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Sample records for neurobehavioral symptom inventory

  1. Clinical utility of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory validity scales to screen for symptom exaggeration following traumatic brain injury.

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    Lange, Rael T; Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of three recently developed validity scales (Validity-10, NIM5, and LOW6) designed to screen for symptom exaggeration using the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI). Participants were 272 U.S. military service members who sustained a mild, moderate, severe, or penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI) and who were evaluated by the neuropsychology service at Walter Reed Army Medical Center within 199 weeks post injury. Participants were divided into two groups based on the Negative Impression Management scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory: (a) those who failed symptom validity testing (SVT-fail; n = 27) and (b) those who passed symptom validity testing (SVT-pass; n = 245). Participants in the SVT-fail group had significantly higher scores (pValidity-10, NIM5, LOW6, NSI total, and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) clinical scales (range: d = 0.76 to 2.34). Similarly high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive power (PPP), and negative predictive (NPP) values were found when using all three validity scales to differentiate SVT-fail versus SVT-pass groups. However, the Validity-10 scale consistently had the highest overall values. The optimal cutoff score for the Validity-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥19 (sensitivity = .59, specificity = .89, PPP = .74, NPP = .80). For the majority of people, these findings provide support for the use of the Validity-10 scale as a screening tool for possible symptom exaggeration. When scores on the Validity-10 exceed the cutoff score, it is recommended that (a) researchers and clinicians do not interpret responses on the NSI, and (b) clinicians follow up with a more detailed evaluation, using well-validated symptom validity measures (e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form, MMPI-2-RF, validity scales), to seek confirmatory evidence to support an hypothesis of symptom exaggeration.

  2. Three Scoring Approaches to the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory for Measuring Clinical Change in Service Members Receiving Intensive Treatment for Combat-Related mTBI.

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    Dretsch, Michael; Bleiberg, Joseph; Williams, Kathy; Caban, Jesus; Kelly, James; Grammer, Geoffrey; DeGraba, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To examine the use of the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory to measure clinical changes over time in a population of US service members undergoing treatment of mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions. A 4-week, 8-hour per day, intensive, outpatient, interdisciplinary, comprehensive treatment program at the National Intrepid Center of Excellence in Bethesda, Maryland. Three hundred fourteen active-duty service members being treated for combat-related comorbid mild traumatic brain injury and psychological health conditions. Repeated-measures, retrospective analysis of a single-group using a pretest-posttest treatment design. Three Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scoring methods: (1) a total summated score, (2) the 3-factor method, and (3) the 4-factor method (with and without orphan items). All 3 scoring methods yielded statistically significant within-subject changes between admission and discharge. The evaluation of effect sizes indicated that the 3 different Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory scoring methods were comparable. Findings indicate that the different scoring methods all have potential for assessing clinical changes in symptoms for groups of patients undergoing treatment, with no clear advantage with any one method.

  3. A survey of neurobehavioral symptoms of welders exposed to manganese

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    H Hassani

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Welders’ exposure to manganese and its potential health effects should be evaluated periodically and effective control measures should be applied in order to to prevent neurobehavioral symptoms.

  4. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

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    Gardner, RC; Possin, KL; Hess, CP; Huang, EJ; Grinberg, LT; Nolan, AL; Cohn-Sheehy, BI; Ghosh, PM; Lanata, S; Merrilees, J; Kramer, JH; Berger, MS; Miller, BL; Yaffe, K; Rabinovici, GD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE...

  5. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players: Lessons from a case series.

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    Gardner, Raquel C; Possin, Katherine L; Hess, Christopher P; Huang, Eric J; Grinberg, Lea T; Nolan, Amber L; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Ghosh, Pia M; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H; Berger, Mitchel S; Miller, Bruce L; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2015-08-01

    In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players.

  6. Cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy or observation: A mixed methods study.

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    Wu, Lisa M; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Dijkers, Marcel P J M; Amidi, Ali; Hall, Simon J; Penedo, Frank J; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated prostate cancer patients' experiences of cognitive functioning or neurobehavioral symptoms (i.e., behavioral changes associated with neurological dysfunction) following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Semi-structured interviews conducted from the US by phone and in-person were used to explore and characterize the: 1) experience of cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT (n = 19) compared with patients who had not undergone ADT (n = 20); 2) perceived causes of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms; 3) impact of these symptoms on quality of life; and 4) strategies used to cope with or compensate for these symptoms. Neuropsychological performance was assessed to characterize the sample. Overall, ADT patients experienced marginally more cognitive problems than non-ADT (nADT) patients even though there were no significant differences between groups in neuropsychological performance. ADT patients also experienced more declines in prospective memory and multi-tasking than nADT patients. Significant proportions of participants in both groups also experienced retrospective memory, attention and concentration, and information processing difficulties. With respect to neurobehavioral symptoms, more ADT patients experienced emotional lability and impulsivity (both aspects of disinhibition) than nADT patients. Among the causes to which participants attributed declines, both groups attributed them primarily to aging. A majority of ADT patients also attributed declines to ADT. For both groups, increased cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms negatively impacted quality of life, and most participants developed strategies to ameliorate these problems. ADT patients are more vulnerable to experiencing specific cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms than nADT patients. This study highlights the importance of capturing: a) cognitive symptoms not easily detected using neuropsychological

  7. College and combat trauma: an insider's perspective of the post-secondary education experience shared by service members managing neurobehavioral symptoms.

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    Ness, Bryan M; Rocke, Maya R; Harrist, Christopher J; Vroman, Kerryellen G

    2014-01-01

    Enrolling in post-secondary education is common among military service members returning from combat deployments, but recent research shows service members who present with neurobehavioral symptoms consistent with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at risk for psychosocial and academic difficulty. This exploratory study was conducted to examine the academic experiences of service members through in-depth qualitative analysis. An initial survey was conducted at a public university to measure self-reported academic achievement and neurobehavioral symptoms experienced by service members (n = 48). Then, follow-up interviews were solicited from a sub-sample (n = 5) of participants to gain an in-depth understanding of their transition, social, and academic experiences. The results revealed both the day-to-day challenges participants faced while adjusting to post-secondary life and how neurobehavioral symptoms associated with combat trauma interacted with their learning experiences. The findings indicated participants did not perceive neurobehavioral symptoms as particularly deleterious to their learning thereby highlighting the potentially integral role of coping strategies and motivation in post-secondary success. This study underscores the importance of understanding not only the adverse impact of neurobehavioral symptoms but the factors that promote resilience among military service members in post-secondary education.

  8. Efficacy and harms of pharmacological interventions for neurobehavioral symptoms in post traumatic amnesia after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

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    Hicks, Amelia J; Clay, Fiona J; Hopwood, Malcolm; Jayaram, Mahesh; Batty, Rachel; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness and harms of pharmacotherapy as compared to all types of comparators for the management of neurobehavioral symptoms in post-traumatic amnesia in adults aged 16 years and over who have sustained a traumatic brain injury. This review forms part of a larger project which aims to gather the evidence for the pharmacological treatment of neurobehavioral symptoms post traumatic brain injury as a prelude to the development of a clinical guideline.

  9. Neurobehavioral Effects of Interferon-α in Patients with Hepatitis-C: Symptom Dimensions and Responsiveness to Paroxetine

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    McNutt, Marcia D; Liu, Shuling; Manatunga, Amita; Royster, Erica B; Raison, Charles L; Woolwine, Bobbi J; Demetrashvili, Marina F; Miller, Andrew H; Musselman, Dominique L

    2012-01-01

    In patients at high risk for recurrence of malignant melanoma, interferon-α (IFN-α), a stimulator of innate immunity, appears to induce distinct neurobehavioral symptom dimensions: a mood and anxiety syndrome, and a neurovegetative syndrome, of which the former is responsive to prophylactic administration of paroxetine. We sought to determine whether symptom dimensions (and treatment responsiveness) arise in patients with hepatitis C administered IFN-α and ribavirin. In a randomized, double-blind, 6-month study, 61 patients with hepatitis C eligible for therapy with IFN-α and ribavirin received the antidepressant paroxetine (n=28) or a placebo (n=33). Study medication began 2 weeks before IFN-α/ribavirin therapy. Neuropsychiatric assessments included the 10-item Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The items of the MADRS were grouped into depression, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, and neurovegetative symptom dimensions, and analyzed using a mixed model. By 2 weeks of IFN-α/ribavirin therapy, all four dimensions increased, with the symptom dimensions of anxiety and cognitive dysfunction fluctuating and worsening, respectively, in both groups over time. The depression symptom dimension was significantly lower in the paroxetine treatment group (p=0.04); severity of the neurovegetative symptom dimension was similar in both groups. Similar to patients with malignant melanoma receiving high-dose IFN-α, the depression symptom dimension is more responsive to paroxetine treatment in individuals undergoing concomitant IFN-α/ribavirin therapy. However, the anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, and neurovegetative symptom dimensions appear less responsive to prophylactic paroxetine administration. Different neurobiologic pathways may contribute to the responsiveness of IFN-α-induced symptom dimensions to antidepressant treatment, requiring relevant psychopharmacologic strategies. PMID:22353759

  10. Accessible Neurobehavioral Anger-Related Markers for Vulnerability to Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Population of Male Soldiers

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    Lin, Tamar; Gilam, Gadi; Raz, Gal; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Bar-Haim, Yair; Fruchter, Eyal; Hendler, Talma

    2017-01-01

    Identifying vulnerable individuals prone to develop post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is of paramount importance, especially in populations at high risk for stress exposure such as combat soldiers. While several neural and psychological risk factors are known, no post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) biomarker has yet progressed to clinical use. Here we present novel and clinically applicable anger-related neurobehavioral risk markers for military-related PTSS in a large cohort of Israeli soldiers. The psychological, electrophysiological and neural (Simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography [EEG] and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) reaction to an anger-inducing film were measured prior to advanced military training and PTSS were recorded at 1-year follow-up. Limbic modulation was measured using a novel approach that monitors amygdala modulation using fMRI-inspired EEG, hereafter termed amygdala electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis on fMRI data indicated that during movie viewing participants’ brain activity was synchronized in limbic regions including the amygdala. Self-reported state-anger and amyg-EFP modulation successfully predicted PTSS levels. State-anger significantly accounted for 20% of the variance in PTSS, and amyg-EFP signal modulation significantly accounted for additional 15% of the variance. Our study was limited by the moderate PTSS levels and lack of systematic baseline symptoms assessment. These results suggest that pre-stress neurobehavioral measures of anger may predict risk for later PTSS, pointing to anger-related vulnerability factors that can be measured efficiently and at a low cost before stress exposure. Possible mechanisms underlying the association between the anger response and risk for PTSS are discussed. PMID:28326027

  11. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

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    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  12. Spanish version of Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory: transcultural adaptation and reliability.

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    Oviedo-Caro, Miguel A; Bueno-Antequera, Javier; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego

    2017-09-01

    To transcultural adapt and analyze the reliability of Spanish version of Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory (PSI) and assess the prevalence of pregnancy symptoms in Spanish pregnant women. A subsample of 120 healthy pregnant women answered the PSI twice and a sample of 280 report the prevalence and limitation of pregnancy symptoms. The reliability was examined by means of percent agreement and weighted Kappa coefficients. The prevalence of pregnancy symptoms was evaluated by the frequency of answers. Perfect and perfect-acceptable agreement was observed in 82% and 96% of the pregnant women, respectively. Weighted Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.589 to 0.889, indicating a good reliability. The most frequent symptoms perceived by Spanish pregnant women were urinary frequency, poor sleep, increased vaginal discharge and tiredness. Spanish Pregnancy Symptoms Inventory is a brief, conceptually equivalent and satisfactory reliable tool that allows an early assessment of the wide range of pregnancy symptoms in the health care practices.

  13. Longitudinal Construct Validity of Brief Symptom Inventory Subscales in Schizophrenia

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    Long, Jeffrey D.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Brekke, John S.; Test, Mary Ann; Greenberg, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal validity of Brief Symptom Inventory subscales was examined in a sample (N = 318) with schizophrenia-related illness measured at baseline and every 6 months for 3 years. Nonlinear factor analysis of items was used to test graded response models (GRMs) for subscales in isolation. The models varied in their within-time and between-times…

  14. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

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    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  15. Requestioning depression in patients with cancer: contribution of somatic and affective symptoms to Beck's Depression Inventory.

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    Wedding, U; Koch, A; Röhrig, B; Pientka, L; Sauer, H; Höffken, K; Maurer, I

    2007-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are a major complaint reported by cancer patients. Somatic and affective symptoms can contribute to depression. We investigated the prevalence of somatic and affective depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in 213 hospitalized cancer patients prior to the start of chemotherapy. Seventeen of 213 patients (8%) were screened positive for major depression; 40 (19%) had mild to moderate depressive symptoms. The corresponding figures for somatic and affective symptoms were 33.3% and 2.8% in the patients with major depression and 23.0% and 8.0% in those with mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Female patients, patients with solid tumour and those with functional limitations had significantly higher mean scores. All differences were related to higher scores in somatic and not in affective items. Most alterations in the BDI in cancer patients are related to somatic and not to affective symptoms and may be attributed not to depression but to severity of the underlying disease.

  16. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

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    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  17. Simulation of traumatic brain injury symptoms on the Personality Assessment Inventory: an analogue study.

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    Keiski, Michelle A; Shore, Douglas L; Hamilton, Joanna M; Malec, James F

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the operating characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity scales in distinguishing simulators feigning symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) while completing the PAI (n = 84) from a clinical sample of patients with TBI who achieved adequate scores on performance validity tests (n = 112). The simulators were divided into two groups: (a) Specific Simulators feigning cognitive and somatic symptoms only or (b) Global Simulators feigning cognitive, somatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The PAI overreporting scales were indeed sensitive to the simulation of TBI symptoms in this analogue design. However, these scales were less sensitive to the feigning of somatic and cognitive TBI symptoms than the feigning of a broad range of cognitive, somatic, and emotional symptoms often associated with TBI. The relationships of TBI simulation to consistency and underreporting scales are also explored. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Psychometric validation of the Portuguese version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory

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    de Andrade Daniel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgroud It has been shown that different symptoms or symptom combinations of neuropathic pain (NeP may correspond to different mechanistic backgrounds and respond differently to treatment. The Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI is able to detect distinct clusters of symptoms (i.e. dimensions with a putative common mechanistic background. The present study described the psychometric validation of the Portuguese version (PV of the NPSI. Methods Patients were seen in two consecutive visits, three to four weeks apart. They were asked to: (i rate their mean pain intensity in the last 24 hours on an 11-point (0-10 numerical scale; (ii complete the PV-NPSI; (iii provide the list of pain medications and doses currently in use. VAS and Global Impression of Change (GIC were filled out in the second visit. Results PV-NPSI underwent test-retest reliability, factor analysis, analysis of sensitivity to changes between both visits. The PV-NPSI was reliable in this setting, with a good intra-class correlation for all items. The factorial analysis showed that the PV-NPSI inventory assessed different components of neuropathic pain. Five different factors were found. The PV-NPSI was adequate to evaluate patients with neuropathic pain and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms. Conclusions The psychometric properties of the PV-NPSI rendered it adequate to evaluate patients with both central and peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes and to detect clusters of NeP symptoms.

  19. Assessment of somatic symptoms in British secondary school children using the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI).

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    Vila, Mar; Kramer, Tami; Hickey, Nicole; Dattani, Meera; Jefferis, Helen; Singh, Mandeep; Garralda, M Elena

    2009-10-01

    To present normative and psychometric data on somatic symptoms using the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) in a nonclinical sample of British young people, and to assess associations with stress and functional impairment. A total of 1,173 students (11- to 16-years old) completed the CSI and self-report psychopathology measures. The median CSI total score was 12 (5, 23). Headaches, feeling low in energy, sore muscles, faintness, and nausea were most frequent. Girls scored higher than boys, and respondents aged 13-14 years lower than younger children. The CSI showed good internal consistency and exploratory factor analysis yielded three factors: pain/weakness, gastrointestinal, and pseudoneurological. A quarter of respondents reported somatic symptoms were made worse by stress. CSI scores were moderately significantly correlated with impairment and emotional symptoms. The CSI, complemented by information on functional impairment and stress is an appropriate measure of recent somatic symptoms and somatization risk in young people for use in the UK.

  20. Portuguese validation of the Symptom Inventory of the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

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    Adriane Cristina Bernat Kolankiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the reliability and validity of the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the instrument for symptom assessment, titled MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - core. Method A cross-sectional study with 268 cancer patients in outpatient treatment, in the municipality of Ijuí, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Results The Cronbach’s alpha for the MDASI general, symptoms and interferences was respectively (0.857, (0.784 and (0.794. The factor analysis showed adequacy of the data (0.792. In total, were identified four factors of the principal components related to the symptoms. Factor I: sleep problems, distress (upset, difficulties in remembering things and sadness. Factor II: dizziness, nausea, lack of appetite and vomiting. Factor III: drowsiness, dry mouth, numbness and tingling. Factor IV: pain, fatigue and shortness of breath. A single factor was revealed in the component of interferences with life (0.780, with prevalence of activity in general (59.7%, work (54.9% and walking (49.3%. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory - core showed adequate psychometric properties in the studied population.

  1. Linguistic Validation of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory in Persian-Speaking Iranian Cancer Patients.

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    Saadatpour, Leila; Hemati, Simin; Habibi, Farzaneh; Behzadi, Erfan; Hashemi-Jazi, Marsa Sadat; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Mirbagher, Leila; Gholamrezaei, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Various symptoms frequently affect cancer patients' quality of life. Appropriate assessment of these symptoms provides valuable data for cancer management. This study aimed to validate the Persian version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-P). This cross-sectional study was conducted at four cancer treatment centers in two cities in Iran. Breast cancer and colorectal cancer patients aged 18 years and older were consecutively included in the study. The standard forward-backward translation method was applied. Patients completed the MDASI-P along with the previously validated Persian version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). Construct validity (factor analysis), criterion validity (against the EORTC QLQ-C30), and reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were analyzed. A total of 146 breast cancer and 94 colorectal cancer patients were studied. Factor analysis for the symptom severity items resulted in a three-factor solution, further reduced to a two-factor solution: general symptoms and gastrointestinal symptoms. Correlation of the MDASI-P symptom severity items with corresponding EORTC QLQ-C30 symptom items (r = 0.48-0.75) and MDASI-P interference items with corresponding EORTC QLQ-C30 functioning domains (r = -0.46 to -0.23) supported the criterion validity. Cronbach's alpha was 0.90, 0.88, and 0.77 for the total questionnaire, symptom severity items, and the interference subscale, respectively. The MDASI-P is a feasible, valid, and reliable instrument for evaluation of symptoms in Persian-speaking cancer patients and can be used to improve symptom management in these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigating symptom domains of bipolar disorder for Spanish-speakers using the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale.

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    Arnold, Jodi Gonzalez; Martinez, Cervando; Zavala, Juan; Prihoda, Thomas J; Escamilla, Michael; Singh, Vivek; Bazan, Melissa; Quiñones, Marlon; Bowden, Charles L

    2016-11-15

    A Spanish language rating scale which assesses the range of bipolar disorder symptoms is needed. There are rating scales commonly used, however they do not address commonly expressed symptoms associated with bipolar disorder and have varied rating systems. There are also few comparisons of symptom severity between Spanish and English speaking patients, due to limitations in available rating scales. We conducted psychometric assessment of the Spanish language Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) (N=71) for persons with bipolar disorder, which assesses 5 domains: mania, depression, irritability, anxiety and psychosis. The Spanish BISS scores were then compared to the MADRS (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and the YMRS (Young Mania Rating Scale) as well as to BISS scores in an English speaking sample (N=102) with bipolar disorder from the same geographic locations. Chronbach's alphas for the Spanish BISS ranged from 0.6 to 0.93, with the psychosis domain displaying lower reliability. Correlations with the MADRS and YMRS were good and ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. The BISS differentiated well across mood states in English and Spanish versions, with mood state differentiated well using subscales and domains. For the irritability and anxiety domains, Spanish speaking participants had higher scores than English speakers across mood states. Females showed differences in symptom profiles compared to males. The sample sizes in the Spanish speaking manic group were small. The Spanish BISS, tested here primarily in patients of Mexican ancestry, may require revision in other Spanish language populations. The Spanish BISS, a Spanish language symptom rating scale for bipolar disorder, demonstrates good reliability and validity. Clinical assessment in anxiety and irritability domains is particularly relevant in a Spanish speaking sample. Consistent with prior research, females report higher depression, irritability and anxiety scores irrespective of language spoken

  3. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  4. Psychometric Validity and Reliability of the Thai Version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory.

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    Euasobhon, Pramote; Soonthornkes, Neranchala; Rushatamukayanunt, Pranee; Wangnamthip, Suratsawadee; Jirachaipitak, Sukunya; Maneekut, Nattawut; Laurujisawat, Janravee; Srirojanakul, Wanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI-T) in Thai patients with neuropathic pain. Although the Thai version of Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI-T) has been linguistically validated, the tool has to be psychometrically validated before applying to neuropathic pain patients in daily practice. Forty Thai patients with diagnosis of neuropathic pain were enrolled to the study and were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), the Thai version of Neuropathic Pain Diagnostic Questionnaire (DN4-T) and NPSI-T questionnaires. Four hours later the patients were asked to perform retest NPSI-T and to evaluate the understanding of each NPSI-T question. The total score of NPSI-T questionnaire was statistically correlated to visual analog scale (VAS) (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.599, p 0.8) and good agreement (ICC 0.6-0.8) were presented in 30% and 70% of the questionnaire, respectively. The study demonstrated validity and reliability of the NPSI-T for assessing the neuropathic pain in Thai patients.

  5. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

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    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  6. The association between bodily anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory.

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    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The association between anxiety disorders and different measures of personality has been extensively studied to further the understanding of etiology, course, and treatment, and to possibly prevent the development of anxiety disorders. We have proposed a hierarchical model of bodily anxiety symptoms with 1 second-order severity factor and 5 first-order factors: cardio-respiratory, gastro-intestinal, autonomic, vertigo, and tension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits were differentially related to distinct symptom subdimensions or exclusively related to the general severity factor. Structural equation modeling of data on 120 patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and 207 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder was used to examine the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Temperament and Character Inventory and of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. When both sets of personality measures were simultaneously modeled as predictors, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory scales, neuroticism and extraversion, remained significantly associated with the severity factor, whereas the association between the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions, harm avoidance and novelty seeking, and the severity factor became nonsignificant. Harm avoidance was negatively associated with the vertigo first-order factor, whereas neuroticism was negatively associated with the cardio-respiratory first-order factor, indicating that personality factors may be differentially related to specific anxiety subdimensions.

  7. Development and validation of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W; Simms, Leonard J; Kotov, Roman; Chmielewski, Michael; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth A; Gamez, Wakiza; Stuart, Scott

    2007-09-01

    The authors describe a new self-report instrument, the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), which was designed to assess specific symptom dimensions of major depression and related anxiety disorders. They created the IDAS by conducting principal factor analyses in 3 large samples (college students, psychiatric patients, community adults); the authors also examined the robustness of its psychometric properties in 5 additional samples (high school students, college students, young adults, postpartum women, psychiatric patients) who were not involved in the scale development process. The IDAS contains 10 specific symptom scales: Suicidality, Lassitude, Insomnia, Appetite Loss, Appetite Gain, Ill Temper, Well-Being, Panic, Social Anxiety, and Traumatic Intrusions. It also includes 2 broader scales: General Depression (which contains items overlapping with several other IDAS scales) and Dysphoria (which does not). The scales (a) are internally consistent, (b) capture the target dimensions well, and (c) define a single underlying factor. They show strong short-term stability and display excellent convergent validity and good discriminant validity in relation to other self-report and interview-based measures of depression and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (α's=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions.

  9. Development and validation of the Chinese-language version of the eating pathology symptoms inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoqi; Forbush, Kelsie T; Lui, P Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Eating disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent among individuals from non-Western countries, yet few non-English-language measures of eating pathology exist. The current study sought to develop and validate a Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory(1) with cross-cultural equivalence. The Chinese version of the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory (CEPSI) was translated and back-translated by native Chinese speakers, and administered to a pilot sample of native Chinese speaking students (N = 45) from a Midwestern university in the United States. The measure was revised based on participant's feedback, and administrated to a large sample of native Chinese speakers recruited from a Midwestern community (N = 195; 49.2% women) to test the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. As hypothesized, the CEPSI had a robust eight-factor structure, and demonstrated evidence for acceptable internal consistency (median coefficient alphas were 0.80 for men and 0.79 for women, and alpha values ranged from 0.36 to 0.85 in men and 0.70 to 0.89 in women), and good convergent validity (correlations with relevant translated scales from the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 ranged from 0.22 to 0.58) and discriminate validity (correlations with a translated version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale ranged from .12 to .30). Results indicate that the CEPSI has high potential value as a new self-report measure of eating pathology that can be used in future research and clinical settings to assess eating disorder-related psychopathology among Chinese speaking individuals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neurobehavioral Deficits in Progressive Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Departments of 1Anatomy and 2Neurological Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and ...

  11. Symptom profiles in depersonalization and anxiety disorders: an analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen; Jay, Emma-Louise; Sierra, Mauricio; David, Anthony S

    2015-01-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) entails distressing alterations in self-experiencing. However, it has long been recognized that depersonalisation symptoms occur in other disorders, particularly anxiety and panic. One strand of research proposes that depersonalization phenomenology arises through altered autonomic arousal in response to stress. We sought to examine profiles of anxiety symptoms through a secondary data analysis of individual items and factor subscales on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), comparing two relatively large patient samples with DPD or with a variety of anxiety conditions, respectively. The DPD sample (n = 106) had a lower overall BAI score than the combined anxiety disorders group (n = 525). After controlling for this as well as for potential confounders such as age and gender, the DPD group presented significantly lower scores on the panic subscale, marginally lower scores on the autonomic subscale and significantly higher scores on the neurophysiological subscale of the BAI. These differences imply similarities between the cognitive components of DPD and anxiety disorders while physiological experiences diverge. The findings encourage future research looking at direct physiological measures and longitudinal designs to confirm the mechanisms underlying different clinical manifestations of anxiety. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90)

    OpenAIRE

    Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo GI; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90),...

  13. Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Dry Eye Disease: A Case-Control Study Using the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallak, Joelle A; Tibrewal, Sapna; Jain, Sandeep

    2015-12-01

    To measure depressive symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED) and controls using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and to determine the association between depressive and DED symptoms. Fifty-three patients with DED and 41 controls were recruited to the study. DED symptoms were assessed using the Symptom Burden Tool and Ocular Surface Disease Index tool. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the BDI. Regression diagnostics were performed to detect outliers. Linear statistical models and polynomial regression were used to determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and DED symptoms. An independent t test was performed to determine differences in BDI scores between cases and controls. Scatter plots were generated and linear regression was used to estimate the association between scores. Logistic regression was used for the DED dichotomous outcome and depression status as exposure. Regression models revealed that the association is linear more than quadratic or cubic. After adjusting for age, sex, race, and psychiatric medication, the regression coefficient between DED symptoms and depressive symptoms among DED cases was 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.27-2.18). DED symptom scores and depression scores were statistically significantly different between DED cases and controls. Adjusted logistic regression revealed an odds ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-8.12). This study provides further evidence regarding the association between DED and depression and their symptoms. Prospective studies are needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the association between symptoms of depression and symptoms of DED.

  14. Assessment of private security guards by Suicide Probability Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of suicide probability and relevant sociodemographic features and to provide information for preventing suicide in private security guards working under the stressful conditions and continuous exposure to the negative and traumatic life events. 200 private security guards and 200 personnels of Ankara University participated in the study. A sociodemographic information questionnaire, the Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used to collect the data. Gender, marital status, income, religious beliefs, experiencing a life-threatening situation, history of a suicide attempt, smoking and not having a chronic disease caused statistically significant differences in the scores for SPS between the private security guards group and the controls. Moreover there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the total scores of the subscales of SPS and the total scores of BSI. Like police officers and gendarmes, private security guards are at high risk of committing and attempting suicide because of being at stressful work settings and also suffering from secondary trauma. It is required that they should be aware of their tendency to commit suicide and have regular psychiatric screenings.

  15. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory in Survivors of Torture and Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sumithra S; Rosenfeld, Barry; Rasmussen, Andrew

    2015-12-27

    The United States accepts more refugees than any other industrialized nation. As refugee populations grow, mental health professionals must implement culturally and ethnically appropriate strategies to assess and treat individuals from diverse backgrounds. Culture can exert a powerful and often misunderstood influence on psychological assessment, and few structured measures have been demonstrated to have adequate cross-cultural validity for use with diverse and vulnerable populations such as survivors of torture. This study examined the factor structure and equivalency of underlying construct(s) of psychological distress as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) in three samples who had survived torture and other severe trauma from Tibet, West Africa and the Punjab region of India. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for configural invariance of a two-factor model across the three samples, suggesting that the two latent factors of Complex Dysphoria and Somatic Distress were present in each subgroup. The data provide additional support for the strict invariance model in the West African-Tibetan dyad suggesting that scores are comparable across those two groups. Implications for research and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Association of caregiver demographic variables with neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease patients for distress on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Godinho

    Full Text Available Abstract Behavioral symptoms are frequently observed in Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated to higher distress for patients and caregivers, early institutionalization, worst prognosis and increased care. Objectives: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a sample of Alzheimer's disease patients and to analyze association between caregiver demographic characteristics and patient symptoms. Methods: Sixty Alzheimer's disease patients (NINCDS-ADRDA and their caregivers were consecutively included in the investigation by the Dementia Outpatient clinic of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI was applied to evaluate behavioral symptoms and their impact upon caregivers. Age, sex, educational attainment, relationship to the patient, and time as caregiver were obtained from all caregivers. Results: Apathy was the symptom responsible for the highest distress level, followed by agitation and aggression. A significant correlation between total severity NPI and distress NPI was observed. None of the caregiver demographic data showed association to distress. The most frequent symptoms were apathy and aberrant motor behavior. Patients' relatives also considered apathy as the most severe symptom, followed by depression and agitation. Conclusions: Apathy was the most frequent and severe neuropsychiatric symptom. No relationship between caregiver demographic characteristics and distress was observed.

  17. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  18. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  19. Reliability and predictive validity of a hepatitis-related symptom inventory in HIV-infected individuals referred for Hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachay, Edward R; Wyles, David L; Goicoechea, Miguel; Torriani, Francesca J; Ballard, Craig; Colwell, Bradford; Gish, Robert G; Mathews, William C

    2011-08-10

    We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a hepatitis symptom inventory and to identify predictors of hepatitis C (HCV) treatment initiation in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Prospective clinic based study that enrolled patients referred for HCV therapy consideration. A hepatitis symptom inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were administered to HIV/HCV individuals. The symptom inventory was factor analyzed and subscale reliability estimated with Cronbach's alpha. Predictive validity was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Predictors of HCV treatment were identified using logistic regression. Between April 2008 to July 2010, 126 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were enrolled in the study. Factor analysis using data from 126 patients yielded a three-factor structure explaining 60% of the variance for the inventory. Factor 1 (neuropsychiatric symptoms) had 14 items, factor 2 (somatic symptoms) had eleven items, and factor 3 (sleep symptoms) had two items, explaining 28%, 22% and 11% of the variance, respectively. The three factor subscales demonstrated high intrinsic consistency reliability. GEE modeling of the 32 patients who initiated HCV therapy showed that patients developed worsening neuropsychiatric and somatic symptoms following HCV therapy with stable sleep symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified the following as predictors of HCV therapy initiation: lower HIV log10 RNA, lower scores for neuropsychiatric, somatic and sleep symptoms, lower CES-D scores and white ethnicity. In stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, low neuropsychiatric symptom score was the strongest independent predictor of HCV therapy initiation and HIV log10 RNA was inversely associated with a decision to initiate HCV treatment. A 41-item hepatitis-related symptom inventory was found to have a clinically meaningful 3-factor structure with excellent internal consistency reliability and predictive validity. In

  20. Somatic symptom overlap in Beck Depression Inventory-II scores following myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Pilote, Louise; Dozois, David J. A.; Beck, Aaron T.; Dobson, Keith S.; Fuss, Samantha; de Jonge, Peter; Grace, Sherry L.; Stewart, Donne E.; Ormel, Johan; Abbey, Susan E.

    Background Depression measures that include somatic symptoms may inflate severity estimates among medically ill patients, including those with cardiovascular disease. Aims To evaluate whether people receiving in-patient treatment following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) had higher somatic symptom

  1. Scrupulosity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: confirmatory factor analysis and validity of the Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Abramowitz, Jonathan S; Williams, Nathan L; Connolly, Kevin M; Lohr, Jeffrey M

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined scrupulosity in 352 unselected college students as measured by the 19-item Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS). Confirmatory factor analysis yielded support for a two-factor model of the 19-item PIOS. However, item-level analyses provided preliminary support for the validity of a 15-item PIOS (PIOS-R) secondary to the removal of items 2, 6, 15, and 10. The two domains of scrupulosity identified on the PIOS-R consisted of the Fear of Sin and the Fear of God. Both domains and total scrupulosity scores were strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Scrupulosity also showed significant, but more modest correlations with a broad range of other measures of psychopathology symptoms (i.e., state anxiety, trait anxiety, negative affect, disgust sensitivity, specific fears). However, only obsessive-compulsive symptoms and trait anxiety contributed unique variance to the prediction of scrupulosity. Examination of specific obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions revealed that only obsessions contributed unique positive variance to the prediction of Fear of God. However, OCD obsessions, washing, and hoarding symptoms contributed unique positive variance to the prediction of Fear of Sin. These findings are interpreted in the context of future research elucidating the relationship between scrupulosity and obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions.

  2. Somatic Symptoms among Children and Adolescents in Poland: A Confirmatory Factor Analytic Study of the Children Somatization Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Olaya, Beatriz; Bokszczanin, Anna; Gilvarry, Catherine; Bray, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short version of the Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI-24) in Poland. The CSI-24 is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess somatic symptoms in children and adolescents. A total of 733 children and adolescents, aged 12–17 years, participated in this research. The participants for this study were recruited from urban and suburban schools of Opole province in South Western Poland. In addition to the CSI-24, all participants completed the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The correlated four-factor model that included four-correlated dimensions (pain/weakness, gastrointestinal problems, cardiovascular symptoms, and pseudoneurological problems) showed a better fit compared to the single-factor model. The Cronbach’s Alpha for the CSI-24 was 0.91. Somatic symptoms correlated significantly highly with the SCAS total scores and the SDQ emotional subscale, suggesting good construct validity. Somatic symptoms had low correlation with the SDQ behavioral problems symptoms, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. The CSI-24 reliably measured somatic symptoms in children and adolescents in Poland. PMID:24400299

  3. [Clinical utility and psychometric properties of Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) in acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Gálvez, S; Fernández-Méndez, Laura M; Lozoya-Delgado, Paz

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive, emotional and behavioural alterations secondary to acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias can be quantitatively and quantitatively appraised by administering self-reports that ask both patients and reliable informants about the difficulties patients have in their everyday life. The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) and the Modified Memory Failures in Everyday Life Questionnaire (MFE-30) were administered to 174 paired participants: 87 patients with brain damage or degenerative dementias and their 87 reliable informants. In addition to the psychometric goodness of the tests, the study also explored the clinical usefulness of applying these questionnaires to patients and their informants in order to obtain a rate of discrepancy in the scores as a measure of anosognosia. The results show how applying the PSI-20 (20 items) or the PSI (46 items), whether administered together with the MFE-30 (30 items) or not, is a very useful procedure for assessing the symptoms in individuals with acquired brain injury or degenerative dementias, since it yields a great deal of information about patients' difficulties in their daily life. We recommend that, in addition to the compulsory neuropsychological assessment, questionnaires or inventories of symptoms like those proposed here should be carried out, due to the fact that they offer a number of advantages from the clinical point of view, as well as being efficacious and effective in economic terms.

