constitutional distal 11q duplication/triplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Rachel D; Lose, Edward J; Domínguez, Maria G; Sánchez-Corona, Jose; Rivera, Horacio; Carroll, Andrew J; Mikhail, Fady M

    2009-07-01

    Here, we report two cases with isolated distal 11q rearrangement and multiple congenital anomalies. The first patient is a two-and-a-half year old male referred to our genetics clinic due to dysmorphic features and developmental delay including speech delay. Using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques, we demonstrate that he carries a recombinant chromosome with duplication of the 11q23.3q24.2 region resulting from an intrachromosomal insertion in the father. The second patient was originally reported by Partida-Perez, et al. [Partida-Perez et al., 2006] as having a tandem duplication of the 11q23.3 region. We performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on this patient in order to map the exact region of the duplication, and demonstrated that the patient actually had a triplication within 11q23.3. We compare the clinical features of our two patients with those previously reported to further delineate the phenotype of isolated distal 11q duplication. Our study also demonstrates the clinical usefulness of whole genome high resolution aCGH analysis as a powerful molecular cytogenetic tool capable of detecting genomic imbalances due to cytogenetically visible but uncertain rearrangements.

  17. Molecular cytogenetic analyses of Epinephelus bruneus and Epinephelus moara (Perciformes, Epinephelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Minglan; Wang, Shifeng; Su, Yongquan; Zhou, Yongcan; Liu, Min

    2014-01-01

    Genus Epinephelus (Perciformes, Epinephelidae), commonly known as groupers, are usually difficult in species identification for the lack and/or change of morphological specialization. In this study, molecular cytogenetic analyses were firstly performed to identify the closely related species Epinephelus bruneus and E. moara in this genus. The species-specific differences of both fish species showed in karyotype, chromosomal distribution of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) and localization of 18S rDNA. The heterochromatin (interstitial C-bands) and distribution pattern of telomere (TTAGGG)n in E. bruneus revealed the chromosomal rearrangements and different karyotypic evolutionary characteristics compared to those in E. moara. The cytogenetic data suggested that the lineages of E. bruneus and E. moara were recently derived within the genus Epinephelus, and E. moara exhibited more plesiomorphic features than E. bruneus. All results confirmed that E. moara, which has long been considered a synonym of E. bruneus, is a distinct species in the family Epinephelidae. In addition, molecular cytogenetic analyses are useful in species differentiation and phylogenetic reconstruction in groupers. PMID:24949234

  18. Cytogenetic and Molecular Investigation in Children with Possible Fragile X Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common cause of inherited mental retardation and is due to a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene. Molecular genetic testing and chromosome analysis are indicated for this disorder. In this context, we tried to determine the frequency of the FXS, and other chro¬mosomal abnormalities of Turkish pediatric neurology outpatients. Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic and molecular screenings were performed to esti-mate the prevalence of the fragile X in 107 patients with mental retardation, language disorders, hyperactivity, develop¬mental delay or fragile X syndrome phenotype. Only 26 out of 107 patients were screened, molecularly. Results: Cytogenetically fragile X-positive cells was found in 8 cases (7.5% of 107 patients; in 4.7% of males and in 2.8% of females. The autosomal fragile sites (FS was found in 14 (13.1% cases. One (0.9% patient had pericentric inversion of chromosome 9. Molecular analysis were performed for 26 patients and all patients showed normal CGG expansion. Conclusion: In diagnosis of fragile X syndrome, chromosome analysis must be run in conjunction with the molecular studies. It is recommended that all members of the fragile X family under risk should be screened both by cytogenetic and molecular methods. Genetic counseling can be useful to patients and families considering genetic testing. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(2.000: 76-83

  19. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a small, familial supernumerary ring chromosome 7 associated with mental retardation and an abnormal phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan-Sindhunata, G; Castedo, S; Leegte, B; Mulder, [No Value; van der Veen, AYV; van der Hout, AHV; van Essen, AJ

