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Sample records for neurobehavioral functional deficits

  1. Neurobehavioral Deficits in Progressive Experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Departments of 1Anatomy and 2Neurological Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Summary: Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and ...

  2. Neurobehavioral deficits in progressive experimental hydrocephalus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocephalus is usually associated with functional deficits which can be assessed by neurobehavioral tests. This study characterizes the neurobehavioral deficits occurring with increasing duration and severity of ventriculomegaly in an experimental neonatal hydrocephalic rat model. Hydrocephalus was induced in three ...

  3. Impact of Sleep Restriction on Neurobehavioral Functioning of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Design: Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). Setting: A quiet location within their home environments. Participants: Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Interventions: NA Measurements: Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Results: Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Conclusions: Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD. Citation: Gruber R; Wiebe S; Montecalvo L; Brunetti B; Amsel R; Carrier J. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. SLEEP 2011;34(3):315-323. PMID:21358848

  4. Impact of sleep restriction on neurobehavioral functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Wiebe, Sabrina; Montecalvo, Lisa; Brunetti, Bianca; Amsel, Rhonda; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cumulative impact of 1 hour of nightly sleep restriction over the course of 6 nights on the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls. Following 6 nights of actigraphic monitoring of sleep to determine baseline sleep duration, children were asked to restrict sleep duration by 1 hour for 6 consecutive nights. NBF was assessed at baseline (Day 6) and following sleep manipulation (Day 12). A quiet location within their home environments. Forty-three children (11 ADHD, 32 Controls, mean age = 8.7 years, SD = 1.3) between the ages of 7 and 11 years. NA. Sleep was monitored using actigraphy. In addition, parents were asked to complete nightly sleep logs. Sleepiness was evaluated using a questionnaire. The Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was used to assess NBF. Restricted sleep led to poorer CPT scores on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures in both healthy controls and children with ADHD. The performance of children with ADHD following sleep restriction deteriorated from subclinical levels to the clinical range of inattention on two-thirds of CPT outcome measures. Moderate sleep restriction leads to a detectable negative impact on the NBF of children with ADHD and healthy controls, leading to a clinical level of impairment in children with ADHD.

  5. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-01-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  6. Sleep deprivation and neurobehavioral functioning in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maski, Kiran P; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Sleep deprivation can result in significant impairments in daytime neurobehavioral functioning in children. Neural substrates impacted by sleep deprivation include the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia and amygdala and result in difficulties with executive functioning, reward anticipation and emotional reactivity respectively. In everyday life, such difficulties contribute to academic struggles, challenging behaviors and public health concerns of substance abuse and suicidality. In this article, we aim to review 1) core neural structures impacted by sleep deprivation; 2) neurobehavioral problems associated with sleep deprivation; 3) specific mechanisms that may explain the relationship between sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral dysfunction; and 4) sleep problems reported in common neurodevelopmental disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents with and without obesity and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, Melissa S; Gallagher, Paul R; Berkowitz, Robert I; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Bradford, Ruth; Marcus, Carole L

    2015-03-01

    Children and adults with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) exhibit neurobehavioral abnormalities, but few studies have evaluated the transitional stage of adolescence. Obesity is also associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities, and many patients with OSAS are obese. However, the confounding effect of obesity on neurobehavioral abnormalities in adolescents with OSAS has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that obese adolescents with OSAS would exhibit more neurobehavioral abnormalities than obese and lean adolescents without OSAS. Cross-sectional, case control. Sleep Center and community. Obese adolescents with OSAS compared to (1) nonsnoring, obese controls without OSAS, and (2) nonobese, nonsnoring controls. Neurobehavioral evaluation. Obese adolescents with OSAS had significantly worse executive function and attention compared to both obese (P depression (P = 0.004) and externalizing symptoms than lean controls (P = 0.008). A higher percentage of participants in the OSAS group scored in the clinically abnormal range on executive functioning, attention, sleepiness, and behavioral functioning than lean controls. Mediation analyses indicated that level of sleep apnea significantly mediated the effect of body mass on executive functioning, attention, and behavior. Obese adolescents with OSAS show impaired executive and behavioral function compared to obese and lean controls, and are more likely to score in the clinically abnormal range on measures of neurobehavioral functioning. These results are especially concerning given that the frontal lobe is still developing during this critical age period. We speculate that untreated OSAS during adolescence may lead to significant neurobehavioral deficits in adulthood. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Increased Blood Pressure in School-Age Children Prenatally Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Barr, Dana; Bellinger, David C.; Debes, Frodi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. Objectives In northern Ecuador, where floriculture is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children’s neurobehavioral functions at 6–8 years of age. Methods We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children’s current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. Results Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed to pesticides during pregnancy via maternal occupational exposure, and 23 had indirect exposure from paternal work. Twenty-two children had detectable current exposure irrespective of their prenatal exposure status. Only children with prenatal exposure from maternal greenhouse work showed consistent deficits after covariate adjustment, which included stunting and socioeconomic variables. Exposure-related deficits were the strongest for motor speed (Finger Tapping Task), motor coordination (Santa Ana Form Board), visuospatial performance (Stanford-Binet Copying Test), and visual memory (Stanford-Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5–2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data strengthened these results. Conclusions These findings support the notion that prenatal exposure to pesticides—at levels not producing adverse health outcomes in the mother

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Developmental Alcohol-Induced Neurobehavioral Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balapal S. Basavarajappa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its damaging consequences on the developing infant brain are significant public health, social, and economic issues. The major distinctive features of prenatal alcohol exposure in humans are cognitive and behavioral dysfunction due to damage to the central nervous system (CNS, which results in a continuum of disarray that is collectively called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. Many rodent models have been developed to understand the mechanisms of and to reproduce the human FASD phenotypes. These animal FASD studies have provided several molecular pathways that are likely responsible for the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure of the developing CNS. Recently, many laboratories have identified several immediate, as well as long-lasting, epigenetic modifications of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins and microRNA (miRNA biogenesis by using a variety of epigenetic approaches in rodent FASD models. Because DNA methylation patterns, DNA-associated histone protein modifications and miRNA-regulated gene expression are crucial for synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, they can therefore offer an answer to many of the neurobehavioral abnormalities that are found in FASD. In this review, we briefly discuss the current literature of DNA methylation, DNA-associated histone proteins modification and miRNA and review recent developments concerning epigenetic changes in FASD.

  10. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  11. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  12. Countermeasures to Neurobehavioral Deficits from Cumulative Partial Sleep Deprivation During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, David F.

    1999-01-01

    This project is concerned with identifying ways to prevent neurobehavioral and physical deterioration due to inadequate sleep in astronauts during long-duration manned space flight. The performance capability of astronauts during extended-duration space flight depends heavily on achieving recovery through adequate sleep. Even with appropriate circadian alignment, sleep loss can erode fundamental elements of human performance capability including vigilance, cognitive speed and accuracy, working memory, reaction time, and physiological alertness. Adequate sleep is essential during manned space flight not only to ensure high levels of safe and effective human performance, but also as a basic regulatory biology critical to healthy human functioning. There is now extensive objective evidence that astronaut sleep is frequently restricted in space flight to averages between 4 hr and 6.5 hr/day. Chronic sleep restriction during manned space flight can occur in response to endogenous disturbances of sleep (motion sickness, stress, circadian rhythms), environmental disruptions of sleep (noise, temperature, light), and curtailment of sleep due to the work demands and other activities that accompany extended space flight operations. The mechanism through which this risk emerges is the development of cumulative homeostatic pressure for sleep across consecutive days of inadequate sleep. Research has shown that the physiological sleepiness and performance deficits engendered by sleep debt can progressively worsen (i.e., accumulate) over consecutive days of sleep restriction, and that sleep limited to levels commonly experienced by astronauts (i.e., 4 - 6 hr per night) for as little as 1 week, can result in increased lapses of attention, degradation of response times, deficits in complex problem solving, reduced learning, mood disturbance, disruption of essential neuroendocrine, metabolic, and neuroimmune responses, and in some vulnerable persons, the emergence of uncontrolled

  13. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Fiadhnait; Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2014-01-01

    To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an "early plasticity" hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury.

  14. Do Respiratory Cycle-Related EEG Changes or Arousals from Sleep Predict Neurobehavioral Deficits and Response to Adenotonsillectomy in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D.; Garetz, Susan L.; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Hodges, Elise K.; Giordani, Bruno J.; Dillon, James E.; Felt, Barbara T.; Hoban, Timothy F.; Guire, Kenneth E.; O'Brien, Louise M.; Burns, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Methods: Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Results: Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Conclusion: Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194 Citation: Chervin RD, Garetz SL, Ruzicka DL, Hodges EK, Giordani BJ, Dillon JE, Felt BT, Hoban TF, Guire KE, O'Brien LM, Burns JW. Do respiratory cycle

  15. Piperine Augments the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neurobehavioral and Neurochemical Deficits in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangra, Ashok; Kwatra, Mohit; Singh, Tavleen; Pant, Rajat; Kushwah, Pawan; Sharma, Yogita; Saroha, Babita; Datusalia, Ashok Kumar; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of curcumin alone and in combination with piperine against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits in the mice hippocampus. Mice were treated with curcumin (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days followed by LPS (0.83 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Animals exhibited anxiety and depressive-like phenotype after 3 and 24 h of LPS exposure, respectively. LPS administration increased the oxido-nitrosative stress as evident by elevated levels of malondialdehyde, nitrite, and depletion of glutathione level in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found raised level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) in the hippocampus of LPS-treated mice. Pretreatment with curcumin alleviated LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits. Furthermore, co-administration of curcumin with piperine significantly potentiated the neuroprotective effect of curcumin. These results demonstrate that piperine enhanced the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against LPS-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical deficits.

  16. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongli Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. METHODS: Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. RESULTS: After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  17. Association between exposure to electromagnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines and neurobehavioral function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiongli; Tang, Tiantong; Hu, Guocheng; Zheng, Jing; Wang, Yuyu; Wang, Qiang; Su, Jing; Zou, Yunfeng; Peng, Xiaowu

    2013-01-01

    Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children. Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines. The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.

  18. Branched-chain amino acids alter neurobehavioral function in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Anna; Wenner, Brett R.; Ilkayeva, Olga; Stevens, Robert D.; Maggioni, Mauro; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have described a strong association of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) with obesity and insulin resistance. In the current study, we have investigated the potential impact of BCAA on behavioral functions. We demonstrate that supplementation of either a high-sucrose or a high-fat diet with BCAA induces anxiety-like behavior in rats compared with control groups fed on unsupplemented diets. These behavioral changes are associated with a significant decrease in the concentration of tryptophan (Trp) in brain tissues and a consequent decrease in serotonin but no difference in indices of serotonin synaptic function. The anxiety-like behaviors and decreased levels of Trp in the brain of BCAA-fed rats were reversed by supplementation of Trp in the drinking water but not by administration of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, suggesting that the behavioral changes are independent of the serotonergic pathway of Trp metabolism. Instead, BCAA supplementation lowers the brain levels of another Trp-derived metabolite, kynurenic acid, and these levels are normalized by Trp supplementation. We conclude that supplementation of high-energy diets with BCAA causes neurobehavioral impairment. Since BCAA are elevated spontaneously in human obesity, our studies suggest a potential mechanism for explaining the strong association of obesity and mood disorders. PMID:23249694

  19. Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Wanda M; Anderson, Judy E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2013-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic condition affecting predominantly boys that is characterized by fatal muscle weakness. While there is no cure, recent therapeutic advances have extended the lifespan of those with DMD considerably. Although the physiological basis of muscle pathology is well-documented, less is known regarding the cognitive, behavioral, and psychosocial functioning of those afflicted. Several lines of evidence point to central nervous system involvement as an organic feature of DMD, challenging our view of the disorder as strictly neuromuscular. This report provides a review of the literature on neuropsychological and neurobehavioral functioning in DMD. Recent research identifying associations with DMD and neuropsychiatric disorders is also discussed. Lastly, the review presents implications of findings related to nonmotor aspects of DMD for improving the quality of life in those affected. While the literature is often contradictory in nature, this review highlights some key findings for consideration by clinicians, educators and parents when developing therapeutic interventions for this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pesticide poisoning and neurobehavioral function among farm workers in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Wu, Ming; Yao, Hongyan; Yang, Yaming; Cui, Mengjing; Tu, Zhibin; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides remain an integral part of agricultural activities worldwide. Although there have been a number of studies over the last two decades concerning the adverse effects of pesticide poisoning and chronic long term exposures on neurobehavioral function, the impact of recent pesticide poisoning and long term pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral function in Chinese farm workers has not been reported. China is the largest user of pesticides worldwide and figures suggest 53,300-123,000 Chinese people are poisoned every year. A case control study was conducted to examine the impact of recent pesticide poisoning on neurobehavioral function and the relationship between years worked in agriculture and lower performance on neurobehavioral tests. A total of 121 farm workers who self-reported recent pesticide poisonings within the previous 12 months (case group) and 80 farm workers who reported no pesticide poisoning in the previous 12 months (control group) were recruited from three areas of Jiangsu Province, China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommended neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB) was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning among cases and controls. Student's t tests and two-way covariance analysis (ANCOVA) were used to test for significant differences in the neurobehavioral test results between the groups. Scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the recently poisoned group were significantly higher for anger-hostility, depression-dejection, tension-anxiety and lower for vigor-activity compared to controls (p poisoned group compared to the controls (p poisoned group and those who had worked for more than 30 years in agriculture (p pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral functioning in Chinese farm workers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Do respiratory cycle-related EEG changes or arousals from sleep predict neurobehavioral deficits and response to adenotonsillectomy in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Ronald D; Garetz, Susan L; Ruzicka, Deborah L; Hodges, Elise K; Giordani, Bruno J; Dillon, James E; Felt, Barbara T; Hoban, Timothy F; Guire, Kenneth E; O'Brien, Louise M; Burns, Joseph W

    2014-08-15

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with hyperactive behavior, cognitive deficits, psychiatric morbidity, and sleepiness, but objective polysomnographic measures of OSA presence or severity among children scheduled for adenotonsillectomy have not explained why. To assess whether sleep fragmentation might explain neurobehavioral outcomes, we prospectively assessed the predictive value of standard arousals and also respiratory cycle-related EEG changes (RCREC), thought to reflect inspiratory microarousals. Washtenaw County Adenotonsillectomy Cohort II participants included children (ages 3-12 years) scheduled for adenotonsillectomy, for any clinical indication. At enrollment and again 7.2 ± 0.9 (SD) months later, children had polysomnography, a multiple sleep latency test, parent-completed behavioral rating scales, cognitive testing, and psychiatric evaluation. The RCREC were computed as previously described for delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta EEG frequency bands. Participants included 133 children, 109 with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1.5, mean 8.3 ± 10.6) and 24 without OSA (AHI 0.9 ± 0.3). At baseline, the arousal index and RCREC showed no consistent, significant associations with neurobehavioral morbidities, among all subjects or the 109 with OSA. At follow-up, the arousal index, RCREC, and neurobehavioral measures all tended to improve, but neither baseline measure of sleep fragmentation effectively predicted outcomes (all p > 0.05, with only scattered exceptions, among all subjects or those with OSA). Sleep fragmentation, as reflected by standard arousals or by RCREC, appears unlikely to explain neurobehavioral morbidity among children who undergo adenotonsillectomy. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT00233194.

  2. Association of Traffic-Related Air Pollution with Children’s Neurobehavioral Functions in Quanzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunqin; Zhang, Jinliang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Zeng, Yimin; Wang, Shengchun; Chen, Shuyun

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increase of motor vehicles, ambient air pollution related to traffic exhaust has become an important environmental issue in China. Because of their fast growth and development, children are more susceptible to ambient air pollution exposure. Many chemicals from traffic exhaust, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead, have been reported to show adverse effects on neurobehavioral functions. Several studies in China have suggested that traffic exhaust might affect neurobehavioral functions of adults who have occupational traffic exhaust exposure. However, few data have been reported on the effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the association between traffic-related air pollution exposure and its effects on neurobehavioral function in children. Methods This field study was conducted in Quanzhou, China, where two primary schools were chosen based on traffic density and monitoring data of ambient air pollutants. School A was located in a clear area and school B in a polluted area. We monitored NO2 and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm as indicators for traffic-related air pollution on the campuses and in classrooms for 2 consecutive days in May 2005. The children from second grade (8–9 years of age) and third grade (9–10 years of age) of the two schools (n = 928) participated in a questionnaire survey and manual-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We selected 282 third-grade children (school A, 136; school B, 146) to participate in computer-assisted neurobehavioral testing. We conducted the fieldwork between May and June 2005. We used data from 861 participants (school A, 431; school B, 430) with manual neurobehavioral testing and from all participants with computerized testing for data analyses. Results Media concentrations of NO2 in school A and school B campus were 7 μg/m3 and 36 μg/m3, respectively (p polluted area showed poor performance on

  3. Tourette Syndrome: Overview and Classroom Interventions. A Complex Neurobehavioral Disorder Which May Involve Learning Problems, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms, and Stereotypical Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ramona A.; Collins, Edward C.