  4. Examination of categorical approach to symptom assessment: cross-validation of foulds' Delusions-Symptoms-States Inventory with Korean non-patient and patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Kim, Yeni; Chang, Jae Seung; Yun, Da Young; Kim, Yong Sik; Jung, Hee Yeon

    2013-10-08

    Foulds' Delusions-Symptoms-State Inventory (DSSI) has been purported to be a reliable, systematic categorical measure to assess the patients with schizophrenia according to the degree of illness. However, further cross-validations using other clinical measures and diverse samples from other cultures have not been advanced recently. We aimed to examine the validity of the DSSI hierarchical class model using both Korean non-patient and patient (schizophrenia and depression) groups. The hypothesis of inclusive, non-reflexive relationships among the DSSI classes was tested. The power of DSSI to detect presence of symptoms was assessed via cross-validation with other clinical measures, and the differences between the clinical features among the DSSI classes were examined using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The high rate of model conformity (91.1%) across the samples and cross-validation with other criterion measures provided further support for the validity of DSSI. DSSI is a reliable self-report measure that can be applied to both patient and non-patients to assess the presence and severity of psychiatric illness. Future studies that include more diverse clinical groups are necessary to lend further support for its utility in clinical practice.

  5. The Latent Symptom Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Outpatients with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Zhang, K. Anne; Bagby, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) is a self-report instrument frequently used in clinical and research settings to assess depression severity. Although investigators have examined the factor structure of the BDI-II, a clear consensus on the best fitting model has not yet emerged, resulting in different recommendations regarding how to best…

  6. Relationships among victoria symptom validity test indices and personality assessment inventory validity scales in a large clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Kathryn A; Frazier, Thomas W; Busch, Robyn M; Naugle, Richard I

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the relationships among measures of cognitive symptom exaggeration (i.e., response accuracy and response latency) and (2) to examine the relationship between measures of cognitive and psychopathological symptom exaggeration. It was expected that Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) accuracy and latency measures would be significantly correlated, with invalid responders demonstrating longer response latencies. VSVT scores were also expected to correlate significantly with the Negative Impression Management (NIM) and Infrequency (INF) subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). VSVT and PAI data were collected from 300 patients during routine clinical neuropsychological evaluations. Results indicated that VSVT accuracy and latency measures were significantly and moderately correlated, and both types of VSVT scores were significantly, but modestly, related to NIM, but not INF. These findings suggest that VSVT response latencies may supplement accuracy scores in identifying patients who are exerting suboptimal effort on cognitive measures. These findings further suggest that measures of cognitive symptom validity only partially overlap with measures of psychopathological symptom exaggeration.

  7. Original article Exploring somatization types among patients in Indonesia: latent class analysis using the Adult Symptom Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widhiarso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to explore somatization types by reducing patient complaints to their most basic and parsimonious characteristics. We hypothesized that there were latent groups representing distinct types of somatization. Participants and procedure Data were collected from patients undergoing both inpatient and outpatient treatment at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia (N = 212. Results Results from latent class analysis revealed four classes of somatization: two classes (Classes 1 and 2 referring to levels of somatization and two classes (Classes 3 and 4 referring to unique types of somatization. The first two classes (Classes 1 and 2; low and high levels of somatization, respectively corresponded to the number of different symptoms that patients reported out of the list of physical symptoms in the Adult Symptom Inventory. The second two classes (Classes 3 and 4; non-serious and critical complaints, respectively corresponded to two different sets of symptoms. Patients in Class 3 tended to report temporary mild complaints that are common in daily life, such as dizziness, nausea, and stomach pain. Patients in Class 4 tended to report severe complaints and medical problems that require serious treatment or medication, such as deafness or blindness. Conclusions The present study do confirm somatization as a unidimensional experience reflecting a general tendency to report somatic symptoms, but rather support the understanding of somatization as a multidimensional construct.

  8. Neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents with and without obesity and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Gallagher, Paul R; Berkowitz, Robert I; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L

    2015-03-01

    Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Cross-sectional, case control. Sleep Center and community. Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Neurobehavioral evaluation. Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. The neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, E; King, K; A Ahmed; Rudser, K.; Rumsey, R.; Yund, B; Delaney, K.; Nestrasil, I.; C. Whitley; M. Potegal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would mani...

  10. Measurement Properties of the Psoriasis Symptom Inventory Electronic Daily Diary in Patients with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Hema N; Mutebi, Alex; Milmont, Cassandra E; Gordon, Kenneth; Wilson, Hilary; Zhang, Hao; Klekotka, Paul A; Revicki, Dennis A; Augustin, Matthias; Kricorian, Gregory; Nirula, Ajay; Strober, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    The Psoriasis Symptom Inventory (PSI) is a patient-reported outcome instrument that measures the severity of psoriasis signs and symptoms. This study evaluated measurement properties of the PSI in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. This secondary analysis used pooled data from a phase 3 brodalumab clinical trial (AMAGINE-1). Outcome measures included the PSI, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), static Physician's Global Assessment (sPGA), psoriasis-affected body surface area, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The PSI was evaluated for dimensionality, item performance, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct validity, ability to detect change, and agreement between PSI response and response measures based on the PASI, sPGA, and DLQI. Results supported unidimensionality, good item fit, ordered responses, and PSI scoring. The PSI demonstrated reliability: baseline Cronbach's alpha ≥ 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95. Correlations between PSI total score and DLQI item 1 (r = 0.86), DLQI symptoms and feelings (r = 0.87), and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 bodily pain (r = -0.61) supported convergent validity. PSI scores differed significantly (P 10%), and DLQI (≤ 5/> 5) at weeks 8 and 12. At week 12, the PSI detected significant changes in severity based on PASI responses (psoriasis signs and symptoms. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo Gi; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2010-04-13

    Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  12. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  13. Reliability and predictive validity of a hepatitis-related symptom inventory in HIV-infected individuals referred for Hepatitis C treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gish Robert G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of a hepatitis symptom inventory and to identify predictors of hepatitis C (HCV treatment initiation in a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods Prospective clinic based study that enrolled patients referred for HCV therapy consideration. A hepatitis symptom inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D were administered to HIV/HCV individuals. The symptom inventory was factor analyzed and subscale reliability estimated with Cronbach's alpha. Predictive validity was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE. Predictors of HCV treatment were identified using logistic regression. Results Between April 2008 to July 2010, 126 HIV/HCV co-infected patients were enrolled in the study. Factor analysis using data from 126 patients yielded a three-factor structure explaining 60% of the variance for the inventory. Factor 1 (neuropsychiatric symptoms had 14 items, factor 2 (somatic symptoms had eleven items, and factor 3 (sleep symptoms had two items, explaining 28%, 22% and 11% of the variance, respectively. The three factor subscales demonstrated high intrinsic consistency reliability. GEE modeling of the 32 patients who initiated HCV therapy showed that patients developed worsening neuropsychiatric and somatic symptoms following HCV therapy with stable sleep symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified the following as predictors of HCV therapy initiation: lower HIV log10 RNA, lower scores for neuropsychiatric, somatic and sleep symptoms, lower CES-D scores and white ethnicity. In stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, low neuropsychiatric symptom score was the strongest independent predictor of HCV therapy initiation and HIV log10 RNA was inversely associated with a decision to initiate HCV treatment. Conclusions A 41-item hepatitis-related symptom inventory was found to have a clinically meaningful 3-factor structure with excellent

  14. Psychometric properties and normative data for the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in high school and collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Melissa A; McCrea, Michael A; Nelson, Lindsay D

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of emotional functioning is important in sport-related concussion (SRC) management, although few standardized measures have been validated in this population, and appropriate normative data are lacking. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) in high school and collegiate athletes at risk of SRC and compiled normative data. Athletes (n = 2,031) completed the BSI-18 and other measures of concussion symptoms, cognition, and psychological functioning. A subset of healthy individuals was re-evaluated at approximately 7, 30, 45, and 165 days. Psychometric analyses of test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity were performed. Given significant differences between sexes and education levels (high school or college student) on the BSI-18 Global Severity Index and all subscales, normative conversion tables were produced after stratifying by these variables. The BSI-18 showed good internal consistency, fair to poor test-retest reliability, and good convergent validity with other measures of emotional functioning. These data indicate that the BSI-18 may be a valuable measure of emotional state in concussed athletes and may provide unique information beyond post-concussive symptoms for research on the role of psychological factors in SRC recovery. The limited divergent validity of the BSI-18 depression and anxiety scales implies that they tap into general distress more so than specific mood or anxiety symptoms; therefore, BSI-18 scores should be not relied upon for differential diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders. Normative data provided can be readily applied to clinical cases with high school and collegiate athletes.

  15. Neurobehavioral deficits in progressive experimental hydrocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and severity of ventriculomegaly in an experimental neonatal hydrocephalic rat model. Hydrocephalus was induced in three ...

  16. Age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence: the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Klaus; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Tuomisto, Martti T; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri

    2007-12-03

    The aim of the present study was to examine age and gender differences in social anxiety symptoms during adolescence, and to investigate the psychometrics of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) among adolescents. The SPIN was administered to a large general population sample (n=5252) of Finnish adolescents aged 12-16 years. Age and gender trends in scores and internal consistency and factorial composition of the SPIN were examined in this sample. The test-retest reliability of the SPIN was examined in a smaller sample of adolescents (n=802). Results showed that girls scored higher than boys on the SPIN full scale and three subscales across the whole age range. Eighth graders (14- to 15-year-olds) scored higher than seventh and ninth graders on the full scale, for boys the differences were significant. Good test-retest reliability (r=0.81), and internal consistency (alpha=0.89) were found for the SPIN. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) performed on a random half (n=2625) of the population sample yielded a one-factor model accounting for 38% of the variance between items. This one-factor model, plus an alternative three-factor model, were examined in the holdout half of the population sample (n=2627) by means of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Some support was gained for both factor structures. Our results indicate that symptoms of social phobia may increase in mid-adolescence. The SPIN appears to be a reliable self-report instrument among adolescents.

  17. Children' Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Psychometric Properties and Feasibility of a Self-Report Measure of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Khanna, Muniya; Merlo, Lisa J.; Loew, Benjamin A.; Franklin, Martin; Reid, Jeannette M.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the development and psychometric properties of the Children's Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory (C-FOCI). Designed specifically as a brief measure for assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the C-FOCI was created for use in both clinical and community settings. Study 1 included 82 children and adolescents diagnosed…

  18. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  19. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory : Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  20. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 in Women: A MACS Approach to Testing for Invariance across Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Chen, Vincent; Windle, Michael; Elliott, Marc N.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kanouse, David E.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from 3 sites to examine the invariance and psychometric characteristics of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 across Black, Hispanic, and White mothers of 5th graders (N = 4,711; M = 38.07 years of age, SD = 7.16). Internal consistencies were satisfactory for all subscale scores of the instrument regardless of ethnic group…

  1. Psychometric analysis of the brief symptom inventory 18 (BSI-18 in a representative German sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Helga Franke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The BSI-18 contains the three six-item scales somatization, depression, and anxiety as well as the Global Severity Index (GSI, including all 18 items. The BSI-18 is the latest and shortest of the multidimensional versions of the Symptom-Checklist 90-R, but its psychometric properties have not been sufficiently clarified yet. Methods Based on a representative sample of N = 2516 participants (aged 14–94 years, detailed psychometric analyses were carried out. Results The internal consistency was good: Somatization α = .82, Depression α = .87, Anxiety α = .84 and GSI α = .93. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the three scales as second-order and GSI as first-order factors. The model fit based on RMSEA is good but that model fit based on CFI and TLI are too low. Conclusions Therefore, it is a very short, reliable instrument for the assessment of psychological distress. The BSI-18 can be used to reliably assess psychological distress in the general population. However, further studies need to evaluate the usefulness of standardization in clinical samples.

  2. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Crameri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45 and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N=5711 and one outpatient sample (N=239 were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  3. Rewards of bridging the divide between measurement and clinical theory: demonstration of a bifactor model for the Brief Symptom Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L

    2012-03-01

    There is growing evidence that psychiatric disorders maintain hierarchical associations where general and domain-specific factors play prominent roles (see D. Watson, 2005). Standard, unidimensional measurement models can fail to capture the meaningful nuances of such complex latent variable structures. The present study examined the ability of the multidimensional item response theory bifactor model (see R. D. Gibbons & D. R. Hedeker, 1992) to improve construct validity by serving as a bridge between measurement and clinical theories. Archival data consisting of 688 outpatients' psychiatric diagnoses and item-level responses to the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI; L. R. Derogatis, 1993) were extracted from files at a university mental health clinic. The bifactor model demonstrated superior fit for the internal structure of the BSI and improved overall diagnostic accuracy in the sample (73%) compared with unidimensional (61%) and oblique simple structure (65%) models. Consistent with clinical theory, multiple sources of item variance were drawn from individual test items. Test developers and clinical researchers are encouraged to consider model-based measurement in the assessment of psychiatric distress.

  4. [Assessment of severity of depressive symptoms using the Polish version IA of Beck Depression Inventory in healthy men, inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopuszańska, Monika; Szklarska, Alicja; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by progression of depressive symptoms, which significantly impair the prognosis and quality of life of elderly men. Currently, there are no Polish reference values reflecting age-related changes in the intensity of depressive symptoms in healthy men. An assessment of the severity of depressive symptoms in a population of healthy Polish men, and an evaluation of the effects of age and education on the analyzed variables. We examined 341 healthy men, inhabitants of Wroclaw, aged 32-79, without any significant medical history. The intensity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Polish version IA of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We observed an increase in the severity of depressive symptoms in the subsequent age categories in the examined men, in all the analyzed symptoms (32-45, 46-55, 56-65, 66-79 years--4.1 +/- 4.4, 8.2 +/- 4.2, 10.4+/- 3.6, 13.4 +/- 3.4 points, respectively, r = 0.65, p or = 10 and depression (BDI > or = 20 and depressive symptoms in the examined men (p > 0.2). In Poland, male aging is accompanied by an increase in the severity of depressive symptoms. Age, but not education, constitutes a major determinant of these symptoms. The presented data may be used as reference values for BDI scores of healthy Polish men in subsequent age categories.

  5. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pmemory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions

  6. The association between bodily anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    to the general severity factor. Structural equation modeling of data on 120 patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and 207 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder was used to examine the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Temperament and Character...

  7. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran P; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can result in significant impairments in daytime neurobehavioral functioning in children. Neural substrates impacted by sleep deprivation include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and amygdala and result in difficulties with executive functioning, reward anticipation and emotional reactivity respectively. In everyday life, such difficulties contribute to academic struggles, challenging behaviors and public health concerns of substance abuse and suicidality. In this article, we aim to review 1) core neural structures impacted by sleep deprivation; 2) neurobehavioral problems associated with sleep deprivation; 3) specific mechanisms that may explain the relationship between sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral dysfunction; and 4) sleep problems reported in common neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Older Veterans With Remote Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Carrie B; Gardner, Raquel C; Kenney, Kimbra; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Kramer, Joel H; Yaffe, Kristine

    While traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common across the life span, the detailed neurobehavioral characteristics of older adults with prior TBI remain unclear. Our goal was to compare the clinical profile of older independently living veterans with and without prior TBI. Two veterans' retirement communities. Seventy-five participants with TBI and 71 without (mean age = 78 years). Cross-sectional. TBI history was determined by the Ohio State University TBI Questionnaire. We assessed psychiatric and medical history via interviews and chart review and conducted measures assessing functional/lifestyle, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. Regression analyses (adjusted for demographics, diabetes, prior depression, substance abuse, and site) were performed to compare between TBI and non-TBI participants. Compared with veterans without TBI, those with TBI had greater functional impairment (adjusted P = .05), endorsed more current depressive (adjusted P = .04) and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (adjusted P = .01), and had higher rates of prior depression and substance abuse (both adjusted Ps < .01). While composite memory and language scores did not differ between groups, participants with TBI performed worse on tests of executive functioning/processing speed (adjusted P = .01). Our results suggest that TBI may have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences and that TBI-exposed adults may require careful screening and follow-up.

  9. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  10. Burnout and depressive symptoms in teachers: Factor structure and construct validity of the Maslach Burnout inventory-educators survey among elementary and secondary school teachers in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szigeti, Réka; Balázs, Noémi; Bikfalvi, Réka; Urbán, Róbert

    2017-12-01

    This study validated the Hungarian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey on a sample of n = 211 elementary and secondary teachers. To test factorial validity, we ran a series of confirmatory analysis with eight models. The best fitting model was the bifactor model with general burnout and three specific factors: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Analyzing the covariates revealed that gender and age were not associated with burnout, but depressive symptoms and overcommitment had a significant relationship with general burnout, and overcommitment was related to emotional exhaustion as well. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  12. Symptom reporting on the Beck Depression Inventory among post-myocardial infarction patients: in-hospital versus follow-up assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Vanessa C; Arthurs, Erin; Abbey, Susan E; Grace, Sherry L; Stewart, Donna E; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Thombs, Brett D

    2012-11-01

    Depressive symptoms following myocardial infarction (MI) are often assessed using self-report questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No studies have examined whether depressive symptom scores assessed by self-report questionnaires during hospitalization post-MI are influenced by factors related to the acute event or hospitalization compared to subsequent outpatient assessments of the same patients. The objective of this study was to compare BDI total scores, somatic scores, and cognitive/affective scores among post-MI patients in-hospital versus at post-discharge follow-up. Secondary analysis of data from two existing cohorts of post-MI patients (Groningen, The Netherlands and Toronto, Canada). In-hospital BDI scores and follow-up scores were compared using paired samples t-tests. There were 1556 patients from the Groningen sample with BDI data in-hospital and at 3-months post-MI and 229 patients from Toronto with data in-hospital and at 6-months post-MI. BDI total, somatic, and cognitive/affective scores did not differ significantly between in-hospital and follow-up assessments in either sample. Similarly, there were no substantive differences in symptom composition in either sample. Somatic symptoms accounted for 66.3% of total BDI scores in-hospital versus 64.9% at 3-months post-MI for Groningen patients and for 62.1% of total scores in-hospital versus 64.3% at 6-months post-MI for Toronto patients. Overall BDI total scores, somatic scores, and cognitive/affective scores did not differ between in-hospital and subsequent outpatient assessments. The timing of when depressive symptoms are assessed post-MI does not appear to influence the overall level of BDI scores or the composition of symptoms that are reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Joseph F.; Balachova, Tatiana; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Chasnoff, Ira; Dang, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Kable, Julie; Kosofsky, Barry; Senturias, Yasmin N.; Singh, Natasha; Sloane, Mark; Weitzman, Carol; Zubler, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities. In addition, brief guidance is provided on the management of affected children in the pediatric medical home. Finally, suggestions are given for obtaining prenatal history of in utero exposure to alcohol for the pediatric patient. PMID:27677572

  14. Screening for depressive symptoms among HCV-infected injection drug users: examination of the utility of the CES-D and the Beck Depression Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Elizabeth T; Latka, Mary; Hagan, Holly; Havens, Jennifer R; Hudson, Sharon M; Kapadia, Farzana; Campbell, Jennifer V; Garfein, Richard S; Thomas, David L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of depression is high among injection drug users (IDUs) and among those infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Moreover, one of the drugs used in the standard treatment for HCV infection (interferon) has been known to exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders such as depression and has been associated with the development of major depressive disorder among HCV-infected patients. For these reasons, the most recent National Institutes of Health consensus statement on the management of HCV infection recommends the identification and treatment of depression prior to the start of HCV treatment. This study aimed to examine the extent of current moderate/severe depressive symptoms in a cohort of HCV-infected IDUs as measured by two screening tools, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Subjects were participants in a multisite behavioral intervention trial among HCV-seropositive, human immunodeficiency virus-negative IDUs aged 18-35 years; the trial was designed to prevent secondary transmission of HCV and to enhance uptake of HCV treatment. Baseline data on demographics, risk behaviors, depression, alcohol use, and health care utilization were measured via audio computer-assisted self-interview. A factor analysis was conducted on each scale to examine the clustering of items used in each to measure depressive symptoms. Baseline depressive symptoms, as measured via the CES-D and the BDI, were also compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Of 193 HCV-infected individuals enrolled to date, 75.6% were male, and 65.3% were white. Median age was 25.8 years. Factor analyses revealed that these scales measured depression differently; a distinct somatic component was present in the BDI, but not the CES-D. Using cutoff scores of 23 for the CES-D and 19 for the BDI, 44.0% and 41.5% of the participants were identified as having moderate/severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Over half

  15. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a normative Chinese sample of youth: prevalence, symptom dimensions, and factor structure of the Leyton Obsessional Inventory--Child Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Boschen, Mark J; Farrell, Lara J; Buys, Nicholas; Li, Zhan-Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Chinese adolescents face life stresses from multiple sources, with higher levels of stress predictive of adolescent mental health outcomes, including in the area of obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Valid assessment of OCD among this age group is therefore a critical need in China. This study aims to standardise the Chinese version of the Leyton short version scale for adolescents of secondary schools in order to assess this condition. Stratified randomly selected adolescents were selected from four high schools located in Beijing, China. The Chinese version of the Leyton scale was administered to 3221 secondary school students aged between 12 and 18 years. A high response rate was achieved, with 3185 adolescents responding to the survey (98.5 percent). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) extracted four factors from the scale: compulsive thoughts, concerns of cleanliness, lucky number, repetitiveness and repeated checking. The four-factor structures were confirmed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Overall the four-factor structure had a good model fit and high levels of reliability for each individual dimension and reasonable content validity. Invariance analyses in unconstrained, factor loading, and error variance models demonstrated that the Leyton scale is invariant in relation to the presence or absence OCD, age and gender. Discriminant validity analysis demonstrated that the four-factor structure scale also had excellent ability to differentiate between OCD and non-OCD students, male and female students, and age groups. The dataset was a non-clinical sample of high school students, rather than a sample of individuals with OCD. Future research may examine symptom structure in clinical populations to assess whether this structure fits into both clinical and community population. The structure derived from the Leyton short version scale in a non-clinical secondary school sample of adolescents, suggests that a four-factor solution can be utilised as a

  16. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. Maternal buprenorphine treatment and fetal neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Tuten, Michelle; Jones, Hendree E; King, Van L; Gandotra, Neeraj; Milio, Lorraine A; Voegtline, Kristin; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-05-01

    Gestational opioid use/misuse is escalating in the United States; however, little is understood about the fetal effects of medications used to treat maternal opioid use disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal buprenorphine administration on longitudinal fetal neurobehavioral development. Forty-nine buprenorphine-maintained women who attended a substance use disorder treatment facility with generally uncomplicated pregnancies underwent fetal monitoring for 60 minutes at times of trough and peak maternal buprenorphine levels. Data were collected at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Fetal neurobehavioral indicators (ie, heart rate, motor activity, and their integration [fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling]) were collected via an actocardiograph, digitized and quantified. Longitudinal data analysis relied on hierarchic linear modeling. Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate accelerations were significantly reduced at peak vs trough maternal buprenorphine levels. Effects were significant either by or after 28 weeks gestation and tended to intensify with advancing gestation. Fetal motor activity and fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling were depressed from peak to trough at 36 weeks gestation. Polysubstance exposure did not significantly affect fetal neurobehavioral parameters, with the exception that fetuses of heavier smokers moved significantly less than those of lighter smokers at 36 weeks gestation. By the end of gestation, higher maternal buprenorphine dose was related to depression of baseline fetal cardiac measures at trough. Maternal buprenorphine administration has acute suppressive effects on fetal heart rate and movement, and the magnitude of these effects increases as gestation progresses. Higher dose (≥13 mg) appears to exert greater depressive effects on measures of fetal heart rate and variability. These findings should be balanced against comparisons to gestational methadone effects

  18. Prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in patients treated for childhood craniopharyngioma: a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zada

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas (CP are locally invasive and frequently recurring neoplasms often resulting in neurological and endocrinological dysfunction in children. In addition, social-behavioral impairment is commonly reported following treatment for childhood CP, yet remains to be fully understood. The authors aimed to further characterize the prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, and emotional dysfunction in survivors of childhood craniopharyngiomas.A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed to identify studies formally assessing neurobehavioral, social, and emotional outcomes in patients treated for CP prior to 18 years of age. Studies published between the years 1990-2012 that reported the primary outcome (prevalence of neurobehavioral, social, emotional/affective dysfunction, and/or impaired quality of life (QoL in ≥ 10 patients were included.Of the 471 studies screened, 11 met inclusion criteria. Overall neurobehavioral dysfunction was reported in 51 of 90 patients (57% with available data. Social impairment (i.e. withdrawal, internalizing behavior was reported in 91 of 222 cases (41%. School dysfunction was reported in 48 of 136 patients (35%. Emotional/affective dysfunction was reported in 58 of 146 patients (40%, primarily consisting of depressive symptoms. Health related quality of life was affected in 49 of 95 patients (52%. Common descriptors of behavior in affected children included irritability, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and emotional outbursts.Neurobehavioral, social, and emotional impairment is highly prevalent in survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, and often affects quality of life. Thorough neurobehavioral/emotional screening and appropriate counseling is recommended in this population. Additional research is warranted to identify risk factors and treatment strategies for these disorders.

  19. Exploring the sensitivity of the Personality Assessment Inventory symptom validity tests in detecting response bias in a mixed neuropsychological outpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasedelen, Owen J; Whiteside, Douglas M; Basso, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have evaluated the symptom validity tests (SVTs) within the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a neuropsychological assessment context. Accordingly, the present study explored the accuracy of PAI SVTs in identifying exaggerated cognitive dysfunction in a mixed sample of outpatients referred for neuropsychological assessment. Participants who failed two or more Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) were classified as having exaggerated cognitive dysfunction (n = 49). Their responses on PAI SVTs were compared to examinees who did not fail PVTs (n = 257). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated the Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale most strongly discriminated between those with exaggerated cognitive dysfunction from honest responders (Cohen's d = .58). Nonetheless, its classification accuracy was low (area under the curve [AUC] = .65). A k-means cluster analysis and a subsequent multinomial logistic regression indicated evidence for two distinct groups of exaggerators. In particular, one group seemed to exaggerate symptoms, whereas another presented in a defensive manner, implying that individuals with positive and NIM biases on the PAI were apt to display invalid performance on PVTs. Findings indicated that exaggerated cognitive dysfunction tends to be present when NIM is very high and that evidence exists for a defensive response style on the PAI in the context of PVT failure.

  20. Symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy are not determined by activity pacing when measured by the chronic pain coping inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D P; Antcliff, D; Woby, S R

    2017-08-04

    Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalopathy (CFS/ME) is a chronic illness which can cause significant fatigue, pain and disability. Activity pacing is frequently advocated as a beneficial coping strategy, however, it is unclear whether pacing is significantly associated with symptoms in people with CFS/ME. The first aim of this study was therefore to explore the cross-sectional associations between pacing and levels of pain, disability and fatigue. The second aim was to explore whether changes in activity pacing following participation in a symptom management programme were related to changes in clinical outcomes. Cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between pacing, pain, disability and fatigue (n=114) and pre-post treatment longitudinal study of a cohort of patients participating in a symptom management programme (n=35). Out-patient physiotherapy CFS/ME service. One-hundred and fourteen adult patients with CFS/ME. Pacing was assessed using the chronic pain coping inventory. Pain was measured using a Numeric Pain Rating Scale, fatigue with the Chalder Fatigue Scale and disability with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. No significant associations were observed between activity pacing and levels of pain, disability or fatigue. Likewise, changes in pacing were not significantly associated with changes in pain, disability or fatigue following treatment. Activity pacing does not appear to be a significant determinant of pain, fatigue or disability in people with CFS/ME when measured with the chronic pain coping index. Consequently, the utility and measurement of pacing require further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptoms and Cognitive Effects of Exposure to Magnetic Stray Fields of MRI Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Frank Gérard de

    2006-01-01

    People working routinely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems report a number of symptoms related to their presence in the inhomogeneous static magnetic fields (the stray field) surrounding these scanners. Experienced symptoms and neurobehavioral performance among engineers manufacturing

  2. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory as related factor for post traumatic stress disorder symptoms according to job stress level in experienced firefighters: 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In-Sung; Lee, Mi-Young; Jung, Sung-Won; Nam, Chang-Wook

    2015-01-01

    As first responders to an increasing number of natural and manmade disasters, active-duty firefighters are at increased risk for physical and psychiatric impairment as reflected by high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because little is known about related factor with PTSD according to job stress level among firefighters, we assessed utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) using 5-year medical surveillance. Data were analyzed from 185 male firefighters without psychiatric disease history and who at assessments in 2006 and 2011 completed all questionnaires on personal behaviors (including exercise, drinking and smoking habits) and job history (including job duration and department). MMPI, Events Scale-Revised-Korean version (IES-R-K) and Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF) were used to screen for personality trait, PTSD symptom presence and job stress level, respectively. IES-R-K subgroups were compared using two-sample t- and χ2 tests, and factors influencing IES-R-K according to KOSS-SF were determined using uni- and multivariate logistic regression. Mean age and job duration were higher in PTSD-positive than negative groups. In multivariate analysis, increased PTSD risk was associated with: job duration (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.064, 95 % CI 1.012-1.118) for firefighters overall; masculinity-femininity (OR = 5.304, 95 % CI 1.191-23.624) and job duration (OR = 1.126, 95 % CI 1.003-1.265) for lower job stress level; and social introversion (OR = 3.727, 95 % CI 1.096-12.673) for higher job stress level. MMPI relates with PTSD according to job stress level among experienced firefighters. Masculinity-femininity and social introversion were the strongest related factor for PTSD symptom development in low and high job stress levels, respectively.

  3. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Parkinsonism in Occupations with Manganese Exposure: A Review of Methodological Issues in the Epidemiological Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to manganese (Mn is associated with neurobehavioral effects. There is disagreement on whether commonly occurring exposures in welding, ferroalloy, and other industrial processes produce neurologically significant neurobehavioral changes representing parkinsonism. A review of methodological issues in the human epidemiological literature on Mn identified: (1 studies focused on idiopathic Parkinson disease without considering manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome; (2 studies with healthy worker effect bias; (3 studies with problematic statistical modeling; and (4 studies arising from case series derived from litigation. Investigations with adequate study design and exposure assessment revealed consistent neurobehavioral effects and attributable subclinical and clinical signs and symptoms of impairment. Twenty-eight studies show an exposure-response relationship between Mn and neurobehavioral effects, including 11 with continuous exposure metrics and six with three or four levels of contrasted exposure. The effects of sustained low-concentration exposures to Mn are consistent with the manifestations of early manganism, i.e., consistent with parkinsonism. This is compelling evidence that Mn is a neurotoxic chemical and there is good evidence that Mn exposures far below the current US standard of 5.0 mg/m3 are causing impairment.

  4. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnaghi, Silvia; Rezzani, Cristiana; Gnesi, Marco; Manfrin, Marco; Quaglieri, Silvia; Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Versino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients' self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach's coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test-retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  5. A pilot study on the Chinese Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders: Simulators classified by using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ting; Tam, Wai-Cheong C; Shiah, Yung-Jong; Chiang, Shih-Kuang

    2017-09-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) is often used in forensic psychological/psychiatric assessment. This was a pilot study on the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders. The sample consisted of 194 university students who were either simulators (informed or uninformed) or controls. All the participants were administered the Chinese MMPI-2 and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms-2 (SIRS-2). The results of the SIRS-2 were utilized to classify the participants into the feigning or control groups. The effectiveness of eight detection indices was investigated by using item analysis, multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results indicated that informed-simulating participants with prior knowledge of mental disorders did not perform better in avoiding feigning detection than uninformed-simulating participants. In addition, the eight detection indices of the Chinese MMPI-2 were effective in discriminating participants in the feigning and control groups, and the best cut-off scores of three of the indices were higher than those obtained from the studies using the English MMPI-2. Thus, in this sample of university students, the utility of the Chinese MMPI-2 in detecting feigned mental disorders was tentatively supported, and the Chinese Infrequency Scale (ICH), a scale developed specifically for the Chinese MMPI-2, was also supported as a valid scale for validity checking. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Colnaghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ, and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit.