    2000-01-01

    A family is described in which a mother and two of her children were mosaic for a small supernumerary ring chromosome. As the origin of the ring chromosome could not be determined by routine cytogenetic studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed, which indicated that the ring

  20. Significance of cytogenetic abnormalities in patients with polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Matjaz; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Pierce, Sherry; Zhou, Lingsha; Kantarjian, Hagop; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed 133 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) who were followed at our institution (median 7.5 years) and had adequate cytogenetics information. The 5-, 10- and 15-year survival rates were 93%, 79% and 64%, respectively, with a median projected overall survival of 24 years. Nineteen patients (14%) had abnormal cytogenetics at any time during the disease course (no survival difference). Sixteen patients (12%) underwent disease transformation during follow-up, after a median of 8.5 years, to myelofibrosis (n = 11), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 4) or myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1); eight had cytogenetic abnormalities. Among 133 patients, 39 were newly diagnosed: 33 with normal and six with abnormal cytogenetics (no survival difference); nine underwent disease transformation (six with normal and three with abnormal cytogenetics at diagnosis). In keeping with other smaller series, the presence of chromosomal abnormalities may have had a role in disease transformation in patients with PV; survival was not affected likely due to short follow-up.

  1. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of a new curcumin-related compound against melanoma and neuroblastoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastorino Fabio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sharing the common neuroectodermal origin, melanoma and neuroblastoma are tumors widely diffused among adult and children, respectively. Clinical prognosis of aggressive neuroectodermal cancers remains dismal, therefore the search for novel therapies against such tumors is warranted. Curcumin is a phytochemical compound widely studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Recently, we have synthesized and tested in vitro various curcumin-related compounds in order to select new anti-tumor agents displaying stronger and selective growth inhibition activity on neuroectodermal tumors. Results In this work, we have demonstrated that the new α,β-unsaturated ketone D6 was more effective in inhibiting tumor cells growth when compared to curcumin. Normal fibroblasts proliferation was not affected by this treatment. Clonogenic assay showed a significant dose-dependent reduction in both melanoma and neuroblastoma colony formation only after D6 treatment. TUNEL assay, Annexin-V staining, caspases activation and PARP cleavage unveiled the ability of D6 to cause tumor cell death by triggering apoptosis, similarly to curcumin, but with a stronger and quicker extent. These apoptotic features appear to be associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. In vivo anti-tumor activity of curcumin and D6 was surveyed using sub-cutaneous melanoma and orthotopic neuroblastoma xenograft models. D6 treated mice exhibited significantly reduced tumor growth compared to both control and curcumin treated ones (Melanoma: D6 vs control: P and D6 vs curcumin P Neuroblastoma: D6 vs both control and curcumin: P . Conclusions Our data indicate D6 as a good candidate to develop new therapies against neural crest-derived tumors.

  2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the aetiology and regression of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Graeme R

    2002-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is predominantly a paediatric neoplasm of the sympathetic nervous system. Despite the aggressive nature of the disease, spontaneous regression is frequently observed in infants diagnosed under the age of 12 months; especially with a specific stage referred to as stage 4s. Discovering the conditions, the elements, the mechanism and the indices behind this regression phenomenon could have therapeutic potential for prevention and cure. A review of the literature has implicated adrenocorticotropin hormone in both the aetiology and spontaneous regression of neuroblastoma. Manipulation of adrenocorticotropin hormone may offer hope for prevention and cure. Ingestible products such as retinoic acid, glycyrrhizic acid, salsolinol and ketoconazole acting in concert, could represent instrumental tools in a therapeutic manipulation process.