    Tourette Syndrome is conceptualized as a neurobehavioral disorder, with behavioral aspects that are sometimes difficult for teachers to understand and deal with. The disorder has five layers of complexity: (1) observable multiple motor, vocal, and cognitive tics and sensory involvement; (2) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; (3)…

  4. Exposure to Enriched Environment Decreases Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Glutamate Toxicity

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    Peter Kiss

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is a popular strategy to enhance motor and cognitive performance and to counteract the effects of various harmful stimuli. The protective effects of enriched environment have been shown in traumatic, ischemic and toxic nervous system lesions. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used taste enhancer causing excitotoxic effects when given in newborn animals. We have previously demonstrated that MSG leads to a delay in neurobehavioral development, as shown by the delayed appearance of neurological reflexes and maturation of motor coordination. In the present study we aimed at investigating whether environmental enrichment is able to decrease the neurobehavioral delay caused by neonatal MSG treatment. Newborn pups were treated with MSG subcutaneously on postnatal days 1, 5 and 9. For environmental enrichment, we placed rats in larger cages, supplemented with different toys that were altered daily. Normal control and enriched control rats received saline treatment only. Physical parameters such as weight, day of eye opening, incisor eruption and ear unfolding were recorded. Animals were observed for appearance of reflexes such as negative geotaxis, righting reflexes, fore- and hindlimb grasp, fore- and hindlimb placing, sensory reflexes and gait. In cases of negative geotaxis, surface righting and gait, the time to perform the reflex was also recorded daily. For examining motor coordination, we performed grid walking, footfault, rope suspension, rota-rod, inclined board and walk initiation tests. We found that enriched environment alone did not lead to marked alterations in the course of development. On the other hand, MSG treatment caused a slight delay in reflex development and a pronounced delay in weight gain and motor coordination maturation. This delay in most signs and tests could be reversed by enriched environment: MSG-treated pups kept under enriched conditions showed no weight retardation, no reflex delay in

  5. CE Neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome following childhood arterial ischemic stroke: Attention deficits, emotional dysregulation, and executive dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique; Eve, Megan; Ganesan, Vijeya; King, John; Murphy, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome in children with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). Background Childhood stroke can have consequences on motor, cognitive, and behavioral development. We present a cross-sectional study of neuropsychological and neurobehavioral outcome at least one year poststroke in a uniquely homogeneous sample of children who had experienced AIS. Method Forty-nine children with AIS aged 6 to 18 years were recruited from a specialist clinic. Neuropsychological measures of intelligence, reading comprehension, attention, and executive function were administered. A triangulation of data collection included questionnaires completed by the children, their parents, and teachers, rating behavior, executive functions, and emotions. Key Findings Focal neuropsychological vulnerabilities in attention (response inhibition and dual attention) and executive function were found, beyond general intellectual functioning, irrespective of hemispheric side of stroke. Difficulties with emotional and behavioral regulation were also found. Consistent with an “early plasticity” hypothesis, earlier age of stroke was associated with better performance on measures of executive function. Conclusions A significant proportion of children poststroke are at long-term risk of difficulties with emotional regulation, executive function, and attention. Data also suggest that executive functions are represented in widespread networks in the developing brain and are vulnerable to unilateral injury. PMID:24028185

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension in Adolescents: Effect on Neurobehavioral and Cognitive Functioning

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    Irina Madaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited published data in regard to the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and hypertension and neurobehavioral and mental status in adolescence. The aim of our study was to evaluate neurobehavioral patterns and cognitive functions in adolescents with hypertension according to absence or presence of OSA. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study completed at the Scientific Center for Family Health and Human Reproduction Problems. Participants included adolescents aged 14–17 years and referred for 24-hour ambulance blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and polysomnographic (PSG studies between 2007 and 2009, inclusive. Results. 18 hypertensive OSA (the 1st group and 20 hypertensive non-OSA adolescents (the 2nd group were included in the study. Significant changes of neurobehavioral functioning in OSA patients were shown. Cognitive abilities also were impaired. Verbal and visual memory indexes and attention index were 2.1 and 2.2 times lower, accordingly, in the 1st group than in the 2nd group (P<0.05. Speech index was significantly 2.8 times lower in OSA patients than in non-OSA patients (P<0.05. In hypertensive OSA adolescents more significant Spearman correlations between classic sleep parameters and cognitive measures were found compared to patients without OSA. Conclusions. These results suggest that OSA is closely associated with neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in hypertensive adolescents.

  7. Osthole, a natural coumarin, improves neurobehavioral functions and reduces infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuexuan; Yin, Wei; Liu, Mengfei; Ye, Minzhong; Liu, Peiqing; Liu, Jianxin; Lian, Qishen; Xu, Suowen; Pi, Rongbiao

    2011-04-18

    Previously we demonstrated that Osthole, a natural coumarin, protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in rats. In the present study, the effects of Osthole on neurobehavioral functions, infarct volume and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in a rat 2h focal cerebral ischemia model were investigated. Osthole (100mg/kg per dose) was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before ischemic insult and immediately after reperfusion. Osthole treatment significantly reduced neurological deficit score and infarct volume by 38.5% and 33.8%, respectively, as compared with the untreated animals. Osthole reversed ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase in MMP-9 protein level/activity as evidenced by Western blotting and gelatin zymography. Taken together, these results for the first time demonstrate that Osthole reduces infarct volume, restores neurobehavioral functions and downregulates MMP-9 protein level/activity in ischemia/reperfused brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives on stress resilience and adolescent neurobehavioral function

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    Russell D. Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in adolescence as a crucial stage of neurobehavioral maturation is growing, as is the concern of how stress may perturb this critical period of development. Though it is well recognized that stress-related vulnerabilities increase during adolescence, not all adolescent individuals are uniformly affected by stress nor do stressful experiences inevitability lead to negative outcomes. Indeed, many adolescents show resilience to stress-induced dysfunctions. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that may mediate resilience to stress in adolescence. The goal of this brief review is to bring together a few separate, yet related lines of research that highlight specific variables that may influence stress resilience during adolescence, including early life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, stress inoculation, and genetic predisposition. Though we are far from a clear understanding of the factors that mediate resistance to stress-induced dysfunctions, it is imperative that we identify and delineate these aspects of resilience to help adolescents reach their full potential, even in the face of adversity.

  9. Resveratrol protects against ICV collagenase-induced neurobehavioral and biochemical deficits.

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    Singh, Navdeep; Bansal, Yashika; Bhandari, Ranjana; Marwaha, Lovish; Singh, Raghunath; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Kuhad, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Indeed, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) account for only 15% of all strokes but it is one of the most devastating subtype of stroke associated with behavioral, cognitive and neurological deficits. The primary cause of neurological deficits in ICH is the hematoma growth, generation of free radicals, inflammatory cytokines and exhausting endogenous anti-oxidant machinery. It has been found that neuroinflammation following ICH leads to exaggeration of hallmarks of ICH. With this background, the study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol (RSV) in intracerebroventricular (ICV) collagenase (COL) induced neurological deficits in rats. The present study was designed to explore the protective effects of resveratrol (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) against ICV-COL induced ICH. Animals were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to access behavioral changes, including neurological scoring tests (cylinder test, spontaneous motility, righting reflex, horizontal bar test, forelimb flexion), actophotometer, rotarod, Randall Sellito and von Frey. Post stroke depression was estimated using forced swim test (FST). Memory deficit was monitored using Morris water maze (MWM). Chronic treatment with RSV (20 mg/kg) for 21 days restored various behavioral changes, including neurological scoring tests (cylinder test, spontaneous motility, righting reflex, horizontal bar test, forelimb flexion), actophotometer, rotarod, Randall Sellito and Von Frey. RSV also restores increase in immobility time forced swim test used to evaluate post stroke depression and impaired memory deficit in Morris water maze. RSV administration also attenuated increased nitro-oxidative stress and TNF-α level. RSV being a potent antioxidant also restores changes in endogenous anti-oxidant levels. In conclusion, our research demonstrates that RSV has a protective effect against ICH by virtue of its anti-inflammatory property and antioxidant and nitrosative stress restoring property.

  10. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R Thomas; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    (sensitivity analysis, €79.7 million to €399 million). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20-69% probability, with 19 300 to 31 200 attributable cases at a cost of €1.21 billion to €2.86 billion. EDC exposures in Europe contribute substantially to neurobehavioral deficits and disease, with a high probability of >€150 billion costs/year. These results emphasize the advantages of controlling EDC exposure.

  11. Transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficits from developmental exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Andrea L; Truong, Lisa; Marvel, Skylar W; Reif, David M; Garcia, Abraham; Lu, Catherine; Simonich, Michael T; Teeguarden, Justin G; Tanguay, Robert L

    2017-08-15

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a well-known genotoxic polycylic aromatic compound whose toxicity is dependent on signaling via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). It is unclear to what extent detrimental effects of B[a]P exposures might impact future generations and whether transgenerational effects might be AHR-dependent. This study examined the effects of developmental B[a]P exposure on 3 generations of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos were exposed from 6 to 120h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 and 10μM B[a]P and raised in chemical-free water until adulthood (F0). Two generations were raised from F0 fish to evaluate transgenerational inheritance. Morphological, physiological and neurobehavioral parameters were measured at two life stages. Juveniles of the F0 and F2 exhibited hyper locomotor activity, decreased heartbeat and mitochondrial function. B[a]P exposure during development resulted in decreased global DNA methylation levels and generally reduced expression of DNA methyltransferases in wild type zebrafish, with the latter effect largely reversed in an AHR2-null background. Adults from the F0 B[a]P exposed lineage displayed social anxiety-like behavior. Adults in the F2 transgeneration manifested gender-specific increased body mass index (BMI), increased oxygen consumption and hyper-avoidance behavior. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene during development resulted in transgenerational inheritance of neurobehavioral and physiological deficiencies. Indirect evidence suggested the potential for an AHR2-dependent epigenetic route. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

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    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  13. Metabolite profiles correlate closely with neurobehavioral function in experimental spinal cord injury in rats.

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    Yusuke Fujieda

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI results in direct physical damage and the generation of local factors contributing to secondary pathogenesis. Untargeted metabolomic profiling was used to uncover metabolic changes and to identify relationships between metabolites and neurobehavioral functions in the spinal cord after injury in rats. In the early metabolic phase, neuronal signaling, stress, and inflammation-associated metabolites were strongly altered. A dynamic inflammatory response consisting of elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 and palmitoyl ethanolamide as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA were significantly decreased possibly reflecting neuronal cell death. A second metabolic phase was also seen, consistent with membrane remodeling and antioxidant defense response. These metabolomic changes were consistent with the pathology and progression of SCI. Several metabolites, including NAA, NAAG, and the ω-3 fatty acids docosapentaenoate and docosahexaenoate correlated greatly with the established Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan locomotive score (BBB score. Our findings suggest the possibility of a biochemical basis for BBB score and illustrate that metabolites may correlate with neurobehavior. In particular the NAA level in the spinal cord might provide a meaningful biomarker that could help to determine the degree of injury severity and prognosticate neurologic recovery.

  14. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  15. Neurobehavioral Deficits and Parkinsonism in Occupations with Manganese Exposure: A Review of Methodological Issues in the Epidemiological Literature

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    Robert M. Park

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to manganese (Mn is associated with neurobehavioral effects. There is disagreement on whether commonly occurring exposures in welding, ferroalloy, and other industrial processes produce neurologically significant neurobehavioral changes representing parkinsonism. A review of methodological issues in the human epidemiological literature on Mn identified: (1 studies focused on idiopathic Parkinson disease without considering manganism, a parkinsonian syndrome; (2 studies with healthy worker effect bias; (3 studies with problematic statistical modeling; and (4 studies arising from case series derived from litigation. Investigations with adequate study design and exposure assessment revealed consistent neurobehavioral effects and attributable subclinical and clinical signs and symptoms of impairment. Twenty-eight studies show an exposure-response relationship between Mn and neurobehavioral effects, including 11 with continuous exposure metrics and six with three or four levels of contrasted exposure. The effects of sustained low-concentration exposures to Mn are consistent with the manifestations of early manganism, i.e., consistent with parkinsonism. This is compelling evidence that Mn is a neurotoxic chemical and there is good evidence that Mn exposures far below the current US standard of 5.0 mg/m3 are causing impairment.

  16. Acute Total and Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation: Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions, Waking EEG and Renin-Angiotensin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan

    1999-01-01

    Total sleep deprivation leads to decrements in neurobehavioral performance and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations as well as the incidence of slow eye movements ad detected in the electro-oculogram (EOG) during wakefulness. Although total sleep deprivation is a powerful tool to investigate the association of EEG/EOG and neurobehavioral decrements, sleep loss during space flight is usual only partial. Furthermore exposure to the microgravity environment leads to changes in sodium and volume homeostasis and associated renal and cardio-endocrine responses. Some of these changes can be induced in head down tilt bedrest studies. We integrate research tools and research projects to enhance the fidelity of the simulated conditions of space flight which are characterized by complexity and mutual interactions. The effectiveness of countermeasures and physiologic mechanisms underlying neurobehavioral changes and renal-cardio endocrine changes are investigated in Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations Team respectively. Although the. specific aims of these two projects are very different, they employ very similar research protocols. Thus, both projects investigate the effects of posture/bedrest and sleep deprivation (total or partial) on outcome measures relevant to their specific aims. The main aim of this enhancement grant is to exploit the similarities in research protocols by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Renal-Cardio project in the research protocol of Project 3 of the Human Performance Team and by including the assessment of outcome variables relevant to the Quantitative EEG and Sleep Deprivation Project in the research protocols of Project 3 of the Cardiovascular Alterations team. In particular we will assess Neurobehavioral Function and Waking EEG in the research protocols of the renal-cardio endocrine project and renin-angiotensin and cardiac function in the research

  17. Attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in animal model of cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease by fermented soybean nanonutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Pathak, Shruti; Kumar, Vikas; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2018-02-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of nanonutraceuticals (NN) for attenuation of neurobehavioral and neurochemical abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease. Solid-state fermentation of soybean with Bacillus subtilis was performed to produce different metabolites (nattokinase, daidzin, genistin and glycitin and menaquinone-7). Intoxication of rats with colchicine caused impairment in learning and memory which was demonstrated in neurobehavioral paradigms (Morris water maze and passive avoidance) linked with decreased activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). NN treatment led to a significant increase in TLT in the retention trials as compared to acquisition trial TLT suggesting an improved learning and memory in rats. Further, treatment of NN caused an increase in the activity of AChE (42%), accompanied with a reduced activity of glutathione (42%), superoxide dismutase (43%) and catalase (41%). It also decreased the level of lipid peroxidation (28%) and protein carbonyl contents (30%) in hippocampus as compared to those treated with colchicine alone, suggesting a possible neuroprotective efficacy of NN. Interestingly, in silico studies also demonstrated an effective amyloid-β and BACE-1 inhibition activity. These findings clearly indicated that NN reversed colchicine-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations through potent antioxidant activity and could possibly impart beneficial effects in cognitive defects associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Neurobehavioral function and low-level exposure to brominated flame retardants in adolescents: a cross-sectional study

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    Kiciński Michał

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal and in vitro studies demonstrated a neurotoxic potential of brominated flame retardants, a group of chemicals used in many household and commercial products to prevent fire. Although the first reports of detrimental neurobehavioral effects in rodents appeared more than ten years ago, human data are sparse. Methods As a part of a biomonitoring program for environmental health surveillance in Flanders, Belgium, we assessed the neurobehavioral function with the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES-3, and collected blood samples in a group of high school students. Cross-sectional data on 515 adolescents (13.6-17 years of age was available for the analysis. Multiple regression models accounting for potential confounders were used to investigate the associations between biomarkers of internal exposure to brominated flame retardants [serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, 209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD, and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA] and cognitive performance. In addition, we investigated the association between brominated flame retardants and serum levels of FT3, FT4, and TSH. Results A two-fold increase of the sum of serum PBDE’s was associated with a decrease of the number of taps with the preferred-hand in the Finger Tapping test by 5.31 (95% CI: 0.56 to 10.05, p = 0.029. The effects of the individual PBDE congeners on the motor speed were consistent. Serum levels above the level of quantification were associated with an average decrease of FT3 level by 0.18 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.34, p = 0.020 for PBDE-99 and by 0.15 pg/mL (95% CI: 0.004 to 0.29, p = 0.045 for PBDE-100, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. PBDE-47 level above the level of quantification was associated with an average increase of TSH levels by 10.1% (95% CI: 0.8% to 20.2%, p = 0.033, compared with concentrations below the level of quantification. We did not

  19. Functional Polymorphisms in Dopaminergic Genes Modulate Neurobehavioral and Neurophysiological Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Sebastian C.; Müller, Thomas; Valomon, Amandine; Seebauer, Britta; Berger, Wolfgang; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs cognitive performance and reliably alters brain activation in wakefulness and sleep. Nevertheless, the molecular regulators of prolonged wakefulness remain poorly understood. Evidence from genetic, behavioral, pharmacologic and imaging studies suggest that dopaminergic signaling contributes to the behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) consequences of sleep loss, although direct human evidence thereof is missing. We tested whether dopamine neurotransmission regulate sustained attention and evolution of EEG power during prolonged wakefulness. Here, we studied the effects of functional genetic variation in the dopamine transporter (DAT1) and the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, on psychomotor performance and standardized waking EEG oscillations during 40 hours of wakefulness in 64 to 82 healthy volunteers. Sleep deprivation consistently enhanced sleepiness, lapses of attention and the theta-to-alpha power ratio (TAR) in the waking EEG. Importantly, DAT1 and DRD2 genotypes distinctly modulated sleep loss-induced changes in subjective sleepiness, PVT lapses and TAR, according to inverted U-shaped relationships. Together, the data suggest that genetically determined differences in DAT1 and DRD2 expression modulate functional consequences of sleep deprivation, supporting the hypothesis that striato-thalamo-cortical dopaminergic pathways modulate the neurobehavioral and neurophysiological consequences of sleep loss in humans. PMID:28393838

  20. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  1. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. RESULTS: The panel identified a 70-100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures......CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably...... peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients...

  2. Neurobehavioral Deficits in a Rat Model of Recurrent Neonatal Seizures Are Prevented by a Ketogenic Diet and Correlate with Hippocampal Zinc/Lipid Transporter Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Ni, Hong; Sun, Bao-liang

    2015-10-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been shown to be effective as an antiepileptic therapy in adults, but it has not been extensively tested for its efficacy in neonatal seizure-induced brain damage. We have previously shown altered expression of zinc/lipid metabolism-related genes in hippocampus following penicillin-induced developmental model of epilepsy. In this study, we further investigated the effect of KD on the neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits, as well as if KD has any influence in the activity of zinc/lipid transporters such as zinc transporter 3 (ZnT-3), MT-3, ApoE, ApoJ (clusterin), and ACAT-1 activities in neonatal rats submitted to flurothyl-induced recurrent seizures. Postnatal day 9 (P9), 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: flurothyl-induced recurrent seizure group (EXP) and control group (CONT). On P28, they were further randomly divided into the seizure group without ketogenic diet (EXP1), seizure plus ketogenic diet (EXP2), the control group without ketogenic diet (CONT1), and the control plus ketogenic diet (CONT2). Neurological behavioral parameters of brain damage (plane righting reflex, cliff avoidance reflex, and open field test) were observed from P35 to P49. Morris water maze test was performed during P51-P57. Then hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting and the protein levels of ZnT3, MT3, ApoE, CLU, and ACAT-1 were detected by Timm staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Flurothyl-induced neurobehavioral toxicology and aberrant mossy fiber sprouting were blocked by KD. In parallel with these behavioral changes, rats treated with KD (EXP2) showed a significant down-regulated expression of ZnT-3, MT-3, ApoE, clusterin, and ACAT-1 in hippocampus when compared with the non-KD-treated EXP1 group. Our findings provide support for zinc/lipid transporter signals being potential targets for the treatment of neonatal seizure-induced brain damage by KD.

