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Sample records for neurobiological stress reactivity

  1. Spatial learning impairment induced by chronic stress is related to individual differences in novelty reactivity: search for neurobiological correlates.

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    Touyarot, K; Venero, C; Sandi, C

    2004-02-01

    Although chronic stress has been reported to induce deleterious effects on hippocampal structure and function, the possible existence of individual differences in the vulnerability to develop stress-induced cognitive alterations was hypothesized. This study was designed to evaluate (i) whether individual variability in behavioural reactivity to novelty could be related to a differential vulnerability to show spatial learning deficits after chronic stress in young adult rats, and (ii) to what extent, could individual differences in stress-induced cognitive alterations be related to alterations in specific neurobiological substrates. Four month-old Wistar male rats were classified according to their locomotor reactivity to a novel environment, as either low (LR) or highly (HR) reactive, and then either submitted to psychosocial stress for 21-days (consisting of the daily cohabitation of each young adult rat with a new middle-aged rat) or left undisturbed. The results showed that psychosocial stress induced a marked deficit in spatial learning in the water maze in HR, but not in LR, rats. Then, a second experiment investigated the possible differential expression of corticosteroid receptors (MR and GR) and cell adhesion molecules (NCAM and L1) in the hippocampus of HR and LR rats, both under basal conditions and after exposure to chronic social stress. Although chronic stress induced a reduction on the hippocampal expression of MRs and the NCAM-140 isoform, the levels of these molecules did not differ between stressed rats with and without spatial learning impairments; i.e., between HR- and LR-stressed rats, respectively. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the reduction of the hippocampal expression of NCAM-140 induced by psychosocial stress was particularly marked in HR stressed rats. However, the expression of GRs, NCAM-120 and NCAM-180 isoforms, and L1, was not affected by stress, regardless of the reactivity of the animals. Therefore, although we failed to find

  2. Stress: Neurobiology, consequences and management

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    Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress, both physical and psychological, is attracting increasing attention among neuroresearchers. In the last 20 decades, there has been a surge of interest in the research of stress-induced manifestations and this approach has resulted in the development of more appropriate animal models for stress-associated pathologies and its therapeutic management. These stress models are an easy and convenient method for inducing both psychological and physical stress. To understand the behavioral changes underlying major depression, molecular and cellular studies are required. Dysregulation of the stress system may lead to disturbances in growth and development, and may this may further lead to the development of various other psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the different types of stress and their neurobiology, including the different neurotransmitters affected. There are various complications associated with stress and their management through various pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. The use of herbs in the treatment of stress-related problems is practiced in both Indian and Western societies, and it has a vast market in terms of anti-stress medications and treatments. Non-pharmacological techniques such as meditation and yoga are nowadays becoming very popular as a stress-relieving therapy because of their greater effectiveness and no associated side effects. Therefore, this review highlights the changes under stress and stressor and their impact on different animal models in understanding the mechanisms of stress along with their effective and safe management.

  3. Neurobiological linkage between stress and sleep

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    Sanford, Larry D.; Wellman, Laurie L.

    2012-10-01

    Stress can have a significant negative impact on health and stress-induced alterations in sleep are implicated in both human sleep disorders and in psychiatric disorders in which sleep is affected. We have demonstrated that the amygdala, a region critical for regulating emotion, is a key modulator of sleep. Our current research is focused on understanding how the amygdala and stressful emotion affect sleep and on the role sleep plays in recovery from stress. We have implemented animal models to examine the how stress and stress-related memories impact sleep. Experiencing uncontrollable stress and reminders of uncontrollable stress can produce significant reductions in sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep. We are using these models to explore the neurobiology linking stress-related emotion and sleep. This research is relevant for sleep disorders such as insomnia and into mental disorders in which sleep is affected such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which is typically characterized by a prominent sleep disturbance in the aftermath of exposure to a psychologically traumatic event.

  4. The cognitive and neurobiological effects of daily stress in adolescents.

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    Rahdar, Ahrareh; Galván, Adriana

    2014-05-15

    Increased stress reactivity during adolescence coincides with maturation of cognitive abilities and development of the prefrontal cortex. Although the effects of early-life, chronic, and pervasive stress on cognition have been extensively explored across development, very little is known about the effects of naturalistic, daily stress on adolescent cognition. In this study, our goal was to use a naturalistic approach to determine whether participants' own stressful experiences from daily life impacted cognitive performance and associated neural correlates. Adolescent and adult participants provided daily ratings of stress and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) twice: once under a self-reported "high-stress" state and once under a self-reported "low-stress" state. While in the scanner, participants performed a response inhibition task. Behaviorally, all participants exhibited worse response inhibition under high, versus low, stress states, an effect that was significantly stronger in adolescents. At the neural level, there was a significant age by stress interaction, such that adolescents exhibited less recruitment of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during inhibition under high-stress versus low-stress; adults evinced the opposite activation pattern in DLPFC. These data suggest that the developing brain may be a more vulnerable target to the cognitive and neurobiological effects of daily stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low empathy-like behaviour in male mice associates with impaired sociability, emotional memory, physiological stress reactivity and variations in neurobiological regulations.

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    Giovanni Laviola

    Full Text Available Deficits in empathy have been proposed to constitute a hallmark of several psychiatric disturbances like conduct disorder, antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders. Limited sensitivity to punishment, shallow or deficient affect and reduced physiological reactivity to environmental stressors have been often reported to co-occur with limited empathy and contribute to the onset of antisocial phenotypes. Empathy in its simplest form (i.e. emotional contagion is addressed in preclinical models through the evaluation of the social transmission of emotional states: mice exposed to a painful stimulus display a higher response if in the presence of a familiar individual experiencing a higher degree of discomfort, than in isolation. In the present study, we investigated whether a reduction of emotional contagion can be considered a predictor of reduced sociality, sensitivity to punishment and physiological stress reactivity. To this aim, we first evaluated emotional contagion in a group of Balb/cJ mice and then discretised their values in four quartiles. The upper (i.e. Emotional Contagion Prone, ECP and the lower (i.e. Emotional Contagion Resistant, ECR quartiles constituted the experimental groups. Our results indicate that mice in the lower quartile are characterized by reduced sociability, impaired memory of negative events and dampened hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity to external stressors. Furthermore, in the absence of changes in oxytocin receptor density, we show that these mice exhibit elevated concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin and reduced density of BDNF receptors in behaviourally-relevant brain areas. Thus, not only do present results translate to the preclinical investigation of psychiatric disturbances, but also they can contribute to the study of emotional contagion in terms of its adaptive significance.

  6. The neurobiological consequences of early stress and childhood maltreatment.

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    Teicher, Martin H; Andersen, Susan L; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Navalta, Carryl P; Kim, Dennis M

    2003-01-01

    Early severe stress and maltreatment produces a cascade of neurobiological events that have the potential to cause enduring changes in brain development. These changes occur on multiple levels, from neurohumoral (especially the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) to structural and functional. The major structural consequences of early stress include reduced size of the mid-portions of the corpus callosum and attenuated development of the left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. Major functional consequences include increased electrical irritability in limbic structures and reduced functional activity of the cerebellar vermis. There are also gender differences in vulnerability and functional consequences. The neurobiological sequelae of early stress and maltreatment may play a significant role in the emergence of psychiatric disorders during development.

  7. [Stress and depression: clinical, neurobiological and genetical perspectives].

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    Claes, S J

    2009-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (mdd) can be elicited by various kinds of stress, such as negative life events, chronic stress and experiences of abuse early in life. These stressors interact with personality traits and with a genetic predisposition to depression, thereby bringing about mdd. Therefore, the neurobiology of depression cannot be separated from the neurobiology of stress system. A substantial number of publications have in fact demonstrated that mdd patients show abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (hpa) axis, which is a key element of the stress response. Such disturbances are exacerbated by chronic stress, early experiences of abuse and even prenatal exposure to stress. On the other hand, genetic variations can play a role in the hpa axis dysfunction and in vulnerability to depression. Evidence is emerging that certain genes are directly involved in the functioning of the hpa axis. Other genetic factors, not directly related to the hpa axis, are probably relevant as well, the best known example being the serotonin transporter gene.

  8. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

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    Sandi, Carmen; Pinelo-Nava, M. Teresa

    2007-01-01

    Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects) described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type) in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge) or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task), tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner), while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect). Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects. PMID:18060012

  9. Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sandi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a potent modulator of learning and memory processes. Although there have been a few attempts in the literature to explain the diversity of effects (including facilitating, impairing, and lack of effects described for the impact of stress on memory function according to single classification criterion, they have proved insufficient to explain the whole complexity of effects. Here, we review the literature in the field of stress and memory interactions according to five selected classifying factors (source of stress, stressor duration, stressor intensity, stressor timing with regard to memory phase, and learning type in an attempt to develop an integrative model to understand how stress affects memory function. Summarizing on those conditions in which there was enough information, we conclude that high stress levels, whether intrinsic (triggered by the cognitive challenge or extrinsic (induced by conditions completely unrelated to the cognitive task, tend to facilitate Pavlovian conditioning (in a linear-asymptotic manner, while being deleterious for spatial/explicit information processing (which with regard to intrinsic stress levels follows an inverted U-shape effect. Moreover, after reviewing the literature, we conclude that all selected factors are essential to develop an integrative model that defines the outcome of stress effects in memory processes. In parallel, we provide a brief review of the main neurobiological mechanisms proposed to account for the different effects of stress in memory function. Glucocorticoids were found as a common mediating mechanism for both the facilitating and impairing actions of stress in different memory processes and phases. Among the brain regions implicated, the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex were highlighted as critical for the mediation of stress effects.

  10. Neurobiological mechanisms supporting experience-dependent resistance to social stress.

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    Cooper, M A; Clinard, C T; Morrison, K E

    2015-04-16

    Humans and other animals show a remarkable capacity for resilience following traumatic, stressful events. Resilience is thought to be an active process related to coping with stress, although the cellular and molecular mechanisms that support active coping and stress resistance remain poorly understood. In this review, we focus on the neurobiological mechanisms by which environmental and social experiences promote stress resistance. In male Syrian hamsters, exposure to a brief social defeat stressor leads to increased avoidance of novel opponents, which we call conditioned defeat. Also, hamsters that have achieved dominant social status show reduced conditioned defeat as well as cellular and molecular changes in the neural circuits controlling the conditioned defeat response. We propose that experience-dependent neural plasticity occurs in the prelimbic (PL) cortex, infralimbic (IL) cortex, and ventral medial amygdala (vMeA) during the maintenance of dominance relationships, and that adaptations in these neural circuits support stress resistance in dominant individuals. Overall, behavioral treatments that promote success in competitive interactions may represent valuable interventions for instilling resilience. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress, stress hormones, and the behavioral neurobiology of brain plasticity

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    Bohus, B; Luiten, PGM; Beldhuis, HJA; vanderZee, EA; Roozendaal, B; Douma, B; Ishikawa, K; McGaugh, JL; Sakata, H

    1996-01-01

    Efforts have long been directed toward studying stress-induced alterations via stress hormones on brain excitability and synaptic plasticity as inferred from combined behavioral, electrophysiological, and immunohistochemical cellular/molecular observations. Kindling of the brain in the rat serves as

  12. Oxytocin and Stress-related Disorders: Neurobiological Mechanisms and Treatment Opportunities

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    Sippel, Lauren M.; Allington, Casey E.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Mayes, Linda C.; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Novel pharmacotherapies that improve outcomes for individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders are needed. The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is a promising candidate given its influence on the social–emotional brain. In this review, we present an overview of evidence supporting OT’s utility for treating major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. We first discuss endogenous OT, which research suggests is not yet a reliable biomarker of stress-related disorders. Second, we review effects of intranasal (IN) OT on processes relevant to stress-related disorders in healthy populations (anhedonia, reward processing, psychosocial stress reactivity, fear/anxiety, and social behavior) and their neurobiological mechanisms (e.g., the salience network and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis). Third, we present the sparse but promising findings from clinical populations, followed by discussion of critical moderating variables to consider in the service of maximizing the therapeutic potential of OT (e.g., patient sex and child maltreatment). We also identify heterogeneous findings and limitations of existing research, including reliance on single-dose studies in psychiatrically healthy samples and unanswered questions regarding the effectiveness of IN drug delivery and dosing schedules. Well-controlled multidose studies including women and measures of potentially moderating variables are sorely needed and would inform our understanding of the utility of OT for preventing and treating stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:28649672

  13. Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socioemotional Behavior and School Readiness

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    Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and…

  14. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Sandi Carmen; Haller József

    2015-01-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high level or persistent stress individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours — including social detachment and violence — is also modulated by early life adversity; however the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural functional and molecular chang...

  15. Stress and the social brain: behavioural effects and neurobiological mechanisms.

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    Sandi, Carmen; Haller, József

    2015-05-01

    Stress often affects our social lives. When undergoing high-level or persistent stress, individuals frequently retract from social interactions and become irritable and hostile. Predisposition to antisocial behaviours - including social detachment and violence - is also modulated by early life adversity; however, the effects of early life stress depend on the timing of exposure and genetic factors. Research in animals and humans has revealed some of the structural, functional and molecular changes in the brain that underlie the effects of stress on social behaviour. Findings in this emerging field will have implications both for the clinic and for society.

  16. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic

  17. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

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    Daniel A. Hackman; Laura M. Betancourt; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hallam eHurt; Farah, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African–American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Soci...

  18. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

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    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  19. Stress Reactivity in Male Undergraduates.

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    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Fleming, Richard K.

    1989-01-01

    Measured heart rate reactivity of typical sample of male undergraduates. Found cardiac reactivity of undergraduate males in response to a stressor task was not a function of success at or familiarity with task but was more likely an outcome of genetic factors. (Author/ABL)

  20. Blunted stress reactivity in chronic cannabis users.

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    Cuttler, Carrie; Spradlin, Alexander; Nusbaum, Amy T; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2017-08-01

    One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress manipulation on subjective stress and salivary cortisol in chronic cannabis users compared to non-users. Forty cannabis users and 42 non-users were randomly assigned to complete either the stress or no stress conditions of the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST). The stress condition of the MAST manipulates both physiological (placing hand in ice bath) and psychosocial stress (performing math under conditions of social evaluation). Participants gave baseline subjective stress ratings before, during, and after the stress manipulation. Cortisol was measured from saliva samples obtained before and after the stress manipulation. Further, cannabis cravings and symptoms of withdrawal were measured. Subjective stress ratings and cortisol levels were significantly higher in non-users in the stress condition relative to non-users in the no stress condition. In contrast, cannabis users demonstrated blunted stress reactivity; specifically, they showed no increase in cortisol and a significantly smaller increase in subjective stress ratings. The stress manipulation had no impact on cannabis users' self-reported cravings or withdrawal symptoms. Chronic cannabis use is associated with blunted stress reactivity. Future research is needed to determine whether this helps to confer resiliency or vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as well as the mechanisms underlying this effect.

  1. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

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    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  2. Stress reactivity and emotion in premenstrual syndrome

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    Liu Q

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Qing Liu,1 Yongshun Wang,2 Cornelis Hermanus van Heck,3 Wei Qiao4 1Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical PET Center, The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 2School of Physical Education and Sport, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China; 3DCC, Donders Institute for Neuroscience and Neurocognition, Arnhem, the Netherlands; 4Department of Physical Education, Xiamen Institute of Technology, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Background: Hormone level fluctuation across the menstrual cycle causes women to experience negative emotions and also affects their mood regulation and stress sensitivity. However, the stress reactivity and emotional variations in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS, who are especially sensitive to the variations in hormone cycles, have not been explained. Methods: The present study used an electroencephalogram (EEG stress evaluation test, a physiology stress evaluation test, and the positive affect and negative affect scale (PANAS to evaluate the stress reactivity pattern and emotional state of women with PMS. Results: The results showed that women with PMS had higher negative affect and lower positive affect compared with controls. Moreover, under stressful conditions, the women with PMS had a higher alpha activity and a lower respiration rate than the controls. The differences in stress reactivity and emotional states between women with PMS and controls were based on a covariant analysis with menstrual cycle (luteal and follicular phases as the covariate. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that, compared with controls, women suffering from PMS have a continuous abnormality in emotional state and stress reactivity, which was independent of the menstrual cycle. Keywords: premenstrual syndrome, stress reactivity, emotion, EEG stress evaluation test, physiology stress evaluation test

  3. Genetic influences on cardiovascular stress reactivity

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    Wu, Ting; Snieder, Harold; de Geus, Eco

    Individual differences in the cardiovascular response to stress play a central role in the reactivity hypothesis linking frequent exposure to psychosocial stress to adverse outcomes in cardiovascular health. To assess the importance of genetic factors, a meta-analysis was performed on all published

  4. Parental buffering of fear and stress neurobiology: Reviewing parallels across rodent, monkey, and human models.

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    Gunnar, Megan R; Hostinar, Camelia E; Sanchez, Mar M; Tottenham, Nim; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    It has been long recognized that parents exert profound influences on child development. Dating back to at least the seventeenth-century Enlightenment, the ability for parents to shape child behavior in an enduring way has been noted. Twentieth-century scholars developed theories to explain how parenting histories influence psychological development, and since that time, the number of scientific publications on parenting influences in both human and nonhuman animal fields has grown at an exponential rate, reaching numbers in the thousands by 2015. This special issue describes a symposium delivered by Megan Gunnar, Regina Sullivan, Mar Sanchez, and Nim Tottenham in the Fall of 2014 at the Society for Social Neuroscience. The goal of the symposium was to describe the emerging knowledge on neurobiological mechanisms that mediate parent-offspring interactions across three different species: rodent, monkey, and human. The talks were aimed at designing testable models of parenting effects on the development of emotional and stress regulation. Specifically, the symposium aimed at characterizing the special modulatory (buffering) effects of parental cues on fear- and stress-relevant neurobiology and behaviors of the offspring and to discuss examples of impaired buffering when the parent-infant relationship is disrupted.

  5. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

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    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  6. "More than skin deep": stress neurobiology and mental health consequences of racial discrimination.

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    Berger, Maximus; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority groups across the world face a complex set of adverse social and psychological challenges linked to their minority status, often involving racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is increasingly recognized as an important contributing factor to health disparities among non-dominant ethnic minorities. A growing body of literature has recognized these health disparities and has investigated the relationship between racial discrimination and poor health outcomes. Chronically elevated cortisol levels and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis appear to mediate effects of racial discrimination on allostatic load and disease. Racial discrimination seems to converge on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and may impair the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hence showing substantial similarities to chronic social stress. This review provides a summary of recent literature on hormonal and neural effects of racial discrimination and a synthesis of potential neurobiological pathways by which discrimination affects mental health.

  7. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

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    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. Neurobiology of stress, depression, and rapid acting antidepressants: remodeling synaptic connections.

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    Duman, Ronald S

    2014-04-01

    Stress and depression are associated with atrophy and loss of neurons in limbic and cortical brain regions that could contribute to the symptoms of depression. Typical monoamine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants have only modest efficacy and require long-term treatment, and are only weakly effective in blocking or reversing these structural changes caused by stress. Recent findings demonstrate that ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant actions in difficult to treat depressed patients. In addition, preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine rapidly increases synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex by increasing glutamate signaling and activation of pathways that control the synthesis of synaptic proteins. Moreover, ketamine rapidly reverses the synaptic deficits caused by exposure to chronic stress in rodent models. Studies of the signaling mechanisms underlying the actions of ketamine have provided novel approaches and targets for new rapid acting antidepressants with decreased side effects, as well as a better understanding of the neurobiology of stress, depression, and treatment response. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans.

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    Houtepen, Lotte C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M

    2016-03-21

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability.

  10. Animal Models of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Recent Neurobiological Insights

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    Whitaker, Annie M.; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Edwards, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by the intrusive re-experiencing of past trauma, avoidant behavior, enhanced fear, and hyperarousal following a traumatic event in vulnerable populations. Preclinical animal models do not replicate the human condition in its entirety, but seek to mimic symptoms or endophenotypes associated with PTSD. Although many models of traumatic stress exist, few adequately capture the complex nature of the disorder and the observed individual variability in susceptibility of humans to develop PTSD. In addition, various types of stressors may produce different molecular neuroadaptations that likely contribute to the various behavioral disruptions produced by each model, although certain consistent neurobiological themes related to PTSD have emerged. For example, animal models report traumatic stress- and trauma reminder-induced alterations in neuronal activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, in agreement with the human PTSD literature. Models have also provided a conceptual framework for the often observed combination of PTSD and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol use disorder (AUD). Future studies will continue to refine preclinical PTSD models in hopes of capitalizing on their potential to deliver new and more efficacious treatments for PTSD and associated psychiatric disorders. PMID:25083568

  11. Defeating the fear: new insights into the neurobiology of stress susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vaishnav

    2014-11-01

    The psychopathological impact of emotional stress on a specific individual varies markedly: while most escape the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or major depression, a select group of individuals demonstrate a vulnerability to succumb to these conditions. The past decade has witnessed an explosion in animal research into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that govern both vulnerability and resilience to such stressors. In the May 2014 issue, Chou and colleagues employ the mouse social defeat model of chronic stress to demonstrate that defeated susceptible mice display an exaggerated conditioned fear response associated with more pronounced autonomic changes. These physiological alterations were found to be mediated via local increases in the levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the basolateral amygdala and could be inhibited by the systemic administration of a beta adrenergic antagonist. This mini-review critically examines this manuscript's new mechanistic insights in light of previous results employing similar approaches. The strengths and limitations of the social defeat model, as well as the relevance of these findings to neurologic illness are discussed briefly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Neurobiological aspects of reactive and proactive violence in antisocial personality disorder and "psychopathy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Strüber, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive-reactive violent offenders show increased autonomic activity in response to negative emotional and threatening stimuli. A volume reduction and/or activity decrease of frontal brain structures associated with impulse control and the regulation of fear and anger are likewise found in combination with a fear-related hyperactivity of the amygdala. In addition, impulsive aggression is facilitated by variants of gene polymorphisms influencing the serotonergic system. Conversely, proactive-instrumental violent offender with psychopathy, who are characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, demonstrate an autonomic hypo-responsivity as well as dysfunctions of the amygdala and of cortical regions related to empathic and social behavior. Developmentally, aggressive children exhibit temperamental differences from early childhood on that are characteristic of a developmental pathway towards either reactive or proactive violence later in life. Exposure to negative environmental factors like ineffective parenting or childhood maltreatment has been related to a heightened risk for developing reactive violence. A developmental trajectory of proactive violence, however, has been related to a mostly genetically determined callous unemotional temperament of the child that disrupts the parental socialization efforts during childhood.

  13. Role of addiction and stress neurobiology on food intake and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2017-05-04

    The US remains at the forefront of a global obesity epidemic with a significant negative impact on public health. While it is well known that a balance between energy intake and expenditure is homeostatically regulated to control weight, growing evidence points to multifactorial social, neurobehavioral and metabolic determinants of food intake that influence obesity risk. This review presents factors such as the ubiquitous presence of rewarding foods in the environment and increased salience of such foods that stimulate brain reward motivation and stress circuits to influence eating behaviors. These rewarding foods via conditioned and reinforcing effects stimulate not only metabolic, but also stress hormones, that, in turn, hijack the brain emotional (limbic) and motivational (striatal) pathways, to promote food craving and excessive food intake. Furthermore, the impact of high levels of stress and trauma and altered metabolic environment (e.g. higher weight, altered insulin sensitivity) on prefrontal cortical self-control processes that regulate emotional, motivational and visceral homeostatic mechanisms of food intake and obesity risk are also discussed. A heuristic framework is presented in which the interactive dynamic effects of neurobehavioral adaptations in metabolic, motivation and stress neurobiology may further support food craving, excessive food intake and weight gain in a complex feed-forward manner. Implications of such adaptations in brain addictive-motivational and stress pathways and their effects on excessive food intake and weight gain are discussed to highlight key questions that requires future research attention in order to better understand and address the growing obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered stress system reactivity after pediatric injury: Relation with post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Cox, Charles S; Granger, Douglas A; Duque, Gerardo; Swank, Paul R

    2017-10-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Injured children are at high risk for developing alterations in stress response systems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that may compromise long-term physical and psychological health. In a prospective, observational cohort study, we examined individual differences in, and correlates of, stress-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; salivary cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (ANS; salivary alpha amylase, sAA) following pediatric injury. Participants were 8-15 years of age and hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI; n=55; M age=13.9 yrs; 40 males) or extracranial injury (EI; n=29; M age 12.3 yrs, 20 males) following vehicular accidents. Six months post-injury, saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test and later assayed for cortisol and sAA. Relative to a healthy non-injured comparison group (n=33; M age=12.5 yrs, 16 males), injured children (ages 8-12 years), but not adolescents (ages 13-15 yrs), had higher cortisol levels; regardless of age, injured participants showed dampened cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat. Compared to participants with EI, children with TBI had elevated cortisol and adolescents had elevated sAA. With respect to PTSS, individual differences in sAA were negatively correlated with avoidance in the TBI group and positively correlated with emotional numbing within the EI group. Importantly, psychological and neurobiological sequelae were weakly related to injury severity. Given the high prevalence of pediatric injury, these sequelae affect many children and represent a significant public health concern. Consequently, surveillance of post-traumatic sequelae should include the full spectrum of injury severity. Monitoring the activity, reactivity, and regulation of biological systems sensitive to environmental insults may advance our understanding of individual differences in sequelae and adaptation

  15. Personality may influence reactivity to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible mechanisms behind psychophysiological hyperreactivity may be located at a cognitive-emotional level. Several personality traits have been associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity. Subjects with white coat hypertension, which may constitute a kind of hyperreactivity, are found to suppress their emotions and adapt to the surroundings to a larger extent than controls. We hypothesized in this study that a stress reactivity is related to personality, and that b responses to cold pressor test (CPT and mental stress test (MST are associated with different personality traits. Methods 87 men were selected from the 1st, 50th and 99th percentile of a blood pressure screening. Cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to MST and CPT were recorded. Fifteen personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scale of Personality. Possible independent explanatory predictors for cardiovascular and catecholamine variables at baseline and during stress were analyzed in multiple linear regression analyses using a stepwise forward procedure. Results Multiple regression analyses showed that muscular tension (β = 0.298, p = 0.004, irritability (β = 0.282, p = 0.016, detachment (β = 0.272, p = 0.017, psychasthenia (β = 0.234, p = 0.031 and somatic anxiety (β = 0.225, p = 0.046 were significant explanatory variables of reactivity to CPT. During MST, verbal aggression (β = -0.252, 0.031 and detachment (β = 0.253, p = 0.044 were significant predictors of norepinephrine and diastolic blood pressure response, respectively. Based on KSP-trait quartiles, delta (Δ systolic (p = 0.025 and Δ diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003 during MST were related to detachment score, with the highest reactivity in the 4th quartile, while Δ norepinephrine was significantly related to muscular tension (p = 0.033. Δ systolic and Δ diastolic blood pressure responses to CPT were dependent on detachment (p = 0.049 and p = 0.011, respectively

  16. Personality may influence reactivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaa, Arnljot; Ekeberg, Oivind; Kjeldsen, Sverre Erik; Rostrup, Morten

    2007-03-01

    Possible mechanisms behind psychophysiological hyperreactivity may be located at a cognitive-emotional level. Several personality traits have been associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity. Subjects with white coat hypertension, which may constitute a kind of hyperreactivity, are found to suppress their emotions and adapt to the surroundings to a larger extent than controls.We hypothesized in this study that a) stress reactivity is related to personality, and that b) responses to cold pressor test (CPT) and mental stress test (MST) are associated with different personality traits. 87 men were selected from the 1st, 50th and 99th percentile of a blood pressure screening. Cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to MST and CPT were recorded. Fifteen personality traits were assessed using the Karolinska Scale of Personality. Possible independent explanatory predictors for cardiovascular and catecholamine variables at baseline and during stress were analyzed in multiple linear regression analyses using a stepwise forward procedure. Multiple regression analyses showed that muscular tension (beta = 0.298, p = 0.004), irritability (beta = 0.282, p = 0.016), detachment (beta = 0.272, p = 0.017), psychasthenia (beta = 0.234, p = 0.031) and somatic anxiety (beta = 0.225, p = 0.046) were significant explanatory variables of reactivity to CPT. During MST, verbal aggression (beta = -0.252, 0.031) and detachment (beta = 0.253, p = 0.044) were significant predictors of norepinephrine and diastolic blood pressure response, respectively.Based on KSP-trait quartiles, delta (Delta) systolic (p = 0.025) and Delta diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003) during MST were related to detachment score, with the highest reactivity in the 4th quartile, while Delta norepinephrine was significantly related to muscular tension (p = 0.033). Delta systolic and Delta diastolic blood pressure responses to CPT were dependent on detachment (p = 0.049 and p = 0.011, respectively) and

  17. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; de Kloet, Carien; Wilker, Sarah; El-Hage, Wissam; Schäfer, Ingo; Kleim, Birgit; Schmahl, Christian; van Zuiden, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force "Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress" of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS). The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes' approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses.

  18. The neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of stress. Implications for post-traumatic stress disorder from a basic science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bruce S

    2002-06-01

    Stress is a condition of the mind and a factor in the expression of disease that differs among individuals. In post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic events can create a long-lasting state of physiologic reactivity that amplifies and exacerbates the effects of daily life events. The elevated activities of physiologic systems lead to wear and tear, called "allostatic load." It reflects not only the impact of life experiences but also of genes, individual life-style habits (e.g., diet, exercise, and substance abuse), and developmental experiences that set life-long patterns of behavior and physiologic reactivity. Hormones associated with stress and allostatic load protect the body in the short run and promote adaptation, but in the long run allostatic load causes changes in the body that lead to disease.

  19. Investigating biological traces of traumatic stress in changing societies: challenges and directions from the ESTSS Task Force on Neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Thomaes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic stress can have severe consequences for both mental and physical health. Furthermore, both psychological and biological traces of trauma increase as a function of accumulating traumatic experiences. Neurobiological research may aid in limiting the impact of traumatic stress, by leading to advances in preventive and treatment interventions. To promote the possibility for clinical implementation of novel research findings, this brief review describes timely conceptual and methodological challenges and directions in neurobiological trauma research on behalf of the Task Force “Neurobiology of Traumatic Stress” of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS. The most important conceptual challenges are the heterogeneity of disorders and existence of subtypes across diagnostic categories: differential latent profiles and trajectories regarding symptom expression and neural correlates are being unraveled; however, similar latent classes’ approaches for treatment response and neurobiological data remain scarce thus far. The key to improving the efficacy of currently available preventive interventions and treatments for trauma-related disorders lies in a better understanding and characterization of individual differences in response to trauma and interventions. This could lead to personalized treatment strategies for trauma-related disorders, based on objective information indicating whether individuals are expected to benefit from them. The most important methodological challenge identified here is the need for large consortia and meta-analyses or, rather, mega-analyses on existent data as a first step. In addition, large multicenter studies, combining novel methods for repeated sampling with more advanced statistical modeling techniques, such as machine learning, should aim to translate identified disease mechanisms into molecular blood-based biomarker combinations to predict disorder vulnerability and treatment responses.

  20. Stress Reactivity and Corticolimbic Response to Emotional Faces in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Chaplin, Tara M.; Wang, Fei; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a critical period in the development of lifelong patterns of responding to stress. Understanding underpinnings of variations in stress reactivity in adolescents is important, as adolescents with altered stress reactivity are vulnerable to negative risk-taking behaviors including substance use, and have increased lifelong…

  1. The Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale for adolescent athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Darren; Kavanagh, Emma J.; Polman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual differences play a significant role in the outcomes experienced by adolescent athletes, in what is a highly stressful period of their development. Stress reactivity is a stable individual difference underlying the broad variability in responses to stress, which has received very little attention within sport. Conventional physiological measures of reactivity can be time-consuming, costly, and invasive; therefore, this study aimed to adapt a self-report measure of Perceived Stress R...

  2. Effects of prenatal restraint stress on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and related behavioural and neurobiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    2007-08-01

    Chronic hyper-activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis is associated with the suppression of reproductive, growth, thyroid and immune functions that may lead to various pathological states. Although many individuals experiencing stressful events do not develop pathologies, stress seems to be a provoking factor in those individuals with particular vulnerability, determined by genetic factors or earlier experience. Exposure of the developing brain to severe and/or prolonged stress may result in hyper-activity of the stress system, defective glucocorticoids-negative feedback, altered cognition, novelty seeking, increased vulnerability to addictive behaviour, and mood-related disorders. Therefore, stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behaviour of the developing individual. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioural alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, disruption of circadian rhythms and altered neuroplasticity. Chronic treatments with antidepressants at adulthood have proven high predictive validity of the PRS rat as animal model of depression and, reinforce the idea of the usefulness of the PRS rat as an interesting animal model for the design and testing of new pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of stress-related disorders.

  3. Stress, depression, and cardiovascular dysregulation: A review of neurobiological mechanisms and the integration of research from preclinical disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Angela J.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    A bidirectional association between mood disorders such as depression, and cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, has been described; however, the precise neurobiological mechanisms that underlie these associations have not been fully elucidated. This review is focused on the neurobiological processes and mediators that are common to both mood and cardiovascular disorders, with an emphasis on the role of exogenous stressors in addition to: (a) neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes involving dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, (b) immune alterations including activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, (c) autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation including increased sympathetic drive, withdrawal of parasympathetic tone, cardiac rate and rhythm disturbances, and altered baroreceptor reflex function, (d) central neurotransmitter system dysfunction including dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin, and (e) behavioral changes including fatigue and physical inactivity. We also focus specifically on experimental investigations with preclinical disease models, conducted to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the link between mood disorders and cardiovascular disease. These include: (a) the chronic mild stress model of depression, (b) a model of congestive heart failure, a model of cardiovascular deconditioning, (d) pharmacological manipulations of body fluid and sodium balance, and (e) pharmacological manipulations of the central serotonergic system. In combination with the extensive literature describing findings from human research, the investigation of mechanisms underlying mood and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and can promote the development of better treatments and interventions for individuals with these co

  4. Psychophysiological Stress Reactivity Relationships across the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen C. Olson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While evidence suggests that women exhibit psychophysiological differences in stress reactivity across the menstrual cycle, the relationships among psychological and physiological stress reactivity states are not well understood. Healthy, normally cycling women (N=44 participated in two counterbalanced laboratory sessions during the follicular and luteal phases where heart rate and subjective stress were assessed in response to stressors. There were no differences in the magnitudes of psychophysiological stress responses across the cycle. Psychological and physiological states were largely unrelated in the follicular phase but interrelationships were found in the luteal phase and these relationships were influenced by autonomic perception and trait anxiety. For women with high trait anxiety, autonomic perception appeared to buffer psychological and physiological stress reactivity during the luteal phase, suggesting that autonomic perception may be a protective factor for more anxious women during times of acute stress.

  5. Maternal prenatal stress and infant emotional reactivity six months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvi, Saara; Karlsson, Linnea; Bridgett, David J; Korja, Riikka; Huizink, Anja C; Kataja, Eeva-Leena; Karlsson, Hasse

    2016-07-15

    Maternal prenatal stress has been related to infant negative affect. However, it is still unclear how different sources of maternal prenatal stress such as depressive, anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety symptoms are associated with reactivity outcomes. This study aimed to test the associations between different sources of maternal prenatal stress and the aspects of infant emotional reactivity at six months. Our study population (n=282) was drawn from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study. Prenatal stress was measured by questionnaires on maternal depression, general anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety at three time points across pregnancy (gwk 14, 24, 34). Based on the symptom scores, the sample was divided into mothers with high stress during pregnancy (n=110) and mothers with low stress during pregnancy (n=172). Mother-reported infant emotional reactivity and its subscales were measured six months postpartum. After controlling for background variables and maternal postnatal symptoms, overall negative emotional reactivity (β=0.20, ppredictors were found for infant positive reactivity after adjusting for confounders. Mother reports of both maternal symptoms and infant reactivity were used, which might increase the risk of reporting bias. The findings suggest that mothers experiencing stress should be provided intervention during pregnancy, and that screening should have a particular focus on pregnancy-related worries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, and performance during this developmental period. In this study, 79 adolescent participants reported on stress appraisals before and after a Trier Social Stress Test in which they performed a speech task. Physiological stress reactivity was defined by changes in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from a baseline rest period to the speech task, and performance on the speech was coded using an objective rating system. We observed in adolescents only two relationships found in past adult research on the BPS model variables: (1) pre-task stress appraisal predicted post-task stress appraisal and (2) performance predicted post-task stress appraisal. Physiological reactivity during the speech was unrelated to pre- and post-task stress appraisals and to performance. We conclude that the lack of association between post-task stress appraisal and physiological stress reactivity suggests that adolescents might have low self-awareness of physiological emotional arousal. Our findings further suggest that adolescent stress appraisals are based largely on their performance during stressful situations. Developmental implications of this potential lack of awareness of one’s physiological and emotional state during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24491123

  7. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-03-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, and performance during this developmental period. In this study, 79 adolescent participants reported on stress appraisals before and after a Trier Social Stress Test in which they performed a speech task. Physiological stress reactivity was defined by changes in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from a baseline rest period to the speech task, and performance on the speech was coded using an objective rating system. We observed in adolescents only two relationships found in past adult research on the BPS model variables: (1) pre-task stress appraisal predicted post-task stress appraisal and (2) performance predicted post-task stress appraisal. Physiological reactivity during the speech was unrelated to pre- and post-task stress appraisals and to performance. We conclude that the lack of association between post-task stress appraisal and physiological stress reactivity suggests that adolescents might have low self-awareness of physiological emotional arousal. Our findings further suggest that adolescent stress appraisals are based largely on their performance during stressful situations. Developmental implications of this potential lack of awareness of one's physiological and emotional state during adolescence are discussed.

  8. Cerebrovascular mental stress reactivity is impaired in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqvi Tasneem Z

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachial artery reactivity in response to shear stress is altered in subjects with hypertension. Since endothelial dysfunction is generalized, we hypothesized that carotid artery (CA reactivity would also be altered in hypertension. Purpose To compare (CA endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to mental stress in normal and hypertensive subjects. Methods We evaluated CA reactivity to mental stress in 10 young healthy human volunteers (aged 23 ± 4 years, 20 older healthy volunteers (aged 49 ± 11 years and in 28 patients with essential hypertension (aged 51 ± 13 years. In 10 healthy volunteers and 12 hypertensive subjects, middle cerebral artery (MCA PW transcranial Doppler was performed before and 3 minutes after mental stress. Results Mental stress by Stroop color word conflict, math or anger recall tests caused CA vasodilation in young healthy subjects (0.61 ± 0.06 to 0.65 ± 0.07 cm, p Conclusion Mental stress produces CA vasodilation and is accompanied by an increase in CA and MCA blood flow in healthy subjects. This mental stress induced CA vasodilation and flow reserve is attenuated in subjects with hypertension and may reflect cerebral vascular endothelial dysfunction. Assessment of mental stress induced CA reactivity by ultrasound is a novel method for assessing the impact of hypertension on cerebrovascular endothelial function and blood flow reserve.

  9. Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n = 15 or low-character-strength (n = 15 groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

  10. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Charles B

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest that adverse early-life experiences have a profound effect on the developing brain. Neurobiological changes that occur in response to untoward early-life stress can lead to lifelong psychiatric sequelae. Children who are exposed to sexual or physical abuse or the death of a parent are at higher risk for development of depressive and anxiety disorders later in life. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that repeated early-life stress leads to alterations in central neurobiological systems, particularly in the corticotropin-releasing factor system, leading to increased responsiveness to stress. Clearly, exposure to early-life stressors leads to neurobiological changes that increase the risk of psychopathology in both children and adults. Identification of the neurobiological substrates that are affected by adverse experiences in early life should lead to the development of more effective treatments for these disorders. The preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the consequences of early-life stress are reviewed.

  12. The role of anxiety in cortisol stress response and cortisol recovery in boys with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorl, Jantiene; van Rijn, S.; de Wied, M.; van Goozen, S.H.M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Children with antisocial and aggressive behaviors have been found to show abnormal neurobiological responses to stress, specifically impaired cortisol stress reactivity. The role of individual characteristics, such as comorbid anxiety, in the stress response is far less studied. Furthermore, this

  13. Stress, Autonomic Reactivity and Blood Pressure among Undergraduate Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khaliq

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Medical training is highly stressful particularly for those who are beginning their medical education. The present study was undertaken to find out the level of stress, hypertension and its etiological factors among undergraduate medical students. METHOD: One hundred and seventeen undergraduate medical students between 17-21 years of age got examined for blood pressure and stress level. Twelve hypertensives selected from the above subjects and twenty normotensives underwent cold pressure test to assess autonomic reactivity to laboratory induced stress. RESULTS: 10.25% of the subjects were found to be hypertensive and 6.83% pre hypertensive. On the stress scale 53% had mild stress, 7% showed moderate stress while none had stress as a major problem. There was no correlation between BP and stress score. On CPT, BP increased significantly in both the hypertensive and normotensive group but came back to basal levels within 5 minutes indicating normal autonomic response. Rise of BP was higher in hypertensive group. The diastolic and mean BP increased significantly on CPT in subjects having family history of hypertension. The subjects taking more of junk and oily foods had a higher systolic BP. Forty percent of normotensive subjects had more than 20 mm Hg rise in systolic BP on CPT. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents must be routinely screened to detect asymptomatic hypertension. Advice on risk factor modification by appropriate lifestyle changes may prevent long term effects of hypertension on target organs. Keywords: autonomic reactivity, blood pressure, cold pressor test, medical students, stress.

  14. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-08-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective

  15. Sleep problems predict cortisol reactivity to stress in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Tyson, Anna; Turan, Bulent; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the role of sleep problems and sleep duration on stress-related HPA axis reactivity among urban, low income adolescents. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36 years; 50% male; 95% African American) and their parents provided information on adolescents' sleep problems and sleep quantity. Adolescents completed a standardized social stress test in the laboratory (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Saliva samples collected before and after the TSST yielded measures of cortisol pre-test, 15 min post-test, and 55 min post-test, as well as overall cortisol secretion and its increase (AUCG and AUCI). More sleep problems and longer sleep duration predicted higher cortisol reactivity to the TSST, particularly among females. Self-reports of sleep were more consistently related to stress-related cortisol reactivity than parent reports. Sleep problems and longer sleep duration may place adolescents at risk for HPA axis hyper-reactivity to stress, contributing to academic, behavioral and health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between general intelligence, emotional intelligence, stress levels and stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna

    2012-01-01

    Background Stressful life events and daily life stresses have both deleterious and cumulative effects on human body. In several studies, stress has been shown to affect various parameter of higher mental function like attention, concentration, learning and memory. Purpose Present study was designed to explore the relationship among GI level, EI level, psychological stress levels and acute stress reactivity in young normal healthy subjects. Method The study was conducted on thirty four healthy...

  17. Post-traumatic stress disorder: neurobiology and effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Göran

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new psychotherapy method, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to study the biological reactions in PTSD during a script-driven symptom provocation. PTSD is a disorder that may occur after a major psychological trauma. It is characterised by the phenomenon of reliving, bringing the person back to the sensations and reactions that prevailed during the traumat...

  18. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    To prospectively assess sleep reactivity as a diathesis of insomnia, and to delineate the interaction between this diathesis and naturalistic stress in the development of insomnia among normal sleepers. Longitudinal. Community-based. 2,316 adults from the Evolution of Pathways to Insomnia Cohort (EPIC) with no history of insomnia or depression (46.8 ± 13.2 y; 60% female). None. Participants reported the number of stressful events they encountered at baseline (Time 1), as well as the level of cognitive intrusion they experienced in response to each stressor. Stressful events (OR = 1.13; P insomnia one year hence (Time 2). Intrusion mediated the effects of stressful events on risk for insomnia (P insomnia (OR = 1.78; P insomnia as a function of intrusion was significantly higher in individuals with high sleep reactivity. Trait sleep reactivity also constituted a significant risk for depression (OR = 1.67; P Insomnia at Time 2 significantly mediated this effect (P insomnia, and that it triggers insomnia by exacerbating the effects of stress-induced intrusion. Sleep reactivity is also a precipitant of depression, as mediated by insomnia. These findings support the stress-diathesis model of insomnia, while highlighting sleep reactivity as an important diathesis. Drake CL, Pillai V, Roth T. Stress and sleep reactivity: a prospective investigation of the stress-diathesis model of insomnia.

  19. Relationship between general intelligence, emotional intelligence, stress levels and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna

    2012-07-01

    Stressful life events and daily life stresses have both deleterious and cumulative effects on human body. In several studies, stress has been shown to affect various parameter of higher mental function like attention, concentration, learning and memory. Present study was designed to explore the relationship among GI level, EI level, psychological stress levels and acute stress reactivity in young normal healthy subjects. The study was conducted on thirty four healthy male student volunteers to study a) acute stress reactivity in subjects with varying levels of General Intelligence (GI) and Emotional Intelligence (EI) and b) correlation between GI, EI, acute stress and perceived stress. Baseline GI and EI and acute stress and perceived stress scores were measured by standard assessment scales. Using median value of GI and EI scores as cutoff values, subjects were categorized into four groups. Among different GI-EI groups, acute stress reactivity was similar but salivary Cortisol (especially post stressor level) and perceived stress level was a differentiating factor. High level of EI was associated inversely with acute and chronic perceived stress level. Significant correlation was found between acute and chronic perceived stress levels. Level of general intelligence showed no relation to acute or chronic stress levels as well as acute stress reactivity. The differences in various groups of GI and EI had no effect on the baseline and post stress performance on Sternberg memory test and all the three conditions of Stroop test. In conclusion emotional intelligence as an attribute is better suited to handle day to day acute stress and chronic perceived stress.