  3. Exendin-4 induces cell adhesion and differentiation and counteracts the invasive potential of human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Luciani

    Full Text Available Exendin-4 is a molecule currently used, in its synthetic form exenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 binds and activates the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R, thus inducing insulin release. More recently, additional biological properties have been associated to molecules that belong to the GLP-1 family. For instance, Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide have been found to affect cell adhesion and migration and our previous data have shown a considerable actin cytoskeleton rearrangement after exendin-4 treatment. However, no data are currently available on the effects of exendin-4 on tumor cell motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this molecule on cell adhesion, differentiation and migration in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS. We first demonstrated, by Extra Cellular Matrix cell adhesion arrays, that exendin-4 increased cell adhesion, in particular on a vitronectin substrate. Subsequently, we found that this molecule induced a more differentiated phenotype, as assessed by i the evaluation of neurite-like protrusions in 3D cell cultures, ii the analysis of the expression of neuronal markers and iii electrophysiological studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exendin-4 reduced cell migration and counteracted anchorage-independent growth in neuroblastoma cells. Overall, these data indicate for the first time that exendin-4 may have anti-tumoral properties.

  4. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a human thyroid cancercell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Tuton, Tiffany B.; Ito, Yuko; Chu, LisaW.; Lu, Chung-Mei; Baumgartner, Adolf; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier,Jingly F.

    2006-01-04

    The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) increases significantly after exposure of the head and neck region to ionizing radiation, yet we know neither the steps involved in malignant transformation of thyroid epithelium nor the specific carcinogenic mode of action of radiation. Such increased tumor frequency became most evident in children after the 1986 nuclear accident in Chernobyl, Ukraine. In the twelve years following the accident, the average incidence of childhood PTCs (chPTC) increased over one hundred-fold compared to the rate of about 1 tumor incidence per 10{sup 6} children per year prior to 1986. To study the etiology of radiation-induced thyroid cancer, we formed an international consortium to investigate chromosomal changes and altered gene expression in cases of post-Chernobyl chPTC. Our approach is based on karyotyping of primary cultures established from chPTC specimens, establishment of cell lines and studies of genotype-phenotype relationships through high resolution chromosome analysis, DNA/cDNA micro-array studies, and mouse xenografts that test for tumorigenicity. Here, we report the application of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based techniques for the molecular cytogenetic characterization of a highly tumorigenic chPTC cell line, S48TK, and its subclones. Using chromosome 9 rearrangements as an example, we describe a new approach termed ''BAC-FISH'' to rapidly delineate chromosomal breakpoints, an important step towards a better understanding of the formation of translocations and their functional consequences.

  5. Targeting neuroblastoma stem cells with retinoic acid and proteasome inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hämmerle

    Full Text Available Neuroblastma cell lines contain a side-population of cells which express stemness markers. These stem-like cells may represent the potential underlying mechanism for resistance to conventional therapy and recurrence of neuroblastoma in patients.To develop novel strategies for targeting the side-population of neurobastomas, we analyzed the effects of 13-cis-retinoic acid (RA combined with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The short-term action of the treatment was compared with effects after a 5-day recovery period during which both chemicals were withdrawn. RA induced growth arrest and differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2 neuroblastoma cell lines. Inhibition of the proteasome caused apoptosis in both cell lines, thus, revealing the critical role of this pathway in the regulated degradation of proteins involved in neuroblastoma proliferation and survival. The combination of RA with MG132 induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, in addition to promoting G2/M arrest in treated cultures. Interestingly, expression of stem cell markers such as Nestin, Sox2, and Oct4 were reduced after the recovery period of combined treatment as compared with untreated cells or treated cells with either compound alone. Consistent with this, neurosphere formation was significantly impaired by the combined treatment of RA and MG132.Given that stem-like cells are associated with resistant to conventional therapy and are thought to be responsible for relapse, our results suggest that dual therapy of RA and proteasome inhibitor might be beneficial for targeting the side-population of cells associated residual disease in high-risk neuroblastoma.