  3. Neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of beneficial effects of prenatal omega-3 fatty acid intake on memory function at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Olivier; Burden, Matthew J; Muckle, Gina; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Nelson, Charles A; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2011-05-01

    The beneficial effects of prenatal and early postnatal intakes of omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on cognitive development during infancy are well recognized. However, few studies have examined the extent to which these benefits continue to be evident in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of n-3 PUFAs and seafood-contaminant intake with memory function in school-age children from a fish-eating community. In a prospective, longitudinal study in Arctic Quebec, we assessed Inuit children (n = 154; mean age: 11.3 y) by using a continuous visual recognition task to measure 2 event-related potential components related to recognition memory processing: the FN400 and the late positive component (LPC). Children were also examined by using 2 well-established neurobehavioral assessments of memory: the Digit span forward from Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, 4th edition, and the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that children with higher cord plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which is an important n-3 PUFA, had a shorter FN400 latency and a larger LPC amplitude; and higher plasma DHA concentrations at the time of testing were associated with increased FN400 amplitude. Cord DHA-related effects were observed regardless of seafood-contaminant amounts. Multiple regression analyses also showed positive associations between cord DHA concentrations and performance on neurobehavioral assessments of memory. To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiologic and neurobehavioral evidence of long-term beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA intake in utero on memory function in school-age children.

  4. [Long-term effect of hypertension on neurobehavioral and cardiac function in the apparently healthy community-dwelling elderly: a 5-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tomio; Chikamori, Taishiro; Nishinaga, Masanori; Doi, Yoshinori

    2003-07-01

    Recently, it has been reported that hypertension causes not only cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but also a decline of cognitive function in the elderly. However, it is not clear whether or not aging and hypertension have a latent effect on the cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in healthy elderly whose scores of basic activities of daily living (ADL) are fully maintained. We evaluated the effect of aging and hypertension on cognitive-neurobehavioral and cardiac functions in 25 healthy community-dwelling elderly subjects (mean age: 69 y.o.) whose scores of basic ADL were fully maintained. Subjects were followed over a 5-year period, and the following examinations were performed before and after a 5-year follow-up: echocardiography, 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and cognitive-neurobehavioral function test. Left ventricular mass index was significantly increased in the hypertensive (HT) subjects relative to the normotensive (NT) subjects over the 5 years (% change: 3% for HT vs. -0.8% for NT, p = 0.03). The number of non-dippers significantly increased over the 5 years in the HT group (initially: 20% [2/10] vs. follow-up: 58% [7/12], p = 0.04). Visuospatial cognitive performance scale scores for evaluation of higher cognitive-neurobehavioral functions significantly deteriorated in the HT subjects (initially; 2,344 +/- 110 vs. 2,380 +/- 102, ns, and follow-up: 2,149 +/- 181 vs. 2,356 +/- 159, p = 0.04). Hypertension contributes to the impairment of the cognitive-neurobehavioral function in the elderly by latently affecting the functions of multiple organs. This occurs even if basic ADL is maintained for 5 years. Therefore, it is important to control BP not only to prevent cardiovascular events, but also to preserve the neurobehavioral function.

  5. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Helle R; Debes, Fróði; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11 years together with 44 newly recruited children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in the children as a whole and with impaired neuropsychological function in girls, while no effect was apparent in boys. In girls, language and motor speed functions were significantly inversely associated with prenatal exposure, and a non-significant tendency toward decreased function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide exposure on their children's neurodevelopment, despite the fact that the exposures occurred solely during early pregnancy and under well regulated working conditions, where special measures to protect pregnant women were applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    children of same age whose mothers were not occupationally exposed to pesticides in pregnancy. All children underwent a standardized examination including a battery of neurodevelopmental tests. Maternal occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy was associated with prolonged brainstem auditory......Prenatal exposure to pesticides may affect neurodevelopment, while the impact of modern pesticides is unclear. From 1997-2001, women working in greenhouse horticultures were recruited at the beginning of their pregnancy. Based on detailed interview of the women and their employers, those...... function was also seen for other neuropsychological outcomes. A structural equation model that combined all these test results showed an overall impaired neuropsychological function in girls prenatally exposed to pesticides. Thus, our findings suggest an adverse effect of maternal occupational pesticide...

  7. Cannabidiol administration after hypoxia-ischemia to newborn rats reduces long-term brain injury and restores neurobehavioral function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, M R; Cinquina, V; Gómez, A; Layunta, R; Santos, M; Fernández-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Orgado, José

    2012-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) demonstrated short-term neuroprotective effects in the immature brain following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We examined whether CBD neuroprotection is sustained over a prolonged period. Newborn Wistar rats underwent HI injury (10% oxygen for 120 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation) and then received vehicle (HV, n = 22) or 1 mg/kg CBD (HC, n = 23). Sham animals were similarly treated (SV, n = 16 and SC, n = 16). The extent of brain damage was determined by magnetic resonance imaging, histological evaluation (neuropathological score, 0-5), magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Western blotting. Several neurobehavioral tests (RotaRod, cylinder rear test[CRT],and novel object recognition[NOR]) were carried out 30 days after HI (P37). CBD modulated brain excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation seven days after HI. We observed that HI led to long-lasting functional impairment, as observed in all neurobehavioral tests at P37, whereas the results of HC animals were similar to those of sham animals (all p < 0.05 vs. HV). CBD reduced brain infarct volume by 17% (p < 0.05) and lessened the extent of histological damage. No differences were observed between the SV and SC groups in any of the experiments. In conclusion, CBD administration after HI injury to newborn rats led to long-lasting neuroprotection, with the overall effect of promoting greater functional rather than histological recovery. These effects of CBD were not associated with any side effects. These results emphasize the interest in CBD as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal HI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum Neuron-Specific Enolase, Biogenic Amino-Acids and Neurobehavioral Function in Lead-Exposed Workers from Lead-Acid Battery Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ravibabu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The interaction between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE, biogenic amino-acids and neurobehavioral function with blood lead levels in workers exposed to lead form lead-acid battery manufacturing process was not studied. Objective: To evaluate serum NSE and biogenic amino-acids (dopamine and serotonin levels, and neurobehavioral performance among workers exposed to lead from lead-acid storage battery plant, and its relation with blood lead levels (BLLs. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we performed biochemical and neurobehavioral function tests on 146 workers exposed to lead from lead-acid battery manufacturing process. BLLs were assessed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum NSE, dopamine and serotonin were measured by ELISA. Neurobehavioral functions were assessed by CDC-recommended tests—simple reaction time (SRT, symbol digit substitution test (SDST, and serial digit learning test (SDLT. Results: There was a significant correlation (r 0.199, p<0.05 between SDST and BLL. SDLT and SRT had also a significant positive correlation (r 0.238, p<0.01. NSE had a negative correlation (r –0.194, p<0.05 with serotonin level. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both SRT and SDST had positive significant associations with BLL. SRT also had a positive significant association with age. Conclusion: Serum NSE cannot be used as a marker for BLL. The only domain of neurobehavioral function tests that is affected by increased BLL in workers of lead-acid battery manufacturing process is that of the “attention and perception” (SDST.

  9. Association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene polymorphism with the neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system function changes induced by benzo[a]pyrene exposure in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Nie, Jisheng; Li, Xin; Niu, Qiao

    2013-03-01

    To analyze the association of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene polymorphism and the neurotoxicity induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in coke oven workers. Subjects, 214 coke oven workers and 81 controls, were detected for neurobehavioral function and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Airborne B[a]P concentration, urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level, and AhR gene polymorphisms were determined and analyzed for their association with B[a]P neurotoxicity. Neurobehavioral function and ANS function were significantly decreased and dependent on B[a]P dose. The AhR GG, GA, and AA genotypes in G1661A fitted the Hardy-Weinberg equation, whereas C1549T and G1708A gene mutants were not detected. Indices indicating neurotoxicity showed no significant difference among individuals with AA, GG, or GA genotype except for the confusion-bewilderment (P > 0.05). The AhR gene polymorphism is not thought to correlate with B[a]P neurotoxicity among coke oven workers.

  10. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral performance in Latino children living in an orchard community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Dawson, Jaime; Galvin, Kit; Thorne, Peter S.; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2016-01-01

    Children living in agricultural communities have a greater risk from pesticides due to para-occupational pathways. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides on the neurobehavioral performance of school-aged Latino children over time. Two exposure measures were used to estimate children’s pesticide exposure: parent’s occupation (agricultural or non-agricultural) and organophosphate residues in home carpet dust samples. During 2008–2011, 206 school-aged children completed a battery of neurobehavioral tests two times, approximately one year apart. The associations between both exposure measures and neurobehavioral performance were examined. Pesticide residues were detected in dust samples from both agricultural and non-agricultural homes, however, pesticides were detected more frequently and in higher concentrations in agricultural homes compared to non-agricultural homes. Although few differences were found between agricultural and non-agricultural children at both visits, deficits in learning from the first visit to the second visit, or less improvement, was found in agricultural children relative to non-agricultural children. These differences were significant for the Divided Attention and Purdue Pegboard tests. These findings are consistent with previous research showing deficits in motor function. A summary measure of organophosphate residues was not associated with neurobehavioral performance. Results from this study indicate that children in agricultural communities are at increased risk from pesticides as a result of a parent working in agricultural. Our findings suggest that organophosphate exposure may be associated with deficits in learning on neurobehavioral performance, particularly in tests of with motor function. In spite of regulatory phasing out of organophosphates in the U.S., we still see elevated levels and higher detection rates of several organophosphates in agricultural households than non

  11. Test Review: Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee-Smith, Paula J.; Winters, Rebecca R.; Drake, Amanda; Joslin, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), authored by Russell A. Barkley and published by Guilford in 2011, is an individually administered assessment tool that may be used to evaluate adults ages 18 to 81. The purpose of this measure is to screen those who may be experiencing executive functioning (EF) deficits in…

  12. Effects of low lead exposure on neuro-behavioral function in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, R. (Sapporo Medical College, Japan); Ikeda, T.; Miyake, H.; Uchino, E.; Tsuzuki, T.; Inoue, K.

    1983-01-01

    Small doses (45-180 ..mu..g/g) of lead acetate were administered to male rats by gavage every day during the first 3 wk of life. A blood concentration of approximately 59 ..mu..g/100 ml blood produced signs of disturbances in reflex development and some changes in emotional behavior. Larger doses resulted in subtle changes in the neuromotor coordination function. The effect of low levels of lead exposure on the cognitive function in operant conditioning could not clearly be observed. Brain lead concentration tended to be higher than in other tissues examined. At approximately 10 months following cessation of lead acetate administration, the brain lead concentration had decreased to almost the same level found in control rats, and no distinguishable differences were observed between the lead-treated rats and controls in emotional behavior and neuromotor coordination.

  13. Effect of oral appliance therapy on neurobehavioral functioning in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Winter, Virginia R; Hickie, Ian B; Cistulli, Peter A

    2005-10-15

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a custom-made mandibular advancement splint for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with respect to neuropsychological functioning and mood state. A randomized controlled crossover design was used in which 73 participants (mean age = 48.4, SD = 11.0, % men = 80.8) with at least 2 symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and an apnea hypopnea index > or = 10 per hour underwent treatment with both mandibular advancement splint and an inactive oral device. Polysomnographic, neuropsychological and self-report measures were conducted at baseline and repeated after each of the two 4-week treatment phases. MAS treatment was associated with improvements on the somatic component of the Beck Depression Inventory and the Vigor-Activity and Fatigue-Inertia scales of the Profile of Mood States. While there were no improvements within the neuropsychological domains of attention/working memory, verbal memory, visuospatial or executive functioning, treatment with the mandibular advancement splint was associated with faster performance on a test of vigilance/psychomotor speed. These changes, however, did not correspond to the improved subjective sleepiness or apnea-hypopnea index during treatment. Treatment with the mandibular advancement splint results in improvements in self-reported sleepiness, fatigue/energy levels and vigilance/psychomotor speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  14. [Research advances on cortical functional and structural deficits of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Liu, L Q

    2017-05-11

    Previous studies have observed functional deficits in primary visual cortex. With the development of functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiological technique, the research of the striate, extra-striate cortex and higher-order cortical deficit underlying amblyopia reaches a new stage. The neural mechanisms of amblyopia show that anomalous responses exist throughout the visual processing hierarchy, including the functional and structural abnormalities. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about structural and functional deficits of brain regions associated with amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 392-395).

  15. Insulin Treatment Prevents Neuroinflammation and Neuronal Injury with Restored Neurobehavioral Function in Models of HIV/AIDS Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamik, Manmeet K; Asahchop, Eugene L; Chan, Wing F; Zhu, Yu; Branton, William G; McKenzie, Brienne A; Cohen, Eric A; Power, Christopher

    2016-10-12

    HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression. Insulin treatment of primary human neurons prevented HIV-1 Vpr-mediated cell process retraction and death. In feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected cats, daily intranasal insulin treatment (20.0 IU/200 μl for 6 weeks) reduced CXCL10, IL-6, and FIV RNA detection in brain, although PPAR-γ in glia was increased compared with PBS-treated FIV+ control animals. These molecular changes were accompanied by diminished glial activation in cerebral cortex and white matter of insulin-treated FIV+ animals, with associated preservation of cortical neurons. Neuronal counts in parietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus were higher in the FIV+/insulin-treated group compared with the FIV+/PBS-treated group. Moreover, intranasal insulin treatment improved neurobehavioral performance, including both memory and motor functions, in FIV+ animals. Therefore, insulin exerted ex vivo and in vivo antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in models of HAND, representing a new therapeutic option for patients with inflammatory or infectious neurodegenerative disorders including HAND. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) represent a spectrum disorder of neurocognitive dysfunctions resulting from HIV-1 infection. Although the exact mechanisms causing HAND are unknown, productive HIV-1 infection

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Assess the Neurobehavioral Impact of Dysphotopsia with Multifocal Intraocular Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Andreia M; Miranda, Ângela C; Patrício, Miguel; McAlinden, Colm; Silva, Fátima L; Murta, Joaquim N; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the association between dysphotopsia and neural responses in visual and higher-level cortical regions in patients who recently received multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implants. Cross-sectional study. Thirty patients 3 to 4 weeks after bilateral cataract surgery with diffractive IOL implantation and 15 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed when participants viewed low-contrast grating stimuli. A light source surrounded the stimuli in half of the runs to induce disability glare. Visual acuity, wavefront analysis, Quality of Vision (QoV) questionnaire, and psychophysical assessment were performed. Cortical activity (blood oxygen level dependent [BOLD] signal) in the primary visual cortex and in higher-level brain areas, including the attention network. When viewing low-contrast stimuli under glare, patients showed significant activation of the effort-related attention network in the early postoperative period, involving the frontal, middle frontal, parietal frontal, and postcentral gyrus (multisubject random-effects general linear model (GLM), P < 0.03). In contrast, controls showed only relative deactivation (due to lower visibility) of visual areas (occipital lobe and middle occipital gyrus, P < 0.03). Patients also had relatively stronger recruitment of cortical areas involved in learning (anterior cingulate gyrus), task planning, and solving (caudate body). Patients reporting greater symptoms induced by dysphotic symptoms showed significantly increased activity in several regions in frontoparietal circuits, as well as cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus (q < 0.05). We found no correlation between QoV questionnaire scores and optical properties (total and higher order aberration, modulation transfer function, and Strehl ratio). This study shows the association between patient-reported subjective difficulties and fMRI outcomes, independent of optical parameters and psychophysical

  17. Overcoming Executive Function Deficits with Students with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph; Reid, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Academic problems are common among students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One reason for academic problems is the difficulties in executive functions (EF) that are necessary for complex goal-oriented behaviors. Students with ADHD often exhibit EF deficits and as a result have difficulties with tasks that require planning,…

  18. Executive functioning deficits in preschool children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestad, Anita J; Whitley, Marisa L; Carlson, Stephanie M; Boys, Christopher J; Eckerle, Judith K; Fink, Birgit A; Wozniak, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficit is a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD), but the vast majority of available evidence comes from school-age children and adolescents. Very little is known about EF during the critical developmental period prior to 6 years of age in FASD. We evaluated EF in 39 children with FASD (3.0-5.5 years) and a comparison group of 50 age-matched, nonexposed controls. Measures included the EF Scale for Early Childhood and a Delay of Gratification task. Compared to age-matched controls, preschool children with FASD had impairments on the EF Scale and showed more impulsivity on the Delay of Gratification task. To confirm the EF Scale finding, FASD group performance was compared to a separate normative dataset (N = 1,400). Those with FASD performed below normal (M = -0.57, SD = 0.92). Within the FASD group, IQ was correlated with the EF Scale (partial r = .60, p = .001) and Delay of Gratification (partial r = .58, p = .005). EF Scale performance did not differ significantly across levels of FASD severity (fetal alcohol syndrome [FAS], partial FAS, or alcohol-related neurobehavioral disorder [ARND]). However, compared to normative data, those with FAS had the largest deficits (M = -0.91 SD from the mean, SE = 0.23), followed by partial FAS (M = -0.66 SD from the mean, SE = 0.26), then ARND (M = -0.36 SD from the mean, SE = 0.20). These novel data show that EF deficits manifest well before the age of 6 years in children with FASD, that they occur across the spectrum, and that EF may be most impaired in children with more severe forms of FASD and/or lower IQs.