  20. Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression: Stress Exposure and Reactivity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Mermelstein, Robin; Roesch, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Stress exposure and reactivity models were examined as explanations for why girls exhibit greater levels of depressive symptoms than boys. In a multiwave, longitudinal design, adolescents' depressive symptoms, alcohol usage, and occurrence of stressors were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months later (N=538; 54.5% female; ages 13-18, average…

  1. The Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale: Measurement Invariance, Stability, and Validity in Three Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotz, Wolff; Yim, Ilona S.; Zoccola, Peggy M.; Jansen, Lars; Schulz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that individual differences in stress reactivity contribute to the risk for stress-related disease. However, the assessment of stress reactivity remains challenging, and there is a relative lack of questionnaires reliably assessing this construct. We here present the Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale (PSRS), a…

  2. Blunted neuroendocrine stress reactivity in young women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Het, Serkan; Vocks, Silja; Wolf, Jutta M; Hammelstein, Philipp; Herpertz, Stephan; Wolf, Oliver T

    2015-03-01

    Stress is known to influence risk and progression of eating disorders (EDs). However, studies investigating physiological and psychological stress responses under laboratory conditions in patients with Anorexia nervosa or Bulimia nervosa are scarce and often produce conflicting findings. We therefore aimed to compare the neuroendocrine and affective stress response in ED inpatients and healthy controls. Twenty-eight female inpatients with Anorexia or Bulimia nervosa and 26 healthy women were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were assessed before as well as repeatedly after stress exposure, while heart rate and heart rate variability were determined before and during the TSST. Negative affective state was assessed at baseline and post-TSST. Compared to healthy controls, ED patients showed blunted cortisol stress responses combined with overall attenuated sAA levels. The latter was reflected in generally enhanced parasympathetic activity indicated by lower heart rate and stronger high-frequency heart rate variability throughout the TSST. Although patients reported more negative affect overall, they did not differ in their affective stress response. In summary, patients suffering from eating disorders show a blunted HPA axis reactivity to stress exposure and a generally reduced sympathetic/exaggerated parasympathetic nervous system activity. This combination may contribute to elevated health risks seen in eating disorder patients, such as enhanced inflammatory activity, and thus provide insight into the underlying stress-related mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  4. Bivariate genetic modeling of cardiovascular stress reactivity: Does stress uncover genetic variance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, E.J.C.; Kupper, H.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Snieder, H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the existence of gene-by-stress interaction by assessing cardiovascular stress reactivity in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. METHODS: We studied 160 adolescent (mean age 16.7 ± 2.0 years; range 13-22 years) and 212 middle-aged twin pairs (mean age 44.2 ± 6.7 years; range 34-63

  5. Bivariate genetic modeling of cardiovascular stress reactivity : Does stress uncover genetic variance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Geus, Eco J. C.; Kupper, Nina; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Snieder, Harold

    Objective: To test the existence of gene-by-stress interaction by assessing cardiovascular stress reactivity in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Methods: We studied 160 adolescent (mean age 16.7 +/- 2.0 years; range 13-22 years) and 212 middle-aged twin pairs (mean age 44.2 +/- 6.7 years; range

  6. Re-conceptualizing stress: Shifting views on the consequences of stress and its effects on stress reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The consequences of stress are typically regarded from a deficit-oriented approach, conceptualizing stress to be entirely negative in its outcomes. This approach is unbalanced, and may further hinder individuals from engaging in adaptive coping. In the current study, we explored whether negative views and beliefs regarding stress interacted with a stress framing manipulation (positive, neutral and negative) on measures of stress reactivity for both psychosocial and physiological stressors. Method Ninety participants were randomized into one of three framing conditions that conceptualized the experience of stress in balanced, unbalanced-negative or unbalanced-positive ways. After watching a video on stress, participants underwent a psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test), or a physiological (CO2 challenge) method of stress-induction. Subjective and objective markers of stress were assessed. Results Most of the sampled population regarded stress as negative prior to framing. Further, subjective and objective reactivity were greater to the TSST compared to the CO2 challenge. Additionally, significant cubic trends were observed in the interactions of stress framing and stress-induction methodologies on heart rate and blood pressure. Balanced framing conditions in the TSST group had a significantly larger decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure following stress compared to the positive and negative framing conditions. Conclusion Findings confirmed a deficit-orientation of stress within the sampled population. In addition, results highlighted the relative efficacy of the TSST compared to CO2 as a method of stress provocation. Finally, individuals in framing conditions that posited stress outcomes in unbalanced manners responded to stressors less efficiently. This suggests that unbalanced framing of stress may have set forth unrealistic expectations regarding stress that later hindered individuals from adaptive responses to stress. Potential

  7. [Physical state of adolescents with the high stress reactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivolapchuk, I A

    2012-01-01

    Research objective was studying of features of a physical state (PS) adolescents of 13-14 years with high (n = 97) and low (n = 85) level of stress reactivity. The obtained data testify that in puberty formation of mechanisms of energy supply for muscle activity at adolescents with various level of stress reactivity occurs heterochronic and nonlinearly. Thus hyperreactivity boys of 13-14 years are characterised concerning high anaerobic alactic and the low aerobic productivity of the organism raised by physiological working costs and slowed down restoration after loadings of the big and submaximum capacity. Specificity of physical readiness of hyperreactivity teenagers consists that at them the high level of development of speed and force is combined with rather low level of development of the general endurance. Intergroup distinctions concerning muscular working capacity and the impellent readiness, caused by stress reactivity, are shown at adolescents of 13-14 years at different stages of puberty (SP). Thus and hyper--and hyporeactivity boys with II and III SP, are characterised in comparison with children with IV SP higher indicators of aerobic productivity of an organism, against rather small anaerobic possibilities. Results of research give the basis to believe, that at hyporeactivity adolescents efficiency of functioning of mechanisms of antihypoxic protection is lowered.

  8. Dual-hormone stress reactivity predicts downstream war-zone stress-evoked PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Robert A; Cobb, Adam R; Lancaster, Cynthia L; Lee, Han-Joo; Telch, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The crucial role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in stress-related homeostasis suggests dysregulated HPA involvement in the pathogenesis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet most studies examining linkages between HPA axis measures and PTSD have yielded null findings. One untested explanation for this inconsistency is a failure to account for simultaneous adrenal and gonadal influence. Here we tested the singular and interactive effects of cortisol (CR) and testosterone (TR) reactivity as moderators of war-zone stress evoked PTSD emergence in the war-zone. U.S. soldiers (N=120) scheduled for deployment to Iraq completed pre-deployment measures of CR and TR stress reactivity to a CO2 inhalation challenge. Once deployed, monthly assessments of exposure to traumatic war-zone stressors and PTSD symptoms were collected via a web-based assessment system. Cortisol hypo-reactivity potentiated the pathogenic impact of war-zone stressors only in soldiers for whom the CO2 challenge did not elevate testosterone, suggesting that the dual hormone stress reactivity profile of blunted cortisol and testosterone may confer increased risk for PTSD emergence by potentiating the pathogenic effects of war-zone stressors. Findings underscore the utility of assessing both HPA and HPG stress reactivity when assessing PTSD vulnerability and may help inform efforts for enhanced soldier screening and inoculation to war-zone stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stressful Life Events and Depression Symptoms: The Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Black, Shimrit K.; Liu, Richard T.; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. Method In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. PMID:23800893

  10. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Impact of Alcohol Use Disorder Comorbidity on Defensive Reactivity to Errors in Veterans with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M.; MacNamara, Annmarie; Aase, Darrin M.; Proescher, Eric; Greenstein, Justin E.; Walters, Robert; Passi, Holly; Babione, Joseph M.; Levy, David M.; Kennedy, Amy E.; DiGangi, Julia A.; Rabinak, Christine A.; Schroth, Christopher; Afshar, Kaveh; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn; Hajcak, Greg; Phan, K. Luan

    2017-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that individuals with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) may be characterized by heightened defensive reactivity, which serves to maintain drinking behaviors and anxiety/hyperarousal symptoms. Notably, however, very few studies have directly tested whether individuals with PTSD and AUD exhibit greater defensive reactivity compared with individuals with PTSD without AUD. The aim of the current study was to therefore test this emerging hypothesis by examining individual differences in error related negativity (ERN), an event-related component that is larger among anxious individuals and is thought to reflect defensive reactivity to errors. Participants were sixty-six military veterans who completed a well-validated flanker task known to robustly elicit the ERN. Veterans were comprised of three groups: controls (i.e., no PTSD or AUD), PTSD-AUD (i.e., current PTSD but no AUD), and PTSD+AUD (i.e., current comorbid PTSD and AUD). Results indicated that in general, individuals with PTSD and controls did not differ in ERN amplitude. However, among individuals with PTSD, those with comorbid AUD had significantly larger ERNs than those without AUD. These findings suggest that PTSD+AUD is a neurobiologically unique subtype of PTSD and the comorbidity of AUD may enhance defensive reactivity to errors in individuals with PTSD. PMID:27786513

  12. Reactive oxygen species signaling in plants under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Panda, Piyalee; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Abiotic stresses like heavy metals, drought, salt, low temperature, etc. are the major factors that limit crop productivity and yield. These stresses are associated with production of certain deleterious chemical entities called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), superoxide radical (O₂(-)), hydroxyl radical (OH(-)), etc. ROS are capable of inducing cellular damage by degradation of proteins, inactivation of enzymes, alterations in the gene and interfere in various pathways of metabolic importance. Our understanding on ROS in response to abiotic stress is revolutionized with the advancements in plant molecular biology, where the basic understanding on chemical behavior of ROS is better understood. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in ROS generation and its potential role during abiotic stress is important to identify means by which plant growth and metabolism can be regulated under acute stress conditions. ROS mediated oxidative stress, which is the key to understand stress related toxicity have been widely studied in many plants and the results in those studies clearly revealed that oxidative stress is the main symptom of toxicity. Plants have their own antioxidant defense mechanisms to encounter ROS that is of enzymic and non-enzymic nature . Coordinated activities of these antioxidants regulate ROS detoxification and reduces oxidative load in plants. Though ROS are always regarded to impart negative impact on plants, some reports consider them to be important in regulating key cellular functions; however, such reports in plant are limited. Molecular approaches to understand ROS metabolism and signaling have opened new avenues to comprehend its critical role in abiotic stress. ROS also acts as secondary messenger that signals key cellular functions like cell proliferation, apoptosis and necrosis. In higher eukaryotes, ROS signaling is not fully understood. In this review we summarize our understanding on ROS

  13. Reactivity to laboratory stress provocation predicts relapse to cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Hartwell, Karen; DeSantis, Stacia M; Saladin, Michael; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Price, Kimber L; Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Spratt, Eve; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by periods of abstinence and high rates of return to drug using behavior. Elevated levels of stress have been associated with relapse to cocaine; however, the nature of this association is not well understood. The relationship between reactivity to three human laboratory provocations and relapse to cocaine was investigated. Participants were 53 cocaine-dependent individuals who were admitted for a 2-day inpatient stay during which a psychosocial provocation (i.e., the Trier Social Stress Task), a pharmacological provocation (i.e., administration of 1 microg/kg corticotrophin releasing hormone; CRH), and a drug cue exposure paradigm were completed. Adrenocortico-trophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, heart rate, and subjective cocaine craving and stress were assessed at baseline and at multiple time points post-task. Participants' cocaine use was monitored for approximately 1 month following testing. The majority (72.3%) of participants relapsed to cocaine during the follow-up period. In response to the CRH and drug cue exposure, elevated subjective craving and stress were significant predictors of cocaine use during follow-up. In response to the Trier, attenuated neuroendocrine responses were significant predictors of cocaine use. The findings provide further evidence of the ability of laboratory paradigms to predict relapse. The observed associations between stress reactivity and subsequent cocaine use highlight the clinical importance of the findings. Predictors of relapse may vary based on the type of provocation utilized. Interventions aimed at normalizing stress response, as measured using laboratory paradigms, may prove useful in relapse prevention. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Occupational status and job stress in relation to cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumi Hirokawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of occupational status and job stress factors on cardiovascular stress reactivity in Japanese workers. In this baseline assessment between 2001 and 2009 in Osaka, Japan, we examined 928 healthy Japanese employees (330 men, 598 women from two occupational statuses: managers/professionals and general workers. A brief job stress questionnaire was used to evaluate job stress levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, heart rate, heart rate variability (high-frequency [HF], low-frequency [LF], LF/HF], and peripheral blood flow were measured at rest and during two stressful tasks. Changes in stress reactivity were calculated as the difference between the measured variables during the tasks and the rest period. Men showed inverse associations between quantitative job overload and DBP, heart rate, and LF/HF, between physical demands and blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and between a poor physical environment and HF. Men also had positive associations between qualitative job overload and heart rate, and between physical demands and peripheral blood flow (all p < 0.05. Women showed inverse associations between qualitative job overload and SBP, and showed positive associations between qualitative job overload and peripheral blood flow, and between a poor physical environment and SBP (all p < 0.05. When stratified by occupational status, significant associations between job stress and changes in stress reactivity were observed in male managers/professionals and female general workers (p < 0.05. Job stress levels are associated with changes in cardiovascular stress reactivity in men and women. Occupational status may modify these associations.

  15. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B

    2011-06-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.

  16. Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brittany E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Euser, Anja S.; Tulen, Joke H. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related) of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. Method In a stratified sample of 363 children (7–12 years) and 344 adolescents (13–20 years) from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. Results Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. Conclusions As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness. PMID:23620785

  17. Determinants of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity in children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Evans

    Full Text Available AIMS: Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We systematically tested determinants (individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. We also examined the relation between physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity. METHOD: In a stratified sample of 363 children (7-12 years and 344 adolescents (13-20 years from the general population, we examined cortisol, heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and perceived physiological stress reactivity to a psychosocial stress procedure. RESULTS: Using multivariate linear regression models, we found that individual, developmental, environmental and substance use-related factors were related to each of the stress response indices. These determinant factors were different for each of the stress reactivity indices, and different in children versus adolescents. Perceived physiological stress reactivity predicted cortisol reactivity in adolescents only. All other relations between perceived physiological and physiological stress reactivity were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: As physiological stress variables are often examined as vulnerability markers for the development of health problems, we maintain that it is essential that future studies take into consideration factors that may account for found relations. Our study provides an overview and indication of which variables should be considered in the investigation of the relation between physiological stress indices and illness.

  18. Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, B.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Euser, A.S.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Franken, I.H.A.; Huizink, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We

  19. Determinants of physiological and perceived physiological stress reactivity in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, B.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Euser, A.S.; Tulen, J.H.; Franken, I.H.; Huizink, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims:Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We

  20. Determinants of Physiological and Perceived Physiological Stress Reactivity in Children and Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E. Evans (Brittany); K. Greaves-Lord (Kirstin); A.S. Euser (Anja); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar); A.C. Huizink (Anja)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims:Abnormal physiological stress reactivity is increasingly investigated as a vulnerability marker for various physical and psychological health problems. However, studies are inconsistent in taking into account potential covariates that may influence the developing stress system. We

  1. Neurobiological underpinnings of dogs' human-like social competence: How interactions between stress response systems and oxytocin mediate dogs' social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips

    2016-12-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been suggested as a natural model for human social cognition, possessing social skills that are in many ways functionally analogous to those of young humans. Researchers have debated the origins of dogs' human-like social competence and the underlying cognitive mechanisms, but only recently have researchers begun to explore their neurobiological underpinnings. In this review, findings from behavioral studies are integrated with what is known about the biological basis of dogs' human-directed social competence, with an emphasis on how stress-mediating systems, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, interact with oxytocin and underlying neural systems to facilitate dogs' interspecific social-cognitive abilities. The working model presented in this paper offers a biological explanation for many of the inconsistent findings from past work on social cognition in dogs and generates questions for future research in the field of canine social competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in prefrontal cortex GABA/glutamate ratio after acute restraint stress in rats are associated with specific behavioral and neurobiological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, J-B; Fauvelle, F; Maunoir-Regimbal, S; Fidier, N; Maury, R; Peinnequin, A; Denis, J; Buguet, A; Canini, F

    2015-01-29

    In patients suffering from stress-related pathologies and depression, frontal cortex GABA and glutamate contents are reported to decrease and increase, respectively. This suggests that the GABA and/or glutamate content may participate in pathological phenotype expression. Whether differences in frontal cortex GABA and glutamate contents would be associated with specific behavioral and neurobiological patterns remains unclear, especially in the event of exposure to moderate stress. We hypothesized that an increase in prefrontal cortex GABA/glutamate ratio would be associated with a blunted prefrontal cortex activation, an enhanced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation and changes in behavior. Rats being restrained for 1-h were then tested in an open-field test in order to assess their behavior while under stress, and were sacrificed immediately afterward. The GABA/glutamate ratio was assessed by (1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-HRMAS-MRS). The neurobiological response was evaluated through prefrontal cortex mRNA expression and plasma corticosterone levels. The stressed rats were distributed into two subgroups according to their high (H-G/g) or low (L-G/g) GABA/glutamate ratio. Compared to the L-G/g rats, the H-G/g rats exhibited a decrease in c-fos, Arc, Npas4, Nr4a2 mRNA expression suggesting blunted prefrontal cortex activation. They also showed a more pronounced stress with an enhanced rise in corticosterone, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, as well as behavioral disturbances with decreased locomotion speed. These changes were independent from prefrontal cortex energetic status as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway activities were similar in both subpopulations. The differences in GABA/glutamate ratio in the frontal cortex observed

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtepen, Lotte C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413662802; Vinkers, Christiaan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824755; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336269471; Kahn, René S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073778532; Joëls, Marian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070219249; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/286852071

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8

  4. Sleep disturbances in highly stress reactive mice: Modeling endophenotypes of major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landgraf Rainer

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal mechanisms underlying affective disorders such as major depression (MD are still poorly understood. By selectively breeding mice for high (HR, intermediate (IR, or low (LR reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, we recently established a new genetic animal model of extremes in stress reactivity (SR. Studies characterizing this SR mouse model on the behavioral, endocrine, and neurobiological levels revealed several similarities with key endophenotypes observed in MD patients. HR mice were shown to have changes in rhythmicity and sleep measures such as rapid eye movement sleep (REMS and non-REM sleep (NREMS as well as in slow wave activity, indicative of reduced sleep efficacy and increased REMS. In the present study we were interested in how far a detailed spectral analysis of several electroencephalogram (EEG parameters, including relevant frequency bands, could reveal further alterations of sleep architecture in this animal model. Eight adult males of each of the three breeding lines were equipped with epidural EEG and intramuscular electromyogram (EMG electrodes. After recovery, EEG and EMG recordings were performed for two days. Results Differences in the amount of REMS and wakefulness and in the number of transitions between vigilance states were found in HR mice, when compared with IR and LR animals. Increased frequencies of transitions from NREMS to REMS and from REMS to wakefulness in HR animals were robust across the light-dark cycle. Detailed statistical analyses of spectral EEG parameters showed that especially during NREMS the power of the theta (6-9 Hz, alpha (10-15 Hz and eta (16-22.75 Hz bands was significantly different between the three breeding lines. Well defined distributions of significant power differences could be assigned to different times during the light and the dark phase. Especially during NREMS, group differences were robust and could be continuously monitored

  5. Stress Reactivity to an Electronic Version of the Trier Social Stress Test: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sage E Hawn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Social stressors that rely on the inclusion of confederates (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST are often used in clinical laboratory research paradigms to elicit a measurable stress response in participants. Although effective, the TSST is labor intensive and may introduce error variance as a function of confederate race, gender, and/or response characteristics. The present study aimed to develop and validate an electronic version of the TSST (e-TSST. The primary aim was to compare the e-TSST to an e-neutral control condition; the exploratory aim was to compare the magnitude of stress response elicited by the e-TSST to that elicited by the traditional TSST. Forty-three healthy adults were randomized to the e-TSST or e-neutral condition. Subjective (participant-rated distress and objective (cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure indices of stress were collected prior to, and multiple times following, the stressor. Using archival data collected from 19 healthy participants exposed to the traditional TSST in a prior study, stress reactivity was compared between the electronic and traditional versions of the TSST. The e-TSST elicited significant increases in all measures of stress reactivity compared to the e-neutral condition, with the exception of heart rate (HR. Results showed that the magnitude of subjective distress, BP, and HR responses elicited by the e-TSST did not differ significantly from that elicited by the traditional TSST. The traditional TSST elicited significantly higher cortisol than the e-TSST. Although these findings provide initial support for the development of electronic versions of the TSST, further refinement of the e-TSST is warranted prior to broad adoption of this technology. A refined, reliable e-TSST could allow for increased utilization of the TSST by enhancing convenience, reducing labor costs, and limiting potential error variance introduced by human confederates.

  6. Blunted cardiac reactivity to psychological stress associated with higher trait anxiety: a study in peacekeepers

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendon?a-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Ant?nio Fernando Ara?jo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes de; Silva Freire Coutinho, Evandro; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan,Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Background Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized t...

  7. Mechanisms underlying hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress reactivity at different phases of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer L; Girdler, Susan S

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association of menstrual cycle phase with stress reactivity as well as the hormonal and neuroendocrine mechanisms contributing to cycle effects. Fifty-seven women underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test during the early follicular, late follicular, and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Greater increases in cardiac index (CI) and greater decreases in vascular resistance index (VRI) during speech were observed in the luteal phase relative to other phases, while greater increases in epinephrine (EPI) was observed during the late follicular and luteal phases compared to the early follicular phase. Luteal phase estradiol predicted luteal EPI reactivity but not CI or VRI reactivity, while luteal phase EPI reactivity predicted luteal phase CI and VRI reactivity. Thus, cycle-related changes in EPI reactivity may be a stronger determinant of cycle effects on hemodynamic reactivity than sex hormones per se. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Neurobiology of Acute and Chronic Stress: Its Effect on the Hypothalamo- Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Jorge Mario; Yale University School of Medicine; García-Acero, Mary; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Franco, Pamela; Hospital Universitario San Ignacio-Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2013-01-01

    Extensive literature has been published about stress and its effects. This paper will focus on how stress hormones interact with different brain areas, including limbic structures and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. We will discuss how repetitive stress modifies those areas, mainly by the effect on its two types of nuclear receptors, changing the basal activity of the amygdala, hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex, resulting in an increased hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis f...

  9. Daily emotional stress reactivity in emerging adulthood: temporal stability and its predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Maryhope; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard

    2017-03-01

    Emotional reactivity to stress is associated with both mental and physical health and has been assumed to be a stable feature of the person. However, recent evidence suggests that the within-person association between stress and negative affect (i.e., affective stress-reactivity) may increase over time and in times of high stress, at least in older adult populations. The objective of the current study was to examine the across-time stability of stress-reactivity in a younger sample - emerging adulthood - and examine neuroticism, overall stress, social support and life events as potential moderators of stability. Undergraduate students (N = 540, mean age = 18.76 years) participated in a measurement burst design, completing a 30-day daily diary annually for four years. Moderators were assessed once at every burst, while negative affect and stress were assessed daily via a secure website. Findings suggest a relatively high degree of rank-order and mean-level stability in stress-reactivity across the four years, and within-person changes in neuroticism and overall stress predicted concurrent shifts in stress-reactivity. Unlike older samples, there was no evidence of an overall linear change in stability over time, though there was significant variability in linear change trajectories.

  10. Cortisol stress reactivity across psychiatric disorders : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, Jelle V.; Schur, Remmelt R.; Boks, Marco P.; Kahn, Rene S.; Joels, Marian; Vinkers, Christiaan H.

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end product cortisol are essential for an adequate response to stress. Considering the role of stress as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, it is not surprising that cortisol stress reactivity has frequently been investigated in patients

  11. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.

  12. Gravitational Neurobiology of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmann, H.; Anken, R. H.

    In vertebrates (including man), altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness can induce malfunctions of the inner ears, based on irregular movements of the semicircular cristae or on dislocations of the inner ear otoliths from the corresponding sensory epithelia. This will lead to illusionary tilts, since the vestibular inputs are not confirmed by the other sensory organs, which results in an intersensory conflict. Vertebrates in orbit therefore face severe orientation problems. In humans, the intersensory conflict may additionally lead to a malaise, commonly referred to as space motion sickness (SMS), a kinetosis. During the first days at weightlessness, the orientation problems (and SMS) disappear, since the brain develops a new compensatory interpretation of the available sensory data. The present review reports on the neurobiological responses - particularly of fish - observed at altered gravitational states, concerning behaviour and neuroplastic reactivities. Recent investigations employing microgravity (spaceflight, parabolic aircraft flights, clinostat) and hyper-gravity (laboratory centrifuges as ground based research tools) yielded clues and insights into the understanding of the respective basic phenomena

  13. Associations between stress reactivity and sexual and nonsexual risk taking in young adult human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Campbell, Benjamin; Agnew, Christopher R; Thompson, Vaida; Udry, J Richard

    2002-12-01

    Release of the hormone cortisol represents a distress response to novel or stressful situations. Individual differences in such reactivity have been conceptualized as representing a relatively enduring, generalizable trait. In this study, cortisol responses to two experimentally manipulated "sexual" and "nonsexual" stressors were used to examine whether stress reactivity is related to sexual and nonsexual risk behavior in young adult males. Analyses were based on 150 males 18 to 25 years old; risk behavior was assessed in confidential, self-administered questionnaires. Analyses indicated that both stressors effectively elicited cortisol increases. Generalized reactivity, defined as a cortisol response to both stressors, was inversely associated with deviance (e.g., theft, substance use) and with two indicators of sexual risk taking (lifetime number of intercourse partners and frequency of condom use). Findings are discussed in terms of cross-situational consistency of stress responses, the utility of stress reactivity for understanding individual differences in risk taking, and the interpretive limitations imposed by study design.

  14. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Jacobs van Goethem, T.H.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional

  15. Child temperament and parental depression predict cortisol reactivity to stress in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackrell, Sarah V M; Sheikh, Haroon I; Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Kryski, Katie R; Jordan, Patricia L; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-02-01

    Children's cortisol reactivity to stress is an important mediator of depression risk, making the search for predictors of such reactivity an important goal for psychopathologists. Multiple studies have linked maternal depression and childhood behavioral inhibition (BI) independently to child cortisol reactivity, yet few have tested multivariate models of these risks. Further, paternal depression and other child temperament traits, such as positive emotionality (PE), have been largely ignored despite their potential relevance. We therefore examined longitudinal associations between child fear/BI and PE and parental depression, and children's cortisol stress reactivity, in 205 7-year-olds. Paternal depression and child fear/BI predicted greater cortisol stress reactivity at a follow-up of 164 9-year-olds, and maternal depression and child PE interacted to predict children's cortisol reactivity, such that higher child PE predicted lower cortisol reactivity in the context of maternal depression. Results highlight the importance of both parents' depression, as well as multiple facets of child temperament, in developing more comprehensive models of childhood cortisol reactivity to stress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  17. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.

  18. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  19. Impact of sleep quality on amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Bogdan, Ryan; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates a negative impact of sleep disturbance on mood and affect; however, the biological mechanisms mediating these links are poorly understood. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli has emerged as one potential pathway. Here, we investigate the influence of self-reported sleep quality on associations between threat-related amygdala reactivity and measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Analyses on data from 299 participants (125 men, 50.5% white, mean [standard deviation] age = 19.6 [1.3] years) who completed the Duke Neurogenetics Study were conducted. Participants completed several self-report measures of negative affect and perceived stress. Threat-related (i.e., angry and fearful facial expressions) amygdala reactivity was assayed using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions predicted greater depressive symptoms and higher perceived stress in poor (β values = 0.18-1.86, p values .05). In sex-specific analyses, men reporting poorer global sleep quality showed a significant association between amygdala reactivity and levels of depression and perceived stress (β values = 0.29-0.44, p values sleep quality or in women, irrespective of sleep quality. This study provides novel evidence that self-reported sleep quality moderates the relationships between amygdala reactivity, negative affect, and perceived stress, particularly among men.

  20. Prenatal drug exposure moderates the association between stress reactivity and cognitive function in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P; Scaletti, Laura A; Koenig, James I; Granger, Douglas A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug-exposed and 61 nonexposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children's Memory Scales, the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's version and the Wide Range Achievement Test 4) over the course of 1 day in a laboratory setting. Two mild stressors (Balloon Analog Risk Task - Youth and Behavioral Indicator of Resilience to Distress) were administered, with saliva samples (assayed for cortisol) collected pre- and poststress task. A higher percentage in the NE group, compared to the PDE group (26% vs. 12%, χ(2) = 4.70, d.f. = 1, n = 137, p = 0.03), exhibited task-related increases in salivary cortisol. PDE moderated the association between stress reactivity and 11 of 15 cognitive performance scales. In each case, the NE stress reactive group had better cognitive performance than either the NE lower cortisol reactive group or the PDE group regardless of stress reactivity status. Stress-related reactivity and regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adolescence may be disrupted by PDE, and the disruption may be linked to lower cognitive performance. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Lactation and Reactivity to Physical and Psychological Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, C

    1997-01-01

    .... Findings to date include lack of changes in attention and memory functions during pregnancy and lactation, lack of difference in hormonal and anxiety responses to psychological stress, enhanced...

  2. Reactivity to Stress and the Cognitive Components of Math Disability in Grade 1 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon McQuarrie, Maureen A.; Siegel, Linda S.; Perry, Nancy E.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among working memory, processing speed, math performance, and reactivity to stress in 83 Grade 1 children. Specifically, 39 children with math disability (MD) were compared to 44 children who are typically achieving (TA) in mathematics. It is the first study to use a physiological index of stress (salivary…

  3. Maternal prenatal stress and cortisol reactivity to stressors in human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Beijers, R.; Jansen, J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Early life factors can shape the development of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Maternal prenatal stress might constitute such an early environmental factor. As little is known about the relation between maternal prenatal stress and cortisol reactivity in human offspring, we performed a

  4. Stress reactivity and personality in extreme sport athletes: The psychobiology of BASE jumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Erik; Mei-Dan, Omer; Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Zwir, Igor; Rozsa, Sandor; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-12-01

    This is the first report of the psychobiology of stress in BASE jumpers, one of the most dangerous forms of extreme sport. We tested the hypotheses that indicators of emotional style (temperament) predict salivary cortisol reactivity, whereas indicators of intentional goal-setting (persistence and character) predict salivary alpha-amylase reactivity during BASE jumping. Ninety-eight subjects completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) the day before the jump, and 77 also gave salivary samples at baseline, pre-jump on the bridge over the New River Gorge, and post-jump upon landing. Overall BASE jumpers are highly resilient individuals who are highly self-directed, persistent, and risk-taking, but they are heterogeneous in their motives and stress reactivity in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) stress system (cortisol reactivity) and the sympathetic arousal system (alpha-amylase reactivity). Three classes of jumpers were identified using latent class analysis based on their personality profiles, prior jumping experience, and levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase at all three time points. "Masterful" jumpers (class 1) had a strong sense of self-directedness and mastery, extensive prior experience, and had little alpha-amylase reactivity and average cortisol reactivity. "Trustful" jumpers (class 2) were highly cooperative and trustful individuals who had little cortisol reactivity coincident with the social support they experienced prior to jumping. "Courageous" jumpers (class 3) were determined despite anxiety and inexperience, and they had high sympathetic reactivity but average cortisol activation. We conclude that trusting social attachment (Reward Dependence) and not jumping experience predicted low cortisol reactivity, whereas persistence (determination) and not jumping experience predicted high alpha-amylase reactivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiating anticipatory from reactive cortisol responses to psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engert, V.; Efanov, S.I.; Duchesne, A.; Vogel, S.; Corbo, V.; Pruessner, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no

  6. Reactivity to social stress in ethnic minority men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevonden, Martin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke; Booij, Jan; van den Brinkf, Wim; van Winkel, Ruud; Selten, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposures to social exclusion, through a process of sensitization, may result in larger responses to experiences of social stress. The current study tested the hypothesis that healthy Moroccan-Dutch men respond stronger to social stress than Dutch controls 1) in daily life, and 2) in an

  7. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Reactivity to Acute Stress: an Investigation into the Roles of Perceived Stress and Family Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J

    2017-02-08

    Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.

  8. Childhood social environment, emotional reactivity to stress, and mood and anxiety disorders across the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Kubzansky, Laura D; Dunn, Erin C; Waldinger, Robert; Vaillant, George; Koenen, Karestan C

    2010-12-01

    Adverse child environments are associated with the onset of mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. The mechanisms underlying these life-course associations remain poorly understood. We investigate whether emotional reactivity to stress is a mechanism in the association between childhood environment characteristics and adult mood and anxiety disorders. Data are from the Study of Adult Development, a longitudinal study of men (N = 268) followed for nearly seven decades beginning in late adolescence. Childhood social environment characteristics were assessed during home visits and interviews with respondents' parents at entry into the study. Stress reactivity was assessed during respondents' sophomore year of college via physician exam. Onset of mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood was ascertained by research psychiatrists who completed chart reviews of interview, questionnaire, and physical exam data collected during repeated assessments from age 20 to 70. Respondents with better overall childhood environments and a greater number of environmental strengths were at lower odds of developing a mood or anxiety disorder in adulthood than respondents with more adverse childhood environments. Higher stress reactivity was observed among respondents from families with lower socio-economic status and with childhood environments characterized by greater conflict and adversity. Elevated stress reactivity, in turn, predicted the onset of adult mood and anxiety disorders. Heightened emotional reactivity in early adulthood is associated with both adverse childhood environments and elevated risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. Emotional reactivity may be one mechanism linking childhood adversity to mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Loneliness and acute stress reactivity: A systematic review of psychophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eoin G; Gallagher, Stephen; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-11-20

    Physiological reactivity to acute stress has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism by which loneliness may lead to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. This review was conducted to investigate the association between loneliness and physiological responses to acute stress. A series of electronic databases were systematically searched (PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct) for relevant studies, published up to October 2016. Eleven studies were included in the review. Overall, the majority of studies reported positive associations between loneliness and acute stress responses, such that higher levels of loneliness were predictive of exaggerated physiological reactions. However, in a few studies, loneliness was also linked with decreased stress responses for particular physiological outcomes, indicating the possible existence of blunted relationships. There was no clear pattern suggesting any sex- or stressor-based differences in these associations. The available evidence supports a link between loneliness and atypical physiological reactivity to acute stress. A key finding of this review was that greater levels of loneliness are associated with exaggerated blood pressure and inflammatory reactivity to acute stress. However, there was some indication that loneliness may also be related to blunted cardiac, cortisol, and immune responses. Overall, this suggests that stress reactivity could be one of the biological mechanisms through which loneliness impacts upon health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. The role of sex and gender socialization in stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovic, Katarina; Wadiwalla, Mehereen; Engert, Veronika; Pruessner, Jens C

    2009-01-01

    Individual health is determined by a myriad of factors. Interestingly, simply being male or female is one such factor that carries profound implications for one's well-being. Intriguing differences between men and women have been observed with respect to vulnerability to and prevalence of particular illnesses. The activity of the major stress hormone axis in humans, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, is directly and indirectly associated with the onset and propagation of these conditions. Previous studies have shown differences between men and women at the level of stress hormone regulation, suggesting that the metabolic effects of stress may be related to susceptibility for stress-related disease. While the majority of studies have suggested that biological differences are responsible, few have also considered the role of gender socialization. In this selective review, the authors summarize evidence on sex differences and highlight some recent results from endocrinological, developmental, and neuroimaging studies that suggest an important role of gender socialization on the metabolic effects of stress. Finally, a model is proposed that integrates these specific findings, highlighting gender socialization and stress responsivity.

  11. Neurobiology of song learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Birdsong is a culturally transmitted behavior that depends on a juvenile songbird’s ability to imitate the song of an adult tutor. Neurobiological studies of birdsong can reveal how a complex form of imitative learning, which bears strong parallels to human speech learning, can be understood at the level of underlying circuit, cellular, and synaptic mechanisms. This review focuses on recent studies that illuminate the neurobiological mechanisms for singing and song learning. PMID:19892546

  12. Increased amygdala reactivity following early life stress: a potential resilience enhancer role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Toki, Shigeru; Siegle, Greg J; Takamura, Masahiro; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okada, Go; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Nakao, Takashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Yumiko; Murakami, Tsuneji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-18

    Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults. Twenty-four healthy participants completed an individually tailored negative mood induction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment along with evaluation of ELS. Mood change and amygdala reactivity were increased in never-depressed participants who reported ELS compared to participants who reported no ELS. Yet, increased amygdala reactivity lowered effects of ELS on depressive symptoms and negative life events stress. Amygdala reactivity also had positive functional connectivity with the bilateral DLPFC, motor cortex and striatum in people with ELS during sad memory recall. Increased amygdala activity in those with ELS was associated with decreased symptoms and increased neural features, consistent with emotion regulation, suggesting that preservation of robust amygdala reactions may reflect a stress buffering or resilience enhancing factor against depression and negative stressful events.

  13. Cortisol reactivity to experimentally manipulated psychosocial stress in young adults at varied risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma; Wang, Lily; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cortisol and affective reactivity to a psychosocial stress task in 102 young adults who varied in risk for depression (56 remitted depressed, 46 never depressed). Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress (i.e., social-evaluative threat) or control (i.e., no social-evaluative threat) condition. For never-depressed individuals, cortisol responses were significantly greater in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were significantly greater for never-depressed than remitted-depressed individuals in the stress condition. For individuals with a history of depression, cortisol responses did not differ significantly between the stress and control conditions. Negative affective reactivity also was higher for never depressed, but not remitted depressed, individuals in the stress compared to the control condition. Moreover, cortisol responses were inversely related to negative affect during the recovery phase in both stress and control conditions. Findings indicate the lack of a robust cortisol response to social evaluation stress among remitted-depressed individuals as compared to that of never-depressed controls. Future studies should investigate unique and interactive links between these hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and affective reactivity alterations and risk for subsequent depressive episodes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acceptance lowers stress reactivity: Dismantling mindfulness training in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Emily K; Young, Shinzen; Smyth, Joshua M; Brown, Kirk Warren; Creswell, J David

    2017-10-08

    Mindfulness interventions, which train practitioners to monitor their present-moment experience with a lens of acceptance, are known to buffer stress reactivity. Little is known about the active mechanisms driving these effects. We theorize that acceptance is a critical emotion regulation mechanism underlying mindfulness stress reduction effects. In this three-arm parallel trial, mindfulness components were dismantled into three structurally equivalent 15-lesson smartphone-based interventions: (1) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor+Accept), (2) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only), or (3) active control training (Coping control). 153 stressed adults (mean age=32years; 67% female; 53% white, 21.5% black, 21.5% Asian, 4% other race) were randomly assigned to complete one of three interventions. After the intervention, cortisol, blood pressure, and subjective stress reactivity were assessed using a modified Trier Social Stress Test. As predicted, Monitor+Accept training reduced cortisol and systolic blood pressure reactivity compared to Monitor Only and control trainings. Participants in all three conditions reported moderate levels of subjective stress. This study provides the first experimental evidence that brief smartphone mindfulness training can impact stress biology, and that acceptance training drives these effects. We discuss implications for basic and applied research in contemplative science, emotion regulation, stress and coping, health, and clinical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactive trace gas emissions from stressed plants: a poorly characterized major source of atmospheric volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation constitutes the greatest source of reactive volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. The current emission estimates primarily rely on constitutive emissions that are present only in some plant species. However, all plant species can be induced to emit reactive volatiles by different abiotic and biotic stresses, but the stress-dependent emissions have been largely neglected in emission measurements and models. This presentation provides an overview of systematic screening of stress-dependent volatile emissions from a broad range of structurally and physiologically divergent plant species from temperate to tropical ecosystems. Ozone, heat, drought and wounding stress were the abiotic stresses considered in the screening, while biotic stress included herbivory, chemical elicitors simulating herbivory and fungal infections. The data suggest that any moderate to severe stress leads to significant emissions of a rich blend of volatiles, including methanol, green leaf volatiles (the lipoxygenase pathway volatiles, dominated by C6 aldehydes, alcohols and derivatives), different mono- and sesquiterpenes and benzenoids. The release of volatiles occurs in stress severity-dependent manner, although the emission responses are often non-linear with more severe stresses resulting in disproportionately greater emissions. Stress volatile release is induced in both non-constitutive and constitutive volatile emitters, whereas the rate of constitutive volatile emissions in constitutive emitters is often reduced under environmental and biotic stresses. Given that plants in natural conditions often experience stress, this analysis suggests that global volatile emissions have been significantly underestimated. Furthermore, in globally changing hotter climates, the frequency and severity of both abiotic and biotic stresses is expected to increase. Thus, the stress-induced volatile emissions are predicted to play a dominant role in plant-atmosphere interactions in near

  16. Job Stress Reactivity and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Neurology of the newborn. In E.M. Brett (Ed), Paediatric Neurology, (3d ed), pp 1-24, New York: Churchill Livingstone. Brogmus, G.E., Sorock, G.S., and...York State Dentistry Journal, 64, 44-48. Flor, H., Turk, D.C., and Birbaumer, N. (1985). Assessment of stress-related psychophysiological reactions in

  17. Study of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in different phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Jnaneshwara P; Pa, Sahana; J, Shivakumar

    2014-06-01

    It is a well known fact that normally female sex hormone levels fluctuate during the menstrual cycle. The presence of receptors for these hormones on both heart and blood vessels may also hint at variations in physiological functions during menstrual cycle. So this study was an attempt to determine whether the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle are characterized by variations in cardiovascular parameters in the resting state and also examine changes in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress challenge during both the phases of menstrual cycle. Thirty healthy females in the age group of 18-25 years with regular menstrual cycles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were examined for cardiovascular parameters (heart rate and blood pressures) at rest and their reactivity to mental stress during the follicular and luteal phase and were compared by using paired t-test. A p-value of stress, in terms of blood pressure and heart rate increases, but the two phases of menstrual cycle were indistinguishable in so far as reactivity patterns were considered. The resting values of these cardiovascular parameters were also alike during the two phases. We were unable to unearth any differences in resting and reactivity values of cardiovascular parameters during the course of a normal menstrual cycle. This shows that stress reactivity variations during different phases of menstrual cycle may not be due to variations in hormonal levels per se, but due to collusion of hormonal variations and unknown genetic influences.

  18. Stress-induced subclinical reactivation of varicella zoster virus in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Forghani, Bagher; Zerbe, Gary; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) becomes latent in human ganglia after primary infection. VZV reactivation occurs primarily in elderly individuals, organ transplant recipients, and patients with cancer and AIDS, correlating with a specific decline in cell-mediated immunity to the virus. VZV can also reactivate after surgical stress. The unexpected occurrence of thoracic zoster 2 days before space flight in a 47-year-old healthy astronaut from a pool of 81 physically fit astronauts prompted our search for VZV reactivation during times of stress to determine whether VZV can also reactivate after non-surgical stress. We examined total DNA extracted from 312 saliva samples of eight astronauts before, during, and after space flight for VZV DNA by polymerase chain reaction: 112 samples were obtained 234-265 days before flight, 84 samples on days 2 through 13 of space flight, and 116 samples on days 1 through 15 after flight. Before space flight, only one of the 112 saliva samples from a single astronaut was positive for VZV DNA. In contrast, during and after space flight, 61 of 200 (30%) saliva samples were positive in all eight astronauts. No VZV DNA was detected in any of 88 saliva samples from 10 healthy control subjects. These results indicate that VZV can reactivate subclinically in healthy individuals after non-surgical stress. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Elevated stress hormone levels relate to Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, R. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Barrett, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of stress and spaceflight on levels of neuroendocrine hormones and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific antibodies in astronauts. METHODS: Antiviral antibody titers and stress hormones were measured in plasma samples collected from 28 astronauts at their annual medical exam (baseline), 10 days before launch (L-10), landing day (R+0), and 3 days after landing (R+3). Urinary stress hormones were also measured at L-10 and R+0. RESULTS: Significant increases (p stresses associated with spaceflight resulted in decreased virus-specific T-cell immunity and reactivation of EBV.

  20. [Reactive oxygen species and stress signaling in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolupaev, Iu E; Karpets, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    Data on the basic processes and the compartments, involved in formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells, are generalised. The features of structure and regulation of NADPH-oxidase as the one of main enzymatic producers of ROS are characterized. The two-component histidine kinases, ROS-sensitive transcript-factors, ROS-sensitive protein kinase and redox-regulated ionic channels are discussed as the possible sensors of redox-signals in plant cells. The interaction between ROS and other signal mediators, in particular nitric oxide and calcium ions, is discussed. The ROS role as the signal mediators in the development of plant resistance to hyperthermia, osmotic shock and other abiotic stressors is analyzed.