  6. Disassembly of microtubules and inhibition of neurite outgrowth, neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and MAP kinase tyrosine dephosphorylation by dibenzyl trisulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, H; Williams, L A; Jung, A; Kraus, W

    2001-08-22

    Dibenzyl trisulphide (DTS), a main lipophilic compound in Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae), was identified as one of the active immunomodulatory compounds in extracts of the plant. To learn more about its biological activities and molecular mechanisms, we conducted one-dimensional NMR interaction studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and tested DTS and related compounds in two well-established neuronal cell-and-tissue culture systems. We found that DTS preferentially binds to an aromatic region of BSA which is rich in tyrosyl residues. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, DTS attenuates the dephosphorylation of tyrosyl residues of MAP kinase (erk1/erk2). In the same neuroblastoma cell line and in Wistar 38 human lung fibroblasts, DTS causes a reversible disassembly of microtubules, but it did not affect actin dynamics. Probably due to the disruption of the microtubule dynamics, DTS also inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth from spinal cord explants. Related dibenzyl compounds with none, one, or two sulphur atoms were found to be significantly less effective. These data confirmed that the natural compound DTS has a diverse spectrum of biological properties, including cytostatic and neurotoxic actions in addition to immunomodulatory activities.

  7. Noscapine induced apoptosis via downregulation of survivin in human neuroblastoma cells having wild type or null p53.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwang Li

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. It accounts for 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment in children with advanced neuroblastoma. Noscapine, a nontoxic natural compound, can trigger apoptosis in many cancer types. We now show that p53 is dispensable for Noscapine-induced cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines, proapoptotic response to this promising chemopreventive agent is mediated by suppression of survivin protein expression. The Noscapine treatment increased levels of total and Ser(15-phosphorylated p53 protein in SK-SY5Y cells, but the proapoptotic response to this agent was maintained even after knockdown of the p53 protein level. Exposure of SK-SY5Y and LA1-5S cells to Noscapine resulted in a marked decrease in protein and mRNA level of survivin as early as 12 hours after treatment. Ectopic expression of survivin conferred statistically significant protection against Noscapine-mediated cytoplasmic histone-associated apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Also, the Noscapine-induced apoptosis was modestly but statistically significantly augmented by RNA interference of survivin in both cell lines. Furthermore, Noscapine-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP. In conclusion, the present study provides novel insight into the molecular circuitry of Noscapine-induced apoptosis to indicate suppression of survivin expression as a critical mediator of this process.

  8. Long-term follow-up of children with high-risk neuroblastoma: the ENSG5 trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Vaidya, Sucheta J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Machin, David; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2013-07-01

    Therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma is intensive and multimodal, and significant long-term adverse effects have been described. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and severity of late complications of metastatic neuroblastoma survivors included in the ENSG5 clinical trial. The trial protocol included induction chemotherapy (randomized "Standard" OPEC/OJEC vs. "Rapid" COJEC), surgery of primary tumor and high-dose melphalan with stem cell rescue. Two hundred and sixty-two children were randomized, 69 survived >5 years, and 57 were analyzed. Data were obtained from the ENSG5 trial database and verified with questionnaires sent to participating centers. Median follow-up was 12.9 (6.9-16.5) years. No differences were found in late toxicities between treatment arms. Twenty-eight children (49.1%) developed hearing loss. Nine patients (15.8%) developed glomerular filtration rate neuroblastoma survivors from a multi-institutional randomized trial and established the profile of long-term toxicity within the setting of an international clinical trial. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Diagnosis of neonatal neuroblastoma with postmortem magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Davis, MD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is emerging as a valuable tool to accompany traditional autopsy and has potential for use in cases when traditional autopsy is not possible. This case report will review the use of postmortem MRI with limited tissue sampling to differentiate between metastatic neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma which could not be clearly differentiated with prenatal ultrasound, prenatal MRI, or emergent postnatal ultrasound. The mother presented to our institution at 27 weeks gestation after an obstetric ultrasound at her obstetrician's office identified a large abdominal mass. Fetal ultrasonography and MRI confirmed the mass but were unable to differentiate between neuroblastoma and multifocal hepatoblastoma. The baby was delivered by cesarean section after nonreassuring heart tones led to an emergent cesarean section. The baby underwent decompressive laparotomy to relieve an abdominal compartment syndrome; however, the family eventually decided to withdraw life support. At this time, we performed a whole body postmortem MRI which further characterized the mass as an adrenal neuroblastoma which was confirmed with limited tissue sampling. Postmortem MRI was especially helpful in this case, as the patient’s family declined traditional autopsy.