  19. Neurobehavioral Abnormalities Associated with Executive Dysfunction after Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger Ll. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article will address how anomalies of executive function after traumatic brain injury (TBI can translate into altered social behavior that has an impact on a person’s capacity to live safely and independently in the community.Method: Review of literature on executive and neurobehavioral function linked to cognitive ageing in neurologically healthy populations and late neurocognitive effects of serious TBI. Information was collated from internet searches involving MEDLINE, PubMed, PyscINFO and Google Scholar as well as the authors’ own catalogs.Conclusions: The conventional distinction between cognitive and emotional-behavioral sequelae of TBI is shown to be superficial in the light of increasing evidence that executive skills are critical for integrating and appraising environmental events in terms of cognitive, emotional and social significance. This is undertaken through multiple fronto-subcortical pathways within which it is possible to identify a predominantly dorsolateral network that subserves executive control of attention and cognition (so-called cold executive processes and orbito-frontal/ventro-medial pathways that underpin the hot executive skills that drive much of behavior in daily life. TBI frequently involves disruption to both sets of executive functions but research is increasingly demonstrating the role of hot executive deficits underpinning a wide range of neurobehavioral disorders that compromise relationships, functional independence and mental capacity in daily life.

  20. Factors affecting perceptions of family function in caregivers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan; Clark, Mary-Jo; Chang, Yong-Yuan; Liu, Yea-Ying; Chang, Chiung-Ying

    2014-09-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. ADHD has been shown to persist into adulthood in 30%-70% of cases. The long-term and escalating nature of ADHD creates an increasing burden on families because of the influence of hyperactivity and impulsivity on academic achievement and social interaction. There is a lack of information on factors influencing function in the families of children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to test theoretically derived relationships among family demographic characteristics; family factors such as support, hardiness, and caregiver health; and family-functioning outcomes. This study used a cross-sectional study and structural equation modeling approach. A self-report questionnaire collected information from 122 caregivers on demographics, income, employment, and marital status data as well as on personal health, family support, family hardiness, and family function statuses as determined, respectively, using the Duke Health Profile, Family APGAR score, Family Hardiness Index, and Family Assessment Device. Structural equation modeling provided a reasonable fit to the data using AMOS (χ = .249, df = 1, p = .613, minimum discrepancy C = .249), goodness-of-fit index (.999), adjusted goodness of fit index (.990), normed fit index (.999), comparative fit index (1.0), and root mean square error of approximation (.000). Results indicated a 55.6% probability of becoming the construct model, with family hardiness and family support directly affecting family function and caregiver health. Family support functioned as a mediator in the relationship between family hardiness and family function. The findings of this study help nurses improve professional assessments and interventions for families of children with ADHD by highlighting the importance of increased family support, promoting family hardiness, and promoting caregivers' health to improved family function.

  1. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Verté, S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Roeyers, M.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54

  2. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Verté, S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Roeyers, M.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54

  3. Smell Identification Function in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. Thi...

  4. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts, H.M.; Verté, S.; Oosterlaan, J.; Roeyers, M.; Sergeant, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54 ADHD, 41 HFA, and 41 normal controls) were tested on a wide range of tasks related to five major domains of executive functioning (EF): inhibition, visual working memory, planning, cognitive flexibilit...

  5. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pmemory [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)]. Also, the inhabitants opposite the station exhibited a lower performance in the problem solving test (block design) than those under the station. All inhabitants exhibited a better performance in the two tests of visuomotor speed (Digit symbol and Trailmaking B) and one test of attention (Trailmaking A) than controls. The last available measures of RFR emitted from the first mobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions

  6. Neurobehavioral Dynamics Following Chronic Sleep Restriction: Dose-Response Effects of One Night for Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Design: Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Setting: Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Interventions: Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Measurements and Results: Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated

  7. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Reduces Neonatal Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Long-Lasting Neurobehavioral Deficits and Dopaminergic Neuronal Injury in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Pang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that a single lipopolysaccharide (LPS treatment to neonatal rats could induce a long-lasting neuroinflammatory response and dopaminergic system injury late in life. This is evidenced by a sustained activation of microglia and elevated interleukin-1β (IL-1β levels, as well as reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression in the substantia nigra (SN of P70 rat brain. The object of the current study was to test whether co-administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra protects against LPS-induced neurological dysfunction later in life. LPS (1 mg/kg with or without IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg, or sterile saline was injected intracerebrally into postnatal day 5 (P5 Sprague-Dawley male rat pups. Motor behavioral tests were carried out from P7 to P70 with subsequent examination of brain injury. Our results showed that neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced motor behavioral deficits, loss of TH immunoreactive neurons, as well as microglia activation in the SN of P70 rats. These data suggest that IL-1β may play a pivotal role in mediating a chronic neuroinflammation status by a single LPS exposure in early postnatal life, and blockading IL-1β might be a novel approach to protect the dopaminergic system against perinatal infection/inflammation exposure.

  8. Executive Function Deficits in Preschool Children with ADHD and DBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoemaker, Kim; Bunte, Tessa; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Dekovic, Maja; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Impairments in executive functions (EF) are consistently associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to a lesser extent, with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), that is, oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, in school-aged children. Recently, larger numbers of children with these disorders are…

  9. Neurobehavioral deficits and brain oxidative stress induced by chronic low dose exposure of persistent organic pollutants mixture in adult female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouel, Asma; Kebieche, Mohamed; Lakroun, Zohra; Rouabhi, Rachid; Fetoui, Hamadi; Chtourou, Yassine; Djamila, Zama; Soulimani, Rachid

    2016-10-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-lived organic compounds that are considered one of the major risks to ecosystem and human health. Recently, great concerns are raised about POPs mixtures and its potential toxicity even in low doses of daily human exposure. The brain is mostly targeted by these lipophilic compounds because of its important contain in lipids. So, it would be quite interesting to study the effects of exposure to these mixtures and evaluate their combined toxicity on brain cells. The present study was designed to characterize the cognitive and locomotors deficits and brain areas redox status in rat model. An orally chronic exposure to a representative mixture of POPs composed of endosulfan (2.6 μg/kg), chlorpyrifos (5.2 μg/kg), naphthalene (0.023 μg/kg) and benzopyrane (0.002 μg/kg); the same mixture with concentration multiplied by 10 and 100 was also tested. Exposed rats have shown a disturbance of memory and a decrease in learning ability concluded by Morris water maze and the open field tests results and anxiolytic behaviour in the test of light/dark box compared to control. Concerning brain redox homeostasis, exposed rats have shown an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) amount and an alteration in glutathione (GSH) levels in both the brain mitochondria and cytosolic fractions of the cerebellum, striatum and hippocampus. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and a highly significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions. The current study suggests that environmental exposure to daily even low doses of POPs mixtures through diet induces oxidative stress status in the brain and especially in the mitochondria with important cognitive and locomotor behaviour variations in the rats.

  10. Creative music therapy to promote brain structure, function, and neurobehavioral outcomes in preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslbeck, Friederike Barbara; Bucher, Hans-Ulrich; Bassler, Dirk; Hagmann, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of neurological impairment and deficits in cognition, motor function, and behavioral problems. Limited studies indicate that multi-sensory experiences support brain development in preterm infants. Music appears to promote neurobiological processes and neuronal learning in the human brain. Creative music therapy (CMT) is an individualized, interactive therapeutic approach based on the theory and methods of Nordoff and Robbins. CMT may promote brain development in preterm infants via concurrent interaction and meaningful auditory stimulation. We hypothesize that preterm infants who receive creative music therapy during neonatal intensive care admission will have developmental benefits short- and long-term brain function. A prospective, randomized controlled single-center pilot trial involving 60 clinically stable preterm infants under 32 weeks of gestational age is conducted in preparation for a multi-center trial. Thirty infants each are randomized to either standard neonatal intensive care or standard care with CMT. Music therapy intervention is approximately 20 min in duration three times per week. A trained music therapist sings for the infants in lullaby style, individually entrained and adjusted to the infant's rhythm and affect. Primary objectives of this study are feasibility of protocol implementation and investigating the potential mechanism of efficacy for this new intervention. To examine the effect of this new intervention, non-invasive, quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods at corrected age and standardized neurodevelopmental assessments using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition at a corrected age of 24 months and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children at 5 years will be performed. All assessments will be performed and analyzed by blinded experts. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled clinical trial to systematically examine possible

  11. [Executive function deficits in ADHD and Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloscia, Claudio; Baglioni, Valentina; Alessandrelli, Riccardo; Rosa, Caterina; Guerini, Rossella; Aceti, Franca; Pasini, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined subtype (ADHD-C) and Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to a control group. A sample of 79 children (28 ADHD-C; 24 AS; 27 subjects with typical development) was tested on a wide range of tasks related to major domains of executive functioning: inhibition response (prepotent and interference), visual working memory, planning and cognitive flexibility. Patients with AS showed deficits on visual working memory and cognitive flexibility. ADHD-C children were impaired on inhibition control (prepotent response) but also showed deficits on working memory and cognitive flexibility. The only executive functioning measure that differentiated ADHD from AS was inhibition of prepotent response and a more high deficit in cognitive flexibility and working memory in AS compared to ADHD-C. This study confirms recent evidence about the identification of specific executive profiles in these disorders. Other studies are warranted to evaluate the presence and specifity of a dysexecutive syndrome in ADHD and AS in a larger sample with girls.

  12. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M; Verté, Sylvie; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert; Sergeant, Joseph A

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54 ADHD, 41 HFA, and 41 normal controls) were tested on a wide range of tasks related to five major domains of executive functioning (EF): inhibition, visual working memory, planning, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency. In addition, the role of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and comorbid conduct disorder (CD) in ADHD was investigated by directly comparing 20 children with ADHD and 34 children with comorbid ADHD + ODD/CD. ADHD was associated with EF deficits in inhibiting a prepotent response and verbal fluency. Children with HFA demonstrated deficits in all EF domains, except interference control and working memory. The HFA group showed more difficulties than the ADHD group with planning and cognitive flexibility. The comorbid ADHD + ODD/CD group did not show a distinctive pattern of performance on the EF tests compared to the ADHD group. The present study indicates that children with HFA exhibit more generalised and profound problems with EF tasks compared to children with ADHD.

  13. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deficit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    UCL's former provost, Sir Derek Roberts, has been drafted in for a year to run the college. UCL is expected to have a 6 million pounds deficit this year and up to a 10 million pounds deficit next year. Sir Christopher Llewellyn-Smith took over at UCL nearly 4 years ago and decided then that the finanical situation was serious enough to warrant a reduction in the vast expansion policy undertaken by his predecessor (1 page).

  15. Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Executive functioning deficits in young adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.

  17. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  18. Risk of neurobehavioral disinhibition in prenatal methamphetamine-exposed young children with positive hair toxicology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Sarah K; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia M; Della Grotta, Sheri A; Dansereau, Lynne M; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R; Lester, Barry M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa, and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child's neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared with child hair results. A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n = 133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n = 131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared with PME children without postnatal exposure. Child hair testing offered a noninvasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years.

  19. rTMS: A Treatment to Restore Function After Severe TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    III will examine the effect of rTMS on white fiber tracts and whether or not the rTMS-related effects correlate with improving neurobehavioral function...improving neurobehavioral function; (3) Examine the effect of rTMS on white fiber tracts and whether or not the rTMS-related effects correlate with...aging. Lamar serves at PI. Title: Neuromodulation and Neurorehabilitation for Treatment of Functional Deficits after mTBI plus PTSD Source of Support

  20. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semeijn, E.J.; Korten, N.C.M.; Comijs, H.; Michielsen, M.M.; Deeg, D.; Beekman, A.; Kooij, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older

  1. Validating neuropsychological subtypes of ADHD: how do children with and without an executive function deficit differ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD)....

  2. Neurobehavioral Impact of Successive Cycles of Sleep Restriction With and Without Naps in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Lee, Su Mei; Teo, Lydia M; Lim, Julian; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2017-02-01

    To characterize adolescents' neurobehavioral changes during two cycles of restricted and recovery sleep and to examine the effectiveness of afternoon naps in ameliorating neurobehavioral deficits associated with multiple nights of sleep restriction. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (aged 15-19 years; 31 males) participated in a parallel group study. They underwent two cycles of sleep restriction (5-hr time in bed [TIB] for five and three nights in the first and the second cycles, respectively; 01:00-06:00) and recovery (9-hr TIB for two nights per cycle; 23:00-08:00) intended to simulate the weekday sleep loss and weekend attempt to "catch up" on sleep. Half of the participants received a 1-hr nap opportunity at 14:00 following each sleep-restricted night, while the other half stayed awake. Sustained attention, sleepiness, speed of processing, executive function, and mood were assessed 3 times each day. Participants who were not allowed to nap showed progressive decline in sustained attention that did not return to baseline after two nights of recovery sleep. Exposure to the second period of sleep restriction increased the rate of vigilance deterioration. Similar patterns were found for other neurobehavioral measures. Napping attenuated but did not eliminate performance decline. These findings contrasted with the stable performance of adolescents, given 9-hr TIB each night in our recent study. Adolescents' neurobehavioral functions may not adapt to successive cycles of sleep curtailment and recovery. In sleep-restricted adolescents, weekend "catch-up sleep," even when combined with napping during weekdays, is inferior to receiving a 9-hr sleep opportunity each night.

  3. Proprioception and functional deficits of partial meniscectomized knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliou, P; Gioftsidou, A; Pafis, G; Rokka, S; Kofotolis, N; Mavromoustakos, S; Godolias, G

    2012-06-01

    The partial meniscectomy leads to proprioceptive knee deficits in a short period after the arthroscopic procedure; however, to our knowledge, a limited number of studies have investigated the long-term outcomes of partial meniscectomy on the knee joint proprioception. The aim of the present study was to assess the proprioception and muscle function of the partial meniscectomized knee through balance and functional tests 1-2 years posterior to arthroscopic surgery. This was an observational study. Partially meniscectomized persons after 1-2 years. Twenty-six male patients who had an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy at the age between 20-40. All patients performed balance (Biodex Stability System and balance boards) and functional (triple jump) tests. On the balance system the deviations from the horizontal plane were recorded, on the balance boards their performance was timed, and on the functional test triple jump their performance was recorded in meters. One-way Anova was used to determine significant differences between the healthy and injured limb. The level of statistical significance was set at pproprioception and knee muscular ability in the operated leg compared to the non-operated leg. Clinical rehabilitation impact. Proprioception and knee muscular ability deficits significantly affect objective knee function, indicating the importance not only of the restoring muscle function but also of the proprioception ability in partial meniscectomy patients.

  4. Neurobehavioral dynamics following chronic sleep restriction: dose-response effects of one night for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F

    2010-08-01

    Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated above baseline at the maximum recovery dose of 10 h TIB. Neurobehavioral deficits

  5. Differential association between chronic cannabis use and brain function deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueif, M I

    1976-01-01

    To summarize, 12 objective tests that generated 16 test variables were administered to 850 male regular cannabis users and 839 nonusers. The tests were designed to assess various modalities, including speed of psychomotor performance, distance estimation, time estimation, immediate memory, and visuomotor coordination. Most of the test variables differentiated significantly between consumers and controls. At the same time, a significant second-order interaction emerged in most cases. This interaction meant that, under certain conditions that relate to the two dimensions "literacy-illiteracy" and/or "urbanism-ruralism," the superiority of controls over cannabis users became impressive, whereas under other conditions it almost disappeared. To account for this complex pattern of results, a working hypothesis was presented to the effect that "other conditions being equal, the lower the nondrug level of proficiency on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance the smaller the size of function deficit associated with drug usage." For an empirical examination of the hypothesis, six predictions were formulated. Three predictions defined specific relationships between level of performance, on one hand, and each of three organismic variables, on the other: literacy, urbanism, and age. The remaining predictions delineated relationships to be expected between size of function deficit and the three organismic variables. All our predictions were confirmed, showing less function impairment to be contingent with cannabis usage among the illiterates, rurals, and older subjects. Level of cortical arousal was suggested as the central process associated with the three organismic variables. Because the version of our working hypothesis was formulated with reference to chronic material, the possibility of a transposition of the paradign to research on the acute effects of the drug was discussed. The suggestion was made that our working hypothesis, in either version, is capable of

  6. Executive function deficits in pediatric cerebellar tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernáiz Driever, Pablo; de Sonneville, Leo; Rueckriegel, Stefan M

    2016-01-01

    Besides motor function the cerebellum subserves frontal lobe functions. Thus, we investigated executive functions in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. We tested information processing, aspects of attention, planning and intelligence in 42 pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors (mean age 14.63 yrs, SD 5.03). Seventeen low-grade tumor patients (LGCT) were treated with surgery only and 25 high-grade tumors patients (HGCT) received postsurgical adjuvant treatment. We evaluated simple reaction time, executive functioning, i.e. visuospatial memory, inhibition, and mental flexibility using the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks program, whereas forward thinking was assessed with the Tower of London-test. Intelligence was determined using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale. Ataxia was assessed with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. About one third of each patient group showed forward thinking scores below one standard deviation of the norm. Impaired forward thinking correlated significantly with degree of ataxia (r = -0.39, p = 0.03) but not with fluid intelligence. Both patient groups exhibited executive function deficits in accuracy and reaction speed in more difficult tasks involving information speed and attention flexibility. Still, HGCT patients were significantly slower and committed more errors. Working memory was inferior in HGCT patients. Pediatric cerebellar tumor survivors with different disease and treatment related brain damage exhibit similar patterns of impairment in executive functioning, concerning forward thinking, inhibition and mental flexibility. The deficits are larger in high-grade tumor patients. The pattern of function loss seen in both groups is most probably due to comparable lesions to cerebro-cerebellar circuits that are known to modulate critical executive functions. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smell identification function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Bahrani, Maryam; Miri, Ramin; Sahraian, Ali

    2012-06-01

    Deficits in olfactory function are common features in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. Olfactory processing is related to dopamine metabolism and orbitofrontal cortex functioning, both known to be involved in the neurobiology of ADHD. Some investigations suggested alterations in olfactory processing (identification and detection threshold) in patients with ADHD. Despite increasing knowledge, controversy about this topic still exists regarding children with ADHD. This study was conducted to help elucidate some of this controversy. 50 participants (8-15 years, mean=10.70±1.77) with ADHD were compared to 50 controls. The two groups were well matched for age, gender and Mean School Scores (MSS). We assessed odor identification and threshold through a smell test composed of two tests of identification and detection threshold. Odor detection threshold was assessed with the odorant phenyl ethyl alcohol solved in propylene glycol using a single staircase method. Odor identification was assessed with chemical essences of five common odorants. The mean Sensory Identification Score for children with ADHD and the control groups were 3.76 (1.06) and 4.46 (0.76), respectively (pSensory Threshold Score for ADHD and control group was 6.4 (3.35) and 9.75 (2.16), respectively (p<0.001). This study replicated altered olfactory performance in ADHD. Substantial olfactory deficits across the two domains of identification and detection threshold are observed in children with ADHD. These deficits do not seem to be a result of olfactory task difficulty and are not influenced by age, gender and MSS. Further studies are required to investigate whether olfactory function can be used as a biological marker for early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of ADHD.