  1. Blunted cardiac reactivity to psychological stress associated with higher trait anxiety: a study in peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Gabriela Guerra Leal; Mendonça-de-Souza, Ana Carolina Ferraz; Duarte, Antônio Fernando Araújo; Fischer, Nastassja Lopes; Souza, Wanderson Fernandes; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Figueira, Ivan; Volchan, Eliane

    2015-11-23

    Both exaggerated and diminished reactivity to stress can be maladaptive. Previous studies have shown that performing increasingly difficult tasks leads first to increased reactivity and then to a blunted response when success is impossible. Our aim was to investigate the influence of trait anxiety on cardiac and cortisol response to and recovery from a standardized psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Task) in a homogeneous sample of healthy peacekeepers. We hypothesized that participants with higher trait anxiety would show blunted reactivity during the performance of an overwhelmingly difficult and stressful task. Participants (N = 50) delivered a speech and performed an arithmetic task in the presence of critical evaluators. Cortisol samples and electrocardiogram data were collected. Participants completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait version, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Military Peace Force Stressor Inventory. For heart rate, the findings showed that peacekeepers with higher trait anxiety reacted less to the speech task (p = 0.03) and to the arithmetic task (p = 0.008) than those with lower trait anxiety. Trait anxiety did not modulate cortisol responses to the task. Despite the high trait anxiety group having higher PCL-C scores than the low trait anxiety group (p anxiety had less tachycardia in response to acute psychological stress than those with lower trait anxiety. The present results point to a higher risk for more anxious individuals of a maladaptive reaction to stressful events.

  2. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, Mark; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework ...

  3. The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness During Attention Bias Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Seidner, Shiran; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-09-01

    Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session. We examined learning processes and stress reactivity following a stress-induction task. Results indicate that relative to implicit instructions, explicit instructions led to stronger learning during the first training session. Following rest, the explicit and implicit groups exhibited consolidation-related improvement in performance, whereas no such improvement was noted for the implicit-explicit group. Finally, although stress reactivity was reduced after training, contingency awareness did not yield a differential effect on stress reactivity measured using both self-reports and skin conductance, within and across sessions. These results suggest that explicit ABM administration leads to greater initial learning during the training protocol while not differing from standard implicit administration in terms of off-line learning and stress reactivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Predicting developmental changes in internalizing symptoms: examining the interplay between parenting and neuroendocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate R; Olson, Sheryl L; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we examined whether parenting and HPA-axis reactivity during middle childhood predicted increases in internalizing symptoms during the transition to adolescence, and whether HPA-axis reactivity mediated the impact of parenting on internalizing symptoms. The study included 65 children (35 boys) who were assessed at age 5, 7, and 11. Parenting behaviors were assessed via parent report at age 5 and 11. The child's HPA-axis reactivity was measured at age 7 via a stress task. Internalizing symptoms were measured via teacher reports at age 5 and 11. High maternal warmth at age 5 predicted lower internalizing symptoms at age 11. Also, high reported maternal warmth and induction predicted lower HPA-axis reactivity. Additionally, greater HPA-axis reactivity at age 7 was associated with greater increases in internalizing symptoms from age 5 to 11. Finally, the association between age 5 maternal warmth and age 11 internalizing symptoms was partially mediated by lower cortisol in response to the stress task. Thus, parenting behaviors in early development may influence the physiological stress response system and therefore buffer the development of internalizing symptoms during preadolescence when risk for disorder onset is high. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Resilience, work engagement and stress reactivity in a middle-aged manual worker population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Julie K; Balanos, George M; Whittaker Previously Phillips, Anna C

    2017-06-01

    Work stress is a growing problem in Europe. Together, the negative physiological effect of stress on health, and increasing age increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in those aged over 50years. Therefore, identifying older workers who may be at risk of work-related stress, and its physiological effects, is key to promoting their health and wellbeing in the workforce. The present study examined the relationship between perceived psychological resilience and work-related factors (work engagement and presenteeism) and the physiological response to acute psychological stress in older manual workers in the UK. Thirty-one participants, mean (SD) age 54.9 (3.78)years reported perceived levels of resilience, work engagement, and presenteeism using standardized questionnaires. Cardiovascular measurements (heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) and salivary cortisol were used to assess their physiological response to an acute psychological stress task. Resilience was not associated with work-related factors or reactivity. However, workers with higher work engagement showed lower SBP (p=0.02) and HR (p=0.001) reactivity than those with lower work engagement. Further, those with higher sickness presenteeism also had higher HR reactivity (p=0.03). This suggests a potential pathway by which higher work stress might contribute to the risk of future cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low vigorous physical activity is associated with increased adrenocortical reactivity to psychosocial stress in students with high stress perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Ludyga, Sebastian; Mücke, Manuel; Colledge, Flora; Brand, Serge; Pühse, Uwe

    2017-06-01

    The pathways by which physical activity impacts on participants' health are still not fully understood. The purpose of the present study was to go beyond existing research by combining methods from survey-based and experimental stress research, and by examining whether the potential of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to attenuate physiological and psychological stress responses is moderated by participants' subjective stress perception. The sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students (M=21.2±2.2 years, 52% women). Participants self-reported their stress and wore an accelerometer device for seven consecutive days. To examine differences in the adrenocortical, autonomic and psychological stress reactivity, salivary free cortisol, heart rate, state anxiety, mood and calmness were assessed prior to, during and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The cut-offs of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) were used to distinguish between students below/above current VPA recommendations. High levels of perceived stress combined with VPA levels below the ACSM's standards (students with high stress/low VPA experienced less favourable affect throughout the entire testing session (pstudents with high stress levels. Our findings highlight that promoting VPA in young adults seems to be a promising strategy to increase physiological and psychological stress resilience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Stress Reactivity in the Long-term Persistence of Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.W.; Branje, S.J.T.; Van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with

  8. The role of stress reactivity in the long-term persistence of adolescent social anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Hale, W. W.; Branje, S. J. T.; van Lier, P. A. C.; Koot, H. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with

  9. The role of stress reactivity in the long-term persistence of adolescent social anxiety symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale, W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; van Lier, P. A C; Koot, H. M.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms demonstrate a marked persistence over time, but little is known empirically about short-term processes that may account for this long-term persistence. In this study, we examined how self-reported and physiological stress reactivity were associated with

  10. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Creemers, Hanneke E.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Huizink, Anja C.

    Aims To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco use

  11. Autonomic stress reactivity and craving in individuals with problematic Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, Tania; Buodo, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    The link between autonomic stress reactivity and subjective urge/craving has been less systematically examined in behavioral addictions (i.e. problematic Internet use) than in substance use disorders. The present study investigated whether problematic Internet users (PU) show enhanced autonomic stress reactivity than non-PU, indexed by lower Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and higher Skin Conductance Level (SCL) reactivity during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), whether greater reactivity is related to stronger Internet craving, and whether problematic Internet usage is associated with some dysfunctional psychological features. Based on their Internet Addiction Test scores, participants were divided into PU (N = 24) and non-PU (N = 21). Their heart rate and skin conductance were continuously recorded during baseline, social stressors, and recovery. Craving for Internet usage were collected using a Likert scale before and after the TSST. The SDNN, an overall measure of HRV, was significantly lower in PU than non-PU during baseline, but not during and after stressful task. Furthermore, only among PU a significant negative correlation emerged between SDNN during recovery and craving ratings after the test. No group differences emerged for SCL. Lastly, PU endorsed more mood, obsessive-compulsive, and alcohol-related problems. Our findings suggest that problems in controlling one's use of the Internet may be related to reduced autonomic balance at rest. Moreover, our results provide new insights into the characterization of craving in PIU, indicating the existence of a relationship between craving for Internet usage and reduced autonomic flexibility.

  12. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  13. Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Brittany E.; Stam, Jacqueline; Huizink, Anja C.; Willemen, Agnes M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Branje, Susan; Meeus, W.H.J.; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n=327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17 years,

  14. Neuroticism and extraversion in relation to physiological stress reactivity during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Brittany E.; Stam, Jacqueline; Huizink, Anja C.; Willemen, Agnes M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.; van Lier, Pol A C

    The current study examined mean level and change in extraversion and neuroticism across adolescence in relation to physiological stress reactivity to social evaluation. Adolescents (n = 327) from the Dutch general population reported on personality measures at five annual assessments. At age 17

  15. Heritability and temporal stability of ambulatory autonomic stress reactivity in unstructured 24-hour recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijts, Melanie; van Lien, Rene; Kupper, Nina; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Measurements of ambulatory autonomic reactivity can help with our understanding of the long-term health consequences of exposure to psychosocial stress in real-life settings. Methods: In this study, unstructured 24-hour ambulatory recordings of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to social stress and adolescent cannabis use: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince van Leeuwen, A.; Creemers, H.E.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relationship of life-time and repeated cannabis use with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to social stress in a general population sample of adolescents. Design: Adolescents who reported life-time or repeated cannabis use, life-time or repeated tobacco

  17. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Emotional Stress-reactivity and Positive Affect among College Students: The Role of Depression History

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H.; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. Additionally, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. PMID:24274764

  19. Neurobiology of Gambling Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    For many, gambling is a recreational activity that is performed periodically without ill effects, but for some, gambling may interfere with life functioning. A diagnostic entity, pathological gambling, is currently used to define a condition marked by excessive and problematic gambling. In this review, the current status of understanding of the neurobiologies of gambling and pathological gambling is described. Multiple neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, opioid and glutamate) and brain regions (ventral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, insula, among others) have been implicated in gambling and pathological gambling. Considerations for future directions in gambling research, with a view towards translating neurobiological advances into more effective prevention and treatment strategies, are discussed. PMID:23541597

  20. Elevated C-reactive protein in adolescents: roles of stress and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica

    2013-06-01

    Psychological stress can up-regulate inflammatory processes and increase disease risk. In the context of stress, differences in how individuals cope might have implications for health. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations among stress, coping, and inflammation in a sample of African American and white adolescents. Adolescents (n = 245) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and coping, provided daily diary reports of interpersonal conflict for 7 days, and provided fasting blood samples for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP). In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and socioeconomic status, there were no significant associations between stress and CRP, but significant interactions between stress and coping emerged. For adolescents reporting more unpleasant stressful life events in the past 12 months, positive engagement coping was inversely associated with CRP (β= -.19, p adolescents reporting fewer stressful life events. Positive engagement coping was significantly and inversely associated with CRP in the context of interpersonal stress, whether measured as stressful life events reflecting interpersonal conflict (e.g., arguments with parents or siblings, conflict between adults in the home, and friendship ended) or frequency of arguments with others reported in daily diaries. Disengagement coping was unrelated to CRP. Findings suggest that positive engagement coping is associated with lower levels of inflammation, but only when adolescents are challenged by significant stress.

  1. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Salivary cortisol and DHEA reactivity to psychosocial stress in socially anxious males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirotsuki, Kentaro; Izawa, Shuhei; Sugaya, Nagisa; Yamada, Kosuke Chris; Ogawa, Namiko; Ouchi, Yuko; Nagano, Yuichiro; Nomura, Shinobu

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity in social anxiety. The present study used a standardized psychosocial stress protocol (the Trier Social Stress Test; TSST; [Kirschbaum, C., Pirke, K.M., Hellhammer, D.H., 1993. The 'Trier Social Stress Test'-a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology 28, 76-81.]) with 11 higher-social-anxiety and 11 lower-social-anxiety male college students. Psychological responses and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity and cortisol/DHEA ratio were assessed at seven different times. The results showed that there was a significantly lower cortisol responsiveness in the higher social anxiety group but there was no significant difference of DHEA responsiveness. Further analyses showed lower responses for the cortisol/DHEA ratio in the higher-social-anxiety group to the TSST. These results suggest that there may be reduced HPA axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in socially anxious people.

  3. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  4. Oxytocin administration attenuates stress reactivity in borderline personality disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, D; Bartz, J; Hamilton, H; Crystal, S; Braun, A; Ketay, S; Hollander, E

    2011-10-01

    Oxytocin has known stress-reducing and attachment-enhancing effects. We thus hypothesized that oxytocin would attenuate emotional and hormonal responses to stress in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Fourteen BPD and 13 healthy control (HC) adults received 40 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in double-blind randomized order followed by the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective dysphoria (Profile of Mood Changes) and plasma cortisol levels were measured. Childhood trauma history, attachment style, and self-esteem were also rated. A significant "Group × Drug × Time" interaction effect for dysphoria (p=.04) reflected a proportionately greater attenuation of stress-induced dysphoria in the BPD group after oxytocin administration. Additionally, a marginally significant "Group × Drug" interaction effect for cortisol (p=.10) reflected a tendency toward greater attenuation of the stress-induced cortisol surge in the BPD group after oxytocin administration. In the combined sample, the oxytocin-placebo difference in the emotional stress reactivity was significantly predicted by childhood trauma alone (p=.037) and combined with self-esteem (p=.030), whereas the oxytocin-placebo difference in cortisol stress reactivity was predicted only by insecure attachment (p=.013). Results suggest that oxytocin may have a beneficial impact on emotional regulation in BPD, which merits further investigation and could have important treatment implications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  6. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Summary Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corti-colimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity

  7. The conformity of BPP and vibroacoustic stimulation results in fetal non reactive non stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modarres

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most frequently used test for evaluation of fetal health is the Non Stress Test (NST. Unfortunately it has a high incidence of false positive results. The combination of vibroacoustic stimulation with the NTS has been shown to reduce non reactive results. Methods: A tests assessment method was chosen with a simple randomized sampling. 40 pregnant women with non reactive NST in the first 20 minutes who received VAS in one of Tehran University's Hospitals were compared with BPP scores. A vibroacoustic stimulation was applied for a 3 seconds on the maternal abdomen and fallowed within 10 minutes.Data collection tools were NST, sonography instruments ,NST result paper, tooth brusher, watch, demographic questioner and check list. Data analysis was made by descriptive static and by using the Fisher's Exact Test (with level of significant at p<0/05. All statistical analysis were performed using an spss/win. Results: After VAS, 70% of non reactive tracing became reactive. All cases with fetal reactivity response after a VAS had a subsequent BPP score of 8 (negative predictive value of 100%. False positivity of VAS was lower than NST. Conclusion: VAS offers benefits, by decreasing the incidence of non reactive test and reducing test time. VAS lowers the rate of false positive NST. VAS is safe and allows more efficient of prenatal services. This test could be used as a rapid antepartum test to predict fetal well-being.

  8. Menstrual cycle phase effects in the gender dimorphic stress cue reactivity of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Wray, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Matthew J; McClure, Erin A; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported that female smokers evidence greater subjective craving and stress/emotional reactivity to personalized stress cues than males. The present study employed the same dataset to assess whether females in the follicular versus luteal phase of the menstrual cycle accounted for the gender differences. Two objective criteria, onset of menses and luteinizing hormone surge (evaluated via home testing kits), were used to determine whether female smokers were in either the follicular (n = 22) or the luteal (n = 15) phase of their menstrual cycle, respectively. The females and a sample of male smokers (n = 53) were then administered a laboratory-based cue reactivity paradigm that involved assessment of craving, stress, and emotional reactivity in response to counterbalanced presentations of both a personalized stress script and neutral/relaxed script. While there were no significant differences between females in the follicular versus luteal phase on any outcome measure, females in the luteal menstrual phase reported greater craving than males whereas females in the follicular phase reported greater stress and arousal than males and perceived the stress cues as more emotionally aversive than males. This preliminary investigation suggests that gender differences in craving versus affective responding to stress cues may, in part, be explained variation by menstrual cycle phase. Study limitations and implications of the findings for future research and treatment are briefly discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Heart rate complexity: A novel approach to assessing cardiac stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Ryan C; Ginty, Annie T; Phillips, Anna C; Fisher, James P; McIntyre, David; Carroll, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Correlation dimension (D2), a measure of heart rate (HR) complexity, has been shown to decrease in response to acute mental stress and relate to adverse cardiovascular health. However, the relationship between stress-induced changes in D2 and HR has yet to be established. The present studies aimed to assess this relationship systematically while controlling for changes in respiration and autonomic activity. In Study 1 (N = 25) D2 decreased during stress and predicted HR reactivity even after adjusting for changes in respiration rate, and cardiac vagal tone. This result was replicated in Study 2 (N = 162) and extended by including a measure of cardiac sympathetic activity; correlation dimension remained an independent predictor of HR reactivity in a hierarchical linear model containing measures of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity and their interaction. These results suggest that correlation dimension may provide additional information regarding cardiac stress reactivity above that provided by traditional measures of cardiac autonomic function. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marieke G N; Jacobs van Goethem, Tessa H; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-12-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional categories (i.e., war and disease) presented against a category-related background picture. One day later, participants returned to the lab and received a reminder of the words of one emotional category followed by exposure to a stress task (Stress group, n=22) or a control task (Control group, n=24). Six days later, memory contextualization was tested using a word stem completion task. Half of the word stems were presented against the encoding context (i.e., congruent context) and the other half of the word stems were presented against the other context (i.e., incongruent context). The results showed that participants recalled more words in the congruent context than in the incongruent context. Interestingly, cortisol mediated the effect of stress exposure on memory contextualization. The stronger the post-reactivation cortisol response, the more memory performance relied on the contextual embedding of the words. Taken together, the current findings suggest that a moderate cortisol response after memory reactivation might serve an adaptive function in preventing generalization of emotional memories over contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heritability and Temporal Stability of Ambulatory Autonomic Stress Reactivity in Unstructured 24-Hour Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijts, Melanie; van Lien, Rene; Kupper, Nina; Boomsma, Dorret; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of ambulatory autonomic reactivity can help with our understanding of the long-term health consequences of exposure to psychosocial stress in real-life settings. In this study, unstructured 24-hour ambulatory recordings of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic control were obtained in 1288 twins and siblings, spanning both work time and leisure time. These data were used to define two ambulatory baseline (sleep, leisure) and four stress conditions (wake, work, work_sitting, work_peak) from which six ambulatory stress reactivity measures were derived. The use of twin families allowed for estimation of heritability and testing for the amplification of existing or emergence of new genetic variance during stress compared with baseline conditions. Temporal stability of ambulatory reactivity was assessed in 62 participants and was moderate to high over a 3-year period (0.36 unstructured real-life setting shows reliable, stable, and heritable individual differences. Real-life situations uncover a new and different genetic variation compared with that seen in resting baseline conditions, including sleep.

  12. Child maltreatment and autonomic nervous system reactivity: identifying dysregulated stress reactivity patterns by using the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Alves, Sonia; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions in stress response system development have been posited as mechanisms linking child maltreatment (CM) to psychopathology. Existing theories predict elevated sympathetic nervous system reactivity after CM, but evidence for this is inconsistent. We present a novel framework for conceptualizing stress reactivity after CM that uses the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. We predicted that in the context of a social-evaluative stressor, maltreated adolescents would exhibit a threat pattern of reactivity, involving sympathetic nervous system activation paired with elevated vascular resistance and blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity. A sample of 168 adolescents (mean age =14.9 years) participated. Recruitment targeted maltreated adolescents; 38.2% were maltreated. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiography, and blood pressure were acquired at rest and during an evaluated social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Pre-ejection period (PEP), CO, and total peripheral resistance reactivity were computed during task preparation, speech delivery, and verbal mental arithmetic. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed. Maltreatment was unrelated to PEP reactivity during preparation or speech, but maltreated adolescents had reduced PEP reactivity during math. Maltreatment exposure (F(1,145) = 3.8-9.4, p = .053-models.

  13. The clinical neurobiology of drug craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajita

    2013-08-01

    Drug craving has re-emerged as a relevant and important construct in the pathophysiology of addiction with its inclusion in DSM-V as a key clinical symptom of addictive disorders. This renewed focus has been due in part to the recent neurobiological evidence on craving-related neural activation and clinical evidence supporting its association with drug use, relapse, and recovery processes. This review covers the neurobiology of drug craving and relapse risk with a primary focus on cocaine addiction and a secondary emphasis on alcohol addiction. A conceptualization of drug craving on the continuum of healthy desire and compulsive seeking, and the associated neurobiological adaptations associated with the development of an increased craving/wanting state is presented. Altered dopamine neurochemistry as well as disrupted prefrontal control and hyperactive striatal-limbic responses in experiencing drug cues, stress, drug intake and in basal relaxed states are identified as neurobiological signatures that predict drug craving and drug use. Thus, the clinical and neurobiological features of the craving/wanting state are presented with specific attention to alterations in these cortico-limbic-striatal and prefrontal self-control circuits that predict drug craving and relapse risk. The methodological challenges that need to be addressed to further develop the evolving conceptual approach to the neuroscience of drug craving is presented, with a focus on identification and validation of biomarkers associated with the craving state and treatment approaches that may be of benefit in reversing the neurobiological adaptations associated with drug craving to improve treatment outcomes in addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on reactivity to stress in menopausal women with and without hot flushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Hernández, Mariano; García Sánchez, Francisco Alberto; Martínez Selva, José María; Abellán Alemán, José

    2002-10-05

    To asses if the hot flushes during menopause are associated with an abnormal cardivascular reactivity to stress. We also aimed to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on reactivity to stress in menopausal women. Experimental study including 28 healthy menopausal women with hot flushes (12 on HRT) and 20 without flushes (6 on HRT). Parameters evaluated included determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, percentage of decrease of peripheral pulse volume, skin conductance level and frecuency of inespecific cutaneous responses. All studies were performed prior to and after 4-6 months under HRT therapy. Menopausal women reporting hot flashes showed the highest electrodermal activity in front of stress. HRT therapy led to a decreased physiological reactivity in menopausal women, especially reactivity to stressors. Hot flushes during menopause indicate an increased level of cardiovascular reactivity to stress situations, hence a higher cardiovascular risk.

  15. Emotional non-acceptance links early life stress and blunted cortisol reactivity to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cărnuţă, Mihai; Crişan, Liviu G; Vulturar, Romana; Opre, Adrian; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been recently associated with blunted cortisol reactivity and emotion dysregulation, but no study until now examined whether these characteristics are related. The main goal of this study was to examine the potential mediator role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between ELS and cortisol reactivity to social threat. Only women who were free of psychiatric and endocrine disorders, had regular menstrual cycle and did not use oral contraceptives were selected for this study (N=62). After filling in ELS and multidimensional emotion dysregulation measures, participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test during which cortisol and autonomic responses were assessed. Most participants (85.5%) reported one or more major stressful events (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, major parental conflicts, death of a family or close friend, severe illness) experienced before age 17. ELS was negatively associated with cortisol reactivity and positively associated with skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity, but it did not influence heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. In addition, ELS was positively related to emotional non-acceptance (i.e., a tendency to develop secondary emotional responses to one's negative emotions), and the latter was negatively related to cortisol responses and positively related to SCL responses. Bootstrapping analyses indicated that emotional non-acceptance was a significant mediator in the relationships between ELS and both cortisol and SCL responses. Emotional non-acceptance is thus one of the psychological mechanisms underlying blunted cortisol and increased sympathetic reactivity in young healthy volunteers with a history of ELS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM REACTIVITY IN PRENATALLY STRESSED RATS DURING THE LATE PERIOD OF ONTOGENESIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudaverdyan, A; Saroyan, M; Khudaverdyan, D

    2015-09-01

    Systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined in normal rats and those exposed to influence of chronic stress during gestation. Data were registered six months after the birth and in 5, 24 and 48 hours after their immobilization. Analysis of the data showed that in rats undergoing stress, recorded systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate both before and during all periods of immobilization were significantly below than in control group. It is concluded that the maximum limit of motor activity in the prenatally stressed rats accompanied by a decrease in the values ​​recorded performance of the cardiovascular system, which is reflecting the decrease in these animals reactivity of the cardiovascular system, and thus the adaptive capacity for action of stress factors.

  17. Medical staff in emergency situations: severity of patient status predicts stress hormone reactivity and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluiter, J K; van der Beek, A J; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2003-05-01

    Although repetitive exposure to stressful situations is thought to habituate the physical stress responses, work stress is experienced by medical personnel in emergency and intensive care units; performance should, however, remain stable over time. To investigate the neuroendocrine reactions (reactivity during and recovery after work) in experienced emergency caregivers during emergency situations. A within subjects pre-post design was studied in the natural work environment of 20 municipal Dutch emergency caregivers. A stress protocol was developed in which the biomarker cortisol was measured in saliva at baseline, during the emergency period, and during recovery. Four scenarios were tested between subjects in which the severity of the emergency situation and the time of day were taken into account. Greater endocrine reactions were shown during and after the handling of patients in direct life threatening situations during morning hours compared to the handling of patients who were not in direct life threatening situations.

  18. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop, several papers were presented addressing the neurobiology and pharmacology of marijuana and treatment approaches, both psychotherapy and medications, for...

  19. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Cook, Emily C; Connell, Christian M

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = .98; 68 % girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors.

  20. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Liviu George Crisan; Romana eVulturar; Mircea eMiclea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in t...

  2. Prenatal Drug Exposure Moderates the Association between Stress Reactivity and Cognitive Function in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Bento, Samantha P.; Scaletti, Laura A.; Koenig, James I.; Granger, Douglas A.; Black, Maureen M.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal drug exposure (PDE) can undermine subsequent health and development. In a prospective longitudinal study we examine whether PDE moderates the link between stress reactivity and cognitive functioning in adolescence. Participants were 76 prenatally drug exposed and 61 non-exposed (NE) community comparison African American youth (50% male, mean age 14.17 years) living in an urban setting. All participants completed neuropsychological and academic achievement tests (Children’s Memory Sca...

  3. Emotional stress-reactivity and positive affect among college students: the role of depression history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Boynton, Marcella H; Tennen, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Multiple theories posit that people with a history of depression are at higher risk for a depressive episode than people who have never experienced depression, which may be partly due to differences in stress-reactivity. In addition, both the dynamic model of affect and the broaden-and-build theory suggest that stress and positive affect interact to predict negative affect, but this moderation has never been tested in the context of depression history. The current study used multilevel modeling to examine these issues among 1,549 college students with or without a history of depression. Students completed a 30-day online diary study in which they reported daily their perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect (including depression, anxiety, and hostility). On days characterized by higher than usual stress, students with a history of depression reported greater decreases in positive affect and greater increases in depressed affect than students with no history. Furthermore, the relations between daily stress and both depressed and anxious affect were moderated by daily positive affect among students with remitted depression. These results indicate that students with a history of depression show greater stress-reactivity even when in remission, which may place them at greater risk for recurrence. These individuals may also benefit more from positive affect on higher stress days despite being less likely to experience positive affect on such days. The current findings have various implications both clinically and for research on stress, mood, and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. [Neurobiology of Tourette Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Dilek; Akdemir, Devrim

    2016-01-01

    Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. Although it is a common disorder in childhood, the etiology of Tourette Syndrome has not been fully elucidated yet. Studies, -conducted so far- have revealed differences in neurobiological structures of individuals who suffer from Tourette Syndrome. The objective of this review is to assess etiological and pathophysiological studies in the Tourette Syndrome literature. An electronical search was conducted in PubMed database using the keywords tic disorders, Tourette Syndrome, neurobiology, genetics, neuroimaging and animal models. Research and review studies published between 1985 and 2015, with a selection preference towards recent publications, were reviewed. According to the studies, genetic predisposition hypothesis is considered as a priority. However, a precise genetic disorder associated with Tourette Syndrome has not been found. The evidence from postmortem and neuroimaging studies in heterogenous patient groups and animal studies supports the pathological involvement of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits in Tourette Syndrome. Consequently, the most emphasized hypothesis in the pathophysiology is the dopaminergic dysfunction in these circuits. Furthermore, these findings of the animal, postmortem and neuroimaging studies have confirmed the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of Tourette Syndrome. In conclusion, more studies are needed to understand the etiology of the disorder. The data obtained from neurobiological studies of the disorder will not only shed light on the way of Tourette Syndrome, but also guide studies on its treatment options.

  5. Social support and loneliness in college students: effects on pulse pressure reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Socially supportive relationships at university may buffer against psychological stress in students, particularly in those experiencing loneliness. To examine the relation of social support at university and loneliness with pulse pressure (PP) reactivity to acute psychological stress in a sample of first-year undergraduate students. Sixty-five female, adolescent, first-year university students. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as the arithmetic difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, which were measured during a resting baseline and during a stressful reading task. The difference between baseline and reading task PP represents PP reactivity. The Social Support at University Scale (SSUS) was used to assess social support availability in university, and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine main and interactive effects of SSUS and loneliness on PP change scores, and simple slopes were computed to assist in the interpretation of interaction effects. Social support at university was associated with lower PP reactivity in students reporting medium (t = -2.03, p = .04) or high levels of loneliness (t = -2.93, p = .004), but not in those reporting low levels of loneliness (t = -0.20, p = .83). Psychosocial interventions designed to increase social support available at university, and targeted at students experiencing loneliness may buffer against the harmful effects of acute stressors in lonely first-year students.

  6. CYP17A1 and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Stress in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Van Woudenberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who exhibit exaggerated blood pressure (BP reactivity to physical and mental challenges are at increased risk of developing hypertension in adulthood. BP at rest and in response to challenges is higher in males than females, beginning in early adolescence. CYP17A1 is one of the well-established gene loci of adult hypertension. Here, we investigated whether this gene locus is associated with elevated BP at rest and in response to physical (active standing and mental (math stress challenges in adolescence. We studied 496 male and 532 female adolescents (age 12–18 years who were recruited from a genetic founder population. Our results showed that the variant of CYP17A1 rs10786718 was associated with enhanced BP reactivity to the mental but not physical challenge and in males but not females. In males, BP increase in response to math stress was higher in major versus minor allele homozygotes by 7.6 mm Hg (P=8.3×10-6. Resting BP was not associated with the CYP17A1 variant in either sex. These results suggest that, in adolescent males but not females, CYP17A1 enhances BP reactivity to mental stress. Whether this effect contributes to the higher prevalence of hypertension in males than females later in life remains to be determined.

  7. Does stress reactivity or response to amphetamine predict smoking progression in young adults? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Harriet; Vicini, Lisa; Childs, Emma; Sayla, Maliha A; Terner, Jolan

    2007-02-01

    Recent studies with laboratory animals indicate that a constellation of behavioral factors predict progression to self-administer drugs. Relatively little is known about behavioral or biological factors that predict the progression in drug use from initial experimentation to regular use in human drug users. The present exploratory study examined reactivity to an acute stressor and reactivity to a single dose of a dopaminergic drug as predictors in progression to heavier smoking in young cigarette smokers over a 6-month period. Forty-four college students who were light to moderate smokers participated in three laboratory sessions, followed by a follow-up interview 6 months later to determine smoking level. On one of the laboratory sessions subjects underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, and on the others they ingested capsules containing placebo or 20 mg D-amphetamine. Outcome measures included subjective ratings of mood and measures of heart rate and salivary cortisol. We found modest positive relationships between stress reactivity and certain responses to amphetamine. Further, stress-induced increases in cortisol were positively related to increases in cigarette smoking in the 31 subjects who we were able to contact at 6 months. Although these results are highly preliminary, they resemble the relationships previously reported in laboratory animals, suggesting that some of the same factors that predict drug-self-administration in rodents predict progression in drug use among young adults.

  8. Subliminal activation of social ties moderates cardiovascular reactivity during acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N; Sanbonmatsu, David M; Smith, Timothy W; Cribbet, Matthew R; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C; Vaughn, Allison A

    2012-03-01

    The quality of one's personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine whether subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health.

  9. Measuring short-term and long-term physiological stress effects by cortisol reactivity in saliva and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the concurrent relationship between short-term and long-term stress reactivity measured by cortisol excretion and (2) the relationship of these physiological stress effects with self-reported stress and need for recovery after work (NFR). Participants

  10. Aspects of psychodynamic neuropsychiatry III: magic spells, the placebo effect, and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study, the importance of supporting the positive transference is stressed-from both a psychological and neurobiological perspective. The article argues that the neurobiology of expectation underlies transference. This neurobiology has been investigated particularly over the past several decades in work concerning the placebo effect. By understanding the neurobiology of expectation, one gains a better understanding of the neurobiology of the transference. This enables clinical predictions-and decisions-that are informed not just by the teachings of psychology but also by the science of biology.

  11. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity: a virtual reality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Counotte, J; Pot-Kolder, R; van Os, J; van der Gaag, M

    2016-12-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social stress, in interaction with psychosis liability and level of social stress exposure. Seventy-five individuals with higher psychosis liability (55 with recent onset psychotic disorder and 20 at ultra-high risk for psychosis) and 95 individuals with lower psychosis liability (42 siblings and 53 controls) were exposed to a virtual café in five experiments with 0-3 social stressors (crowded, other ethnicity and hostility). Paranoid ideation was measured after each experiment. Subjective distress was self-rated before and after experiments. Multilevel random regression analyses were used to test main effects of childhood trauma and interaction effects. Childhood trauma was more prevalent in individuals with higher psychosis liability, and was associated with higher level of (subclinical) psychotic and affective symptoms. Individuals with a history of childhood trauma responded with more subjective distress to virtual social stress exposures. The effects of childhood trauma on paranoia and subjective distress were significantly stronger when the number of virtual environmental stressors increased. Higher psychosis liability increased the effect of childhood trauma on peak subjective distress and stress reactivity during experiments. Childhood trauma is associated with heightened social stress sensitivity and may contribute to psychotic and affective dysregulation later in life, through a sensitized paranoid and stress response to social stressors.

  12. Coupling stress and reactive transport in fractures: Effects on contacting asperities, permeability and stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, K.; Peters, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Morris, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Deng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The permeability and geomechanical stability of fractured rock can be altered by reactive flow that induces mineral dissolution and/or precipitation. Understanding the coupling of geochemical and geomechanical processes is critical for predicting and identifying leakage pathways for environmentally-relevant fluids in the subsurface. This study couples a two-dimensional reactive transport model with a mechanical deformation model to simulate reaction, flow and deformation in a fractured carbonate rock under subsurface confining pressures. The fracture is represented as a homogenous calcite material subjected to high-pressure reactive CO2-acidified brine, and the dissolution reaction is modeled to be kinetically-limited by carbonic acid. Initial conditions for the simulations were based on fractured Indiana Limestone geometries obtained from xCT data. Simulation of reactive flow results in the enlargement of apertures and reduction in contact area along preferential flow paths, while apertures outside these channelized flow paths remain relatively unchanged. At high confining pressures, contact area occurred mainly in regions where channelization did not occur, resulting in a two- to three-fold reduction in the fracture specific stiffness. Moreover, at high confining stresses, channelized regions were preserved, enabling permeability to remain relatively unchanged compared to non-channelized regions, which in contrast showed an order of magnitude decrease in permeability when stressed. These simulations suggest that differences in dissolution patterns can lead to significant variations in fracture permeability and stiffness when subject to subsurface confining stresses. This work has important applications for geologic carbon sequestration, natural gas storage, hydraulic fracturing, geothermal energy and deep well injection of hazardous waste.

  13. Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation in Major Depression: Effects on Memory and Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous stimuli in a negative manner is a core bias associated with depression. Investigators have used cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) to demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally induce and modify these biases. This study extends previous research by examining whether CBM-I affects not only interpretation, but also memory and physiological stress response in individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We found that CBM-I was effective in inducing an interpretive bias. Participants also exhibited memory biases that corresponded to their training condition and demonstrated differential physiological responding in a stress task. These results suggest that interpretation biases in depression can be modified, and that this training can lead to corresponding changes in memory and to decreases in stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of examining the relations among different cognitive biases in MDD and the possibility of modifying cognitive biases.

  14. Regulation of plant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stress responses: learning from AtRBOHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yukun; He, Chengzhong

    2016-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced in plants, as the metabolic by-products or as the signaling components in stress responses. High levels of ROS are harmful to plants. In contrast, ROS play important roles in plant physiology, including abiotic and biotic tolerance, development, and cellular signaling. Therefore, ROS production needs to be tightly regulated to balance their function. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue (RBOH) proteins, also known as plant nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases, are well studied enzymatic ROS-generating systems in plants. The regulatory mechanisms of RBOH-dependent ROS production in stress responses have been intensively studied. This has greatly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate plant ROS production. This review attempts to integrate the regulatory mechanisms of RBOHD-dependent ROS production by discussing the recent advance. AtRBOHD-dependent ROS production could provide a valuable reference for studying ROS production in plant stress responses.

  15. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon. Reactive fish show a higher degree of the neurogenesis...

  16. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon I. Sheikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps < .001. Further, positive early caregiving moderated the effect of high cortisol reactivity on white matter FA (all ps ≤ .05, with high stress reactive girls who received greater parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  17. Differential Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity in Depression and Anxiety During Stress Depending on Type of Stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mandy X; Lamers, Femke; de Geus, Eco J C; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2016-06-01

    It remains unclear whether depressive and anxiety disorders are associated with hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and whether deviant reactivity occurs in all types of stressors. This study compared ANS reactivity in people with current or remitted depression/anxiety with reactivity in healthy controls during two stress conditions. From the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, data of 804 individuals with current depression/anxiety, 913 individuals with remitted depression/anxiety, and 466 healthy controls (mean age = 44.1 years; 66.4% female) were available. Two conditions were used to evoke stress: a) an n-back task, a cognitively challenging stressor, and 2) a psychiatric interview, evoking personal-emotional stress related to the occurrence of symptoms of depression/anxiety. Indicators of ANS activity were heart rate (HR), root mean square of differences between successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and preejection period. As compared with controls, participants with psychopathology had significant hyporeactivity of HR (controls = 4.1 ± 4.2 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.5 beats/min; current psychopathology = 3.1 ± 3.4 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -6.2 ± 14.5 milliseconds; remitted = -5.4 ± 17.8 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -3.5 ± 15.4 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -9.3 ± 17.0 milliseconds; remitted = -7.4 ± 16.5 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -6.9 ± 15.0 milliseconds) during the n-back task. In contrast, during the psychiatric interview, they showed significant hyperreactivity of HR (controls = 2.7 ± 3.4 beats/min; remitted = 3.5 ± 3.4 beats/min; current psychopathology = 4.0 ± 3.3 beats/min), RMSSD (controls = -3.4 ± 12.2 milliseconds; remitted = -4.1 ± 12.1 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.6 ± 11.8 milliseconds), and RSA (controls = -3.8 ± 8.1 milliseconds; remitted = -4.3 ± 7.9 milliseconds; current psychopathology = -5.0

  18. Reactivity to social stress in subclinical social anxiety: Emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behavior and physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu George Crisan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD. This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST. Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that, in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples.

  19. The benefits of being mindful: trait mindfulness predicts less stress reactivity to suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Jacqueline R; Bøe, Hans Jakob; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-03-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of research evaluating the efficacy of mindfulness as a clinical intervention. However, there is still little known about trait mindfulness, or how trait mindfulness interacts with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. The current study further explores the effect of trait mindfulness on emotion regulation, as well as whether specific factors of trait mindfulness are uniquely associated with subjective and autonomic reactivity to stress. Forty-eight healthy male participants were trained in the use of the suppression strategy and then instructed to suppress their responses to the inhalation of a 15% CO2-enriched air mixture for 90 s while their subjective distress and heart rate were recorded. After controlling for anxiety-related variables, the ability to provide descriptions of observed experiences predicted less heart rate reactivity to CO2 inhalation, while skillfulness at restricting attention to the present moment was uniquely predictive of less subjective distress. The tendency to attend to bodily or sensory stimuli predicted greater distress during CO2 inhalation. The inclusion of only healthy males limits the generalizability of study findings. Also, the sample size was relatively small. These findings suggest that factors associated with trait mindfulness predict less stress reactivity and distress while engaging in suppression above and beyond other variables that have been shown to predict anxious responding. The implications for emotion and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  1. Neurobiology of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Beach, Sara D.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences prior to formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. PMID:25290881

  2. Neurobiology of dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Beach, Sara D; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-02-01

    Dyslexia is one of the most common learning disabilities, yet its brain basis and core causes are not yet fully understood. Neuroimaging methods, including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and electrophysiology, have significantly contributed to knowledge about the neurobiology of dyslexia. Recent studies have discovered brain differences before formal instruction that likely encourage or discourage learning to read effectively, distinguished between brain differences that likely reflect the etiology of dyslexia versus brain differences that are the consequences of variation in reading experience, and identified distinct neural networks associated with specific psychological factors that are associated with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of social stress on time perception and psychophysiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedger, Kathryne; Necka, Elizabeth A; Barakzai, Anam K; Norman, Greg J

    2017-05-01

    Time perception is a fundamental component of everyday life. Although time can be measured using standard units, the relationship between an individual's experience of perceived time and a standard unit is highly sensitive to context. Stressful and threatening stimuli have been previously shown to produce time distortion effects, such that individuals perceive the stimuli as lasting for different amounts of time as compared to a standard unit. As a highly social species, humans are acutely sensitive to social stressors; however, time distortion effects have not been studied in the context of social stress. We collected psychophysiological (electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography) and time perception data before, during, and after a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for 42 participants. Based on prior theories and evidence from the time perception literature, we hypothesized that experiencing a stressful event would result in time distortion. This hypothesis was supported by the data, with individuals on average reproducing short and long duration negative and positive stimuli as lasting longer after experiencing social stress, t(41) = -3.55, p = .001, and t(41) = -4.12, p time perception were largely unrelated to psychophysiological reactivity to social stress. These findings are in line with some other studies of time distortion, and provide evidence for the interoceptive salience model of time perception. Implications for mechanisms of time distortion are discussed. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Maternal care affects male and female offspring working memory and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barha, Cindy K; Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2007-12-05

    Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in learning and memory and neuroendocrine responses to stress in adult male offspring, but it is not known how variations in maternal care affect adult female offspring. The present study investigated the performance of adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring exposed to either low or high levels of maternal licking/grooming on a spatial memory task (Experiment 1) and the effects of acute stress on corticosterone levels and spatial memory performance (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 rats were trained for 24 days on the spatial working/reference memory version of the radial arm maze (RAM). In Experiment 2, rats were trained on the same RAM task, exposed to an acute stress, and the effect of stress on corticosterone levels and subsequent spatial memory was examined. In Experiment 1, adult female offspring of low licking/grooming dams had enhanced working memory compared to all other groups. In Experiment 2, all groups of male and female offspring had enhanced working memory 24 h after exposure to acute 2 h restraint stress while reference memory was enhanced after stress in male and female offspring of low licking/grooming dams. Furthermore, female offspring of low licking/grooming dams showed the largest corticosterone response to the acute restraint stress compared to all other groups. Male offspring of low licking/grooming dams showed a flattened corticosterone response to stress. Thus variations in maternal care differentially affect working memory and stress reactivity in male and female offspring.

  5. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Marie; Schaefer, Johanna M; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Déchelotte, Pierre; Verhulst, Frank C; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2015-06-03

    Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects. Here we studied if ghrelin-reactive Ig are associated with anxiety and depression and with the stress-induced cortisol response in a general population of adolescents. Furthermore, to test the possible infectious origin of ghrelin-reactive Ig, their levels were compared with serum IgG against common viruses. We measured ghrelin-reactive IgM, IgG and IgA in serum samples of 1199 adolescents from the Dutch TRAILS study and tested their associations with 1) anxiety and depression symptoms assessed with the Youth Self-Report, 2) stress-induced salivary cortisol levels and 3) IgG against human herpesvirus 1, 2, 4 and 6 and Influenza A and B viruses. Ghrelin-reactive IgM and IgG correlated positively with levels of antibodies against Influenza A virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated negatively with antibodies against Influenza B virus. Ghrelin-reactive IgM correlated positively with anxiety scores in girls and ghrelin-reactive IgG correlated with stress-induced cortisol secretion, but these associations were weak and not significant after correction for multiple testing. These data indicate that production of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies could be influenced by viral infections. Serum levels of ghrelin-reactive autoantibodies probably do not play a role in regulating anxiety, depression and the stress-response in adolescents from the general population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves emotional reactivity to social stress: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B; Shahar, Ben; Szepsenwol, Ohad; Jacobs, W Jake

    2012-06-01

    The high likelihood of recurrence in depression is linked to a progressive increase in emotional reactivity to stress (stress sensitization). Mindfulness-based therapies teach mindfulness skills designed to decrease emotional reactivity in the face of negative affect-producing stressors. The primary aim of the current study was to assess whether Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is efficacious in reducing emotional reactivity to social evaluative threat in a clinical sample with recurrent depression. A secondary aim was to assess whether improvement in emotional reactivity mediates improvements in depressive symptoms. Fifty-two individuals with partially remitted depression were randomized into an 8-week MBCT course or a waitlist control condition. All participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) before and after the 8-week trial period. Emotional reactivity to stress was assessed with the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory at several time points before, during, and after the stressor. MBCT was associated with decreased emotional reactivity to social stress, specifically during the recovery (post-stressor) phase of the TSST. Waitlist controls showed an increase in anticipatory (pre-stressor) anxiety that was absent in the MBCT group. Improvements in emotional reactivity partially mediated improvements in depressive symptoms. Limitations include small sample size, lack of objective or treatment adherence measures, and non-generalizability to more severely depressed populations. Given that emotional reactivity to stress is an important psychopathological process underlying the chronic and recurrent nature of depression, these findings suggest that mindfulness skills are important in adaptive emotion regulation when coping with stress. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Neurobiological studies of fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a symptom associated with many disorders, is especially common in women and in older adults, and can have a huge negative influence on quality of life. Although most past research on fatigue uses human subjects instead of animal models, the use of appropriate animal models has recently begun to advance our understanding of the neurobiology of fatigue. In this review, results from animal models using immunological, developmental, or physical approaches to study fatigue are described and compared. Common across these animal models is that fatigue arises when a stimulus induces activation of microglia and/or increased cytokines and chemokines in the brain. Neurobiological studies implicate structures in the ascending arousal system, sleep executive control areas, and areas important in reward. In addition, the suprachiasmatic nucleus clearly plays an important role in homeostatic regulation of the neural network mediating fatigue. This nucleus responds to cytokines, shows decreased amplitude firing rate output in models of fatigue, and responds to exercise, one of our few treatments for fatigue. This is a young field but very important as the symptom of fatigue is common across many disorders and we do not have effective treatments. PMID:22841649

  8. The neurobiology of individuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bivort, Benjamin

    2015-03-01

    Individuals often display conspicuously different patterns of behavior, even when they are very closely related genetically. These differences give rise to our sense of individuality, but what is their molecular and neurobiological basis? Individuals that are nominally genetically identical differ at various molecular and neurobiological levels: cell-to-cell variation in somatic genomes, cell-to-cell variation in expression patterns, individual-to-individual variation in neuronal morphology and physiology, and individual-to-individual variation in patterns of brain activity. It is unknown which of these levels is fundamentally causal of behavioral differences. To investigate this problem, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whose genetic toolkit allows the manipulation of each of these mechanistic levels, and whose rapid lifecycle and small size allows for high-throughput automation of behavioral assays. This latter point is crucial; identifying inter-individual behavioral differences requires high sample sizes both within and across individual animals. Automated behavioral characterization is at the heart of our research strategy. In every behavior examined, individual flies have individual behavioral preferences, and we have begun to identify both neural genes and circuits that control the degree of behavioral variability between individuals.