  7. Validation of the Italian Version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire, and the Activity-Specific Balance Confidence Scale for Peripheral and Central Vestibular Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnaghi, Silvia; Rezzani, Cristiana; Gnesi, Marco; Manfrin, Marco; Quaglieri, Silvia; Nuti, Daniele; Mandalà, Marco; Monti, Maria Cristina; Versino, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Neurophysiological measurements of the vestibular function for diagnosis and follow-up evaluations provide an objective assessment, which, unfortunately, does not necessarily correlate with the patients’ self-feeling. The literature provides many questionnaires to assess the outcome of rehabilitation programs for disequilibrium, but only for the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) is an Italian translation available, validated on a small group of patients suffering from a peripheral acute vertigo. We translated and validated the reliability and validity of the DHI, the Situational Vertigo Questionnaire (SVQ), and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC) in 316 Italian patients complaining of dizziness due either to a peripheral or to a central vestibular deficit, or in whom vestibular signs were undetectable by means of instrumental testing or clinical evaluation. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, the homogeneity index, and test–retest reproducibility, confirmed reliability of the Italian version of the three questionnaires. Validity was confirmed by correlation test between questionnaire scores. Correlations with clinical variables suggested that they can be used as a complementary tool for the assessment of vestibular symptoms. In conclusion, the Italian versions of DHI, SVQ, and ABC are reliable and valid questionnaires for assessing the impact of dizziness on the quality of life of Italian patients with peripheral or central vestibular deficit. PMID:29066999

  8. Longitudinal study on potential neurotoxic effects of aluminium: II. Assessment of exposure and neurobehavioral performance of Al welders in the automobile industry over 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, M; Buchta, M; Schaller, K H; Rossbach, B; Kraus, T; Letzel, S

    2009-11-01

    This is the second of two parallel longitudinal studies investigating Al exposure and neurobehavioral health of Al welders over 4 years. While the first published study in the trail and truck construction industry examined the neurobehavioral development of Al welders from age 41-45 in the group mean (Kiesswetter et al. in Int Arch Occup Environ Health 81:41-67, 2007), the present study in the automobile industry followed the development from 35 to 39. Although no conspicuous neurobehavioral developments were detected in the first study, which furthermore exhibited the higher exposure, it cannot be excluded that exposure effects appear in earlier life and exposure stages. The longitudinal study is based on a repeated measurement design comprising 4 years with three measurements in 2 years intervals. 92 male Al welders in the automobile industry were compared with 50 non-exposed construction workers of the same industry and of similar age. The repeated measurements included total dust in air, and Al pre- and post-shift plasma and urine samples. Neurobehavioral methods comprised symptoms, verbal intelligence, logic thinking, psychomotor behavior, memory, and attention. The computer aided tests came from the Motor Performance Series and the European Neurobehavioral Evaluation System. The courses of neurobehavioral changes were analyzed with multivariate covariance-analytical methods considering the covariates age, indicators of 'a priori' intelligence differences (education or markers of 'premorbid' intelligence), and alcohol consumption (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in plasma). Additionally, the interrelationship, reliability and validity of biomonitoring measures were examined. The mean environmental dust load during welding, 0.5-0.8 mg/m(3), and the mean internal load of the welders (pre-shift: 23-43 microg Al/g creatinine in urine; 5-9 microg Al/l plasma) were significantly lower than in the parallel study. Under low exposure, the stability of biomonitoring

  9. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Clinical Significance of Cerebrovascular Biomarkers and White Matter Tract Integrity in Alzheimer Disease: Clinical correlations With Neurobehavioral Data in Cross-Sectional and After 18 Months Follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Lu, Yan-Ting; Huang, Chi-Wei; Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Nai-Ching; Lui, Chun-Chung; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lee, Chen-Chang; Chang, Ya-Ting; Chen, Sz-Fan; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors and white matter (WM) damage lead to worse cognitive performance in Alzheimer dementia (AD). This study investigated WM microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild to moderate AD and investigated specific fiber tract involvement with respect to predefined cerebrovascular risk factors and neurobehavioral data prediction cross-sectionally and after 18 months. To identify the primary pathoanatomic relationships of risk biomarkers to fiber tract integrity, we predefined 11 major association tracts and calculated tract specific fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Eighty-five patients with AD underwent neurobehavioral assessments including the minimental state examination (MMSE) and 12-item neuropsychiatric inventory twice with a 1.5-year interval to represent major outcome factors. In the cross-sectional data, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, vitamin B12, and homocysteine levels correlated variably with WM FA values. After entering the biomarkers and WM FA into a regression model to predict neurobehavioral outcomes, only fiber tract FA or homocysteine level predicted the MMSE score, and fiber tract FA or age predicted the neuropsychiatric inventory total scores and subdomains of apathy, disinhibition, and aberrant motor behavior. In the follow-up neurobehavioral data, the mean global FA value predicted the MMSE and aberrant motor behavior subdomain, while age predicted the anxiety and elation subdomains. Cerebrovascular risk biomarkers may modify WM microstructural organization, while the association with fiber integrity showed greater clinical significance to the prediction of neurobehavioral outcomes both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

  11. Minimal Clinically Important Difference of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) for Fatigue Worsening in Asian Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alexandre; Yo, Tiffany Eri; Wang, Xiao Jun; Ng, Terence; Chae, Jung-Woo; Yeo, Hui Ling; Shwe, Maung; Gan, Yan Xiang

    2017-10-30

    The Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) of the Multidimensional Fatigue Symptom Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF), a questionnaire that measures cancer-related fatigue (CRF), has not been established in patients with cancer. This study aims to determine the MCID of the MFSI-SF. Breast cancer patients completed the MFSI-SF and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC-QLQ-C30) pre-chemotherapy and at least three weeks later. The EORTC-QLQ-C30 fatigue scale (EORTC-FA) was used as an anchor, and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also utilized to identify the optimal MCID cut-off for fatigue deterioration. A distribution-based approach used one-third of the standard deviation (SD), half of the SD and one standard error of measurement (SEM) of the total MFSI-SF score to determine the MCID. A total of 201 patients were analyzed. Change scores of the MFSI-SF and EORTC-FA were moderately correlated (r=0.47, PMCID was 8.69 points (95% confidence interval: 4.03-13.34). The MCID attained from the ROC curve method was 4.50 points (sensitivity: 68.8%; specificity: 64.1%). For the distribution-based approach, the MCIDs corresponding to one-third of the SD, half of the SD and one SEM were 5.39, 8.99 and 10.79 points, respectively. The MCID of the MFSI-SF identified by all approaches ranged from 4.50-10.79 points. The MCID can be used to interpret the clinical significance of fatigue deterioration in patients with breast cancer and to determine sample sizes for future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100 exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2009-01-01

    Patients exposed at home to molds and mycotoxins and those exposed to chemicals (CE) have many similar symptoms of eye, nose, and throat irritation and poor memory, concentration, and other neurobehavioral dysfunctions. To compare the neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with indoor exposures to mold and to chemicals. 105 consecutive adults exposed to molds (ME) indoors at home and 100 patients exposed to other chemicals were compared to 202 community referents without mold or chemical exposure. To assess brain functions, we measured 26 neurobehavioral functions. Medical and exposure histories, mood states score, and symptoms frequencies were obtained. Vital capacity and flows were measured by spirometry. Groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) after adjusting for age, educational attainment, and sex, by calculating predicted values (observed/predicted x 100 = % predicted). And p mold had a total of 6.1 abnormalities and those exposed to chemicals had 7.1 compared to 1.2 abnormalities in referents. Compared to referents, the exposed groups had balance decreased, longer reaction times, and blink reflex latentcies lengthened. Also, color discrimination errors were increased and visual field performances and grip strengths were reduced. The cognitive and memory performance measures were abnormal in both exposed groups. Culture Fair scores, digit symbol substitution, immediate and delayed verbal recall, picture completion, and information were reduced. Times for peg-placement and trail making A and B were increased. One difference was that chemically exposed patients had excess fingertip number writing errors, but the mold-exposed did not. Mood State scores and symptom frequencies were greater in both exposed groups than in referents. Vital capacities were reduced in both groups. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with exposures to indoor molds and mycotoxins were not different from those with various chemical exposures.

  13. The Neurobehavioral Phenotype in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, E; King, K; Ahmed, A; Rudser, K; Rumsey, R; Yund, B; Delaney, K; Nestrasil, I; Whitley, C; Potegal, M

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would manifest similar attributes when assessed with the same neurobehavioral protocol. Ten patients with MPS IIIB were compared with 9 MPS IIIA patients, all older than 6. 8 younger children with Hurler syndrome (1H) were chosen as a comparison group for the Risk Room procedure; MPS IH does not directly affect social/emotional function and these younger children were closer to the developmental level of the MPS IIIB group. To examine disease severity, cognitive ability was assessed. Four evaluations were used: the Risk Room procedure (to measure social-emotional characteristics, especially fear and startle responses), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), and amygdala brain volumes calculated from manually-traced MRI images. The two groups are equivalent in severity and show severe cognitive impairment. On the ADOS, the MPS IIIB patients exhibited the same autistic features as IIIA. The IIIB means differed from MPS IH means on most measures. However, the IIIB group did not approach the Risk Room stranger, like the MPS IH group who kept their distance, but unlike the IIIA group who showed no fear of the stranger. On the SBRS, the MPS IIIB patients were described as more inattentive and more fearful, especially of new people than the MPS IIIA. Onsets of some disease characteristics appeared more closely spaced and slightly earlier in MPS IIIB than IIIA. On most behavioral measures, MPS IIIB patients did not differ substantially from MPS IIIA

  14. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  15. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  16. Neurobehavioral toxicity of carbon nanotubes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamine, Babak; Karimi, Isaac; Salimi, Amir; Mazdarani, Parisa; Becker, Lora A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neurobehavioral toxicity of single-walled (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in mice. Male NMRI mice were randomized into 5 groups ( n = 10 each): Normal control (NC) group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.8; ca. 1 mL), MW80 and MW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS and SW80 and SW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS. After 2 weeks, five mice from each group were evaluated for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA expression and protein content of brain tissues. Locomotion, anxiety, learning and memory, and depression were measured by open field test (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), object recognition test (ORT), and forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Ambulation time and center arena time in the OFT did not change among groups. In the EPM paradigm, SWNTs (800 mg kg-1) and MWNTs (80 and 800 mg kg-1) showed an anxiogenic effect. In ORT, MWNTs (80 mg kg-1) increased the discrimination ratio while in FST, MWNTs showed a depressant effect as compared to vehicle. The BDNF gene expression in mice treated with 80 and 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs or 80 mg kg-1 MWNTs decreased as compared to NC mice although BDNF gene expression increased in mice that were treated with 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs. The whole brain BDNF protein content did not change among groups. Our study showed that i.p. exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may result in behavioral toxicity linked with expression of depression or anxiety that depends on the type of CNTs. In addition, exposure to CNTs changed BDNF gene expression.

  17. Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  18. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  19. Resilience and symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury in military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Victoria C; Lange, Rael T; French, Louis M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between resilience and symptom reporting following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). It was hypothesized that, as resilience increases, self-reported symptoms would decrease. Cross-sectional design. Participants were 142 US military service members who sustained a mTBI, divided into three resilience groups based on participants' responses on the Response to Stressful Experiences Scale: Moderate (n = 42); High (n = 51); and Very High (n = 49). Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) within 12 months following injury. There were significant main effects for the NSI total score, cognitive cluster and affective cluster, as well as for the PCL-C total score, avoidance cluster and hyperarousal cluster. Pairwise comparisons revealed that there was a negative relationship between resilience and self-reported symptoms overall. Specifically, participants with higher resilience reported fewer post-concussion and PTSD-related symptoms than participants with lower levels of resilience. These findings underscore the important role that resilience plays in symptom expression in military service members with mTBI and suggest that research on targeted interventions to increase resilience in the acute phase following injury is indicated.

  20. Myrtle McGraw's Neurobehavioral Theory of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that McGraw conducted a more complex analysis of neurobehavior than acknowledged by those characterizing her position as maturationist; that she advanced a unique analysis of brain development and consciousness, singling out the reciprocal relationship between neural growth processes and early experience; and that her studies of the role…

  1. Neurobehavioral and histological effects of Akaki extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neurobehavioral and histological effect of akaki extract on the temporal lobe of wister rats was carried out. In the study we evaluate a traditional prescription method for the treatment of mental illness using the akaki extract on the temporal lobe. Material and Methods: Twenty rats of average weight 200 g were ...

  2. Neurobehavioral effects of cyclohexane in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The neurobehavioral effects of inhaled cyclohexane in rats and humans are investigated to define relationships between internal doses and acute central nervous system effects. Rats are exposed for 3 consecutive days at target concentrations of 0, 1.4, 8, and 28 g/m3, 8 h/d. Measurements include

  3. Early life bisphenol A exposure and neurobehavior at 8years of age: Identifying windows of heightened vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Early life BPA exposure could affect neurobehavior, but few studies have investigated whether there are developmental periods when the fetus or child is more vulnerable to these potential effects. We explored windows of vulnerability to BPA exposure in a multiethnic cohort of 228 mothers and their children from Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at up to two prenatal and six postnatal time points from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until the child was age 8years. At age 8years, we administered the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in composite scores from each instrument using a multiple informant model designed to identify heightened windows of vulnerability. Among all children, there was not strong evidence that the associations between BPA and neurobehavior varied by the timing of exposure (Visit x BPA p-values≥0.16). However, child sex modified the associations of repeated BPA measures with BASC-2 scores (Visit x Sex x BPA p-values=0.02-0.23). For example, each 10-fold increase in prenatal BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in girls (β=6.2, 95% CI: 0.8, 11.6), but not boys (β=-0.8, 95% CI: -5.0, 3.4). In contrast, a 10-fold increase in 8-year BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.2), but not girls (β=0.3, 95% CI: -3.5, 4.1). We found that sex-dependent associations between BPA and child neurobehavior may depend on the timing of BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  5. Postconcussion Symptom Reporting After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Female Service Members: Impact of Gender, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Severity of Injury, and Associated Bodily Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Sara M; Brickell, Tracey A; Bailie, Jason M; French, Louis M; Kennedy, Jan E; Lange, Rael T

    2017-10-27

    Examine effects of diagnostically relevant posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity, and associated bodily injury severity on postconcussion symptom reporting in female service members (SM) compared with a matched sample of male SM. Six US military medical treatment facilities. A total of 158 SM (79 females, 79 males) evaluated within 30 months after mild TBI. Men and women were matched by age, days postinjury, PTSD symptom status, mild TBI severity, and bodily injury severity. All passed a measure of symptom validity. Compare reported postconcussion symptoms for men and women stratified by PTSD diagnostic symptoms (present/absent), mild TBI severity (alteration of consciousness/loss of consciousness), and bodily injury severity (mild/moderate-severe). Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, PTSD Checklist, Abbreviated Injury Scale. Overall postconcussion symptom reporting increased with PTSD but did not significantly differ based on severity of mild TBI or associated bodily injury. Females reported more somatosensory and/or vestibular symptoms than males under some circumstances. Females in the PTSD-Present group, Alteration of Consciousness Only group, and Moderate-Severe Bodily Injury group reported more somatosensory symptoms than males in those groups. Females in the Alteration of Consciousness Only group and Minor Bodily Injury group reported more vestibular symptoms than males in those groups. Diagnostically relevant PTSD symptoms, mild TBI severity, and bodily injury severity differentially impact somatosensory and vestibular postconcussion symptom reporting for male and female SM after mild TBI. Controlling for PTSD and symptom validity resulted in fewer gender-based differences in postconcussive symptoms than previously demonstrated in the literature.

  6. The two-week and five-week dependability and stability of the depressive personality disorder inventory and its association with current depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Roberts, Christopher R D

    2012-01-01

    Within the psychometric framework of assessing a measure's dependability (Watson, 2004), this study considered the 2-week and 5-week test-retest correlations of the Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996). DPDI scores were compared with the test-retest reliability (i.e., dependability) of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996). Three-hundred sixty-three undergraduates completed the DPDI and BDI-II and were reevaluated at either a 2- or 5-week interval. Two- and 5-week test-retest correlations for the DPDI were .89 and .82, respectively, and test-retest correlations for the BDI-II were .88 and .75. The effect sizes of the mean scores' changes in the measures across time were larger for the DPDI (ds = .48, .23) than the BDI-II (ds = .28, -.21), with mean BDI-II scores not significantly differing at the 5-week assessment from the baseline mean. Although the 5-week retest correlation for the BDI-II trended toward decreasing reliability from baseline, it did not significantly differ from the DPDI 5-week retest correlation. It is concluded that both measures are dependable and assess latent propensities toward depressive thoughts and feelings, along with the current influence of depressive states.

  7. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  9. Neurobehavioral Impairments Caused by Developmental Imidacloprid Exposure in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. METHODS Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4 h to 5 d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. RESULTS In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strain of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. DISCUSSION Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. PMID:25944383

  10. Loss of Dopamine Transporter Binding and Clinical Symptoms in Dementia With Lewy Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepel, Françoise J; Dalen, Ingvild; Grüner, Renate; Booij, Jan; Brønnick, Kolbjørn S; Buter, Tirza C; Aarsland, Dag

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of clinical symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. The aim of this study was to explore the association between loss of striatal dopamine transporter binding and symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies. Thirty-five patients with dementia with Lewy bodies underwent single-photon emission computerized tomography brain imaging with N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ([(123) I]FP-CIT). Associations between striatal binding ratios and motor (UPDRS), psychiatric (Neuropsychiatric Inventory; [NPI]), and cognitive (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and neuropsychological tests) symptoms were assessed by linear regression analysis. The explorative analysis showed that the motor UPDRS was negatively associated with putamen dopamine transporter binding, whereas no association with striatal dopamine transporter binding was found for total NPI, hallucinations, apathy, depression, anxiety, and MMSE scores. However, in post-hoc analysis, executive impairment was positively associated with dopamine transporter loss after adjustment of age and gender. Dopamine deficiency in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies was associated with severity of motor symptoms, but did not correlate significantly with ratings of neurobehavioral disturbances or overall cognition. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  12. An evaluation of the brief symptom inventory-18 using item response theory: which items are most strongly related to psychological distress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory–18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a

  13. A longitudinal study for investigating the exposure level of anesthetics that impairs neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapellato, Maria Luisa; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Fedeli, Ugo; Carrieri, Mariella; Maccà, Isabella; Scoizzato, Luca; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2008-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence on the level of anesthetics that impairs neurobehavioral performance, leading to differences in exposure standards (25 or 50 ppm for N(2)O). Thirty-eight operating room nurses and 23 unexposed nurses were asked to provide information on confounding variables: age, gender, years of schooling, alcohol and coffee consumption, smoking, length of work, symptoms (Euroquest) and results of Block Design test. Afterward, all workers were repeatedly examined (on Monday and Friday of a working week, before and after workshift) for stress and arousal (Mood Scale) and complex reaction times (Color Word Vigilance, CWV), the latter being the outcome. Individual exposure was assessed through urinary end-shift concentrations of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and isoflurane. According to the highest value of urinary excretion of N(2)O in the week, exposed workers were subdivided in three groups ( or =13 and or = 27 microg/l). The values of 13 and 27 microg/l correspond to environmental concentrations of 25 and 50 ppm, respectively. In order to take into account the pre-existing abilities of exposed and reference workers, and investigate the neurobehavioral changes over time, longitudinal data were analyzed by a two-stage regression model and analysis of variance for repeated measures (MANOVA). The former method, controlling for confounding factors and Monday morning CWV (which conveyed the pre-existing ability of the subjects), showed that, with respect to unexposed nurses, reaction times were significantly (p or = 27 microg/l. Therefore, at MANOVA, all subjects were categorized in two classes (N(2)O urinary concentrations or = 27 microg/l), and CWV results were adjusted for the confounding variables and effects of stress and arousal, taken concurrently with CWV. CWV significantly (peffect) in workers with urinary N(2)O 27 microg/l.

  14. Postnatal penile growth concurrent with mini-puberty predicts later sex-typed play behavior: Evidence for neurobehavioral effects of the postnatal androgen surge in typically developing boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasterski, Vickie; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Thankamony, Ajay; Hines, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    The masculinizing effects of prenatal androgens on human neurobehavioral development are well established. Also, the early postnatal surge of androgens in male infants, or mini-puberty, has been well documented and is known to influence physiological development, including penile growth. However, neurobehavioral effects of androgen exposure during mini-puberty are largely unknown. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate possible neurobehavioral consequences of mini-puberty by relating penile growth in the early postnatal period to subsequent behavior. Using multiple linear regression, we demonstrated that penile growth between birth and three months postnatal, concurrent with mini-puberty, significantly predicted increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior assessed using the Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI) in 81 healthy boys at 3 to 4years of age. When we controlled for other potential influences on masculine/feminine behavior and/or penile growth, including variance in androgen exposure prenatally and body growth postnally, the predictive value of penile growth in the early postnatal period persisted. More specifically, prenatal androgen exposure, reflected in the measurement of anogenital distance (AGD), and early postnatal androgen exposure, reflected in penile growth from birth to 3months, were significant predictors of increased masculine/decreased feminine behavior, with each accounting for unique variance. Our findings suggest that independent associations of PSAI with AGD at birth and with penile growth during mini-puberty reflect prenatal and early postnatal androgen exposures respectively. Thus, we provide a novel and readily available approach for assessing effects of early androgen exposures, as well as novel evidence that early postnatal aes human neurobehavioral development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects associated with exposure to low doses of mercury from habitual consumption of marine fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, P; Flore, C; Alinovi, R; Ibba, A; Tocco, M; Aru, G; Carta, R; Girei, M; Mutti, A; Sanna, F Randaccio

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate neuroendocrine and neurobehavioral effects possibly associated with increased dietary intake of organic mercury (Hg), a group of 22 subjects living on the island of Carloforte (south-west Sardinia) was examined, who were regular consumers of tuna fish with relatively high Hg content. This group, never exposed occupationally to either Hg or to other neurotoxic substances, was compared with 22 age-matched controls employed at a chemical plant in Portotorres (northern Sardinia). Hg in urine (HgU) and serum prolactin (PRL) were measured in all cases, whereas measurements of total (HgB) and organic blood mercury were available only for 10 subjects from Carloforte and 6 controls. Data about working history and lifestyle (education, smoking habit, alcohol and sea fish consumption) were collected by an interviewer using a standardised questionnaire. Neurotoxic symptoms were evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire, whereas a test battery, including some computerised tests of the Swedish Performance Evaluation System (SPES) to assess vigilance and psychomotor performance, some tests on motor coordination (Luria-Nebraska and Branches Alternate Movement Task) and one memory test for numbers (Digit Span) was administered to assess neurobehavioral changes associated with exposure to dietary intake of organic mercury. In all cases, characteristics of hand tremor were evaluated by the CATSYS System 7.0. HgU values were significantly higher in the Carloforte group (median 6.5, range 1.8-21.5 micrograms/g creatinine) compared with controls (median 1.5, range 0.5-5.3 micrograms/g creatinine). Serum PRL was significantly higher among subjects from Carloforte and correlated with both urine and blood Hg levels. The scores of each item of the questionnaire investigating neurological symptoms were not statistically different in the two groups. In some tests of the SPES battery (Color Word Vigilance, Digit Symbol and Finger Tapping) the performance of the Carloforte

  16. A Neurobehavioral Mechanism Linking Behaviorally Inhibited Temperament and Later Adolescent Social Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzell, George A; Troller-Renfree, Sonya V; Barker, Tyson V; Bowman, Lindsay C; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather A; Kagan, Jerome; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2017-12-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified in early childhood that is a risk factor for later social anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying the development of social anxiety remain unclear. To better understand the emergence of social anxiety, longitudinal studies investigating changes at behavioral neural levels are needed. BI was assessed in the laboratory at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 268). Children returned at 12 years, and an electroencephalogram was recorded while children performed a flanker task under 2 conditions: once while believing they were being observed by peers and once while not being observed. This methodology isolated changes in error monitoring (error-related negativity) and behavior (post-error reaction time slowing) as a function of social context. At 12 years, current social anxiety symptoms and lifetime diagnoses of social anxiety were obtained. Childhood BI prospectively predicted social-specific error-related negativity increases and social anxiety symptoms in adolescence; these symptoms directly related to clinical diagnoses. Serial mediation analysis showed that social error-related negativity changes explained relations between BI and social anxiety symptoms (n = 107) and diagnosis (n = 92), but only insofar as social context also led to increased post-error reaction time slowing (a measure of error preoccupation); this model was not significantly related to generalized anxiety. Results extend prior work on socially induced changes in error monitoring and error preoccupation. These measures could index a neurobehavioral mechanism linking BI to adolescent social anxiety symptoms and diagnosis. This mechanism could relate more strongly to social than to generalized anxiety in the peri-adolescent period. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  17. Kangaroo-mother care method and neurobehavior of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Margareth Gurgel de Castro; Barros, Marina Carvalho de Moraes; Pessoa, Úrsula Maria Lima; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of kangaroo-mother care (KMC) in preterm (PT) neurobehavior between 36 and 41 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). A prospective cohort of 61 preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of 28-32 w evaluated by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), with 36-41 w PCA. Infants with clinical instability were excluded. They were analyzed in 2 groups: - Kangaroo (KAN): KMC for 7 or more days; Conventional (CON): did not receive KMC. Scores of the 13 NNNS variables were compared between groups and the effect of KMC in the scores of the variables of NNNS were evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for confounders. The KAN groups (n=24) and CON (n=37) were similar regarding main demographic and clinical maternal and neonatal characteristics. Mean GA was 30.3 w; and birth weight was 1170 g for both groups. PT of KAN group were admitted in KMC with PCA of 35.8 w (38.5 days of life) and remained with this care for 14.3 days. The NNNS was applied 13 days after the start of KMC. PT submitted to KMC showed higher quality of movements (KAN: 4.98 ± 0.53 vs CON: 4.53 ± 0.47; p=0.001) and lower scores on Signs of stress and abstinence (KAN: 0.03 ± 0.03 vs CON: 0.05 ± 0.03; p=0.001). Controlling for confounders, the KMC was associated with higher scores on the variables Attention, Quality of movements, and lower scores on Asymmetry and Signs of stress and abstinence. PT submitted to the KMC, compared to those non-submitted, have better neurobehavior performance between 36 and 41 weeks of post-conceptual age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Benge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  20. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  1. Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N; Li, Ting-Kai; Jacobson, Sandra W; Coles, Claire D; Kodituwakku, P W; Adnams, Colleen M; Korkman, Marit I

    2003-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 Research Society on Alcoholism/International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism meeting in San Francisco, CA. The organizers were Edward P. Riley and Sarah N. Mattson, and the chairperson was Edward P. Riley. The presentations were (1) Neurobehavioral deficits in alcohol-exposed South African infants: preliminary findings, by Sandra W. Jacobson, Christopher D. Molteno, Denis Viljoen, and Joseph L. Jacobson; (2) A pilot study of classroom intervention for learners with fetal alcohol syndrome in South Africa, by Colleen Adnams, M. W. Rossouw, M. D. Perold, P. W. Kodituwakku, and W. Kalberg; (3) Differential effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on fluid versus crystallized intelligence, by P. W. Kodituwakku, W. Kalberg, L. Robinson, and P. A. May; (4) Neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure: early identification of alcohol effects, by Claire D. Coles; (5) Fetal alcohol syndrome in Moscow, Russia: neuropsychology test performance, by Sarah N. Mattson, E. P. Riley, A. Matveeva, and G. Marintcheva; and (6) Long-term follow-up of Finnish children exposed to alcohol in utero in various durations, by Marit I. Korkman and I. Autti-Rämö. The discussant was Ting-Kai Li.

  2. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  3. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, Barbara; Hirsch, Mark A.; Van Hecke, Wim; Mariën, Peter; Parizel, Paul M.; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD. PMID:26101690

  4. Neurobehavioral effects of acute styrene exposure in fiberglass boatbuilders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.; Mahoney, F.C.; Hershman, D.L.; Woskie, S.; Smith, T.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A field investigation of the effects of acute exposure to styrene among fiberglass boatbuilders was performed. Personal samples of styrene in breathing zone air and postshift urinary mandelic acid were collected for 105 workers exposed and not exposed to styrene in 6 fiberglass boatbuilding companies in New England. Three tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) were performed by the subjects in the morning before exposure to styrene, near midday, and at the end of the work day. Duration of exposure averaged 2.9 years (SD = 4.6), 8-hour TWA styrene exposure averaged 29.9 ppm (SD = 36.2), and urinary mandelic acid averaged 347 mg/g creatinine (SD = 465). Regression analyses indicated a statistically significant relationship between postshift performance on the Symbol-Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic acid. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50 ppm styrene also showed a significant effect on Symbol-Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test-retest correlation coefficients above .80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  5. Validation of a neurobehavioral test system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.

    1990-03-09

    The study attempted to validate tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) for use in field investigations where repeated testing of the same subjects is required. Personal samples of styrene (100425) in the breathing zone air and post shift urinary mandelic-acid (90642) were collected for 116 workers in six fiberglass boat building companies located in New England. The average exposure to styrene was 4.6 years with an 8 hour time weighted average styrene exposure of 29.9 parts per million (ppm) and urinary mandelic-acid averaging 490 milligrams/gram creatinine. A statistically significant relationship was found between post shift performance on the Symbol/Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic-acid concentration. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50ppm styrene also showed a significant difference in Symbol/Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test/retest correlation coefficients above 0.80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  6. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Developmental Alcohol-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes. These animal FASD studies have provided several molecular pathways that are likely responsible for the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure of the developing CNS. Recently, many laboratories have identified several immediate, as well as long-lasting, epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins and microRNA (miRNA biogenesis by using a variety of epigenetic approaches in rodent FASD models. Because DNA methylation patterns, DNA-associated histone protein modifications and miRNA-regulated gene expression are crucial for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, they can therefore offer an answer to many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are found in FASD. In this review, we briefly discuss the current literature of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins modification and miRNA and review recent developments concerning epigenetic changes in FASD.

  7. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Associated with Executive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Ll. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person’s capacity to live safely and independently in the community.Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors’ own catalogs.Conclusions: The conventional distinction between cognitive and emotional-behavioral sequelae of TBI is shown to be superficial in the light of increasing evidence that executive skills are critical for integrating and appraising environmental events in terms of cognitive, emotional and social significance. This is undertaken through multiple fronto-subcortical pathways within which it is possible to identify a predominantly dorsolateral network that subserves executive control of attention and cognition (so-called cold executive processes and orbito-frontal/ventro-medial pathways that underpin the hot executive skills that drive much of behavior in daily life. TBI frequently involves disruption to both sets of executive functions but research is increasingly demonstrating the role of hot executive deficits underpinning a wide range of neurobehavioral disorders that compromise relationships, functional independence and mental capacity in daily life.

  8. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C): reliability and validity of a revised assessment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Kate; Robert, P; Gauthier, S; Stella, F; Politis, A; Leoutsakos, J; Taragano, F; Kremer, J; Brugnolo, A; Porsteinsson, A P; Geda, Y E; Brodaty, H; Gazdag, G; Cummings, J; Lyketsos, C

    2010-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) affect almost all patients with dementia and are a major focus of study and treatment. Accurate assessment of NPS through valid, sensitive and reliable measures is crucial. Although current NPS measures have many strengths, they also have some limitations (e.g. acquisition of data is limited to informants or caregivers as respondents, limited depth of items specific to moderate dementia). Therefore, we developed a revised version of the NPI, known as the NPI-C. The NPI-C includes expanded domains and items, and a clinician-rating methodology. This study evaluated the reliability and convergent validity of the NPI-C at ten international sites (seven languages). Face validity for 78 new items was obtained through a Delphi panel. A total of 128 dyads (caregivers/patients) from three severity categories of dementia (mild = 58, moderate = 49, severe = 21) were interviewed separately by two trained raters using two rating methods: the original NPI interview and a clinician-rated method. Rater 1 also administered four additional, established measures: the Apathy Evaluation Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Index, and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia. Intraclass correlations were used to determine inter-rater reliability. Pearson correlations between the four relevant NPI-C domains and their corresponding outside measures were used for convergent validity. Inter-rater reliability was strong for most items. Convergent validity was moderate (apathy and agitation) to strong (hallucinations and delusions; agitation and aberrant vocalization; and depression) for clinician ratings in NPI-C domains. Overall, the NPI-C shows promise as a versatile tool which can accurately measure NPS and which uses a uniform scale system to facilitate data comparisons across studies.

  9. Optimization of Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    PROKOPOVÁ, Nikola

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is optimization of inventory in selected organization. Inventory optimization is a very important topic in each organization because it reduces storage costs. At the beginning the inventory theory is presented. It shows the meaning and types of inventory, inventory control and also different methods and models of inventory control. Inventory optimization in the enterprise can be reached by using models of inventory control. In the second part the company on which is...

  10. Sintomas depressivos no câncer de mama: Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form Depressive symptoms in breast cancer: Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cangussu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em mulheres com câncer de mama e identificar os fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal, em que foram entrevistadas 71 mulheres com câncer de mama. Foram empregados dois instrumentos: um questionário para verificar os dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e o Inventário de Depressão de Beck - Short Form (BDI-SF, para avaliação dos sintomas depressivos. Para análise dos dados, utilizaram-se medidas descritivas e o teste de qui-quadrado, que avaliou a associação entre variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas e os sintomas depressivos. O nível de significância considerado foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 29,6%. Os fatores associados à presença desses sintomas foram o tratamento quimioterápico (p = 0,021, presença de dor (p = 0,018 e limitação do movimento do membro superior (p = 0,010 e pior percepção da saúde (p = 0,018. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas depressivos são frequentes no câncer de mama, assim a saúde mental das mulheres com esse tipo de câncer deve ser investigada e tratada quando necessário, reduzindo o impacto desses sintomas na vida da mulher.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer and identify risk factors associated to its occurrence. METHODS: It was a transversal study where 71 women with breast cancer were interviewed. Two instruments were applied, being one questionnaire used to verify sociodemographic and clinical data, and the Beck Depression Inventory - Short Form to evaluate depressive symptoms. Descriptive methods and chi-square test were utilized to analyze data, evaluating association between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic and clinical data. Significance level was considered of 5%. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms prevalence was 29,6%. Factors associated to the presence of this kind of symptoms were

  11. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongli Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. METHODS: Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  12. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  13. [Neurobehavioral manifestation in early period of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidzan, Mariola; Bidzan, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    AD and VD are preceded by a preclinical stage. Small but tangible cognitive impairments sometimes occur many years before the onset and diagnosis ofdementia. The ongoing degenerative process can be conductive to behavioural and psychological symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the rates of neurobehavioral symptoms in the preclinical stages of AD and VD. Two hundred and ninety one residents of nursery homes were included in the study. Participants of the study did not display symptoms of dementia in accordance with DSM IV criteria and obtained at least 24 points on the MMSE scale and were on the first or second level of the Global Deterioration Scale. Participants were screened for behavioural and psychological symptoms with the NPI-NH scale, while their cognitive functioning was evaluated by means of the ADAS-cog. Participants of the study were evaluated with the MMSE scale annually. Participants who obtained less than 24 points on the MMSE scale were evaluated by a senior psychiatrist. Diagnosis of dementia was done on the basis of DSM criteria. Alzheimer's Disease was diagnosed on the basis of NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and vascular dementia on the NINDS-AIREN criteria. The study was carried out over a period of seven consecutive years. A hundred and fifty people were included in the final analysis--in 111 of them were found not to be afflicted with dementia, 25 were found to have AD and in 14 VD was diagnosed. The control group differed from the AD and VD group with respect to the initial level of cognitive impairment (ADAS-cog) and the intensity of behavioural and psychological symptoms (NPI -NH scale). Particular items of the NPI -NH scale differentiated the two groups to a different degree. In people with AD the greatest differences were observed with respect to agitation/aggression, mood swings, irritability/emotional liability and the rates of anxiety. People with VD, similarly to people with AD, significantly differed from the control group with

  14. The intersection of risk assessment and neurobehavioral toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B.; Elsner, J.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Neurobehavioral toxicology is now established as a core discipline of the environmental health sciences. Despite its recognized scientific prowess, stemming from its deep roots in psychology and neuroscience and its acknowledged successes, it faces additional demands and challenges. The latter, in fact, are a product of its achievements because success at one level leads to new and higher expectations. Now the discipline is counted upon to provide more definitive and extensive risk assessments than in the past. These new demands are the basis for the appraisals presented in the SGOMSEC 11 workshop. They extend beyond what would be offered in a primer of methodology. Instead, these appraisals are framed as issues into which what are usually construed as methodologies have been embedded.

  15. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Neurobehavioral adaptations to methylphenidate: the issue of early adolescent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Ruocco, Lucia A; Canese, Rossella; Sadile, Adolfo G; Laviola, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to psychostimulants, including both abused and therapeutic drugs, can occur first during human adolescence. Animal modeling is useful not only to reproduce adolescent peculiarities but also to study neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulant consumption. Human adolescence (generally considered as the period between 9/12 and 18 years old) has been compared with the age window between postnatal days (pnd) 28/35 and 50 in rats and mice. These adolescent rodents display basal hyperlocomotion and higher rates of exploration together with a marked propensity for sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, peculiar responses to psychostimulants, including enhanced locomotor sensitization, no drug-induced stereotypy and reduced place conditioning have been described in adolescent rodents. During this age window, forebrain dopamine systems undergo profuse remodeling, thus providing a neuro-biological substrate to explain behavioral peculiarities observed during adolescence, as well as the reported vulnerabilities to several drugs. Further, methylphenidate (MPH, better known as Ritalin®), a psychostimulant extensively prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), raises concerns for its long-term safety. Using magnetic resonance techniques, MPH-induced acute effects appear to be different in adolescent rats compared to adult animals. Moreover, adolescent exposure to MPH seems to provoke persistent neurobehavioral consequences: long-term modulation of self-control abilities, decreased sensitivity to natural and drug reward, enhanced stress-induced emotionality, together with an enhanced cortical control over sub-cortical dopamine systems and an enduring up-regulation of Htr7 gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In summary, additional studies in animal models are necessary to better understand the long-term consequences of adolescent MPH, and to further investigate the safety of

  18. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  19. Neurobehavioral Effects of Sodium Tungstate Exposure on Rats and Their Progeny

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mclnturf, S. M; Bekkedal, M. Y; Olabisi, A; Arfsten, D; Wilfong, E; Casavant, R; Jederberg, W; Gunasekar, P. G; Chapman, G

    2007-01-01

    ... consequences of exposure. The purpose of this study was to use a battery of tests as an initial screen for potential neurobehavioral effects that may be associated with 70 days of daily tungsten exposure via drinking water...

  20. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p poisoned group compared to the controls (p poisoned group and those who had worked for more than 30 years in agriculture (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-lasting neurobehavioral effects of prenatal exposure to xylene in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.

    1997-01-01

    The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viabili...... are planned to investigate whether neurobehavioral effects resulting from prenatal xylene exposure can interact with neurophysiological aging processes. (C) 1997 Inter Press, Inc....

  2. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  3. Model studies for evaluating the neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. II. Neurobehavioral effects of white spirit in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, studies were conducted which involved inhalation exposure of rats and humans to white spirit (WS). The specific objectives of these studies were to evaluate

  4. Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Bammler, Theodor K; Farin, Federico M

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8-12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene-Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure.