  8. Using Deficit Functions for Crew Planning in Aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertsbakh Ilya B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We use deficit functions (DFs to decompose an aviation schedule of aircraft flights into a minimal number of periodic and balanced chains (flight sequences. Each chain visits periodically a set S of airports and is served by several cockpit crews circulating along the airports of this set. We introduce the notion of ”chunks” which are a sequence of flights serviced by a crew in one day according to contract regulations. These chunks are then used to provide crew schedules and rosters. The method provides a simplicity for the construction of aircraft schedules and crew pairings which is absent in other approaches to the problem.

  9. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Joseph F.; Balachova, Tatiana; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Chasnoff, Ira; Dang, Elizabeth; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Kable, Julie; Kosofsky, Barry; Senturias, Yasmin N.; Singh, Natasha; Sloane, Mark; Weitzman, Carol; Zubler, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Children and adolescents affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol who have brain damage that is manifested in functional impairments of neurocognition, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning may most appropriately be diagnosed with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. This Special Article outlines clinical implications and guidelines for pediatric medical home clinicians to identify, diagnose, and refer children regarding neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal exposure. Emphasis is given to reported or observable behaviors that can be identified as part of care in pediatric medical homes, differential diagnosis, and potential comorbidities. In addition, brief guidance is provided on the management of affected children in the pediatric medical home. Finally, suggestions are given for obtaining prenatal history of in utero exposure to alcohol for the pediatric patient. PMID:27677572

  10. Volumetric Muscle Loss: Persistent Functional Deficits Beyond Frank Loss of Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    testing system.5 Peak TA muscle isometric torque was determined with the ankle at a right angle 0˚ and 20˚ of dorsi- or plantar flexion, assuming a moment...Assessment TA muscles with VML (with or without Osteotomy) exhibited persistent and statistically similar maximal isometric tetanic torque deficits at 4...only groups presented TA muscle torque deficits in the involved leg. Moreover, functional deficits after VML were not PERSISTENT FUNCTIONAL DEFICITS

  11. Effects of maternal administration of vitamins C and E on ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Christopher M; Ibram, Ferda; Dringenberg, Hans C; Reynolds, James N; Brien, James F

    2007-12-01

    Consumption of ethanol during human pregnancy can produce a wide spectrum of teratogenic effects, including neurobehavioral dysfunction. This study, in the guinea pig, tested the hypothesis that chronic maternal administration of antioxidant vitamins C plus E, together with ethanol, mitigates ethanol neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Pregnant guinea pigs received one of the following four chronic oral regimens: ethanol and vitamins C plus E; ethanol and vitamin vehicle; isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vitamins C plus E; or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding and vehicle. Vitamins C (250 mg) plus E (100mg) or vehicle were given daily, and ethanol (4 g/kg maternal body weight/day) (E) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding was given for 5 consecutive days followed by 2 days of no treatment each week throughout gestation. One neonate from selected litters was studied on postnatal day (PD) 0. Neurobehavioral function was determined by measuring task acquisition and task retention using an 8-day moving-platform version of the Morris water-maze task, starting on PD 45. Thereafter, in vivo electrophysiologic assessment of changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity was conducted. There was an ethanol-induced decrease in neonatal brain weight compared with sucrose. The vitamins C plus E regimen protected hippocampal weight relative to brain weight in ethanol offspring, and mitigated the ethanol-induced deficit in the task-retention component of the water-maze task. However, in the sucrose group, this Vit regimen produced deficits in both task acquisition and task retention. The vitamins C plus E regimen did not mitigate the ethanol-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation. These results indicate that maternal administration of this high-dose vitamins C plus E regimen throughout gestation has limited efficacy and potential adverse effects as a therapeutic intervention for E neurobehavioral teratogenicity.

  12. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  13. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Shane T.; Geerken, Alexander R.; Dixon, Kyle L.; Kroliczak, Gregory; Olsen, Reid H.J.; Miller, Jeremy K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL) software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures. Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity), attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall), working memory (Digit Span Forward), and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation) in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22). Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22). Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89) and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31) tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86) and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79), intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63) but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15). Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function. Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net) is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance. PMID:26713233

  14. Reliability and validity of neurobehavioral function on the Psychology Experimental Building Language test battery in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Piper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Psychology Experiment Building Language (PEBL software consists of over one-hundred computerized tests based on classic and novel cognitive neuropsychology and behavioral neurology measures. Although the PEBL tests are becoming more widely utilized, there is currently very limited information about the psychometric properties of these measures.Methods. Study I examined inter-relationships among nine PEBL tests including indices of motor-function (Pursuit Rotor and Dexterity, attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance and Time-Wall, working memory (Digit Span Forward, and executive-function (PEBL Trail Making Test, Berg/Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Iowa Gambling Test, and Mental Rotation in a normative sample (N = 189, ages 18–22. Study II evaluated test–retest reliability with a two-week interest interval between administrations in a separate sample (N = 79, ages 18–22.Results. Moderate intra-test, but low inter-test, correlations were observed and ceiling/floor effects were uncommon. Sex differences were identified on the Pursuit Rotor (Cohen’s d = 0.89 and Mental Rotation (d = 0.31 tests. The correlation between the test and retest was high for tests of motor learning (Pursuit Rotor time on target r = .86 and attention (Test of Attentional Vigilance response time r = .79, intermediate for memory (digit span r = .63 but lower for the executive function indices (Wisconsin/Berg Card Sorting Test perseverative errors = .45, Tower of London moves = .15. Significant practice effects were identified on several indices of executive function.Conclusions. These results are broadly supportive of the reliability and validity of individual PEBL tests in this sample. These findings indicate that the freely downloadable, open-source PEBL battery (http://pebl.sourceforge.net is a versatile research tool to study individual differences in neurocognitive performance.

  15. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  16. Functional intravascular volume deficit in patients before surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Jørgensen, C C; Secher, N H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke volume (SV) maximization with a colloid infusion, referred to as individualized goal-directed therapy, improves outcome in high-risk surgery. The fraction of patients who need intravascular volume to establish a maximal SV has, however, not been evaluated, and there are only......), or open major abdominal surgery (n=20) were anaesthetized, and before the start of surgery, a 200 ml colloid fluid challenge was provided and repeated if a >or=10% increment in SV estimated by oesophageal Doppler was established. The volume needed for SV maximization defined the intravascular volume...... limited data on the volume required to establish a maximal SV before the start of surgery. Therefore, we estimated the occurrence and size of the potential functional intravascular volume deficit in surgical patients. METHODS: Patients scheduled for mastectomy (n=20), open radical prostatectomy (n=20...

  17. Executive Functioning in Pediatric Chronic Pain: Do Deficits Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karen E; Harbeck-Weber, Cynthia; Zaccariello, Michael J; Kimondo, Jacqueline N; Harrison, Tracy E; Bruce, Barbara K

    2018-01-01

    Despite ample research documenting deficits in executive functioning for adults with chronic pain, the literature on pediatric patients with chronic pain is limited and provides mixed results. The current study sought to further investigate the nature of executive dysfunction in this population and also examine the relationships between pain intensity, duration, and catastrophizing with sustained attention, working memory, and self- and parent-report of executive functioning. Pediatric pain clinic and rehabilitation program. Forty adolescents with chronic pain and their parents participated in this study. Participants completed neuropsychological measures and standardized self-report questionnaires during a 45- to 60-minute testing session. Fifty percent of this sample of adolescents with chronic pain demonstrated significant difficulties on at least one measure, with nine participants indicating difficulties on multiple measures. Pain significantly increased during the testing session. Pain variables of intensity, duration, and catastrophizing are related to sustained attention and working memory. This study adds support to previous findings suggesting subclinical struggles with executive functioning for adolescents with chronic pain. One-half of the sample indicated difficulties in either sustained attention and/or working memory. Future studies that would more thoroughly examine more complex executive functioning skills in this population would be helpful to further guide multidisciplinary treatment of these patients, particularly regarding whether or not school accommodations are warranted.

  18. Executive functions and adaptive functioning in young adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavro, Gillian M; Ettenhofer, Mark L; Nigg, Joel T

    2007-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with impairments in occupational, social, and educational functioning in adults. This study examined relations of adaptive impairment to ADHD symptom domains (inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive) and to deficits in executive functioning (EF) in 195 well-characterized adults (105 ADHD, 90 non-ADHD, between ages 18 and 37). Participants completed a battery of EF measures as well as assessments of adaptive functioning. Confirmatory factor analyses were used to validate latent factors for adaptive functioning and EF. In a measurement model, weaker EF was associated with poorer adaptive functioning (r = -.30). When multi-informant composite variables for current inattentive-disorganized and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms were included in the structural model, EF no longer predicted adaptive functioning. While both symptom composites were similarly related to EF (inattentive-disorganized r = .36; hyperactive-impulsive r = .29), inattentive-disorganized symptoms accounted for more variance in adaptive functioning (67.2% vs. 3.6%). Furthermore, for retrospectively reported childhood symptoms of ADHD, only the inattentive-disorganized symptom domain was related to EF or adaptive impairment. These results suggest that, in adults with ADHD, inattentive-disorganized symptoms may be the primary contributor to key aspects of poorer adaptive function and may be the behavioral path through which EF deficits lead to adaptive impairment.

  19. Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Daley, David; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Jin-Song; Kong, Yan-Ting; Tan, Xin; Ji, Ning

    2017-03-05

    Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD. Forty-four school -age children with ADHD and their parents participated in 12 sessions of EF training (last for 12 weeks) and 88 health controls (HC) were also recruited. Training effects were explored using both neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi, and false-belief task) and reports of daily life (ADHD rating scale-IV, Conners' parent rating scale, and behavior rating inventory of executive function [BRIEF]) by analysis of paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences on EF performances between children with ADHD after training and HC were explored using multivariate analysis. The results (before vs. after EF training) showed that after intervention, the children with ADHD presented better performances of EF both in neuropsychological tests (word interference of Stroop: 36.1 ± 14.6 vs. 27.1 ± 11.1, t = 4.731, P training could match with the level of HC children. The ADHD symptoms (ADHD rating scale total score: 32.4 ± 8.9 vs. 22.9 ± 8.2, t = 6.331, P training program was feasible to administer and acceptable. The EF training program was feasible and acceptable to children with ADHD and parents. Although replication with a larger sample and an active control group are needed, EF training program with multiple EF focus and parent involving

  20. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones, L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  1. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  2. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Programs for Students with ADHD with Executive Function Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimaha, Napalai; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Lersilp, Suchitporn; Chinchai, Supaporn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of therapeutic programs, an executive function training program and a collaborative program, for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with executive function deficits (EFDs), especially regarding working memory, planning, and monitoring. The participants were…

  3. Validating Neuropsychological Subtypes of ADHD: How Do Children "with" and "without" an Executive Function Deficit Differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The study investigates behavioural, academic, cognitive, and motivational aspects of functioning in school-age children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with and without an executive function deficit (EFD). Method: Children with ADHD - EFD (n = 22) and children with ADHD + EFD (n = 26) were compared on aspects of…

  4. Cognitive Deficits as a Mediator of Poor Occupational Function in Remitted Major Depressive Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sup; Rosenblat, Joshua D.; Kakar, Ron; Bahk, Won-Myong; McIntyre, Roger S.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients have been described in numerous studies. However, few reports have aimed to describe cognitive deficits in the remitted state of MDD and the mediational effect of cognitive deficits on occupational outcome. The aim of the current review is to synthesize the literature on the mediating and moderating effects of specific domains of cognition on occupational impairment among people with remitted MDD. In addition, predictors of cognitive deficits found to be vocationally important will be examined. Upon examination of the extant literature, attention, executive function and verbal memory are areas of consistent impairment in remitted MDD patients. Cognitive domains shown to have considerable impact on vocational functioning include deficits in memory, attention, learning and executive function. Factors that adversely affect cognitive function related to occupational accommodation include higher age, late age at onset, residual depressive symptoms, history of melancholic/psychotic depression, and physical/psychiatric comorbidity, whereas higher levels of education showed a protective effect against cognitive deficit. Cognitive deficits are a principal mediator of occupational impairment in remitted MDD patients. Therapeutic interventions specifically targeting cognitive deficits in MDD are needed, even in the remitted state, to improve functional recovery, especially in patients who have a higher risk of cognitive deficit. PMID:26792035

  5. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  6. Structural and functional connectivity in children and adolescents with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Dienke J; Oranje, Bob; Achterberg, Michelle; Vlaskamp, Chantal; Ambrosino, Sara; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Durston, Sarah

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has frequently been associated with changes in resting-state functional connectivity, and decreased white matter (WM) integrity. In the current study, we investigated functional connectivity within Default Mode and frontal control

  7. Research Review: Executive function deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972-2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges' g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges' g = -0.94, -0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges' g = -0.72, -0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges' g = -.84, -.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges' g = -.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges' g = -0.52, -0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis and treatment of FASD. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent

  8. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder - DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli,

  9. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder – DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli,

  10. Contrasting deficits on executive functions between ADHD and reading disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marzocchi, G.M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Zuddas, A.; Cavolina, P.; Geurts, H.; Redigilo, D.; Vio, C.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The object of this study was to analyze the executive functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disability (RD) independent of their non-executive deficits. Methods: Three carefully diagnosed groups of children, aged between 7 and 12 years

  11. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gaq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya L Frederick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many neurotransmitters, hormones and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to Gq family heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gaq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair, spatial working memory and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity and drug-induced responses. First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gaq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gaq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gaq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gaq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gaq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task.

  12. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gαq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Saborido, Tommy P.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2012-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the Gαq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq, the gene that encode for Gαq, on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gαq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory, and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity, and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gαq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gαq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gαq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gαq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gαq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task. PMID:22723772

  13. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of G(αq) knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Aliya L; Saborido, Tommy P; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2012-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the G(αq) family of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq, the gene that encode for G(αq), on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of G(αq) signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory, and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity, and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in G(αq) knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D(1) receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in G(αq) knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of G(αq). Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in G(αq) knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through G(αq) are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task.

  14. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE): Proposed DSM-5 Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kable, Julie A; O'Connor, Mary J; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Paley, Blair; Mattson, Sarah N; Anderson, Sally M; Riley, Edward P

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 40 years, a significant body of animal and human research has documented the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Neurobehavioral Disorder associated with PAE is proposed as a new clarifying term, intended to encompass the neurodevelopmental and mental health symptoms associated with PAE. Defining this disorder is a necessary step to adequately characterize these symptoms and allow clinical assessment not possible using existing physically-based diagnostic schemes. Without appropriate diagnostic guidelines, affected individuals are frequently misdiagnosed and treated inappropriately (often to their considerable detriment) by mental health, educational, and criminal justice systems. Three core areas of deficits identified from the available research, including neurocognitive, self-regulation, and adaptive functioning impairments, are discussed and information regarding associated features and disorders, prevalence, course, familial patterns, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the proposed disorder are also provided.

  15. Study of Thyroid Function in Children with Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones (GRTH), a disease ...

  16. Study Of thyroid Function In Children With Attention Deficit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a well recognized psychiatric disorder of childhood. Its cause is unknown, but there is evidence of familial predisposition. Symptoms suggestive of the disorder have been reported in patients with generalized resistance to thyroid hormones. (GRTH), a disease ...

  17. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Phonological storage and executive function deficits in children with mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Congying, Sun; Beilei, Li; Sha, Tao

    2012-08-01

    Children with mathematics difficulties suffer from working memory deficits. This study investigated the deficit profile of phonological storage and executive functions in working memory among children with mathematics difficulties. Based on multiple instruments and two assessment points, 68 children were screened out of 805 fifth graders. Of these 68 children, 18 were classified as children with only mathematics difficulties (MD), 20 were classified as children with mathematics and reading difficulties (MDRD), and 30 were typically developing (TD) peers matched on age and general ability. Measures for phonological storage, dual-task performance, inhibition, and updating of verbal and numerical materials were administered individually. Results showed that compared with the TD group, children with MD exhibited storage and inhibition deficits specific to numerical information and dual-task deficits of both verbal and numerical information, whereas children with MDRD showed extensive deficits on phonological storage and executive functions on both verbal and numerical tasks. Moreover, executive function deficits were not confined to phonological storage deficits. Implications of the findings for the working memory deficit profile and working memory training among children with mathematics difficulties were discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits in Mouse Mutants with Reduced NMDA Receptor Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bickel, Stephan; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Umbricht, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    .... These deficits are evident in the prepulse inhibition- (PPI) and habituation of the auditory startle response paradigm, the paired tone paradigm in the EEG, and the peak recovery function of auditory evoked potentials (AEP...

  20. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; van den Hoofdakker, B.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  1. Baroreflex sensitivity during rest and executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The TRAILS study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A.; Althaus, M.; Hartman, C.A.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mindera, R.B.; Hoofdakker, B.J. van den; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often show executive function (EF) problems and neurophysiological hypoarousal. Baroreceptor activation, as part of the baroreflex short-term blood pressure regulatory mechanism, has been linked to cortical inhibition and attenuated

  2. Executive Function Associated to Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Angelina Araujo Jiménez; María Claustre Jané Ballabriga; Albert Bonillo Martin; Francisco Javier Arrufat

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the differences of the neurocognitive functioning of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD), since current studies do not agree on a differentiation of Executive Function (EF) between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the EF deficits associated with symptomatology of ADHD and the PBD phenotype. Participants were 76 children/adolescents aged 6-17 years and their parents, submitted to a diagnostic ...

  3. [Reading comprehension of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: what is the role of executive functions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, A; Fernández, M I; Robledo, P; García-Castellar, R

    2010-03-03

    Deficits in reading comprehension of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have received scarce attention. However, to establish the underlying cognitive processes of ADHD and deficits in reading comprehension association could be essential for deeply understanding neurobiological bases of reading comprehension. To examine the contribution of verbal fluency, reading fluency, and executive functions (working memory, attention and suppression mechanism) in predicting mental processes of texts comprehension. The participants in the study were 42 students, 12 to 16 year old, with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD. A battery of tests was administered to measure cognitive processes and reading processes. Stepwise regression analysis carried out showed that the score in verbal fluency was the best single predictor of reading comprehension. Furthermore executive functions, but not reading fluency, made a significant contribution to reading comprehension. These findings underline the need for consideration of the role of executive functions in assessment and treatment of reading comprehension deficits of students with ADHD.