  9. Cognitive reappraisal ability buffers against the indirect effects of perceived stress reactivity on Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagui, Sara J; Levens, Sara M

    2016-10-01

    Stress contributes to poor health outcomes; importantly, a stress reaction begins with the negative appraisal of a situation. The ability to use cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves reinterpreting an initial appraisal to change its emotional impact, could be a protective factor against the health consequences of stress reactivity. The present study investigated (a) if cognitive reappraisal ability (CRA) acts as a stress buffer against a body mass index (BMI) indicative of being overweight (≥25 kg/m2) or obese (≥30 kg/m2), and (b) if this buffering effect persists against the indirect influences of perceived stress reactivity (PSR) on Type 2 diabetes. One hundred fifty participants (54% female; mean age = 40.4 years ± 12.4 years) completed an online CRA task, self-report measures of PSR, height, weight, and Type 2 diabetes diagnosis on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results revealed that CRA significantly interacted with PSR to predict BMI, which indirectly predicted Type 2 diabetes. Individuals with higher PSR and higher CRA exhibited BMIs within a normal weight range and lower incidence of Type 2 diabetes. In contrast, individuals with higher PSR and lower CRA were overweight or obese, with a higher incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, higher CRA was not protective in those who had lower levels of PSR. Findings from this study suggest that emotion regulation interventions can be developed to indirectly target Type 2 diabetes and similar obesity-related illnesses, and that emotion regulation interventions should be tailored to the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Alcohol consumption as a predictor of reactivity to smoking and stress cues presented in the natural environment of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomko, Rachel L; Saladin, Michael E; McClure, Erin A; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Tiffany, Stephen T; Baker, Nathaniel L; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-02-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use underscores the importance of understanding the influence of alcohol consumption on risk factors for smoking and relapse. Alcohol has been shown to impact reactivity to smoking and stress-related cues, both of which are common antecedents to smoking and smoking relapse. The objective of the current study is to examine associations between alcohol use, cigarette craving, and stress reactivity following exposure to smoking and stress cues delivered in participants' daily lives. Using cue-reactivity ecological momentary assessment (CREMA), adult smokers (n = 138) reported cigarette craving, stress, and past hour alcohol use on a mobile device four times per day for 2 weeks, resulting in a range of 4493-5983 data points per analysis. Questions were followed by exposure to pictorial neutral, stressful, or smoking cues delivered via the mobile device. Craving and affect were re-assessed following cue exposure. Results showed that recent (past hour) alcohol use was significantly associated with increases in the following: (a) tonic (non-cue-elicited) cigarette craving, (b) stress cue-elicited cigarette craving, and (c) stress cue-elicited stress reactivity, in the context of high-baseline stress. There was no significant association between alcohol use and smoking cue-elicited craving. Alcohol use may increase risk for smoking and relapse to smoking by increasing cigarette craving and, in certain contexts, stress following stress cue exposure. Though alcohol is known for its anxiolytic properties, under some conditions, it may increase reactivity to stress cues.

  11. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reactive oxygen species mediate shear stress-induced fluid-phase endocytosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichi; Sakai, Jiro; Karino, Takeshi; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-02-01

    To elucidate the role of shear stress in fluid-phase endocytosis of vascular endothelial cells (EC), we used a rotating-disk shearing apparatus to investigate the effects of shear stress on the uptake of lucifer yellow (LY) by cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Exposure of EC to shear stress (area-mean value of 10 dynes/cm2) caused an increase in LY uptake that was abrogated by the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, acetovanillone, and two inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), calphostin C and GF109203X. These results suggest that fluid-phase endocytosis is regulated by both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PKC. Shear stress increased both ROS production and PKC activity in EC, and the increase in ROS was unaffected by calphostin C or GF109203X, whereas the activation of PKC was reduced by NAC and acetovanillone. We conclude that shear stress-induced increase in fluid-phase endocytosis is mediated via ROS generation followed by PKC activation in EC.

  13. Effects of gender and cigarette smoking on reactivity to psychological and pharmacological stress provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Waldrop, Angela E; Saladin, Michael E; Yeatts, Sharon D; Simpson, Annie; McRae, Aimee L; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Contini Sisson, Regana; Spratt, Eve G; Allen, Julia; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Brady, Kathleen T

    2008-06-01

    We examined the influence of gender and smoking status on reactivity in two human laboratory stress paradigms. Participants were 46 (21 men, 25 women) healthy individuals who completed the Trier Social Stress Task (i.e., performed speech and math calculations in front of an audience) and a pharmacological stress provocation (i.e., administration of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)) after an overnight hospital stay. Approximately half (53%) of the participants were smokers. Cortisol, adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), physiologic measures (heart rate, blood pressure), and subjective stress were assessed at baseline and at several time points post-task. Men demonstrated higher baseline ACTH and blood pressure as compared to women; however, ACTH and blood pressure responses were more pronounced in women. Women smokers evidenced a more blunted cortisol response as compared to non-smoking women, whereas smoking status did not affect the cortisol response in men. Finally, there was a more robust cardiovascular and subjective response to the Trier as compared to the CRH. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that women may be more sensitive than men to the impact of cigarette smoking on cortisol response. In addition, there is some evidence for a more robust neuroendocrine and physiologic response to acute laboratory stress in women as compared to men.

  14. Autophagy induction upon reactive oxygen species in Cd-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, WeiNa; Chen, WenLi

    2010-02-01

    Autophagy is a protein degradation process in which cells recycle cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress conditions or during certain stages of development. Upon the induction of autophagy, a double membrane autophagosome forms around cytoplasmic components and delivers them to the vacuole for degradation. In plants, autophagy has been shown previously to be induced during abiotic stresses including oxidative stress. Cd, as a toxicity heavy metal, resulted in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this paper, we demonstrated that ROS contributed to the induction of autophagy in Cd-stressed Arabidopsis thaliana. However, pre-incubation with ascorbic acid (AsA, antioxidant molecule) and catalase (CAT, a H2O2-specific scavenger) decreased the ROS production and the number of autolysosomal-like structures. Together our results indicated that the oxidative condition was essential for autophagy, as treatment with AsA and CAT abolished the formation of autophagosomes, and ROS may function as signal molecules to induce autophagy in abiotic stress.

  15. Neurobiology of depression: A neurodevelopmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Ojeda, Juan M; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C

    2017-03-03

    The main aims of this paper are to review and evaluate the neurobiology of the depressive syndrome from a neurodevelopmental perspective. An English language literature search was performed using PubMed. Depression is a complex syndrome that involves anatomical and functional changes that have an early origin in brain development. In subjects with genetic risk for depression, early stress factors are able to mediate not only the genetic risk but also gene expression. There is evidence that endocrine and immune interactions have an important impact on monoamine function and that the altered monoamine signalling observed in the depressive syndrome has a neuro-endocrino-immunological origin early in the development. Neurodevelopment is a key aspect to understand the whole neurobiology of depression.

  16. Association Between Stress-Related Sleep Reactivity and Metacognitive Beliefs About Sleep in Insomnia Disorder: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagini, Laura; Bruno, Rosa Maria; Paolo, Toti; Caccavale, Lisa; Gronchi, Alessia; Mauri, Mauro; Riemann, Dieter; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between stress-related sleep reactivity and metacognitive beliefs about sleep in subjects with insomnia disorder (93) and in a group of healthy controls (30) a set of variables, including Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) and Metacognition Questionnaire-Insomnia (MCQ-I), have been used. Internal consistency of the Italian version of FIRST was studied. Univariate correlation, regression analysis, and principal component analysis were also performed. The Italian version of FIRST showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity. Sleep reactivity was higher in women (p sleep (p insomnia. In insomnia, metacognitive beliefs may play a key role in modulating sleep reactivity. Therapeutic strategies acting selectively on metacognition to reduce stress-related sleep reactivity in insomnia may be useful.

  17. Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships between Perceived Stress and C-reactive Protein in Men and Women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbosa-Leiker, C.; Roper, V.; McPherson, S.; Lei, M.; Wright, B.; Hoekstra, T.; Kostick, M.

    2014-01-01

    To date, an examination of the longitudinal relationship between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP) is limited. We explored the relationship between perceived stress and CRP concurrently and across 2 and 4years in 383 men and women. Multiple linear regressions examined the cross-sectional

  18. Examining Infants' Cortisol Responses to Laboratory Tasks among Children Varying in Attachment Disorganization: Stress Reactivity or Return to Baseline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristin; Dozier, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol is a hormone involved in mounting a stress response in humans. The evidence of stress reactivity among young children has been mixed, however. In the present study, the order of two laboratory tasks (i.e., Strange Situation and play) was counterbalanced, and home saliva samples were obtained. Saliva samples were also collected upon the…

  19. Specific reduction in cortisol stress reactivity after social but not attention-based mental training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Kok, Bethany E.; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Chrousos, George P.; Singer, Tania

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial stress is a public health burden in modern societies. Chronic stress–induced disease processes are, in large part, mediated via the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system. We asked whether the contemplative mental training of different practice types targeting attentional, socio-affective (for example, compassion), or socio-cognitive abilities (for example, perspective-taking) in the context of a 9-month longitudinal training study offers an effective means for psychosocial stress reduction. Using a multimethod approach including subjective, endocrine, autonomic, and immune markers and testing 313 participants in a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor, we show that all three practice types markedly reduced self-reported stress reactivity in healthy participants. However, only the training of intersubjective skills via socio-affective and socio-cognitive routes attenuated the physiological stress response, specifically the secretion of the HPA axis end-product cortisol, by up to 51%. The assessed autonomic and innate immune markers were not influenced by any practice type. Mental training focused on present-moment attention and interoceptive awareness as implemented in many mindfulness-based intervention programs was thus limited to stress reduction on the level of self-report. However, its effectiveness was equal to that of intersubjective practice types in boosting the association between subjective and endocrine stress markers. Our results reveal a broadly accessible low-cost approach to acquiring psychosocial stress resilience. Short daily intersubjective practice may be a promising method for minimizing the incidence of chronic social stress–related disease, thereby reducing individual suffering and relieving a substantial financial burden on society. PMID:28983508

  20. Depression and anxiety: Associations with biological and perceived stress reactivity to a psychological stress protocol in a middle-aged population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, Susanne R.; Schene, Aart H.; Phillips, David I.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression and anxiety have been linked to higher as well as lower reactivity to stressful circumstances. Large, population-based studies investigating the association between depression and anxiety, perceived and physiological stress responses are lacking. Methods: We studied 725 men

  1. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  2. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Neurocognitive function and state cognitive stress appraisal predict cortisol reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marcia J; Grieve, Adam J; Ames, Michelle E; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-08-01

    Stress and associated alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have deleterious influence on the development of multiple mental and physical health problems. Prior research has aimed to identify individuals most at risk for the development of these stress-related maladies by examining factors that may contribute to inter-individual differences in HPA responses to acute stress. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in adolescents, (1) whether differences in neurocognitive abilities influenced cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor, (2) whether internalizing psychiatric disorders influenced this relationship, and (3) whether acute cognitive stress-appraisal mechanisms mediated an association between neurocognitive function and cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 70 adolescents from a community sample who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments of IQ, achievement, and declarative memory measures at mean age 14 and whose physiological and behavioral responses to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) were assessed at mean age 18. Results showed that, among all adolescents, lower nonverbal memory performance predicted lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, internalizing disorders interacted with verbal memory such that the association with cortisol reactivity was strongest for adolescents with internalizing disorders. Finally, lower secondary cognitive appraisal of coping in anticipation of the TSST independently predicted lower cortisol reactivity but did not mediate the neurocognitive-cortisol relationship. Findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to inter-individual differences in acute cortisol reactivity in adolescents, internalizing disorders may influence this relationship, and cognitive stress appraisal also predicts cortisol reactivity. Developmental, research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peripuberty stress leads to abnormal aggression, altered amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity and increased prefrontal MAOA gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez, C; Poirier, G L; Cordero, M I

    2013-01-01

    Although adverse early life experiences have been found to increase lifetime risk to develop violent behaviors, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these long-term effects remain unclear. We present a novel animal model for pathological aggression induced by peripubertal exposure to stress...... with face, construct and predictive validity. We show that male rats submitted to fear-induction experiences during the peripubertal period exhibit high and sustained rates of increased aggression at adulthood, even against unthreatening individuals, and increased testosterone/corticosterone ratio...... in the serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex-and pointing at epigenetic control of the MAOA gene-in the establishment of the link between peripubertal stress and later pathological aggression. Our data emphasize the impact of biological factors triggered by peripubertal adverse experiences on the emergence...

  5. Stalking: a neurobiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Falaschi, Valentina; Lombardi, Amedeo; Mungai, Francesco; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays stalking is becoming a real social emergency, as it may often fuel severe aggressive behaviours. No exhaustive aetiological hypothesis is still available regarding this complex phenomenon. However, the detailed descriptions of some of its peculiar features allow to draw with cautions some general suggestions. Probably stalking may arise from the derangement of those neural networks subserving the so-called social brain and the pair bonding formation, in particular the processes of attachment/separation, attraction/romantic love/reward. In addition, it seems to be modulated by excessive functioning of the dopamine system coupled with decreased serotonin tone. It is believed that the investigation and deepening of its possible neurobiological substrates may be helpful in the prevention of the severe consequences of stalking.

  6. Coping with racism: the impact of prayer on cardiovascular reactivity and post-stress recovery in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Denise C; Thayer, Julian F; Waldstein, Shari R

    2014-04-01

    Prayer is often used to cope with racism-related stress. Little is known about its impact on cardiovascular function. This study examined how prayer coping relates to cardiovascular reactivity (CVR), post-stress recovery, and affective reactivity in response to racism-related stress. African American women (n =81; mean age=20 years) reported their use of prayer coping on the Perceived Racism Scale and completed anger recall and racism recall tasks while undergoing monitoring of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV), and hemodynamic measures. Prayer coping was examined for associations with CVR, recovery, and affective change scores using general linear models with repeated measures. Higher prayer coping was associated with decreased state stress and DBP reactivity during racism recall (p'sracism recall recovery(p'sracism by utilizing prayer may have cardiovascular benefits for African American women.

  7. Impact of oral contraception and neuroticism on cardiovascular stress reactivity across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmayer, Sabine; Hughes, Brian M

    2010-01-01

    In order to avoid interpretation problems relating to the impact of reproductive hormones on cardiovascular variables, research on the psychosomatic etiology of cardiovascular disease frequently excludes women who use oral contraceptives (OCs), and sometimes women as a whole, from study samples. However, such conventions are based on a body of research that suffers from methodological limitations and, in any event, has produced inconclusive findings. Further, the relevant research fails to control for personality differences between users and non-users of OC that may, in turn, lead to differences in stress reactivity. In the present study, using a counterbalanced mixed-factorial design, 24 women (12 OC users and 12 non-users), drawn from a screening sample of 110, were tested across a 4-month timeframe. Cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) was measured during both the follicular and luteal phases of each woman's menstrual cycle. Menstrual phase and OC use were found to exert synergistic effects on CVR. A significant relationship between neuroticism and systolic blood pressure reactivity was observed, which was found to be contingent on menstrual phase. It is concluded that while menstrual phase and OC use are relevant, their contaminating influence on CVR research can be circumvented.

  8. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  9. Psychological reactivity to laboratory stress is associated with hormonal responses in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Egleston, Brian L.; Manzur, Angelica M.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Spiegel, David; Dorgan, Joanne F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study examined associations between psychological reactivity and hormonal responses to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) in postmenopausal women. METHODS Forty postmenopausal women ages 50–74 completed anxiety and mood assessments prior to and following the TSST. Blood samples were drawn across multiple time points for assessment of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA. RESULTS As expected, significant increases in anxiety and negative affect and decreases in positive affect were observed from pre- to post-TSST; however, the magnitude of change in anxiety and mood varied considerably across individuals. Analyses indicated that greater increases in anxiety and negative affect from pre- to post-TSST were associated with higher levels of cortisol, ACTH, and DHEA, controlling for race, age, body mass index, and smoking status. Changes in positive affect were not associated with cortisol, ACTH, or DHEA. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that enhanced reactivity to stress is associated with higher hormone levels among postmenopausal women, which could have potential implications for health. PMID:24595153

  10. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine leaves under water stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Zou, Ying-Ning; Xia, Ren-Xue

    2007-04-01

    In a pot experiment, this paper studied the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch inoculation on the reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine Hort. ex Tanaka leaves under water stress. The results showed that water stress decreased the colonization of G. versiforme on C. tangerine roots significantly, with a decrement of 33%. Under normal water supply and water stress, G. versiforme inoculation increased the leaf P content by 45% and 27%, and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents by 25% and 21%, and 16% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control. Inoculation with G. versiforme enhanced the activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased the contents of leaf soluble protein, ascorbate (ASC) and total ascorbate (TASC) notably, regardless soil moisture condition. Under water stress, G. versiforme inoculation decreased the leaf superoxide anion radical (O2-*) content by 31%, compared with that under normal water supply. It was suggested that the drought resistance of C. tangerine leaves was enhanced after G. versiforme inoculation.

  11. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Ghrelin potentiates cardiac reactivity to stress by modulating sympathetic control and beta-adrenergic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Silva, Gabriel; Turones, Larissa Córdova; da Cruz, Kellen Rosa; Gomes, Karina Pereira; Mendonça, Michelle Mendanha; Nunes, Allancer; de Jesus, Itamar Guedes; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Pansani, Aline Priscila; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Santos, Robson; Fontes, Marco Antônio Peliky; Guatimosim, Silvia; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Ianzer, Danielle; Ferreira, Reginaldo Nassar; Xavier, Carlos Henrique

    2018-03-01

    Prior evidence indicates that ghrelin is involved in the integration of cardiovascular functions and behavioral responses. Ghrelin actions are mediated by the growth hormone secretagogue receptor subtype 1a (GHS-R1a), which is expressed in peripheral tissues and central areas involved in the control of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, we assessed the role of ghrelin - GHS-R1a axis in the cardiovascular reactivity to acute emotional stress in rats. Ghrelin potentiated the tachycardia evoked by restraint and air jet stresses, which was reverted by GHS-R1a blockade. Evaluation of the autonomic balance revealed that the sympathetic branch modulates the ghrelin-evoked positive chronotropy. In isolated hearts, the perfusion with ghrelin potentiated the contractile responses caused by stimulation of the beta-adrenergic receptor, without altering the amplitude of the responses evoked by acetylcholine. Experiments in isolated cardiomyocytes revealed that ghrelin amplified the increases in calcium transient changes evoked by isoproterenol. Taken together, our results indicate that the Ghrelin-GHS-R1a axis potentiates the magnitude of stress-evoked tachycardia by modulating the autonomic nervous system and peripheral mechanisms, strongly relying on the activation of cardiac calcium transient and beta-adrenergic receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived stress, coping, and cortisol reactivity in daily life: A study of adolescents during the first year of college

    OpenAIRE

    Sladek, Michael R.; Doane, Leah D.; Luecken, Linda J.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents change how they cope with stress across different situations, but also differ from one another in their general capacity to cope. The current study examined whether cortisol reactivity to perceived daily stress varies with both situational (within-person) and individual (between-person) differences in coping. First-year college students (N = 63; Mage = 18.85) provided 15 stress-coping diaries and 15 corresponding saliva samples across 3 weekdays. Results from hierarchical linear g...

  14. A preliminary experimental examination of worldview verification, perceived racism, and stress reactivity in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A; Flack, John M; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol, and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Reactive Oxygene Species and Thioredoxin Activity in Plants at Development of Hypergravity and Oxidative Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    Early increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, including H2O2, occurs in plant cells under various impacts and than these ROS can function as signaling molecules in starting of cell stress responses. At the same time thioredoxins (TR) are significant ROS and H2O2 sensors and transmitters to activation of various redox sensitive proteins, transcription factors and MAP kinases. This study was aimed to investigate early increasing of ROS and H2O2 contents and TR activity in the pea roots and in tissue culture under hypergravity and oxidative stresses. Pea roots of 3-5 days old seedlings and 12-14 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. The pea seedlings were grown on wet filter paper and the tissue culture was grown on MS medium in dark conditions under 24oC. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 10 and 15 g. Chemiluminescence (ChL) intensity for ROS concentration, H2O2 content and TR activity were determined. All experiments were repeated by 3-5 times. Early and reliable increasing of ChL intensity and H2O2 contents in the pea roots and in the tissue culture took place under hypergravity and oxidative stresses to 30, 60 and 90 min. At the same time TR activity increased on 11 and 19 percents only to 60 and 90 min. Thus under hypergravity and oxidative stresses in both investigated plants take place early increasing of ROS and H2O2 contents which as second messengers lead to increasing of TR activity with creating of ROS-TR stress signaling pathway.

  16. Evidence of an IFN-γ by early life stress interaction in the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Stacey, David; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Since numerous studies have found that exposure to early life stress leads to increased peripheral inflammation and psychiatric disease, it is thought that peripheral immune activation precedes and possibly mediates the onset of stress-associated psychiatric disease. Despite early studies, IFNγ has received little attention relative to other inflammatory cytokines in the context of the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have emerged recently as a promising means of elucidating these types of complex relationships including the modeling of the interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Here we investigate the GxE relationship between early-life stress and genetic variants of IFNγ on emotion processing. To investigate the impact of the relationship between genetic variants of IFNγ (rs1861494, rs2069718, rs2430561) and early life stress on emotion processing, a sample of healthy adults (n=409) undergoing an emotional faces paradigm in an fMRI study were genotyped and analysed. Information on early life stress was obtained via Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A positive association between early life stress and amygdala reactivity was found. Specifically, the main effect of genotype of rs1861494 on amygdala reactivity indicates a higher neural response in C allele carriers compared to T homozygotes, while we did not find main effects of rs2069718 and rs2430561. Importantly, interaction analyses revealed a specific interaction between IFNγ genotype (rs1861494) and early life stress affecting amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, resulting from a positive association between CTQ scores and amygdala reactivity in C allele carriers while this association was absent in T homozygotes. Our findings indicate that firstly the genetic variant of IFNγ (rs1861494) is involved with the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and secondly, that this genetic variant moderates effects of early life

  17. Lateralization of Neurobiological Response in Adolescents with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Related to Severe Childhood Sexual Abuse: the Tri-Modal Reaction (T-MR) Model of Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutluer, Tuba; Şar, Vedat; Kose-Demiray, Çiğdem; Arslan, Harun; Tamer, Sibel; Inal, Serap; Kaçar, Anıl Ş

    2018-01-01

    This study inquires into neurobiological response to stress and its clinical correlates among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cerebral anatomy were carried out on 23 female adolescents with PTSD related to severe childhood sexual abuse and 21 matched healthy controls. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents, Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Beck Depression Scale, and a set of neuro-cognitive tests were administered to all participants. Compared to controls, PTSD group bilaterally had smaller amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and thinner prefrontal cortex but normal thalamus. Further analyses within the PTSD group suggested an association between symptoms of PTSD and sizes of right brain structures including smaller amygdala but larger hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Thinner right prefrontal cortex and larger right thalamus seemed to be related to denial and response prevention, respectively. Being related to both hemispheres, dissociative amnesia was negatively associated with proportion of the right amygdala to right thalamus and to both left and right prefrontal cortex. Suggesting a neuro-protective effect against traumatic stress at least through adolescence, depersonalization-derealization and identity alteration were correlated with thicker left prefrontal cortex. Unlike the lateralization within PTSD group, correlations between regions of interest were rather symmetrical in controls. The graded response to stress seemed to be aimed at mental protection by lateralization of brain functions and possibly diminished connection between two hemispheres. A Tri-Modal Reaction (T-MR) Model of protection is proposed.

  18. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  19. Reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction: the link with cardiac arrhythmogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Tse

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS, which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodelling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation, mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signalling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP. Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signalling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension and heart failure.

  20. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: evidence for moderation by parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Joanisse, Marc F; Mackrell, Sarah M; Kryski, Katie R; Smith, Heather J; Singh, Shiva M; Hayden, Elizabeth P

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent-child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations.

  1. Links between white matter microstructure and cortisol reactivity to stress in early childhood: Evidence for moderation by parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I.; Joanisse, Marc F.; Mackrell, Sarah M.; Kryski, Katie R.; Smith, Heather J.; Singh, Shiva M.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (measured via cortisol reactivity) may be a biological marker of risk for depression and anxiety, possibly even early in development. However, the structural neural correlates of early cortisol reactivity are not well known, although these would potentially inform broader models of mechanisms of risk, especially if the early environment further shapes these relationships. Therefore, we examined links between white matter architecture and young girls' cortisol reactivity and whether early caregiving moderated these links. We recruited 45 6-year-old girls based on whether they had previously shown high or low cortisol reactivity to a stress task at age 3. White matter integrity was assessed by calculating fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. Parenting styles were measured via a standardized parent–child interaction task. Significant associations were found between FA in white matter regions adjacent to the left thalamus, the right anterior cingulate cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus (all ps parent positive affect showing white matter structure more similar to that of low stress reactive girls. Results show associations between white matter integrity of various limbic regions of the brain and early cortisol reactivity to stress and provide preliminary support for the notion that parenting may moderate associations. PMID:25379418

  2. The neurobiology of successful abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K L; Hester, R; Whelan, R

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adenosine receptor neurobiology: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Lee, Chien-fei; Chern, Yijuang

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that is distributed ubiquitously throughout the body as a metabolic intermediary. In the brain, adenosine functions as an important upstream neuromodulator of a broad spectrum of neurotransmitters, receptors, and signaling pathways. By acting through four G-protein-coupled receptors, adenosine contributes critically to homeostasis and neuromodulatory control of a variety of normal and abnormal brain functions, ranging from synaptic plasticity, to cognition, to sleep, to motor activity to neuroinflammation, and cell death. This review begun with an overview of the gene and genome structure and the expression pattern of adenosine receptors (ARs). We feature several new developments over the past decade in our understanding of AR functions in the brain, with special focus on the identification and characterization of canonical and noncanonical signaling pathways of ARs. We provide an update on functional insights from complementary genetic-knockout and pharmacological studies on the AR control of various brain functions. We also highlight several novel and recent developments of AR neurobiology, including (i) recent breakthrough in high resolution of three-dimension structure of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) in several functional status, (ii) receptor-receptor heterodimerization, (iii) AR function in glial cells, and (iv) the druggability of AR. We concluded the review with the contention that these new developments extend and strengthen the support for A1 and A2ARs in brain as therapeutic targets for neurologic and psychiatric diseases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High intensity exercise enhances platelet reactivity to shear stress and coagulation during and after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarugi, Hideo; Shibata, Masashi; Shibata, Shiori; Ishii, Hiromitsu; Taka, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2003-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute cardiac events, such as angina, myocardial infarction and sudden death. It is believed that regular low-intensity exercise can reduce, while high-intensity exercise may provoke acute cardiac events. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise both at low and high intensities on the ventilatory threshold (VT), platelet reactivity and coagulation before and after exercise. Platelet reactivity and coagulation were measured under flow condition, using native blood, by hemostatometry. Seven healthy young men (age: 20-29 years) performed bicycle ergometer exercise for 30 min at intensities of 90% (Ex-VT90% or approximately 55% VO(2max)) and 130% (Ex-VT130% or 80% VO(2max)) of individual VT. Blood cell counts, hematocrit, blood lactic acid and plasma catecholamine levels were slightly but significantly increased after Ex-VT90% and markedly after Ex-VT130% after 30 min exercise. Subsequent to the exercise, the elevated blood cell counts decreased to the resting levels both at Ex-VT90% and at Ex-VT130%. Platelet reactivity to shear stress and dynamic coagulation were significantly enhanced immediately and 30 min after Ex-130%VT. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in those of Ex-90%VT. The present study suggests that high-intensity exercise-induced platelet hyperreactivity and hypercoagulable state may pose an increased risk for acute, sometimes fatal cardiac event. On the other hand, our findings support the view that low-intensity exercise does not present a risk of thrombosis. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Behavioral and neurobiological effects of prenatal stress exposure in male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierksma, Annerieke S R; Prickaerts, Jos; Chouliaras, Leonidas; Rostamian, Somayeh; Delbroek, Lore; Rutten, Bart P F; Steinbusch, Harry W M; van den Hove, Daniel L A

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence implies a role for chronic stress and stress-related disorders in the etiopathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although chronic stress exposure during various stages of life has been shown to exacerbate AD-related cognitive deficits and neuropathology in AD mouse models, the role of stress exposure during the prenatal period on AD development and progression remained to be investigated. The present study therefore explored the effects of prenatal maternal stress (PMS) in both male and female APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse offspring in terms of cognition, affect, and AD-related neuropathology. As prenatal perturbations are likely to mediate their effects via alterations in epigenetic regulation, changes in hippocampal DNA methyltransferase 3a, 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels were assessed as underlying mechanisms. Repetitive restraint stress during the first week of gestation exerted a sex-dependent effect, with male PMS mice showing spatial memory deficits and a blunted hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response, while female PMS mice showed improved spatial memory performance, increased depressive-like behavior, as well as a decrease in hippocampal plaque load. In addition, sex differences were observed among APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, independent of PMS (i.e., female mice showed impaired spatial memory performance, higher hippocampal plaque load, altered amyloid precursor protein processing in the CA3 and lower DNA methyltransferase 3a immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus when compared with male mice of the same age). In conclusion, PMS exposure impacts on the behavioral phenotype and neuropathology of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Moreover, given the remarkable sex differences observed, one should not overlook the impact of sex-specific responses to environmental exposures when investigating gene-environment interactions in AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, physiological reactivity, alcohol problems, and aggression among military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T; Kaloupek, Danny G; Schumm, Jeremiah A; Marshall, Amy D; Panuzio, Jillian; King, Daniel W; Keane, Terence M

    2007-08-01

    This study examined the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and aggressive behavior among a sample of male Vietnam veterans (N = 1,328). Results indicated that the hyperarousal PTSD symptom cluster evidenced the strongest positive association with aggression at the bivariate level when compared with the other PTSD symptom clusters. When the PTSD symptom clusters were examined together as predictors, hyperarousal symptoms evidenced a significant positive relationship with aggression, and avoidance/numbing symptoms were negatively associated with aggression. Examination of potential mediators indicated that hyperarousal symptoms were directly associated with aggression and indirectly related to aggression via alcohol problems. Reexperiencing symptoms were associated with aggression only indirectly and through their positive association with physiological reactivity and negative association with alcohol problems. Study results highlight the complexity of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression, and suggest possible mechanisms explaining this association. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  8. C-reactive protein, pre- and postdexamethasone cortisol levels in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Carsten; Wibisono, Dennis; Terfehr, Kirsten; Löwe, Bernd; Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2014-07-01

    Dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may impact inflammatory processes in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), possibly resulting in a low-grade inflammation as reflected by elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). Serum CRP levels and salivary cortisol before and after the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) were assessed in 50 inpatients with main diagnoses PTSD, major depressive disorder or borderline personality disorder. A strong trend for lower CRP levels was found in PTSD positive individuals compared with patients without PTSD. Our study does not support the hypothesis of elevated serum CRP levels in PTSD compared with other psychiatric patients. However, a dysbalanced immune system with suppressed CRP might contribute to the elevated somatic comorbidity in PTSD.

  9. Diurnal and stress-reactive dehydroepiandrosterone levels and telomere length in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dismukes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation examined the association between the aging-related biomarkers dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and telomere length (TL in community-recruited African-American youth. The examination of DHEA included stress reactive, basal and diurnal sampling, in order to elucidate the underlying physiological process that may overlap with TL. One hundred and two participants completed the Trier Social Stressor Test for children (TSST-C. TL was obtained from all youth from buccal swabs on the same day as the TSST-C. Saliva samples from 83 participants were obtained over the course of two additional days to measure waking and diurnal levels of DHEA. DHEA diurnal slope was a robust predictor of TL (B=0.516, P<0.05, while other DHEA values were not significantly associated with TL. This study is one of the first studies to examine basal, diurnal and reactivity measurements of DHEA in youth. Furthermore, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate a positive association between DHEA, a putative anti-aging hormone, and TL, an indicator of cellular aging.

  10. Unravelling chemical priming machinery in plants: the role of reactive oxygen-nitrogen-sulfur species in abiotic stress tolerance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Chrystalla; Savvides, Andreas; Christou, Anastasis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-10-01

    Abiotic stresses severely limit crop yield and their detrimental effects are aggravated by climate change. Chemical priming is an emerging field in crop stress management. The exogenous application of specific chemical agents before stress events results in tolerance enhancement and reduction of stress impacts on plant physiology and growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the remarkable effects of chemical priming on plant physiology remain to be elucidated. Reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species (RONSS) are molecules playing a vital role in the stress acclimation of plants. When applied as priming agents, RONSS improve stress tolerance. This review summarizes the recent knowledge on the role of RONSS in cell signalling and gene regulation contributing to abiotic stress tolerance enhancement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex differences in stress reactivity of hippocampal BDNF in mice are associated with the female preponderance of decreased locomotor activity in response to restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Bi, Yuanyuan; Ishiwatari, Makiko; Oishi, Nobuo; Fukata, Hideki; Ueno, Koichi

    2013-12-01

    The incidence and prevalence of depression is higher in women than in men, but the cause of this sex discrepancy remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key protein for maintaining neuronal integrity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the female preponderance in behavioral responsivity to restraint stress focusing on the stress reactivity of BDNF in the hippocampus. Male and female ICR mice were exposed to a 3-h session of restraint stress. Plasma corticosterone was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. BDNF mRNA expression in the whole hippocampus was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Wheel-running activity was monitored during the dark period. In response to restraint stress, the increase in levels of serum corticosterone was higher in female than in male mice. Restraint stress resulted in decreased voluntary wheel-running behavior that was greater in female than male animals. In addition to these sex differences in stress reactivity, we found a significant sex difference in BDNF levels in the hippocampus of restraint-stressed mice; total BDNF levels significantly decreased in female mice, but not in male mice in response to the stress. Furthermore, BDNF exon I and IV mRNA expression also showed the same tendency. These data indicate that the reduction in levels of voluntary wheel-running activity in response to stress can be significantly influenced by sex. Moreover, our findings suggest a link between the sex differences in this behavioral response to stress and differential stress reactivity in the production of BDNF in the hippocampus.

  12. Chronic intermittent hypoxia sensitizes acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity and Fos induction in the rat locus coeruleus in response to subsequent immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A

    2008-07-17

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA

  13. Residual stress and texture in Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide layers deposited by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azanza Ricardo, C.L., E-mail: Cristy.Azanza@ing.unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Pastorelli, M.; D' Incau, M. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy); Aswath, P. [College of Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX (United States); Scardi, P. [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, 38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento (Italy)

    2016-04-30

    Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide thin films were deposited on standard soda-lime substrates by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Residual stress and texture were studied by X-ray diffraction, while X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy provided information on the Al environment in the best performing thin films. The influence of deposition parameters on structural and microstructural properties is discussed. A correlation between microstructure and residual stress state with electrical and optical properties is proposed. - Highlights: • Al doped ZnO thin films were obtained by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering. • Correlation of stresses and texture with electrical and optical properties is shown. • Homogeneous and stress-free thin-films are the best performing ones. • XANES confirmed the doping mechanism and excluded some spurious phases.

  14. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, GS; Kuchenbecker, SY; Pressman, SD; Sumida, KD; Slavich, GM

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Taylor & Francis. Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to ...

  15. Oxidative Stress in the Developing Rat Brain due to Production of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress after birth led us to localize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS production in the developing rat brain. Brains were assessed a day prenatally and on postnatal days 1, 2, 4, 8, 14, 30, and 60. Oxidation of dihydroethidium detected superoxide; 6-carboxy-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate revealed hydrogen peroxide; immunohistochemical proof of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine detected peroxynitrite formation and lipid peroxidation, respectively. Blue autofluorescence detected protein oxidation. The foetuses showed moderate RONS production, which changed cyclically during further development. The periods and sites of peak production of individual RONS differed, suggesting independent generation. On day 1, neuronal/glial RONS production decreased indicating that increased oxygen concentration after birth did not cause oxidative stress. Dramatic changes in the amount and the sites of RONS production occurred on day 4. Nitrotyrosine detection reached its maximum. Day 14 represented other vast alterations in RONS generation. Superoxide production in arachnoidal membrane reached its peak. From this day on, the internal elastic laminae of blood vessels revealed the blue autofluorescence. The adult animals produced moderate levels of superoxide; all other markers reached their minimum. There was a strong correlation between detection of nitrotyrosine and carboxyethyllysine probably caused by lipid peroxidation initiated with RONS.

  16. The effects of task demand and decision latitude on cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, J; Weidner, G

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of task demand (absence or presence of time pressure) and decision latitude (choice or no choice over a task) on cardiovascular and affective responses to stressful tasks among 70 college students. Subjects also rated whether they felt under pressure and the extent to which they felt in control. Time pressure was related to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) responses among men and increased negative affect for both sexes. Lack of choice over the task also resulted in increased negative affect in both sexes. The least stressful condition--having a choice in the absence of time pressure--resulted in reduced negative affect. In addition to the effects of manipulated decision latitude and demand, perceptions of being in control were associated with reduced SBP among women who had a choice. Perceived control also contributed to reduced negative affect among men. These results suggest that the postulated negative effects of high demand and low decision latitude (ie, job strain) on cardiovascular health may be mediated in part by increased cardiovascular reactivity and negative affect.

  17. Anti-stress activity of Propionibacterium freudenreichii : identification of a reactivative protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobjeva, Lena; Leverrier, Pauline; Zinchenko, Aleksei; Boyaval, Patrick; Khodjaev, Evgeni; Varioukhina, Svetlana; Ponomareva, Galina; Gordeeva, Elena; Jan, Gwénaël

    2004-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii is known to prevent mutations caused by various agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 9-aminoacridine, 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide and by UV radiation in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It was also shown to prevent or repair damage caused by H(2)O(2) or UV radiation in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, a characteristic previously designated as reactivative effect. In order to characterise this effect at the molecular level, we have purified the active component from a P. freudenreichii cell-free extract using a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. The isolated 35 kDa protein was then identified using both N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing as a cysteine synthase. The latter was localised in the P. freudenreichii proteomic map. It is constitutively expressed but also clearly induced during adaptation to detergent and heat, but not acid, stresses. The biological meaning of cysteine synthase in the context of adaptation to oxidative and non-oxidative stresses is discussed.

  18. Global Plant Stress Signaling: Reactive Oxygen Species at the Cross-Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Schenk, Peer M

    2016-01-01

    Current technologies have changed biology into a data-intensive field and significantly increased our understanding of signal transduction pathways in plants. However, global defense signaling networks in plants have not been established yet. Considering the apparent intricate nature of signaling mechanisms in plants (due to their sessile nature), studying the points at which different signaling pathways converge, rather than the branches, represents a good start to unravel global plant signaling networks. In this regard, growing evidence shows that the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most common plant responses to different stresses, representing a point at which various signaling pathways come together. In this review, the complex nature of plant stress signaling networks will be discussed. An emphasis on different signaling players with a specific attention to ROS as the primary source of the signaling battery in plants will be presented. The interactions between ROS and other signaling components, e.g., calcium, redox homeostasis, membranes, G-proteins, MAPKs, plant hormones, and transcription factors will be assessed. A better understanding of the vital roles ROS are playing in plant signaling would help innovate new strategies to improve plant productivity under the circumstances of the increasing severity of environmental conditions and the high demand of food and energy worldwide.

  19. The effects of multitasking on psychological stress reactivity in recreational users of cannabis and MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Atherton, Katie; Grainger, Jessica; Brosnan, Robert; Scholey, Andrew B

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is associated with psychobiological and neurocognitive deficits. Assessments of the latter typically include tests of memory and everyday cognitive functioning. However, to date, little attention has been paid to effects of drug use on psychological stress reactivity. We report three studies examining the effects of recreational use of cannabis and MDMA on mood and psychological responses to multitasking using a cognitively demanding laboratory stressor that provides an analogue for everyday situations involving responses to multiple stimuli. The effects of the multitasking framework on mood and perceived workload were assessed in cannabis (N=25), younger (N=18) and older (N=20) MDMA users and compared with non-target drug controls. Compared with respective control groups, cannabis users became less alert and content, and both MDMA groups became less calm following acute stress. Unexpectedly, the stressor increased ratings of calm in cannabis users. Users also scored higher than their controls with respect to ratings of resources needed to complete the multitasking framework. These findings show, for the first time, that recreational use of cannabis and MDMA, beyond the period of intoxication, can negatively influence psychological responses to a multitasking stressor, and this may have implications for real-life situations which place high demands on cognitive resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reported Exposure and Emotional Reactivity to Daily Stressors: The Roles of Adult-Age and Global Perceived Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age, but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between young and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in old adults, and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654

  1. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J.; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Both early adversity and depression are associated with heightened inflammation. However, few studies have focused on inflammatory reactivity to psychosocial stress and examined adiposity as a potential moderator. Yet, repeated heightened inflammatory reactivity over time is thought to contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and adipose tissue is a key source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether early adversity and depressive symptoms were related to stress-induced inflammation and whether these associations varied by total body and abdominal adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a sample of late adolescents. Participants reported on their early family environment and current depressive symptoms, had their height, weight, and WC assessed for adiposity markers, and provided blood samples for IL-6 assessment before and after a standardized laboratory stress task. No main effect of early adversity on IL-6 reactivity to acute stress was observed. However, significant interactions between early adversity and BMI and WC emerged. Greater exposure to early adversity was associated with greater IL-6 responses only among adolescents with higher BMI or WC. The same pattern of findings was observed for depressive symptoms. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses indicated that among adolescents with greater adiposity, early adversity indirectly influenced IL-6 reactivity via current depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to our understanding of vulnerability factors that may amplify the associations between early adversity and depressive symptoms and inflammation during relatively early stages of life. PMID:28668557

  2. The Relationship between Sex, Age, and Heart Rate Reactivity to a Psychological Stressor: Implications for Student Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpley, Christopher F.; Scuderi, Carl S.

    1990-01-01

    Compared heart rate reactivity (HRR) in a wide age range of 128 male and female students. Used mental arithmetic under timed and competitive conditions as the stressor. Findings showed no significant differences in the HRR of men and women suggesting that college stress management programs should be evenly aimed at women and men. (Author/PVV)

  3. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…

  4. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins and anxiety, depression and stress-induced cortisol response in adolescents. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. François (Marie); J.M. Schäfer (Johanna); C. Bole-Feysot (Christine); P. Déchelotte (Pierre); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); S.O. Fetissov (Serguei)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, has been implicated in the regulation of stress-response, anxiety and depression. Ghrelin-reactive immunoglobulins (Ig) were recently identified in healthy and obese humans showing abilities to increase ghrelin's stability and orexigenic effects.

  5. Trait Emotional Intelligence, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Experiential Avoidance in Stress Reactivity and Their Improvement Through Psychological Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Choi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress pervades daily society, often with deleterious consequences for those prone to react intensely to it. Intervention techniques to attenuate stress reactivity are thus paramount. With that goal in mind, researchers have sought to identify and alter malleable psychological dispositional variables that influence stress reactivity. Trait emotional intelligence (TEI, anxiety sensitivity (AS, and experiential avoidance (EA are increasingly receiving attention in these research efforts. The self-reported emotional component of stress reactivity has been emphasized in investigations and is our focus. Specifically, this paper overviews the role of TEI, AS, and EA in self-reported stress responses. We also discuss empirically supported psychological methods to adjust suboptimal levels of these variables in normal populations. Both psycho-educational (information, skills and mindfulness-based interventions (specific mindfulness therapies or components are covered. Findings include that (1 TEI, AS, and EA are each correlated with the emotional component of stress reactivity to both naturalistic and lab-based stressors; (2 preliminary support currently exists for psycho-educational intervention of TEI and AS but is lacking for EA; (3 adequate evidence supports mindfulness-based interventions to target EA, with very limited but encouraging findings suggesting mindfulness methods improve TEI and AS; and (4 although more research is needed, stress management approaches based on mindfulness may well target all three of these psychological variables and thus appear particularly promising. Encouragingly, some methods to modify dispositional variables (e.g., a mindfulness-based format of guided self-help are easily disseminated and potentially applicable to the general public.