  5. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  6. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  7. Managing neurobehavioral capability when social expediency trumps biological imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep, which is evolutionarily conserved across species, is a biological imperative that cannot be ignored or replaced. However, the percentage of habitually sleep-restricted adults has increased in recent decades. Extended work hours and commutes, shift work schedules, and television viewing are particularly potent social factors that influence sleep duration. Chronic partial sleep restriction, a product of these social expediencies, leads to the accumulation of sleep debt over time and consequently increases sleep propensity, decreases alertness, and impairs critical aspects of cognitive functioning. Significant interindividual variability in the neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction exists—this variability is stable and phenotypic—suggesting a genetic basis. Identifying vulnerability to sleep loss is essential as many adults cannot accurately judge their level of impairment in response to sleep restriction. Indeed, the consequences of impaired performance and the lack of insight due to sleep loss can be catastrophic. In order to cope with the effects of social expediencies on biological imperatives, identification of biological (including genetic) and behavioral markers of sleep loss vulnerability as well as development of technological approaches for fatigue management are critical. PMID:22877676

  8. Coloboma hyperactive mutant exhibits delayed neurobehavioral developmental milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, C J; Wilson, M C; Gold, L H

    1995-11-21

    The coloboma mutation (Cm) is a neutron-irradiation induced gene deletion located on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. This deletion region includes a gene encoding the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). The resulting mutation is semi-dominant with heterozygote mice exhibiting a triad of phenotypic abnormalities that comprise profound spontaneous hyperactivity, head bobbing and a prominent eye dysmorphology. Because the expression pattern of two SNAP-25 isoforms begins to change during the first postnatal week, neurobehavioral developmental milestones were examined in order to determine if the expression of the coloboma behavioral phenotype could be detected during this period of postnatal development. The early classification of coloboma mutant offspring may help to further describe the penetrance of this mutation as well as the contribution of developmental changes to the adult behavioral phenotype. The coloboma mutation resulted in delays in some tests of complex motor skills including righting reflex and bar holding. In addition, coloboma mutants were characterized by body weight differences (first appearance day 7) and hyperreactivity to touch (day 11) and head bobbing (day 14). These data demonstrate disruptions in the time course of attaining developmental milestones in coloboma mutants and provide further evidence supporting the hypotheses that alterations in Snap gene expression are associated with functional behavioral consequences in developing offspring.

  9. The neurobehavioral and molecular phenotype of Angelman Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Logan K; Fitzpatrick, Sarah; Shaffer, Rebecca; Melnyk, Sophia; Begtrup, Amber H; Fox, Emma; Schaefer, Tori L; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy; Horn, Paul A; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with developmental delay, speech impairment, gait ataxia, and a unique behavioral profile. AS is caused by loss of maternal expression of the paternally imprinted UBE3A gene. In this study we aim to contribute to understanding of the neurobehavioral phenotype of AS with particular focus on the neuropsychiatric presentation of the disorder. We also undertake initial exploration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in AS. Twelve individuals ages 3 years or older with a confirmed genetic diagnosis of AS underwent detailed medical history, phenotypic characterization, and BDNF plasma sampling. The results of this study demonstrate that individuals with AS suffer from significant developmental delay, impaired adaptive behavior, and sleep disruption. Additionally, hyperactivity/impulsivity appears to be the primary behavioral domain noted in these individuals. The majority of individuals in this project met criteria for autism spectrum disorder on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS); however, a negative correlation was noted between ADOS score and developmental age. BDNF plasma levels in AS individuals were significantly elevated compared to neurotypical controls. This is the first report of abnormal BDNF levels in AS, and one that necessitates larger future studies. The results provide a clue to understanding abnormal neuronal development in AS and may help guide future AS research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Branched-chain amino acids alter neurobehavioral function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Anna; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Maggioni, Mauro; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have described a strong association of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have investigated the potential impact of BCAA on behavioral functions. We demonstrate that supplementation of either a high-sucrose or a high-fat diet with BCAA induces anxiety-like behavior in rats compared with control groups fed on unsupplemented diets. These behavioral changes are associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of tryptophan (Trp) in brain tissues and a consequent decrease in serotonin but no difference in indices of serotonin synaptic function. The anxiety-like behaviors and decreased levels of Trp in the brain of BCAA-fed rats were reversed by supplementation of Trp in the drinking water but not by administration of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, suggesting that the behavioral changes are independent of the serotonergic pathway of Trp metabolism. Instead, BCAA supplementation lowers the brain levels of another Trp-derived metabolite, kynurenic acid, and these levels are normalized by Trp supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of high-energy diets with BCAA causes neurobehavioral impairment. Since BCAA are elevated spontaneously in human obesity, our studies suggest a potential mechanism for explaining the strong association of obesity and mood disorders. PMID:23249694

  11. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Wanda M; Anderson, Judy E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2013-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic condition affecting predominantly boys that is characterized by fatal muscle weakness. While there is no cure, recent therapeutic advances have extended the lifespan of those with DMD considerably. Although the physiological basis of muscle pathology is well-documented, less is known regarding the cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial functioning of those afflicted. Several lines of evidence point to central nervous system involvement as an organic feature of DMD, challenging our view of the disorder as strictly neuromuscular. This report provides a review of the literature on neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in DMD. Recent research identifying associations with DMD and neuropsychiatric disorders is also discussed. Lastly, the review presents implications of findings related to nonmotor aspects of DMD for improving the quality of life in those affected. While the literature is often contradictory in nature, this review highlights some key findings for consideration by clinicians, educators and parents when developing therapeutic interventions for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vibol, Sao [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Faculty of Agricultural Technology and Management, Royal University of Agriculture, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Hashim, Jamal Hisham, E-mail: jamalhas@hotmail.com [United Nations University – International Institute for Global Health, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Community Health, National University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarmani, Sukiman [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University of Malaysia, Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  13. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p polluted area showed poor performance on

  14. Heroin and amphetamine users display opposite relationships between trait and neurobehavioral dimensions of impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Jasmin; Paxton, Jessica; Moeller, F. Gerard; Wilson, Michael; Bozgunov, Kiril; Martin, Eileen; Gonzalez, Raul; Vasilev, Georgi

    2014-01-01

    The multidimensional construct of impulsivity is implicated in all phases of the addiction cycle. Substance dependent individuals (SDIs) demonstrate elevated impulsivity on both trait and laboratory tests of neurobehavioral impulsivity; however our understanding of the relationship between these different aspects of impulsivity in users of different classes of drugs remains rudimentary. The goal of this study was to assess for commonalities and differences in the relationships between trait and neurobehavioral impulsivity in heroin and amphetamine addicts. Participants included 58 amphetamine dependent (ADI) and 74 heroin dependent individuals (HDI) in protracted abstinence. We conducted principal components analyses (PCA) on two self-report trait and six neurobehavioral measures of impulsivity, which resulted in two trait impulsivity (action, planning) and four neurobehavioral impulsivity composites (discriminability, response inhibition efficiency, decision-making efficiency, quality of decision-making). Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether neurobehavioral impulsivity is predicted by trait impulsivity and drug type. The analyses revealed a significant interaction between drug type and trait action impulsivity on response inhibition efficiency, which showed opposite relationships for ADIs and HDIs. Specifically, increased trait action impulsivity was associated with worse response inhibition efficiency in ADIs, but with better efficiency in HDIs. These results challenge the unitary account of drug addiction and contribute to a growing body of literature that reveals important behavioral, cognitive, and neurobiological differences between users of different classes of drugs. PMID:24342174

  15. Parent-Directed Intervention for Children With Cancer-Related Neurobehavioral Late Effects: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T. Y.; Wong, Lennie F.; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child’s educational functioning. Methods 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects. Results 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change. Conclusions A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. PMID:24966398

  16. Parent-directed intervention for children with cancer-related neurobehavioral late effects: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunita K; Ross, Paula; Cuevas, Michelle; Turk, Anne; Kim, Heeyoung; Lo, Tracy T Y; Wong, Lennie F; Bhatia, Smita

    2014-10-01

    OBJECTIVE : To evaluate feasibility and preliminary efficacy of an intervention directed at parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) with neurobehavioral late effects to improve targeted parenting skills, and thus to indirectly benefit the child's educational functioning.  METHODS : 44 CCSs and their parents were randomized. Intervention-arm parents participated in eight individual training sessions augmented by a 3-month telephone support period. Pre- and postparent measures and child performance on Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II and School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory assessed intervention effects.  RESULTS : 90% of intervention parents completed the program with high adherence/perceived benefit. Between-group effect sizes ranged from d = 0.77 to d = 1.45 for parent knowledge, efficacy, frequency of pro-learning behaviors, and d = 0.21 to d = 0.76 for child academic scores. Parental time spent in intervention activities was associated with academic change.  CONCLUSIONS : A parent-directed intervention to indirectly promote academic functioning in CCSs appears feasible and effective in improving targeted parenting outcomes and for selected child academic outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Neurobehavioral development in children with potential exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; Lozoff, Betsy; Breilh, Jaime; Harlow, Siobán D

    2007-05-01

    Children may be at higher risk than adults from pesticide exposure, due to their rapidly developing physiology, unique behavioral patterns, and interactions with the physical environment. This preliminary study conducted in Ecuador examines the association between household and environmental risk factors for pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral development. We collected data over 6 months in the rural highland region of Cayambe, Ecuador (2003-2004). Children age 24-61 months residing in 3 communities were assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire and the Visual Motor Integration Test. We gathered information on maternal health and work characteristics, the home and community environment, and child characteristics. Growth measurements and a hemoglobin finger-prick blood test were obtained. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Current maternal employment in the flower industry was associated with better developmental scores. Longer hours playing outdoors were associated with lower gross and fine motor and problem solving skills. Children who played with irrigation water scored lower on fine motor skills (8% decrease; 95% confidence interval = -9.31 to -0.53), problem-solving skills (7% decrease; -8.40 to -0.39), and Visual Motor Integration test scores (3% decrease; -12.00 to 1.08). These results suggest that certain environmental risk factors for exposure to pesticides may affect child development, with contact with irrigation water of particular concern. However, the relationships between these risk factors and social characteristics are complex, as corporate agriculture may increase risk through pesticide exposure and environmental contamination, while indirectly promoting healthy development by providing health care, relatively higher salaries, and daycare options.

  18. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  19. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The

  20. A study on neurobehavioral performance of workers occupationally exposed to solvent in synthetic resin manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asim; Tripathi, S R

    2014-01-01

    One major effect of occupational solvent exposure is central nervous system (CNS) impairment, ranging from depression to encephalopathy with cognitive, behavioral changes. Exposures in industries being varied, classification of health outcomes for different exposures is important. This study assessed neurobehavioral performance of synthetic resin manufacturing workers exposed to organic solvent, mainly formalin. This cross-sectional study selected subjects by random selection from all such workers of an Indian city. Questionnaire survey and assessment by a neurobehavioral test battery (NBT) was undertaken. Comparison between actual and allied workers observed significant difference in tweezer dexterity, card sorting and backward memory scores. Significant effect of exposure was observed on tweezer dexterity, card sorting, and hand dynamometer scores. Changes of neurobehavioral performance might occur following solvent exposure and these changes might have a relationship with the quantum of exposure. Periodic examination of workers with NBT is needed for detection of early neurotoxic effects.

  1. A Multi-Informant Approach to Measuring Depressive Symptoms in Clinical Assessments of Adolescent Social Anxiety Using the Beck Depression Inventory-II: Convergent, Incremental, and Criterion-Related Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Erica; Racz, Sarah J.; Augenstein, Tara M.; Keeley, Lauren; Lipton, Melanie F.; Szollos, Sebastian; Riffle, James; Moriarity, Daniel; Kromash, Rachelle; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Background: Among adolescents, depressive symptoms commonly co-occur with social anxiety, with social anxiety often developmentally preceding depressive symptoms. Thus, evidence-based assessments of adolescent social anxiety should be augmented with assessments of depressive symptoms using measures that can be administered across developmental…

  2. Multiple Past Concussions Are Associated with Ongoing Post-Concussive Symptoms but Not Cognitive Impairment in Active-Duty Army Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Silverberg, Noah D; Iverson, Grant L

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which multiple past concussions are associated with lingering symptoms or mental health problems in military service members is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between lifetime concussion history, cognitive functioning, general health, and psychological health in a large sample of fit-for-duty U.S. Army soldiers preparing for deployment. Data on 458 active-duty soldiers were collected and analyzed. A computerized cognitive screening battery (CNS-Vital Signs(®)) was used to assess complex attention (CA), reaction time (RT), processing speed (PS), cognitive flexibility (CF), and memory. Health questionnaires included the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales (ZDS; ZAS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and the Alcohol Use and Dependency Identification Test (AUDIT). Soldiers with a history of multiple concussions (i.e., three or more concussions) had significantly greater post-concussive symptom scores compared with those with zero (d=1.83, large effect), one (d=0.64, medium effect), and two (d=0.64, medium effect) prior concussions. Although the group with three or more concussions also reported more traumatic stress symptoms, the results revealed that traumatic stress was a mediator between concussions and post-concussive symptom severity. There were no significant differences on neurocognitive testing between the number of concussions. These results add to the accumulating evidence suggesting that most individuals recover from one or two prior concussions, but there is a greater risk for ongoing symptoms if one exceeds this number of injuries.

  3. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  4. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  5. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  6. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  7. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  8. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  9. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  10. HHS Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.

  11. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  12. Reliability of Neurobehavioral Assessments from Birth to Term Equivalent Age in Preterm and Term Born Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability. To evaluate the interrater reliability of the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), when used both preterm and at term (>36 weeks). Thirty-five preterm infants and 11 term controls were recruited. Five assessors double-scored the HNNE and NNNS administered either preterm or at term. A one-way random effects, absolute, single-measures interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine interrater reliability. Interrater reliability for the HNNE was excellent (ICC > 0.74) for optimality scores, and good (ICC 0.60-0.74) to excellent for subtotal scores, except for 'Tone Patterns' (ICC 0.54). On the NNNS, interrater reliability was predominantly excellent for all items. Interrater agreement was generally excellent at both time points. Overall, the HNNE and NNNS neurobehavioral assessments demonstrated mostly excellent interrater reliability when used prior to term and at term.

  13. Impact of Tactile Stimulation on Neurobehavioral Development of Premature Infants in Assiut City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Atyat Mohammed Hassan; Youssef, Magda Mohamed E.; Hassanein, Farouk El-Sayed; Mobarak, Amal Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess impact of tactile stimulation on neurobehavioral development of premature infants in Assiut City. Design: Quasi-experimental research design. Setting: The study was conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Assiut University Children Hospital, Assiut General Hospital, Health Insurance Hospital (ElMabarah Hospital) and…

  14. Fetal Neurobehavioral Development and the Role of Maternal Nutrient Intake and Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Marisa; Smerling, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Foss, Sophie; Monk, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Measuring and understanding fetal neurodevelopment provides insight regarding the developing brain. Maternal nutrient intake and psychological stress during pregnancy each impact fetal neurodevelopment and influence childhood outcomes and are thus important factors to consider when studying fetal neurobehavioral development. The authors provide an…

  15. Conflicting perspectives on neurobehavioral theories of the depressive disorders and drug actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Martin M

    2016-12-01

    A prominent theory of depression focusses on neural plasticity and stress as central issues in seeking to develop a pattern of identifiable biological markers for the depressive disorders. Relative neglect, however, of clinical factors in that theory limits the uncovering of markers and opens to question their methodological approach. A conflicting theory, the 'opposed neurobehavioral states', based on dimensional analysis of monoamine neurotransmitter systems and behavioural factors is presented. This perspectives paper contrasts the two approaches viewing the biomarkers theory as premature at this point in the progress of depression research. Studies developed to support the biomarkers theory and the opposed neurobehavioral states theory are examined for their strengths and limitations in explaining the nature of the disorder and the actions of therapeutic drugs. Reference is made to reviews of the many studies on biomarkers and the recent work that supports the opposed neurobehavioral states theory. Discussion Main issue: the biomarkers theory sets important goals, but despite the many advances in the neural investigations of factors underlying depression, is still not successful in specifying markers. Thus, it is believed to be applying the wrong methodologic approach and premature in its claims. the 'opposed neurobehavioral' theory is limited in its breadth of research. It applies, however, the dimensional approach to the clinical side of the problem, a methodological approach more likely to be effective in selecting the best clinical treatment and open to a more productive path to understanding of the nature of the disorder in future research.

  16. COMPARISON OF ACUTE NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF N-METHYL CARBAMATE INSECTICIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The acute neurobehavioral and cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting effects of N-methyl carbamate insecticides have not been systematically compared. We evaluated five carbamates - carbaryl (CB), propoxur (PP), oxamyl (OM), methomyl (MM), and methiocarb (MC). Adult male Long-Evans ra...

  17. Mining Association Rules for Neurobehavioral and Motor Disorders in Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chihwen; Burns, T G; Wang, May D

    2013-09-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) appear to be at high risk for developing neurobehavioral and motor disorders. The most common disorders for these children are impaired visual-perception skills and motor planning. Besides, they often have impaired executive functions, which can contribute to problematic emotional adjustment such as depression. Additionally, literature suggests that the tendency to develop these cognitive impairments and emotional abnormalities in pediatric CP is influenced by age and IQ. Because there are many other medical co-morbidities that can occur with CP (e.g., seizures and shunt placement), prediction of what percentages of patients will incur cognitive impairment and emotional abnormality is a difficult task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between possible factors mentioned above, and neurobehavioral and motor disorders from a clinical database of pediatric subjects diagnosed with CP. The study resulted in 22 rules that can predict negative outcomes. These rules reinforced the growing body of literature supporting a link between CP, executive dysfunction, and subsequent neurobehavioral problems. The antecedents and consequents of some association rules were single factors, while other statistical associations were interactions of factor combinations. Further research is needed to include children's comprehensive treatment and medication history in order to determine additional impacts on their neurobehavioral and motor disorders.

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension in Adolescents: Effect on Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Madaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited published data in regard to the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and hypertension and neurobehavioral and mental status in adolescence. The aim of our study was to evaluate neurobehavioral patterns and cognitive functions in adolescents with hypertension according to absence or presence of OSA. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study completed at the Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems. Participants included adolescents aged 14–17 years and referred for 24-hour ambulance blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and polysomnographic (PSG studies between 2007 and 2009, inclusive. Results. 18 hypertensive OSA (the 1st group and 20 hypertensive non-OSA adolescents (the 2nd group were included in the study. Significant changes of neurobehavioral functioning in OSA patients were shown. Cognitive abilities also were impaired. Verbal and visual memory indexes and attention index were 2.1 and 2.2 times lower, accordingly, in the 1st group than in the 2nd group (P<0.05. Speech index was significantly 2.8 times lower in OSA patients than in non-OSA patients (P<0.05. In hypertensive OSA adolescents more significant Spearman correlations between classic sleep parameters and cognitive measures were found compared to patients without OSA. Conclusions. These results suggest that OSA is closely associated with neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in hypertensive adolescents.

  19. Neurobehavioral Consequences of Prenatal Exposure to Smoking at 6 to 8 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Michael; Greenberg, Mark; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Between 400,000 and 800,000 infants are born in the United States each year to women who smoked cigarettes during their pregnancy. Whereas the physical health consequences to infants of prenatal exposure to smoking are well established, the early neurobehavioral consequences are less well understood. This study investigated the neurobehavioral…

  20. Early Malnutrition and Child Neurobehavioral Development: Insights from the Study of Children of Diabetic Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Thomas A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Studied whether disturbances in mothers' metabolism (N=139) during pregnancy may exert long-range effects on neurobehavioral development of singleton progeny. Examined detailed pregnancy and perinatal records of mothers who experienced diabetes in pregnancy and intelligence tests of their offspring, administered at ages 7 to 11 years. All…

  1. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children’s pesticide exposure: parent’s occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008–2011, 206 school-aged children completed a battery of neurobehavioral tests two times, approximately one year apart. The associations between both exposure measures and neurobehavioral performance were examined. Pesticide residues were detected in dust samples from both agricultural and non-agricultural homes, however, pesticides were detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in agricultural homes compared to non-agricultural homes. Although few differences were found between agricultural and non-agricultural children at both visits, deficits in learning from the first visit to the second visit, or less improvement, was found in agricultural children relative to non-agricultural children. These differences were significant for the Divided Attention and Purdue Pegboard tests. These findings are consistent with previous research showing deficits in motor function. A summary measure of organophosphate residues was not associated with neurobehavioral performance. Results from this study indicate that children in agricultural communities are at increased risk from pesticides as a result of a parent working in agricultural. Our findings suggest that organophosphate exposure may be associated with deficits in learning on neurobehavioral performance, particularly in tests of with motor function. In spite of regulatory phasing out of organophosphates in the U.S., we still see elevated levels and higher detection rates of several organophosphates in agricultural households than non

  2. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  3. Adult neurobehavioral outcome of hyperbilirubinemia in full term neonates—a 30 year prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hokkanen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HB may cause severe neurological damage, but serious consequences are effectively controlled by phototherapy and blood exchange transfusion. HB is still a serious health problem in economically compromised parts of the world. The long term outcome has been regarded favorable based on epidemiological data, but has not been confirmed in prospective follow-up studies extending to adulthood.Methods. We studied the long term consequences of HB in a prospective birth cohort of 128 HB cases and 82 controls. The cases are part of a neonatal at-risk cohort (n = 1196 that has been followed up to 30 years of age. HB cases were newborns ≥ 2500 g birth weight and ≥ 37 weeks of gestation who had bilirubin concentrations > 340 µmol/l or required blood exchange transfusion. Subjects with HB were divided into subgroups based on the presence (affected HB or absence (unaffected HB of diagnosed neurobehavioral disorders in childhood, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects were seen at discharge, 5, 9 and 16 years of life and parent’s and teacher’s assessments were recorded. At 30 years they filled a questionnaire about academic and occupational achievement, life satisfaction, somatic and psychiatric symptoms including a ADHD self-rating score. Cognitive functioning was tested using ITPA, WISC, and reading and writing tests at 9 years of life.Results. Compared to controls, the odds for a child with HB having neurobehavioral symptoms at 9 years was elevated (OR = 4.68. Forty-five per cent of the HB group were affected by cognitive abnormalities in childhood and continued to experience problems in adulthood. This was apparent in academic achievement (p < 0.0001 and the ability to complete secondary (p < 0.0001 and tertiary (p < 0.004 education. Also, the subgroup of affected HB reported persisting cognitive complaints e.g., problems with reading, writing and mathematics. Childhood symptoms of hyperactivity

  4. Performance Validity, Neurocognitive Disorder, and Post-concussion Symptom Reporting in Service Members with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Sara M; Lange, Rael T; French, Louis M; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-10-21

    To examine the influence of different performance validity test (PVT) cutoffs on neuropsychological performance, post-concussion symptoms, and rates of neurocognitive disorder and postconcussional syndrome following mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in active duty service members. Participants were 164 service members (Age: M = 28.1 years [SD = 7.3]) evaluated on average 4.1 months (SD = 5.0) following injury. Participants were divided into three mutually exclusive groups using original and alternative cutoff scores on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Effort Index (EI) from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): (a) PVT-Pass, n = 85; (b) Alternative PVT-Fail, n = 53; and (c) Original PVT-Fail, n = 26. Participants also completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory. The PVT-Pass group performed better on cognitive testing and reported fewer symptoms than the two PVT-Fail groups. The Original PVT-Fail group performed more poorly on cognitive testing and reported more symptoms than the Alternative PVT-Fail group. Both PVT-Fail groups were more likely to meet DSM-5 Category A criteria for mild and major neurocognitive disorder and symptom reporting criteria for postconcussional syndrome than the PVT-Pass group. When alternative PVT cutoffs were used instead of original PVT cutoffs, the number of participants with valid data meeting cognitive testing criteria for neurocognitive disorder or postconcussional syndrome decreased dramatically. PVT performance is significantly and meaningfully related to overall neuropsychological outcome. By using only original cutoffs, clinicians and researchers may miss people with invalid performances.

  5. Neurobehavioral Dynamics Following Chronic Sleep Restriction: Dose-Response Effects of One Night for Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Design: Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Setting: Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Interventions: Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Measurements and Results: Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated

  6. On-Line Analysis of Physiologic and Neurobehavioral Variables During Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emery N.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop reliable statistical algorithms for on-line analysis of physiologic and neurobehavioral variables monitored during long-duration space missions. Maintenance of physiologic and neurobehavioral homeostasis during long-duration space missions is crucial for ensuring optimal crew performance. If countermeasures are not applied, alterations in homeostasis will occur in nearly all-physiologic systems. During such missions data from most of these systems will be either continually and/or continuously monitored. Therefore, if these data can be analyzed as they are acquired and the status of these systems can be continually assessed, then once alterations are detected, appropriate countermeasures can be applied to correct them. One of the most important physiologic systems in which to maintain homeostasis during long-duration missions is the circadian system. To detect and treat alterations in circadian physiology during long duration space missions requires development of: 1) a ground-based protocol to assess the status of the circadian system under the light-dark environment in which crews in space will typically work; and 2) appropriate statistical methods to make this assessment. The protocol in Project 1, Circadian Entrainment, Sleep-Wake Regulation and Neurobehavioral will study human volunteers under the simulated light-dark environment of long-duration space missions. Therefore, we propose to develop statistical models to characterize in near real time circadian and neurobehavioral physiology under these conditions. The specific aims of this project are to test the hypotheses that: 1) Dynamic statistical methods based on the Kronauer model of the human circadian system can be developed to estimate circadian phase, period, amplitude from core-temperature data collected under simulated light- dark conditions of long-duration space missions. 2) Analytic formulae and numerical algorithms can be developed to compute the error in the

  7. Vendor-managed inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) represents the methodology through which the upstream stage of a supply chain (vendor) takes responsibility for managing the inventories at the downstream stage (customer) based on previously agreed limits. VMI is another method by which supply chains can be managed...... review, we have identified six dimensions of VMI: namely, inventory, transportation, manufacturing, general benefits, coordination/collaboration, and information sharing. In addition, there are, three methodological classifications: modelling, simulation, and case studies. Finally, we will consider...

  8. Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV-III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Encephalopathy: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    hypothesized, the neuropsychological evaluation of these patients has been the most revealing. Ongoing analyses have shown a subtle cognitive dysfunction ...AD-A220 180 +++AAD-A22 0t Available Copy FUNDING NO.: 87PP7856 TITLE: Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune...TITLE (Include Securty Classifiat:on) Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -1II Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS

  9. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  10. The impact of neurobehavioral features on medication adherence in HIV: Evidence from longitudinal models

    OpenAIRE

    Panos, Stella E.; Del Re, A. C.; Thames, April D.; Arentsen, Timothy J.; Patel, Sapna M.; Castellon, Steven A.; Singer, Elyse J.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy has led to substantial improvements in health-related outcomes among individuals with HIV. Despite advances in HIV pharmacotherapy, suboptimal medication adherence remains a significant barrier to successful treatment. Although several factors have been associated with medication adherence in the extant literature, study assessing the effects of some of the neurobehavioral features specific to HIV has been limited. Moreover, although there is a growing body of...

  11. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2007-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, c...

  12. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community

    OpenAIRE

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children’s pesticide exposure: parent’s occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008–2011, 206 scho...

  13. Sensory processing disorder in preterm infants during early childhood and relationships to early neurobehavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Justin; Hilton, Claudia; Rogers, Cynthia; Pineda, Roberta

    2017-10-01

    Preterm infants are exposed to a variety of sensory stimuli that they are not developmentally prepared to handle, which puts them at risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. However, the patterns and predictors of sensory processing disorder and their relationship to early behavior at term equivalent age are poorly understood. The aims of the study are to: 1) describe the incidence of sensory processing disorder in preterm infants at four to six years of age, 2) define medical and sociodemographic factors that relate to sensory processing disorder, and 3) explore relationships between early neurobehavior at term equivalent age and sensory processing disorder at age four to six years. This study was a prospective longitudinal design. Thirty-two preterm infants born ≤30weeks gestation were enrolled. Infants had standardized neurobehavioral testing at term equivalent age with the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. At four to six years of age, participants were assessed with the Sensory Processing Assessment for Young Children (SPA). Sixteen children (50%) had at least one abnormal score on the SPA, indicating a sensory processing disorder. There were no identified relationships between medical and sociodemographic factors and sensory processing disorder. More sub-optimal reflexes (p=0.04) and more signs of stress (p=0.02) at term equivalent age were related to having a sensory processing disorder in early childhood. Preterm infants are at an increased risk for developing a sensory processing disorder. Medical and sociodemographic factors related to sensory processing disorder could not be isolated in this study, however relationships between sensory processing disorder and early neurobehavior were identified. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5–7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (...

  15. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvan, Michael J; Kalluvila, Thomas A; Klingler, Rebekah H; Larson, Jeremy K; Pickens, Matthew; Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Connaughton, Victoria P; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs]) and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion) in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM) for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation) and transgenerational actions (F2 generation) were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation) of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  16. Neurobehavioral Impact of Successive Cycles of Sleep Restriction With and Without Naps in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Lee, Su Mei; Teo, Lydia M; Lim, Julian; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-02-01

    To characterize adolescents' neurobehavioral changes during two cycles of restricted and recovery sleep and to examine the effectiveness of afternoon naps in ameliorating neurobehavioral deficits associated with multiple nights of sleep restriction. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (aged 15-19 years; 31 males) participated in a parallel group study. They underwent two cycles of sleep restriction (5-hr time in bed [TIB] for five and three nights in the first and the second cycles, respectively; 01:00-06:00) and recovery (9-hr TIB for two nights per cycle; 23:00-08:00) intended to simulate the weekday sleep loss and weekend attempt to "catch up" on sleep. Half of the participants received a 1-hr nap opportunity at 14:00 following each sleep-restricted night, while the other half stayed awake. Sustained attention, sleepiness, speed of processing, executive function, and mood were assessed 3 times each day. Participants who were not allowed to nap showed progressive decline in sustained attention that did not return to baseline after two nights of recovery sleep. Exposure to the second period of sleep restriction increased the rate of vigilance deterioration. Similar patterns were found for other neurobehavioral measures. Napping attenuated but did not eliminate performance decline. These findings contrasted with the stable performance of adolescents, given 9-hr TIB each night in our recent study. Adolescents' neurobehavioral functions may not adapt to successive cycles of sleep curtailment and recovery. In sleep-restricted adolescents, weekend "catch-up sleep," even when combined with napping during weekdays, is inferior to receiving a 9-hr sleep opportunity each night.

  17. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  18. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Ismail; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Rasoul, Gaafar Abdel; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia,...

  19. Low and moderate prenatal ethanol exposures of mice during gastrulation or neurulation delays neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Uta B; Goldsmith, Jeff; Nunley, Kevin; Liu, Yali; Harirforoosh, Sam; Schambra, Heidi M

    2015-01-01

    Human and animal studies show significant delays in neurobehavioral development in offspring after prolonged prenatal exposure to moderate and high ethanol doses resulting in high blood alcohol concentration (BECs). However, none have investigated the effects of lower ethanol doses given acutely during specific developmental time periods. Here, we sought to create a mouse model for modest and circumscribed human drinking during the 3rd and 4th weeks of pregnancy. We acutely treated mice during embryo gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 or neurulation on GD8 with a low or moderate ethanol dose given via gavage that resulted in BECs of 107 and 177 mg/dl, respectively. We assessed neonatal physical development (pinnae unfolding, and eye opening); weight gain from postnatal day (PD) 3-65; and neurobehavioral maturation (pivoting, walking, cliff aversion, surface righting, vertical screen grasp, and rope balance) from PD3 to 17. We used a multiple linear regression model to determine the effects of dose, sex, day of treatment and birth in animals dosed during gastrulation or neurulation, relative to their vehicle controls. We found that ethanol exposure during both time points (GD7 and GD8) resulted in some delays of physical development and significant sensorimotor delays of pivoting, walking, and thick rope balance, as well as additional significant delays in cliff aversion and surface righting after GD8 treatment. We also found that treatment with the low ethanol dose more frequently affected neurobehavioral development of the surviving pups than treatment with the moderate ethanol dose, possibly due to a loss of severely affected offspring. Finally, mice born prematurely were delayed in their physical and sensorimotor development. Importantly, we showed that brief exposure to low dose ethanol, if administered during vulnerable periods of neuroanatomical development, results in significant neurobehavioral delays in neonatal mice. We thus expand concerns about

  20. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  1. Risk of neurobehavioral disinhibition in prenatal methamphetamine-exposed young children with positive hair toxicology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia M; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa, and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child's neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared with child hair results. A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n = 133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n = 131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared with PME children without postnatal exposure. Child hair testing offered a noninvasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years.

  2. Normal standards for fetal neurobehavioral developments--longitudinal quantification by four-dimensional sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim; Andonotopo, Wiku; Hafner, Tomislav; Salihagic Kadic, Aida; Stanojevic, Milan; Azumendi, Guillermo; Ahmed, Badreldeen; Carrera, Jose M; Troyano, J M

    2006-01-01

    To construct normal standards for fetal neurobehavioral development using longitudinal observations through all trimesters by four-dimensional sonography. A group of 100 healthy normal singleton pregnancies were recruited for longitudinal 4D US examinations to evaluate fetal neurodevelopmental parameters between 7 to 40 weeks' gestation. Variables of maternal and fetal characteristics including gestational age, eight fetal movements patterns in the first trimester and 14 parameters of fetal movement and fetal facial expression patterns recorded thereafter for the construction of fetal neurological charts. Measurement of 7 parameters in the first trimester and 11 parameters in the second and third trimesters correlated with gestational age (P<0.05). Those parameters have been followed longitudinally through all trimesters and showed increasing frequency of fetal movements during the first trimester. A tendency towards decreased frequency of facial expressions and movement patterns with increasing gestational age from second to third trimesters has been noticed. With 4D sonography, it is possible to quantitatively assess normal neurobehavioral development. There is urgent need for further multicentric studies until a sufficient degree of normative data is available and the predictive validity of the specific relationship between fetal neurobehavior and child developmental outcome is better established.

  3. The Effect of One Night's Sleep Deprivation on Adolescent Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Design: Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. Setting: The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Participants: Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Measurements and Results: Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Louca M, Short MA. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1799-1807. PMID:25364075

  4. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries.

  5. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-08-25

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  6. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...

  7. Uncertainties in emission inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenne, van J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For

  8. Denmark's National Inventory Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ...

  9. Neurobehavioral dynamics following chronic sleep restriction: dose-response effects of one night for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F

    2010-08-01

    Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated above baseline at the maximum recovery dose of 10 h TIB. Neurobehavioral deficits

  10. Managing Air Quality - Emissions Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  11. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  12. Glaucoma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up You can help find a cure for glaucoma Give now Signs & Symptoms The most common types ... have completely different symptoms. Symptoms of Open-Angle Glaucoma Most people who develop open-angle glaucoma don’ ...

  13. SBA Network Components & Software Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...

  14. The neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Shapiro

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: On most behavioral measures, MPS IIIB patients did not differ substantially from MPS IIIA patients over age six, demonstrating autistic features and a Klüver Bucy-like syndrome including lack of fear and poor attention. Delay in onset of behavioral symptoms was associated with later diagnosis in two patients. Lack of fear, poor attention, and autistic-like symptomatology are as characteristic of MPS IIIB as they are of MPS IIIA. A possible difference is that the some behavioral abnormalities develop more quickly in MPS IIIB. If this is so, these patients may become at risk for harm and present a challenge for parenting even earlier than do those with MPS IIIA. In future clinical trials of new treatments, especially with respect to quality of life and patient management, improvement of these behaviors will be an essential goal. Because very young patients were not studied, prospective natural history documentation of the early development of abnormal behaviors in MPS IIIB is needed.

  15. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  16. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Aghakhanyan

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  17. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS. PMID:27626634

  18. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    A high number of somatic symptoms have been associated with poor health status and increased health care use. Previous studies focused on number of symptoms without considering the specific symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate 1) the prevalence of 19 somatic symptoms, 2......) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from.......9% of the respondents were bothered by one or more of the 19 somatic symptoms. The symptoms were associated in a complex structure. Still, recognisable patterns were identified within organ systems/body parts. When accounting for symptom co-occurrence; dizziness, pain in legs, respiratory distress and tiredness were...