  4. [Functional reserves of the heart under conditions of alimentary magnesium deficit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasov, A A; Kharitonova, M V; Iezhitsa, I N; Zheltova, A A; Tiurenkov, I N; Gurova, N A

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to assess functional reserves of myocardium in animals with deficit of magnesium during stress tests. Magnesium deficit was modeled by 10 week long magnesium deficient diet. After 54% lowering of magnesium level in erythrocytes we registered left ventricular pressure, myocardial contraction and relaxation rates, heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, intensity of structures functioning. Than we subjected hearts of these animals to volume load, graded stimulation of cardiac adrenoreceptors, maximal isometric load by clamping ascending aorta. In animals with magnesium deficit we noted smaller increases of left ventricular pressure, myocardial contraction and relaxation rates under conditions of all functional tests, and of systolic arterial pressure during loading with volume and adrenaline. Lowering of myocardial reactivity under conditions of volume and adrenaline loading as well as isometric work load could constitute a basis of genesis of heart failure in magnesium deficit.

  5. Towards trans-diagnostic mechanisms in psychiatry: neurobehavioral profile of rats with a loss-of-function point mutation in the dopamine transporter gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vengeliene

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research domain criteria (RDoC matrix has been developed to reorient psychiatric research towards measurable behavioral dimensions and underlying mechanisms. Here, we used a new genetic rat model with a loss-of-function point mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT gene (Slc6a3_N157K to systematically study the RDoC matrix. First, we examined the impact of the Slc6a3_N157K mutation on monoaminergic signaling. We then performed behavioral tests representing each of the five RDoC domains: negative and positive valence systems, cognitive, social and arousal/regulatory systems. The use of RDoC may be particularly helpful for drug development. We studied the effects of a novel pharmacological approach metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2/3 antagonism, in DAT mutants in a comparative way with standard medications. Loss of DAT functionality in mutant rats not only elevated subcortical extracellular dopamine concentration but also altered the balance of monoaminergic transmission. DAT mutant rats showed deficits in all five RDoC domains. Thus, mutant rats failed to show conditioned fear responses, were anhedonic, were unable to learn stimulus-reward associations, showed impaired cognition and social behavior, and were hyperactive. Hyperactivity in mutant rats was reduced by amphetamine and atomoxetine, which are well-established medications to reduce hyperactivity in humans. The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 also normalized hyperactivity in DAT mutant rats without affecting extracellular dopamine levels. We systematically characterized an altered dopamine system within the context of the RDoC matrix and studied mGluR2/3 antagonism as a new pharmacological strategy to treat mental disorders with underlying subcortical dopaminergic hyperactivity.

  6. Family-genetic study of executive functioning in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for an endophenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Sonneville, L.M. de; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined familiality of attentional control and mental flexibility in multiplex attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) families. The authors hypothesized that siblings of ADHD probands, although not behaviorally expressing ADHD, have deficits in these executive functions and that

  7. Executive function and memory in relation to olfactory deficits in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Claudia I; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Drexler, Arthur; Hausmann, Armand; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Kurz, Martin

    2006-08-01

    Prior research indicates that chronic alcoholism is accompanied by olfactory deficits. These have been suggested to reflect dysfunctions in olfactory brain regions. The present study investigated the role of neurocognitive functioning in tests (executive function and memory) sensitive to the functional integrity of brain areas that are crucial to olfactory processing in patients with alcohol dependence. Performance on olfactory functions (detection threshold, quality discrimination, identification), executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test), and memory (German version of the California Verbal Learning Test) was assessed in 32 alcohol-dependent patients and 30 healthy comparison subjects, comparable in age, gender, and smoking status. Compared with controls, alcohol-dependent patients were impaired in all 3 domains, olfactory functions, executive function, and memory. In patients, olfactory discrimination ability was positively correlated with executive function performance. Regression analyses conducted to clarify the relation between group (patients vs controls), executive function, memory, and olfactory functions indicated that group was the only significant predictor of olfactory detection threshold and identification, and both group and executive function were found to be the significant predictors of olfactory discrimination. Olfactory deficits in alcohol dependence appear to be associated with prefrontal cognitive dysfunction. Results indicate that olfactory quality discrimination deficits are related to executive function impairment. These findings add to the available research on frontal lobe dysfunction in alcoholism, suggesting that alcohol-related olfactory discrimination deficits may be associated with impairment in the functional integrity of the prefrontal lobe.

  8. Recovery of vestibular ocular reflex function and balance control after a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eAllum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD on balance control as observed in stance and gait tests. Normally, a UPVD is defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR function. Therefore, we compare recovery observed in balance control over time with similar patterns of recovery or lack thereof in VOR function. Three types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis, vestibular loss prior to and after cerebellar pontine angle tumor (CPAT surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière’s disease.To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body’s centre of mass, were used for stance and gait tests. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior-posterior and roll (lateral sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk-pelvis. All three groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable control is highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits in balance control during gait were present but were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait. Differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis were more severe but recovered rapidly, deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe but longer lasting. These results paralleled deficits in VOR function and raise questions about two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral

  9. Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdagi Ozlem

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. Results In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP

  10. Abnormal cerebral functional connectivity in esophageal cancer patients with theory of mind deficits in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Xiang, JianBo; Qian, Nong; Sun, SuPing; Hu, LiJun; Yuan, YongGui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the function of the default mode network (DMN) in the psychopathological mechanisms of theory of mind deficits in patients with an esophageal cancer concomitant with depression in resting the state. Twenty-five cases of esophageal cancer with theory of mind deficits (test group) that meet the diagnostic criteria of esophageal cancer and neuropsychological tests, including Beck depression inventory, reading the mind in the eyes, and Faux pas, were included, Another 25 cases of esophageal cancer patients but without theory of mind deficits (control group) were enrolled. Each patient completed a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The functional connectivity intensities within the cerebral regions in the DMN of all the enrolled patients were analyzed. The results of each group were compared. The functional connectivity of the bilateral prefrontal central region with the precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and bilateral ventral anterior cingulate gyrus in the patients of the test group were all reduced significantly (P theory of mind deficits. The theory of mind deficits might have an important function in the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer.

  11. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yu

    Full Text Available Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS. Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/- and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-. In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl propanoic acid (AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation.

  12. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  13. Chronic excitotoxicity in the guinea pig cochlea induces temporary functional deficits without disrupting otoacoustic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G.; Yagi, Masao; Kawamoto, Kohei; Beyer, Lisa A.; Atkin, Graham; Raphael, Yehoash; Dolan, David F.; Bledsoe, Sanford C.; Moody, David B.

    2004-08-01

    Brief cochlear excitotoxicity produces temporary neural swelling and transient deficits in auditory sensitivity; however, the consequences of long-lasting excitotoxic insult have not been tested. Chronic intra-cochlear infusion of the glutamate agonist AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) resulted in functional deficits in the sound-evoked auditory brainstem response, as well as in behavioral measures of hearing. The electrophysiological deficits were similar to those observed following acute infusion of AMPA into the cochlea; however, the concentration-response curve was significantly shifted as a consequence of the slower infusion rate used with chronic cochlear administration. As observed following acute excitotoxic insult, complete functional recovery was evident within 7 days of discontinuing the AMPA infusion. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions were not affected by chronic AMPA infusion, suggesting that trauma to outer hair cells did not contribute to AMPA-induced deficits in acoustic sensitivity. Results from the current experiment address the permanence of deficits induced by chronic (14 day) excitotoxic insult as well as deficits in psychophysical detection of longer duration acoustic signals.

  14. Executive functioning deficits in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: The influence of intellectual and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasschaert, Ellen; Van Eylen, Lien; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Noens, Ilse; Legius, Eric; Steyaert, Jean

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a broad picture of Executive Functioning (EF) in NF1 children, while taking into account their lower average IQ and increased Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms. This was done by administering an extended battery of tasks and questionnaires, designed to reduce task impurity, that measures five EF domains (inhibition, cognitive flexibility, working memory, generativity and planning) in a laboratory setting and in daily life. Data are presented for 42 age- and gender-matched NF1, 52 typically developing, and 52 ASD children (8-18 years). Our results indicated that although EF is highly influenced by IQ and severity of ASD symptoms, EF deficits seem to be a core feature of NF1 and not merely a secondary effect of a lower IQ and/or increased ASD symptoms. However, additional research is needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lymphocyte Subset Alterations Related to Executive Function Deficits and Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Wong, Chun Kwok; Lam, Joseph M. K.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits in children with ASD. Eighteen high-functioning (HFA) and 19 low-functioning (LFA) children with ASD, aged 8-17 years,…

  16. MDMA, serotonergic neurotoxicity, and the diverse functional deficits of recreational 'Ecstasy' users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Serotonergic neurotoxicity following MDMA is well-established in laboratory animals, and neuroimaging studies have found lower serotonin transporter (SERT) binding in abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users. Serotonin is a modulator for many different psychobiological functions, and this review will summarize the evidence for equivalent functional deficits in recreational users. Declarative memory, prospective memory, and higher cognitive skills are often impaired. Neurocognitive deficits are associated with reduced SERT in the hippocampus, parietal cortex, and prefrontal cortex. EEG and ERP studies have shown localised reductions in brain activity during neurocognitive performance. Deficits in sleep, mood, vision, pain, psychomotor skill, tremor, neurohormonal activity, and psychiatric status, have also been demonstrated. The children of mothers who take Ecstasy/MDMA during pregnancy have developmental problems. These psychobiological deficits are wide-ranging, and occur in functions known to be modulated by serotonin. They are often related to lifetime dosage, with light users showing slight changes, and heavy users displaying more pronounced problems. In summary, abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users can show deficits in a wide range of biobehavioral functions with a serotonergic component. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate improves neural activity during low reward processing in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ?

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Kei; Yoneda, Tetsuya; Komi, Masanori; Hirai, Toshinori; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Tomoda, Akemi

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and impaired reward system function, such as delay aversion and low reward sensitivity. The pharmacological treatment for ADHD includes methylphenidate (MPH), or osmotic release oral system-MPH (OROS-MPH), which increases extrasynaptic dopamine and noradrenaline levels by blocking their reuptake. Although previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) stud...

  18. Intellectual deficits in children with ADHD beyond central executive and non-executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Carin M; Bohlin, Gunilla; Sørensen, Lin; Lundervold, Astri J

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to specify the deficit in intellectual ability in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), by studying the mediating role of impairments in central executive function (EF)-related components (working memory, inhibition, sustained attention) and non-EFs (short-term memory and processing speed). Two hundred and thirty children aged 8-11 years from a population-based sample were assigned to either the ADHD group, the clinical comparison group, or the normal comparison group. The results showed that children with ADHD had poorer fluid and crystallized intelligence, relative to both comparison groups. Further, regarding fluid intelligence, these deficits were not fully mediated by, but rather went beyond, poorer functioning on the studied EF-related components and non-EFs. We tentatively interpret these fluid deficits in children with ADHD as representing deficiencies in a general intellectual resource reflecting executive attentional processes. Concerning crystallized ability, in contrast, the deficit signified impairment in the studied cognitive functions, as indicated by the significant full mediation effect.

  19. Empirically Defined Patterns of Executive Function Deficits in Schizophrenia and Their Relation to Everyday Functioning: A Person-Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iampietro, Mary; Giovannetti, Tania; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Kessler, Rachel K.

    2013-01-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits in schizophrenia (SZ) are well documented, although much less is known about patterns of EF deficits and their association to differential impairments in everyday functioning. The present study empirically defined SZ groups based on measures of various EF abilities and then compared these EF groups on everyday action errors. Participants (n=45) completed various subtests from the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT), a performance-based measure of everyday action that yields scores reflecting total errors and a range of different error types (e.g., omission, perseveration). Results of a latent class analysis revealed three distinct EF groups, characterized by (a) multiple EF deficits, (b) relatively spared EF, and (c) perseverative responding. Follow-up analyses revealed that the classes differed significantly on NAT total errors, total commission errors, and total perseveration errors; the two classes with EF impairment performed comparably on the NAT but performed worse than the class with relatively spared EF. In sum, people with SZ demonstrate variable patterns of EF deficits, and distinct aspects of these EF deficit patterns (i.e., poor mental control abilities) may be associated with everyday functioning capabilities. PMID:23035705

  20. Fine motor, sensory and perceptive function of students with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Paola Matiko Martins; Pinheiro, Fábio Henrique; Germano, Giseli Donadon; Padula, Niura Aparecida de Moura Ribeiro; Lourencetti, Maria Dalva; Santos, Lara Cristina Antunes Dos; Capellini, Simone Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    To characterize and compare the fine motor, sensory and perceptive functions of students with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADHD) and students with good academic performance, without behavior alteration. Participants were 22 male students from Elementary School distributed into: GI - 11 children with ADHD; and GII - 11 students with good academic performance and no behavior alteration. Students were submitted to the Protocol for Evaluation of Fine Motor, Sensory and Perceptual Function, and to the Dysgraphia Scale. There were differences between GI and GII in tasks concerning fine motor function, sensory function, and perceptual function, with lower performance from GI. All students in GI presented dysgraphia. Students with Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity present lower performance regarding fine motor, sensory and perception functions in relation to students with good academic performance. These difficulties can cause significant impact on academic performance, impairing the development of written language and causing dysgraphia in these students.

  1. Iodine deficiency, thyroid function and hearing deficit: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.; MacKenzie, I.

    2013-01-01

    Iodine deficiency affects an estimated 241 million school-aged children in the world. Little is known about iodine deficiency in relation to auditory function, except for the fact that deaf-mutism is one of the features of cretinism. In the present review, we documented the scientific knowledge on

  2. Neuropsychology of Early-Treated Phenylketonuria: Specific Executive Function Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Marilyn C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Early-treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and unaffected peers were evaluated on four executive function (EF) tasks and one nonexecutive task. The PKU children scored lower than unaffected children on EF tasks, but not on the nonexecutive task. The PKU children's composite EF score was correlated with concurrent and mean lifetime phenylalanine…

  3. Intrinsic motivation as a mediator between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Rand, Kevin L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-09-01

    Poor functioning has long been observed in individuals with psychosis. Recent studies have identified metacognition - one's ability to form complex ideas about oneself and others and to use that information to respond to psychological and social challenges-as being an important determinant of functioning. However, the exact process by which deficits in metacognition lead to impaired functioning remains unclear. This study first examined whether low intrinsic motivation, or the tendency to pursue novel experiences and to engage in self-improvement, mediates the relationship between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning. We then examined whether intrinsic motivation significantly mediated the relationship when controlling for age, education, symptoms, executive functioning, and social cognition. Mediation models were examined in a cross-sectional data set. One hundred and seventy-five individuals with a psychotic disorder completed interview-based measures of metacognition, intrinsic motivation, symptoms, and functioning and performance-based measures of executive functioning and social cognition. Analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning (95% CI of indirect effect [0.12-0.43]), even after controlling for the aforesaid variables (95% CI of indirect effect [0.04-0.29]). Results suggest that intrinsic motivation may be a mechanism that underlies the link between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning and indicate that metacognition and intrinsic motivation may be important treatment targets to improve functioning in individuals with psychosis. The findings of this study suggest that deficits in metacognition may indirectly lead to impaired functioning through their effect on intrinsic motivation in individuals with psychosis. Psychological treatments that target deficits in both metacognition and intrinsic motivation may help to alleviate impaired functioning in

  4. Modafinil Reverses Phencyclidine-Induced Deficits in Cognitive Flexibility, Cerebral Metabolism, and Functional Brain Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Neil; Thompson, Rhiannon J.; McVie, Allan; Thomson, David M.; Morris, Brian J.; Pratt, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, we employ mathematical modeling (partial least squares regression, PLSR) to elucidate the functional connectivity signatures of discrete brain regions in order to identify the functional networks subserving PCP-induced disruption of distinct cognitive functions and their restoration by the procognitive drug modafinil. Methods: We examine the functional connectivity signatures of discrete brain regions that show overt alterations in metabolism, as measured by semiquantitative 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography, in an animal model (subchronic phencyclidine [PCP] treatment), which shows cognitive inflexibility with relevance to the cognitive deficits seen in schizophrenia. Results: We identify the specific components of functional connectivity that contribute to the rescue of this cognitive inflexibility and to the restoration of overt cerebral metabolism by modafinil. We demonstrate that modafinil reversed both the PCP-induced deficit in the ability to switch attentional set and the PCP-induced hypometabolism in the prefrontal (anterior prelimbic) and retrosplenial cortices. Furthermore, modafinil selectively enhanced metabolism in the medial prelimbic cortex. The functional connectivity signatures of these regions identified a unifying functional subsystem underlying the influence of modafinil on cerebral metabolism and cognitive flexibility that included the nucleus accumbens core and locus coeruleus. In addition, these functional connectivity signatures identified coupling events specific to each brain region, which relate to known anatomical connectivity. Conclusions: These data support clinical evidence that modafinil may alleviate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and also demonstrate the benefit of applying PLSR modeling to characterize functional brain networks in translational models relevant to central nervous system dysfunction. PMID:20810469

  5. Functional neural correlates of attentional deficits in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T Van Dam

    Full Text Available Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; often considered a prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease, AD is most recognized by its implications for decline in memory function, research suggests that deficits in attention are present early in aMCI and may be predictive of progression to AD. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in the brain during the attention network test between 8 individuals with aMCI and 8 neurologically healthy, demographically matched controls. While there were no significant behavioral differences between groups for the alerting and orienting functions, patients with aMCI showed more activity in neural regions typically associated with the networks subserving these functions (e.g., temporoparietal junction and posterior parietal regions, respectively. More importantly, there were both behavioral (i.e., greater conflict effect and corresponding neural deficits in executive control (e.g., less activation in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Although based on a small number of patients, our findings suggest that deficits of attention, especially the executive control of attention, may significantly contribute to the behavioral and cognitive deficits of aMCI.