  10. Disseminated peripheral neuroblastoma in a Rhodesian Ridgeback dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R W; Abraham, L A; McCowan, C I

    2017-04-01

    A 4-year-old neutered male Rhodesian Ridgeback dog with right-sided Horner's syndrome, bilateral laryngeal paralysis, neck pain and bilateral hindlimb ataxia was euthanased following deterioration of its neurological status. Necropsy examination revealed an off-white retropharyngeal neoplastic mass (100 × 30 × 30 mm) attached to the base of the skull on the right side and macroscopic nodular metastases in the spleen and three vertebral bodies (C6, C7 and T6), including a nodule attached to the dura at C7. Histological evidence of neuroblastic tumour was detected in these macroscopic lesions, a regional lymph node, bone marrow of a femur and all 15 vertebral bodies (C1-T8) examined, including the three with macroscopic metastases, and in the lumens of small blood vessels in the lungs and liver. Ganglion cell differentiation was detected only in the primary retropharyngeal mass, one splenic nodule and the C7 dural nodule. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to neurofilament protein (ganglion cells only), vimentin and synaptophysin, and were negative for S100 protein, GFAP, CD3 and Pax5. The diagnosis was disseminated peripheral neuroblastoma, differentiating subtype (International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification), with likely primary involvement of the right cranial cervical ganglion. This appears to be the first report of neuroblastoma in a dog with widespread occult haematogenous metastasis to bone marrow. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Intrarenal neuroblastoma - a diagnostic dilemma: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Lall

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation between the Wilms′ tumor (WT and the intrarenal neuroblastoma (IRNB is imperative, as the prognosis and the treatment are different for these condi-tions. It may pose a diagnostic challenge to distinguish them pre-operatively. Over the period of last 10 years (1990-1999, 3 children aged 2 months to 4 years were diagnosed to have IRNB. 2 cases were operated with a provisional diagnosis of WT, but on histology were found to have neuroblastoma. Taking benefit from our previous experience, the third case we encountered with a renal lump and bony metastasis with clinical features not con-sistent with the diagnosis of Wilms′ tumor was further investigated. Urinary catecholamines were significantly elevated and there was bone marrow involvement and positive bone scan for multiple bony metastasis. 2 pa-tients are on chemotherapy and follow-up for last 6 months, while 1 died 6 years back after a follow-up of 2 years. Patients who have a renal mass on imaging, with clinical features of rapid deterioration in general condi-tion and evidence of bony secondaries, should undergo work-up for neuroblastoma pre-operatively to confirm the diagnosis.

  12. Nuclear medicine and multimodality imaging of pediatric neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang Peter; Pfluger, Thomas [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Coppenrath, Eva [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and is metastatic or high risk for relapse in nearly 50% of cases. Therefore, exact staging with radiological and nuclear medicine imaging methods is crucial for defining the adequate therapeutic choice. Tumor cells express the norepinephrine transporter, which makes metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine, an ideal tumor specific agent for imaging. MIBG imaging has several disadvantages, such as limited spatial resolution, limited sensitivity in small lesions and the need for two or even more acquisition sessions. Most of these limitations can be overcome with positron emission tomography (PET) using [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose [FDG]. Furthermore, new tracers, such as fluorodopa or somatostatin receptor agonists, have been tested for imaging neuroblastoma recently. However, MIBG scintigraphy and PET alone are not sufficient for operative or biopsy planning. In this regard, a combination with morphological imaging is indispensable. This article will discuss strategies for primary and follow-up diagnosis in neuroblastoma using different nuclear medicine and radiological imaging methods as well as multimodality imaging. (orig.)