  6. Endogenous cortisol reactivity moderates the relationship between fear inhibition to safety signals and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are commonly associated with impairments in extinguishing fear to signals previously associated with danger, and also with inhibiting fear to safety signals. Previous studies indicate that PTSS are associated with low cortisol activity, and cortisol is shown to facilitate fear extinction. Few studies have examined the influence of cortisol reactivity on fear extinction in PTSS. We used a standardized fear conditioning and extinction paradigm to investigate the relationship between fear extinction and endogenous salivary cortisol activity in participants with high PTSS (n=18), trauma-exposed controls (n=33), and non-trauma-exposed controls (n=27). Skin conductance response (SCR) was used as an index of conditioned responding. Saliva samples were collected at baseline, and 20min post-fear acquisition for basal and reactive cortisol levels, respectively. PTSS participants demonstrated a slower rate of extinction learning during the early extinction phase. A moderation analysis revealed that cortisol reactivity was a significant moderator between fear inhibition to the safety signal (CS-) during early extinction and PTSS, but not to the threat signal (CS+). Specifically, this interaction was significant in two ways: (1) participants with elevated cortisol reactivity showed lower PTSS as fear inhibition improved; and (2) participants with low cortisol reactivity showed higher PTSS as fear inhibition improved. The findings of the present study show that the relationship between fear inhibition and cortisol reactivity is complex, and suggest that cortisol reactivity shapes safety signal learning in PTSS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and habituation to a virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Test: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias; Osterberg, Kai

    2010-01-01

    reactivity and habituation to repeated stress provocations using a virtual reality (VR) version of TSST. The VR system was a CAVE™ system with three rear projected walls (4 m×3 m), and one floor projection. The system also included a head tracking system and passive stereoscopy. The virtual audience......, suggested to be related to sympathetic influence on myocardial performance) were assessed. Cortisol secretion showed a marked increase (88% vs. baseline) during the first stress provocation, but habituated in the second session. The magnitude of HR and TWA reactivity during stress provocation...... was approximately the same at both sessions, implying a stable increase in sympathetic activity. Heart rate showed a maximum increase of 40% at the first session, and 32% at the second. TWA showed a maximum decrease of 42% at the first session, and 39% at the second. The results resemble those obtained in prior...

  8. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Neurobiology of dysregulated motivational systems in drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2010-01-01

    The progression from recreational drug use to drug addiction impacts multiple neurobiological processes and can be conceptualized as a transition from positive to negative reinforcement mechanisms driving both drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors. Neurobiological mechanisms for negative reinforcement, defined as drug taking that alleviates a negative emotional state, involve changes in the brain reward system and recruitment of brain stress (or antireward) systems within forebrain structures, including the extended amygdala. These systems are hypothesized to be dysregulated by excessive drug intake and to contribute to allostatic changes in reinforcement mechanisms associated with addiction. Points of intersection between positive and negative motivational circuitry may further drive the compulsivity of drug addiction but also provide a rich neurobiological substrate for therapeutic intervention. PMID:20563312

  10. Perceived stress, coping, and cortisol reactivity in daily life: A study of adolescents during the first year of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D; Luecken, Linda J; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents change how they cope with stress across different situations, but also differ from one another in their general capacity to cope. The current study examined whether cortisol reactivity to perceived daily stress varies with both situational (within-person) and individual (between-person) differences in coping. First-year college students (N=63; Mage=18.85) provided 15 stress-coping diaries and 15 corresponding saliva samples across 3 weekdays. Results from hierarchical linear growth models revealed that perceiving greater stress than usual in the last hour was significantly associated with elevations in cortisol (relative to diurnal patterning) only during situations characterized by greater than usual diary-reported engagement coping. Regarding individual differences, perceiving greater stress than usual was significantly associated with elevations in cortisol only for adolescents below average on trait measures of engagement coping or belief in their ability to handle stress. Findings indicate that cortisol reactivity to daily stress varies with both situational variation and individual differences in coping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurodynamics: nonlinear dynamics and neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarbanel, H D; Rabinovich, M I

    2001-08-01

    The use of methods from contemporary nonlinear dynamics in studying neurobiology has been rather limited.Yet, nonlinear dynamics has become a practical tool for analyzing data and verifying models. This has led to productive coupling of nonlinear dynamics with experiments in neurobiology in which the neural circuits are forced with constant stimuli, with slowly varying stimuli, with periodic stimuli, and with more complex information-bearing stimuli. Analysis of these more complex stimuli of neural circuits goes to the heart of how one is to understand the encoding and transmission of information by nervous systems.

  12. The neurobiology of relapse in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Gary; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Fervaha, Gagan; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Hahn, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine's proposed role in psychosis proved a starting point in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse, fitting given the central role positive symptoms play. This link is reflected in early work examining neurotransmitter metabolite and drug (e.g. amphetamine, methylphenidate) challenge studies as a means of better understanding relapse and predictors. Since, lines of investigation have expanded (e.g. electrophysiological, immunological, hormonal, stress), an important step forward if relapse per se is the question. Arguably, perturbations in dopamine represent the final common pathway in psychosis but it is evident that, like schizophrenia, relapse is heterogeneous and multidimensional. In understanding the neurobiology of relapse, greater gains are likely to be made if these distinctions are acknowledged; for example, efforts to identify trait markers might better be served by distinguishing primary (i.e. idiopathic) and secondary (e.g. substance abuse, medication nonadherence) forms of relapse. Similarly, it has been suggested that relapse is 'neurotoxic', yet individuals do very well on clozapine after multiple relapses and the designation of treatment resistance. An alternative explanation holds that schizophrenia is characterized by different trajectories, at least to some extent biologically and/or structurally distinguishable from the outset, with differential patterns of response and relapse. Just as with schizophrenia, it seems naïve to conceptualize the neurobiology of relapse as a singular process. We propose that it is shaped by the form of illness and in place from the outset, modified by constitutional factors like resilience, as well as treatment, and confounded by secondary forms of relapse. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Sérgio R.; Lima, Ricardo M.; Silva, Karina E. S.; Simões, Herbert G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the blood pressure (BP) responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat) were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR) was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg) and DBP (2-5 mmHg) in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01), while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01) was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05). Conclusion A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders. PMID:24675911

  14. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  15. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  16. Effects of adverse childhood experiences on the association between intranasal oxytocin and social stress reactivity among individuals with cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Baker, Nathaniel L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T; Moran-Santa Maria, Margaret M

    2015-09-30

    Drug dependence and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are commonly reflected by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Accumulating research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin may regulate HPA function, resulting in reductions in neuroendocrine reactivity to social stress among individuals with drug dependence. However, emerging literature suggests that individual differences may differentially impact intranasal oxytocin's effects on human social behaviors. This study employed a double-blind, placebo-controlled design to examine the extent to which ACE influenced the effects of intranasal oxytocin (40IU) on neuroendocrine reactivity to a laboratory social stress paradigm in a sample of 31 cocaine-dependent individuals. ACE scores modified the relationship between intranasal oxytocin and cortisol reactivity. While ACE modified the relationship between intranasal oxytocin and DHEA response in a similar direction to what was seen in cortisol, it did not reach statistical significance. Findings are congruent with the emerging hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin may differentially attenuate social stress reactivity among individuals with specific vulnerabilities. Future research examining the nuances of intranasal oxytocin's therapeutic potential is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristóbal-Narváez

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors.A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress.Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors.The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support to the notion that

  19. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  20. Hyperthermia, dehydration, and osmotic stress: unconventional sources of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-15

    Evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is observed in the circulation during exercise in humans. This is exacerbated at elevated body temperatures and attenuated when normal exercise-induced body temperature elevations are suppressed. Why ROS production during exercise is temperature dependent is entirely unknown. This review covers the human exercise studies to date that provide evidence that oxidant and antioxidant changes observed in the blood during exercise are dependent on temperature and fluid balance. We then address possible mechanisms linking exercise with these variables that include shear stress, effects of hemoconcentration, and signaling pathways involving muscle osmoregulation. Since pathways of muscle osmoregulation are rarely discussed in this context, we provide a brief review of what is currently known and unknown about muscle osmoregulation and how it may be linked to oxidant production in exercise and hyperthermia. Both the circulation and the exercising muscle fibers become concentrated with osmolytes during exercise in the heat, resulting in a competition for available water across the muscle sarcolemma and other tissues. We conclude that though multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance in the blood during exercise, a strong case can be made that a significant component of ROS produced during some forms of exercise reflect requirements of adapting to osmotic challenges, hyperthermia challenges, and loss of circulating fluid volume. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Self-distancing from trauma memories reduces physiological but not subjective emotional reactivity among Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M; Gorman, Kaitlyn R; Kulish, Andrea L; Pineles, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one's feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 Veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.

  2. The role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation, radioresistance and the potential preventive and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianmin; Li, Hongde; Luo, Xiangjian; Li, Yueshuo; Bode, Ann; Cao, Ya

    2017-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an important cancer causing virus. Cancer associated with EBV account for approximately 1.5% of all cancers, and represent 1.8% of all cancer deaths worldwide. EBV reactivation plays an important role in the development of EBV-related diseases and is closely related with patients' survival and clinical stages of EBV-related cancers. The therapy regarding to EBV-related cancers is very urgent, especially in endemic areas. Generating oxidative stress is a critical mechanism by which host cells defend against infection by virus. In addition, ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant but paradoxical role acting as a "double-edged sword" to regulate cellular response to radiation, which is the main therapy strategy for EBV-related cancers, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Therefore, in this review we primarily discuss the possible interplay among the oxidative stress, EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance. Understanding the role of oxidative stress in EBV lytic reactivation and radioresistance will assist in the development of effective strategies for prevention and treatment of EBV-related cancers. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The neurobiology of circadian rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, Eddy A.; Boersma, Gretha J.; Hut, Roelof A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review There is growing awareness of the importance of circadian rhythmicity in various research fields. Exciting developments are ongoing in the field of circadian neurobiology linked to sleep, food intake, and memory. With the current knowledge of critical clock genes' (genes found to

  5. Neurobiological Substrates of Tourette's Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leckman, James F.; Bloch, Michael H.; Smith, Megan E.; Larabi, Daouia; Hampson, Michelle

    Objective: This article reviews the available scientific literature concerning the neurobiological substrates of Tourette's disorder (TD). Methods: The electronic databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, and PsycINFO were searched for relevant studies using relevant search terms. Results:

  6. Mental health: More than neurobiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fried, E.; Tuerlinckx, F.; Borsboom, D.

    2014-01-01

    The decision by the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) to fund only research into the neurobiological roots of mental disorders (Nature 507, 288; 2014) presumes that these all result from brain abnormalities. But this is not the case for many people with mental-health issues and we fear

  7. Neurobiology of wisdom: a literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Thomas W; Jeste, Dilip V

    2009-04-01

    regulation (including impulse control), decision making, and prosocial behaviors. We have proposed a speculative model of the neurobiology of wisdom involving frontostriatal and frontolimbic circuits and monoaminergic pathways. Wisdom may involve optimal balance between functions of phylogenetically more primitive brain regions (limbic system) and newer ones (prefrontal cortex). Limitations of the putative model are stressed. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further research in characterization, assessment, neurobiology, and interventions related to wisdom.

  8. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Marc N Potenza

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may pro...

  9. Neurobiology of Intimate Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Saracli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The limbic brain appears to be the source of basic emotions and urges. In contrast the neocortex gives humans the ability to think in abstract and symbolic terms and to use language. Emotions by neural projections from the limbic system to neocortex influence all aspect of cognition, from perception to rational decision making. Although the cases whose intellectual and motor abilities appeared fully functional, decision making ability and emotional processing impaired together after a damage to the ventromedial prefrontal lobes suggest that the emotions had priority in the brain processing. The effectiveness of the psychotherapy is thought to be related to the left prefrontal cortex activity. The rational decisions are changing easily under the stressful moments and experiencing the same problems over and over again. This concept may explain why the couples under the stressful conditions may easily fall into radicalism, and decide that they are right but the others wrong. The specific kinds of conflict behaviors between couples like the criticism, contempt, defensiveness and stonewalling are correlated with the physical signs of the amygdala activation. For this reason, before the people to engage new forms of thought and behavior must notice and change the emotional processes. In the light of these concepts in addition the cognitive and behavioral approach, it would not be wrong to think that the therapy working with the emotional techniques will be more successful.

  10. Mild effects of gestational stress and social reactivity on the onset of mother-young interactions and bonding in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Marjorie; Lévy, Frédéric; Ravel, Christine; Nowak, Raymond; Boissy, Alain

    2014-12-01

    Consequences of prenatal stress on mother-young relationships are well-documented in altricial mammals but less so in precocial mammals. In this study, we investigated the effects of unpredictable aversive events on maternal behavior and mutual mother-young recognition in pregnant ewes while accounting for modulatory effects of ewe reactivity. From a population of 120 Romane-breed ewes, we selected 20 high-responsive (HR) and 20 low-responsive (LR) ewes according to pre-mating reactivity assessed in isolation tests. Over the final third of pregnancy, 10 HR ewes and 10 LR ewes were exposed daily to various aversive events such as social isolation, mixing and transport (stressed ewes), while the other 20 ewes were not exposed to aversive events (control ewes). Although the treatment induced chronic stress, physiologically confirmed by an increase in salivary cortisol following transport and sham shearing, maternal behavior of stressed ewes observed during the first 30 min postpartum and in the selectivity test 1 h 30 min later did not differ from controls. However, in a maternal motivation test performed 48 h postpartum, stressed ewes vocalized less than controls when separated from their lambs, and walked less readily past an unknown object to reach their lambs. Lambs of stressed ewes spent more time near their dam in a preference test performed 15 h after birth compared to control-ewe lambs. HR ewes spent more time grooming their lambs than LR ewes. We posit that domestication could have selected animals displaying robust expression of maternal behavior related to social reactivity and producing offspring that are better adapted to challenging situations.

  11. Poverty, early care, and stress reactivity in adolescence: Findings from a prospective, longitudinal study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Tomlinson, Mark; Kumsta, Robert; Skeen, Sarah; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Morgan, Barak

    2017-05-01

    A considerable body of evidence suggests that early caregiving may affect the short-term functioning and longer term development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Despite this, most research to date has been cross-sectional in nature or restricted to relatively short-term longitudinal follow-ups. More important, there is a paucity of research on the role of caregiving in low- and middle-income countries, where the protective effects of high-quality care in buffering the child's developing stress regulation systems may be crucial. In this paper, we report findings from a longitudinal study (N = 232) conducted in an impoverished periurban settlement in Cape Town, South Africa. We measured caregiving sensitivity and security of attachment in infancy and followed children up at age 13 years, when we conducted assessments of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity, as indexed by salivary cortisol during the Trier Social Stress Test. The findings indicated that insecure attachment was predictive of reduced cortisol responses to social stress, particularly in boys, and that attachment status moderated the impact of contextual adversity on stress responses: secure children in highly adverse circumstances did not show the blunted cortisol response shown by their insecure counterparts. Some evidence was found that sensitivity of care in infancy was also associated with cortisol reactivity, but in this case, insensitivity was associated with heightened cortisol reactivity, and only for girls. The discussion focuses on the potentially important role of caregiving in the long-term calibration of the stress system and the need to better understand the social and biological mechanisms shaping the stress response across development in low- and middle-income countries.

  12. Neurobiology of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Scott J.; Murrough, James W.; Han, Ming–Hu; Charney, Dennis S.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Humans exhibit a remarkable degree of resilience in the face of extreme stress, with most resisting the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Over the past 5 years, there has been increasing interest in the active, adaptive coping mechanisms of resilience; however, in humans, the majority of published work focuses on correlative neuroendocrine markers that are associated with a resilient phenotype. In this review, we highlight a growing literature in rodents that is starting to complement the human work by identifying the active behavioral, neural, molecular, and hormonal basis of resilience. The therapeutic implications of these findings are important and can pave the way for an innovative new approach to drug development for a range of stress–related syndromes. PMID:23064380

  13. Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress is attenuated following resistance exercise in older hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauche R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Gauche,1 Ricardo M Lima,1,2 Jonathan Myers,2 André B Gadelha,1 Silvia GR Neri,1 Claudia LM Forjaz,3 Lauro C Vianna1 1Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System and Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise (RE on autonomic control and blood pressure (BP reactivity during mental stress (MS in treated older hypertensive women. Methods: Ten older hypertensive women (age =71.1±5.5 years; body mass index =24.2±3.9; mean BP [MBP] =85.4±3.5 underwent a protocol consisting of BP and heart rate variability (HRV output assessments at baseline and during MS, and these measurements were taken before and 60 minutes after two bouts of RE (traditional and circuit. MS was induced through a computerized 3-minute Stroop color–word test before and 1 hour after each exercise session; BP was measured every minute during MS, and HRV was monitored as a measure of cardiac autonomic control. Results: A significant effect of time on systolic BP (∆pre =17.4±12.8 versus ∆post =12.5±9.6; P=0.01, diastolic BP (∆pre =13.7±7.1 versus ∆post =8.8±4.5; P=0.01, and MBP (∆pre =14.0±7.7 versus ∆post =9.3±5.4; P<0.01 after RE was observed, with no differences between the two sessions. In addition, a significant effect of time on log-normalized low-frequency component of HRV (ms2; 5.3±0.8 pre-exercise MS versus 4.8±1.0 baseline value; P=0.023 was also observed, showing a significant change from baseline to MS before RE, but not after RE sessions. These results may be related to a lessened RE-mediated cardiac sympathetic activity during MS. Conclusion: RE is an effective tool to reduce BP reactivity to MS, which could therefore be associated with an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk. This

  14. Low stress reactivity and neuroendocrine factors in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Yang, M; Turner, S M; Katz, A M; Bell, D B; Koenig, J I; Crawley, J N

    2010-12-29

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by abnormal reciprocal social interactions, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays robust behavioral phenotypes with analogies to all three of the diagnostic symptoms of autism, including low social interactions, reduced vocalizations in social settings, and high levels of repetitive self-grooming. Autism-relevant phenotypes in BTBR offer translational tools to discover neurochemical mechanisms underlying unusual mouse behaviors relevant to symptoms of autism. Because repetitive self-grooming in mice may be a displacement behavior elevated by stressors, we investigated neuroendocrine markers of stress and behavioral reactivity to stressors in BTBR mice, as compared to C57BL/6J (B6), a standard inbred strain with high sociability. Radioimmunoassays replicated previous findings that circulating corticosterone is higher in BTBR than in B6. Higher basal glucocorticoid receptor mRNA and higher oxytocin peptide levels were detected in the brains of BTBR as compared to B6. No significant differences were detected in corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) peptide or CRF mRNA. In response to behavioral stressors, BTBR and B6 were generally similar on behavioral tasks including stress-induced hyperthermia, elevated plus-maze, light ↔ dark exploration, tail flick, acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. BTBR displayed less reactivity than B6 to a noxious thermal stimulus in the hot plate, and less immobility than B6 in both the forced swim and tail suspension depression-related tasks. BTBR, therefore, exhibited lower depression-like scores than B6 on two standard tests sensitive to antidepressants, did not differ from B6 on two well-validated anxiety-like behaviors, and did not exhibit unusual stress reactivity to sensory stimuli. Our findings support the interpretation that autism-relevant social deficits, vocalizations, and

  15. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma M V; Scholz U; Ehlert U; Nater U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet based survey was conducted in university students measuring habitual music listening behaviour emotion regulation stress reactivity as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 indi...

  16. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning : The mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Myriam Verena; Scholz, Urte; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 ...

  17. Well-Being and Safety Among Inpatient Psychiatric Staff: The Impact of Conflict, Assault, and Stress Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, EL; Fenwick, K; Brekke, JS; Novaco, RW

    2016-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Psychiatric staff are faced with multiple forms of hostility, aggression, and assault at work, collectively referred to as workplace violence, which typically is activated by patients but can also come from coworkers and supervisors. Whether workplace violence adversely affects staff well-being may be related not only to its presence, but also to an individual’s stress reactivity. At a large public psychiatric hospital, an online survey was co...

  18. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-01-01

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  19. Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiefeng; Ling, Tianxiao; Xue, Yanfeng; Xu, Cunfa; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Liangbin; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-10-14

    Thymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate Cd-induced growth inhibition of tobacco seedlings in both dose- and time-dependent manners. Both histochemical detection and in-tube assays suggested that thymol treatment blocked Cd-induced over-generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, and loss of membrane integrity in both leaves and roots. Thymol decreased Cd-induced cell death that was indicated in vivo by propidium iodide (PI) and trypan blue, respectively. Thymol stimulated glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis by upregulating the expression of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase 1 (GSH1) in Cd-treated seedlings, which may contribute to the alleviation of Cd-induced oxidative injury. In situ fluorescent detection of intracellular Cd2+ revealed that thymol significantly decreased free Cd2+ in roots, which could be explained by the thymol-stimulated GSH biosynthesis and upregulation of the expression of phyochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1). Taken together, these results suggested that thymol has great potential to trigger plant resistant responses to combat heavy metal toxicity, which may help our understanding of the mechanism for thymol-modulated cell metabolic pathways in response to environmental stimuli.

  20. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda

    2016-02-26

    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  1. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: mkelley2@its.jnj.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  2. Emotional reactivity and exposure to household stress in childhood predict psychological problems in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, research has examined the role of heightened emotional reactivity and poor regulation on maladjustment during childhood and adolescence. Although much of this research has shown a direct link between high emotional reactivity and maladjustment, there is less research on the ways in which reactivity interacts with contextual factors. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), the current study asks how emotional reactivity in childhood, household chaos, and household income impact changes in emotional and behavioral problems between childhood and adolescence. Participants in the SECCYD were followed from birth until adolescence. Of these, 958 youth (52 % male; 80 % Caucasian, 13 % African American, 2 % Asian, and 5 % Other) who completed measures at age 15 were included in the current study. Results indicate that emotional reactivity and low household income during childhood directly predict higher levels of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. In contrast, the impact of household chaos on adolescent mental health depends on the child's emotional reactivity. Specifically, the adverse impact of household chaos on emotional problems was observed among adolescents who were highly emotionally reactive as children, but not among their less reactive counterparts. Taken together, the relationship between an individual's childhood context and temperament are important aspects in the prediction of outcomes in adolescents.

  3. Root Damage under Alkaline Stress Is Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Rui-Xue; Yuan, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ming-Ming; Yang, Hao-Yu; Ma, Hong-Yuan; Liu, Duo; Jiang, Chang-Jie; Liang, Zheng-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Alkaline stress (high pH) severely damages root cells, and consequently, inhibits rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling growth. In this study, we demonstrate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root cells under alkaline stress. Seedlings of two rice cultivars with different alkaline tolerances, ‘Dongdao-4’ (moderately alkaline-tolerant) and ‘Jiudao-51’ (alkaline-sensitive), were subjected to alkaline stress simulated by 15 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). Alkaline stress greatly reduced seedling survival rate, shoot and root growth, and root vigor. Moreover, severe root cell damage was observed under alkaline stress, as shown by increased membrane injury, malondialdehyde accumulation, and Evan’s Blue staining. The expression of the cell death-related genes OsKOD1, OsHsr203j, OsCP1, and OsNAC4 was consistently upregulated, while that of a cell death-suppressor gene, OsBI1, was downregulated. Analysis of the ROS contents revealed that alkaline stress induced a marked accumulation of superoxide anions (O2•-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in rice roots. The application of procyanidins (a potent antioxidant) to rice seedlings 24 h prior to alkaline treatment significantly alleviated alkalinity-induced root damage and promoted seedling growth inhibition, which were concomitant with reduced ROS accumulation. These results suggest that root cell damage, and consequently growth inhibition, of rice seedlings under alkaline stress is closely associated with ROS accumulation. The antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase increased under alkaline stress in the roots, probably in response to the cellular damage induced by oxidative stress. However, this response mechanism may be overwhelmed by the excess ROS accumulation observed under stress, resulting in oxidative damage to root cells. Our findings provide physiological insights into the molecular mechanisms of alkalinity-induced damage to root cells, and

  4. The neurobiology of social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N L; Book, S; Davidson, J R

    1996-06-01

    Studies in the neurobiology of social phobia have used neuroendocrine, naturalistic and chemical challenges, pharmacological probes, neurotransmitter system measures, peripheral receptor binding and magnetic resonance measures. Studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes have been largely unrevealing; adrenaline, carbon dioxide, caffeine and yohimbine tests have provided mixed results; probe studies using L-dopa, clonidine and fenfluramine have provided some evidence of post-synaptic serotonergic abnormality; studies on platelet and lymphocyte binding have failed to distinguish social phobia from other groups; magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies suggest possible differences between patients with social phobia and healthy controls in respect of dopamine, serotonin and second-messenger function. In aggregate, these studies have provided some neurobiological basis for separating social phobia from panic disorder and non-psychiatric healthy controls.

  5. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The Neurobiology of Anesthetic Emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnal, Vijay; Vlisides, Phillip E; Mashour, George A

    2016-07-01

    Achieving a smooth and rapid emergence from general anesthesia is of particular importance for neurosurgical patients and is a clinical goal for neuroanesthesiologists. Recent data suggest that the process of emergence is not simply the mirror image of induction, but rather controlled by distinct neural circuits. In this narrative review, we discuss (1) hysteresis, (2) the concept of neural inertia, (3) the asymmetry between the neurobiology of induction and emergence, and (4) recent attempts at actively inducing emergence.

  7. Gender Specific Effect of Psychological Stress and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    Daughters, Stacey B.; Gorka, Stephanie M.; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Anderson, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how psychological stress, gender and cortisol response to stress relate to risk behavior among 132 14–18 year old adolescents. Participants completed a laboratory based risk task prior to and immediately after a computerized psychological stress task, and salivary cortisol was collected from pre-stress to 60 minutes following initial stress exposure. Results indicate that adolescent boys (n = 59) and girls (n = 73) demonstrate different patterns of ri...

  8. The neurobiology of empathy in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Luis H; Snyder, Rebekah; Steele, Howard; Siever, Larry J

    2013-03-01

    We present a neurobiological model of empathic dysfunction in borderline personality disorder (BPD) to guide future empirical research. Empathy is a necessary component of interpersonal functioning, involving two distinct, parallel neural networks. One form of empathic processing relies on shared representations (SR) of others' mental states, while the other is associated with explicit mental state attribution (MSA). SR processing is visceral and automatic, contributing to attunement, but also emotional contagion. MSA processing contributes to deliberate, perspectival forms of empathic understanding. Empathic dysfunction in BPD may involve hyper-reactivity of SR networks and impairment of MSA networks. Nevertheless, this empathic dysfunction is subtle, but contributes to interpersonal difficulties. Interaction between genetic factors and traumatic attachment stressors may contribute to development of BPD, with painful attachment insecurity and disorganization affecting SR and MSA network functioning. Future avenues for BPD research will include developmental assessment of attachment and neurobiological functioning under varying conditions.

  9. From epidemiology to daily life : Linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collip, Dina; Wigman, Johanna T. W.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Wichers, Marieke; van Os, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an

  10. Moderators of Coronary Vasomotion during Mental Stress in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: Stress Reactivity, Serum Lipoproteins, and Severity of Atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howell, Robert H

    1996-01-01

    Impaired coronary artery vasomotion in response to behavioral triggers such as mental stress may be an important pathophysiological process involved in acute manifestations of coronary artery disease...

  11. Better cognitive control of emotional information is associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Kuchenbecker, Shari Young; Pressman, Sarah D; Sumida, Ken D; Slavich, George M

    2016-01-01

    Stress is strongly associated with several mental and physical health problems that involve inflammation, including asthma, cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancer, and depression. It has been hypothesized that better cognitive control of emotional information may lead to reduced inflammatory reactivity to stress and thus better health, but to date no studies have examined whether differences in cognitive control predict pro-inflammatory cytokine responses to stress. To address this issue, we conducted a laboratory-based experimental study in which we randomly assigned healthy young-adult females to either an acute emotional stress (emotionally evocative video) or no-stress (control video) condition. Salivary levels of the key pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 were measured before and after the experimental manipulation, and following the last cytokine sample, we assessed participants' cognitive control of emotional information using an emotional Stroop task. We also assessed participants' cortisol levels before and after the manipulation to verify that documented effects were specific to cytokines and not simply due to increased nonwater salivary output. As hypothesized, the emotional stressor triggered significant increases in IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. Moreover, even in fully adjusted models, better cognitive control following the emotional (but not control) video predicted less pronounced cytokine responses to that stressor. In contrast, no effects were observed for cortisol. These data thus indicate that better cognitive control specifically following an emotional stressor is uniquely associated with less pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity to such stress. These findings may therefore help explain why superior cognitive control portends better health over the lifespan.

  12. From epidemiology to daily life: linking daily life stress reactivity to persistence of psychotic experiences in a longitudinal general population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Collip

    Full Text Available Subclinical psychotic experiences at the level of the general population are common, forming an extended psychosis phenotype with clinical psychosis. Persistence of subclinical experiences is associated with transition to later mental disorder. Increased daily life stress reactivity is considered an endophenotype for psychotic disorders. We examined, in a longitudinal framework, whether baseline momentary assessment markers of stress reactivity would predict persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences over time. In a general population sample of female twins (N = 566, the Experience Sampling Method (ESM; repetitive random sampling of momentary emotions, psychotic experiences and context was used to assess (emotional and psychotic daily life stress reactivity. Persistence of subclinical psychotic experiences was based on the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE, assessed three times over 14 months post-baseline. It was investigated whether baseline daily life emotional and psychotic stress reactivity predicted persistence of psychotic experiences over time. Higher levels of emotional stress reactivity (a decrease in positive and an increase in negative affect in response to stress, and increased psychotic reactivity to daily stress was found in individuals with persistent psychotic experiences over time compared to individuals with transient psychotic experiences. The results suggest that markers of daily life stress reactivity may predict "macro-level" persistence of normally transient expression of psychotic liability over time. Linking daily life markers of altered reactivity in terms of emotions and psychotic experiences to longitudinal persistence of psychotic experiences, associated with increased risk of transition to overt mental disorder, may contribute to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of risk.

  13. Neurobiological Correlates of Coping through Emotional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Sarah L.; Amodio, David M.; Stanton, Annette L.; Yee, Cindy M.; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation considered possible health-related neurobiological processes associated with “emotional approach coping” (EAC), or intentional efforts to identify, process, and express emotions surrounding stressors. It was hypothesized that higher dispositional use of EAC strategies would be related to neural activity indicative of greater trait approach motivational orientation and to lower proinflammatory cytokine and cortisol responses to stress. To assess these relationships, 46 healthy participants completed a questionnaire assessing the two components of EAC (i.e., emotional processing and emotional expression), and their resting frontal cortical asymmetry was measured using electroencephalography (EEG). A subset (N = 22) of these participants’ levels of the soluble receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (sTNFαRII), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cortisol (all obtained from oral fluids) were also assessed before and after exposure to an acute laboratory stressor. Consistent with predictions, higher reported levels of emotional expression were significantly associated with greater relative left-sided frontal EEG asymmetry, indicative of greater trait approach motivation. Additionally, people who scored higher on EAC, particularly the emotional processing component, tended to show a less-pronounced TNF-α stress response. EAC was unrelated to levels of IL-6 and cortisol. Greater left-sided frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly related to lower baseline levels of IL-6 and to lower stress-related levels of sTNFαRII, and was marginally related to lower stress-related levels of IL-6. The findings suggest that the salubrious effects of EAC strategies for managing stress may be linked to an approach-oriented neurocognitive profile and to well-regulated proinflammatory cytokine responses to stress. PMID:18558470

  14. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. N-acetylcysteine attenuates reactive-oxygen-species-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress during liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong; Pu, Li-Yong; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xue-Hao; Zhang, Feng; Rao, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-07

    To investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and tissue injury during liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). Mice were injected with NAC (300 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 2 h before ischemia. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting determined ER stress molecules (GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP). To analyze the role of NAC in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated ER stress and apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was examined in cultured hepatocytes treated by H2O2 or thapsigargin (TG). NAC treatment significantly reduced the level of ROS and attenuated ROS-induced liver injury after IRI, based on glutathione, malondialdehyde, serum alanine aminotransferase levels, and histopathology. ROS-mediated ER stress was significantly inhibited in NAC-treated mice. In addition, NAC treatment significantly reduced caspase-3 activity and apoptosis after reperfusion, which correlated with the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Similarly, NAC treatment significantly inhibited LDH release from hepatocytes treated by H2O2 or TG. This study provides new evidence for the protective effects of NAC treatment on hepatocytes during IRI. Through inhibition of ROS-mediated ER stress, NAC may be critical to inhibit the ER-stress-related apoptosis pathway.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and Nox-mediated reactive oxygen species signaling in the peripheral vasculature: potential role in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Celio X C; Nabeebaccus, Adam A; Shah, Ajay M; Camargo, Livia L; Filho, Sidney V; Lopes, Lucia R

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during normal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) metabolism. There is accumulating evidence showing that under stress conditions such as ER stress, ROS production is increased via enzymes of the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family, especially via the Nox2 and Nox4 isoforms, which are involved in the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertension is a major contributor to cardiovascular and renal disease, and it has a complex pathophysiology involving the heart, kidney, brain, vessels, and immune system. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway that has prosurvival and proapoptotic components. Here, we summarize the evidence regarding the association of Nox enzymes and ER stress, and its potential contribution in the setting of hypertension, including the role of other conditions that can lead to hypertension (e.g., insulin resistance and diabetes). A better understanding of this association is currently of great interest, as it will provide further insights into the cellular mechanisms that can drive the ER stress-induced adaptive versus maladaptive pathways linked to hypertension and other cardiovascular conditions. More needs to be learnt about the precise signaling regulation of Nox(es) and ER stress in the cardiovascular system. The development of specific approaches that target individual Nox isoforms and the UPR signaling pathway may be important for the achievement of therapeutic efficacy in hypertension.

  17. Reactive oxygen species generation-scavenging and signaling during plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica interaction under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Nath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also acts as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant–microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation and scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  19. [The significance of stress intensity for the emotional and visceral reactivity, especially for blood pressure regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, K; Hai, N V; Moritz, V; Hecht, T

    1976-01-01

    The influence of light, medium, and heavy chronic stress upon cerebro-visceral functions following 3 and 5 weeks of daily stress exposure was examined. The following results were obtained: Light stress produced no changes of cerebro-visceral functions. Medium stress restricted the learning and memory capacity, increased systolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar and adrenal weights. The B-cells of the pancreatic islets showed degranulations of varying intensity. Heavy stress diminished the learning and memory capacity, increased adrenal weights and led to hypergranulation of the pancreatic B-cells. Blood sugar and blood pressure values fall within physiological limits. Load tests, however, revealed in these animals symptoms of premorbid states. Since throughout the period of observation, light stress stablized the regulation processes, medium stress induced early stages of pathological processes, and heavy stress caused premorbid states, no linearity could be established between the load intensity and the changes of cerebro-visceral functions.

  20. Ethanol Enhances High-Salinity Stress Tolerance by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Mai Nguyen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available High-salinity stress considerably affects plant growth and crop yield. Thus, developing techniques to enhance high-salinity stress tolerance in plants is important. In this study, we revealed that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the ethanol-induced tolerance, we performed microarray analyses using A. thaliana seedlings. Our data indicated that the expression levels of 1,323 and 1,293 genes were upregulated by ethanol in the presence and absence of NaCl, respectively. The expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS signaling-related genes associated with high-salinity tolerance was upregulated by ethanol under salt stress condition. Some of these genes encode ROS scavengers and transcription factors (e.g., AtZAT10 and AtZAT12. A RT-qPCR analysis confirmed that the expression levels of AtZAT10 and AtZAT12 as well as AtAPX1 and AtAPX2, which encode cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases (APX, were higher in ethanol-treated plants than in untreated control plants, when exposure to high-salinity stress. Additionally, A. thaliana cytosolic APX activity increased by ethanol in response to salinity stress. Moreover, histochemical analyses with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB and nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT revealed that ROS accumulation was inhibited by ethanol under salt stress condition in A. thaliana and rice, in which DAB staining data was further confirmed by Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content. These results suggest that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance by detoxifying ROS. Our findings may have implications for improving salt-stress tolerance of agriculturally important field-grown crops.

  1. Chocolate or orange juice for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns: a randomized prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Sertac; Baser, Eralp; Cakir, Caner; Ustun Tuncal, Gul Nihal; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare bitter chocolate and orange juice with the control group for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns and for maternal perception of fetal movements. Pregnant women who were followed-up on an outpatient basis and admitted for a NST and had a non-reactive result were randomized prospectively into bitter chocolate, orange juice and control groups. 180 patients were evaluable for the final analysis. Although there was a trend for orange juice group for having higher percentages of reactive NST patterns on control, there was no statistically significant difference between three groups (p = 0.159). Besides this, maternal perception of increased fetal movements was similar between groups (p = 0.755). The control group had lower post-test capillary blood glucose concentrations when compared with chocolate and orange juice groups (p = 0.01) and after post-hoc tests, this difference was found to be between orange juice and control groups. Although orange juice resulted in higher blood glucose levels, this was not synonymous with better NST results on control; in such a way that bitter chocolate, orange juice and no intervention had similar effects on non-reactive NST patterns and also on maternal perception of fetal movements.

  2. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra J Fiocco; Hunse, Anastasia M.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to e...

  3. Neuroendocrine stress reactivity of male C57BL/6N mice following chronic oral corticosterone exposure during adulthood or adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahanoor, Ziasmin; Sultana, Razia; Baker, Madelyn R; Romeo, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Adolescence is associated with the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major neuroendocrine axis mediating the hormonal stress response. Adolescence is also a period in development marked by a variety of stress-related vulnerabilities, including psychological and physiological dysfunctions. Many of these vulnerabilities are accompanied by a disrupted HPA axis. In adult mice, a model of disrupted HPA function has been developed using oral chronic corticosterone administration via the drinking water, which results in various physiological and neurobehavioral abnormalities, including changes in stress reactivity and anxiety-like behaviors. In an effort to further complement and extend this model, we tested the impact of HPA disruption in adolescent mice. We also examined whether this disruption led to different outcomes depending on whether the treatment happened during adolescence or adulthood. In the current set of experiments, we exposed adult (70days of age) or adolescent (30days of age) male C57BL/6N mice to 4 weeks of either 0 or 25μg/ml oral corticosterone via their drinking water. We measured body weight during treatment and plasma corticosterone levels and activation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), as indexed by FOS immunohistochemistry, before and after a 30min session of restraint stress. Our data indicate that adolescent animals exposed to chronic corticosterone showed weight loss during treatment, an effect not observed in adults. Further, we found stress failed to elevate plasma corticosterone levels in treated mice, regardless of whether exposure occurred in adulthood or adolescence. Despite this reduced hormonal responsiveness, we found significant neural activation in the PVN of both adult- and adolescent-treated mice, indicating a dissociation between stress-induced peripheral and central stress responses following chronic corticosterone exposure. Moreover, stress-induced neural activation in the PVN was unaffected

  4. Nature, correlates, and consequences of stress-related biological reactivity and regulation in Army nurses during combat casualty simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Leigh K; Out, Dorothée; Hammermeister, Jon J; Ohlson, Carl J; Pickering, Michael A; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature, concomitants, and consequences of stress-related biological reactivity and regulation among Army nurses. Saliva was collected, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) recorded from 38 Army nurses (74% female; mean age 28.5 years [SD=6.5]) before, during, and after participation in the Combat Casualty Stress Scenario (CCSS). Saliva was assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). The CCSS simulates emergency combat rescue, employing two simulated combat casualties, aversive body odors, recorded battlefield sounds, and smoke in a low light environment. Participants locate and conduct preliminary assessments of the simulated patients, triage based on injury severity, initiate treatment, and coordinate medical evacuation by radio. Results revealed large magnitude increases in cortisol, sAA, HR, systolic BP and diastolic BP in response to the CCSS, followed by recovery to baseline levels 30min after the task for all physiological parameters except cortisol. Age, gender, perceived difficulty of the CCSS, and previous nursing experience were associated with individual differences in the magnitude of the physiological responses. Lower levels of performance related to triage and treatment were associated with higher levels of reactivity and slower recovery for some of the physiological measures. The findings raise important questions regarding the utility of integrating measures of the psychobiology of the stress response into training programs designed to prepare first responders to handle highly complex and chaotic rescue situations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Can reactivity to stress and family environment explain memory and executive function performance in early and middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Luciane da Rosa; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Falceto, Olga Garcia; Fernandes, Carmen Luiza; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, children's overall reactivity to stress is associated with their socioeconomic status and family environment. In turn, it has been shown that reactivity to stress is associated with cognitive performance. However, few studies have systematically tested these three constructs together. To investigate the relationship between family environment, salivary cortisol measurements and children's memory and executive function performance. Salivary cortisol levels of 70 children aged 9 or 10 years were measured before and after performing tasks designed to assess memory and executive functions. Questionnaires on socioeconomic issues, family environment and maternal psychopathologies were administered to participants' families during the children's early childhood and again when they reached school age. Data were analyzed by calculating correlations between variables and conducting hierarchical regression. High cortisol levels were associated with poorer working memory and worse performance in tasks involving executive functions, and were also associated with high scores for maternal psychopathology (during early childhood and school age) and family dysfunction. Family environment variables and changes in cortisol levels explain around 20% of the variance in performance of cognitive tasks. Family functioning and maternal psychopathology in early and middle childhood and children's stress levels were associated with children's working memory and executive functioning.

  6. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may provide insight into new treatment options that target elevated impulsivity and psychopathologies such as addictions. PMID:25431750

  7. Assessing Stress-Induced Sleep Reactivity in College Students: The European Portuguese Version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Daniel Ruivo; Allen Gomes, Ana; Drake, Christopher Lawrence; Roth, Thomas; de Azevedo, Maria Helena Pinto

    2016-08-11

    Over the past few years, the comprehensive models of insomnia have exhibited impressive developments. However, there is scarce knowledge on predisposing or vulnerability factors for insomnia. One of the most promising constructs to aid in filling this gap is stress-induced sleep reactivity assessed through self-report. Our aim was to study the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST). We recruited a large sample of students attending medical school (N = 699). Several analyses were carried out such as internal consistency, construct validity, and discriminant groups' analysis. It was observed that FIRST-PT shows good internal consistency (Cronbach´s alpha = .81) and validity indicators. Interestingly, and contrary to what was observed in the previously published studies on psychometric properties of the FIRST, it was observed that a two-factor solution (Factor I = rumination, Factor II = worry) was the most adequate one to explain the correlation matrix, accounting for approximately 44% of the total variance. The FIRST-PT proved to be a useful and reliable tool to measure stress-induced sleep reactivity. However, these results should be replicated in other groups, particularly clinical samples, in order to verify the stability of its factorial dimension.

  8. STRESS AND CUE-ELICITED CRAVING AND REACTIVITY IN MARIJUANA-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Price, Kimber L.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E.; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. Objectives The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Methods Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (ACTH, cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task; TSST) or no-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post marijuana cue. Results 87 participants completed procedures (stress group, n=45; non-stress group, n=42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stressed group in stress rating (p<0.001), craving (p=0.028), cortisol (p<0.001), and ACTH (p<0.001) after completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following presentation of the marijuana cues (p=0.005). Following the TSST or no-stress condition, the non-stressed group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p=0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p=0.404). Conclusions Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana-cue exposure. PMID:21710170

  9. Stress- and cue-elicited craving and reactivity in marijuana-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Carter, Rickey E; Price, Kimber L; Baker, Nathaniel L; Thomas, Suzanne; Saladin, Michael E; Giarla, Kathleen; Nicholas, Katherine; Brady, Kathleen T

    2011-11-01

    Cue-elicited craving and stress responses have been identified as predictors of relapse in drug dependence, but little research exists on the contribution of these factors to marijuana use specifically. The aims of the present study were to evaluate (1) responses to a psychological stressor, (2) responses to marijuana-related cues, and (3) if an exposure to a psychological stressor augmented craving subsequently elicited by marijuana-related cue exposure in marijuana-dependent individuals. Subjective (craving, stress), neuroendocrine (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol), and physiologic responses to the presentation of neutral and marijuana cues were assessed after randomization to a stress (Trier Social Stress Task (TSST)) or non-stress control condition in marijuana-dependent individuals. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline, post-stressor/pre-neutral cue, post-neutral cue, and post-marijuana cue. Eighty-seven participants completed procedures (stress group, n = 45; non-stress group, n = 42). The stress group had a significant increase over the non-stress group in stress rating (p < 0.001), craving (p = 0.028), cortisol (p < 0.001), and ACTH (p < 0.001) after the completion of the TSST. An increased craving response for all participants was seen following the presentation of the marijuana cues (p = 0.005). Following the TSST or non-stress condition, the non-stress group had an increase in craving to marijuana cues as compared to neutral cues (p = 0.002); an increase in craving was not observed in the stress group (p = 0.404). Marijuana cue exposure and a social stressor increased craving in marijuana-dependent individuals. Completion of the TSST did not increase craving response to subsequent marijuana cue exposure.

  10. The neurobiology of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Sean

    2018-02-01

    Directional climate change (global warming) is causing rapid alterations in animals' environments. Because the nervous system is at the forefront of animals' interactions with the environment, the neurobiological implications of climate change are central to understanding how individuals, and ultimately populations, will respond to global warming. Evidence is accumulating for individual level, mechanistic effects of climate change on nervous system development and performance. Climate change can also alter sensory stimuli, changing the effectiveness of sensory and cognitive systems for achieving biological fitness. At the population level, natural selection forces stemming from directional climate change may drive rapid evolutionary change in nervous system structure and function.