  6. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: similarities and differences in executive functioning and theory of mind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2013-09-06

    Although the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria do not overlap, the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of autism is quite high. At the same time, children with ADHD can have autistic traits, the most prevalent being social and communication difficulties. The analysis of the combination of executive functions and theory of mind (ToM) deficits could help to explain the overlap and differentiation between the two disorders. To review the findings of empirical studies in which children with ADHD and autism have been compared on indicators of executive functions and ToM. The literature review suggests the existence of distinct patterns in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD when the executive functioning is segmented by components. Children with ADHD experience deficits in inhibitory control, while children with ASD have problems with cognitive flexibility and planning. Regarding the domain of the mentalist skills, there are developmental differences, as well as differences in their severity. Younger children with ASD have greater deficiencies in the ToM compared to children with ADHD, and a primary deficit in social orientation. Although important progress has been made, some issues remain to be clarified, among which we can highlight the analysis of how ToM development affects poor executive functions development, using longitudinal studies that analyze the developmental paths of children with ASD and children with ADHD.

  7. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Verte, S; Oosterlaan, J.; Roeyers, R.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54

  8. Functionally relevant climate variables for arid lands: Aclimatic water deficit approach for modelling desert shrub distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Dilts; Peter J. Weisberg; Camie M. Dencker; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2015-01-01

    We have three goals. (1) To develop a suite of functionally relevant climate variables for modelling vegetation distribution on arid and semi-arid landscapes of the Great Basin, USA. (2) To compare the predictive power of vegetation distribution models based on mechanistically proximate factors (water deficit variables) and factors that are more mechanistically removed...

  9. Using a Multicomponent Function-Based Intervention to Support Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Su-Je; Blair, Kwang-Sun Cho

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of a multicomponent function-based intervention on students with other health impairment (OHI) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a private special education school. The focus of the intervention was to prevent problem behaviors and to increase academic engagement by modifying classroom…

  10. Aberrant local striatal functional connectivity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Rhein, Daniel; Oldehinkel, Marianne; Beckmann, Christian F.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Franke, Barbara; Cools, Roshan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    Background: Task-based and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies report attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related alterations in brain regions implicated in cortico-striatal networks. We assessed whether ADHD is associated with changes in the brain's global

  11. Neurobehavioral impairments caused by developmental imidacloprid exposure in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B; Bailey, Jordan M; Oliveri, Anthony N; Levin, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4h to 5d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strains of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Neurobehavioral Impairments Caused by Developmental Imidacloprid Exposure in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emily B.; Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neonicotinoid insecticides are becoming more widely applied as organophosphate (OP) insecticides are decreasing in use. Because of their relative specificity to insect nicotinic receptors, they are thought to have reduced risk of neurotoxicity in vertebrates. However, there is scant published literature concerning the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure of vertebrates to neonicotinoids. METHODS Using zebrafish, we investigated the neurobehavioral effects of developmental exposure to imidacloprid, a prototypic neonicotinoid pesticide. Nicotine was also administered for comparison. Zebrafish were exposed via immersion in aqueous solutions containing 45 μM or 60 μM of imidacloprid or nicotine (or vehicle control) from 4 h to 5 d post fertilization. The functional effects of developmental exposure to both imidacloprid and nicotine were assessed in larvae using an activity assay and during adolescence and adulthood using a battery of neurobehavioral assays, including assessment of sensorimotor response and habituation in a tactile startle test, novel tank swimming, and shoaling behavior. RESULTS In larvae, developmental imidacloprid exposure at both doses significantly decreased swimming activity. The 5D strain of zebrafish were more sensitive to both nicotine and imidacloprid than the AB* strain. In adolescent and adult fish, developmental exposure to imidacloprid significantly decreased novel tank exploration and increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli. While nicotine did not affect novel tank swimming, it increased sensorimotor response to startle stimuli at the low dose. No effects of either compound were found on shoaling behavior or habituation to a startling stimulus. DISCUSSION Early developmental exposure to imidacloprid has both early-life and persisting effects on neurobehavioral function in zebrafish. Its developmental neurotoxicity should be further investigated. PMID:25944383

  13. Functional Deficits and Aggressive Behaviors in an Inpatient Psychiatric Hospital: Description and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicole Tuomi; McGill, Amanda C; Vogler, Jason E; Oxley, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The primary goals of compulsory, inpatient, psychiatric treatment are to decrease dangerous behaviors and help improve functioning so that a safe discharge to a less restrictive environment can be obtained. This study examined the aggression rates, levels of functioning, and treatment adherence for persons treated for schizophrenia (N = 506) compared with persons treated for borderline personality disorder (BPD) (N = 98) in an inpatient psychiatric facility. Over half of persons engaged in at least one incident of aggressive behavior during hospitalization. Differences in the types of aggression and functional deficits between these two clinical sub-groups were found. In addition, overall impairment increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, whereas irritability and social dependence increased the risk of aggression for persons diagnosed with BPD. Treatment interventions that target the improvement of these deficits may help reduce the intensity and severity of aggressive behaviors and help improve functioning and discharge readiness.

  14. Executive Function Associated to Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Angelina Araujo Jiménez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the differences of the neurocognitive functioning of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Paediatric Bipolar Disorder (PBD, since current studies do not agree on a differentiation of Executive Function (EF between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the EF deficits associated with symptomatology of ADHD and the PBD phenotype. Participants were 76 children/adolescents aged 6-17 years and their parents, submitted to a diagnostic interview and a tool for assessing EF, Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine associations between symptoms of ADHD and the PBD phenotype, and the EF. A model for parents and a model for children/adolescents were performed. The model indexes showed a satisfactory fit. ADHD was found to be associated with deficits in all areas of EF, especially when the predominant symptom is inattention. The presence of symptoms of PBD phenotype was associated only with difficulties in finding new strategies to solve problems and inhibiting new behaviour. The article concluded that the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with cognitive deficits different from those that may occur with PBD symptoms. It is advisable that professionals consider patients' neurocognitive profiles in order to achieve an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  15. How specific are executive functioning deficits in attention hyperactivity disorder and autism?

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts, H.M.; Verte, S; Oosterlaan, J.; Roeyers, R.; Sergeant, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to identify intact and deficient cognitive processes in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with high functioning autism (HFA). Method: Three rigorously diagnosed groups of children aged between 6 and 12 years (54 ADHD, 41 HFA, and 41 normal controls) were tested on a wide range of tasks related to five major domains of executive functioning (EF): inhibition, visual working memory, planning, cognitive flexibilit...

  16. Executive functioning differences between adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder in initiation, planning and strategy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-05-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a healthy control group (N = 31), whether the two disorders can be distinguished on the basis of their executive functioning features, and whether these impairments are related to symptom severity. Both clinical groups were found to exhibit executive functioning deficits. The ADHD group had difficulty withholding a response, with relative preservation of initiation and planning abilities. In contrast, the ASD group exhibited significant impairments in initiation, planning and strategy formation. The specific executive functioning deficits were related to severity of response inhibition impairments in ADHD and stereotyped, repetitive behaviours in ASD. These findings suggest the pattern of executive functioning deficits follows a consistent trajectory into adulthood.

  17. Evaluating executive function in schoolchildren with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-van-Meerbeke, A; Zamora, I P; Guzmán, G; Figueroa, B; López Cabra, C A; Talero-Gutiérrez, C

    2013-01-01

    To identify impairment of executive functions (EF) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case-control study was performed on a sample of schoolchildren with low socioeconomic levels in Bogota, Colombia. ADHD was diagnosed using the DSM IV checklist and the Behavior Assessment System for Children scale. Children with cognitive deficits were excluded. We evaluated scores from six measurements of executive function (EF). We conducted a bivariate statistical analysis to compare the variables, a multivariate study controlled by sex and age, and a logistic regression analysis. The study sample included 119 children with ADHD and 85 controls, all aged between 6 and 12 years. Controlling by sex, age, and type of school showed that EF measurements in children with ADHD were significantly more impaired than in controls, especially for measurements of verbal and graphic fluency, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and cognitive flexibility. Comparison of ADHD subgroups showed that results in children with multiple deficits were similar to those in the global ADHD group. Graphic fluency impairment was the sole impairment in cases with only attention deficit or only hyperactivity-impulsivity manifestations. EF measures in children with ADHD revealed more problems, particularly those having to do within planning, inhibition, working memory and cognitive control. Age and sex may affect the degree of EF impairment. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Memory Deficits in Schizophrenia: A Selective Review of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Lahti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex chronic mental illness that is characterized by positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits are most predictive of long-term outcomes, with abnormalities in memory being the most robust finding. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has allowed exploring neural correlates of memory deficits in vivo. In this article, we will give a selective review of fMRI studies probing brain regions and functional networks that are thought to be related to abnormal memory performance in two memory systems prominently affected in schizophrenia; working memory and episodic memory. We revisit the classic “hypofrontality” hypothesis of working memory deficits and explore evidence for frontotemporal dysconnectivity underlying episodic memory abnormalities. We conclude that fMRI studies of memory deficits in schizophrenia are far from universal. However, the current literature does suggest that alterations are not isolated to a few brain regions, but are characterized by abnormalities within large-scale brain networks.

  19. Lack of executive functions deficits among adult ad hd individuals from a Brazilian clinical sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboya, Eloisa; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Ayrão, Vanessa; Mattos, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Executive function deficits have been previously documented in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Objective The current study aimed to compare measures of executive functions among a clinical sample of adults with ADHD and normal control subjects, matched for age, gender and education. Methods Twenty-three self-referred adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria, and twenty-five control subjects were assessed using a neuropsychological battery which included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of Hanoi, Digit Span, Trail Making Test (A and B), Stroop Test and Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results The ADHD group did not differ significantly from the control subjects on any of the measures assessed. Conclusion Measures of executive functions using this test battery were unable to discriminate between adults with ADHD and control subjects in this clinical sample. PMID:29213607

  20. Lack of executive function deficits among adult ADHD individuals from a Brazilian clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Saboya

    Full Text Available Abstract Executive function deficits have been previously documented in individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. Objective: The current study aimed to compare measures of executive functions among a clinical sample of adults with ADHD and normal control subjects, matched for age, gender and education. Methods: Twenty-three self-referred adults diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria, and twenty-five control subjects were assessed using a neuropsychological battery which included the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Tower of Hanoi, Digit Span, Trail Making Test (A and B, Stroop Test and Raven's Progressive Matrices. Results: The ADHD group did not differ significantly from the control subjects on any of the measures assessed. Conclusion: Measures of executive functions using this test battery were unable to discriminate between adults with ADHD and control subjects in this clinical sample.

  1. Correlation of thermal deficit with clinical parameters and functional status in patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, I M; Kocic, M N; Lazovic, M P; Mancic, D D; Marinkovic, O K; Zlatanovic, D S

    2016-08-01

    Lumbosacral radiculopathy is a pathological process that refers to the dysfunction of one or more spinal nerve roots in the lumbosacral region of the spine. Some studies have shown that infrared thermography can estimate the severity of the clinical manifestation of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy. This study aimed to examine the correlation of the regional thermal deficit of the affected lower extremity with pain intensity, mobility of the lumbar spine, and functional status in patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Clinical Center Niš, Serbia. A total of 69 patients with unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy of discogenic origin were recruited, with the following clinical parameters evaluated: (1) pain intensity by using a visual analogue scale, separately at rest and during active movement; (2) mobility of the lumbar spine by Schober test and the fingertip-to-floor test; and (3) functional status by the Oswestry Disability Index. Temperature differences between the symmetrical regions of the lower extremities were detected by infrared thermography. A quantitative analysis of thermograms determined the regions of interest with maximum thermal deficit. Correlation of maximum thermal deficit with each tested parameter was then determined. A significant and strong positive correlation was found between the regional thermal deficit and pain intensity at rest, as well as pain during active movements (rVAS - rest=0.887, rVAS - activity=0.890; Plumbar spine (Pradiculopathy, the values of regional thermal deficit of the affected lower extremity are correlated with pain intensity, mobility of the lumbar spine, and functional status of the patient.

  2. Poor premorbid social functioning and theory of mind deficit in schizophrenia: evidence of reduced context processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Lindsay S; Spaulding, William D; Silverstein, Steven M

    2005-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated deficits in theory of mind (ToM) ability in schizophrenia. Yet, the development of, and mechanisms associated with these deficits are not well understood. The present investigation examined the hypothesis that, among chronic schizophrenia patients, impaired ToM is associated with failures in context processing, greater disorganized symptoms, and poor premorbid functioning. Forty-two inpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed on tests of ToM, visual and linguistic context processing, executive functioning, and verbal IQ. Symptomatology and premorbid functioning were also assessed. Results revealed that more impaired ToM was associated with poorer performance on both visual and linguistic context processing measures and higher ratings of disorganization on the BRRS. ToM was also associated with poorer childhood social functioning and an earlier age of illness onset. ToM was not associated with verbal processing speed, verbal fluency, response inhibition, sequence learning, or estimated verbal IQ. A significant regression model including measures of childhood peer problems and visual and language context processing significantly predicted ToM performance and accounted for 43% of the variance. These findings suggest that, among chronic schizophrenia patients, deficits in ToM ability may be the result of context processing impairments. These impairments may be a factor in both poor social functioning during childhood and greater disorganized symptoms after illness onset.

  3. KCC2 rescues functional deficits in human neurons derived from patients with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Kim, Julie; Zhou, Li; Wengert, Eric; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Zheng; Carromeu, Cassiano; Muotri, Alysson R; Marchetto, Maria C N; Gage, Fred H; Chen, Gong

    2016-01-19

    Rett syndrome is a severe form of autism spectrum disorder, mainly caused by mutations of a single gene methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) on the X chromosome. Patients with Rett syndrome exhibit a period of normal development followed by regression of brain function and the emergence of autistic behaviors. However, the mechanism behind the delayed onset of symptoms is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter2 (KCC2) is a critical downstream gene target of MeCP2. We found that human neurons differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Rett syndrome showed a significant deficit in KCC2 expression and consequently a delayed GABA functional switch from excitation to inhibition. Interestingly, overexpression of KCC2 in MeCP2-deficient neurons rescued GABA functional deficits, suggesting an important role of KCC2 in Rett syndrome. We further identified that RE1-silencing transcriptional factor, REST, a neuronal gene repressor, mediates the MeCP2 regulation of KCC2. Because KCC2 is a slow onset molecule with expression level reaching maximum later in development, the functional deficit of KCC2 may offer an explanation for the delayed onset of Rett symptoms. Our studies suggest that restoring KCC2 function in Rett neurons may lead to a potential treatment for Rett syndrome.

  4. Neurobehavioral consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N; Li, Ting-Kai; Jacobson, Sandra W; Coles, Claire D; Kodituwakku, P W; Adnams, Colleen M; Korkman, Marit I

    2003-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 Research Society on Alcoholism/International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism meeting in San Francisco, CA. The organizers were Edward P. Riley and Sarah N. Mattson, and the chairperson was Edward P. Riley. The presentations were (1) Neurobehavioral deficits in alcohol-exposed South African infants: preliminary findings, by Sandra W. Jacobson, Christopher D. Molteno, Denis Viljoen, and Joseph L. Jacobson; (2) A pilot study of classroom intervention for learners with fetal alcohol syndrome in South Africa, by Colleen Adnams, M. W. Rossouw, M. D. Perold, P. W. Kodituwakku, and W. Kalberg; (3) Differential effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on fluid versus crystallized intelligence, by P. W. Kodituwakku, W. Kalberg, L. Robinson, and P. A. May; (4) Neurobehavioral outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure: early identification of alcohol effects, by Claire D. Coles; (5) Fetal alcohol syndrome in Moscow, Russia: neuropsychology test performance, by Sarah N. Mattson, E. P. Riley, A. Matveeva, and G. Marintcheva; and (6) Long-term follow-up of Finnish children exposed to alcohol in utero in various durations, by Marit I. Korkman and I. Autti-Rämö. The discussant was Ting-Kai Li.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, James S; Heyer, Nicholas J; Russo, Joan E; Martin, Michael D; Pillai, Pradeep B; Bammler, Theodor K; Farin, Federico M

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is neurotoxic and children may be particularly susceptible to this effect. A current major challenge is identification of children who may be uniquely susceptible to Hg toxicity because of genetic disposition. This study examined the hypothesis that genetic variants of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) that are reported to alter neurobehavioral functions that are also affected by Hg in adults might modify the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg exposure in children. Five hundred and seven children, 8-12 yr of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of Hg from dental amalgam tooth fillings. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and at seven subsequent annual intervals for neurobehavioral performance and urinary Hg levels. Following the clinical trial, genotyping assays were performed for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of COMT rs4680, rs4633, rs4818, and rs6269 on biological samples provided by 330 of the trial participants. Regression-modeling strategies were employed to evaluate associations between allelic status, Hg exposure, and neurobehavioral test outcomes. Similar analysis was performed using haplotypes of COMT SNPs. Among girls, few interactions for Hg exposure and COMT variants were found. In contrast, among boys, numerous gene-Hg interactions were observed between individual COMT SNPs, as well as with a common COMT haplotype affecting multiple domains of neurobehavioral function. These findings suggest increased susceptibility to the adverse neurobehavioral effects of Hg among children with common genetic variants of COMT, and may have important implications for strategies aimed at protecting children from the potential health risks associated with Hg exposure.

  6. The back squat: A proposed assessment of functional deficits and technical factors that limit performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Kushner, Adam M.; Brent, Jensen L.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Hugentobler, Jason; Lloyd, Rhodri S.; Vermeil, Al; Chu, Donald A.; Harbin, Jason; McGill, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement competency is essential for participation in physical activity and for mitigating the risk of injury, which are both key elements of health throughout life. The squat movement pattern is arguably one of the most primal and critical fundamental movements necessary to improve sport performance, to reduce injury risk and to support lifelong physical activity. Based on current evidence, this first (1 of 2) report deconstructs the technical performance of the back squat as a foundation training exercise and presents a novel dynamic screening tool that incorporates identification techniques for functional deficits that limit squat performance and injury resilience. The follow-up report will outline targeted corrective methodology for each of the functional deficits presented in the assessment tool. PMID:25506270

  7. Posterior cerebral artery Wada test: sodium amytal distribution and functional deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Schild, H.H. [Dept. of Radiology/Neuroradiology, Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Klemm, E.; Biersack, H.J. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Linke, D.B.; Behrends, K.; Schramm, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Bonn (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    Inadequate sodium amytal delivery to the posterior hippocampus during the intracarotid Wada test has led to development of selective tests. Our purpose was to show the sodium amytal distribution in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) Wada test and to relate it to functional deficits during the test. We simultaneously injected 80 mg sodium amytal and 14.8 MBq {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) into the P2-segment of the PCA in 14 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. To show the skull, we injected 116 MBq {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-HDP intravenously. Sodium amytal distribution was determined by high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In all patients, HMPAO was distributed throughout the parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus; it was also seen in the occipital lobe in all cases and in the thalamus in 11. Eleven patients were awake and cooperative; one was slightly uncooperative due to speech comprehension difficulties and perseveration. All patients showed contralateral hemianopia during the test. Four patients had nominal dysphasia for 1-3 min. None developed motor deficits or had permanent neurological deficits. Neurological deficits due to inactivation of extrahippocampal areas thus do not grossly interfere with neuropsychological testing during the test. (orig.)