  19. VA Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs Enterprise Data Inventory accounts for all of the datasets used in the agency's information systems. This entry was approved for...

  20. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  1. NCRN Hemlock Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — ​Data associated with the 2015 hemlock inventory project in NCR. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a coniferous tree native to the NE and Appalachian regions of...

  2. Logistics and Inventory System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Logistics and Inventory System (LIS) is the agencys primary supply/support automation tool. The LIS encompasses everything from order entry by field specialists...

  3. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  4. Asset Inventory Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AIDM is used to track USAID assets such as furniture, computers, and equipment. Using portable bar code readers, receiving and inventory personnel can capture...

  5. National Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...

  6. National Emission Inventory (NEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...

  7. Business Process Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...

  8. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  9. Shuttle Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  10. Raccoon abundance inventory report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of a raccoon abundance inventory on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge in 2012. Determining raccoon abundance allows for...

  11. An Interpersonal Communication Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienvenu, Millard J., Sr.

    1971-01-01

    Patterns, characteristics and styles of interpersonal communication in 316 men and women were investigated using the Inventory; item analysis yielded 50 items which discriminated between good and poor communication. (Author)

  12. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  13. Deterioration of Neurobehavioral Performance in Resident Physicians During Repeated Exposure to Extended Duration Work Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Clare; Sullivan, Jason P.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Cade, Brian E.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although acute sleep loss during 24- to 30-h extended duration work shifts (EDWS) has been shown to impair the performance of resident physicians, little is known about the effects of cumulative sleep deficiency on performance during residency training. Chronic sleep restriction induces a gradual degradation of neurobehavioral performance and exacerbates the effects of acute sleep loss in the laboratory, yet the extent to which this occurs under real-world conditions is unknown. In this study, the authors quantify the time course of neurobehavioral deterioration due to repeated exposure to EDWS during a 3-week residency rotation. Design: A prospective, repeated-measures, within-subject design. Setting: Medical and cardiac intensive care units, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Participants: Thirty-four postgraduate year one resident physicians (23 males; age 28.0 ± 1.83 (standard deviation) years) Measurements and Results: Residents working a 3-week Q3 schedule (24- to 30-h work shift starts every 3rd day), consisting of alternating 24- to 30-h (EDWS) and approximately 8-h shifts, underwent psychomotor vigilance testing before, during, and after each work shift. Mean response time, number of lapses, and slowest 10% of responses were calculated for each test. Residents also maintained daily sleep/wake/work logs. EDWS resulted in cumulative sleep deficiency over the 21-day rotation (6.3 h sleep obtained per day; average 2.3 h sleep obtained per extended shift). Response times deteriorated over a single 24- to 30-h shift (P Cade BE; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Deterioration of neurobehavioral performance in resident physicians during repeated exposure to extended duration work shifts. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1137-1146. PMID:22851809

  14. Exposure to Enriched Environment Decreases Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Glutamate Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a popular strategy to enhance motor and cognitive performance and to counteract the effects of various harmful stimuli. The protective effects of enriched environment have been shown in traumatic, ischemic and toxic nervous system lesions. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used taste enhancer causing excitotoxic effects when given in newborn animals. We have previously demonstrated that MSG leads to a delay in neurobehavioral development, as shown by the delayed appearance of neurological reflexes and maturation of motor coordination. In the present study we aimed at investigating whether environmental enrichment is able to decrease the neurobehavioral delay caused by neonatal MSG treatment. Newborn pups were treated with MSG subcutaneously on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9. For environmental enrichment, we placed rats in larger cages, supplemented with different toys that were altered daily. Normal control and enriched control rats received saline treatment only. Physical parameters such as weight, day of eye opening, incisor eruption and ear unfolding were recorded. Animals were observed for appearance of reflexes such as negative geotaxis, righting reflexes, fore- and hindlimb grasp, fore- and hindlimb placing, sensory reflexes and gait. In cases of negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait, the time to perform the reflex was also recorded daily. For examining motor coordination, we performed grid walking, footfault, rope suspension, rota-rod, inclined board and walk initiation tests. We found that enriched environment alone did not lead to marked alterations in the course of development. On the other hand, MSG treatment caused a slight delay in reflex development and a pronounced delay in weight gain and motor coordination maturation. This delay in most signs and tests could be reversed by enriched environment: MSG-treated pups kept under enriched conditions showed no weight retardation, no reflex delay in

  15. Pathways in the emergence of developmental neuroethology: antecedents to current views of neurobehavioral ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, R W

    1992-12-01

    The historical forces that have contributed to our current views of neurobehavioral development (and thus to the fields of developmental psychobiology and neuroethology) are many and varied. Although similar statements might be made about almost any field of science, it is in particular true of this field, which represents a kind of mongrel discipline derived from at least three major sources (psychology, embryology, and neuroscience) and several more minor ones (including developmental psychology and psychiatry, psychoanalysis, education, zoology, ethology, and sociology). Although I attempt to demonstrate here how each of these sources may have influenced the emergence of a unified field of developmental psychobiology or developmental neuroethology, because the present article represents the first attempt of which I am aware to trace the history of these fields I am certain that there is considerable room for improvement, correction, and revision of the views expressed here. Accordingly, I consider this inaugural effort a kind of reconnaissance intended to trace a necessarily imperfect historic path for others to follow and improve upon. In the final analysis, I will be satisfied if this article only serves to underscore two related points: first is the value derived from historical studies of contemporary issues in development, and the second concerns the extent to which our current ideas and concepts about neurobehavioral development, ideas often considered new and contemporary, were already well known to those who came before us. The first point underscores the arguments expressed in the Introduction that the present must always be reconciled with the past, for the past is never entirely past. The second point returns full circle to an important thought expressed in the opening quotation to this article, namely, that even though our historic predecessors lacked much of the empirical facts available to us they were nonetheless able to attain a surprisingly deep

  16. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  17. Developmental exposure to a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71: neurobehavioral, hormonal, and reproductive effects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Coburn, Cary [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Moser, Virginia [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; MacPhail, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Stoker, Tammy [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, North Carolina; Birnbaum, Linda [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

    2010-06-01

    Developmental effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been suspected due to their structural similarities to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study evaluated neurobehavioral, hormonal, and reproductive effects in rat offspring perinatally exposed to a widely used pentabrominated commercial mixture, DE-71. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1.7, 10.2, or 30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 in corn oil by oral gavage from gestational day 6 to weaning. DE-71 did not alter maternal or male offspring body weights. However, female offspring were smaller compared with controls from postnatal days (PNDs) 35-60. Although several neurobehavioral endpoints were assessed, the only statistically significant behavioral finding was a dose-by-age interaction in the number of rears in an open-field test. Developmental exposure to DE-71 caused severe hypothyroxinemia in the dams and early postnatal offspring. DE-71 also affected anogenital distance and preputial separation in male pups. Body weight gain over time, reproductive tissue weights, and serum testosterone concentrations at PND 60 were not altered. Mammary gland development of female offspring was significantly affected at PND 21. Congener-specific analysis of PBDEs indicated accumulation in all tissues examined. Highest PBDE concentrations were found in fat including milk, whereas blood had the lowest concentrations on a wet weight basis. PBDE concentrations were comparable among various brain regions. Thus, perinatal exposure to DE-71 leads to accumulation of PBDE congeners in various tissues crossing blood-placenta and blood-brain barriers, causing subtle changes in some parameters of neurobehavior and dramatic changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, as well as changes in both male and female reproductive endpoints. Some of these effects are similar to those seen with PCBs, and the persistence of these changes requires further investigation.

  18. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental NR3C1: Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R; Papandonatos, George D; Salisbury, Amy L; Phipps, Maureen G; Huestis, Marilyn A; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F; Marsit, Carmen J; Lester, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral Scale was administered 7 times over the 1st postnatal month; methylation of placental NR3C1 was assessed via bisulfite pyrosequencing. Increased placental NR3C1 methylation was associated with increased infant attention and self-regulation, and decreased lethargy and need for examiner soothing over the 1st postnatal month. A causal steps approach revealed that NR3C1 methylation and MSDP were independently associated with lethargic behavior. Although preliminary, results highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in elucidating pathways to neurobehavioral alterations from MSDP. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. Coexisting Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Rebecca L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Doering, Lynn V.; Chung, Misook L.; Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among patients with heart failure (HF), anxiety symptoms may co-exist with depressive symptoms. However, the extent of overlap and risk factors for anxiety symptoms have not been thoroughly described. Purpose To describe the coexistence of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and to determine the predictors of anxiety symptoms in patients with HF. Methods The sample consisted of 556 outpatients with HF (34% female, 62±12 years, 54% NYHA class III/IV) enrolled in a multicenter HF quality of life registry. Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-anxiety subscale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI). We used a cut-point of 0.35 to categorize patients as having anxiety symptoms or no anxiety symptoms. Logistic regression was used to determine whether age, gender, minority status, educational level, functional status, comorbidities, depressive symptoms, and antidepressant use were predictors of anxiety symptoms. Results One-third of patients had both depressive and anxiety symptoms. There was a dose-response relationship between depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms; higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with a higher level of anxiety symptoms. Younger age (OR= 0.97, p = .004, 95% CI 0.95–0.99) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.25, p depressive symptoms are at high risk for experiencing anxiety symptoms. Clinicians should assess these patients for comorbid anxiety symptoms. Research is needed to test interventions for both depressive and anxiety symptoms. PMID:24408885

  20. Neurobehavior of full-term small for gestational age newborn infants of adolescent mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Marina C. de Moraes Barros; Ruth Guinsburg; Mitsuhiro, Sandro S.; Elisa Chalem; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R. [UNIFESP

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o neurocomportamento de recém-nascidos a termo pequenos (PIG) e adequados (AIG) para a idade gestacional, filhos de mães adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal prospectivo de nascidos a termo AIG e PIG, com 24-72 horas de vida, sem afecções do sistema nervoso central. Os neonatos foram avaliados por meio da Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) para: habituação, atenção, despertar, controle, manobras para a orientação, qualidade dos movimentos...

  1. Neurobehavioral, health, and safety consequences associated with shift work in safety-sensitive professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Laura K; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2009-03-01

    Almost 15% of the full-time workers in the United States are shift workers. We review the physiologic challenges inherent not only in traditional night or rotating shifts but also in extended-duration shifts and other nonstandard hours. The challenging schedules of those in particularly safety-sensitive professions such as police officers, firefighters, and health care providers are highlighted. Recent findings describing the neurobehavioral, health, and safety outcomes associated with shift work also are reviewed. Comprehensive fatigue management programs that include education, screening for common sleep disorders, and appropriate interventions need to be developed to minimize these negative consequences associated with shift work.

  2. Project Plan - Inventory Management basics

    OpenAIRE

    Philip F. Lafontaine

    2017-01-01

    Inventory management technology is a mix of hardware and software intended to add dependability to inventory bookkeeping, diminish episodes of burglary and encourage inventory reviews. Individual inventory things or groups of things could be furnished with RFID tags that recognize the thing sort, expense, value, shipment number, date of shipment and basically whatever other valuable data. Software inventory management arrangements supplant pen-and-paper frameworks, diminishing the time needed...

  3. Effect of oral appliance therapy on neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Winter, Virginia R; Hickie, Ian B; Cistulli, Peter A

    2005-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a custom-made mandibular advancement splint for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with respect to neuropsychological functioning and mood state. A randomized controlled crossover design was used in which 73 participants (mean age = 48.4, SD = 11.0, % men = 80.8) with at least 2 symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and an apnea hypopnea index > or = 10 per hour underwent treatment with both mandibular advancement splint and an inactive oral device. Polysomnographic, neuropsychological and self-report measures were conducted at baseline and repeated after each of the two 4-week treatment phases. MAS treatment was associated with improvements on the somatic component of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Vigor-Activity and Fatigue-Inertia scales of the Profile of Mood States. While there were no improvements within the neuropsychological domains of attention/working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial or executive functioning, treatment with the mandibular advancement splint was associated with faster performance on a test of vigilance/psychomotor speed. These changes, however, did not correspond to the improved subjective sleepiness or apnea-hypopnea index during treatment. Treatment with the mandibular advancement splint results in improvements in self-reported sleepiness, fatigue/energy levels and vigilance/psychomotor speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  4. Life Cycle Inventory Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning......The inventory analysis is the third and often most time-consuming part of an LCA. The analysis is guided by the goal and scope definition, and its core activity is the collection and compilation of data on elementary flows from all processes in the studied product system(s) drawing on a combination...

  5. Effects of melatonin on aluminium-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allagui, M S; Feriani, A; Saoudi, M; Badraoui, R; Bouoni, Z; Nciri, R; Murat, J C; Elfeki, A

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of melatonin (Mel) against aluminium-induced neurodegenerative changes in aging Wistar rats (24-28months old). Herein, aluminium chloride (AlCl3) (50mg/kg BW/day) was administered by gavage, and melatonin (Mel) was co-administered to a group of Al-treated rats by an intra-peritoneal injection at a daily dose of 10mg/kg BW for four months. The findings revealed that aluminium administration induced a significant decrease in body weight associated with marked mortality for the old group of rats, which was more pronounced in old Al-treated rats. Behavioural alterations were assessed by 'open fields', 'elevated plus maze' and 'Radial 8-arms maze' tests. The results demonstrated that Mel co-administration alleviated neurobehavioral changes in both old and old Al-treated rats. Melatonin was noted to play a good neuroprotective role, reducing lipid peroxidation (TBARs), and enhancing enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) activities in the brain organs of old control and old Al-treated rats. Mel treatment also reversed the decrease of AChE activity in the brain tissues, which was confirmed by histological sections. Overall, the results showed that Mel administration can induce beneficial effects for the treatment of Al-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolite profiles correlate closely with neurobehavioral function in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Fujieda

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in direct physical damage and the generation of local factors contributing to secondary pathogenesis. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was used to uncover metabolic changes and to identify relationships between metabolites and neurobehavioral functions in the spinal cord after injury in rats. In the early metabolic phase, neuronal signaling, stress, and inflammation-associated metabolites were strongly altered. A dynamic inflammatory response consisting of elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 and palmitoyl ethanolamide as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA were significantly decreased possibly reflecting neuronal cell death. A second metabolic phase was also seen, consistent with membrane remodeling and antioxidant defense response. These metabolomic changes were consistent with the pathology and progression of SCI. Several metabolites, including NAA, NAAG, and the ω-3 fatty acids docosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate correlated greatly with the established Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotive score (BBB score. Our findings suggest the possibility of a biochemical basis for BBB score and illustrate that metabolites may correlate with neurobehavior. In particular the NAA level in the spinal cord might provide a meaningful biomarker that could help to determine the degree of injury severity and prognosticate neurologic recovery.

  7. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pickut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI training for individuals living with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39 pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD.

  8. The pig as a model animal for studying cognition and neurobehavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Elise T; Schuurman, Teun; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2011-01-01

    In experimental animal research, a short phylogenetic distance, i.e., high resemblance between the model species and the species to be modeled is expected to increase the relevance and generalizability of results obtained in the model species. The (mini)pig shows multiple advantageous characteristics that have led to an increase in the use of this species in studies modeling human medical issues, including neurobehavioral (dys)functions. For example, the cerebral cortex of pigs, unlike that of mice or rats, has cerebral convolutions (gyri and sulci) similar to the human neocortex. We expect that appropriately chosen pig models will yield results of high translational value. However, this claim still needs to be substantiated by research, and the area of pig research is still in its infancy. This chapter provides an overview of the pig as a model species for studying cognitive dysfunctions and neurobehavioral disorders and their treatment, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of various tests, as an aid to researchers considering the use of pigs as model animal species in biomedical research.

  9. Intranasal Insulin Prevents Anesthesia-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Chronic Neurobehavioral Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM 2–6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17–18 months old wild-type (WT mice and in adult (7–8 months old 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but not in adult WT mice. Anesthesia resulted in long-term neurobehavioral changes in the fear conditioning task carried out 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. Importantly, daily intranasal administration of insulin (1.75 U/mouse/day for only 3 days prior to anesthesia completely prevented the anesthesia-induced deficits in spatial learning and memory and the long-term neurobehavioral changes tested 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that aging and AD-like brain pathology increase the vulnerability to cognitive impairment after anesthesia and that intranasal treatment with insulin can prevent anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment.

  10. 21st century neurobehavioral theories of decision making in addiction: Review and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Athamneh, Liqa N; Stein, Jeffrey S; Pope, Derek A

    2018-01-01

    This review critically examines neurobehavioral theoretical developments in decision making in addiction in the 21st century. We specifically compare each theory reviewed to seven benchmarks of theoretical robustness, based on their ability to address: why some commodities are addictive; developmental trends in addiction; addiction-related anhedonia; self-defeating patterns of behavior in addiction; why addiction co-occurs with other unhealthy behaviors; and, finally, means for the repair of addiction. We have included only self-contained theories or hypotheses which have been developed or extended in the 21st century to address decision making in addiction. We thus review seven distinct theories of decision making in addiction: learning theories, incentive-sensitization theory, dopamine imbalance and systems models, opponent process theory, strength models of self-control failure, the competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory, and the triadic systems theory of addiction. Finally, we have directly compared the performance of each of these theories based on the aforementioned benchmarks, and highlighted key points at which several theories have coalesced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  12. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an "early plasticity" hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury.

  13. Effect of low-level prenatal mercury exposure on neonate neurobehavioral development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinhua; Ying, Tinger; Shen, Zhonghai; Wang, Haiyan

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of low-level prenatal mercury exposure on neonate neurobehavioral development in China. In total, 418 mother-neonate pairs were included in the study. Maternal urine, hair, and blood samples and cord blood samples were used to document prenatal exposure to mercury. The Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment was used to estimate neurobehavioral development in the neonates at 3 days of age. Total mercury level was significantly higher in cord blood than that in maternal blood. A strong correlation was found between total mercury levels in maternal blood and those in cord blood (r = 0.7431; P mercury levels (all P mercury levels among groups with different fish consumption frequencies (all P mercury level was significantly associated with total Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment scores (β = 0.03; standard error = 0.01; P = 0.0409), passive muscle tone (odds ratio = 1.07; 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.13; P = 0.0071), and active muscle tone (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.11; P = 0.0170) scores after adjustment, respectively. Neonatal neurodevelopment was associated with prenatal exposure to mercury. Women with high mercury levels should avoid intake seafood excessively during pregnancy. Long-term effects of exposure to mercury on childhood development need to be further explored. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute minocycline treatment prevents neurobehavioral impairment in a rat model of mild blast traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet eKovesdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild blast induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI and its associated memory impairment and anxiety elevation currently represent one of the major military health challenges. Our earlier work using a rodent model of mbTBI indicated that the pathology underlying the observed neurobehavioral abnormalities includes neuroinflammation. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of acute treatment with minocycline, an FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the functional and molecular outcomes of mbTBI. Beginning four hours after a single exposure to mild blast overpressure, animals received a daily dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg or physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p. for 4 days. Physiological parameters (arterial blood O2 saturation, heart and breath rates, and pulse distension and neurobehavior (locomotor activity, anxiety, and spatial memory were monitored at multiple time points. At the termination of the experiment (51 days post-injury, we analyzed sera and select brain regions for changes in protein markers of inflammation as well as vascular, neuronal, and glial integrity. We found that acute treatment with minocycline completely prevented memory impairment and anxiety development by ameliorating the inflammatory response to injury and substantially reducing neuronal and glial cell loss. Based on our findings, we urge testing the effect of minocycline treatment in human mbTBI.

  15. Neurobehavioral changes associated with chronic treatment of omega-3 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Z. Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of chronic use for 2 month with omega-3 on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field. The study showed an effect for different doses of omega-3 on the nervous system and behavior when drainage drug by mouth, that are easily hand to deal with the rats dosage with 10, 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight. Rats in doses 10, 50, 250, 500, 1000 mg/kg recorded a significant decrease in number of crossed squares and the number of rearing comparison with the control group. Pocking test recorded significant increase in the number of times introduction of head in the holes compared to the control group in doses of 50, 250, 500 mgkg of body weight, a dose of 1000 mgkg showed a prolongation in the time required to avoid animal high edge, with a lower score swimming and stretching in a period of rotation in the negative geotaxis test compared with the control group, while the rest of the doses did not show any significant difference compared with control. In test of tonic immobility response all the doses recorded a significant decrease in the stillness and freeze for rats movement, compared with control group. We concluded that omega-3 has beneficial effect on the level of neurobehavioral and motor activity in the open field activity in addition to development cognitive behavior of animals, except dose 1000 mgkg Shaw some behavioral difference compare with control group.

  16. Parenting behavior is associated with the early neurobehavioral development of very preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Howard, Kelly; Bear, Merilyn; Hunt, Rod W; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Woodward, Lianne; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-02-01

    There is an increasing focus on social and environmental factors that promote and support the early development of highly vulnerable children such as those born very preterm. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between parenting behavior, parent-child synchrony, and neurobehavioral development in very preterm children at 24 months of age. Participants were 152 very preterm children (behavior (positive affect, negative affect, sensitivity, facilitation, and intrusiveness). Cognitive and motor development was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, and the Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment was used to assess socioemotional development (social-emotional competence and internalizing and externalizing behavior). fter controlling for social risk, most parenting domains were associated with cognitive development, with parent-child synchrony emerging as the most predictive. Greater parent-child synchrony was also associated with greater social-emotional competence, as was parenting that was positive, warm, and sensitive. Parents who displayed higher levels of negative affect were more likely to rate their children as withdrawn, anxious, and inhibited, but, unexpectedly, higher negative affect was also associated with more optimal psychomotor development. Parenting was not associated with externalizing behaviors at this age. Specific parenting behaviors, particularly parent-child synchrony, were associated with neurobehavioral development. These findings have implications for the development of targeted parent-based interventions to promote positive outcomes across different developmental domains during the first 2 years of life for very preterm children.

  17. Automatic quantitative MRI texture analysis in small-for-gestational-age fetuses discriminates abnormal neonatal neurobehavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Sanz-Cortes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis whether texture analysis (TA from MR images could identify patterns associated with an abnormal neurobehavior in small for gestational age (SGA neonates. METHODS: Ultrasound and MRI were performed on 91 SGA fetuses at 37 weeks of GA. Frontal lobe, basal ganglia, mesencephalon and cerebellum were delineated from fetal MRIs. SGA neonates underwent NBAS test and were classified as abnormal if ≥ 1 area was 5(th centile. Textural features associated with neurodevelopment were selected and machine learning was used to model a predictive algorithm. RESULTS: Of the 91 SGA neonates, 49 were classified as normal and 42 as abnormal. The accuracies to predict an abnormal neurobehavior based on TA were 95.12% for frontal lobe, 95.56% for basal ganglia, 93.18% for mesencephalon and 83.33% for cerebellum. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal brain MRI textural patterns were associated with neonatal neurodevelopment. Brain MRI TA could be a useful tool to predict abnormal neurodevelopment in SGA.

  18. Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  20. Subjective Symptom of Visual Display Terminal Syndrome and State Anxiety in Adolescent Smartphone Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soonjoo Park; Jung-wha Choi

    2015-01-01

    .... The presence and severity of smartphone addiction, VDTS symptoms, and state anxiety were measured using Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale, VDTS Questionnaire, and State Anxiety Inventory, respectively...

  1. Effects of work burden, job strain and support on depressive symptoms and burnout among Japanese physicians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Chiba, Shigeru; Yoshioka, Eiji; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Nakagi, Yoshihiko; Itoh, Toshihiro; Sugioka, Yoshihiko; Kitaoka-Higashiguchi, Kazuyo; Yoshida, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    .... The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used to evaluate burnout. Possible confounder adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios for depressive symptoms...

  2. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  3. Inventory order crossovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The control policies that are used in inventory management systems assume that orders arrive in the same sequence as they were ordered. Due to changes in supply chains and markets, this assumption is no longer valid. This paper aims at providing an improved understanding of the phenomenon of order

  4. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee

    2009-01-01

    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  5. Mass Producing Concept Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin-Doxas, K.; Klymkowsky, M.; Doxas, I.

    2005-12-01

    Concept Inventories are research based assessment instruments which derive their validity and reliability from well researched distracters that represent students' dominant misconceptions in the field. They have formed the backbone of research based reform efforts in Physics by providing valid, reliable common assessment instruments with which to evaluate different teaching approaches and materials, and many disciplines are in the process of developing large numbers of Concept Inventories for their own subject areas. Unfortunately, Concept Inventories are labour and time intensive, with instruments taking anywhere from 2-8 years to develop, and correspondingly high price tags. The time and cost is directly related to the fact that valid, reliable instruments require mapping the dominant misconceptions in a field, which is usually a time consuming and labour intensive task. This paper will describe how we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) with unsupervised clustering of the LSA vectors to identify and classify misconceptions in various science disciplines, considerably speeding up the process of misconception discovery and classification. The paper will present results from Astronomy and Biology, and will describe current efforts to develop a Concept Inventory for Space Physics.

  6. Materials inventory management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  7. Student Attitude Inventory - 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.

    This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…

  8. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...... were analysed with multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional analysis all levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with retirement intentions before the age of 62 years. Similar associations were found prospectively. Depressive symptoms and worsened depressive...

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Placental "NR3C1": Mechanism Underlying Prenatal Programming of Infant Neurobehavior by Maternal Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Laura R.; Papandonatos, George D.; Salisbury, Amy L.; Phipps, Maureen G.; Huestis, Marilyn A.; Niaura, Raymond; Padbury, James F.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of the placental glucocorticoid receptor gene ("NR3C1") was investigated as a mechanism underlying links between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and infant neurobehavior in 45 mother-infant pairs (49% MSDP-exposed; 52% minorities; ages 18-35). The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) Network Neurobehavioral…

  10. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory: area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million acres of commercial forest land, an increase of nearly 2% since 1968. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  11. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    2010-01-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  12. Practical application of inventory models

    OpenAIRE

    RŮŽIČKOVÁ, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is based on finding a suitable method of supplying a company. The emphasis lays on gaining data about inventory, supplying and demand of a company. The teoretical part deals with the allocation of inventory, with the determination of inventory managment models that can be applied in practice, and with demand and costs. The practical part deals with the analysis of stocks in the company, with used model inventory management and with finding of demand. For finding the model...

  13. Do Respiratory Cycle-Related EEG Changes or Arousals from Sleep Predict Neurobehavioral Deficits and Response to Adenotonsillectomy in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D.; Garetz, Susan L.; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Dillon, James E.; Felt, Barbara T.; Hoban, Timothy F.; Guire, Kenneth E.; O'Brien, Louise M.; Burns, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Methods: Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Results: Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Conclusion: Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194 Citation: Chervin RD, Garetz SL, Ruzicka DL, Hodges EK, Giordani BJ, Dillon JE, Felt BT, Hoban TF, Guire KE, O'Brien LM, Burns JW. Do respiratory cycle

  14. Low-level gestational exposure to mercury and maternal fish consumption: Associations with neurobehavior in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingying; Khoury, Jane C; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of low-level gestational methylmercury exposure from fish consumption on infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the offspring are limited and inconclusive. Our objective was to examine the effects of low-level gestational exposure to methylmercury on neurobehavioral outcomes in early infancy. We assessed neurobehavior of 344 infants at 5-weeks using the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS). Gestational mercury exposure was measured as whole blood total mercury (WBTHg) in maternal and cord blood. We collected fish consumption information and estimated polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake. We examined the association between gestational mercury exposure and NNNS scales using regression, adjusting for covariates. Geometric mean of maternal and cord WBTHg were 0.64 and 0.72 μg/L, respectively. Most mothers (84%) reported eating fish during pregnancy. Infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure showed increased asymmetric reflexes among girls (p=0.04 for maternal WBTHg and p=0.03 for cord WBTHg), less need for special handling during the assessment (p=0.03 for cord WBTHg) and a trend of better attention (p=0.054 for both maternal WBTHg and cord WBTHg). Similarly, infants born to mothers with higher fish consumption or estimated PUFA intake also had increased asymmetric reflexes and less need for special handling. In models simultaneously adjusted for WBTHg and fish consumption (or PUFA intake), the previously observed WBTHg effects were attenuated; and higher fish consumption (or PUFA intake) was significantly associated with less need for special handling. In a cohort with low level mercury exposure and reporting low fish consumption, we found minimal evidence of mercury associated detrimental effects on neurobehavioral outcomes during early infancy. Higher prenatal mercury exposure was associated with more frequent asymmetric reflexes in girls. In contrast, infants with higher prenatal mercury exposure and those whose mothers

  15. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  16. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD.PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans.The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3 genotypes at baseline and their equivalent inter-individual vulnerability

  17. Inventory Costs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haka, Clifford H.; Ursery, Nancy

    1985-01-01

    Presents procedures and statistics for a manual inventory and an inventory coordinated with conversion to an online circulation system at University of Kansas main library. Results of this two-phase inventory (Dewey Decimal-classified materials, LC-classified materials) and the cost-effectiveness of such a project in a large library are…

  18. Exposure to low levels of hydrogen sulfide : symptoms, sensory function, and cognitive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, N.; Kipen, H.; Lioy, P.; Zhang, J.; Weisel, C. [Rutgers Univ., NJ (United States). Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst.

    2003-07-01

    Petroleum refineries, kraft paper mills, and coke ovens are some of the sources of hydrogen sulfide exposure. In 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended an ambient exposure standard of .003 ppm for odor and .01 ppm for eye irritation. In communities with high exposure levels, health effects have been documented as being headaches, eye and nasal symptoms, coughs, breathlessness and decreased psychomotor performance. Refinery workers in some jurisdictions around the world have been subjected to higher exposure levels. This report presents results of clinical studies on the neurobehavioral effects in rats. The tasks of memory and learning in rats parallels those in humans. A pilot exposure study examined the health effects of controlled exposures to 3 concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (.05, .50, and 5 ppm). It was concluded that changes in neurobehavioral measurements can be directly associated with exposure and dose-response. 25 figs.

  19. Indian scales and inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

  20. PROCESSING REVERSE LOGISTICS INVENTORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Bajor, Ivona; Novačko, Luka; Ogrizović, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Developed logistics systems have organized reverse logistics flows and are continuously analyzing product returns, tending to detect patterns in oscillations of returning products in certain time periods. Inventory management in reverse logistics systems depends on different criteria, regarding goods categories, formed contracts between subjects of supply chains, uncertainty in manufacturer’s quantities of DOA (dead on arrival) products, etc. The developing logistics systems, such as the Croa...

  1. Competing neurobehavioral decision systems theory of cocaine addiction: From mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K; Snider, Sarah E; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Stein, Jeffrey S; Hanlon, Colleen A

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a difficult-to-treat, chronically relapsing disorder. Multiple scientific disciplines provide distinct perspectives on this disorder; however, connections between disciplines are rare. The competing neurobehavioral decision systems (CNDS) theory posits that choice results from the interaction between two decision systems (impulsive and executive) and that regulatory imbalance between systems can induce pathology, including addiction. Using this view, we integrate a diverse set of observations on cocaine dependence, including bias for immediacy, neural activity and structure, developmental time course, behavioral comorbidities, and the relationship between cocaine dependence and socioeconomic status. From the CNDS perspective, we discuss established and emerging behavioral, pharmacological, and neurological treatments and identify possible targets for future treatments. The ability of the CNDS theory to integrate diverse findings highlights its utility for understanding cocaine dependence and supports that dysregulation between the decision systems contributes to addiction. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurobehavioral estimation of children with life-long increased lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetou-Marantidou, A.; Nakou, S.; Micheloyannis, J.

    1988-11-01

    A battery of neurobehavioral examinations was carried out on 30 children who were 6-11 yr of age and who had resided near a lead smelter all their lives. Their blood lead levels were 35-60 micrograms/100 ml and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were greater than 100 micrograms/100 ml. Neurological examination revealed that they had a significantly higher incidence of pathological findings (e.g., muscle hypotonia, increased tendon reflexes, dysarthria, and dysdiadochokinesia) than children from an unpolluted area who were matched for age, sex, family size, and educational and socioeconomic status of the parents, but who had normal erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. The children with elevated blood lead levels showed, after assessment by the Oseretsky test, retardation of motor maturation; they also scored higher on the minimal brain damage scale of the Rutter behavioral questionnaire. These differences persisted at a 4-yr follow-up, and their school performance was consistently poorer than that of the controls.

  3. Resolving inventory differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1991-12-31

    Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID.

  4. Brief Report Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brief Report Reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale in a sample of South African adolescents. ... Anxiety Scale for epidemiological investigations of adolescents' symptoms. Method — Self-report questionnaires were administered on two ... Future studies should include larger and more ...

  5. Validation of a Chinese version of the dental anxiety inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, Sam K. S.; Stouthard, Marlies E. A.; Keung Leung, W.

    2005-01-01

    To translate the English version of Dental Anxiety Inventory (DAxI) and its short-form (SDAxI) and to validate their use in Hong Kong Chinese. The DAxI and SDAxI were translated into Chinese. A total of 500 adults (18-64 years) were interviewed, the Chinese DAxI, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90),

  6. The validity and reliability of tinnitus handicap inventory Thai version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop

    2012-11-01

    Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.

  7. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  8. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  9. Adaptation of the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) for evaluating neurobehavioral performance in Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M; Mateo, Patrocinio C; Bielawski, Dawn M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English ("Taglish") and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4-6-year-old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture.

  10. Early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants Desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Stefaneli Ziotti Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the very early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants and to examine differences regarding sex. Two-hundred and two preterm infants were assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI, which was carried out at 32-37 weeks post-conceptional age in the hospital setting. The infants' performance was compared to a norm-referenced sample and a comparison between groups regarding sex was also done. In comparison to the NAPI norm-reference, the preterm infants showed less muscular tonicity on the scarf sign, less vigor and spontaneous movement, higher alertness and orientation, weaker cry, and more sleep state. There was no statistical difference between males and females preterm infants at NAPI performances.O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desenvolvimento neurocomportamental inicial de bebês prematuros e examinar as diferenças quanto ao sexo. Foram avaliados 202 bebês nascidos pré-termo pela Avaliação Neurocomportamental para Prematuros (NAPI, que foi realizada na fase de 32-37 semanas de idade pós-concepcional no contexto hospitalar. O desempenho dos bebês no NAPI foi comparado com a amostra de padronização do instrumento e também foi feita a comparação entre grupos diferenciados pelo sexo. Em relação à amostra de padronização, os bebês deste estudo apresentaram menor tonicidade muscular no sinal de cachecol, menor vigor e movimento espontâneo, mais alerta e orientação, choro mais fraco e mais estado de sono. Houve um padrão semelhante de desempenho neurocomportamental dos meninos e meninas nascidos prematuros.

  11. Prenatal exposure to mercury and neurobehavioral development of neonates in Zhoushan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Yan, Chong-Huai; Tian, Ying; Wang, Yu; Xie, Han-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Tong, Shilu; Zhou, Qing-Xin; Shen, Xiao-Ming

    2007-11-01

    Exposure to hazardous Hg can adversely affect children's neurodevelopment. However, few data are available on either Hg levels in neonates and their mothers or the impact of prenatal exposure to Hg on neonates' neurobehavioral development in the Chinese population. Therefore, this study examined Hg levels in neonates and their mothers and the relationship between prenatal exposure to Hg and neonates' neurobehavioral development in Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province, China. Between August and October 2004, 417 women who delivered their babies at Zhoushan Women's and Children's Health Hospital, an island city in east China were invited to take part in this study. A total of 408 complete questionnaires, 405 maternal hair samples, and 406 umbilical cord samples were collected. Neonatal behavioral neurological assessments (NBNA) were conducted for 384 neonates. The geometric mean (GM) of Hg level in cord blood was 5.58 microg/L (interquartile range: 3.96-7.82 microg/L), and the GM of maternal hair Hg level was 1246.56 microg/kg (interquartile range: 927.34-1684.67 microg/kg), a level much lower than other reported fish-eating populations, indicating Hg exposure in Zhoushan city is generally below those considered hazardous. However, according to the reference dose of Hg levels (RfD 5.8 microg/L) derived by EPA, 69.9% of newborns had levels at or above the RfD, an estimated level assumed to be without appreciable harm. There was a strong correlation between maternal hair and cord blood Hg levels (r = 0.82, P exposure was associated with decreased behavioral ability for males (OR = 1.235, 95%CI of OR = 1.078-1.414, P exposure resulting from fish consumption. But the findings of this study may be due to chance, and long-term follow-up research is needed to evaluate cumulative effects of exposure to mercury.