  11. Neurobiology of aggression and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Escobar, Joaquín; Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    La neurobiología de la agresión y la violencia es de interés para la psicología jurídica porque buenaparte de la conducta delictiva tiene componentes violentos. En esta revisión se definen en primer lugarambos conceptos, para diferenciar a continuación los tipos de agresión (impulsiva vs. instrumental) queaparecen en la literatura científica y finalmente analizar las estructuras nerviosas que según los estudiossobre lesiones cerebrales o de neuroimagen están asociadas con la agresión. Esta re...

  12. Predicting stress from the ability to eavesdrop on feelings: Emotional intelligence and testosterone jointly predict cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N; Schneider, Vanessa K

    2016-09-01

    While emotional intelligence (EI) is recognized as a resource in social interactions, we hypothesized a positive association with stress in socially evaluative contexts. In particular, we expected emotion recognition, the core component of EI, to inflict stress on individuals in negatively valenced interactions. We expected this association to be stronger for status-driven individuals, that is, for individuals scoring high on basal testosterone. In a laboratory experiment, N = 166 male participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993). As expected, EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT V2.0; Mayer et al., 2003) predicted higher cortisol reactivity, including slower recovery from stress. The effect was moderated by basal testosterone, such that the association was positive when basal testosterone was high but not when it was low. On the component level of EI, the interaction was replicated for negative emotion recognition. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that EI is associated with higher activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in contexts where social status is at stake, particularly for those individuals who are more status-driven. Thus, the effects of EI are not unequivocally positive: While EI may positively affect the course of social interactions, it also inflicts stress on the emotionally intelligent individuals themselves. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  14. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Baird, Scarlett O; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-06-01

    Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for affective eating. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a heated, hatha yoga intervention for reducing cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating. Females (N = 52; ages 25-46 years; 75% White) at risk for obesity and related illnesses were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of Bikram Yoga practice or to waitlist control. Cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stress induction were measured at Weeks 0 (pretreatment) and 9 (posttreatment). Self-reported binge eating frequency and coping motives for eating were assessed at Weeks 0, 3, 6, and 9. Among participants with elevated cortisol reactivity at pretreatment ("high reactors"), those randomized to the yoga condition evidenced greater pre- to posttreatment reductions in cortisol reactivity (p = .042, d = .85), but there were not significant condition differences for the "low reactors" (p = .178, d = .53). Yoga participants reported greater decreases in binge eating frequency (p = .040, d = .62) and eating to cope with negative affect (p = .038, d = .54). This study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of heated hatha yoga for treating physiological stress reactivity and affective eating among women at risk for obesity-related illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Influence of Perceived Stress on Cortical Reactivity: A Proof-Of-Principle Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosan Luijcks

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how perceived stress may affect electroencephalographical (EEG activity in a stress paradigm in a sample of 76 healthy participants. EEG activity was analyzed using multilevel modeling, allowing estimation of nested effects (EEG time segments within subjects. The stress paradigm consisted of a 3-minute pre-stimulus stress period and a 2-minute post-stimulus phase. At t=3 minutes, a single electrical stimulus was delivered. Participants were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. In the EEG time course of alpha activity, a stronger increase was observed during the post-stimulus period as compared to the pre-stimulus period. An opposite time course effect was apparent for gamma activity. Both effects were in line with a priori expectations and support the validity of this experimental EEG-stress paradigm. Secondly, we investigated whether interaction effects of stress and coping, as measured with the Perceived Stress Scale-10 questionnaire (PSS-10, could be demonstrated. A higher perceived stress score was accompanied by a greater increase in delta- and theta-activity during the post-stimulus phase, compared to low scores. In contrast, low coping capacity was associated with a stronger decrease in slow beta, fast beta and gamma activity during the post-stimulus phase. The results of the present article may be interpreted as proof-of-principle that EEG stress-related activity depends on the level of subjectively reported perceived stress. The inclusion of psychosocial variables measuring coping styles as well as stress-related personality aspects permits further examination of the interconnection between mind and body and may inform on the process of transformation from acute to chronic stress.

  16. Stress-related exhaustion disorder--clinical manifestation of burnout? A review of assessment methods, sleep impairments, cognitive disturbances, and neuro-biological and physiological changes in clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giorgio; Perski, Aleksander; Osika, Walter; Savic, Ivanka

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the literature on clinically significant burnout, focusing on its assessment, associations with sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, as well as neurobiological and physiological correlates. Fifty-nine English language articles and six book chapters were included. The results indicate that exhaustion disorder (ED), as described in the Swedish version of the International Classification of Diseases, seems to be the most valid clinical equivalent of burnout. The data supports the notion that sleep impairments are causative and maintaining factors for this condition. Patients with clinical burnout/ED suffer from cognitive impairments in the areas of memory and executive functioning. The studies on neuro-biological mechanisms have reported functional uncoupling of networks relating the limbic system to the pre-frontal cortex, and decreased volumes of structures within the basal ganglia. Although there is a growing body of literature on the physiological correlates of clinical burnout/ED, there is to date no biomarker for this condition. More studies on the role of sleep disturbances, cognitive impairments, and neurobiological and physiological correlates in clinical burnout/ED are warranted. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The role of stressful life events on the cortisol reactivity patterns of breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cynthia; Couture-Lalande, Marie-Ève; Lebel, Sophie; Bielajew, Catherine

    2017-12-01

    Atypical patterns of cortisol secretion following an acute stressor have been commonly reported in breast cancer survivors. Stressful life events have been associated with blunted acute cortisol levels in other populations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of stressful life events on cortisol secretion patterns of breast cancer survivors following an acute stressor. The Trier Social Stress (TSST) was used to elicit a moderate stress response in breast cancer survivors (n = 19) and a control group (n = 17). Saliva samples were collected before, during and after the TSST to provide cortisol concentrations. During recovery, we recorded the frequency and subjective impact of stressful life events in the past year using the Life Experience Survey. Simple regressions analyses were performed; results suggest no group differences between the total number of stressful life events and their subjective impact. However, the total number of stressful life events as well as their subjective impact correlated negatively with the peak cortisol concentration in breast cancer survivors. The cumulative effect of stressful life events, positive and negative, may impact the endocrine stress system of breast cancer survivors more so than that of women with no history of cancer.

  18. Multi-Wave Prospective Examination of the Stress-Reactivity Extension of Response Styles Theory of Depression in High-Risk Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Fishman, Michael B.; Stolow, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the stress-reactivity extension of response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema "Journal of Abnormal Psychology" 100:569-582, 1991) in a sample of high-risk children and early adolescents from a vulnerability-stress perspective using a multi-wave longitudinal design. In addition, we examined whether obtained…

  19. Heated hatha yoga to target cortisol reactivity to stress and affective eating in women at risk for obesity-related illnesses: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopkins, L.B.; Medina, J.L.; Baird, S.O.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cortisol reactivity to stress is associated with affective eating, an important behavioral risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases. Yoga practice is related to decreases in stress and cortisol levels, thus emerging as a potential targeted complementary intervention for

  20. Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults and Cognition in Midlife: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuichiro; Ning, Hongyan; Reis, Jared P; Lewis, Cora E; Launer, Lenore J; Bryan, R Nick; Yaffe, Kristine; Sidney, Stephen; Albanese, Emiliano; Greenland, Philip; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Liu, Kiang

    2016-01-13

    The classic view of blood pressure (BP) reactivity to psychological stress in relation to cardiovascular risks assumes that excess reactivity is worse and lower reactivity is better. Evidence addressing how stress-induced BP reactivity in young adults is associated with midlife cognitive function is sparse. We assessed BP reactivity during a star tracing task and a video game in adults aged 20 to 32 years. Twenty-three years later, cognitive function was assessed with use of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (a psychomotor speed test), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (a verbal memory test), and the modified Stroop test (an executive function test). At the time of follow-up, participants (n=3021) had a mean age of 50.2 years; 56% were women, and 44% were black. In linear regression models adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics including baseline and follow-up resting BP, lower systolic BP (SBP) reactivity during the star tracing and video game was associated with worse Digit Symbol Substitution Test scores (β [SE]: 0.11 [0.02] and 0.05 [0.02], respectively) and worse performance on the Stroop test (β [SE]: -0.06 [0.02] and -0.05 [0.02]; all P<0.01). SBP reactivity was more consistently associated than diastolic BP reactivity with cognitive function scores. The associations between SBP reactivity and cognitive function were mostly similar between blacks and whites. Lower psychological stress-induced SBP reactivity in younger adults was associated with lower cognitive function in midlife. BP reactivity to psychological stressors may have different associations with target organs in hypertension. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Environmental stress alters genes expression and induces ovule abortion: reactive oxygen species appear as ovules commit to abort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kelian; Cui, Yuehua; Hauser, Bernard A

    2005-11-01

    Environmental stress dramatically reduces plant reproduction. Previous results showed that placing roots in 200 mM NaCl for 12 h caused 90% of the developing Arabidopsis ovules to abort (Sun et al. in Plant Physiol 135:2358-2367, 2004). To discover the molecular responses that occur during ovule abortion, gene expression was monitored using Affymetrix 24k genome arrays. Transcript levels were measured in pistils that were stressed for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h, then compared with the levels in healthy pistils. Over the course of this experiment, a total of 535 salt-responsive genes were identified. Cluster analysis showed that differentially expressed genes exhibited reproducible changes in expression. The expression of 65 transcription factors, some of which are known to be involved in stress responses, were modulated during ovule abortion. In flowers, salt stress led to a 30-fold increase in Na+ ions and modest, but significant, decreases in the accumulation of other ions. The expression of cation exchangers and ion transporters were induced, presumably to reestablish ion homeostasis following salt stress. Genes that encode enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS), including ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase, were downregulated after ovules committed to abort. These changes in gene expression coincided with the synthesis of ROS in female gametophytes. One day after salt stress, ROS spread from the gametophytes to the maternal chalaza and integuments. In addition, genes encoding proteins that regulate ethylene responses, including ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene signal transduction and ethylene-responsive transcription factors, were upregulated after stress. Hypotheses are proposed on the basis of this expression analysis, which will be evaluated further in future experiments.

  2. Krebs Cycle Intermediates Protective against Oxidative Stress by Modulating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neuronal HT22 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Sawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. In contrast, none of the KCIs—used at 1 mM—protected against cell death induced by high concentrations of glutamate—another type of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Because these protective KCIs did not have any toxic effects (at least up to 10 mM, they have potential use for therapeutic intervention against chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Krebs Cycle Intermediates Protective against Oxidative Stress by Modulating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neuronal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Kenta; Uematsu, Takumi; Korenaga, Yusuke; Hirasawa, Ryuya; Kikuchi, Masatoshi; Murata, Kyohei; Zhang, Jian; Gai, Xiaoqing; Sakamoto, Kazuichi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Satoh, Takumi

    2017-03-16

    Krebs cycle intermediates (KCIs) are reported to function as energy substrates in mitochondria and to exert antioxidants effects on the brain. The present study was designed to identify which KCIs are effective neuroprotective compounds against oxidative stress in neuronal cells. Here we found that pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and α-ketoglutarate, but not lactate, citrate, iso-citrate, succinate, fumarate, or malate, protected HT22 cells against hydrogen peroxide-mediated toxicity. These three intermediates reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide-activated reactive oxygen species, measured in terms of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate fluorescence. In contrast, none of the KCIs-used at 1 mM-protected against cell death induced by high concentrations of glutamate-another type of oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Because these protective KCIs did not have any toxic effects (at least up to 10 mM), they have potential use for therapeutic intervention against chronic neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Reactive Aggression and Posttraumatic Stress in Adolescents Affected by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsee, Monica A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study tests a theoretical model illustrating a potential pathway to reactive aggression through exposure to a traumatic event (Hurricane Katrina) in 166 adolescents (61% female, 63% Caucasian) recruited from high schools on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. Results support an association between exposure to Hurricane Katrina and reactive…

  5. The neurobiology of addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is increasingly understood as a neurobiological illness where repetitive substance abuse corrupts the normal circuitry of rewarding and adaptive behaviors causing drug-induced neuroplastic changes. The addictive process can be examined by looking at the biological basis of substance initiation to the progression of substance abuse to dependence to the enduring risk of relapse. Critical neurotransmitters and neurocircuits underlie the pathological changes at each of these stages. Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is part of the common pathway for the positively rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse and for initiation of the addictive process. F-Aminobutyric acid,opioid peptides, serotonin, acetylcholine, the endocannabinoids, and glutamate systems also play a role in the initial addictive process. Dopamine also plays a key role in conditioned responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction is now recognized as a disease of pathological learning and memory. In the path from substance abuse to addiction, the neurochemistry shifts from a dopamine-based behavioral system to a predominantly glutamate-based one marked by dysregulated glutamate transmission from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug versus biologically oriented stimuli. This is a core part of the executive dysfunction now understood as one of the hallmark features of addiction that also includes impaired decision making and impulse dysregulation.Understanding the neurobiology of the addictive process allows for a theoretical psychopharmacological approach to treating addictive disorders,one that takes into account biological interventions aimed at particular stages of the illness.

  6. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocco, Alexandra J; Hunse, Anastasia M

    2017-06-30

    Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to either a therapy dog (TD, n = 31) or a no-dog control (C, n = 30) group. The stress response was measured by electrodermal activity (EDA) in response to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed pet attitude, general stress levels, and affect. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) showed that increase in EDA was significantly more pronounced in the C group than in the TD group (p stress response in university students, which has implications for the promotion of a viable stress management program on university campuses.

  7. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  8. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Fiocco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to either a therapy dog (TD, n = 31 or a no-dog control (C, n = 30 group. The stress response was measured by electrodermal activity (EDA in response to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT. Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed pet attitude, general stress levels, and affect. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs showed that increase in EDA was significantly more pronounced in the C group than in the TD group (p < 0.01. Pet attitudes did not modulate the buffer effect of therapy dog exposure. Results suggest that therapy dog exposure may buffer the stress response in university students, which has implications for the promotion of a viable stress management program on university campuses.

  10. Listening to music and physiological and psychological functioning: the mediating role of emotion regulation and stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, M V; Scholz, U; Ehlert, U; Nater, U M

    2012-01-01

    Music listening has been suggested to have short-term beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association and potential mediating mechanisms between various aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour and physiological and psychological functioning. An internet-based survey was conducted in university students, measuring habitual music-listening behaviour, emotion regulation, stress reactivity, as well as physiological and psychological functioning. A total of 1230 individuals (mean = 24.89 ± 5.34 years, 55.3% women) completed the questionnaire. Quantitative aspects of habitual music-listening behaviour, i.e. average duration of music listening and subjective relevance of music, were not associated with physiological and psychological functioning. In contrast, qualitative aspects, i.e. reasons for listening (especially 'reducing loneliness and aggression', and 'arousing or intensifying specific emotions') were significantly related to physiological and psychological functioning (all p = 0.001). These direct effects were mediated by distress-augmenting emotion regulation and individual stress reactivity. The habitual music-listening behaviour appears to be a multifaceted behaviour that is further influenced by dispositions that are usually not related to music listening. Consequently, habitual music-listening behaviour is not obviously linked to physiological and psychological functioning.

  11. The Hysteretic Behavior of Partially Pre-Stressed Beam-Column Joint Sub-assemblages Made of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah Nurjannah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Reactive powder concrete (RPC is an alternative to normal concrete (NC allowing for significantly higher strength of partially pre-stressed concrete structures. In the Indonesian national standard SNI 03-2847-2013 (2013 and the American standard ACI 318-14 (2014, the partial pre-stressed ratio (PPR is limited to a maximum of 25.0 percent to ensure that pre-stressed concrete structures remain ductile and capable to dissipate seismic energy sufficiently. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the hysteretic performance of partially pre-stressed-RPC (PP-RPC for both interior and exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages. Four specimens with different levels of PPR were tested with a combination of constant axial compression and cyclic lateral loads. The PPR used for the first and the second two specimens were 22.8% and 33.8%, respectively. The strength of the RPC was 101.60 MPa for all specimens. The results showed that increasing the PPR of PP-RPC improves its hysteretic performance. The best performing specimen, with a PPR of 33.8%, had a ductility that was 1.97 times that of the specimen with a PPR of 22.8%.

  12. [Effects of NaCl stress on the growth, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen metabolism of grafted eggplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Lu; Zhu, Yue-Lin; Hu, Chun-Mei; Wei, Guo-Ping; Yang, Li-Fei; Zhang, Gu-Wen

    2007-03-01

    By the method of hydroponics and with the salt-tolerant eggplant cultivar 'Torvum Vigor' (Solanum torvum) from Japan as rootstock and the cultivar 'Suqiqie' (Solanum melongena L. ) as scion, this paper studied the differences between grafted and own-root seedlings in their photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant enzyme activities, and reactive oxygen metabolism under 80 mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress. The results showed that under NaCl stress, the dry mass, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate of grafted seedlings were 67.8%, 8. 8% and 31.1% higher than those of own-root seedlings, respectively, and the antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly higher while the O2* producing rate and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents were significantly lower in grafted seedlings leaves than in own-root seedlings. For both grafted and own-root seedlings, NaCl stress reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate, but increased the O2* producing rate and the H2O2 and MDA contents significantly. However, the growth of grafted seedlings was less affected by NaCl stress. The stronger salt tolerance of grafted eggplant seedlings was related to their higher antioxidant enzyme activities and less oxidative damage.

  13. Succinate dehydrogenase (mitochondrial complex II) is a source of reactive oxygen species in plants and regulates development and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim-Messeder, Douglas; Caverzan, Andréia; Rauber, Rafael; de Souza Ferreira, Eduardo; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Galina, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that regulate plant development and responses to stresses. Mitochondria are the source of most ROS in heterotrophic cells, and mitochondrial complex I and complex III are regarded as the main sites of ROS production in plant mitochondria. Recent studies have demonstrated that succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also contributes to mitochondrial ROS production. However, the ability of SDH to generate ROS in plants is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of SDH in mitochondrial ROS production. Our results demonstrated that SDH is a direct source of ROS in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, and the induction of ROS production by specific SDH inhibitors impaired plant growth. In addition, this effect was accompanied by the down-regulation of cell cycle genes and the up-regulation of stress-related genes. However, the partial inhibition of SDH by a competitive inhibitor decreased ROS production, which was associated with increased shoot and root growth, and prevented the down-regulation of cell cycle genes and the induction of stress-related genes by noncompetitive inhibitors. In conclusion, SDH plays an important role in ROS production, being a direct source of ROS in plant mitochondria and regulating plant development and stress responses. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Neurobiological correlates of internet gaming disorder: Similarities to pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth-Bühler, M; Mann, K

    2017-01-01

    The number of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) is on the rise worldwide along with the fascination that they inspire. Problems occur when the use of MMOs becomes excessive at the expense of other life domains. Although not yet formally included as disorder in common diagnostic systems, internet gaming disorder (IGD) is considered a "condition for further study" in section III of the DSM-5. The current review aims to provide an overview of cognitive and neurobiological data currently available on IGD, with a particular focus on impulsivity, compulsivity, and sensitivity to reward and punishment. Additionally, we also compare these findings on IGD with data from studies on pathological gambling (PG)-so far the only condition officially classified as a behavioral addiction in the DSM-5. Multiple similarities have been observed in the neurobiology of IGD and PG, as measured by alterations in brain function and behavior. Both patients with IGD and those with PG exhibited decreased loss sensitivity; enhanced reactivity to gaming and gambling cues, respectively; enhanced impulsive choice behavior; aberrant reward-based learning; and no changes in cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, the evidence base on the neurobiology of gaming and gambling disorders is beginning to illuminate the similarities between the two. However, as only a few studies have addressed the neurobiological basis of IGD, and some of these studies suffer from significant limitations, more research is required before IGD's inclusion as a second behavioral addiction in the next versions of the ICD and DSM can be justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of reactive oxygene species, peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins in reaction of plants to hypergravity and oxidative stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadko, Sergiy

    Early increasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration, including H2O2, occur in plant cells under various impacts and these ROS can function as signaling molecules in starting of cell stress responses. Peroxiredoxins (Prx) and thioredoxins (Trx) are significant cell ROS/H2O2 sensors and transmitters. Prx besides its antioxidant activity, participate in creating of stress redox signals by destroying of H2O2 and reducing of Trx. Than these reduced Trx lead to activation of various redox sensitive proteins, transcription factors and MAP kinases. This study aimed to investigate early increasing of ROS and H2O2 contents and Prx and Trx activities in pea roots and arabidopsis tissue culture cells under hypergravity and oxidative stresses. Pea roots of 3-5 days old seedlings and 12 days old tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana from leaves were studied. Pea seedlings were grown on wet filter paper and the tissue culture was grown on MS medium in dark conditions under 24oC. Hypergravity stress was induced by centrifugation at 15 g. Chemiluminescence (ChL) intensity for ROS concentration, H2O2 content and Prx and Trx activities were determined. All experiments were repeated by 3-4 times. Early increasing of ChL intensity and H2O2 content in the pea roots and arabidopsis tissue culture cells took place under hypergravity and oxidative stresses and its were higher corresponding controls on average on 25, 21 and 17 percents to 30, 60 and 90 min. At the same time Prx and Trx activities increased on 7, 13 and 16 percents. Thus under hypergravity and oxidative stresses in both investigated plants take place early increasing of ROS and H2O2 contents which as second messengers can lead to ROS/H2O2-dependent increasing of Prx and Trx activities with creating of H2O2-Prx-Trx signaling pathway.

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  17. B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Reactivity to Mental Stress and Exercise: Role of Obesity and Hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-25

    little known regarding the effects of mental or emotional stress on BNP levels. However, there is evidence in the human and animal literature that...1 h (for BNP) and 3 h (for ANP) following the onset of immobilization stress (90). This study provides evidence in an animal model for a possible...open circuit spirometry (Oxycon Mobile, VIASYS Healthcare Inc.). With open circuit spirometry , the participant wears a mask that allows them to

  18. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  19. Experimental diabetes in rats causes hippocampal dendritic and synaptic reorganization and increased glucocorticoid reactivity to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Magariños, Ana; McEwen, Bruce S.

    2000-09-01

    We report that 9 d of uncontrolled experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in rats is an endogenous chronic stressor that produces retraction and simplification of apical dendrites of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons, an effect also observed in nondiabetic rats after 21 d of repeated restraint stress or chronic corticosterone (Cort) treatment. Diabetes also induces morphological changes in the presynaptic mossy fiber terminals (MFT) that form excitatory synaptic contacts with the proximal CA3 apical dendrites. One effect, synaptic vesicle depletion, occurs in diabetes as well as after repeated stress and Cort treatment. However, diabetes produced other MFT structural changes that differ qualitatively and quantitatively from other treatments. Furthermore, whereas 7 d of repeated stress was insufficient to produce dendritic or synaptic remodeling in nondiabetic rats, it potentiated both dendritic atrophy and MFT synaptic vesicle depletion in STZ rats. These changes occurred in concert with adrenal hypertrophy and elevated basal Cort release as well as hypersensitivity and defective shutoff of Cort secretion after stress. Thus, as an endogenous stressor, STZ diabetes not only accelerates the effects of exogenous stress to alter hippocampal morphology; it also produces structural changes that overlap only partially with those produced by stress and Cort in the nondiabetic state.

  20. Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jackie D

    Discovery and documentation of noncholinergic-nonadrenergic neurotransmission in the enteric nervous system started a revolution in mechanisms of neural control of the digestive tract that continues into a twenty-first century era of translational gastroenterology, which is now firmly embedded in the term, neurogastroenterology. This chapter, on Enteric Neurobiology: Discoveries and Directions, tracks the step-by-step advances in enteric neuronal electrophysiology and synaptic behavior and progresses to the higher order functions of central pattern generators, hard wired synaptic circuits and libraries of neural programs in the brain-in-the-gut that underlie the several different patterns of motility and secretory behaviors that occur in the specialized, serially-connected compartments extending from the esophagus to the anus.

  1. [Neurobiological basis of depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, C; Bielau, H; Bogerts, B; Northoff, G

    2006-12-01

    Depressive disorders belong to the most frequent diseases worldwide showing a lifetime prevalence of up to 20%. Moreover they are one of the leading causes for the amount of years lived with disability. Increasing knowledge about the pathological mechanisms underlying depressive syndromes is obtained by using modern neurobiological research-techniques. Thereby some older theories that have been the basis of emotion-research for decades--like the monoamine hypothesis--have been strengthened. In addition new aspects of the pathological processes underlying depressive disturbances have been unraveled. In this review established models and recent findings will be discussed, to bridge various research-fields, ranging from genetics, epigenetics and morphological changes to the functional consequences of depression. Finally therapeutic implications that could be derived from these results will be presented, showing up putative possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of depressive syndromes.

  2. [Recent neurobiological data on cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2002-01-01

    The alarming increase in cannabis abuse has triggered a renewed interest in the neurobiological mechanisms which underlie its effects, particularly as regards its addictive properties either intrinsic or when crossed with other narcotics as well as its subsequent damage. We here report an evaluation of experimental data which reveal in animals a psychological dependence, common to all addictive drugs; a physical dependence, which is considered up to now as the characteristic of "hard addictive drugs"; the incentive effect that cannabis should exert on the inclination to abuse other addictive drugs, especially heroin; and finally the close relationships which seem to exist between cannabis and schizophrenia. Most of these recent data are far from reassuring as regards cannabis psychotoxicity. Furthermore they underline its potential danger and prompt increased caution.

  3. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  4. Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muráni Eduard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate, adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024, adrenal weight (p = 0.003 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045. The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003. The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029. The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002, and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal

  5. Proline accumulation protects Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase from ethanol stress by reducing reactive oxygen species levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Junpei; Kaino, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    During fermentation processes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are exposed to multiple stresses, including a high concentration of ethanol that represents toxicity through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. We previously reported that proline protected yeast cells from damage caused by various stresses, such as freezing and ethanol. As an anti-oxidant, proline is suggested to scavenge intracellular ROS. In this study, we examined the role of intracellular proline during ethanol treatment in S. cerevisiae strains that accumulate different concentrations of proline. When cultured in YPD medium, there was a significant accumulation of proline in the put1 mutant strain, which is deficient in proline oxidase, in the stationary phase. Expression of the mutant PRO1 gene, which encodes the γ-glutamyl kinase variant (Asp154Asn or Ile150Thr) with desensitization to feedback inhibition by proline in the put1 mutant strain, showed a prominent increase in proline content as compared with that of the wild-type strain. The oxidation level was clearly increased in wild-type cells after exposure to ethanol, indicating that the generation of ROS occurred. Interestingly, proline accumulation significantly reduces the ROS level and increases the survival rate of yeast cells in the stationary phase under ethanol stress conditions. However, there was not a clear correlation between proline content and survival rate in yeast cells. An appropriate level of intracellular proline in yeast might be important for its stress-protective effect. Hence, the engineering of proline metabolism could be promising for breeding stress-tolerant industrial yeast strains. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Associations of Prenatal and Perinatal Factors with Cortisol Diurnal Pattern and Reactivity to Stress at Preschool Age Among Children Living in Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Elhassan, Maha E.; Miller, Alison L.; Vazquez, Delia M; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of pre- and perinatal factors with diurnal cortisol pattern and reactivity to a stressor at preschool age among children living in poverty. Methods: Preschool aged children (n=275) provided saliva samples 3 times per day for 3 days to assess circadian rhythmicity (intercept and slope reflected diurnal pattern) and during a behavioral stress elicitation protocol to measure reactivity (5 samples before, during and after the stressor). Pre- and perinatal pre...

  7. The anticipatory stress response to sport competition; a systematic review with meta-analysis of cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paridon, Kjell N; Timmis, Matthew A; Nevison, Charlotte M; Bristow, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Athletes anticipating sport competition regularly experience distinct emotional and physiological responses as a result of the expected psychosocial and physical stress. Specifically, cortisol, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, prepares the athlete for the psychological and physiological demands of competition. The objective of this meta-analysis is to analyse the magnitude of the anticipatory cortisol response in athletes preparing to participate in sport competition and to examine the influence of gender, level of competition and data collection time. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Four electronic databases were searched to March 2017: PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. (1) Athletes participating in real sport competition;(2) salivary cortisol concentration collected before competition in addition to baseline sample(s);(3) original research article published in English language. Data from 25 studies provided 27 effect sizes. A significant anticipatory cortisol response of g=0.85, panticipatory stress response. There were no significant differences between level of competition, type of sport or time of competition. Meta-regression indicated that the anticipatory cortisol response is greater when assessed closer to the start of competition (Q=6.85, p=0.009). The anticipatory cortisol response before sport competition reflects moderate cortisol reactivity that prepares athletes optimally for the demands of sport competition via the influence on cognitive processes and attentional control. However, both female athletes and international competitors did not demonstrate a significant anticipatory cortisol response, possibly due to differences in appraisal of the stress of sport competition.

  8. Reactive oxygen species regulatory mechanisms associated with rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Gan, Xueqi; Zhu, Zhuoli; Yang, Yang; He, Yuting; Yu, Haiyang, E-mail: yhyang6812@scu.edu.cn

    2016-02-12

    Although many previous studies have shown that refractory period-dependent memory effect of vibration stress is anabolic for skeletal homeostasis, little is known about the rapid response of osteoblasts simply derived from vibration itself. In view of the potential role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating differentiated activity of osteoblasts, whether and how ROS regulates the rapid effect of vibration deserve to be demonstrated. Our findings indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells underwent decreased gene expression of Runx2, Col-I and ALP and impaired ALP activity accompanied by increased mitochondrial fission immediately after vibration loading. Moreover, we also revealed the involvement of ERK-Drp1 signal transduction in ROS regulatory mechanisms responsible for the rapid effect of vibration stress. - Highlights: • ROS contributed to the rapid response of MC3T3-E1 cells for vibration stress. • Imbalance of mitochondrial dynamics were linked to the LMHFV-derived rapid response. • The role of ERK-Drp1 signal pathway in the LMHFV-derived osteoblast rapid response.

  9. Neurobiology of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluka, Kathleen A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-12-03

    Fibromyalgia is the current term for chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain for which no alternative cause can be identified. The underlying mechanisms, in both human and animal studies, for the continued pain in individuals with fibromyalgia will be explored in this review. There is a substantial amount of support for alterations of central nervous system nociceptive processing in people with fibromyalgia, and that psychological factors such as stress can enhance the pain experience. Emerging evidence has begun exploring other potential mechanisms including a peripheral nervous system component to the generation of pain and the role of systemic inflammation. We will explore the data and neurobiology related to the role of the CNS in nociceptive processing, followed by a short review of studies examining potential peripheral nervous system changes and cytokine involvement. We will not only explore the data from human subjects with fibromyalgia but will relate this to findings from animal models of fibromyalgia. We conclude that fibromyalgia and related disorders are heterogenous conditions with a complicated pathobiology with patients falling along a continuum with one end a purely peripherally driven painful condition and the other end of the continuum is when pain is purely centrally driven. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental stress and immunological reactivity: a closer look at perceived uncontrollability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; Benschop, R. J.; Olff, M.; Ballieux, R. E.; Heijnen, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Although stressor uncontrollability has been shown to suppress immune responses in animals and for human subjects, the results have been inconsistent. We reanalyzed results of our previous study regarding stress-related immune deviation in man, to establish whether perceived uncontrollability of an

  11. Experimental stress and immunological reactivity : A closer look at perceived uncontrollability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosschot, JF; Godaert, GLR; Benschop, RJ; Olff, M; Ballieux, RE; Heijnen, CJ

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Although stressor uncontrollability has been shown to suppress immune responses in animals and for human subjects, the results have been inconsistent. We reanalyzed results of our previous study regarding stress-related immune deviation in man, to establish whether perceived

  12. The influence of postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Horvath, KM; Nagy, GM; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Environmental stimuli during early stages of life can influence the development of an organism and may result in permanent changes in adult behaviour and physiology. In the present study we investigated the influence of early postnatal handling on adult neuroendocrine and behavioural stress

  13. Physiological stress reactivity and empathy following social exclusion: a test of the defensive emotional analgesia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Ellyn Charlotte; Stednitz, Sarah Josephine; Simonson, Kevin; Shen, Tori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of social exclusion elicit social pain responses. The current study examined the ability of social exclusion to activate physiological stress responses and adaptively modulate affect and empathy consistent with "defensive emotional analgesia." Measures of affect and empathy, and saliva samples for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) analysis, were collected before and after subjects participated in a computer game ("Cyberball") designed to manipulate feelings of social exclusion. Contrary to our hypotheses, social exclusion was associated with a reduction in cortisol, and social inclusion with an increase in cortisol. Both Cyberball groups showed increases in sAA and decreases in both positive and negative affect, with the greatest drop in affect occurring after social exclusion. Empathy did not differ between the social exclusion and inclusion groups and was not correlated with cortisol or sAA levels. These results support the presence of a defensive response to social exclusion in which central stress pathways controlling cortisol release are inhibited. Cortisol and sAA were shown to have distinct patterns of responses to psychological stress, with sAA responding more rapidly. Related methodological concerns for the use of these physiological stress markers and of Cyberball in social neuroscience research are discussed.

  14. Childhood trauma, psychosis liability and social stress reactivity : a virtual reality study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, W.; Counotte, J.; Pot-Kolder, R.; van Os, J.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Childhood trauma is associated with higher risk for mental disorders, including psychosis. Heightened sensitivity to social stress may be a mechanism. This virtual reality study tested the effect of childhood trauma on level of paranoid ideations and distress in response to social

  15. Influence of low-stress handling on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination in Nellore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayf Roberto Tirloni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of low-stress handling (LSH on reactivity score and pregnancy rate during fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI for extensively raised Nellore cows. Multiparous cows (n = 126 were randomly allocated into two groups: G1 (n = 66 and G2, the control group (n = 60. Group G1 was subjected to LSH, in which the animals were handled in a calm and quiet manner, without loud noises or physical aggression, using the point of balance, respecting the flight zone and using flags to supplement handling. Group G2 was handled following the typical procedure, with yelling, kicking and the use of electric prods and sticks. On D0, D8 and D10, FTAI was performed in both groups. Reactivity was scored on D0, D8 and D10 at the squeeze chute, based on the tension score, breathing score, and bellowing score. Using the three criteria above, the reactivity scores were defined as follows: R1 (calm; R2 (slightly reactive; R3 (moderately reactive; R4 (reactive; and R5 (highly reactive. Thirty-five days after artificial insemination, pregnancy was determined using ultrasonography. There was no significant correlation between reactivity score and pregnancy rate in each group or between the pregnancy rates in both groups. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the G1 and G2 groups with regard to reactivity score (1.62±0.05 vs. 2.12±0.07. Low-stress handling influenced reactivity but did not affect pregnancy rate in extensively raised Nellore cows subjected to FTAI.

  16. Reactive oxygen species: re-evaluation of generation, monitoring and role in stress-signaling in phototrophic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Renger, Gernot; Friedrich, Thomas; Kreslavski, Vladimir D; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Los, Dmitry A; Kuznetsov, Vladimir V; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-06-01

    This review provides an overview about recent developments and current knowledge about monitoring, generation and the functional role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - H2O2, HO2, HO, OH(-), (1)O2 and O2(-) - in both oxidative degradation and signal transduction in photosynthetic organisms including microscopic techniques for ROS detection and controlled generation. Reaction schemes elucidating formation, decay and signaling of ROS in cyanobacteria as well as from chloroplasts to the nuclear genome in eukaryotes during exposure of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms to oxidative stress are discussed that target the rapidly growing field of regulatory effects of ROS on nuclear gene expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  18. Assessment of Immune Status, Latent Viral Reactivation and Stress during Long Duration Bed Rest as an Analog for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Mehta, Satish K.; Yetman, Deborah L.; Leaf, Melanie J.; Pierson, Duane L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2007-01-01

    As logistical access for in-flight space research becomes more limited, the use of ground based spaceflight analogs for life science studies will increase. These studies are particularly important as NASA progresses towards the Lunar and eventually Mars missions outlined in the 2005 Vision for Space Exploration. Countermeasures must be developed to mitigate the clinical risks associated with exploration class space missions. In an effort to coordinate studies across multiple disciplines, NASA has selected 90-day bed rest as the analog of choice, and initiated the Flight Analogs Project to implement research studies with or without the evaluation of countermeasures. Although bed rest is not the analog of choice to evaluate spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, a standard Immune Assessment was developed for subjects participating in the 90-day bed best studies. The Immune Assessment consists of: leukocyte subset distribution, T cell functional responses, intracellular cytokine production profiles, latent viral reactivation, virus specific T cell levels, virus specific T cell function, stress hormone levels and a behavioral assessment using stress questionnaires. The purpose of the assessment during the initial studies (without countermeasure) is to establish control data against which future studies (with countermeasure) will be evaluated. It is believed that some of the countermeasures planned to be evaluated in future studies, such as exercise, pharmacologic intervention or nutritional supplementation, have the ability to impact immune function. Therefore immunity will likely be monitored during those studies. The data generated during the first three control studies showed that the subjects in general did not display altered peripheral leukocyte subsets, constitutive immune activation, significant latent viral reactivation (EBV, VZV) or altered T cell function. Interestingly, for some subjects the level of constitutively activated T cells (CD8+/CD69+) and

  19. The Roles of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Cellular Signaling and Stress Response in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobai; Van Aken, Olivier; Schwarzländer, Markus; Belt, Katharina; Millar, A Harvey

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria produce ATP via respiratory oxidation of organic acids and transfer of electrons to O2 via the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This process produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) at various rates that can impact respiratory and cellular function, affecting a variety of signaling processes in the cell. Roles in redox signaling, retrograde signaling, plant hormone action, programmed cell death, and defense against pathogens have been attributed to ROS generated in plant mitochondria (mtROS). The shortcomings of the black box-idea of mtROS are discussed in the context of mechanistic considerations and the measurement of mtROS The overall aim of this update is to better define our current understanding of mtROS and appraise their potential influence on cellular function in plants. Furthermore, directions for future research are provided, along with suggestions to increase reliability of mtROS measurements. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by fish muscle mitochondria: Potential role in acute heat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Sheena; Wiens, Lilian; Sotiri, Emianka; Treberg, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Acute heat challenge is known to induce cell-level oxidative stress in fishes. Mitochondria are well known for the capacity to make reactive oxygen species (ROS) and as such are often implicated as a source of the oxidants associated with this thermally-induced oxidative stress. This implication is often asserted, despite little direct data for mitochondrial ROS metabolism in fishes. Here we characterize mitochondrial ROS metabolism in three Actinopterygian fish species at two levels, the capacity for superoxide/H2O2 production and the antioxidant thiol-reductase enzyme activities. We find that red muscle mitochondria from all three species have measurable ROS production and respond to different assay conditions consistent with what might be anticipated; assuming similar relative contributions from difference ROS producing sites as found in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. Although there are species and assay specific exceptions, fish mitochondria may have a greater capacity to produce ROS than that found in the rat when either normalized to respiratory capacity or determined at a common assay temperature. The interspecific differences in ROS production are not correlated with thiol-based antioxidant reductase activities. Moreover, mimicking an acute in vivo heat stress by comparing the impact of increasing assay temperature on these processes in vitro, we find evidence supporting a preferential activation of mitochondrial H2O2 production relative to the increase in the capacity of reductase enzymes to supply electrons to the mitochondrial matrix peroxidases. This supports the contention that mitochondria may be, at least in part, responsible for the ROS that lead to oxidative stress in fish tissues exposed to acute heat challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  2. Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation in Major Depression: Effects on Memory and Stress Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Joormann, Jutta; WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous stimuli in a negative manner is a core bias associated with depression. Investigators have used cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) to demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally induce and modify these biases. This study extends previous research by examining whether CBM-I affects not only interpretation, but also memory and physiological stress response in individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We found that CBM-I was effe...

  3. Thymol Mitigates Cadmium Stress by Regulating Glutathione Levels and Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis in Tobacco Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Xiefeng Ye; Tianxiao Ling; Yanfeng Xue; Cunfa Xu; Wei Zhou; Liangbin Hu; Jian Chen; Zhiqi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Thymol is a famous plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmacy due to its antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. However, the modulation of intrinsic plant physiology by thymol remains unclear. It is a significant challenge to confer plant tolerance to Cd (cadmium) stress. In the present study physiological, histochemical, and biochemical methods were applied to investigate thymol-induced Cd tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings. Thymol was able to alleviate C...

  4. Telomere length and procedural justice predict stress reactivity responses to unfair outcomes in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Todd; Pierce, Jennifer; Lumley, Mark A; Granger, Douglas A; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S

    2017-09-07

    This experiment demonstrates that chromosomal telomere length (TL) moderates response to injustice among African Americans. Based on worldview verification theory - an emerging psychosocial framework for understanding stress - we predicted that acute stress responses would be most pronounced when individual-level expectancies for justice were discordant with justice experiences. Healthy African Americans (N=118; 30% male; M age=31.63years) provided dried blood spot samples that were assayed for TL, and completed a social-evaluative stressor task during which high versus low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice were simultaneously manipulated. African Americans with longer telomeres appeared more resilient (in emotional and neuroendocrine response-higher DHEAs:cortisol) to receiving an unfair outcome when a fair decision process was used, whereas African Americans with shorter telomeres appeared more resilient when an unfair decision process was used. TL may indicate personal histories of adversity and associated stress-related expectancies that influence responses to injustice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling the Residual Stresses in Reactive Resins-Based Materials: a Case Study of Photo-Sensitive Composites for Dental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    Residual stresses in reactive resins-based composites are associated to the net volumetric contraction (shrinkage) arising during the cross-linking reactions. Depending on the restoration geometry (the ratio of the free surface area to the volume of the cavity) the frozen-in stresses can be as high as the strength of the dental composites. This is the main reason why the effectiveness and then the durability of restorations with composites remains quite lower than those realized with metal alloys based materials. In this paper we first explore the possibility to circumvent the mathematical complexity arising from the determination of residual stresses in reactive systems three-dimensionally constrained. Then, the results of our modeling approach are applied to a series of commercially available composites showing that almost all samples develop residual stresses such that the restoration undergoes failure as soon as it is realized.

  6. Toward a Neurobiology of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, P.R.; Taylor, J.R.; Wang, X.-J.; Fletcher, P.C.; Krystal, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Delusions are the false and often incorrigible beliefs that can cause severe suffering in mental illness. We cannot yet explain them in terms of underlying neurobiological abnormalities. However, by drawing on recent advances in the biological, computational and psychological processes of reinforcement learning, memory, and perception it may be feasible to account for delusions in terms of cognition and brain function. The account focuses on a particular parameter, prediction error – the mismatch between expectation and experience – that provides a computational mechanism common to cortical hierarchies, frontostriatal circuits and the amygdala as well as parietal cortices. We suggest that delusions result from aberrations in how brain circuits specify hierarchical predictions, and how they compute and respond to prediction errors. Defects in these fundamental brain mechanisms can vitiate perception, memory, bodily agency and social learning such that individuals with delusions experience an internal and external world that healthy individuals would find difficult to comprehend. The present model attempts to provide a framework through which we can build a mechanistic and translational understanding of these puzzling symptoms. PMID:20558235

  7. Exhaustion-related changes in cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity to acute psychosocial stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Peter; Österberg, Kai; Wallergård, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    in exhaustion disorder (ED). We examined whether a DSR is present during the early stages of ED, and still is present after recovery. Three groups were studied: 1. Former ED patients (n=14); 2. persons who during the past 6month had experienced stress at work and had a Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ...... of exhaustion (SMBQ). This led us to assign former ED patients with lower ratings into the low SMBQ group (LOWS) and those with higher ratings to the high SMBQ group (HIGHS). When repeating the analyses a different picture emerged; the HIGHS showed a lower cortisol response to the V-TSST than did the LOWS. Both...

  8. Achillolide A Protects Astrocytes against Oxidative Stress by Reducing Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species and Interfering with Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Achillolide A is a natural sesquiterpene lactone that we have previously shown can inhibit microglial activation. In this study we present evidence for its beneficial effects on astrocytes under oxidative stress, a situation relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. Viability of brain astrocytes (primary cultures was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity, intracellular ROS levels were detected using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by differential pulse voltammetry, and protein phosphorylation was determined using specific ELISA kits. We have found that achillolide A prevented the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes, and attenuated the induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These activities could be attributed to the inhibition of the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of MAP/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, and to the antioxidant activity of achillolide A, but not to H2O2 scavenging. This is the first study that demonstrates its protective effects on brain astrocytes, and its ability to interfere with MAPK activation. We propose that achillolide A deserves further evaluation for its potential to be developed as a drug for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries where oxidative stress is part of the pathophysiology.

  9. Stress-reactive rumination, negative cognitive style, and stressors in relationship to depressive symptoms in non-clinical youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Lea; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Bögels, Susan M; Meesters, Cor

    2012-04-01

    The role of cognitive vulnerability in the development of depressive symptoms in youth might depend on age and gender. The current study examined cognitive vulnerability models in relationship to depressive symptoms from a developmental perspective. For that purpose, 805 youth (aged 10-18, 59.9% female) completed self-report measures. Stress-reactive rumination was strongly related to depressive symptoms. Negative cognitive style (i.e., tendency to make negative inferences) in the domains of achievement and appearance was more strongly and consistently related to depressive symptoms in girls compared to boys. Negative cognitive style in the interpersonal domain was positively related to depressive symptoms in both girls and boys, except in early adolescent girls reporting few stressors. To conclude, the cognitive vulnerability-stress interaction may be moderated by the combination of age and gender in youth, which may explain inconsistent findings so far. Current findings highlight the importance of taking into account domain specifity when examining models of depression in youth.