  13. Validation of biological dosimetry versus physical dosimetry in conditioned patients using total body irradiation: cytogenetic and FISH study; Validation de la dosimetrie biologique chez des patients conditionnes par irradiation corporelle totale: etude cytogenetique conventionnelle et hybridation in situ (FISH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossou, J.; M' kacher, R.; Violot, D.; Legal, J.D.; Lartigau, E.; Eschwege, F.; Parmentier, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA27-10 Radiosensibilite et Radiocarcinogenese Humaine, 94 - Villejuif (France); Girinsky, T.; Eschwege, F. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Bridier, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Physique, 94 - Villejuif (France)

    2000-12-01

    Purpose. - Validation of biological dosimetry versus physical dosimetry in malignant hemopathy patients conditioned by total body irradiation (TBI) before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Patients and methods. -The scoring of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes irradiated in vivo was used to perform the biological dosimetry. The data were compared to those obtained with healthy volunteers' total blood exposed to in vitro irradiation with linear accelerator doses (0.2, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Gy) for dose-response curves. In experimental animal models, can in vivo and in vitro responses be considered as being the same? All the published human data are based on retrospective dose evaluation with very large uncertainties on the dose precisely delivered to the subject. TBI before BMT was taken as a model where the dose calculation results from the physical method, with homogeneous beam and dose delivered precisely along the entire organism. In vivo response allows us to validate biological dosimetry in 15 adult patients (female + male), before (D = 0 Gy) and after the first fraction of 1.8 Gy, delivered by a linear accelerator (18 MV, dose-rate of 15.8 cGy/min{sup -1}). Two methods, conventional cyto-genetics (CCG) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH painting) of chromosome 4 were respectively used to analyze the unstable chromosome aberrations and stable chromosome aberrations. Results. -Healthy volunteer lymphocytes, before irradiation, yielded 0.1 % dicentrics and 0.3% translocations of chromosome 4, with 2.5% for the whole genome. Patients before irradiation had 2% dicentrics and 11.48% chromosome 4 translocations for the whole genome. In the 15 patients, for a physical dose of 1.8 Gy, the evaluated biological dose was 1.93 Gy (95% CI: 1.85-2.05 Gy) with conventional cyto-genetics and 2.06 Gy (95% CI: 1.75-2.15 Gy) with FISH. Conclusion. - These results, in which the biologically estimated dose is in complete agreement with the dose

  14. The Beta Subunit of Hemoglobin (HBB2/HBB) Suppresses Neuroblastoma Growth and Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Shelly; Sagi-Assif, Orit; Yuan, Weirong; Ginat, Ravit; Meshel, Tsipi; Zubrilov, Inna; Keisari, Yona; Lu, Weiyue; Lu, Wuyuan; Witz, Isaac P

    2017-01-01

    Soluble pulmonary factors have been reported to be capable of inhibiting the viability of cancer cells that metastasize to the lung, but the molecular identity was obscure. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the beta subunit of hemoglobin as a lung-derived antimetastatic factor. Peptide mapping in the beta subunit of human hemoglobin (HBB) defined a short C-terminal region (termed Metox) as responsible for activity. In tissue culture, both HBB and murine HBB2 mediated growth arrest and apoptosis of lung-metastasizing neuroblastoma cells, along with a variety of other human cancer cell lines. Metox acted similarly and its administration in human tumor xenograft models limited the development of adrenal neuroblastoma tumors as well as spontaneous lung and bone marrow metastases. Expression studies in mice indicated that HBB2 is produced by alveolar epithelial and endothelial cells and is upregulated in mice bearing undetectable metastasis. Our work suggested a novel function for HBB as a theranostic molecule: an innate antimetastasis factor with potential utility as an anticancer drug and a biomarker signaling the presence of clinically undetectable metastasis. Cancer Res; 77(1); 14-26. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Suppression of Cpn10 increases mitochondrial fission and dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Jung Park