  12. Neurobehavioral alterations and histopathological changes in brain and spinal cord of rats intoxicated with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Babu Lal; Mahaprabhu, R; Rahangadale, Santosh; Bhandarkar, Arun G; Kurkure, Nitin V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this project was to study the clinical manifestations, neurobehavioral, hematobiochemical, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes during acrylamide toxicity in rats. A total of 30 adult male Wistar rats were divided in 5 equal groups and received 0, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight acrylamide as oral gavage, while group 5 was micronucleus (MN) control. Functional observational battery (FOB) parameters were studied at the 28th day of post treatment. Toxicological manifestations were evident in acrylamide-treated rats from 14th day onward. FOB revealed a significant change in central nervous system, neuromuscular, and autonomic domains. The hematological changes include significant decrease in concentration of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume. The biochemical parameters aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin showed significant increase, while the levels of serum globulin and glucose were found to decrease significantly. The MN assay revealed the significant increase in frequencies of micronuclei and number of polychromatic erythrocytes. The oxidative stress parameters revealed no significant difference as compared to control rats. Histopathological changes observed in brain include neuronal degeneration, edema, and congestion, while spinal cord revealed demyelination in low-dose group and bilateral necrosis with malacia, liquefaction of white matter, and loss of myelin from gray matter in high-dose groups. The result indicates pathological alterations in brain and spinal cord and is responsible for neurobehavioral changes in rats. The FOB changes and histopathological alterations in spinal cord are in dose dependent to acrylamide intoxication. Various toxicological effects observed in experiment direct us to focus on a deep study and evaluate the possible causes pertaining to toxicity of this chemical. It would furnish the scientists with better options that

  13. Division III Collision Sports Are Not Associated with Neurobehavioral Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Berkner, Paul; Sandstrom, Noah J; Peluso, Mark W; Kurtz, Matthew M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-15

    We sought to determine whether the exposure to the sub-concussive blows that occur during division III collegiate collision sports affect later life neurobehavioral quality-of-life measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of alumni from four division III colleges, targeting those between the ages of 40-70 years, using several well-validated quality-of-life measures for executive function, general concerns, anxiety, depression, emotional and behavior dyscontrol, fatigue, positive affect, sleep disturbance, and negative consequences of alcohol use. We used multivariable linear regression to assess for associations between collision sport participation and quality-of-life measures while adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, annual income, highest educational degree, college grades, exercise frequency, and common medical conditions. We obtained data from 3702 alumni, more than half of whom (2132) had participated in collegiate sports, 23% in collision sports, 23% in non-contact sports. Respondents with a history of concussion had worse self-reported health on several measures. When subjects with a history of concussion were removed from the analyses in order to assess for any potential effect of sub-concussive blows alone, negative consequences of alcohol use remained higher among collision sport athletes (β-coefficient 1.957, 95% CI 0.827-3.086). There were, however, no other significant associations between exposure to collision sports during college and any other quality-of-life measures. Our results suggest that, in the absence of a history of concussions, participation in collision sports at the Division III collegiate level is not a risk factor for worse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, despite exposure to repeated sub-concussive blows.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of the vegetative and minimally conscious state: Clinical consensus versus standardized neurobehavioral assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerus Steve

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously published studies have reported that up to 43% of patients with disorders of consciousness are erroneously assigned a diagnosis of vegetative state (VS. However, no recent studies have investigated the accuracy of this grave clinical diagnosis. In this study, we compared consensus-based diagnoses of VS and MCS to those based on a well-established standardized neurobehavioral rating scale, the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R. Methods We prospectively followed 103 patients (55 ± 19 years with mixed etiologies and compared the clinical consensus diagnosis provided by the physician on the basis of the medical staff's daily observations to diagnoses derived from CRS-R assessments performed by research staff. All patients were assigned a diagnosis of 'VS', 'MCS' or 'uncertain diagnosis.' Results Of the 44 patients diagnosed with VS based on the clinical consensus of the medical team, 18 (41% were found to be in MCS following standardized assessment with the CRS-R. In the 41 patients with a consensus diagnosis of MCS, 4 (10% had emerged from MCS, according to the CRS-R. We also found that the majority of patients assigned an uncertain diagnosis by clinical consensus (89% were in MCS based on CRS-R findings. Conclusion Despite the importance of diagnostic accuracy, the rate of misdiagnosis of VS has not substantially changed in the past 15 years. Standardized neurobehavioral assessment is a more sensitive means of establishing differential diagnosis in patients with disorders of consciousness when compared to diagnoses determined by clinical consensus.

  15. Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment Accurately Measures Cognition in Patients Undergoing Electroconvulsive Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Kristen R; Woods, Steven R; Adams-Clark, Alexis; Choi, So Yung; Franke, Caroline L; Susukida, Ryoko; Thompson, Carol; Reti, Irving M; Kaplin, Adam I

    2017-10-03

    The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) is an electronic cognitive test battery. The present study compares DANA to the standard Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in subjects undergoing electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Seventeen inpatient subjects in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Department of Psychiatry were administered longitudinal paired DANA and MMSE tests (7.6 ± 4.1 per patient) from January 10, 2014 to September 26, 2014. Regression analyses were conducted (with or without MMSE scores of 30) to study the impact of the MMSE upper limit, and within-subject regression analyses were conducted to compare MMSE and DANA scores over time. Statistically significant relationships were measured between DANA and MMSE scores. Relationships strengthened when MMSE scores of 30 were omitted from analyses, demonstrating a ceiling effect of the MMSE. Within-subject analyses revealed relationships between MMSE and DANA scores over the duration of the inpatient stay. Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment is an electronic, mobile, repeatable, sensitive, and valid method of measuring cognition over time in depressed patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy treatment. Automation of the DANA allows for more frequent cognitive testing in a busy clinical setting and enhances cognitive assessment sensitivity with a timed component to each test.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  16. Impact of Sleep Restriction on Neurobehavioral Functioning of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Design: Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). Setting: A quiet location within their home environments. Participants: Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Interventions: NA Measurements: Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Results: Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Conclusions: Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD. Citation: Gruber R; Wiebe S; Montecalvo L; Brunetti B; Amsel R; Carrier J. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(3):315-323. PMID:21358848

  17. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen J. Wear

    Full Text Available Abstract Neurobehavioural and psychiatric symptoms are common in a range of neurodegenerative disorders with distinct profiles which are helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of these disorders. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI has been shown to distinguish frontotemporal dementia (FTD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, Huntington's disease (HD and Parkinson's disease (PD, but it is lengthy. Objective: To develop a shorter version of the 81 item CBI. Methods: CBI data from 450 participants with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD (64, AD (96, PD (215 and HD (75 were analysed using Principal Components Analysis and measures of internal consistency (Cronbach alpha. Results: A reduced 45-item questionnaire was developed. The instrument identified distinct behavioural profiles and performed as well as the original version. Conclusions: A shorter (45 item version of the CBI is capable of differentiating bv-FTD and AD from PD and HD. It may be useful in delineating the type and extent of problems in these disorders as well as monitoring therapeutic interventions.

  18. A neurobehavioral intervention incorporated into a state early intervention program is associated with higher perceived quality of care among parents of high-risk newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Nugent, J Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare two models of early intervention (EI) service delivery-a neurobehavioral intervention and usual care-on parents' perceived quality of EI service delivery. Families of newborns referred to EI were randomly assigned to a neurobehavioral intervention or usual care group and followed until the infant was 12 weeks corrected gestational age. The intervention group (n = 25) received a weekly neurobehavioral intervention. The usual care group (n = 13) received standard weekly home visits. Mothers completed the Home Visiting Index (HVI) measuring the quality of EI service delivery. Mixed linear regression was used to examine group differences in quality scores. The intervention group reported higher quality of care related to facilitating optimal parent-infant social interaction (mean difference = 2.17, 95% CI: 0.41, 3.92).A neurobehavioral model of service delivery can be successfully integrated into EI programming and appears to be associated with higher parent-reported perceived quality.

  19. Acute Total and Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions, Waking EEG and Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1999-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation leads to decrements in neurobehavioral performance and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations as well as the incidence of slow eye movements ad detected in the electro-oculogram (EOG) during wakefulness. Although total sleep deprivation is a powerful tool to investigate the association of EEG/EOG and neurobehavioral decrements, sleep loss during space flight is usual only partial. Furthermore exposure to the microgravity environment leads to changes in sodium and volume homeostasis and associated renal and cardio-endocrine responses. Some of these changes can be induced in head down tilt bedrest studies. We integrate research tools and research projects to enhance the fidelity of the simulated conditions of space flight which are characterized by complexity and mutual interactions. The effectiveness of countermeasures and physiologic mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral changes and renal-cardio endocrine changes are investigated in Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations Team respectively. Although the. specific aims of these two projects are very different, they employ very similar research protocols. Thus, both projects investigate the effects of posture/bedrest and sleep deprivation (total or partial) on outcome measures relevant to their specific aims. The main aim of this enhancement grant is to exploit the similarities in research protocols by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Renal-Cardio project in the research protocol of Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Quantitative EEG and Sleep Deprivation Project in the research protocols of Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations team. In particular we will assess Neurobehavioral Function and Waking EEG in the research protocols of the renal-cardio endocrine project and renin-angiotensin and cardiac function in the research

  20. Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiciński Michał

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse. Methods As a part of a biomonitoring program for environmental health surveillance in Flanders, Belgium, we assessed the neurobehavioral function with the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES-3, and collected blood samples in a group of high school students. Cross-sectional data on 515 adolescents (13.6-17 years of age was available for the analysis. Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA] and cognitive performance. In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. Results A two-fold increase of the sum of serum PBDE’s was associated with a decrease of the number of taps with the preferred-hand in the Finger Tapping test by 5.31 (95% CI: 0.56 to 10.05, p = 0.029. The effects of the individual PBDE congeners on the motor speed were consistent. Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020 for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045 for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. We did not

  1. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...... in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries....

  2. Asteroid volatiles inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Jones, T. D.; Herbert, F.

    1989-01-01

    Asteroids appear in light of telescopic and meteority studies to be the most accessible repositories of early solar system history available. In the cooler regions of the outer asteroid belt, apparently unaffected by severe heating, the C, P, and D populations appear to harbor significant inventories of volatiles; the larger primordial belt population may have had an even greater percentage of volatile-rich, low-albedo asteroids, constituting a potent asteroid for veneering early terrestrial planet atmospheres. The volatile-rich asteroids contain carbon, structurally bound and adsorbed water, as well as remnants of interstellar material predating the solar system.

  3. Plague Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  4. Diphtheria Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Diphtheria Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Diphtheria Home About Diphtheria Causes and Transmission Symptoms Complications ...

  5. Rotavirus Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organization PATH's Rotavirus Vaccine Program American Academy of Pediatrics ... symptoms to appear. Children who get infected may have severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Vomiting ...

  6. Longitudinal Associations from Neurobehavioral Disinhibition to Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior in Boys: Direct and Mediated Effects through Moderate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Tate, Eleanor B.; Ridenour, Ty A.; Reynolds, Maureen D.; Zhai, Zu W.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in mid-adolescence. Methods Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. Results Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. Conclusions These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in mid-adolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys’ psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions. PMID:23876782

  7. Energy Education Materials Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)

  8. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Peterson, 2007; Wargo et al., 2010a). This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS) hypothesis (Bickel et al., 2012b) captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994) and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST; Gray and McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton and Corr, 2004), which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992) as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behavior. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003) in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  9. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Alex; Arbuckle, Kathleen; Petrie, Dennis J; McCowan, Colin

    2014-04-08

    It is assumed within the accumulated literature that children born of pregnant opioid dependent mothers have impaired neurobehavioral function as a consequence of chronic intrauterine opioid use. Quantitative and systematic review of the literature on the consequences of chronic maternal opioid use during pregnancy on neurobehavioral function of children was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Cinahl, EMBASE, PsychINFO and MEDLINE between the periods of January 1995 to January 2012. There were only 5 studies out of the 200 identified that quantitatively reported on neurobehavioral function of children after maternal opioid use during pregnancy. All 5 were case control studies with the number of exposed subjects within the studies ranging from 33-143 and 45-85 for the controls. This meta-analysis showed no significant impairments, at a non-conservative significance level of p opioid using mothers. The magnitude of all possible effects was small according to Cohen's benchmark criteria. Chronic intra-uterine opioid exposed infants and pre-school children experienced no significant impairment in neurobehavioral outcomes when compared to non-exposed peers, although in all domains there was a trend to poorer outcomes. The findings of this review are limited by the small number of studies analysed, the heterogenous populations and small numbers within the individual studies. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if any neuropsychological impairments appear after the age of 5 years and to help investigate further the role of environmental risk factors on the effect of 'core' phenotypes.

  10. Effects of maternal administration of vitamins C and E on ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Christopher M; Ibram, Ferda; Dringenberg, Hans C; Reynolds, James N; Brien, James F

    2007-12-01

    Consumption of ethanol during human pregnancy can produce a wide spectrum of teratogenic effects, including neurobehavioral dysfunction. This study, in the guinea pig, tested the hypothesis that chronic maternal administration of antioxidant vitamins C plus E, together with ethanol, mitigates ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following four chronic oral regimens: ethanol and vitamins C plus E; ethanol and vitamin vehicle; isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vitamins C plus E; or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vehicle. Vitamins C (250 mg) plus E (100mg) or vehicle were given daily, and ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) (E) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding was given for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 days of no treatment each week throughout gestation. One neonate from selected litters was studied on postnatal day (PD) 0. Neurobehavioral function was determined by measuring task acquisition and task retention using an 8-day moving-platform version of the Morris water-maze task, starting on PD 45. Thereafter, in vivo electrophysiologic assessment of changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity was conducted. There was an ethanol-induced decrease in neonatal brain weight compared with sucrose. The vitamins C plus E regimen protected hippocampal weight relative to brain weight in ethanol offspring, and mitigated the ethanol-induced deficit in the task-retention component of the water-maze task. However, in the sucrose group, this Vit regimen produced deficits in both task acquisition and task retention. The vitamins C plus E regimen did not mitigate the ethanol-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation. These results indicate that maternal administration of this high-dose vitamins C plus E regimen throughout gestation has limited efficacy and potential adverse effects as a therapeutic intervention for E neurobehavioral teratogenicity.

  11. Dynamic Circadian Modulation in a Biomathematical Model for the Effects of Sleep and Sleep Loss on Waking Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V.; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss—is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation—and thus sensitivity to sleep loss—depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work. Citation: McCauley P; Kalachev LV; Mollicone DJ; Banks S; Dinges DF; Van Dongen HPA. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1987-1997. PMID:24293775

  12. A chronic longitudinal characterization of neurobehavioral and neuropathological cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra eZakirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991 exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI.For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test, Elevated Plus Maze, Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze and Barnes Maze Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to cover the lifespan

  13. Do respiratory cycle-related EEG changes or arousals from sleep predict neurobehavioral deficits and response to adenotonsillectomy in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D; Garetz, Susan L; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Hodges, Elise K; Giordani, Bruno J; Dillon, James E; Felt, Barbara T; Hoban, Timothy F; Guire, Kenneth E; O'Brien, Louise M; Burns, Joseph W

    2014-08-15

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194.

  14. Cognitive requirements of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems: Some implications of temporal horizon for managerial behavior in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Robert Foxall

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of managerial activity in terms of neuroscience is typically concerned with extreme behaviors such as corporate fraud or reckless investment (Wargo, Baglini & Nelson, 2010a; Peterson, 2007. This paper is concerned to map out the neurophysiological and cognitive mechanisms at work across the spectrum of managerial behaviors encountered in more day-to-day contexts. It proposes that the competing neuro-behavioral decisions systems (CNBDS hypothesis (Bickel, Mueller & Jarmolowicz, 2012 captures well the range of managerial behaviors that can be characterized as hyper- or hypo-activity in either the limbically-based impulsive system or the frontal-cortically based executive system with the corresponding level of activity encountered in the alternative brain region. This pattern of neurophysiological responding also features in the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (Damasio, 1994 and in Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (Gray & McNaughton, 2000; McNaughton & Corr, 2004, which usefully extend the thesis, for example in the direction of personality. In discussing these theories, the paper has three purposes: to clarify the role of cognitive explanation in neuro-behavioral decision theory, to propose picoeconomics (Ainslie, 1992 as the cognitive component of competing neuro-behavioral decision systems theory and to suggest solutions to the problems of imbalanced neurophysiological activity in managerial behaviour. The first is accomplished through discussion of the role of picoeconomics in neuro-behavioral decision theory; the second, by consideration of adaptive-innovative cognitive styles (Kirton, 2003 in the construction of managerial teams, a theme that can now be investigated by a dedicated research program that incorporates psychometric analysis of personality types and cognitive styles involved in managerial decision-making and the underlying neurophysiological bases of such decision-making.

  15. The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    .... 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form...

  16. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Culverts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  17. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  18. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  19. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....

  20. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  1. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  2. The effects of Cannabis sativa L. seed (hemp seed) on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi, Másume; Saberivand, Adel; Becker, Lora A; Karimi, Isaac

    2011-05-01

    This study determined the effects of maternal dietary intake of hemp seed on reproductive and neurobehavioral end points of Wistar rats. Time-mated rats were fed 100% hemp seed (n  =  15), 50% hemp seed (n  =  15) or basal diet (n  =  15) once a day. The amount of food made available was based on control feed consumption records. All dams remained on their respective diets from premating (14 days) throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning, all pups were given their maternal diet until puberty. Mating and delivery weights of dams in all groups did not show significant changes. Number of pregnancies, number and post-natal survival rate of total rat pups, litter size and milk yield were lower in the group that received 100% hemp seed. Offspring that received 50% hemp seed diet expressed reproductive and neurobehavioral end points from a modified Fox battery earlier than rats on 100% hemp seed or basal diet, except acoustic startle results where no differences appeared. In conclusion, this study shows that hemp seed supplementation does not improve the reproductive and neurobehavioral performances of rats. Pregnant women and nursing mothers should be cautious about the using of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts in their diets. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neuroepidemiologic and Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome in an Old-Old Population: The Kurihara Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Kumai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. Aim: To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. Method: The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity. The prevalence of MCR and conversion to dementia (AD8 Dementia Screening Interview cutoff 2/8, together with the neurobehavioral characteristics of the MCR group, were analyzed. Results: The prevalence was 11.1%, and the conversion ratio in the MCR group was higher than that in the non-MCR group (OR = 1.38. The MCR group had lower scores on the executive function test as well as gait velocity. Conclusions: The MCR syndrome increases the rate of conversion to dementia, and both slow gait and lower scores in executive tests, which are ‘frontal-based' functions, are predictive of higher rates of conversion to dementia.

  4. Dynamic circadian modulation in a biomathematical model for the effects of sleep and sleep loss on waking neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Peter; Kalachev, Leonid V; Mollicone, Daniel J; Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-12-01

    Recent experimental observations and theoretical advances have indicated that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thereby sensitivity to neurobehavioral impairment from sleep loss--is modulated by prior sleep/wake history. This phenomenon was predicted by a biomathematical model developed to explain changes in neurobehavioral performance across days in laboratory studies of total sleep deprivation and sustained sleep restriction. The present paper focuses on the dynamics of neurobehavioral performance within days in this biomathematical model of fatigue. Without increasing the number of model parameters, the model was updated by incorporating time-dependence in the amplitude of the circadian modulation of performance. The updated model was calibrated using a large dataset from three laboratory experiments on psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) performance, under conditions of sleep loss and circadian misalignment; and validated using another large dataset from three different laboratory experiments. The time-dependence of circadian amplitude resulted in improved goodness-of-fit in night shift schedules, nap sleep scenarios, and recovery from prior sleep loss. The updated model predicts that the homeostatic equilibrium for sleep/wake regulation--and thus sensitivity to sleep loss--depends not only on the duration but also on the circadian timing of prior sleep. This novel theoretical insight has important implications for predicting operator alertness during work schedules involving circadian misalignment such as night shift work.

  5. Repeated exposure of rats to JP-4 vapor induces changes in neurobehavioral capacity and 5-HT/5-HIAA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, A F; Rossi, J; Ritchie, G D; McInturf, S; Hulme, M E; McCool, C; Narayanan, L; MacMahon, K L; Eggers, J; Leahy, H F; Wolfe, R E

    1999-04-09

    Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h/d for 14 consecutive days to JP-4 jet fuel vapor (2 mg/L) or room air control conditions. Following a 14- or 60-d recovery period, rats completed a battery of 8 tests selected from the Navy Neurobehavioral Toxicity Assessment Battery (NTAB) to evaluate changes in performance capacity. Exposure to JP-4 vapor resulted in significant changes in neurobehavioral capacity on several tests that varied as a function of the duration of the recovery period. Rats were evaluated for major neurotransmitter and metabolite levels in five brain regions and in the blood serum. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were shown to be significantly elevated in several brain regions as well as in the blood serum in the vapor-exposed groups. Results of the rat study are compared to previously reported neurobehavioral evaluations of European manufacturing personnel exposed chronically to jet fuel vapor.

  6. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  7. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  8. Hoarding and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Randy O.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Researches the relation between hoarding and obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). In both college student and community samples, hoarding was associated with higher scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Hoarding also was associated with higher levels of general psychopathology as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results…

  9. THE STRUCTURE OF OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE SYMPTOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOPPEN, P; HOEKSTRA, RJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    In the present study, the structure of obsessive-compulsive symptoms was investigated by means of the Padua Inventory (PI). Simultaneous Components Analysis on data from obsessive-compulsives (n = 206), patients with other anxiety disorders (n = 222), and a non clinical sample (n = 430) revealed a

  10. Indian scales and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, S

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, traits and processes. As an illustrative sample, this article assembles a bibliographic survey of about 105 out of 2582 research papers (4.07%) scanned through 51 back dated volumes covering 185 issues related to clinimetry as reviewed across a span of over fifty years (1958-2009) in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. A content analysis of the contributions across distinct categories of mental measurements is explained before linkages are proposed for future directions along these lines.

  11. Controlling Inventory: Real-World Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas G.; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Chelst, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    Amazon, Walmart, and other large-scale retailers owe their success partly to efficient inventory management. For such firms, holding too little inventory risks losing sales, whereas holding idle inventory wastes money. Therefore profits hinge on the inventory level chosen. In this activity, students investigate a simplified inventory-control…

  12. The Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Joseph J.

    1979-01-01

    Develops an interpersonal perception inventory which demonstrates that various ratings of facial caricature drawings when made by a husband and wife can be used as a predictor of marital adjustment. Analysis of data establishes validity for the Facial Interpersonal Perception Inventory as well as reliability and consistency. Implications are…

  13. Student-Life Stress Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; And Others

    The reliability of the Student-Life Stress Inventory of B. M. Gadzella (1991) was studied. The inventory consists of 51 items listed in 9 sections indicating different types of stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed stressors) and reactions to the stressors (physiological, emotional, behavioral, and cognitive) as…

  14. COMPUTER ASSISTED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    COMPUTER ASSISTED INVENTORY CONTROL SYSTEM. Alebachew Dessalegn and R. N. Roy. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The basic purpose of holding inventories is to provide an essential decoupling between demand and unequal flow rate of materials in a supp~v ...

  15. Michigan's Fourth Forest Inventory: Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of Michigan's forest resources found 17.5 million acres of commercial forest, down 7% from the 18.9 million found in 1966. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  16. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  17. Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead

    2004-01-01

    This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest...

  18. Denmark's national inventory report 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, Jytte Boll; Lyck, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO....

  19. Childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Carol A; Kaur, Nirmaljit; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-01

    Childhood trauma is known to predispose to a variety of psychiatric disorders, including mood, anxiety, eating, and personality disorders. However, the relationship between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms has not been well studied. This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma, personality facets, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in 938 college students using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Leyton Obsessional Inventory, and the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. Between 13 and 30% of subjects met criteria for childhood trauma, with emotional neglect the most commonly reported experience. There was a small but significant association between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and childhood trauma, specifically emotional abuse and physical neglect, all of which was accounted for by co-occurring anxiety symptoms. An independent association was also seen between emotional abuse, physical abuse, and high levels of obsessive-compulsive symptoms ("probable obsessive-compulsive disorder"), which remained significant in the context of co-occurring anxiety symptoms. A similar association was seen between obsessive-compulsive symptoms and conscientiousness, and between emotional neglect and sexual abuse and conscientiousness, suggesting that an indirect role for childhood trauma in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms may also exist. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Environmental conditions differentially affect neurobehavioral outcomes in a mouse model of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mu-Huo; Tang, Hui; Luo, Dan; Qiu, Li-Li; Jia, Min; Yuan, Hong-Mei; Feng, Shan-Wu; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Brain dysfunction remains a common complication after sepsis development and is an independent risk factor for a poorer prognosis and an increased mortality. Here we tested the hypothesis that the behavioral outcomes after lipopolysaccharides (LPS) administration are exacerbated by an impoverished environment (IE) and alleviated by an enriched environment (EE), respectively. Mice were randomly allocated in a standard environment (SE), an EE, or an IE for 4 weeks after LPS or normal saline (NS) administration. Neurobehavioral alternations were assessed by the open field, novel objective recognition, and fear conditioning tests. The expressions of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (IBA1)-positive cells as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the number of dendritic spines in the hippocampal CA1 were determined. Our results showed that the some of the neurocognitive abnormalities induced by LPS administration can be aggravated by stressful conditions such as IE but alleviated by EE. These neurocognitive alternations were accompanied by significant changes in biomarkers of immune response and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In summary, our study confirmed the negative impact of IE and the positive effects of EE on the cognitive function after LPS administration, with potential implications to the basis of sepsis-related cognitive impairments in the critically ill patients. PMID:29137271

  1. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of amaranth administered to mice in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    The color additive amaranth was given in the drinking water at levels of 0 (control), 0.025, 0.075, and 0.225% from 5 weeks of age in F0 generation until F1 generation mice were weaned, with selected reproductive, developmental and behavioral parameters being measured. Amaranth had little adverse effect upon litter size, litter weight and sex ratio. Average body weight in both sexes of the F1 mice was significantly increased in the 0.025% group in both sexes. Survival index at postnatal day (PND) 21 was reduced in the 0.025% amaranth group. For the neurobehavioral parameters, surface righting at PND 4 in female offspring and olfactory orientation in both sexes were significantly affected by treatment. Several parameters of movement activity of male offspring at 3 weeks of age were affected in amaranth 0.075% group, but those of female offspring were similar in all groups. The dose levels of amaranth in this study produced a little adverse effect on behavioral development in mice.

  2. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Rasoul, Gaafar Abdel; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health. PMID:28880741

  3. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Sebastian C.; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans. PMID:28393838

  4. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  5. Neurobehavioral, reflexological and physical development of Wistar rat offspring exposed to ayahuasca during pregnancy and lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic beverage prepared by the decoction of plants native to the Amazon Basin region. The beverage has been used throughout the world by members of some syncretic religious movements. Despite the recent legalization of ayahuasca in Brazil for religious purposes, there is little pre-clinical and clinical information attesting to its safety, particularly in relation to the use during pregnancy. The aim of the current work was to determine the effects of perinatal exposure to ayahuasca (from the 6th day of pregnancy to the 10th day of lactation on physical, reflexology and neurobehavioral parameters of the Wistar rat offspring. The offspring showed no statistically significant changes in the physical and reflexology parameters evaluated. However, in adult rats, perinatally exposed to ayahuasca, an increase in frequency of entries in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, a decrease in total time of interaction in social interaction test, a decrease in time of latency for the animal to start swimming and a decrease of the minimum convulsant dose induced by pentylenetetrazol were observed. In conclusion, our results showed that the use of ayahuasca by mothers during pregnancy and lactation reduced the general anxiety and social motivation of the rat offspring. Besides, it promoted a higher sensitivity for initiation and spread of seizure activity.

  6. Prenatal and childhood exposure to pesticides and neurobehavioral development: review of epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pesticides comprise a diverse group of substances intended to destroy, repel or control organisms identified as pests. Compared to the studies on lead, mercury, and PCBs, few epidemiological studies have assessed the developmental neurotoxicity of pesticides. Epidemiological studies focused on the neurobehavioural development of children exposed to pesticides were identified by searching the PubMed, Medline, EBSCO, Agricola and TOXNET databases. The findings of the studies reviewed imply that children's exposure to pesticides may bring about impairments in their neurobehavioral development. Children exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OP), both prenatally and during childhood, may have difficulties performing tasks that involve short-term memory, and may show increased reaction time, impaired mental development or pervasive developmental problems. In newborns, the effects of OP exposure are manifested mainly by an increased number of abnormal reflexes, while in adolescents, by mental and emotional problems. The studies investigating association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects show inconsistent results. While some studies report impairments in mental and psychomotor functions, other studies do not confirm the above. The information deriving from epidemiological studies indicate a need to increase awareness among people and children exposed to pesticides about the association between the use of pesticides and neurodevelopmental impairments. Therefore, the principle of prudence should become a rule.

  7. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). A quiet location within their home environments. Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. NA. Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD.

  8. Evaluation of the neurobehavioral screening tool in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFrance, Michael-Anne; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Nash, Kelly; Andrew, Gail; Loock, Christine; Oberlander, Tim F; Koren, Gideon; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for validated tools to screen children at risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The Neurobehavioral Screening Tool (NST) is one of several promising screening measures for FASD, though further evidence is needed to establish the tool's psychometric utility. To assess the predictive accuracy of the NST among children with an FASD diagnosis, with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but no FASD diagnosis, and typically developing controls. The NST was completed by caregivers of children ages 6 to 17, including 48 with FASD, 22 with PAE, and 32 typically developing non-exposed controls. Predictive accuracy coefficients were calculated using Nash et al. (2006) criteria, and compared against controls. An alternative scoring scheme was also investigated to determine optimum referral thresholds using item-level total scores. The NST yielded 62.5% sensitivity for participants with FASD and 50% for PAE. Specificity values were 100% with no typically developing control scoring positive. Within the FASD group there was a trend for higher sensitivity among adolescents aged 12 to17 (70.8%) compared with children aged 6 to 11 years (54.2%), p = 0.23. The findings support a growing body of literature evidencing psychometric promise for the clinical utility of the NST as an FASD screening tool, though further research on possible age-effects is warranted. The availability of a validated clinical screening tool for FASD, such as the NST, would aid in accurately screening a large number of children and lead to a timelier diagnostic referral.

  9. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R; Bonner, Matthew R; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Rohlman, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health.

  10. Apolipoprotein E4 and sex affect neurobehavioral performance in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Summer F; Piper, Brian J; Craytor, Michael J; Benice, Ted S; Raber, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) and female sex are risk factors for developing Alzheimer's disease. It is unclear whether apoE4 contributes to behavioral function at younger ages. Standard neuropsychological assessments [intelligence quotient (IQ), attention, and executive function] and a test developed in this laboratory (Memory Island test of spatial learning and memory) were used to determine whether E4 and sex affect neuropsychological performance in healthy primary school children (age 7-10). A medical history was also obtained from the mother to determine whether negative birth outcomes were associated with apoE4. Mothers of apoE4+ children were more likely to report that their newborn was placed in an intensive care unit. A sex difference in birth weight was noted among apoE4- (males > females), but not apoE4+, offspring. Conversely, among apoE4+, but not apoE4- children, there was a sex difference in the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) vocabulary score favoring boys. ApoE4- girls had better visual recall than apoE4+ girls or apoE4- boys on the Family Pictures test. Finally, apoE4+, unlike apoE4-, children did not show spatial memory retention during the Memory Island probe trial. Thus, apoE4 may affect neurobehavioral performance, particularly spatial memory, and antenatal health decades before any clinical expression of neurodegenerative processes.

  11. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  12. ANALYSIS MODEL FOR INVENTORY MANAGEMENT

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    CAMELIA BURJA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inventory represents an essential component for the assets of the enterprise and the economic analysis gives them special importance because their accurate management determines the achievement of the activity object and the financial results. The efficient management of inventory requires ensuring an optimum level for them, which will guarantee the normal functioning of the activity with minimum inventory expenses and funds which are immobilised. The paper presents an analysis model for inventory management based on their rotation speed and the correlation with the sales volume illustrated in an adequate study. The highlighting of the influence factors on the efficient inventory management ensures the useful information needed to justify managerial decisions, which will lead to a balancedfinancial position and to increased company performance.

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

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    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  14. Avaliação da fadiga e da secura na síndrome de Sjögren primária: versão brasileira do “Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort – Sicca Symptoms Inventory (short form (Profad-SSI-SF”

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    Samira Tatiyama Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Fazer a adaptação transcultural e a validação do Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort – Sicca Symptoms Inventory (short form (Profad-SSI-SF, questionário que avalia os aspectos subjetivos dos sintomas da síndrome de Sjögren primária (SSp, para a língua portuguesa brasileira. Método: Foi avaliada a equivalência conceitual, de item, semântica e operacional. A versão brasileira do Profad-SSI-SF foi aplicada a 62 mulheres com SSp conforme consenso europeu-americano de 2002 para avaliar a equivalência de mensuração. Foi usado o α-Cronbach para consistência interna; coeficiente de correlação intraclasse (ICC para reprodutibilidade intraobservador; e coeficiente de correlação de Spearman para validade em comparação com o Patient Global Assessment (PaGA, Eular Sjögren’s Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESS-PRI, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Subscale (Facit-F e EuroQOL(EQ-5D. Resultados: A consistência interna do Profad, do SSI e da pontuação total foi de 0,80, 0,78 e 0,87, respectivamente. A reprodutibilidade intraobservador do Profad total foi de 0,89; do SSI total de 0,86 e da pontuação total de 0,89. Na validade, o Profad apresentou correlação significativa com o PaGA (r = 0,50, Facit-F (r = 0,59, Esspri (r = 0,58 e todos os domínios do EQ-5D, com exceção da mobilidade. Já o SSI apresentou correlação significativa com o PaGA (r = 0,43, Facit-F (r = 0,57, Esspri (r = 0,55 e a maioria dos domínios do EQ-5D. A pontuação total do Profad-SSI-SF só não obteve correlação estatisticamente significante com o domínio mobilidade e escala 1 a 100 do EQ-D5.

  15. Gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of health-related quality of life in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the patient-reported multidimensional gastrointestinal symptoms predictors of generic health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scales and ...

  16. Relation between cognitive distortions and neurobehavior disinhibition on the development of substance use during adolescence and substance use disorder by young adulthood: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph E; Vanyukov, Michael; Reynolds, Maureen; Habeych, Miguel

    2004-11-11

    Previous research has demonstrated that neurobehavior disinhibition increases the risk for a diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD). This investigation tested the hypothesis that a deficiency in the capacity to appraise the effects of alcohol and drugs and interpret social interactions mediates the relation between neurobehavior disinhibition in childhood and SUD by early adulthood. Boys with fathers having lifetime SUD (N=88) and no SUD or other psychiatric disorder (N=127) were prospectively tracked from ages 10-12 to 19 years. Neurobehavior disinhibition was evaluated at baseline followed by assessments of cognitive distortions and substance use involvement in early and mid-adolescence. SUD outcome was evaluated up to age 19 years. Cognitive distortions (age 12-14 years) mediated the association between neurobehavior disinhibition (age 10-12 years) and marijuana use (age 16 years) which, in turn, predicted SUD by age 19 years. Cognitive distortions in early adolescence did not directly predict SUD by young adulthood. Inaccurate social cognition, significantly predicted by childhood neurobehavior disinhibition, biases development toward marijuana use prodromal to SUD. These results indicate that cognitive processes, in conjunction with psychological self-regulation, comprise important components of the individual liability to SUD.