  10. Therapeutic Strategies for Oxidative Stress-Related Cardiovascular Diseases: Removal of Excess Reactive Oxygen Species in Adult Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that acute and chronic uncontrolled overproduction of oxidative stress-related factors including reactive oxygen species (ROS causes cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Moreover ROS mediate various signaling pathways underlying vascular inflammation in ischemic tissues. With respect to stem cell-based therapy, several studies clearly indicate that modulating antioxidant production at cellular levels enhances stem/progenitor cell functionalities, including proliferation, long-term survival in ischemic tissues, and complete differentiation of transplanted cells into mature vascular cells. Recently emerging therapeutic strategies involving adult stem cells, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, for treating ischemic CVDs have highlighted the need to control intracellular ROS production, because it critically affects the replicative senescence of ex vivo expanded therapeutic cells. Better understanding of the complexity of cellular ROS in stem cell biology might improve cell survival in ischemic tissues and enhance the regenerative potentials of transplanted stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we will discuss the nature and sources of ROS, drug-based therapeutic strategies for scavenging ROS, and EPC based therapeutic strategies for treating oxidative stress-related CVDs. Furthermore, we will discuss whether primed EPCs pretreated with natural ROS-scavenging compounds are crucial and promising therapeutic strategies for vascular repair.

  11. Social modulation of stress reactivity and learning in young worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Tarr, Ingrid S; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval.

  12. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase gene (val158met) polymorphisms and anxious symptoms in early childhood: The roles of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Haroon I; Kryski, Katie R; Kotelnikova, Yuliya; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-10-17

    Individual differences in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to stress (measured via salivary cortisol) have been widely implicated in the etiology of internalizing problems such as depression and anxiety. Literature suggests that stress during early childhood is an important source of contextual risk although its effects may be moderated by polymorphisms of neurotransmitter genes. The COMT val158met is one such polymorphism, and literature documents its link to internalizing problems. To extend these findings, and to better understand the role of this polymorphism in developmental risk, we investigated links between the val158met polymorphism and early-age cortisol response. Additionally, we investigated whether cortisol reactivity mediated the link between COMT and emerging internalizing symptoms. The study was conducted in a community sample of 409 preschoolers. Saliva samples were collected pre-stress task (baseline) and every 10min post-stress task for one-hour to asses cortisol response. Child anxious and depressive symptoms were tabulated based on parent-reports. Markers of early childhood stress included marital discord, socio-economic status and the UCLA Life Stress Interview. Findings indicated that the val158met polymorphism is associated with childhood cortisol response (pstress also predicted child anxiety symptoms (pstress on preschool-age symptoms of anxiety. Additionally, cortisol reactivity acts as a mechanistic mediator of the main-effect of COMT genotype on child anxious symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. STRESS RISK FACTORS AND STRESS-RELATED PATHOLOGY: NEUROPLASTICITY, EPIGENETICS AND ENDOPHENOTYPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Jason J.; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Jacobson, Lauren; Heydendael, Willem; Yehuda, Rachel; Herman, James P.

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights a symposium on stress risk factors and stress susceptibility, presented at the Neurobiology of Stress workshop in Boulder, Colorado, June 2010. This symposium addressed factors linking stress plasticity and reactivity to stress pathology in animal models and in humans. Dr. Jason Radley discussed studies demonstrating prefrontal cortical neuroplasticity and prefrontal control of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in rat, highlighting emerging evidence for a critical role of this region in normal and pathological stress integration. Dr. Mohamed Kabbaj summarized his studies of possible epigenetic mechanisms underlying behavioral differences in rat populations bred for differential stress reactivity. Dr. Lauren Jacobson described studies using a mouse model to explore the diverse actions of antidepressant action in brain, suggesting mechanisms whereby antidepressants may be differentially effective in treating specific depression endophenotypes. Dr. Rachel Yehuda discussed the role of glucocorticoids in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that low cortisol may be a trait that predisposes the individual to development of the disorder. Furthermore, she presented evidence indicating that traumatic events can have transgenerational impact on cortisol reactivity and development of PTSD symptoms. Together, the symposium highlighted emerging themes regarding the role of brain reorganization, individual differences and epigenetics in determining stress plasticity and pathology. PMID:21848436

  14. Oxidative Stress and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Cerebrovascular Accident (Ischaemic Stroke): The role of Ginkgo biloba extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanoon, Imad A-J; Abdul-Jabbar, Hilmy As; Taha, Dhia A

    2012-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischaemic stroke patients by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and highly-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the early post-ischaemic period, and to determine the role of Ginkgo biloba therapy in correcting the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. This study was conducted at Ibn Seena Hospital, Mosul City, Iraq and included 31 cerebrovascular accident (CVA) patients and 30 healthy controls. Ischaemic stroke patients were divided into two groups: group I (n = 15) received conventional therapy; group II (n = 16) received conventional therapy with G. biloba (1500 mg/day) for 30 days. Blood samples were obtained from patients and controls before treatment and assays done of serum levels of MDA, TAS, and hsCRP. For CVA patients, a post-treatment blood sample was taken and the same parameters reassessed. Compared with the controls, patients' serum levels of MDA, and hsCRP were significantly higher (P ≤0.001) and TAS significantly lower. Group I and II patients reported a significant reduction in serum levels of MDA and hsCRP and a significant increase in serum levels of TAS, in comparison with pre-treatment levels. There was no significant difference (P = 0.19) in serum MDA levels between groups I and II, whereas, serum TAS levels were significantly higher (P ≤0.01) and hsCRP significantly lower (P ≤0.01) in group II. Acute stroke is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the early period. G. biloba plays a potential role in reducing oxidative damage and inflammatory response.

  15. Interactions of U.S. Agricultural Production with Climatic Stresses and Reactive Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehl, R. J.; Robertson, G. P.; Bruulsema, T. W.; Kanter, D.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rotz, C. A.; Williams, C. O.

    2011-12-01

    . Here we summarize reactive nitrogen (Nr)-climate interactions as they relate to U.S. agricultural production.

  16. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  17. Neurobiology and clinical implications of lucid dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota-Rolim, Sérgio A; Araujo, John F

    2013-11-01

    Several lines of evidence converge to the idea that rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a good model to foster our understanding of psychosis. Both REMS and psychosis course with internally generated perceptions and lack of rational judgment, which is attributed to a hyperlimbic activity along with hypofrontality. Interestingly, some individuals can become aware of dreaming during REMS, a particular experience known as lucid dreaming (LD), whose neurobiological basis is still controversial. Since the frontal lobe plays a role in self-consciousness, working memory and attention, here we hypothesize that LD is associated with increased frontal activity during REMS. A possible way to test this hypothesis is to check whether transcranial magnetic or electric stimulation of the frontal region during REMS triggers LD. We further suggest that psychosis and LD are opposite phenomena: LD as a physiological awakening while dreaming due to frontal activity, and psychosis as a pathological intrusion of dream features during wake state due to hypofrontality. We further suggest that LD research may have three main clinical implications. First, LD could be important to the study of consciousness, including its pathologies and other altered states. Second, LD could be used as a therapy for recurrent nightmares, a common symptom of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Finally, LD may allow for motor imagery during dreaming with possible improvement of physical rehabilitation. In all, we believe that LD research may clarify multiple aspects of brain functioning in its physiological, altered and pathological states. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Reactive nitrogen species in mitochondria and their implications in plant energy status and hypoxic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxic and anoxic conditions result in the energy crisis that leads to cell damage. Since mitochondria are the primary organelles for energy production, the support of these organelles in a functional state is an important task during oxygen deprivation. Plant mitochondria adapted the strategy to survive under hypoxia by keeping electron transport operative even without oxygen via the use of nitrite as a terminal electrons acceptor. The process of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide (NO in the mitochondrial electron transport chain recycles NADH and leads to a limited rate of ATP production. The produced ATP alongside with the ATP generated by fermentation supports the processes of transcription and translation required for hypoxic survival and recovery of plants. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (called phytoglobins in plants scavenge NO and thus contribute to regeneration of NAD+ and nitrate required for the operation of anaerobic energy metabolism. This overall operation represents an important strategy of biochemical adaptation that results in the improvement of energy status and thereby in protection of plants in the conditions of hypoxic stress.

  19. Reactive Nitrogen Species in Mitochondria and Their Implications in Plant Energy Status and Hypoxic Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic and anoxic conditions result in the energy crisis that leads to cell damage. Since mitochondria are the primary organelles for energy production, the support of these organelles in a functional state is an important task during oxygen deprivation. Plant mitochondria adapted the strategy to survive under hypoxia by keeping electron transport operative even without oxygen via the use of nitrite as a terminal electrons acceptor. The process of nitrite reduction to nitric oxide (NO) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain recycles NADH and leads to a limited rate of ATP production. The produced ATP alongside with the ATP generated by fermentation supports the processes of transcription and translation required for hypoxic survival and recovery of plants. Non-symbiotic hemoglobins (called phytoglobins in plants) scavenge NO and thus contribute to regeneration of NAD(+) and nitrate required for the operation of anaerobic energy metabolism. This overall operation represents an important strategy of biochemical adaptation that results in the improvement of energy status and thereby in protection of plants in the conditions of hypoxic stress.

  20. Getting Better. Neurobiological mechanisms of recovery from combat-related PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, S.J.H. van

    2015-01-01

    Military personnel often experience traumatic events during deployment. In the aftermath of a traumatic event, a subgroup of trauma survivors develops posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Most (neurobiological) studies aim at understanding why some trauma survivors develop PTSD whereas others do

  1. Stress reactivity in war-exposed young children with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: relations to maternal stress hormones, parenting, and child emotionality and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Vengrober, Adva; Eidelman-Rothman, Moranne; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2013-11-01

    The current study examined biomarkers of stress in war-exposed young children and addressed maternal and child factors that may correlate with children's stress response. Participants were 232 Israeli children aged 1.5-5 years, including 148 children exposed to continuous war. Similarly, 56 were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 92 were defined as exposed-no-PTSD. Child cortisol (CT) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), biomarkers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary arms of the stress response, were measured at baseline, following challenge, and at recovery. Maternal CT and sAA, PTSD symptoms, and reciprocal parenting, and child negative emotionality and regulatory strategies were assessed. Differences between war-exposed children and controls emerged, but these were related to child PTSD status. Children with PTSD exhibited consistently low CT and sAA, exposed-no-PTSD displayed consistently high CT and sAA, and controls showed increase in CT following challenge and decrease at recovery and low sAA. Exposed children showed higher negative emotionality; however, whereas exposed-no-PTSD children employed comfort-seeking strategies, children with PTSD used withdrawal. Predictors of child CT included maternal CT, PTSD symptoms, low reciprocity, and negative emotionality. Findings suggest that high physiological arousal combined with approach strategies may be associated with greater resilience in the context of early trauma.

  2. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding.

  3. Stress Sensitivity Is Associated with Differential Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Maize Genotypes with Contrasting Levels of Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Fountain, Jake C; Wang, Hui; Ni, Xinzhi; Ji, Pingsheng; Lee, Robert D; Kemerait, Robert C; Scully, Brian T; Guo, Baozhu

    2015-10-19

    Drought stress decreases crop growth, yield, and can further exacerbate pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination. Tolerance and adaptation to drought stress is an important trait of agricultural crops like maize. However, maize genotypes with contrasting drought tolerances have been shown to possess both common and genotype-specific adaptations to cope with drought stress. In this research, the physiological and metabolic response patterns in the leaves of maize seedlings subjected to drought stress were investigated using six maize genotypes including: A638, B73, Grace-E5, Lo964, Lo1016, and Va35. During drought treatments, drought-sensitive maize seedlings displayed more severe symptoms such as chlorosis and wilting, exhibited significant decreases in photosynthetic parameters, and accumulated significantly more reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) than tolerant genotypes. Sensitive genotypes also showed rapid increases in enzyme activities involved in ROS and RNS metabolism. However, the measured antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the tolerant genotypes than in the sensitive genotypes in which increased rapidly following drought stress. The results suggest that drought stress causes differential responses to oxidative and nitrosative stress in maize genotypes with tolerant genotypes with slower reaction and less ROS and RNS production than sensitive ones. These differential patterns may be utilized as potential biological markers for use in marker assisted breeding.

  4. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability.

  5. Stress vulnerability in male youth with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mehl, Laura; Weil, Luisa; Strittmatter, Esther; Resch, Franz; Koenig, Julian

    2017-03-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD] was introduced as new behavioral addiction in DSM-5 Section 3. Vulnerability to stress is a potential predisposing factor for IGD. Given a lack of preexisting empirical data, the study investigated differences in the psychological and neurobiological response to acute stress in patients with IGD. 24 young men (mean age 18.38 years; range 13-25 years) fulfilling DSM-5 criteria for IGD and 25 matched controls underwent the Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]. Participants provided hair samples for the analysis of basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis activity and clinical interviews were conducted to assess psychopathology. During the experiment, participants reported on their subjective stress experience and momentary affect, provided samples of salivary cortisol and their heart rate was continuously recorded. Patients with IGD reported greater everyday and chronic stress, as well as psychopathological comorbidity. No differences were found on measures of hair cortisol. Compared to controls, IGD patients showed an attenuated cortisol response (χ2(7)=25.75, p<0.001) and greater negative affect (χ2(7)=17.25, p=0.016) in response to acute stress. Heart rate (χ2(1)=5.49, p=0.019), negative affect (χ2(1)=5.60, p=0.018) and subjective stress (χ2(1)=5.55, p=0.019) were transiently increased in IGD patients. After adjusting for sportive activities, IGD patients showed transiently decreased cortisol (χ2(1)=5.20, p=0.022), potentially indicating general HPA-axis dysfunction beyond altered reactivity. Stress reactivity showed correlations with IGD symptom severity. Findings illustrate differences in acute psychological and neurobiological stress reactivity in patients with IGD. Alterations of the stress response system may be involved in the development and maintenance of IGD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  7. The anticipatory stress response to sport competition; a systematic review with meta-analysis of cortisol reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Paridon, Kjell N; Timmis, Matthew A; Nevison, Charlotte M; Bristow, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Objective Athletes anticipating sport competition regularly experience distinct emotional and physiological responses as a result of the expected psychosocial and physical stress. Specifically, cortisol, an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, prepares the athlete for the psychological and physiological demands of competition. The objective of this meta-analysis is to analyse the magnitude of the anticipatory cortisol response in athletes preparing to participate in sport competition and to examine the influence of gender, level of competition and data collection time. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Four electronic databases were searched to March 2017: PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies (1) Athletes participating in real sport competition;(2) salivary cortisol concentration collected before competition in addition to baseline sample(s);(3) original research article published in English language. Results Data from 25 studies provided 27 effect sizes. A significant anticipatory cortisol response of g=0.85, pcompetition, type of sport or time of competition. Meta-regression indicated that the anticipatory cortisol response is greater when assessed closer to the start of competition (Q=6.85, p=0.009). Summary/conclusion The anticipatory cortisol response before sport competition reflects moderate cortisol reactivity that prepares athletes optimally for the demands of sport competition via the influence on cognitive processes and attentional control. However, both female athletes and international competitors did not demonstrate a significant anticipatory cortisol response, possibly due to differences in appraisal of the stress of sport competition. PMID:29177073

  8. Panic and comorbid depression and their associations with stress reactivity, interoceptive awareness and interoceptive accuracy of various bioparameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Jan; Kornhuber, Johannes; Martin, Alexandra

    2015-10-01

    While current theories on perception of interoceptive signals suggest impaired interoceptive processing in psychiatric disorders such as panic disorder or depression, heart-rate (HR) interoceptive accuracy (IAc) of panic patients under resting conditions is superior to that of healthy controls. Thus, in this study, we chose to assess further physiological parameters and comorbid depression in order to get information on how these potentially conflicting findings are linked together. We used a quasi-experimental laboratory design which included multi-parametric physiological data collection of 40 panic subjects and 53 matched no-panic controls, as well as experimental induction of stress and relaxation over a time-course. Stress reactivity, interoceptive awareness (IAw; from the Body Perception Questionnaire (BPQ)) and IAc (as correlation between self-estimation and physiological data) were major outcome variables. Self-estimation of bioparametrical change was measured via numeric rating scales. Panic subjects had stronger HR-reaction and more accurate HR-interoception. Concurrently, though, their IAc of skin conductance level, pulse amplitude and breathing amplitude was significantly lower than that of the control group. Interestingly, comorbid depression was found to be associated with increased IAw but attenuated IAc. Demand characteristics and a categorical approach to panic confine the results. The potentially conflicting findings coalesce, as panic was associated with an increase of the ability to perceive the fear-related parameter and a simultaneous decrease of the ability to perceive other parameters. The superordinate integration of afferent signals might be impaired. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kresoxim-methyl primes Medicago truncatula plants against abiotic stress factors via altered reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signalling leading to downstream transcriptional and metabolic readjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Panagiota; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Obata, Toshihiro; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Harokopos, Vaggelis; Kanetis, Loukas; Aidinis, Vassilis; Van Breusegem, Frank; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses, such as fungal infection and drought, cause major yield losses in modern agriculture. Kresoxim-methyl (KM) belongs to the strobilurins, one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides displaying a direct effect on several plant physiological and developmental processes. However, the impact of KM treatment on salt and drought stress tolerance is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that KM pre-treatment of Medicago truncatula plants results in increased protection to drought and salt stress. Foliar application with KM prior to stress imposition resulted in improvement of physiological parameters compared with stressed-only plants. This protective effect was further supported by increased proline biosynthesis, modified reactive oxygen and nitrogen species signalling, and attenuation of cellular damage. In addition, comprehensive transcriptome analysis identified a number of transcripts that are differentially accumulating in drought- and salinity-stressed plants (646 and 57, respectively) after KM pre-treatment compared with stressed plants with no KM pre-treatment. Metabolomic analysis suggests that the priming role of KM in drought- and to a lesser extent in salinity-stressed plants can be attributed to the regulation of key metabolites (including sugars and amino acids) resulting in protection against abiotic stress factors. Overall, the present study highlights the potential use of this commonly used fungicide as a priming agent against key abiotic stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Effect of Altered Gravity on the Neurobiology of Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, R. H.; Rahmann, H.

    In vertebrates (including humans) altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness can induce malfunction of the inner ears due to a mismatch between canal and statolith afferents. This leads to an illusionary tilt because the inputs from the inner ear are not confirmed by the other sensory organs, which then results in intersensory conflict. Vertebrates in orbit therefore face severe orientation problems. In humans the intersensory conflict may additionally lead to a malaise commonly referred to as space motion sickness (SMS). After the initial days of weightlessness the orientation problems (and SMS) disappear as the brain develops a new interpretation of the available sensory data. The present contribution reviews the neurobiological responses, particularly those of fish, observed under altered gravitational states concerning behavior and neuroplastic reactivities. Investigations employing microgravity (spaceflight, parabolic aircraft flights, clinostat) and hypergravity (laboratory centrifuges as ground-based research tools) provide insights for understanding the basic phenomena, many of which remain only incompletely explained

  11. Neurobiological responses of fish to altered gravity conditions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Ralf H.; Rahmann, Hinrich

    In vertebrates (including man), altered gravitational environments such as weightlessness can induce malfunctions of the inner ears, based on an irregular dislocation of the inner ear otoliths from the corresponding sensory epithelia. This dislocation leads to an illusionary tilt, since the otolithic inputs are not confirmed by the other sensory organs, which results in an intersensory conflict. Vertebrates in the orbit therefore face severe orientation problems. In humans, the intersensory conflict may additionally lead to a malaise, commonly referred to as space motion sickness (SMS). During the first days at weightlessness, the orientation problems (and SMS) disappear, since the brain develops a new compensatory interpretation of the available sensory data. The present review reports on the neurobiological responses — particularly of fish — observed at altered gravitational states, concerning behaviour and neuroplastic reactivities.

  12. Neurobiology of Consciousness: Current Research and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płonka Beata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific, objective approach to consciousness has allowed to obtain some experimental data concerning brain activity, ignoring, however, the longstanding philosophical tradition. Spectacular development of neuroscience which has been observed recently made this dissonance particularly noticeable. The paper addresses the main problems of discrepancy between neurobiological research and philosophical perspective. Current opinions concerning neural correlates and models of consciousness are discussed, as well as the problems of working memory, attention, self, and disorders of consciousness. A new neurobiological approach to describe brain function in terms of brain connectivity (so-called connectome is also presented. Finally, the need to introduce at least some aspects of philosophical approach directly into neurobiological research of consciousness is postulated.

  13. Current understanding of the neurobiology and longitudinal course of geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenbach, Sara L; Kumar, Anand

    2014-09-01

    Late life depression is a complex disease associated with a number of contributing neurobiological factors, including cerebrovascular disease, neurodegeneration, and inflammation, which also contribute to its longitudinal prognosis and course. These factors create a context in which the brain is more vulnerable to the impact of stress, and thus, to depression. At the same time, some individuals are protected from late life depression and its consequences, even in the face of neurobiological vulnerability, through benefitting from one or more attributes associated with resilience, including social support, engagement in physical and cognitive activities, and brain reserve. Enhanced understanding of how neurobiological and environmental factors interact in predicting vulnerability and resilience is needed to predict onset and course of depression in late life and develop more effective interventions.

  14. A review of the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in the adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Ferrer, M; Piedra Martínez, E

    Adult dyslexia affects about 4% of the population. However, studies on the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood are scarce compared to paediatric studies. This review investigates the neurobiological basis of dyslexia in adulthood. Using PsycINFO, a database of psychology abstracts, we identified 11 studies on genetics, 9 neurostructural studies, 13 neurofunctional studies and 24 neurophysiological studies. Results from the review show that dyslexia is highly heritable and displays polygenic transmission. Likewise, adult neuroimaging studies found structural, functional, and physiological changes in the parieto-occipital and occipito-temporal regions, and in the inferior frontal gyrus, in adults with dyslexia. According to different studies, aetiology in cases of adult dyslexia is complex. We stress the need for neurobiological studies of dyslexia in languages with transparent spelling systems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep neurobiology and critical care illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouot, Xavier; Quentin, Solene

    2015-07-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment is not propitious for restoring sleep and many studies have reported that critically ill patients have severe sleep disruptions. However, sleep alterations in critically ill patients are specific and differ significantly from those in ambulatory patients. Polysomnographic patterns of normal sleep are frequently lacking in critically ill patients and the neurobiology of sleep is important to consider regarding alternative methods to quantify sleep in the ICU. This article discusses elements of sleep neurobiology affecting the specificity of sleep patterns and sleep alterations in patients admitted to the ICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Recent progress in neurobiological mechanisms of depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Bo; Li, Liang-Ping; Zhu, Xin-Hong; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2012-08-25

    Revealing the neurobiological mechanism of depression has always been a big challenge in the field of neuroscience. Not only are depressive syndromes heterogeneous and their aetiologies diverse, but also some symptoms are impossible to reproduce in animal models. Nevertheless, great progress has been made on the understanding and treatment of depression in recent years. In this review, we focus on key leading hypotheses in the neurobiological mechanism of depression, examine their strengths and weaknesses critically, and also highlight new insights that promise to extend the understanding of depression and its treatment.

  17. The neurobiology of decision: consensus and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Joseph W; Glimcher, Paul W

    2009-09-24

    We review and synthesize recent neurophysiological studies of decision making in humans and nonhuman primates. From these studies, the basic outline of the neurobiological mechanism for primate choice is beginning to emerge. The identified mechanism is now known to include a multicomponent valuation stage, implemented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and associated parts of striatum, and a choice stage, implemented in lateral prefrontal and parietal areas. Neurobiological studies of decision making are beginning to enhance our understanding of economic and social behavior as well as our understanding of significant health disorders where people's behavior plays a key role.

  18. The neurobiological impact of postpartum maternal depression: prevention and intervention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Drury, Stacy S.; Scaramella, Laura; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The lasting negative impact of postpartum depression (PPD) on offspring is well established. PDD appears to impact neurobiological pathways linked to socio-emotional regulation, cognitive and executive function, and physiologic stress response systems, systems also associated with toxic stress and negative health trajectories across the life course. Perinatal depression is expected to have significant consequences for offspring given the shared biological processes during pregnancy and the su...

  19. Neurobiology of Anxious Depression: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles published January 1970 through September 2012 were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depress...

  20. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and

  1. The Neurobiology of Trust and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Are there neurobiological reasons why we are willing to trust other people and why "trust" and moral values such as "care" play a quite pivotal role in our social lives and the judgements we make, including our social interactions and judgements made in the context of schooling? In pursuing this question, this paper largely…

  2. Molecular neurobiology in neurology and psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandel, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 14 selections. Some of the titles are: An Introduction to Ion Channels; Molecular Neurobiology of the Myelinated Nerve Fiber: Ion-Channel Distributions and Their Implications for Demyelinating Diseases; A Molecular Genetic Approach to Huntington's Disease; and Molecular Features of Cell Adhesion Molecules Involved in Neural Development.

  3. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty. PMID:22688633

  4. The neurobiology of syntax: beyond string sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    The human capacity to acquire language is an outstanding scientific challenge to understand. Somehow our language capacities arise from the way the human brain processes, develops and learns in interaction with its environment. To set the stage, we begin with a summary of what is known about the neural organization of language and what our artificial grammar learning (AGL) studies have revealed. We then review the Chomsky hierarchy in the context of the theory of computation and formal learning theory. Finally, we outline a neurobiological model of language acquisition and processing based on an adaptive, recurrent, spiking network architecture. This architecture implements an asynchronous, event-driven, parallel system for recursive processing. We conclude that the brain represents grammars (or more precisely, the parser/generator) in its connectivity, and its ability for syntax is based on neurobiological infrastructure for structured sequence processing. The acquisition of this ability is accounted for in an adaptive dynamical systems framework. Artificial language learning (ALL) paradigms might be used to study the acquisition process within such a framework, as well as the processing properties of the underlying neurobiological infrastructure. However, it is necessary to combine and constrain the interpretation of ALL results by theoretical models and empirical studies on natural language processing. Given that the faculty of language is captured by classical computational models to a significant extent, and that these can be embedded in dynamic network architectures, there is hope that significant progress can be made in understanding the neurobiology of the language faculty.

  5. Neurobiology of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Pareés, Isabel

    2013-08-01

    This review explores recent developments in understanding the neurobiological mechanism of functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs). This is particularly relevant given the resurgence of academic and clinical interest in patients with functional neurological symptoms and the clear shift in diagnostic and treatment approaches away from a pure psychological model of functional symptoms. Recent research findings implicate three key processes in the neurobiology of FMD (and by extension other functional neurological symptoms): abnormal attentional focus, abnormal beliefs and expectations, and abnormalities in sense of agency. These three processes have been combined in recent neurobiological models of FMD in which abnormal predictions related to movement are triggered by self-focused attention, and the resulting movement is generated without the normal sense of agency that accompanies voluntary movement. New understanding of the neurobiology of FMD forms an important part of reappraising the way that patients with FMD (and other functional disorders) are characterized and treated. It also provides a testable framework for further exploring the pathophysiology of these common causes of ill health.

  6. There is no news like bad news: women are more remembering and stress reactive after reading real negative news than men.

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    Marin, Marie-France; Morin-Major, Julie-Katia; Schramek, Tania E; Beaupré, Annick; Perna, Andrea; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1) is physiologically stressful, (2) modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3) modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men) were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05), it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (pmedia exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.

  7. Gender-specific associations of perceived stress and coping strategies with C-reactive protein in middle-aged and older men and women.

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    Shimanoe, Chisato; Otsuka, Yasuko; Hara, Megumi; Nanri, Hinako; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Perceived stress and coping strategies may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease through their possible association with inflammation, but data remain controversial for perceived stress or scanty for coping strategies. We examined the associations of perceived stress and coping strategies with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) in a Japanese general population. This cross-sectional study included 2,971 men and 4,902 women aged 40-69 years who were enrolled between 2005 and 2007. Subjects with possible inflammation-related disease, CRP levels ≥3,000 ng/mL, or currently used analgesics or lipid-lowering drugs were excluded. Analyses were performed by gender with adjustment for lifestyle, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors. Unexpectedly, elevated perceived stress was significantly associated with lower CRP levels in men (P trend perceived stress on CRP was detected in men (P interaction = 0.021); "emotional support seeking" was associated with lower CRP at the high stress level only (P trend = 0.028). Both perceived stress and coping strategies may be associated with systemic inflammation in Japanese men, yet caution must be exercised before accepting the stress-inflammation-disease pathway.

  8. Coping strategy and social support modify the association between perceived stress and C-reactive protein: a longitudinal study of healthy men and women.

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    Shimanoe, Chisato; Hara, Megumi; Nishida, Yuichiro; Nanri, Hinako; Otsuka, Yasuko; Horita, Mikako; Yasukata, Jun; Miyoshi, Nobuyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2018-02-05

    Inconsistent associations have been reported between perceived stress and C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. We previously observed a male-specific inverse relationship between perceived stress and CRP in a cross-sectional study. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between changes in perceived stress and CRP, and further analyzed whether changes in coping strategies and social support modify this association. This study included 8454 participants in both a baseline survey and a follow-up survey 5 years later. Psychosocial measures (i.e. perceived stress, coping strategies, and social support) and CRP concentrations were measured by identical means in both surveys. Consistent with our previous findings, increased perceived stress was significantly associated with lower CRP in men (p trend  = .037), but not in women. Increased "emotional expression," a coping strategy, was also associated with lower CRP in women (p trend  = .024). Furthermore, interactions between perceived stress and a coping strategy (positive reappraisal) or social support on CRP were found in men (p interaction  = .007 and .038, respectively); the above inverse association between stress and CRP was not detected for participants with diminished positive reappraisal or social support. In conclusion, increases in perceived stress during a 5-year period were associated with decreases in CRP among healthy men, and the observed association was possibly modified by coping strategy or social support.

  9. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

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    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  10. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    Celina Wojciechowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF, hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Methods. DCM patients (n=109, aged 45.97±10.82 years, NYHA class IIV, and LVEF 2.94±7.1% were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (n=28. Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD, concentrations of uric acid (UA, malondialdehyde (MDA, and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD (P<0.05 and CuZnSOD activity (P<0.01. Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., P<0.01 and P<0.05 and CuZnSOD P<0.05; P<0.05. UA positively correlated with MnSOD (P<0.05, mPAP (P<0.05, and PVRI (P<0.05. The negative correlation between LVEF and UA (P<0.01 was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure.

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS and response of antioxidants as ROS-scavengers during environmental stress in plants

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    Kaushik eDas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS were initially recognized as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. In recent years, it has become apparent that ROS plays an important signaling role in plants, controlling processes such as growth, development and especially response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli. The major members of the ROS family include free radicals like O2● −, OH● and non-radicals like H2O2 and 1O2. The ROS production in plants is mainly localized in the chloroplast, mitochondria and peroxisomes. There are secondary sites as well like the endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane, cell wall and the apoplast. The role of the ROS family is that of a double edged sword; while they act as secondary messengers in various key physiological phenomena, they also induce oxidative damages under several environmental stress conditions like salinity, drought, cold, heavy metals, UV irradiation etc., when the delicate balance between ROS production and elimination, necessary for normal cellular homeostasis, is disturbed. The cellular damages are manifested in the form of degradation of biomolecules like pigments, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA, which ultimately amalgamate in plant cellular death. To ensure survival, plants have developed efficient antioxidant machinery having two arms, (i enzymatic components like superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, glutathione reductase (GR, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR; (ii non-enzymatic antioxidants like ascorbic acid (AA, reduced glutathione (GSH, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, flavonoids and the osmolyte proline. These two components work hand in hand to scavenge ROS. In this review, we emphasize on the different types of ROS, their cellular production sites, their targets, and their scavenging mechanism mediated by both the branches of the antioxidant systems, highlighting the potential

  12. When Bad Guys Become Good Ones: The Key Role of Reactive Oxygen Species and Nitric Oxide in the Plant Responses to Abiotic Stress

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    Farnese, Fernanda S.; Menezes-Silva, Paulo E.; Gusman, Grasielle S.; Oliveira, Juraci A.

    2016-01-01

    The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), particularly nitric oxide (NO), involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport), promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc.), and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones, and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary. PMID:27148300

  13. When bad guys become good ones: the key role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in the plant responses to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dos Santos Farnese

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment of plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and their ability to respond to these stresses is highly flexible and finely balanced through the interaction between signaling molecules. In this review, we highlight the integrated action between reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS, particularly nitric oxide (NO, involved in the acclimation to different abiotic stresses. Under stressful conditions, the biosynthesis transport and the metabolism of ROS and NO influence plant response mechanisms. The enzymes involved in ROS and NO synthesis and scavenging can be found in different cells compartments and their temporal and spatial locations are determinant for signaling mechanisms. Both ROS and NO are involved in long distances signaling (ROS wave and GSNO transport, promoting an acquired systemic acclimation to abiotic stresses. The mechanisms of abiotic stresses response triggered by ROS and NO involve some general steps, as the enhancement of antioxidant systems, but also stress-specific mechanisms, according to the stress type (drought, hypoxia, heavy metals, etc, and demand the interaction with other signaling molecules, such as MAPK, plant hormones and calcium. The transduction of ROS and NO bioactivity involves post-translational modifications of proteins, particularly S-glutathionylation for ROS, and S-nitrosylation for NO. These changes may alter the activity, stability, and interaction with other molecules or subcellular location of proteins, changing the entire cell dynamics and contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis. However, despite the recent advances about the roles of ROS and NO in signaling cascades, many challenges remain, and future studies focusing on the signaling of these molecules in planta are still necessary.

  14. Attachment, neurobiology, and mentalizing along the psychosis continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Debbané

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA axis, insecure attachment may also contribute to neurodevelopmental risk through the dopaminergic and oxytonergic systems, as well as bear influence on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress responses. We further consider the neuroscientific and behavioural studies that underpin mentalization as a suite of processes potentially moderating the risk to transition to psychotic disorders. In particular, mentalization may help the individual compensate for endophenotypical impairments in the integration of sensory and metacognitive information. We propose a model where embodied mentalization would lie at the core of a protective, resilience response mitigating the adverse and potentially pathological influence of the neurodevelopmental cascade of risk for psychosis.

  15. Atypical Neurotransmitters and the Neurobiology of Depression.

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    Joca, Samia Regiane; Moreira, Fabricio Araujo; Wegener, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    Since the first report that the mechanism of action of antidepressants involves the facilitation of monoaminergic neurotransmission in the brain in the 1960s, the leading hypothesis about the neurobiology of depression has been the so called "monoaminergic hypothesis". However, a growing body of evidence from the last two decades also supports important involvement of non-monoaminergic mechanisms in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoid signaling in the brain during the 1990s challenged the wellestablished criteria of classical neurotransmission. These transmitters are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons, and may act as a retrograde messenger on the presynaptic terminal, modulating neurotransmitter release. These unconventional signaling mechanisms and the important role as neural messengers have classified NO and endocannabinoids as atypical neurotransmitters. They are able to modulate neural signaling mediated by the main conventional neurotransmitters systems in the brain, including the monoaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling systems. This review aims at discussing the fundamental aspects of NO- and endocannabinoid-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to the neurobiology of depression. Both preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of these atypical neurotransmitters in the neurobiology of depression, and in the antidepressant effects are presented here. The evidence is discussed on basis of their ability to modulate different neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including monoaminergic and glutamatergic ones. A better comprehension of NO and endocannabinoid signaling mechanisms in the neurobiology depression could provide new avenues for the development of novel non-monoamine based antidepressants.

  16. Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans. Studies in rodents have shown that freezing depends on amygdala projections to the brainstem (periaqueductal grey). Recent neuroimaging studies in humans have indicated that similar brain regions may be involved in human freezing. In addition, flexibly shifting between freezing and active defensive modes is critical for adequate stress-coping and relies on fronto-amygdala connections. This review paper presents a model detailing these neural mechanisms involved in freezing and the shift to fight-or-flight action. Freezing is not a passive state but rather a parasympathetic brake on the motor system, relevant to perception and action preparation. Study of these defensive responses in humans may advance insights into human stress-related psychopathologies characterized by rigidity in behavioural stress reactions. The paper therefore concludes with a research agenda to stimulate translational animal–human research in this emerging field of human defensive stress responses. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness’. PMID:28242739

  17. Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Karin

    2017-04-19

    Upon increasing levels of threat, animals activate qualitatively different defensive modes, including freezing and active fight-or-flight reactions. Whereas freezing is a form of behavioural inhibition accompanied by parasympathetically dominated heart rate deceleration, fight-or-flight reactions are associated with sympathetically driven heart rate acceleration. Despite the potential relevance of freezing for human stress-coping, its phenomenology and neurobiological underpinnings remain largely unexplored in humans. Studies in rodents have shown that freezing depends on amygdala projections to the brainstem (periaqueductal grey). Recent neuroimaging studies in humans have indicated that similar brain regions may be involved in human freezing. In addition, flexibly shifting between freezing and active defensive modes is critical for adequate stress-coping and relies on fronto-amygdala connections. This review paper presents a model detailing these neural mechanisms involved in freezing and the shift to fight-or-flight action. Freezing is not a passive state but rather a parasympathetic brake on the motor system, relevant to perception and action preparation. Study of these defensive responses in humans may advance insights into human stress-related psychopathologies characterized by rigidity in behavioural stress reactions. The paper therefore concludes with a research agenda to stimulate translational animal-human research in this emerging field of human defensive stress responses.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'. © 2017 The Authors.

  18. Study on the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and the tenderness of yak meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Yu, Qun-Li; Han, Ling; Ma, Xiu-Li; Song, Ren-De; Zhao, Suo-Nan; Zhang, Wen-Hua

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress on activation of mitochondrial apoptosis and tenderness of yak meat during postmortem ageing. Oxidative stress degree, Ca 2+ levels, membrane permeability transition pore opening, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptotic factors and the shear force were examined. Results showed that the ROS generated by H 2 O 2 significantly increased mitochondrial oxidative stress by decreasing the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, oxidative stress enhanced Ca 2+ production and cytochrome c release, changed the levels of Bcl-2 family proteins and activated caspase-9 and -3 activities. Ultimately, oxidative stress increased the apoptosis rate and tenderness of yak meat. These observations confirmed that ROS-mediated oxidative stress participates in the activation of the apoptotic cascade reaction involving Ca 2+ and Bcl-2 family proteins. The results further suggested that ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays a significant role in meat tenderization through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Nanosecond-Pulsed DBD Plasma-Generated Reactive Oxygen Species Trigger Immunogenic Cell Death in A549 Lung Carcinoma Cells through Intracellular Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Abraham; Truong, Billy; Patel, Sohil; Kaushik, Nagendra; Choi, Eun Ha; Fridman, Gregory; Fridman, Alexander; Miller, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    A novel application for non-thermal plasma is the induction of immunogenic cancer cell death for cancer immunotherapy. Cells undergoing immunogenic death emit danger signals which facilitate anti-tumor immune responses. Although pathways leading to immunogenic cell death are not fully understood; oxidative stress is considered to be part of the underlying mechanism. Here; we studied the interaction between dielectric barrier discharge plasma and cancer cells for oxidative stress-mediated immunogenic cell death. We assessed changes to the intracellular oxidative environment after plasma treatment and correlated it to emission of two danger signals: surface-exposed calreticulin and secreted adenosine triphosphate. Plasma-generated reactive oxygen and charged species were recognized as the major effectors of immunogenic cell death. Chemical attenuators of intracellular reactive oxygen species successfully abrogated oxidative stress following plasma treatment and modulated the emission of surface-exposed calreticulin. Secreted danger signals from cells undergoing immunogenic death enhanced the anti-tumor activity of macrophages. This study demonstrated that plasma triggers immunogenic cell death through oxidative stress pathways and highlights its potential development for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:28467380

  20. Glyco-redox, a link between oxidative stress and changes of glycans: Lessons from research on glutathione, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to glycobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Takamatsu, Shinji; Miyoshi, Eiji; Gao, Congxiao; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Kitazume, Shinobu; Ohtsubo, Kazuaki

    2016-04-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) response is one of the most important biological phenomena. The concept introduced by Helmut Sies encouraged many researchers to examine oxidative stress under pathophysiological conditions. Our group has been interested in redox regulation under oxidative stress as well as glycobiology in relation to disease. Current studies by our group and other groups indicate that functional and structural changes of glycans are regulated by redox responses resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in various diseases including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), even though very few investigators appear to be aware of these facts. Here we propose that the field "glyco-redox" will open the door to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanism associated with diseases in relation to glycan changes under oxidative stress. A tight link between structural and functional changes of glycans and redox system under oxidative stress will lead to the recognition and interest of these aspects by many scientists. Helmut's contribution in this field facilitated our future perspectives in glycobiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  2. Integrating neuroimmune systems in the neurobiology of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohleb, Eric S; Franklin, Tina; Iwata, Masaaki; Duman, Ronald S

    2016-08-01

    Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that immune dysregulation, specifically of inflammatory processes, is associated with symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and concomitant activation of brain-resident microglia can lead to depressive behavioural symptoms. Repeated exposure to psychological stress has a profound impact on peripheral immune responses and perturbs the function of brain microglia, which may contribute to neurobiological changes underlying MDD. Here, we review these findings and discuss ongoing studies examining neuroimmune mechanisms that influence neuronal activity as well as synaptic plasticity. Interventions targeting immune-related cellular and molecular pathways may benefit subsets of MDD patients with immune dysregulation.

  3. Imaging the neurobiological substrate of atypical depression by SPECT

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    Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, Dario [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Nardo, Davide [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Psychology, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, Cathrine; Larsson, Stig A. [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, Hans [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Gardner, Ann [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-15

    Neurobiological abnormalities underlying atypical depression have previously been suggested. The purpose of this study was to explore differences at functional brain imaging between depressed patients with and without atypical features and healthy controls. Twenty-three out-patients with chronic depressive disorder recruited from a service for patients with audiological symptoms were investigated. Eleven fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for atypical depression (mood reactivity and at least two of the following: weight gain, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and interpersonal rejection sensitivity). Twenty-three healthy subjects served as controls. Voxel-based analysis was applied to explore differences in {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO uptake between groups. Patients in the atypical group had a higher prevalence of bilateral hearing impairment and higher depression and somatic distress ratings at the time of SPECT. Significantly higher tracer uptake was found bilaterally in the atypical group as compared with the non-atypicals in the sensorimotor (Brodmann areas, BA1-3) and premotor cortex in the superior frontal gyri (BA6), in the middle frontal cortex (BA8), in the parietal associative cortex (BA5, BA7) and in the inferior parietal lobule (BA40). Significantly lower tracer distribution was found in the right hemisphere in the non-atypicals compared with the controls in BA6, BA8, BA44, BA45 and BA46 in the frontal cortex, in the orbito-frontal cortex (BA11, BA47), in the postcentral parietal cortex (BA2) and in the multimodal association parietal cortex (BA40). The differences found between atypical and non-atypical depressed patients suggest different neurobiological substrates in these patient groups. The putative links with the clinical features of atypical depression are discussed. These findings encourage the use of functional neuroimaging in psychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  4. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life.

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    Paula Cristóbal-Narváez

    Full Text Available The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social in daily life.A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780 that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs.The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype.The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype and lend further

  5. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal-Narváez, Paula; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Rosa, Araceli; Ballespí, Sergi; de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i) is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii) moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social) in daily life. A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780) that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs. The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you) with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype. The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype and lend further support to the

  6. Effects of interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on mother and child diurnal cortisol rhythm and cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor involving separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Maria I; Moser, Dominik A; Manini, Aurelia; Suardi, Francesca; Sancho-Rossignol, Ana; Torrisi, Raffaella; Rossier, Michel F; Ansermet, François; Dayer, Alexandre G; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra; Schechter, Daniel S

    2017-04-01

    Women who have experienced interpersonal violence (IPV) are at a higher risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and impaired social behavior. Previously, we had reported impaired maternal sensitivity and increased difficulty in identifying emotions (i.e. alexithymia) among IPV-PTSD mothers. One of the aims of the present study was to examine maternal IPV-PTSD salivary cortisol levels diurnally and reactive to their child's distress in relation to maternal alexithymia. Given that mother-child interaction during infancy and early childhood has important long-term consequences on the stress response system, toddlers' cortisol levels were assessed during the day and in response to a laboratory stressor. Mothers collected their own and their 12-48month-old toddlers' salivary samples at home three times: 30min after waking up, between 2-3pm and at bedtime. Moreover, mother-child dyads participated in a 120-min laboratory session, consisting of 3 phases: baseline, stress situation (involving mother-child separation and exposure to novelty) and a 60-min regulation phase. Compared to non-PTSD controls, IPV-PTSD mothers - but not their toddlers, had lower morning cortisol and higher bedtime cortisol levels. As expected, IPV-PTSD mothers and their children showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the laboratory stressor. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively correlated to difficulty in identifying emotions. Our data highlights PTSD-IPV-related alterations in the HPA system and its relevance to maternal behavior. Toddlers of IPV-PTSD mothers also showed an altered pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress that potentially may predispose them to later psychological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Araceli; Ballespí, Sergi; de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i) is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii) moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social) in daily life. Methods A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780) that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs. Results The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you) with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype. Discussion The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype

  8. Neurobiology and treatment of compulsive hoarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sanjaya

    2008-09-01

    Compulsive hoarding is a common and often disabling neuropsychiatric disorder. This article reviews the phenomenology, etiology, neurobiology, and treatment of compulsive hoarding. Compulsive hoarding is part of a discrete clinical syndrome that includes difficulty discarding, urges to save, clutter, excessive acquisition, indecisiveness, perfectionism, procrastination, disorganization, and avoidance. Epidemiological and taxometric studies indicate that compulsive hoarding is a separate but related obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder that is frequently comorbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Compulsive hoarding is a genetically discrete, strongly heritable phenotype. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies indicate that compulsive hoarding is neurobiologically distinct from OCD and implicate dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex and other ventral and medial prefrontal cortical areas that mediate decision-making, attention, and emotional regulation. Effective treatments for compulsive hoarding include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. More research will be required to determine the etiology and pathophysiology of compulsive hoarding, and to develop better treatments for this disorder.