    Full Text Available To date, several regulatory proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics have been identified. However, the precise mechanism coordinating these complex processes remains unclear. Mitochondrial chaperones regulate mitochondrial function and structure. Chaperonin 10 (Cpn10 interacts with heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 and functions as a co-chaperone. In this study, we found that down-regulation of Cpn10 highly promoted mitochondrial fragmentation in SK-N-MC and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of Drp1 suppressed the mitochondrial fragmentation induced by Cpn10 reduction. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in 3-NP-treated cells was markedly enhanced by Cpn10 knock down. Depletion of Cpn10 synergistically increased cell death in response to 3-NP treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of Drp1 recovered Cpn10-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in 3-NP-treated cells. Moreover, an ROS scavenger suppressed cell death mediated by Cpn10 knockdown in 3-NP-treated cells. Taken together, these results showed that down-regulation of Cpn10 increased mitochondrial fragmentation and potentiated 3-NP-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells.

  16. Identification of miRNAs that are associated with tumor metastasis in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jigang; Dong, Qian; Fang, Zhixiang; Chen, Xi; Lu, Hongting; Wang, Kehui; Yin, Yuan; Cai, Xing; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Jiangning; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Chen-Yu

    2010-03-15

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has opened a new avenue for both diagnosis and treatment of cancers. Accumulating experimental evidences indicate that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in different tumor types and have a critical role in tumorigenesis. However, the miRNA expression profile in neuroblastoma (NB), one of the most common cancer forms in children, has not been well characterized. In the present study, we established a heterotopic transplant mice model of NB and employed miRNA microarray analysis to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in metastatic NB compared to primary NB. A list of 54 miRNAs was found to be significantly altered in metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors. These differentially-expressed miRNAs were selectively validated by a stem-loop qRT-PCR assay. Furthermore, we predicted a list of potential miRNA-target pairs that may be involved in the metastasis of neuroblastoma by three different computer-aided algorithms. Taken together, our results indicate that a unique panel of miRNAs are associated with metastatic NB and these differentially-expressed miRNAs may play an important role in the NB metastatic process. This finding may also shed light in our understanding of the nature of metastatic NB and provide a potential novel target for therapeutic treatment of this tumor.

  17. A novel dysfunctional p53 mutation in the human neuroblastoma cell line TGW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Hisahiko; Arita, Michitsune; Min, Zhenghua; Zhong, Xioling; Iwasaki, Iwao; Hirano, Keihachiro; Shimatake, Hiroyuki; Hemmi, Hiromichi

    2003-12-01

    Mutations of p53 are rare in primary and advanced neuroblastomas. The p53 gene was studied in a TGW cell line established from a TNB1 xenograft, derived from metastasized neuroblastoma. The p53 protein level in TGW was elevated at baseline. Treatment with doxorubicin to induce genotoxic stress neither altered the p53 protein level nor induced p21 protein within 24 hours. DNA sequencing analysis revealed a novel triplet deletion mutation at codon 282 (R282del) of the p53 gene, a mutation also found in TNB1, indicating that the mutation occurred in the relapsed tumor. The mutant was incapable of transactivation and had no effect on the transactivational activity of the wild-type p53 gene product in reporter assays using a plasmid possessing a p53 responsive element of p21, bax or mdm2. These results suggest that the mutant p53R282del found in TGW is a non-functional mutant and has no dominant negative nature.

  18. Cytotoxicity induced by cypermethrin in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raszewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of Cypermethrin (CM on cultured human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with CM at 0–200µM for 24, 48, and 72 h, [i]in vitro[/i]. It was found that CM induced the cell death of Neuroblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by LDH assays. Next, some aspects of the process of cell death triggered by CM in the human SH-SY5Y cell line were investigated. It was revealed that the pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, sensitizes SH-SY5Y cells to necroptosis caused by CM. Furthermore, signal transduction inhibitors PD98059, SL-327, SB202190, SP600125 failed to attenuate the effect of the pesticide. Finally, it was shown that inhibition of TNF-a by Pomalidomide (PLD caused statistically significant reduction in CM-induced cytotoxicity. Overall, the data obtained suggest that CM induces neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells by necroptosis.

  19. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines. Cell toxicity and gene modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-06-27

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram.

  20. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines: Cell toxicity and gene modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram. PMID:28467792