  17. Comparison of the developmental milestones and preweaning neurobehavioral parameters in rat pups exposed to lead (Pb) during gestation, lactation and pregestation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2016-01-01

    Studies in urban children exposed to low lead (Pb) have shown neurobehavioral deficits in the domains of intelligence, reaction time and attention. The structures - hippocampus (vital for learning and memory) and cerebellum (play a role in motor behavior and cognition) - which develop postnatally, are affected by developmental Pb exposure. The effect of low level of Pb exposure during specific periods of early brain development on early neurobehavioral outcomes in rat pups has not been studied. So in this study, pregnant albino Wistar strain rats were exposed to low levels of Pb in drinking water during gestation period (G group), lactation period (L group), both gestation and lactation period (GL group) and prior to pregnancy (a period of 1 month) (PG group). The rat pups born in each of these groups were assessed in preweaning neurobehavioral parameters including surface righting reflex, swimming development, negative geotaxis and ascending wire mesh test. The swimming development scores were low in the GL group of rats. The negative geotaxis score in GL and G groups were altered. The day of achievement of ascending wire mesh test was significantly delayed in GL, G and L groups of rats. To conclude, results show that (a) low level of Pb exposure during gestation and lactation period of brain development causes significant alterations in the early neurobehavioral and sensorimotor reflex development in the absence of concomitant weight loss and (b) gestation period only and lactation period only, Pb exposure causes alteration in some of the neurobehavioral outcomes.

  18. An investigation into neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term agrichemical use among deciduous fruit farm workers in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, L; Myers, J E; Nell, V; Taylor, T; Thompson, M L

    1997-01-01

    Long-term exposure to organophosphates (OPs) in the absence of acute poisoning is increasingly suspected of causing chronic neurologic and neurobehavioral effects. A cross-sectional survey of 163 spray operators on deciduous fruit farms in the Western Cape, South Africa, and 84 nonspraying labororers was conducted in 1993 to investigate the relationship between long-term OP exposures and neurological and neurobehavioral outcomes. The study also sought to evaluate the performance of a set of neurobehavioral test batteries based on the information-processing theory of cognitive psychology, relative to the more established World Health Organization's Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (WHO NCTB). These information-processing tests were designed for use in studies of subjects with little education, which are frequently conducted in developing countries in agriculture. They draw on experience from a previous South African study in which problems were encountered with a lack of cross-cultural validity of conventional test batteries. No evidence was found of a relationship between long-term OP exposure and loss of vibration sense. Small associations were found with the NCTB Pursuit-Aiming and Santa Ana (nondominant hand) subtests. The overall evidence of neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of long-term OP exposure was small; exposure misclassification may have contributed to this finding. Important confounders such as brain injury, alcohol consumption, and nutritional status were identified. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  19. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  20. The role of stress in IBS symptom severity

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    Sanda Pletikosic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as a biopsychosocial disorder, the result of a complex combination of predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors. Personality traits, affective status and stress are some of the relevant factors contributing to lower quality of life and symptom exacerbation in IBS patients. In order to examine the role of stress in IBS symptom exacerbation, the aims of this study were to explore the relationship of daily stressful events and symptom severity in a prospective manner and to explore the roles of neuroticism, anxiety, depression and stress in the vicious circle of symptom perpetuation. A total of 49 patients with IBS reported their symptom severity and daily stressful events intensity each day for 14 consecutive days. They also completed the Big five personality inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-trait anxiety inventory. Cross-correlation analyses were performed on the time series data for daily stress and symptom severity for each participant separately. Four different patterns of relationships were found in different subgroups of participants: positive cross-correlations of symptom severity and stress intensity on the same day; higher symptom severity on days following stressful days; lower symptom severity on days following stressful days; and lower stress intensity on days following severe symptoms. Using average scores for daily stress and symptom severity, as well as scores for neuroticism, anxiety and depression, we performed a path analysis to test a model of symptom exacerbation. It showed that, on the group level, average stress intensity predicts average symptom severity. Neuroticism and anxiety were not significant predictors of symptom severity, while depression showed a marginally significant relationship with symptom severity, mediated by stress intensity. In conclusion, depression and daily stress seem to be important contributors to the vicious circle of IBS symptom

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Daniel L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.; Cahill, Brian S.; O'Riley, Alisa A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-administered screening tool for depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of community-dwelling older and younger adults. Participants completed the BDI-II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the Perceived…

  2. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  3. Premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-24

    Data is reviewed on premenstrual symptoms which have been related to high suicide and accident rates, employment absentee rates, poor academic performance and acute psychiatric problems. A recent study of healthy young women indicated that 39% had troublesome premenstrual symptoms, 54% passed clots in their menses, 70% had cyclical localized acneiform eruptions and only 17% failed to experience menstrual pain. Common menstrual disorders are classified as either dysmenorrhea or the premenstrual syndrome. Symptoms for the latter usually begin 2-12 days prior to menstruation and include nervous tension, irritability, anxiety, depression, bloated breasts and abdomen, swollen fingers and legs, headaches, dizziness, occasional hypersomia, excessive thirst and appetite. Some women may display an increased susceptibility to migraine, vasomotor rhinitis, asthma, urticaria and epilepsy. Symptoms are usually relieved with the onset of menses. While a definitive etiological theory remains to be substantiated, symptomatic relief has been reported with salt and water restriction and simple diuretics used 7 to 10 days premenstrually. Diazapam or chlordiazepoxide treatment is recommended before oral contraceptive therapy. The premenstrual syndrome may persist after menopause, is unaffected by parity, and sufferers score highly on neuroticism tests. Primary or spasmodic dysmenorrhea occurs in young women, tends to decline with age and parity and has no correlation with premenstrual symptoms or neuroticism. Spasmodic or colicky pain begins and is most severe on the first day of menstruation and may continue for 2-3 days. Treatment of dysmenorrhea with psychotropic drugs or narcotics is discouraged due to the risk of dependence and abuse. Temporary relief for disabling pain may be obtained with oral contraceptives containing synthetic estrogen and progestogen but the inherent risks should be acknowledged. Both disorders have been correlated to menstrual irregularity. Amenorrhea in

  4. Neurobehavioral toxicity in progeny of rat mothers exposed to methylmercury during gestation

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    Dinesh N. Gandhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Methylmercury (MeHg is recognized as one of the most hazardous environmental pollutants. This may be a concern to long-term consumption of contaminated fish and seafood for health risk to pregnant women and their children. AIM: An animal study was conducted to assess the effect of MeHg exposure on rodent offspring following in utero exposure. METHODS: Pregnant Wister rats were treated by gavage with MeHg at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg/day from gestation day (GD 5 till parturition, and then were allowed to deliver. RESULTS: Dams treated with 2.0 mg/kg/day MeHg group showed signs of toxicity such as gait alterations and hyperactivity resulting in the failure to deliver sustainable viable pups. MeHg had significant effects on body weight gain of dams during GD 5 till parturition. MeHg had no significant effects on the ages of physical developments such as pinna detachment, incisor eruptions or eye opening as well as alter cliff avoidance, surface righting, swimming ontogeny, startle reflex, pivoting, negative geotaxis, or forelimb and hindlimb grip strength in either sex. Exposure to 1.0 mg/kg/day MeHg treatment group prolonged gestation period, retard mid-air righting in male pups, shortened forelimb grip strength measured on rotating rod in either sex and enhanced open field behaviour in male pups. Data obtained from Functional Observation Battery (FOB also revealed impairment of neuromotor performance in male pups. The male pups appeared to be more susceptible than the female pups. CONCLUSION. Overall, the dose level of MeHg in the present study produced a few adverse effects on the neurobehavioral parameters, and it may alter neuromotor performance of the male pups.

  5. A Review of Neurobehavioral Challenges in Children Exposed Prenatally to Intrauterine Opioid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaledin Alaedini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Substance abuse has remained a worldwide issue for many years and in recent decades there has been a major growth in the number of individuals consuming opioids. Several studies have discovered that young kids who have been exposed to opioids develop greater damages in overall intellectual capabilities and neurobehavioral functions than non-exposed children. Evidence Acquisition The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surviving texts on the incidence of challenging behavior among kids due to prenatal medication contact. Overall, out of 84 identified manuscripts, 18 were established to consider intellectual, psychomotor, and behavior consequences in opioid-exposed infants, precollege and college children when matched with healthy no-opioid-exposed controls. Results The results indicate that children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. Somewhat, susceptibilities seem to rise by age for girls, and the unprotected boys persist behind non exposed boys entirely through infancy and into college age. Therefore, there looks to be a constant deleterious consequence of factors associated with prenatal medication contact over time. Conclusions The results indicate children exposed to opioid in utero may be cognitively affected over time, even once located in stable families on an actual early age. The natural susceptibilities of prenatally drug-exposed children can affect initial intellectual skills which yet again are extremely associated with advanced mental capabilities. It is feasible that pre- and postnatal genetic susceptibilities and ecological issues cooperate in a transactional method through the child’s lifespan.

  6. Childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and neurobehavior in children at 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Ann M; Yolton, Kimberly; Xie, Changchun; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Braun, Joseph M; Dietrich, Kim N; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-10-01

    Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure has been associated with decrements in IQ and increased attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder related behaviors in children; however, data are limited for the role of postnatal exposures. We investigated the association between a series of childhood PBDE concentrations and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and externalizing problems at 8 years. We used data from 208 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. Child serum PBDEs were measured at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years; missing serum PBDE concentrations were estimated via multiple imputation. The Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV and the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 was used to assess intelligence and externalizing behavior, respectively, in children at 8 years. We used multiple informant models to estimate associations between repeated lipid-adjusted PBDEs and child neurobehavior and to test for windows of susceptibility. Postnatal exposure to PBDE congeners (- 28, - 47, - 99, - 100, and - 153) at multiple ages was inversely associated with FSIQ at 8 years. For instance, a 10-fold increase in BDE-153 concentrations at 2, 3, 5, and 8 years were all related to lower FSIQ at age 8 (β for 3 years: - 7.7-points, 95% CI - 12.5, - 2.9; β for 8 years: - 5.6-points, 95% CI - 10.8, - 0.4). Multiple PBDE congeners at 8 years were associated with increased hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors at 8 years. Postnatal PBDE exposure was associated with decrements in FSIQ and increases in hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurobehavioral development of CD-1 mice after combined gestational and postnatal exposure to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell`Omo, G. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Fiore, M. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Petruzzi, S. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Alleva, E. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Bignami, G. [Section of Behavioral Pathophysiology, Lab. di Fisiopatologia di Organo e di Sistema, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    Outbred CD-1 mice were exposed continuously to ozone (O{sub 3}, 0.6 ppm) from 6 days prior to the formation of breeding pairs to the time of weaning of the offspring on postnatal day 22 (PND 22) or to PND 26. One half of the mice in each of eight O{sub 3} and eight control litters were subjected on PND 24 to a 20-min open-field test after IP treatment by either saline or scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The remaining mice (those exposed until PND 26) were subjected on PNDs 28-31 to a conditioned place preference (CPP) test, using a short schedule with a single IP injection on PND 29 of either d-amphetamine (3.3 mg/kg) or saline. Subsequently, the saline mice of the open-field experiment were used on PND 59 for an activity test in one of the CPP apparatus compartments after IP treatment by either d-amphetamine (same dose) or saline. In addition, the saline mice of the CPP experiment underwent a multitrial, step-through passive avoidance (PA) acquisition test on PND 59 or 60, followed 24 h later by a single-trial retention test. In the absence of effects on reproductive performance (proportion of successful pregnancies, litter size, offspring viability, and sex ratio), O{sub 3} offspring showed a long-lasting reduction in body weight without modification of sec differences. Ozone effects on neurobehavioral development were not large and quite selective, including: attenuation of the sex differences in several responses (rearing and sniffing in the open-field, activity in the final CPP test session); a change in response choices in the final CPP test, in the absence of a main effect on conditioning; a reduction of grooming in the activity test on PND 29; and impairment of PA acquisition limited to the initial period of training. (orig.)

  8. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, DA; Saito, M

    2014-01-01

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance was affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

  9. An avian model for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Sharon; Pinkas, Adi; Slotkin, Theodore A; Yanai, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A fast and simple model which uses lower animals on the evolutionary scale is beneficial for developing procedures for the reversal of neurobehavioral teratogenicity with neural stem cells. Here, we established a procedure for the derivation of chick neural stem cells, establishing embryonic day (E) 10 as optimal for progression to neuronal phenotypes. Cells were obtained from the embryonic cerebral hemispheres and incubated for 5-7 days in enriched medium containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) according to a procedure originally developed for mice. A small percentage of the cells survived, proliferated and formed nestin-positive neurospheres. After removal of the growth factors to allow differentiation (5 days), 74% of the cells differentiated into all major lineages of the nervous system, including neurons (Beta III tubulin-positive, 54% of the total number of differentiated cells), astrocytes (GFAP-positive, 26%), and oligodendrocytes (O4-positive, 20%). These findings demonstrate that the cells were indeed neural stem cells. Next, the cells were transplanted in two allograft chick models; (1) direct cerebral transplantation to 24-h-old chicks, followed by post-transplantation cell tracking at 24 h, 6 days and 14 days, and (2) intravenous transplantation to chick embryos on E13, followed by cell tracking on E19. With both methods, transplanted cells were found in the brain. The chick embryo provides a convenient, precisely-timed and unlimited supply of neural progenitors for therapy by transplantation, as well as constituting a fast and simple model in which to evaluate the ability of neural stem cell transplantation to repair neural damage, steps that are critical for progress toward therapeutic applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental Research in Space: Predicting Adult Neurobehavioral Phenotypes via Metabolomic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Julia M.; Moyer, Eric L.; Lowe, M.; Morgan, Jonathan A.; Tulbert, Christina D.; Olson, John; Horita, David A.; Klevin, Gale A.; Ronca, April E.

    2017-01-01

    As human habitation and eventual colonization of space becomes an inevitable reality, there is a necessity to understand how organisms develop over the life span in the space environment. Microgravity, altered CO2, radiation and psychological stress are some of the key factors that could affect mammalian reproduction and development in space, however there is a paucity of information on this topic. Here we combine early (neonatal) in vivo spectroscopic imaging with an adult emotionality assay following a common obstetric complication (prenatal asphyxia) likely to occur during gestation in space. The neural metabolome is sensitive to alteration by degenerative changes and developmental disorders, thus we hypothesized that that early neonatal neurometabolite profiles can predict adult response to novelty. Late gestation fetal rats were exposed to moderate asphyxia by occluding the blood supply feeding one of the rats pair uterine horns for 15min. Blood supply to the opposite horn was not occluded (within-litter cesarean control). Further comparisons were made with vaginal (natural) birth controls. In one-week old neonates, we measured neurometabolites in three brain areas (i.e., striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus). Adult perinatally-asphyxiated offspring exhibited greater anxiety-like behavioral phenotypes (as measured the composite neurobehavioral assay involving open field activity, responses to novel object, quantification of fecal droppings, and resident-intruder tests of social behavior). Further, early neurometabolite profiles predicted adult responses. Non-invasive MRS screening of mammalian offspring is likely to advance ground-based space analogue studies informing mammalian reproduction in space, and achieving high-priority multigenerational research that will enable studies of the first truly space-developed mammals.

  11. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-07

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. FEMA Flood Insurance Studies Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital data set provides an inventory of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) that have been conducted for communities and...

  13. Lepidoptera (Moth) Inventory: Region 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Wildlife Refuges protect important habitats for many plant and animal species. Refuge inventories have frequently included plants, birds and mammals, but...

  14. NPS national transit inventory, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  15. Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the Colorado statewide historic bridge inventory was to document and evaluate the National : Register of Historic Places eligibility all on-system highway bridges and grade separation structures built in : Colorado between 1959 and 196...

  16. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  17. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  18. Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Title V Permitting Statistics Inventory contains measured and estimated nationwide statistical data, consisting of counts of permitted sources, types of permits...

  19. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  20. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  1. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  2. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  3. Development of the body image concern inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Axsom, Danny; Pury, Cynthia L S

    2005-02-01

    Development of the Body Image Concern Inventory (BICI), a measure designed to assess dysmorphic concern, is described. A panel of expert raters supported the construct validity of the measure, and four college student samples (Ns=184, 200, 56, 40) supported the internal consistency of the BICI. In addition, in studies 1 and 3, concurrent validity was established through comparison of the BICI to extant self-report and interview measures of dysmorphic symptomatology. Convergent validity patterns were assessed through comparison with measures of obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder symptomatology in studies 2 and 4. Finally, the results of study 4 supported that the BICI discriminated individuals with a diagnosis of Body Dysmorphic Disorder or bulimia (disorders that frequently involve high levels of dysmorphic concern) from those with subclinical symptoms. Results suggest that the BICI is a reliable, valid, and user-friendly tool for assessing dysmorphic concern, with utility in both research and clinical settings.

  4. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  5. Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2009. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2007 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2. The report documents the methodology as well as presents activity data and emission...... factors for energy, industrial processes, sovent and other product use, agriculture, LULUCF (Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry) and waste....

  6. INVENTORY FLOW TILL PRODUCTION CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Magdalena DINU

    2013-01-01

    An efficient management of inventories means proper planning and usage of the control methods as Just in Time(JIT), Material requirements planning(MRP), Vendor Management Inventory(VMI) or Distribution resource planning(DRP). Are presented and analyzed in their interdependence, issues such as: delivery time, payment term, payment methods, payment instruments, delivery time, risk assuming in terms of delivery terms agreed and accepted, transport administration, minimum quantity delivered, stoc...

  7. Value-Based Inventory Management

    OpenAIRE

    Michalski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    The basic financial purpose of a firm is to maximize its value. An inventory management system should also contribute to realization of this basic aim. Many current asset management models currently found in financial management literature were constructed with the assumption of book profit maximization as basic aim. However these models could lack what relates to another aim, i.e., maximization of enterprise value. This article presents a modified value-based inventory management model.

  8. [Long-term effect of hypertension on neurobehavioral and cardiac function in the apparently healthy community-dwelling elderly: a 5-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomio; Chikamori, Taishiro; Nishinaga, Masanori; Doi, Yoshinori

    2003-07-01

    Recently, it has been reported that hypertension causes not only cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but also a decline of cognitive function in the elderly. However, it is not clear whether or not aging and hypertension have a latent effect on the cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in healthy elderly whose scores of basic activities of daily living (ADL) are fully maintained. We evaluated the effect of aging and hypertension on cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in 25 healthy community-dwelling elderly subjects (mean age: 69 y.o.) whose scores of basic ADL were fully maintained. Subjects were followed over a 5-year period, and the following examinations were performed before and after a 5-year follow-up: echocardiography, 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and cognitive-neurobehavioral function test. Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the hypertensive (HT) subjects relative to the normotensive (NT) subjects over the 5 years (% change: 3% for HT vs. -0.8% for NT, p = 0.03). The number of non-dippers significantly increased over the 5 years in the HT group (initially: 20% [2/10] vs. follow-up: 58% [7/12], p = 0.04). Visuospatial cognitive performance scale scores for evaluation of higher cognitive-neurobehavioral functions significantly deteriorated in the HT subjects (initially; 2,344 +/- 110 vs. 2,380 +/- 102, ns, and follow-up: 2,149 +/- 181 vs. 2,356 +/- 159, p = 0.04). Hypertension contributes to the impairment of the cognitive-neurobehavioral function in the elderly by latently affecting the functions of multiple organs. This occurs even if basic ADL is maintained for 5 years. Therefore, it is important to control BP not only to prevent cardiovascular events, but also to preserve the neurobehavioral function.

  9. 10 CFR 39.37 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical inventory. 39.37 Section 39.37 Energy NUCLEAR... inventory. Each licensee shall conduct a semi-annual physical inventory to account for all licensed material received and possessed under the license. The licensee shall retain records of the inventory for 3 years...

  10. 27 CFR 20.170 - Physical inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Physical inventory. 20.170... Users of Specially Denatured Spirits Inventory and Records § 20.170 Physical inventory. Once in each... physical inventory of each formula of new and recovered specially denatured spirits. (Approved by the...

  11. 21 CFR 1304.11 - Inventory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory requirements. 1304.11 Section 1304.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF REGISTRANTS Inventory Requirements § 1304.11 Inventory requirements. (a) General requirements. Each inventory...

  12. Projecting Timber Inventory at the Product Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence Teeter; Xiaoping Zhou

    1999-01-01

    Current timber inventory projections generally lack information on inventory by product classes. Most models available for inventory projection and linked to supply analyses are limited to projecting aggregate softwood and hardwood. The research presented describes a methodology for distributing the volume on each FIA (USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis...

  13. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  14. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  15. DOD Inventory of Contracted Services: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Inventory Data Are Complete and Accurate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    DOD INVENTORY OF CONTRACTED SERVICES Actions Needed to Help Ensure Inventory Data Are Complete and Accurate Report to Congressional...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inventory of Contracted Services: Actions Needed to Help Ensure Inventory Data Are Complete and Accurate 5a. CONTRACT...Office Highlights of GAO-16-46, a report to congressional committees November 2015 INVENTORY OF CONTRACTED SERVICES Actions Needed to Help

  16. Forest inventory and analysis: a national inventory and monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W Brad

    2002-01-01

    Forests provide significant commodity and noncommodity values to the citizens of the United States. An important and substantial role in ensuring the continued health, productivity, and sustainability of these resources is a reliable and credible inventory and monitoring program. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the US Forest Service has been monitoring and reporting on status, condition, and trends in the nation's forests for over 70 years and the Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program for the last 11 years. Recent legislation included in the 1998 Farm Bill, along with efforts to integrate inventory and monitoring networks to deliver Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forests, are redefining the role and operation of the recently integrated FIA and FHM programs. This paper provides a brief history and a look at new directions for the enhanced FIA Program.

  17. Annual Danish emissions inventory report to UNECE. Inventory 1990 - 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.; Lyck, E.; Hoffmann, L.; Fauser, P.

    2004-05-01

    This report is a documentation report on the emission inventories for Denmark as reported to the UNECE Secretariat under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution due by 15 February 2004. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories regarding emissions of (1) SOx for the years 1980-2002, (2) NOx, CO, NMVOC and NH{sub 3} for the years 1985-2002; (3) Particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM2.5 for the years 2000-2002, (4) Heavy Metals: Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn for the years 1990-2002, and (5) Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene for the years 1990-2002. Furthermore, the report contains information on background data for emissions inventory. (au)

  18. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Eduardo Motta de; Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo De; França, Salomão Patrício de Souza

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck ...

  19. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu

    Full Text Available Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS. Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/- and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-. In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl propanoic acid (AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation.

  20. N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aggravates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Exposure of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents produces permanent behavioral syndrome characterized by repetitive head movements, circling and back walking. Other synthetic nitriles of industrial importance such as crotonitrile and allylnitrile are also able to produce similar motor deficits in experimental animals. However, due to the well-defined behavioral deficits and their easy quantification, IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome is a preferential animal model to test the interaction of various agents with synthetic nitriles. This study reports the effect of non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine (NARG) on IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Four groups of animals were given i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. These rats were treated with oral administration of NARG in the doses of 0 (IDPN alone group), 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN, respectively. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of NARG alone (without IDPN). The results showed that NARG significantly exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements, circling and back walking. The histology of inner ear showed massive degeneration of the sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris of rats receiving the combined treatment with IDPN and NARG, suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. An acetylcholinesterase-independent mechanism for neurobehavioral impairments after chronic low level exposure to dichlorvos in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Suresh Kumar; Kumar, Vijay; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2009-03-01

    The present study was designed to explore an alternate mechanism of action other than acetylcholinesterase inhibition for the chronic, low-level exposure to dichlorvos, an organophosphate, in vivo. Dichlorvos, at dose of 1.0 as well as 6.0 mg/kg b. wt. for 12 weeks to rats showed impairment in neurobehavioral indices viz. rota rod, passive avoidance and water maze tests. Though higher dose of dichlorvos had a detrimental effect on acetylcholinesterase activity, no significant inhibition was seen with lower dose of dichlorvos for the same period of exposure i.e. 12 weeks. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding studies revealed a decrease in the number of binding sites (B(max)) in low as well as high dose groups but the dissociation constant (K(d)) value was unaffected with both doses of dichlorvos. Use of selective ligands against M(1), M(2) and M(3) receptor subtypes indicated that M(2) is the major receptor subtype being affected by chronic low-level exposure to dichlorvos. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence studies also confirmed these biochemical findings. Thus, the present study suggests that M(2) receptors may play a major role in the development of neurobehavioral impairments after chronic exposure to dichlorvos.

  2. Longitudinal associations from neurobehavioral disinhibition to adolescent risky sexual behavior in boys: direct and mediated effects through moderate alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Tate, Eleanor B; Ridenour, Ty A; Reynolds, Maureen D; Zhai, Zu W; Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E

    2013-10-01

    This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in midadolescence. Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up, and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up. Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners. These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in midadolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys' psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in animal model of cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease by fermented soybean nanonutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Pathak, Shruti; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nanonutraceuticals (NN) for attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Solid-state fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis was performed to produce different metabolites (nattokinase, daidzin, genistin and glycitin and menaquinone-7). Intoxication of rats with colchicine caused impairment in learning and memory which was demonstrated in neurobehavioral paradigms (Morris water maze and passive avoidance) linked with decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). NN treatment led to a significant increase in TLT in the retention trials as compared to acquisition trial TLT suggesting an improved learning and memory in rats. Further, treatment of NN caused an increase in the activity of AChE (42%), accompanied with a reduced activity of glutathione (42%), superoxide dismutase (43%) and catalase (41%). It also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (28%) and protein carbonyl contents (30%) in hippocampus as compared to those treated with colchicine alone, suggesting a possible neuroprotective efficacy of NN. Interestingly, in silico studies also demonstrated an effective amyloid-β and BACE-1 inhibition activity. These findings clearly indicated that NN reversed colchicine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations through potent antioxidant activity and could possibly impart beneficial effects in cognitive defects associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  4. The “Double-Edge Sword” of Human Empathy: A Unifying Neurobehavioral Theory of Compassion Stress Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrative neurobehavioral model for “compassion stress injury” is offered to explain the “double-edge sword” of empathy and inherent vulnerability of helping professionals and care-givers. One of the most strikingly robust, yet largely invisible scientific findings to emerge over the past decade is identifying the neurophysiological mechanisms enabling human beings to understand and feel what another is feeling. The compelling convergence of evidence from multi-disciplinary lines of primary research and studies of paired-deficits has revealed that the phenomenon of human beings witnessing the pain and suffering of others is clearly associated with activation of neural structures used during first-hand experience. Moreover, it is now evident that a large part of the neural activation shared between self- and other-related experiences occurs automatically, outside the observer’s conscious awareness or control. However, it is also well established that full blown human empathic capacity and altruistic behavior is regulated by neural pathways responsible for flexible consciously controlled actions of the observer. We review the history, prevalence, and etiological models of “compassion stress injury” such as burnout, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, compassion fatigue, and empathic distress fatigue, along with implications of the neurobehavioral approach in future research.

  5. CE Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Background Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Method Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Key Findings Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an “early plasticity” hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. Conclusions A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury. PMID:24028185

  6. Depressive Symptoms and Observed Eating in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooreville, Mira; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Reina, Samantha A.; Hannallah, Louise M.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Courville, Amber B.; Kozlosky, Merel; Brady, Sheila M.; Condarco, Tania; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in youth may be a risk factor for obesity, with altered eating behaviors as one possible mechanism. We tested whether depressive symptoms were associated with observed eating patterns expected to promote excessive weight gain in two separate samples. In Study 1, 228 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 12–17y (15.3 ± 1.4y; 54.7% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 10,934-kcal buffet meal served at 11:00am after an overnight fast. In Study 2, 204 non-treatment-seeking youth, ages 8–17y (13.0 ± 2.8; 49.5% female), self-reported depressive symptoms using the Children’s Depression Inventory. Energy intake was measured as consumption from a 9,835-kcal buffet meal served at 2:30pm after a standard breakfast. In Study 1, controlling for body composition and other relevant covariates, depressive symptoms were positively related to total energy intake in girls and boys. In Study 2, adjusting for the same covariates, depressive symptoms among girls only were positively associated with total energy intake. Youth high in depressive symptoms and dietary restraint consumed the most energy from sweets. In both studies, the effects of depressive symptoms on intake were small. Nevertheless, depressive symptoms were associated with significantly greater consumption of total energy and energy from sweet snack foods, which, over time, could be anticipated to promote excess weight gain. PMID:24424352

  7. STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY PERSONALITY INVENTORY FOR CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jieting; Lanza, Stephanie; Zhang, Minqiang; Su, Binyuan

    2015-06-01

    The University Personality Inventory, a mental health instrument for college students, is frequently used for screening in China. However, its unidimensionality has been questioned. This study examined its dimensions to provide more information about the specific mental problems for students at risk. Four subsamples were randomly created from a sample (N = 6,110; M age = 19.1 yr.) of students at a university in China. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied on the first two subsamples to explore dimension of the inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the third subsample to verify the exploratory dimensions. Finally, the identified factors were compared to the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to support validity, and sex differences were examined, based on the fourth subsample. Five factors were identified: Physical Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Emotional Vulnerability, Social Avoidance, and Interpersonal Sensitivity, accounting for 60.3% of the variance. All the five factors were significantly correlated with the SCL-90. Women scored significantly higher than men on Cognitive Symptoms and Interpersonal Sensitivity.

  8. Traumatic brain injury–Modeling neuropsychiatric symptoms in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oz eMalkesman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year in the United States, approximately 1.5 million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI. Victims of TBI can suffer from chronic post-TBI symptoms, such as sensory and motor deficits, cognitive impairments including problems with memory, learning, and attention, and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, irritability, aggression, and suicidal rumination. Although partially associated with the site and severity of injury, the biological mechanisms associated with many of these symptoms—and why some patients experience differing assortments of persistent maladies—are largely unknown. The use of animal models is a promising strategy for elucidation of the mechanisms of impairment and treatment, and learning, memory, sensory and motor tests have widespread utility in rodent models of TBI and psychopharmacology. Comparatively, behavioral tests for the evaluation of neuropsychiatric symptomatology are rarely employed in animal models of TBI and, as determined in this review, the results have been inconsistent. Animal behavioral studies contribute to the understanding of the biological mechanisms by which TBI is associated with neurobehavioral symptoms and offer a powerful means for pre-clinical treatment validation. Therefore, further exploration of the utility of animal behavioral tests for the study of injury mechanisms and therapeutic strategies for the alleviation of emotional symptoms are relevant and essential.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA): Comparison to the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F.; Antony, Martin M.; Simms, Leonard J.; McCabe, Randi E.

    2007-01-01

    The State-Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety (STICSA; M. J. Ree, C. MacLeod, D. French, & V. Locke, 2000) was designed to assess cognitive and somatic symptoms of anxiety as they pertain to one's mood in the moment (state) and in general (trait). This study extended the previous psychometric findings to a clinical sample and…

  10. Comprehensive analysis of neurobehavior associated with histomorphological alterations in a chronic constrictive nerve injury model through use of the CatWalk XT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Su, Hong-Lin; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is debilitating, and when chronic, it significantly affects the patient physically, psychologically, and socially. The neurobehavior of animals used as a model for chronic constriction injury seems analogous to the neurobehavior of humans with neuropathic pain. However, no data depicting the severity of histomorphological alterations of the nervous system associated with graded changes in neurobehavior are available. To determine the severity of histomorphological alteration related to neurobehavior, the authors created a model of chronic constrictive injury of varying intensity in rats and used the CatWalk XT system to evaluate neurobehavior. A total of 60 Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g each, were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups that would receive sham surgery or 1, 2, 3, or 4 ligatures of 3-0 chromic gut loosely ligated around the left sciatic nerve. Neurobehavior was assessed by CatWalk XT, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanic allodynia before injury and periodically after injury. The nerve tissue from skin to dorsal spinal cord was obtained for histomorphological analysis 1 week after injury, and brain evoked potentials were analyzed 4 weeks after injury. Significant differences in expression of nerve growth factor existed in skin, and the differences were associated with the intensity of nerve injury. After injury, expression of cluster of differentiation 68 and tumor necrosis factor-α was increased, and expression of S100 protein in the middle of the injured nerve was decreased. Increased expression of synaptophysin in the dorsal root ganglion and dorsal spinal cord correlated with the intensity of injury. The amplitude of sensory evoked potential increased with greater severity of nerve damage. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia did not differ significantly among treatment groups at various time points. CatWalk XT gait analysis indicated significant differences for print areas, maximum contact maximum intensity, stand

  11. Symptom overlap in anxiety and multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Donnchadha, Seán

    2013-02-14

    BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.

  12. Death anxiety as related to somatic symptoms in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2009-10-01

    Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death.

  13. The routed inventory pooling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Harmen Willem

    2013-01-01

    In supply chains vloeit een groot deel van de kosten voort uit voorraden en transport. Om deze reden wordt veel onderzoek gedaan naar technieken en concepten die de voorraad- en transportkosten helpen te verlagen. Twee populaire onderzoeksgebieden zijn Inventory Routing, waarbij het doel is optimale

  14. Forest Inventory Mapmaker Users Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles

    2001-01-01

    The Forest Inventory Mapmaker Web application (http://www.ncrs.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/) provides users with the ability to easily generate tables and shaded maps. The goal of this manual is to present the basic concepts of the Web application to the user and to reinforce these concepts through the use of tutorials.

  15. Parental Stress and Coping Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, Andrew P.; Gonzalez, Jennifer E.; O'Hare, Vanessa N.

    2017-01-01

    The Parental Stress and Coping Inventory was developed for mental health professionals serving low-income and low-resource parents. A sample of 1,567 parents completed a revised Family Adjustment Measure for the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted in this study. Findings resulted in three scales that explained 53% of the…

  16. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…

  17. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory, 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; W. Brad Smith; Jerold T. Hahn; Gerhard K. Raile

    1988-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Wisconsin shows that growing-stock volume increased from 11.2 to 15.5 billion cubic feet between 1968 and 1983, and area of timberland increased from 14.5 to 14.8 million acres. Presented are analysis and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, removals, and projections.

  18. Investigation of the relationship between suicide probability in inpatients and their psychological symptoms and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Dilek; Sabanciogullar, Selma; Yilmaz, Feride T

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between suicide probability and psychological symptoms and coping strategies in hospitalized patients with physical illness. This cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2014 in Bandirma State Hospital, Balikesir, Turkey. The sample of the study consisted of 470 inpatients who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate in the study. The data were collected with the Personal Information Form, Suicide Probability Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory and Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory. In the study, 74.7% were at moderate risk for suicide, whereas 20.4% were at high risk for suicide. According to the stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, sub-dimensions of the Ways of Coping with Stress Inventory and Brief Symptom Inventory were the significant predictors of suicide probability. The majority of the patients with physical illness were at risk for suicide probability. Individuals who had psychological symptoms and used maladaptive coping ways obtained significantly higher suicide probability scores.