  9. The neurobiology of the human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietta, Pierluigi; Fietta, Pieranna

    2011-01-01

    Memory can be defined as the ability to acquire, process, store, and retrieve information. Memory is indispensable for learning, adaptation, and survival of every living organism. In humans, the remembering process has acquired great flexibility and complexity, reaching close links with other mental functions, such as thinking and emotions. Changes in synaptic connectivity and interactions among multiple neural networks provide the neurobiological substrates for memory encoding, retention, and consolidation. Memory may be categorized as short-term and long-term memory (according to the storage temporal duration), as implicit and explicit memory (with respect to the consciousness of remembering), as declarative (knowing that [fact]) and procedural (knowing how [skill]) memory, or as sensory (echoic, iconic and haptil), semantic, and episodic memory (according to the various remembering domains). Significant advances have been obtained in understanding memory neurobiology, but much remains to be learned in its cognitive, psychological, and phenomenological aspects.

  10. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  11. Colony social stress differentially alters blood pressure and resistance-sized mesenteric artery reactivity in SHR/y and WKY male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toot, Jonathan D; Reho, John J; Novak, Jacqueline; Dunphy, Gail; Ely, Daniel L; Ramirez, Rolando J

    2011-01-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, testosterone, and spontaneously hypertensive rat Y chromosome (SHR Yc) play a role in a genetic model of hypertension. Male rats with the SHR Yc and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) autosomes (denoted SHR/y) exhibit these characteristics when compared to rats with the WKY Yc and WKY autosomes (denoted WKY). We hypothesized that chronic social stress will increase blood pressure and SNS activity more in SHR/y males compared to WKY males, resulting in increased myogenic reactivity along with decreased vasoconstriction of small mesenteric arteries. SHR/y and WKY males were housed in strain- specific colonies (10 males with 10 females) or as controls (10 males). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and blood samples were collected prior to termination. Second-order mesenteric arteries were studied using a pressure arteriograph in which myogenic reactivity and phenylephrine (PE) responsiveness were measured. SHR/y colony SBP, and circulating norepinephrine and testosterone concentrations were elevated compared to control and WKY colony males (p social stress elevated both SNS activity and testosterone level which may be responsible for the increased mesenteric artery myogenic reactivity, and SBP as noted in SHR/y males.

  12. Evaluation of salivary oxidate stress biomarkers, nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in patients with oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Aznar-Cayuela, Cristina; Rubio, Camila P; Ceron, José J; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress factors and C-reactive protein in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This consecutive, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with OLP, 19 with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and 31 control subjects. The oral cavity of each patient was examined and patients responded to a quality of life questionnaire (OHIP-14) and the xerostomia inventory. The following parameters were measured in whole non-stimulated saliva: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); total antioxidant capacity (TAC); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); C-reactive protein (CRP); nitric oxide; nitrates; and nitrites. The OLP group presented statistically significant differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (29 600 cps) in comparison with the control group (39 679 cps) (P < 0.05). In the BMS group, ROS was 29 707 cps with significant difference in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher salivary nitric oxide (145.7 μmol) and nitrite (141.0 μmol) levels were found in OLP patients in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Increases in nitric oxide and C-reactive protein were found in the saliva of OLP patients in comparison with BMS and control patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The neurobiological causes and effects of alloparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, William M; Perkeybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2017-02-01

    Alloparenting, defined as care provided by individuals other than parents, is a universal behavior among humans that has shaped our evolutionary history and remains important in contemporary society. Dysfunctions in alloparenting can have serious and sometimes fatal consequences for vulnerable infants and children. In spite of the importance of alloparenting, they still have much to learn regarding the underlying neurobiological systems governing its expression. Here, they review how a lack of alloparental behavior among traditional laboratory species has led to a blind spot in our understanding of this critical facet of human social behavior and the relevant neurobiology. Based on what is known, they draw from model systems ranging from voles to meerkats to primates to describe a conserved set of neuroendocrine mechanisms supporting the expression of alloparental care. In this review we describe the neurobiological and behavioral prerequisites, ontogeny, and consequences of alloparental care. Lastly, they identified several outstanding topics in the area of alloparental care that deserve further research efforts to better advance human health and wellbeing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 214-232, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Neurobiological findings related to Internet use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeongsu; Han, Doug Hyun; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-07-01

    In the last 10 years, numerous neurobiological studies have been conducted on Internet addiction or Internet use disorder. Various neurobiological research methods - such as magnetic resonance imaging; nuclear imaging modalities, including positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography; molecular genetics; and neurophysiologic methods - have made it possible to discover structural or functional impairments in the brains of individuals with Internet use disorder. Specifically, Internet use disorder is associated with structural or functional impairment in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. These regions are associated with the processing of reward, motivation, memory, and cognitive control. Early neurobiological research results in this area indicated that Internet use disorder shares many similarities with substance use disorders, including, to a certain extent, a shared pathophysiology. However, recent studies suggest that differences in biological and psychological markers exist between Internet use disorder and substance use disorders. Further research is required for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of Internet use disorder. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Internal stress and opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by reactive sputtering in various oxygen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyaerts, Romain; Poncelet, Olivier; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Proost, Joris

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we propose ZnO thin films as a suitable material for piezoresistors in transparent and flexible electronics. ZnO thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature at various oxygen partial pressures. All the films have a wurtzite structure with a strong (0002) texture measured by XRD and are almost stoichiometric as measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen concentration on grain growth has been studied by in-situ multi-beam optical stress sensor, showing internal stress going from 350 MPa to -1.1 GPa. The transition between tensile and compressive stress corresponds to the transition between metallic and oxidized mode of reactive sputtering. This transition also induces a large variation in optical properties—from absorbent to transparent, and in the resistivity—from 4 × 10 - 2 Ω .cm to insulating. Finally, the piezoresistance of the thin film has been studied and showed a gauge factor (ΔR/R)/ɛ comprised between -5.8 and -8.5.

  16. Fasting Serum Glucose and Cholesterol as Predictors of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Acute Stress in a Sample of African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Vernessa R; Perkins, Patrice; Carson, Bernice L; Boyd, Kimberly; Jefferson, Trayce M

    2015-01-01

    African Americans are at a greater risk of cardiovascular hyperactivity to stress than Caucasians; however the risk factors for this activity are not clearly delineated for African Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of fasting serum cholesterol concentration and fasting serum glucose (FSG) to predict cardiovascular reactivity to stress in African Americans. Serum cholesterol concentration and FSG levels were measured in 48 (40 women, 8 men) African American college students aged 18-30 years. Heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, mean arterial pressure and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured as the participants viewed a racially noxious scene on a digital video disc. Measurements were taken prior to the scene (pre stressor period), during the scene (stressor period), and while the participant recovered from the scene (recovery period). A multiple regression analysis revealed that total serum cholesterol and LDL significantly predicted diastolic blood pressure during the pre-stressor period. FSG significantly predicted mean arterial pressure during the recovery period, and predicted stroke volume during the pre-stressor period, stressor period, and the recovery period. FSG was a better predictor of cardiovascular reactivity to stress than serum cholesterol concentration, predicting mean arterial pressure and stroke volume. This finding may be due to the association of glucose with diabetes, which is more prevalent in African Americans.

  17. There is no news like bad news: women are more remembering and stress reactive after reading real negative news than men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Marin

    Full Text Available With the advent of specialized television channels offering 24-hour coverage, Internet and smart phones, the possibility to be constantly in contact with the media has increased dramatically in the last decades. Despite this higher access to knowledge, the impact media exposure has on healthy individuals remains poorly studied. Given that most information conveyed in the media is negative and that upon perception of threat, the brain activates the stress system, which leads to cortisol secretion, we decided to determine how healthy individuals react to media information. Accordingly, we investigated whether reading real negative news (1 is physiologically stressful, (2 modulates one's propensity to be stress reactive to a subsequent stressor and (3 modulates remembrance for these news. Sixty participants (30 women, 30 men were randomly assigned to either twenty-four real neutral news excerpts or to twenty-four real negative excerpts for 10 minutes. They were then all exposed to a well-validated psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, which consists of an anticipation phase of 10 minutes and a test phase of 10 minutes. A total of eight salivary cortisol samples were collected, at 10-minutes intervals, throughout the experimental procedure. One day later, a free recall of the news was performed. Results showed that although reading negative news did not lead to change in cortisol levels (p>0.05, it led to a significant increase in cortisol to a subsequent stressor in women only (p<0.001. Also, women in the negative news condition experienced better memory for these news excerpts compared to men (p<0.01. These results suggest a potential mechanism by which media exposure could increase stress reactivity and memory for negative news in women.

  18. Neurobiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter

    2008-04-22

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are related disorders of unknown etiology that most commonly begin during adolescence in women. AN and BN have unique and puzzling symptoms, such as restricted eating or binge-purge behaviors, body image distortions, denial of emaciation, and resistance to treatment. These are often chronic and relapsing disorders, and AN has the highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder. The lack of understanding of the pathogenesis of this illness has hindered the development of effective interventions, particularly for AN. Individuals with AN and BN are consistently characterized by perfectionism, obsessive-compulsiveness, and dysphoric mood. Individuals with AN tend to have high constraint, constriction of affect and emotional expressiveness, ahendonia and asceticism, whereas individuals with BN tend to be more impulsive and sensation seeking. Such symptoms often begin in childhood, before the onset of an eating disorder, and persist after recovery, suggesting they are traits that create a vulnerability for developing an ED. There is growing acknowledgement that neurobiological vulnerabilities make a substantial contribution to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Considerable evidence suggests that altered brain serotonin (5-HT) function contributes to dysregulation of appetite, mood, and impulse control in AN and BN. Brain imaging studies, using 5-HT specific ligands, show that disturbances of 5-HT function occur when people are ill, and persist after recovery from AN and BN. It is possible that a trait-related disturbance of 5-HT neuronal modulation predates the onset of AN and contributes to premorbid symptoms of anxiety, obsessionality, and inhibition. This dysphoric temperament may involve an inherent dysregulation of emotional and reward pathways which also mediate the hedonic aspects of feeding, thus making these individuals vulnerable to disturbed appetitive behaviors. Restricting food intake may become powerfully

  19. Reactive oxygen species induced by heat stress during grain filling of rice (Oryza sativa L.) are involved in occurrence of grain chalkiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyasak, Chetphilin; Harano, Keisuke; Tanamachi, Koichiro; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Tamada, Aina; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari; Ishibashi, Yushi

    2017-09-01

    Heat stress during grain filling increases rice grain chalkiness due to increased activity of α-amylase, which hydrolyzes starch. In rice and barley seeds, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced after imbibition induce α-amylase activity via regulation of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) levels during seed germination. Here, we examined whether ROS is involved in induction of grain chalkiness by α-amylase in developing rice grains under heat stress. To elucidate the role of ROS in grain chalkiness, we grew post-anthesis rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari) under control (25°C) or heat stress (30°C) conditions with or without antioxidant (dithiothreitol) treatment. The developing grains were analyzed for expression of NADPH oxidases, GA biosynthesis genes (OsGA3ox1, OsGA20ox1), ABA catabolism genes (OsABA8'OH1, OsABA8'OH2) and an α-amylase gene (OsAmy3E), endogenous H 2 O 2 content and the grain quality. In grains exposed to heat stress, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes (especially, OsRbohB, OsRbohD, OsRbohF and OsRbohI) and the ROS content increased. Heat stress also increased the expression of OsGA3ox1, OsGA20ox1, OsABA8'OH1, OsABA8'OH2 and OsAmy3E. On the other hand, dithiothreitol treatment reduced the effects of heat stress on the expression of these genes and significantly reduced grain chalkiness induced by heat stress. These results suggest that, similar to cereal seed germination mechanism, ROS produced under heat stress is involved in α-amylase induction in maturating rice grains through GA/ABA metabolism, and consequently caused grain chalkiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress reactivity and its effects on subsequent food intake in depressed and healthy women with and without adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Boeker, Anita; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Ritter, Kristin; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten

    2017-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE. All participants underwent a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and a control condition (Placebo-TSST) before they were offered a buffet of snacks. Participants were not aware that the primary outcome variable was the amount of consumed kilocalories (kcal). The four groups did not differ in demographic variables. Stress resulted in higher cortisol release and higher blood pressure compared to the control condition. Patients with MDD without ACE had a significantly lower cortisol response to stress compared to controls. Across groups, we found higher kcal intake after stress compared to the control condition. Comparing high and low cortisol responders to stress, higher kcal intake after stress was only seen in those with low cortisol release. This study provides evidence that blunted rather than enhanced cortisol release to stress might lead to increased food intake, independent from MDD and ACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Cellular Stress Response and Lipid Accumulation in Oleaginous Microorganisms: The State of the Art and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial oils, which are mainly extracted from yeasts, molds, and algae, have been of considerable interest as food additives and biofuel resources due to their high lipid content. While these oleaginous microorganisms generally produce only small amounts of lipids under optimal growth conditions, their lipid accumulation machinery can be induced by environmental stresses, such as nutrient limitation and an inhospitable physical environmental. As common second messengers of many stress factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS may act as a regulator of cellular responses to extracellular environmental signaling. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicates that ROS may act as a mediator of lipid accumulation, which is associated with dramatic changes in the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. However, the specific mechanisms of ROS involvement in the crosstalk between extracellular stress signaling and intracellular lipid synthesis require further investigation. Here, we summarize current knowledge on stress-induced lipid biosynthesis and the putative role of ROS in the control of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. Understanding such links may provide guidance for the development of stress-based strategies to enhance microbial lipid production.

  2. Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Chloroplasts Prevents Leaf Damage but Not Growth Arrest in Salt-Stressed Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeyro, Anabella F; Giró, Mariana; Poli, Hugo O; Bettucci, Gabriel; Cortadi, Adriana; Ferri, Alejandro M; Carrillo, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Crop yield reduction due to salinity is a growing agronomical concern in many regions. Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells accompanies many abiotic stresses including salinity, acting as toxic and signaling molecules during plant stress responses. While ROS are generated in various cellular compartments, chloroplasts represent a main source in the light, and plastid ROS synthesis and/or elimination have been manipulated to improve stress tolerance. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a plastid-targeted cyanobacterial flavodoxin, a flavoprotein that prevents ROS accumulation specifically in chloroplasts, displayed increased tolerance to many environmental stresses, including drought, excess irradiation, extreme temperatures and iron starvation. Surprisingly, flavodoxin expression failed to protect transgenic plants against NaCl toxicity. However, when high salt was directly applied to leaf discs, flavodoxin did increase tolerance, as reflected by preservation of chlorophylls, carotenoids and photosynthetic activities. Flavodoxin decreased salt-dependent ROS accumulation in leaf tissue from discs and whole plants, but this decline did not improve tolerance at the whole plant level. NaCl accumulation in roots, as well as increased osmotic pressure and salt-induced root damage, were not prevented by flavodoxin expression. The results indicate that ROS formed in chloroplasts have a marginal effect on plant responses during salt stress, and that sensitive targets are present in roots which are not protected by flavodoxin.

  3. The Significance of Human-Animal Relationships as Modulators of Trauma Effects in Children: A Developmental Neurobiological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Emotional stress and trauma impacts the neurobiology of children. They are especially vulnerable given the developmental plasticity of the brain. The neural synaptic circular processes between the anterior cingulated cortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and the hypothalamus are altered. Trauma results in the release of the peptide glucocortisoid,…

  4. Pulmonary Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Cancer: Respirable Particulate Matter, Fibrous Dusts and Ozone as Major Causes of Lung Carcinogenesis through Reactive Oxygen Species Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Loridas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS, RNS and oxidative stress in the respiratory system increase the production of mediators of pulmonary inflammation and initiate or promote mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The lungs are exposed daily to oxidants generated either endogenously or exogenously (air pollutants, cigarette smoke, etc.. Cells in aerobic organisms are protected against oxidative damage by enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems. Recent epidemiologic investigations have shown associations between increased incidence of respiratory diseases and lung cancer from exposure to low levels of various forms of respirable fibers and particulate matter (PM, at occupational or urban air polluting environments. Lung cancer increases substantially for tobacco smokers due to the synergistic effects in the generation of ROS, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation with high DNA damage potential. Physical and chemical characteristics of particles (size, transition metal content, speciation, stable free radicals, etc. play an important role in oxidative stress. In turn, oxidative stress initiates the synthesis of mediators of pulmonary inflammation in lung epithelial cells and initiation of carcinogenic mechanisms. Inhalable quartz, metal powders, mineral asbestos fibers, ozone, soot from gasoline and diesel engines, tobacco smoke and PM from ambient air pollution (PM10 and PM2.5 are involved in various oxidative stress mechanisms. Pulmonary cancer initiation and promotion has been linked to a series of biochemical pathways of oxidative stress, DNA oxidative damage, macrophage stimulation, telomere shortening, modulation of gene expression and activation of transcription factors with important role in carcinogenesis. In this review we are presenting the role of ROS and oxidative stress in the production of mediators of pulmonary inflammation and mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

  5. [Neurobiological hypothesis relating to connections between psychopathy and childhood maltreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquis, N

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to closely link maltreatment subjected in childhood with the psychopathy, which is characterised by 2 factors: factor one: callousness, lack of guilt, emotional shallowness; factor two: antisocial behaviour, violence and impulsivity. If the parental education system seems to have an effect on the development of "factor two", "factor one" is for the authors of unknown aetiology. I will try to theorize that harsh and chronic maltreatment could be responsible for this emotional impairment which characterizes psychopathic individuals. There's a wealth of literature on the consequences of maltreatment on the brain's development in childhood, which are considered from a stress point of view, some individuals developing a syndrome called "post-traumatic stress disorder": PTSD (Perry, Shore, Van der Kolk, Teicher, Bremner, Carrion, De Bellis, Lanius, Nutt...). With prolonged chronic stress, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is hyper-activated, with the resulting release in adrenocorticotropin and cortisol, which involves structural changes, cell atrophy and neuronal loss. According to the authors, there are 2 responses to harsh or chronic stress: dissociation (numbing) which involves the parasympathetic system, and hyperarousal which involves the sympathetic system. One of the worst neurobiological effects of repeated stress is amygdala kindling. Many laboratory studies on physiological alterations of amygdala in rats show that kindling interferes with the acquisition of fear conditioning. Now, fear conditioning is the model on which the abusive education system is based. If this cannot develop, the child lives in the present, reacting to the unconditioned stimulus (US) like blows (with autonomic reactions), but the emotional association between this and the conditioned stimulus (CS) -- like hostile glances or shouting -- could not be registered in the orbital frontal cortex and the conditioned stimulus would not provoke autonomic responses

  6. Personality traits in rats predict vulnerability and resilience to developing stress-induced depression-like behaviors, HPA axis hyper-reactivity and brain changes in pERK1/2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge E; Diessler, Shanaz; Varea, Emilio; Márquez, Cristina; Larsen, Marianne H; Cordero, M Isabel; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that certain behavioral traits, such as anxiety, are associated with the development of depression-like behaviors after exposure to chronic stress. However, single traits do not explain the wide variability in vulnerability to stress observed in outbred populations. We hypothesized that a combination of behavioral traits might provide a better characterization of an individual's vulnerability to prolonged stress. Here, we sought to determine whether the characterization of relevant behavioral traits in rats could aid in identifying individuals with different vulnerabilities to developing stress-induced depression-like behavioral alterations. We also investigated whether behavioral traits would be related to the development of alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in brain activity - as measured through phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)--in response to an acute stressor following either sub-chronic (2 weeks) or chronic (4 weeks) unpredictable stress (CUS). Sprague-Dawley rats were characterized using a battery of behavioral tasks, and three principal traits were identified: anxiety, exploration and activity. When combined, the first two traits were found to explain the variability in the stress responses. Our findings confirm the increased risk of animals with high anxiety developing certain depression-like behaviors (e.g., increased floating time in the forced swim test) when progressively exposed to stress. In contrast, the behavioral profile based on combined low anxiety and low exploration was resistant to alterations related to social behaviors, while the high anxiety and low exploration profile displayed a particularly vulnerable pattern of physiological and neurobiological responses after sub-chronic stress exposure. Our findings indicate important differences in animals' vulnerability and/or resilience to the effects of repeated stress, particularly during initial or

  7. [Neurobiology and pharmacotherapy of social phobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouizerate, B; Martin-Guehl, C; Tignol, J

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is still not clearly understood. It was not established as an authentic psychiatric entity until the diagnostic nomenclature of the American Psychiatric Association DSM III in 1980. In recent years, increasing attention among researchers has contributed to provide important information about the genetic, familial and temperamental bases of social phobia and its neurochemical, neuroendocrinological and neuroanatomical substrates, which remain to be further investigated. Up to date, there have been several findings about the possible influence of variables, including particularly genetic, socio-familial and early temperamental (eg behavioral inhibition) factors that represent risk for the later development of social phobia. Clinical neurobiological studies, based on the use of exogenous compounds such as lactate, CO2, caffeine, epinephrine, flumazenil or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin to reproduce naturally occurring phobic anxiety, have shown that patients with social phobia appear to exhibit an intermediate sensitivity between patients with panic disorder and control subjects. No difference in the rate of panic attacks in response to lactate, low concentrations of CO2 (5%), epinephrine or flumazenil was observed between patients with social phobia and normal healthy subjects, both being less reactive compared to patients with panic disorder. However, patients with social phobia had similar anxiety reactions to high concentrations of CO2 (35%), caffeine or cholecystokinin/pentagastrin than those seen in patients with panic disorder, both being more intensive than in controls. Several lines of evidence suggest specific neurotransmitter system alterations in social phobia, especially with regard to the serotoninergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Although no abnormality in platelet serotonin transporter density has been found, patients with social phobia appear to show an enhanced sensitivity of both post

  8. A TRANSLATIONAL INVESTIGATION TARGETING STRESS-REACTIVITY AND PRE-FRONTAL COGNITIVE CONTROL WITH GUANFACINE FOR SMOKING CESSATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Sherry A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Kober, Hedy; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Ashare, Rebecca; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Stress and pre-frontal cognitive dysfunction have key roles in driving smoking, however, there are no therapeutics for smoking cessation which attenuate the effects of stress on smoking and enhance cognition. Central noradrenergic pathways are involved in stress-induced reinstatement to nicotine and in the prefrontal executive control of adaptive behaviors. We used a novel translational approach employing a validated laboratory analogue of stress-precipitated smoking, fMRI, and a proof-of-concept treatment period to evaluate whether the noradrenergic α2a agonist, guanfacine (3mg/day) versus placebo (0mg/day) reduced stress-precipitated smoking in the laboratory, altered cortico-striatal activation during the Stroop cognitive-control task, and reduced smoking following a quit attempt. In nicotine-deprived smokers (n=33), stress versus a neutral condition significantly decreased the latency to smoke, and increased tobacco craving, ad-libitum smoking, and systolic blood pressure in placebo-treated subjects, and these effects were absent or reduced in guanfacine-treated subjects. Following stress, placebo-treated subjects demonstrated decreased cortisol levels whereas guanfacine-treated subjects demonstrated increased levels. Guanfacine, compared to placebo, altered prefrontal activity during a cognitive control task, and reduced cigarette use but did not increase complete abstinence during treatment. These preliminary laboratory, neuroimaging and clinical outcome data were consistent and complementary and support further development of guanfacine for smoking cessation. PMID:25516371

  9. [Response of reactive oxygen metabolism in melon chloroplasts to short-term salinity-alkalinity stress regulated by exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li-xia; Hu, Li-pan; Hu, Xiao-hui; Pan, Xiong-bo; Ren, Wen-qi

    2015-12-01

    The regulatory effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in melon chloroplasts under short-term salinity-alkalinity stress were investigated in melon variety 'Jinhui No. 1', which was cultured with deep flow hydroponics. The result showed that under salinity-alkalinity stress, the photosynthetic pigment content, MDA content, superoxide anion (O₂·) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content in chloroplast increased significantly, the contents of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) increased, and the activities of H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase were inhibited obviously. With exogenous GABA application, the accumulations of O₂·, MDA and H₂O₂ induced by salinity-alkalinity stress were inhibited. Exogenous GABA alleviated the increase of photosynthetic pigment content, improved the activity of SOD, enzymes of AsA-GSH cycle, total AsA and total GSH while decreased the AsA/DHA ratio and GSH/GSSH ratio. Foliar GABA could enhance the H⁺-ATPase and H⁺-PPiase activities. Our results suggested that the exogenous GABA could accelerate the ROS metabolism in chloroplast, promote the recycle of AsA-GSH, and maintain the permeability of cell membrane to improve the ability of melon chloroplast against salinity-alkalinity stress.

  10. SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species–Dependent Signaling during the Initial Response to Salt Stress in Rice[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Romy; Mieulet, Delphine; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Obata, Toshihiro; Hoefgen, Rainer; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Fisahn, Joachim; San Segundo, Blanca; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Schippers, Jos H.M.; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of salt stress is vital for plant survival and growth. Still, the molecular processes controlling early salt stress perception and signaling are not fully understood. Here, we identified SALT-RESPONSIVE ERF1 (SERF1), a rice (Oryza sativa) transcription factor (TF) gene that shows a root-specific induction upon salt and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Loss of SERF1 impairs the salt-inducible expression of genes encoding members of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and salt tolerance–mediating TFs. Furthermore, we show that SERF1-dependent genes are H2O2 responsive and demonstrate that SERF1 binds to the promoters of MAPK KINASE KINASE6 (MAP3K6), MAPK5, DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING2A (DREB2A), and ZINC FINGER PROTEIN179 (ZFP179) in vitro and in vivo. SERF1 also directly induces its own gene expression. In addition, SERF1 is a phosphorylation target of MAPK5, resulting in enhanced transcriptional activity of SERF1 toward its direct target genes. In agreement, plants deficient for SERF1 are more sensitive to salt stress compared with the wild type, while constitutive overexpression of SERF1 improves salinity tolerance. We propose that SERF1 amplifies the reactive oxygen species–activated MAPK cascade signal during the initial phase of salt stress and translates the salt-induced signal into an appropriate expressional response resulting in salt tolerance. PMID:23800963

  11. Associations of Prenatal and Perinatal Factors with Cortisol Diurnal Pattern and Reactivity to Stress at Preschool Age Among Children Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Maha E; Miller, Alison L; Vazquez, Delia M; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association of pre- and perinatal factors with diurnal cortisol pattern and reactivity to a stressor at preschool age among children living in poverty. Preschool aged children (n=275) provided saliva samples 3 times per day for 3 days to assess circadian rhythmicity (intercept and slope reflected diurnal pattern) and during a behavioral stress elicitation protocol to measure reactivity (5 samples before, during and after the stressor). Pre- and perinatal predictors were pregnancy weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), infant birth weight z-score and gestational age. We ran 7 linear regression models predicting each of the cortisol outcomes including all pre- and perinatal predictors and covariates simultaneously. Greater pregnancy weight gain predicted higher morning cortisol [b=0.020 (SE 0.007), p=0.003]. Greater pregnancy weight gain also predicted higher cortisol at recovery from the stressor in girls only [β=0.002 (SE 0.001), p=0.036]. There was no association of pre-pregnancy BMI with any cortisol outcome. Higher birth weight z-score predicted higher morning cortisol in the total sample [β=0.134 (SE 0.066, p=0.043]. Greater gestational age predicted lower cortisol during peak stress in the sample who underwent cortisol reactivity testing [β=-0.015 (SE 0.007), p=0.032] and in boys [β=-0.032 (SE 0.014), p=0.027]. Pre- and perinatal factors are associated with cortisol patterning in offspring at preschool age. The implications for child health require additional studies.

  12. Early Life Stress Increases Metabolic Risk, HPA Axis Reactivity, and Depressive-Like Behavior When Combined with Postweaning Social Isolation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Javier; Junco, Mariana; Gomez, Carlos; Lajud, Naima

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress is associated with depression and metabolic abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Such associations could be due to increased glucocorticoid levels. Periodic maternal separation in the neonate and rearing in social isolation are potent stressors that increase hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Moreover, social isolation promotes feed intake and body weight gain in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation; however, its effects on metabolic risks have not been described. In the present study, we evaluated whether periodic maternal separation, social isolation rearing, and a combination of these two stressors (periodic maternal separation + social isolation rearing) impair glucose homeostasis and its relation to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and depressive-like behavior. Periodic maternal separation increased basal corticosterone levels, induced a passive coping strategy in the forced swimming test, and was associated with a mild (24%) increase in fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Rearing in social isolation increased stress reactivity in comparison to both controls and in combination with periodic maternal separation, without affecting the coping strategy associated with the forced swimming test. However, social isolation also increased body weight gain, fasting glucose (120%), and insulin levels in rats subjected to periodic maternal separation. Correlation analyses showed that stress-induced effects on coping strategy on the forced swimming test (but not on metabolic risk markers) are associated with basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that maternal separation and postweaning social isolation affect stress and metabolic vulnerability differentially and that early-life stress-related effects on metabolism are not directly dependent on glucocorticoid levels. In conclusion, our study supports the cumulative stress hypothesis, which suggests that

  13. Blood pressure reactivity to emotional stress is reduced in AT1A-receptor knockout mice on normal, but not high salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daian; La Greca, Luisa; Head, Geoffrey A; Walther, Thomas; Mayorov, Dmitry N

    2009-07-01

    Pharmacological evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptors are involved in the regulation of cardiovascular response to emotional stress and reinforcing effect of dietary salt on this response. In this study, we examined the effect of genetic deletion of AT(1A) receptors on the cardiovascular effects of stress and salt in mice. AT(1A) receptor knockout (AT(1A)(-/-)) and wild-type (AT(1A)(+/+)) mice were implanted with telemetry devices and placed on a normal (0.4%) or high (3.1%) salt diet (HSD). Resting blood pressure (BP) in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (84+/-3 mm Hg) was lower than in AT(1A)(+/+) mice (107+/-2 mm Hg). Negative emotional (restraint) stress increased BP by 33+/-3 mm Hg in AT(1A)(+/+) mice. This response was attenuated by 40% in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (18+/-3 mm Hg). Conversely, the BP increase caused by food presentation and feeding was similar in AT(1A)(-/-) (25+/-3 mm Hg) and AT(1A)(+/+) mice (26+/-3 mm Hg). HSD increased resting BP by 14+/-4 mm Hg in AT(1A)(-/-) mice without affecting it significantly in AT(1A)(+/+) mice. Under these conditions, the pressor response to restraint stress in AT(1A)(-/-) mice (30+/-3 mm Hg) was no longer different from that in wild-type animals (28+/-3 mm Hg). The BP response to feeding was not altered by HSD in either AT(1A)(-/-) or AT(1A)(+/+) mice (25+/-2 and 27+/-3 mm Hg, respectively). These results indicate that AT(1A) receptor deficiency leads to a reduction in BP reactivity to negative emotional stress, but not feeding. HSD can selectively reinforce the cardiovascular response to negative stress in AT(1A)(-/-) mice. However, there is little interaction between AT(1A) receptors, excess dietary sodium and feeding-induced cardiovascular arousal.

  14. Neurobiological problems in long-term deep space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, M. E.

    Future missions in space may involve long-term travel beyond the magnetic field of the Earth, subjecting astronauts to radiation hazards posed by solar flares and galactic cosmic rays, altered gravitation fields and physiological stress. Thus, it is critical to determine if there will be any reversible or irreversible, detrimental neurological effects from this prolonged exposure to space. A question of particular importance focuses on the long-term effects of the space environment on the central nervous system (CNS) neuroplasticity, with the potential acute and/or delayed effects that such perturbations might entail. Although the short-term effects of microgravity on neural control were studied on previous low earth orbit missions, the late consequences of stress in space, microgravity and space radiation have not been addressed sufficiently at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The possibility that space flight factors can interact influencing the neuroplastic response in the CNS looms critical issue not only to understand the ontogeny of the CNS and its functional integrity, but also, ultimately the performance of astronauts in extended space forays. The purpose of this paper is to review the neurobiological modifications that occur in the CNS exposed to the space environment, and its potential consequences for extended deep space flight.

  15. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Schriber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth. Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes.

  16. PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Gent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences, Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-04-01

    Addresses a variety of aspects of neurotransmission in the brain. Details the latest results in probe development. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT of Neurobiological Systems combines the expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the development of novel probes and techniques for the investigation of neurobiological systems has achieved international recognition. Various aspects of neurotransmission in the brain are discussed, such as visualization and quantification of (more than 20 different) neuroreceptors, neuroinflammatory markers, transporters, and enzymes as well as neurotransmitter synthesis, ?-amyloid deposition, cerebral blood flow, and the metabolic rate of glucose. The latest results in probe development are also detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by radiochemists and nuclear medicine specialists to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to anyone in the field of clinical or preclinical neuroscience, from the radiochemist and radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested neurobiologist and general practitioner. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences. Other volumes focus on PET and SPECT in psychiatry and PET and SPECT in neurology''.

  17. Applications of carbon nanotubes in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Erik B; Parpura, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials for the electronics, computer and aerospace industries. There are numerous properties of carbon nanotubes that make them attractive for applications in neurobiology: small size, flexibility, strength, inertness, electrical conductivity and ease of modification with biological compounds. Here, we discuss the current applications of carbon nanotubes in neuroscience. Carbon nanotubes and their derivatives can be used as substrates/scaffolds for neural cell growth. The chemical properties of carbon nanotubes can be systematically varied by attaching different functional groups; manipulation of the charge carried by functionalized carbon nanotubes can be used to control the outgrowth and branching pattern of neuronal processes. The ease with which carbon nanotubes can be patterned makes them attractive for studying the organization of neural networks and the electrical conductivity of nanotubes can provide a mechanism to monitor or stimulate neurons through the substrate itself. However, it is important to recognize that carbon nanotubes themselves can affect neuronal function, most likely by interaction with ion channels. The use of carbon nanotubes in neurobiology is a promising application that has the potential to develop new methods and techniques to advance the study of neuroscience.

  18. Apolipoprotein E: from lipid transport to neurobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul S.; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Ryan, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E has a storied history as a lipid transport protein. The integral association between cholesterol homeostasis and lipoprotein clearance from circulation are intimately related to apoE's function as a ligand for cell surface receptors of the low density lipoprotein receptor family. The receptor binding properties of apoE are strongly influenced by isoform specific amino acid differences as well as the lipidation state of the protein. As understanding of apoE as a structural component of circulating plasma lipoproteins has evolved, exciting developments in neurobiology have revitalized interest in apoE. The strong and enduring correlation between the apoE4 isoform and age of onset and increased risk of Alzheimer's disease has catapulted apoE to the forefront of neurobiology. Using genetic tools generated for study of apoE lipoprotein metabolism, transgenic “knock-in” and gene-disrupted mice are now favored models for study of its role in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Key structural knowledge of apoE and isoform specific differences is driving research activity designed to elucidate how a single amino acid change can manifest such profoundly significant pathological consequences. This review describes apoE through a lens of structure-based knowledge that leads to hypotheses that attempt to explain the functions of apoE and isoform specific effects relating to disease mechanism. PMID:20854843

  19. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  20. Adolescent Neurobiological Susceptibility to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriber, Roberta A.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment they encounter (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped in part by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts – be they positive or negative – such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. As such, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  1. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternate stress coping styles is poor. Since perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under...... in the Dl, in line with active coping neuro-profiles reported in the mammalian literature. We present novel evidence of proposed functional equivalences in the fish forebrain with mammalian limbic structures....

  2. Neurobiological effects of exercise on major depressive disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Felipe Barreto; Deslandes, Andrea Camaz; Stubbs, Brendon; Gosmann, Natan Pereira; Silva, Cristiano Tschiedel Belem da; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Exercise displays promise as an efficacious treatment for people with depression. However, no systematic review has evaluated the neurobiological effects of exercise among people with major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this article was to systematically review the acute and chronic biological responses to exercise in people with MDD. Two authors conducted searches using Medline (PubMed), EMBASE and PsycINFO. From the searches, twenty studies were included within the review, representing 1353 people with MDD. The results demonstrate that a single bout of exercise increases atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), copepetin and growth hormone among people with MDD. Exercise also potentially promotes long-term adaptations of copeptin, thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and total mean frequency (TMF). However, there is limited evidence that exercise promotes adaptations on neurogenesis, inflammation biomarkers and brain structure. Associations between depressive symptoms improvement and hippocampus volume and IL-1β were found. Nevertheless, the paucity of studies and limitations presented within, precludes a more definitive conclusion of the underlying neurobiological explanation for the antidepressant effect of exercise in people with MDD. Further trials should utilize appropriate assessments of neurobiological markers in order to build upon the results of our review and further clarify the potential mechanisms associated with the antidepressant effects of exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Space, place and the midwife: exploring the relationship between the birth environment, neurobiology and midwifery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn; Homer, Caroline S E; Davis, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Research indicates that midwives and their practice are influenced by space and place and that midwives practice differently in different places. It is possible that one mechanism through which space and place influence midwifery practice is via neurobiological responses such as the production and release of oxytocin, which can be triggered by experiences and perceptions of the physical environment. To articulate the significance of space and place to midwifery and explore the relationship between the birth environment, neurobiology and midwifery practice. Quality midwifery care requires the facilitation of trusting social relationships and the provision of emotionally sensitive care to childbearing women. The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in human social and emotional behaviour by increasing trust, reducing stress and heightening empathy, reciprocity and generosity. Through its role as a trigger for oxytocin release, the birth environment may play a direct role in the provision of quality midwifery care. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kindling and second messengers: an approach to the neurobiology of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, S N; Boiman, E E; Goodwin, F K

    1999-01-15

    Since bipolar disorder is inherently a longitudinal illness characterized by recurrence and cycling of mood episodes, neurobiological theories involving kindlinglike phenomena appear to possess a certain explanatory power. An approach to understanding kindlinglike phenomena at the molecular level has been made possible by advances in research on second-messenger systems in the brain. The time frame of interest has shifted from the microseconds of presynaptic events to hours, days, months, and even years in the longer duration of events beyond the synapse--through second messengers, gene regulation, and synthesis of long-acting trophic factors. These complex interlocking systems may explain how environmental stress could interact over time with genetic vulnerability to produce illness. In its two sections, this paper will review an approach to understanding two major aspects of the neurobiology of bipolar disorder: kindling phenomena and second-messenger mechanisms. We will suggest that these two fields of research together help explain the biology of recurrence.

  5. Plant neurobiology and green plant intelligence : science, metaphors and nonsense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Yin, X.; Meinke, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent debates on the emerging science of plant neurobiology, which claims that the individual green plant should be considered as an intelligent organism. Plant neurobiology tries to use elements from animal physiology as elegant metaphors to trigger the imagination in

  6. A Neurobiological Basis for SLA and First Language Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bode, Stella

    The two-part paper examines the neurobiological processes of synapse overproduction, synapse elimination, and issues of language acquisition and attrition. The first part consists of diagrams and notes explaining some basic terms and concepts of neurobiology: cortex; white matter; neuron; synapse; synaptogenesis; and development and organization…

  7. Neurobiology Research Findings: How the Brain Works during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweldju, Siusana

    2015-01-01

    In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…

  8. Affective and neuroendocrine stress reactivity to an academic examination: influence of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the singular and interactive effects of the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism on affective and physiological stress responses to an academic examination in healthy undergraduate students. From 771 students, 46 short/short (S/S)-allele carriers and 48 long/long (L/L)-allele carriers with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (80 females, 14 males; mean age±SD: 20.3±1.7 years) were selected. Salivary cortisol concentrations, mood and perceived stress were assessed before and after a 2-h written examination and compared with a control day. Negative mood, perceived stress and cortisol significantly increased during the examination compared to the control day. Negative stress effects on mood and perceived stress were significantly larger for S/S-allele carriers compared to L/L-allele carriers, regardless of trait neuroticism. Since vulnerability to real-life stressors is an important risk factor for depression pathogenesis, this may be a mediating factor making S/S-allele carriers more susceptible for depression symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Activation of PPARβ/δ protects cardiac myocytes from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by suppressing generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species and expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlaka, Eleftheria; Görbe, Anikó; Gáspár, Renáta; Pálóczi, János; Ferdinandy, Péter; Lazou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure still remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A major contributing factor is reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) overproduction which is associated with cardiac remodeling partly through cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and have been implicated in cardioprotection. However, the molecular mechanisms are largely unexplored. In this study we sought to investigate the potential beneficial effects evoked by activation of PPARβ/δ under the setting of oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in adult rat cardiac myocytes. The selective PPARβ/δ agonist GW0742 inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis and increased cell viability. In addition, generation of RONS was attenuated in cardiac myocytes in the presence of PPARβ/δ agonist. These effects were abolished in the presence of the PPARβ/δ antagonist indicating that the effect was through PPARβ/δ receptor activation. Treatment with PPARβ/δ agonist was also associated with attenuation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, upregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and concomitant downregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax. In addition, activation of PPARβ/δ inhibited the oxidative-stress-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA upregulation. It is concluded that PPARβ/δ activation exerts a cytoprotective effect in adult rat cardiac myocytes subjected to oxidative stress via inhibition of oxidative stress, MMP expression, and apoptosis. Our data suggest that the novel connection between PPAR signaling and MMP down-regulation in cardiac myocytes might represent a new target for the management of oxidative stress-induced cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Peroxisomes Extend Peroxules in a Fast Response to Stress via a Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Induction of the Peroxin PEX11a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sanz-Fernández, María; Hu, Jianping; Sandalio, Luisa M

    2016-07-01

    Peroxisomes are highly dynamic and metabolically active organelles that play an important role in cellular functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism. Peroxisomal dynamics, such as the proliferation, movement, and production of dynamic extensions called peroxules, have been associated with ROS in plant cells. However, the function and regulation of peroxules are largely unknown. Using confocal microscopy, we have shown that treatment of Arabidopsis leaves with the heavy metal cadmium produces time course-dependent changes in peroxisomal dynamics, starting with peroxule formation, followed by peroxisome proliferation, and finally returning to the normal morphology and number. These changes during Cd treatment were regulated by NADPH oxidase (C and F)-related ROS production. Peroxule formation is a general response to stimuli such as arsenic and is regulated by peroxin 11a (PEX11a), as Arabidopsis pex11a RNAi lines are unable to produce peroxules under stress conditions. The pex11a line showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation content and lower expression of genes involved in antioxidative defenses and signaling, suggesting that these extensions are involved in regulating ROS accumulation and ROS-dependent gene expression in response to stress. Our results demonstrate that PEX11a and peroxule formation play a key role in regulating stress perception and fast cell responses to environmental cues. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Mechanical and photo-fragmentation processes for nanonization of melanin to improve its efficacy in protecting cells from reactive oxygen species stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Cheng [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Sih-Min [Graduate Institute of Biophysics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Liu, Jhong-Han; Hsu, Hsiang-Wei [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hoang-Yan [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chen, Szu-yuan, E-mail: sychen@ltl.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biophysics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-14

    It has been well established ex vivo that melanin has the ability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), besides other functions. Therefore, we propose to utilize nanonized melanin as medication against acute oxidative stress. For this purpose, we developed and characterized two techniques based on mechanical stir and photo-fragmentation using femtosecond laser pulses, respectively, for disintegration of suspended melanin powder to produce nanometer-sized and water-dispersible melanin. This resolves a major obstacle in the medical and industrial applications of melanin. The viabilities of cultured retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells exposed to exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stress and treated with various conditions of melanin and irradiation were compared. It was found that melanin could be nanonized very effectively with the techniques, and nanonized melanin exhibited a much stronger effect than unprocessed melanin on raising the viability of cultured RPE cells under acute ROS stress. The effect was even more prominent without simultaneous light irradiation, promising for effective in vivo application to the whole body.

  12. Metformin prevents ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in the fatty liver by attenuation of reactive oxygen species formation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahová, M.; Páleníčková, E.; Danková, H.; Sticová, E.; Burian, M.; Drahota, Zdeněk; Červinková, Z.; Kučera, O.; Gladkova, Ch.; Stopka, Pavel; Křížová, Jana; Papáčková, Z.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Kazdová, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 309, č. 2 (2015), G100-G111 ISSN 0193-1857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : metformin * oxidative stress * mitochondrial respiration * liver injury * 31P MR spectroscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 3.297, year: 2015

  13. Sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of stress and HPA-axis reactivity in adolescence : A review of gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Bouma, E.M.

    Adolescence is characterized by major biological, psychological, and social challenges, as well as by an increase in depression rates. This review focuses on the association between stressful experiences and depression in adolescence, and the possible role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal

  14. Early Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: Sex Differences in the Role of Cortisol Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Ge, Xiaojia; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    An accumulating body of literature has shown a link between early pubertal maturation and internalizing problems, particularly among girls. Our knowledge is, however, limited with regard to what accounts for this association. Based on a hypothesis that early maturing girls have heightened stress sensitivity that increases the risk of internalizing…