  19. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  20. Placental FKBP5 genetic and epigenetic variation is associated with infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the RICHS cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G Paquette

    Full Text Available Adverse maternal environments can lead to increased fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which can cause infant neurobehavioral deficits. The placenta regulates fetal cortisol exposure and response, and placental DNA methylation can influence this function. FK506 binding protein (FKBP5 is a negative regulator of cortisol response, FKBP5 methylation has been linked to brain morphology and mental disorder risk, and genetic variation of FKBP5 was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. We hypothesized that placental FKBP5 methylation and genetic variation contribute to gene expression control, and are associated with infant neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS. In 509 infants enrolled in the Rhode Island Child Health Study, placental FKBP5 methylation was measured at intron 7 using quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. Placental FKBP5 mRNA was measured in a subset of 61 infants by quantitative PCR, and the SNP rs1360780 was genotyped using a quantitative allelic discrimination assay. Relationships between methylation, expression and NNNS scores were examined using linear models adjusted for confounding variables, then logistic models were created to determine the influence of methylation on membership in high risk groups of infants. FKBP5 methylation was negatively associated with expression (P = 0.08, r = -0.22; infants with the TT genotype had higher expression than individuals with CC and CT genotypes (P = 0.06, and those with CC genotype displayed a negative relationship between methylation and expression (P = 0.06, r = -0.43. Infants in the highest quartile of FKBP5 methylation had increased risk of NNNS high arousal compared to infants in the lowest quartile (OR 2.22, CI 1.07-4.61. TT genotype infants had increased odds of high NNNS stress abstinence (OR 1.98, CI 0.92-4.26. Placental FKBP5 methylation reduces expression in

  1. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  2. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  3. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  4. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  5. Inventory management within the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilty, G L

    2000-05-01

    How can a company reduce its inventory costs as much as 35 to 50% of its current assets? The key to reducing inventory is to evaluate the entire supply chain, including an assessment of procurement, production, and distribution.

  6. Inventory on cleaner production education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pöyry, Sirkka; Huisingh, Donald

    Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training......Analysis and presentation of the data from an international inventory on cleaner production education and training...

  7. Color Coding Organic Chemicals for Inventory Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wystrach, V. P.; George, Babu

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system in which organic chemicals are recoded for inventory control and reshelving purposes. The system works well in undergraduate organic chemistry or biology laboratories but can be expanded to handle a larger and more complicated inventory. (JN)

  8. The fourth Minnesota forest inventory: area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes

    1980-01-01

    In 1977 the fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory found 13.7 million acres of commercial forest land, down 11% from that reported in 1962. This bulletin analyzes finding from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  9. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge : Wildlife Inventory Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Ottawa NWR describes the inventory program’s relation to Refuge objectives and outlines the program’s policies and administration....

  10. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for Malheur NWR summarizes Refuge objectives, policies on wildlife inventory procedures, biological habitat units, physical facility...

  11. Assessing removals for North Central forest inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses method used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit for estimating timber removals. Presents the relationship of timber utilization studies, primary lumber mill studies, and forest inventory data.

  12. The Trail Inventory of Aransas [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Aransas National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M R; Cinquina, V; Gómez, A; Layunta, R; Santos, M; Fernández-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2012-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We examined whether CBD neuroprotection is sustained over a prolonged period. Newborn Wistar rats underwent HI injury (10% oxygen for 120 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation) and then received vehicle (HV, n = 22) or 1 mg/kg CBD (HC, n = 23). Sham animals were similarly treated (SV, n = 16 and SC, n = 16). The extent of brain damage was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, histological evaluation (neuropathological score, 0-5), magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Western blotting. Several neurobehavioral tests (RotaRod, cylinder rear test[CRT],and novel object recognition[NOR]) were carried out 30 days after HI (P37). CBD modulated brain excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation seven days after HI. We observed that HI led to long-lasting functional impairment, as observed in all neurobehavioral tests at P37, whereas the results of HC animals were similar to those of sham animals (all p < 0.05 vs. HV). CBD reduced brain infarct volume by 17% (p < 0.05) and lessened the extent of histological damage. No differences were observed between the SV and SC groups in any of the experiments. In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery. These effects of CBD were not associated with any side effects. These results emphasize the interest in CBD as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal HI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  15. Further characterization of the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org25935: anti-alcohol, neurobehavioral, and gene expression effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Jonsson, Susanne; Hyytiä, Petri; Ericson, Mia; Söderpalm, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 is a promising candidate in a treatment concept for alcohol use disorder targeting the glycine system. Org25935 inhibits ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in brain reward regions and reduces ethanol intake in Wistar rats. This study aimed to further characterise the compound and used ethanol consumption, behavioral measures, and gene expression as parameters to investigate the effects in Wistar rats and, as pharmacogenetic comparison, Alko-Alcohol (AA) rats. Animals were provided limited access to ethanol in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm with daily drug administration. Acute effects of Org25935 were estimated using locomotor activity and neurobehavioral status. Effects on gene expression in Wistar rats were measured with qPCR. The higher but not the lower dose of Org25935 reduced alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Unexpectedly, Org25935 reduced both ethanol and water intake and induced strong CNS-depressive effects in AA-rats (withdrawn from further studies). Neurobehavioral effects by Org25935 differed between the strains (AA-rats towards sedation). Org25935 did not affect gene expression at the mRNA level in the glycine system of Wistar rats. The data indicate a small therapeutic range for the anti-alcohol properties of Org25935, a finding that may guide further evaluations of the clinical utility of GlyT-1 inhibitors. The results point to the importance of pharmacogenetic considerations when developing drugs for alcohol-related medical concerns. Despite the lack of successful clinical outcomes, to date, the heterogeneity of drug action of Org25935 and similar agents and the unmet medical need justify further studies of glycinergic compounds in alcohol use disorder.

  16. Transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficits from developmental exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea L; Truong, Lisa; Marvel, Skylar W; Reif, David M; Garcia, Abraham; Lu, Catherine; Simonich, Michael T; Teeguarden, Justin G; Tanguay, Robert L

    2017-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0). Two generations were raised from F0 fish to evaluate transgenerational inheritance. Morphological, physiological and neurobehavioral parameters were measured at two life stages. Juveniles of the F0 and F2 exhibited hyper locomotor activity, decreased heartbeat and mitochondrial function. B[a]P exposure during development resulted in decreased global DNA methylation levels and generally reduced expression of DNA methyltransferases in wild type zebrafish, with the latter effect largely reversed in an AHR2-null background. Adults from the F0 B[a]P exposed lineage displayed social anxiety-like behavior. Adults in the F2 transgeneration manifested gender-specific increased body mass index (BMI), increased oxygen consumption and hyper-avoidance behavior. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene during development resulted in transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficiencies. Indirect evidence suggested the potential for an AHR2-dependent epigenetic route. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide during pregnancy and lactation induces neurobehavioral alterations in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Bartos, Mariana; Bras, Cristina; Gumilar, Fernanda; Antonelli, Marta C; Minetti, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    The impact of sub-lethal doses of herbicides on human health and the environment is a matter of controversy. Due to the fact that evidence particularly of the effects of glyphosate on the central nervous system of rat offspring by in utero exposure is scarce, the purpose of the present study was to assess the neurobehavioral effects of chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing herbicide during pregnancy and lactation. To this end, pregnant Wistar rats were exposed through drinking water to 0.2% or 0.4% of a commercial formulation of glyphosate (corresponding to a concentration of 0.65 or 1.30g/L of glyphosate, respectively) during pregnancy and lactation and neurobehavioral alterations in offspring were analyzed. The postnatal day on which each pup acquired neonatal reflexes (righting, cliff aversion and negative geotaxis) and that on which eyes and auditory canals were fully opened were recorded for the assessment of sensorimotor development. Locomotor activity and anxiety levels were monitored via open field test and plus maze test, respectively, in 45- and 90-day-old offspring. Pups exposed to a glyphosate-based herbicide showed early onset of cliff aversion reflex and early auditory canal opening. A decrease in locomotor activity and in anxiety levels was also observed in the groups exposed to a glyphosate-containing herbicide. Findings from the present study reveal that early exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide affects the central nervous system in rat offspring probably by altering mechanisms or neurotransmitter systems that regulate locomotor activity and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric Analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    The Appreciative Advising Inventory is an instrument created for use in academic advising. The inventory helps the advisor get to know and understand the student, which in turn allows the advisor to better assist the student. This research provides a psychometric analysis of the Appreciative Advising Inventory to measure its validity and…

  19. 27 CFR 24.313 - Inventory record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory record. 24.313... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.313 Inventory record. A proprietor who files monthly or quarterly reports shall prepare a record of the physical inventory of all wine and spirits in...

  20. 27 CFR 24.266 - Inventory losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory losses. 24.266... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Losses of Wine § 24.266 Inventory losses. (a) General. The proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all untaxpaid wine on-hand on bonded wine premises as of the close of...

  1. Depression in College Students: Student Experience Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, Angela G.; Redfield, Doris L.

    To assess depression in college students, two inventories were compared: the Student Experience Inventory (SEI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). SEI, a self-report questionnaire, contains 56 items that are designed to measure hopelessness and decreased energy levels, as well as five factors covered in BDI: (1) negative affect toward self,…

  2. Kentucky, 2007 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Christopher R. King; Tony G. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    This science update provides an overview of the forest resource attributes of Kentucky. The overview is based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The inventory, along with Web-posted supplemental tables, will be updated annually.

  3. An annualized forest inventory for Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans T. Schreuder; Tom D. Wardle

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses opportunities presented to states by an annualized forest inventory system, to be conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the USDA Forest Service, and concerns about these inventories. The importance of a balanced approach in assessing timber and nontimber attributes is emphasized, and the paramount importance of maintaining and...

  4. 42 CFR 35.41 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inventory. 35.41 Section 35.41 Public Health PUBLIC... STATION MANAGEMENT Disposal of Money and Effects of Deceased Patients § 35.41 Inventory. Promptly after the death of a patient in a station or hospital of the Service, an inventory of his money and effects...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1374-7 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inventory. 1.1374-7 Section 1.1374-7 Internal... TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1374-7 Inventory. (a) Valuation. The fair market value of the inventory of an S corporation on the first day of the recognition period equals the...

  6. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25...

  7. 7 CFR 984.21 - Handler inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handler inventory. 984.21 Section 984.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.21 Handler inventory. Handler inventory as of any date means all...

  8. 78 FR 10642 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25...

  9. 23 CFR 650.315 - Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventory. 650.315 Section 650.315 Highways FEDERAL..., STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS National Bridge Inspection Standards § 650.315 Inventory. (a) Each State or Federal agency must prepare and maintain an inventory of all bridges subject to the NBIS. Certain...

  10. 75 FR 82095 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32828] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0394] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in...

  11. 10 CFR 34.29 - Quarterly inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarterly inventory. 34.29 Section 34.29 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Equipment § 34.29 Quarterly inventory. (a) Each licensee shall conduct a quarterly physical inventory to account for all sealed sources and for devices containing depleted uranium received...

  12. 76 FR 62327 - Retail Inventory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... the retail inventory method, the retail selling price of ending inventory is converted to approximate... denominator is the retail selling prices of beginning inventories plus the initial retail selling prices of...

  13. A New Neurobehavioral Model of Autism in Mice: Pre-and Postnatal Exposure to Sodium Valproate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George C.; Reuhl, Kenneth R.; Cheh, Michelle; McRae, Paulette; Halladay, Alycia K.

    2006-01-01

    Autism symptoms, including impairments in language development, social interactions, and motor skills, have been difficult to model in rodents. Since children exposed in utero to sodium valproate (VPA) demonstrate behavioral and neuroanatomical abnormalities similar to those seen in autism, the neurodevelopmental effects of this antiepileptic…

  14. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpern Janice

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency medical technicians (EMTs and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. Methods EMT/paramedics (n = 223 completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a endorsing any domain item and (b outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms. Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Results Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only as the 22-item inventory. Conclusions Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics’ personal

  15. The critical incident inventory: characteristics of incidents which affect emergency medical technicians and paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Janice; Maunder, Robert G; Schwartz, Brian; Gurevich, Maria

    2012-08-03

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics experience critical incidents which evoke distress and impaired functioning but it is unknown which aspects of incidents contribute to their impact. We sought to determine these specific characteristics by developing an inventory of critical incident characteristics and testing their relationship to protracted recovery from acute stress, and subsequent emotional symptoms. EMT/paramedics (n = 223) completed a retrospective survey of reactions to an index critical incident, and current depressive, posttraumatic and burnout symptoms. Thirty-six potential event characteristics were evaluated; 22 were associated with peritraumatic distress and were retained. We assigned inventory items to one of three domains: situational, systemic or personal characteristics. We tested the relationships between (a) endorsing any domain item and (b) outcomes of the critical incident (peritraumatic dissociation, recovery from components of the Acute Stress Reaction and depressive, posttraumatic, and burnout symptoms). Analyses were repeated for the number of items endorsed. Personal and situational characteristics were most frequently endorsed. The personal domain had the strongest associations, particularly with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged distressing feelings, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The situational domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation, prolonged social withdrawal, and current posttraumatic symptoms. The systemic domain was associated with peritraumatic dissociation and prolonged irritability. Endorsing multiple characteristics was related to peritraumatic, acute stress, and current posttraumatic symptoms. Relationships with outcome variables were as strong for a 14-item inventory (situational and personal characteristics only) as the 22-item inventory. Emotional sequelae are associated most strongly with EMT/paramedics' personal experience, and least with systemic characteristics. A14-item

  16. Inventory Management of Remanufacturable Products

    OpenAIRE

    L. Beril Toktay; Wein, Lawrence M.; Zenios, Stefanos A.

    2000-01-01

    We address the procurement of new components for recyclable products in the context of Kodak's single-use camera. The objective is to find an ordering policy that minimizes the total expected procurement, inventory holding, and lost sales cost. Distinguishing characteristics of the system are the uncertainty and unobservability associated with return flows of used cameras. We model the system as a closed queueing network, develop a heuristic procedure for adaptive estimation and control, and ...

  17. Waste management and chemical inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the classification and handling of waste at the Hanford Site. Waste produced at the Hanford Site is classified as either radioactive, nonradioactive, or mixed waste. Radioactive wastes are further categorized as transuranic, high-level, and low-level. Mixed waste may contain both radioactive and hazardous nonradioactive substances. This section describes waste management practices and chemical inventories at the site.

  18. Inventory Dynamics under Transaction Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Paul Chavas; Paula M. Despins; T. Randy Fortenbery

    2000-01-01

    A conceptual model of storage behavior is developed. Optimal intertemporal pricing is derived to analyze the effects of transaction costs on storage andarbitrage pricing. It is shown how transaction costs can rationalize the existence of an inverse carrying charge for inventory. The model is applied to U.S. soybeans stocks for the period 1960–95. The empirical results suggest that transaction costs have a significant influence on storage behavior andintertemporal arbitrage pricing. Copyright ...

  19. Mediators between bereavement and somatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkolÿ Thege Barna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our research we examined the frequency of somatic symptoms among bereaved (N = 185 and non-bereaved men and women in a national representative sample (N = 4041 and investigated the possible mediating factors between bereavement status and somatic symptoms. Methods Somatic symptoms were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15, anxiety with a four-point anxiety rating scale, and depression with a nine-item shortened version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Results Among the bereaved, somatic symptoms proved to be significantly more frequent in both genders when compared to the non-bereaved, as did anxiety and depression. On the multivariate level, the results show that both anxiety and depression proved to be a mediator between somatic symptoms and bereavement. The effect sizes indicated that for both genders, anxiety was a stronger predictor of somatic symptoms than depression. Conclusions The results of our research indicate that somatic symptoms accompanying bereavement are not direct consequences of this state but they can be traced back to the associated anxiety and depression. These results draw attention to the need to recognize anxiety and depression looming in the background of somatic complaints in bereavement and to the importance of the dissemination of related information.

  20. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Illerup, J.B.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  1. Developmental Changes in Depressive Cognitions: A Longitudinal Evaluation of the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGrange, Beth; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Truss, Alanna E.; Folmer, Amy

    2008-01-01

    As part of a longitudinal study, the Cognitive Triad Inventory for Children (CTI-C; N. J. Kaslow, K. D. Stark, B. Printz, R. Livingston, & S. L. Tsai, 1992) as well as other measures of cognitive style and depressive symptoms were administered annually to 3 cohorts of children starting in Grades 2, 4, and 6. Developmentally based analyses revealed…

  2. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  3. The Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the Korean Career Stress Inventory for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo Young; Park, Heerak; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Jayoung; Cho, Daeyeon; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Korean College Stress Inventory (KCSI), which is designed to measure Korean college students' experiences and symptoms of career stress. Even though there have been numerous scales related to career issues, few scales measure the career stress construct and its dimensions. Factor structure, internal…

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory for Youth in a Sample of Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Sander, Janay B.; Stark, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    A new measure has been developed to assess depressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory for Youth (BDI-Y; J. S. Beck, A. T. Beck, & J. B. Jolly, 2001). This research extends previous validation research of BDI-Y total scores by examining internal consistency and convergent and predictive validity within a school-based sample (n = 859) of…

  5. On the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G is the key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II

  6. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II: G Is the Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    2013-01-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II can be considered as one scale or whether…

  7. On the Factor Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II : G Is the Key

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Danny; Meijer, Rob R.; Zevalkink, Jolien

    The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) is intended to measure severity of depression, and because items represent a broad range of depressive symptoms, some multidimensionality exists. In recent factor-analytic studies, there has been a debate about whether the BDI-II

  8. Organophosphate intermediate syndrome with neurological complications of extrapyramidal symptoms in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Detweiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphates (OPs are ubiquitous in the world as domestic and industrial agricultural insecticides. Intentional poisoning as suicides attempts are clinical phenomena seen in emergency departments and clinics in agricultural areas. Intermediate syndrome with the neurological complication of extra pyramidal symptoms following acute OP ingestion may occur in pediatric and adult cases. While death is the most serious consequence of toxic OP doses, low levels of exposure and nonfatal doses may disrupt the neurobehavioral development of fetuses and children in addition to bring linked to testicular cancer and male and female infertility. These are disturbing. Chronic and acute toxicity from OPs are barriers to the health of our present and future generations. Symptoms and treatment of acute and chronic OP exposure are briefly referenced with inclusion of the intermediate syndrome. Suggestions for local and systemic reduction of the acute and long term consequences of OP ingestion are opined.

  9. Constructing a biodiversity terminological inventory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhung T H Nguyen

    Full Text Available The increasing growth of literature in biodiversity presents challenges to users who need to discover pertinent information in an efficient and timely manner. In response, text mining techniques offer solutions by facilitating the automated discovery of knowledge from large textual data. An important step in text mining is the recognition of concepts via their linguistic realisation, i.e., terms. However, a given concept may be referred to in text using various synonyms or term variants, making search systems likely to overlook documents mentioning less known variants, which are albeit relevant to a query term. Domain-specific terminological resources, which include term variants, synonyms and related terms, are thus important in supporting semantic search over large textual archives. This article describes the use of text mining methods for the automatic construction of a large-scale biodiversity term inventory. The inventory consists of names of species, amongst which naming variations are prevalent. We apply a number of distributional semantic techniques on all of the titles in the Biodiversity Heritage Library, to compute semantic similarity between species names and support the automated construction of the resource. With the construction of our biodiversity term inventory, we demonstrate that distributional semantic models are able to identify semantically similar names that are not yet recorded in existing taxonomies. Such methods can thus be used to update existing taxonomies semi-automatically by deriving semantically related taxonomic names from a text corpus and allowing expert curators to validate them. We also evaluate our inventory as a means to improve search by facilitating automatic query expansion. Specifically, we developed a visual search interface that suggests semantically related species names, which are available in our inventory but not always in other repositories, to incorporate into the search query. An assessment of

  10. Development of the Key Behaviors Change Inventory: a traumatic brain injury behavioral outcome assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolitz, Brent P; Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn

    2003-02-01

    To describe the development and initial validation of a neurobehavioral outcome measure, the Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI), for individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Scale construction and development, and validity study. Large state university and postal survey. Seventy-five volunteer undergraduate students and 25 volunteer collateral informants of individuals with TBI participated in the item-analysis phase. Thirty members of the Brain Injury Association and 20 members of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society rated both an identified patient and an age- and gender-equated control in the validation phase. Not applicable. Content validity was examined through expert panel item sorts. Scale internal consistencies were examined with the Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was examined by comparing scale elevations between controls and 2 neurologic groups. Item-analysis procedures resulted in 8 scales of 8 items each: inattention, impulsivity, unawareness of problems, apathy, interpersonal difficulties, communication problems, somatic difficulties, and emotional adjustment. Internal consistency reliability coefficients ranged from.82 to.91. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant (P

  11. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the Beck Depression Inventory.16 In the absence of a systematic approach to treatment, it is apparent that depression and anxiety among patients attending public health clinics, while relatively common, may go. Person-centred counselling to ameliorate symptoms of psychological distress among South African patients ...

  12. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression symptoms and syndromes varied widely depending on sex and age and also on the emphasis of the ... the Short Leyton Obsessional Inventory for Children and Adolescents had positive scores for obsessive disorder, 81.1% were positive for compulsive disorder and ...

  13. Symptoms of Autism in Males with Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison to Nonsyndromic ASD Using Current ADI-R Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Thurman, Angela John; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism are frequent in males with fragile X syndrome (FXS), but it is not clear whether symptom profiles differ from those of nonsyndromic ASD. Using individual item scores from the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised, we examined which current symptoms of autism differed in boys with FXS relative to same-aged boys diagnosed with…

  14. The Association between Emotional and Behavioral Problems and Gastrointestinal Symptoms among Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Schreiber, Dana R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and a broad set of emotional and behavioral concerns in 95 children with high-functioning autism and IQ scores = 80. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed via the Autism Treatment Network's Gastrointestinal Symptom Inventory, and data were gathered on autism symptom…

  15. Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Merjonen, Päivi; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI) profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (n = 1402 to 1902). TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck's depression inventory, BDI) were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR) and fanatical people (ScT) were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality. PMID:21876796

  16. Osthole, a natural coumarin, improves neurobehavioral functions and reduces infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuexuan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Mengfei; Ye, Minzhong; Liu, Peiqing; Liu, Jianxin; Lian, Qishen; Xu, Suowen; Pi, Rongbiao

    2011-04-18

    Previously we demonstrated that Osthole, a natural coumarin, protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats. In the present study, the effects of Osthole on neurobehavioral functions, infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a rat 2h focal cerebral ischemia model were investigated. Osthole (100mg/kg per dose) was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before ischemic insult and immediately after reperfusion. Osthole treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit score and infarct volume by 38.5% and 33.8%, respectively, as compared with the untreated animals. Osthole reversed ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in MMP-9 protein level/activity as evidenced by Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Taken together, these results for the first time demonstrate that Osthole reduces infarct volume, restores neurobehavioral functions and downregulates MMP-9 protein level/activity in ischemia/reperfused brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Should what we know about neurobehavioral development, complex congenital heart disease, and brain maturation affect the timing of corrective cardiac surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNardo, James A

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable improvements in perioperative care, adverse neurobehavioral outcomes following neonatal and infant cardiac surgery are commonplace and are associated with substantial morbidity. It is becoming increasingly clear that complex congenital heart disease is associated with both abnormalities in neuroanatomic development and a delay in fetal brain maturation. Substantial cerebral ischemic/hypoxic injury has been detected in neonates with complex congenital heart disease both prior to and following corrective cardiac surgery. The brain of the neonate with complex congenital heart disease appears to be uniquely vulnerable to the types of ischemic/hypoxic injury associated with perioperative care. It remains to be determined whether delaying surgical correction to allow for brain maturation will be associated with improvements in neurobehavioral outcomes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. [Alcohol and drug use disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: neurobehavioral consequences and caregiver burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Monsalve, Beatriz; Bernabeu-Guitart, Montserrat; López, Raquel; Bulbena-Vilarrasa, Antoni; Quemada, José Ignacio

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of alcohol and drugs use in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and to assess their relationship with neuropsychiatric disorders, functioning and caregiver burden. 156 patients with a history of moderate and severe TBI were evaluated. The use of alcohol and drugs was determined. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and the Zarit questionnaire were applied to caregivers. The patients functioning were assessed with the Disability Rating Scale (DRS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). 36 patients (23%) were regular users of alcohol and other drugs before the TBI. Neuropsychiatric disorders were more frequent and severe in this group, especially irritability and agitation-aggressiveness. Their caregivers perceived a higher burden. After TBI, 16 patients (44.4%) relapsed in alcohol-drugs consumption. Having a higher age and living with a partner were associated with higher rates of abstinence. The history of alcohol and drugs abuse is common in patients with TBI and it is a risk factor for development of behavioral disorders. More active interventions are needed aimed to detect these cases and work for prevention of relapse after trauma.

  19. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  20. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  1. Considering inventory distributions in a stochastic periodic inventory routing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadollahi, Ehsan; Aghezzaf, El-Houssaine

    2017-07-01

    Dealing with the stochasticity of parameters is one of the critical issues in business and industry nowadays. Supply chain planners have difficulties in forecasting stochastic parameters of a distribution system. Demand rates of customers during their lead time are one of these parameters. In addition, holding a huge level of inventory at the retailers is costly and inefficient. To cover the uncertainty of forecasting demand rates, researchers have proposed the usage of safety stock to avoid stock-out. However, finding the precise level of safety stock depends on forecasting the statistical distribution of demand rates and their variations in different settings among the planning horizon. In this paper the demand rate distributions and its parameters are taken into account for each time period in a stochastic periodic IRP. An analysis of the achieved statistical distribution of the inventory and safety stock level is provided to measure the effects of input parameters on the output indicators. Different values for coefficient of variation are applied to the customers' demand rate in the optimization model. The outcome of the deterministic equivalent model of SPIRP is simulated in form of an illustrative case.

  2. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  3. Cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position: comparing general to regional anesthesia and the impact on neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J; Borgeat, A; Trachsel, T; Cobo Del Prado, I; De Andrés, J; Bühler, P

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic brain damage has been reported in healthy patients after beach chair position for surgery due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been described as a non-invasive, continuous method to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation. However, its impact on neurobehavioral outcome comparing different anesthesia regimens has been poorly described. In this prospective, assessor-blinded study, 90 patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position following general (G-group, n=45) or regional anesthesia (R-group; n=45) were enrolled to assess the prevalence of cerebral desaturation events comparing anesthesia regimens and their impact on neurobehavioral and neurological outcome. Anesthesiologists were blinded to regional cerebral oxygen saturation values. Baseline data assessed the day before surgery included neurological and neurobehavioral tests, which were repeated the day after surgery. The baseline data for regional cerebral oxygen saturation/bispectral index and invasive blood pressure both at heart and auditory meatus levels were taken prior to anesthesia, 5 min after induction of anesthesia, 5 min after beach chair positioning, after skin incision and thereafter all 20 min until discharge. Patients in the R-group showed significantly less cerebral desaturation events (pde Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Distress-Based Gastrointestinal Symptom Clusters and Impact on Symptom Interference and Quality of Life in Patients with a Hematologic Malignancy Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherwin, Catherine H; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2017-04-01

    People with cancer can experience co-occurring related symptoms, labeled symptom clusters. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common side effects of chemotherapy, but little research has investigated GI symptom clusters. A further gap in symptom cluster research is the lack of studies reporting symptom clusters based on symptom distress ratings. To identify distress-based GI symptom clusters and to investigate their relationship to symptom interference with daily life and quality of life (QoL). About 105 adults with hematologic malignancy receiving chemotherapy. On Day 1 of a cycle of chemotherapy, participants completed a modified version of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale assessing 30 clinically relevant symptoms, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory Symptom Interference with Daily Life subscale, and the Fox Simple Quality of Life Scale. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify distress-based symptom clusters. Symptom clusters with ≥50% GI symptoms were labeled GI symptom clusters. Linear mixed modeling explored relationships between GI symptom clusters and symptom interference with daily life and QoL. Of the six distress-based symptom clusters found, the bloating cluster and appetite cluster were identified as GI symptom clusters. Both the bloating cluster and the appetite cluster were significantly related to symptom interference with daily life, but only the appetite cluster was significantly related to QoL. This research demonstrates the existence of distress-based GI symptom clusters and their relationship to symptom interference and QoL. Future work should explore predictors of distress-based symptom clusters and interventions to manage them. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Prospective Study of the Physiological and Neurobehavioral Effects of Ramadan Fasting in Preteen and Teenage Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Herrera, Christopher Paul; Almudahka, Fuad; Mansour, Rita

    2015-06-01

    Intermittent fasting during the month of Ramadan, although not obligatory, is commonly practiced by Muslim children. Our aim was to describe the effects of Ramadan fasting on various physiological and neurobehavioral measures in preteen and teenaged boys. We conduced a prospective cohort study during Ramadan, observed from August 9 to September 11, 2010. Eighteen healthy Muslim boys (mean age±standard deviation 12.6±1.5 years) were recruited and assessed before, during (1st and 4th weeks), and after Ramadan. Subjects were classified as preteens (aged 9 to 12 years) or teens (aged 13 to 15 years). On each clinic visit, participants completed a match-to-sample test, a spatial planning and working memory task, and a working memory capacity test using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Participants were also assessed for their sleep patterns, daily energy expenditure, and dietary intake. Body composition was determined using a dual-energy x-ray scan. Complete blood count, lipid profile analysis, and iron indices were conducted. We measured morphologic, metabolic, and neurobehavioral parameters. A linear mixed model was used to assess changes in outcome measures. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were performed as necessary with Bonferroni adjustment. Within 1 week of fasting, there was a drop in body fat only in preteens (P=0.001). Reported fat (P=0.004) and protein intake (P=0.037) was higher during Ramadan, but energy expenditure did not change. By the end of Ramadan, there was a significant reduction in hemoglobin (mean±standard error -0.48±0.4 mmol/L) and serum iron (-25.7±31.8 μg/dL [-4.6±5.7 μmol/L]) levels. During week 4, total sleep duration decreased by 1.8 hours. At week 4, performance on the spatial planning and working memory task and working memory capacity test increased significantly (P=0.002), while match-to-sample test performance declined in preteens only (P=0.045). Ramadan fasting was associated with significant changes in

  6. A Genetic Algorithm on Inventory Routing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevin Aydın

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Inventory routing problem can be defined as forming the routes to serve to the retailers from the manufacturer, deciding on the quantity of the shipment to the retailers and deciding on the timing of the replenishments. The difference of inventory routing problems from vehicle routing problems is the consideration of the inventory positions of retailers and supplier, and making the decision accordingly. Inventory routing problems are complex in nature and they can be solved either theoretically or using a heuristics method. Metaheuristics is an emerging class of heuristics that can be applied to combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we provide the relationship between vendor-managed inventory and inventory routing problem. The proposed genetic for solving vehicle routing problem is described in detail.

  7. Depression Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comparison Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a…

  8. Dealer Inventory and the Cost of Immediacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    This study shows that the recent 80% decrease in dealer inventories of corporate bonds has increased the cost of immediacy. For safe bonds which are quickly turned over again by dealers the increase is up to 15%, while for risky bonds which are kept on inventory by dealers the increase is up to 100....... The drop in dealer inventories, and thus the rise in transaction costs, is a side-eect of anticipated tighter regulation, primarily Basel III and the Volcker Rule....

  9. Data Driven Tuning of Inventory Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Santacoloma, Paloma Andrade; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method for criterion based tuning of inventory controllers based on data-driven iterative feedback tuning is presented. This tuning method circumvent problems with modeling bias. The process model used for the design of the inventory control is utilized in the tuning...... as an approximation to reduce time required on experiments. The method is illustrated in an application with a multivariable inventory control implementation on a four tank system....

  10. How Does Collaborative Inventory Management Make Progress?

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Togar Mangihut

    2003-01-01

    Collaborative inventory management (CIM) has revolutionized electronics, textile, apparel, and grocery industries. An intriguing question is how far does the movement of CIM challenge the traditional practice of inventory management? This paper illustrates how to expose and challenge flawed assumptions of traditional inventory management. It also proposes a collaborative replenishment process that consists of a cyclic process of tactical planning, execution, and control. The proposed scheme m...

  11. Information and Inventory in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; Chakravarthi Narasimhan; Rakesh Niraj

    2007-01-01

    We examine the trade-offs between demand information and inventory in a distribution channel. While better demand information has a positive direct effect for the manufacturer in improving the efficiency of holding inventory in a channel, it can also have the strategic effect of increasing retail prices and limiting the extraction of retail profits. Having inventory in the channel can help the manufacturer to manage retail pricing behavior while better extracting retail surplus. Thus, even if...

  12. Influence of cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia on IADL performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskaya, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    People with schizophrenia experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are required for independent living. Yet, factors that influence IADL performance are still poorly understood. Identification of such factors will contribute to the rehabilitation process and recovery. The present study aimed to examine the influence of cognitive abilities, schizophrenia symptoms, and demographic variables on IADL functioning during acute hospital admission. The participants were 81 adults with DSM-IV chronic schizophrenia. They were assessed on the Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL-R), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat), and the Kitchen Task Assessment (KTA) at acute hospitalization. The prediction model of IADL performance at this time consists of executive functioning (explained 21% of variance), memory and abstract thinking (explained 13.5%), negative symptoms (explained 13%), age of illness onset and years of education (explained 8%). The total explained variance is 53.5%. These results provide evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation process in inpatient settings. Such guidelines are important since planning of intervention processes and appropriate community integration programs often occurs during acute hospitalization, while the structured nature of inpatient settings limits natural variability in occupational performance.

  13. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sudden hair loss. Existing evidence suggests that alopecia areata may be associated with personality traits altering the susceptibility to stress and psychiatric conditions associated with stress. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the level of alexithymia in patients with alopecia areata and healthy control subjects.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata and 30 healthy volunteers were compared in terms of scores of Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, and Toronto alexithymia scale.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between alopecia areata cases and healthy controls regarding intensity of anxiety and level of alexythimia (p=0.053 and p=0.120, respectively. The intensity of depressive symptoms exhibited by alopecia areata patients was found to be significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.010 and there was no statistically significant relationship between intensity of depressive symptoms and duration of the current alopecia areata episode (p=0.873.Conclusion: It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation should also be performed in all alopecia areata cases during the clinical follow-up period. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 203-5

  14. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Access Holes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Access Holes. This data contains access hole locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  15. Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Hoffmann, Leif

    This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2012. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2010 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...

  16. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Drop Inlets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Drop Inlets. This data contains drop inlets locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  17. Advanced Data Collection for Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opresko, G. A.; Leet, J. H.; Mcgrath, D. F.; Eidson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Bar-coding, radio-frequency, and voice-operated systems selected. Report discusses study of state-of-the-art in automated collection of data for management of large inventories. Study included comprehensive search of literature on data collection and inventory management, visits to existing automated inventory systems, and tours of selected supply and transportation facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Information collected analyzed in view of needs of conceptual inventory-management systems for Kennedy Space Center and for manned space station and other future space projects.

  18. Blood inventory management: hospital best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Sebastian H W; Yates, Nicola; Wilding, Richard; Cotton, Sue

    2012-04-01

    Blood is a perishable product, and hence good management of inventories is crucial. Blood inventory management is a trade-off between shortage and wastage. The challenge is to keep enough stock to ensure a 100% supply of blood while keeping time expiry losses at a minimum. This article focuses on inventory management of red blood cells in hospital transfusion laboratories to derive principles of best practice and makes recommendations that will ensure losses due to time expiry are kept to a minimum. The literature was reviewed to identify available models for perishable inventory management. Historical data from the UK blood supply chain was analyzed to identify hospitals with good inventory management practice and low wastage levels. Transfusion laboratory managers in the selected hospitals were interviewed in 7 case studies with the aim of identifying drivers for low wastage and good inventory management practice. The findings from the case studies were compared with the literature. The extant literature asserts that the drivers for good inventory performance are the use of complex inventory models and algorithms. This study has found this not to be the case. Instead, good performance is driven by the quality of transfusion laboratory staff, who must be skilled, regularly trained, and experienced. Electronic crossmatching, transparency of the inventory, and simple management procedures also facilitate good performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Trajectories of Symptoms and Impairment for Pediatric Patients with Functional Abdominal Pain: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh; Lambert, E. Warren; Garber, Judy; Walker, Lynn S.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This prospective study characterizes trajectories of symptoms and impairment in pediatric patients with abdominal pain not associated with identifiable organic disease. Method: The Children's Somatization Inventory and the Functional Disability Inventory were administered four times over 5 years to 132 patients (6-18 years old) seen in…

  20. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…