  8. Independence of Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, David L; Ownsworth, Tamara; O'Donovan, Analise; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gullo, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ > 70) with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between "cold" and "hot" executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory), whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition). This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years) and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference), Letter Number Sequencing (working memory) and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression). Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = 0.54 - 1.5). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognize emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  9. Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laird Zimmerman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ >70 with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between cold and hot executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory, whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition. This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference, Letter Number Sequencing (working memory and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression. Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = .54-1.5. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognise emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  10. Recovery of Vestibular Ocular Reflex Function and Balance Control after a Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    John eAllum

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery ...

  11. Functional Deficits of Cranial Nerves in Patients with Jugular Foramen Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Raquet, F.; Mann, W.; Amedee, R.; Maruer, J.; Gilsbach, J

    1991-01-01

    Lower cranial neuropathies are a leading presenting symptom in patients with tumors involving the jugular foramen. The purpose of this study is to assess acute and chronic functional deficits along with neurologic findings in 31 patients who underwent resection of a tumor involving the jugular foramen. Preoperative nerve dysfunction made intraoperative preservation unlikely, while postoperative lower cranial nerve dysfunction was found to be transient in many patients. Compensation of permane...

  12. Neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have deleterious consequences for the fetus, including changes in central nervous system development leading to permanent neurologic alterations and cognitive and behavioral deficits. Individuals affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, including those with and without fetal alcohol syndrome, are identified under the umbrella of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While studies of humans and animal models confirm that even low to moderate levels of exposure can have detrimental effects, critical doses of such exposure have yet to be specified and the most clinically significant and consistent consequences occur following heavy exposure. These consequences are pervasive, devastating, and can result in long-term dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the neurobehavioral, neurologic, and neuroimaging characteristics of FASD, focusing primarily on clinical research of individuals with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, although studies of lower levels of exposure, particularly prospective, longitudinal studies, will be discussed where relevant. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Respiratory functional and motor control deficits in children with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Goutam; Behrman, Andrea L; Aslan, Sevda C; Trimble, Shelley; Ovechkin, Alexander V

    2018-01-01

    Children with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at high risk for developing complications due to respiratory motor control deficits. However, underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities with respect to age, development, and injury characteristics are unclear. To evaluate the effect of SCI and age on respiratory motor control in children with SCI, we compared pulmonary function and respiratory motor control outcome measures in healthy typically developing (TD) children to age-matched children with chronic SCI. We hypothesized that the deficits in respiratory functional performance in children with SCI are due to the abnormal and age-dependent respiratory muscle activation patterns. Fourteen TD (age 7±2 yrs., Mean±SD) and twelve children with SCI (age 6±1 yrs.) were evaluated by assessing Forced Vital Capacity (FVC); Forced Expiratory Volume in 1sec (FEV1); and respiratory electromyographic activity during maximum inspiratory and maximum expiratory airway pressure measurements (PImax and PEmax). The results indicate a significant reduction (prespiratory muscles below the neurological level of injury (rectus abdominous and external oblique muscles). In addition, children with SCI had significantly increased (prespiratory functional and motor control deficits in children are age-dependent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rosa Elosúa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively, introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing, the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD, exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  15. Chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced deficits in synaptic plasticity and neurocognitive functions: a role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Yung, Wing-ho

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is well known for its metabolic as well as neurobehavioral consequences. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) is a major component of OSA. In recent years, substantial advances have been made in elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of chronic IH on neurocognitive functions, many of which are based on studies in animal models. A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain chronic IH-induced neurological dysfunctions. Among these, the roles of oxidative stress and apoptosis-related neural injury are widely accepted. Here, focusing on results derived from animal studies, we highlight a possible role of reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in causing impairment in long-term synaptic plasticity and neurocognitive functions during chronic IH. The possible relationship between BDNF and previous findings on this subject will be elucidated.

  16. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  17. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  18. Thinking outside the executive functions box: theory of mind and pragmatic abilities in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Broeders, M.; Nieuwland, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    An endophenotype for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is executive functioning. In the autism and developmental literature executive dysfunctions has also been linked to theory of mind (ToM) and pragmatic language use. The central question of this review is whether deficits in ToM

  19. No lower cognitive functioning in older adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeijn, E J; Korten, N C M; Comijs, H C; Michielsen, M; Deeg, D J H; Beekman, A T F; Kooij, J J S

    2015-09-01

    Research illustrates cognitive deficits in children and younger adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Few studies have focused on the cognitive functioning in older adults. This study investigates the association between ADHD and cognitive functioning in older adults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional side study of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). A diagnostic interview to diagnose ADHD was administered among a subsample (N = 231, age 60-94). ADHD symptoms and diagnosis were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in Adults (DIVA) 2.0. Cognitive functioning was assessed with tests in the domains of executive functioning, information processing speed, memory, and attention/working memory. Regression analyses indicate that ADHD diagnosis and ADHD severity were only negatively associated with cognitive functioning in the attention/working memory domain. When adjusting for depression, these associations were no longer significant. The study shows that ADHD in older adults is associated with lower cognitive functioning in the attention/working memory domain. However, this was partly explained by depressive symptoms.

  20. Functional Decoding and Meta-analytic Connectivity Modeling in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F Xavier; Eickhoff, Claudia R; D'Acunto, Giulia; Masi, Gabriele; Fox, Peter T; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-12-15

    Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD. Each ADHD-related dysfunctional region resulting from the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was then analyzed using functional decoding based on ~7500 fMRI experiments in the BrainMap database. This approach allows mapping brain regions to functions not necessarily tested in individual studies, thus suggesting possible novel functions for those regions. Additionally, ADHD-related dysfunctional regions were clustered based on their functional coactivation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap (meta-analytic connectivity modeling). ADHD-related hypoactivation was found in the left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), left temporal pole, and right caudate. Functional decoding mapped the left putamen to cognitive aspects of music perception/reproduction and the left temporal lobe to language semantics; both these regions clustered together on the basis of their meta-analytic functional connectivity. Left inferior gyrus mapped to executive function tasks; right caudate mapped to both executive function tasks and music-related processes. Our study provides meta-analytic support to the hypothesis that, in addition to well-known deficits in typical executive functions, impairment in processes related to music perception/reproduction and language semantics may be involved in the pathophysiology of adult ADHD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Is insomnia associated with deficits in neuropsychological functioning? Evidence from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2015-04-01

    People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among individuals who seek clinical treatment. Clinicians should take into account the

  2. Genetic Disruption of Arc/Arg3.1 in Mice Causes Alterations in Dopamine and Neurobehavioral Phenotypes Related to Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Managò

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human genetic studies have recently suggested that the postsynaptic activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc complex is a convergence signal for several genes implicated in schizophrenia. However, the functional significance of Arc in schizophrenia-related neurobehavioral phenotypes and brain circuits is unclear. Here, we find that, consistent with schizophrenia-related phenotypes, disruption of Arc in mice produces deficits in sensorimotor gating, cognitive functions, social behaviors, and amphetamine-induced psychomotor responses. Furthermore, genetic disruption of Arc leads to concomitant hypoactive mesocortical and hyperactive mesostriatal dopamine pathways. Application of a D1 agonist to the prefrontal cortex or a D2 antagonist in the ventral striatum rescues Arc-dependent cognitive or psychomotor abnormalities, respectively. Our findings demonstrate a role for Arc in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and related behaviors. The results also provide initial biological support implicating Arc in dopaminergic and behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia.

  3. Resistance training for activity limitations in older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa EV

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Evan V Papa,1 Xiaoyang Dong,2 Mahdi Hassan1 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Physical Therapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Abstract: Human aging results in a variety of changes to skeletal muscle. Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of muscle mass and is one of the main contributors to musculoskeletal impairments in the elderly. Previous research has demonstrated that resistance training can attenuate skeletal muscle function deficits in older adults, however few articles have focused on the effects of resistance training on functional mobility. The purpose of this systematic review was to 1 present the current state of literature regarding the effects of resistance training on functional mobility outcomes for older adults with skeletal muscle function deficits and 2 provide clinicians with practical guidelines that can be used with seniors during resistance training, or to encourage exercise. We set forth evidence that resistance training can attenuate age-related changes in functional mobility, including improvements in gait speed, static and dynamic balance, and fall risk reduction. Older adults should be encouraged to participate in progressive resistance training activities, and should be admonished to move along a continuum of exercise from immobility, toward the recommended daily amounts of activity. Keywords: aging, strength training, sarcopenia, mobility, balance

  4. Functional Decoding and Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Samuele; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; D’Acunto, Giulia; Masi, Gabriele; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Task-based fMRI studies of adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have revealed various ADHD-related dysfunctional brain regions, with heterogeneous findings across studies. Here, we used novel meta-analytic data-driven approaches to characterize the function and connectivity profile of ADHD-related dysfunctional regions consistently detected across studies. Methods We first conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of 24 task-based fMRI studies in adults with ADHD. Each ADHD-related dysfunctional region resulting from the ALE meta-analysis was then analyzed using functional decoding based on ~7,500 fMRI experiments in the BrainMap database. This approach allows mapping brain regions to functions not necessarily tested in individual studies, thus suggesting possible novel functions for those regions. Additionally, ADHD-related dysfunctional regions were clustered based on their functional co-activation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap (meta-analytic connectivity modeling). Results ADHD-related hypoactivation was found in left putamen, left inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), left temporal pole, and right caudate. Functional decoding mapped the left putamen and the left temporal lobe to cognitive aspects of music perception/reproduction and language semantics, respectively; both these regions clustered together based on their meta-analytic functional connectivity. Left inferior gyrus mapped to executive function tasks; right caudate mapped both to executive functions tasks and music-related processes. Conclusions Our study provides meta-analytic support to the hypothesis that, in addition to well-known deficits in typical executive functions, impairment in processes related to music perception/reproduction and language semantics may be involved in the pathophysiology of adult ADHD. PMID:27569542

  5. Emotional and behavioral difficulties and impairments in everyday functioning among children with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strine, Tara W; Lesesne, Catherine A; Okoro, Catherine A; McGuire, Lisa C; Chapman, Daniel P; Balluz, Lina S; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 3% to 7% of school-aged children and has been associated with a variety of comorbid mental illnesses and functional impairments, largely in clinical samples...

  6. Is Insomnia Associated with Deficits in Neuropsychological Functioning? Evidence from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Caspi, Avshalom; Gregory, Alice M.; Harrington, HonaLee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: People with insomnia complain of cognitive deficits in daily life. Results from empirical studies examining associations between insomnia and cognitive impairment, however, are mixed. Research is needed that compares treatment-seeking and community-based insomnia study samples, measures subjective as well as objective cognitive functioning, and considers participants' pre-insomnia cognitive function. Design and Participants: We used data from the Dunedin Study, a representative birth cohort of 1,037 individuals, to examine whether insomnia in early midlife was associated with subjective and objective cognitive functioning. We also tested whether individuals with insomnia who reported seeking treatment for their sleep problems (treatment-seekers) showed greater impairment than other individuals with insomnia (non-treatment-seekers). The role of key confounders, including childhood cognitive ability and comorbid health conditions, was evaluated. Measurements: Insomnia was diagnosed at age 38 according to DSM-IV criteria. Objective neuropsychological assessments at age 38 included the WAIS-IV IQ test, the Wechsler Memory Scale, and the Trail-Making Test. Childhood cognitive functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R). Results: A total of 949 cohort members were assessed for insomnia symptoms and other study measures at age 38. Although cohort members with insomnia (n = 186, 19.6%) had greater subjective cognitive impairment than their peers at age 38, they did not exhibit greater objective impairment on formal testing. Treatment-seekers, however, exhibited significant objective impairment compared to non-treatment-seekers. Controlling for comorbidity, daytime impairment, and medications slightly decreased this association. Childhood cognitive deficits antedated the adult cognitive deficits of treatment-seekers. Conclusions: Links between insomnia and cognitive impairment may be strongest among

  7. Random matrix theory for analyzing the brain functional network in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Wang, Li; Yang, Yong; Li, Jiajia; Wu, Ying; Lin, Pan

    2016-11-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neuropsychiatric disorder and affects approximately 6 -7 % of children worldwide. Here, we investigate the statistical properties of undirected and directed brain functional networks in ADHD patients based on random matrix theory (RMT), in which the undirected functional connectivity is constructed based on correlation coefficient and the directed functional connectivity is measured based on cross-correlation coefficient and mutual information. We first analyze the functional connectivity and the eigenvalues of the brain functional network. We find that ADHD patients have increased undirected functional connectivity, reflecting a higher degree of linear dependence between regions, and increased directed functional connectivity, indicating stronger causality and more transmission of information among brain regions. More importantly, we explore the randomness of the undirected and directed functional networks using RMT. We find that for ADHD patients, the undirected functional network is more orderly than that for normal subjects, which indicates an abnormal increase in undirected functional connectivity. In addition, we find that the directed functional networks are more random, which reveals greater disorder in causality and more chaotic information flow among brain regions in ADHD patients. Our results not only further confirm the efficacy of RMT in characterizing the intrinsic properties of brain functional networks but also provide insights into the possibilities RMT offers for improving clinical diagnoses and treatment evaluations for ADHD patients.

  8. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated...

  9. White Matter Changes-Related Gait and Executive Function Deficits: Associations with Age and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sartor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: White matter changes (WMC are a common finding among older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, and have been associated with, e.g., gait deficits and executive dysfunction. How the factors age and PD influence WMC-related deficits is, to our best knowledge, not investigated to date. We hypothesized that advanced age and presence of PD leads to WMC-related symptoms while practicing tasks with a low complexity level, and low age and absence of PD leads to WMC-related symptoms while practicing tasks with a high complexity level.Methods: Hundred and thirty-eight participants [65 young persons without PD (50–69 years, yPn, 22 young PD patients (50–69 years, yPD, 36 old persons without PD (70–89 years, oPn and 15 old PD patients (70–89 years, oPD] were included. Presence and severity of WMC were determined with the modified Fazekas score. Velocity of walking under single and dual tasking conditions and the Trail Making Test (TMT were used as gait and executive function parameters. Correlations between presence and severity of WMC, and gait and executive function parameters were tested in yPn, yPD, oPn, and oPD using Spearman's rank correlation, and significance between groups was evaluated with Fisher's z-transformed correlation coefficient.Results: yPn and yPD, as well as oPn and oPD did not differ regarding demographic and clinical parameters. Severity of WMC was not significantly different between groups. yPn and yPD displayed significant correlations of WMC with executive function parameters at low levels of task complexity, oPn at intermediate, and oPD at high complexity levels.Conclusion: This study argues for a relevant association of age and PD-related brain pathology with WMC-related gait and executive function deficits.

  10. Can executive functions explain the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the Primarily Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I; n = 33), and non-ADHD controls (n = 36) participated. EF did not mediate the relationship between ADHD status and parent or teacher report of social adjustment. EF accounted for about 40-50% of the variance between ADHD status and the ability of children to detect subtle verbal cues as well as memory for the conversation in the chat room task, but did not mediate the relationship between ADHD and the number of prosocial, hostile, or on-topic statements that were made. Results are consistent with other recent reports, and suggest that the role of EF deficits in the production of social skill deficits in ADHD may not be as prominent as is typically assumed. The implications for the development of intervention programs designed to target core cognitive etiologic factors are discussed.

  11. Research Review: Executive function deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Cardoso, Christopher; McGrath, Jennifer J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms are common in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD and ADHD groups both display executive function impairments; however, there is ongoing debate whether the pattern and magnitude of executive function deficits differs between these two types of disorders. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted (PubMed, PsychInfo; 1972–2013) to identify studies comparing the executive functioning of children with FASD with ADHD or control groups. FASD groups included those with and without dysmorphy (i.e., FAS, pFAS, ARND, and other FASD diagnoses). Effect sizes (Hedges’ g, standardized mean difference) were calculated. Random effects meta-analytic models were performed using the metafor package for R. Results Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria (FASD N = 2,115; ADHD N = 453; controls N = 1,990). Children with FASD showed the strongest and most consistent deficits in planning, fluency, and set-shifting compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.94, −0.78) and children with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −0.72, −0.32). FASD was associated with moderate to large impairments in working memory, compared to controls (Hedges’ g = −.84, −.58) and small impairments relative to groups with ADHD (Hedges’ g = −.26). Smaller and less consistent deficits were found on measures of inhibition and vigilance relative to controls (Hedges’ g = −0.52, −0.31); FASD and ADHD were not differentiated on these measures. Moderator analyses indicated executive dysfunction was associated with older age, dysmorphy, and larger group differences in IQ. Sex and diagnostic system were not consistently related to effect size. Conclusions While FASD is associated with global executive impairments, executive function weaknesses are most consistent for measures of planning, fluency, and set-shifting. Neuropsychological measures assessing these executive function domains may improve differential diagnosis

  12. Resting-State Functional Connectivity Changes Associated with Visuospatial Cognitive Deficits in Patients with Mild Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, Rakesh; Bharath, Srikala; John, John P; Joshi, Himanshu; Sadanand, Shilpa; Saini, Jitender; Kumar, Keshav J; Varghese, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive disconnection of various brain networks leading to neuropsychological impairment. Pathology in the visual association areas has been documented in presymptomatic AD and therefore we aimed at examining the relationship between brain connectivity and visuospatial (VS) cognitive deficits in early AD. Tests for VS working memory, episodic memory and construction were used to classify patients with AD (n = 48) as having severe VS deficits (n = 12, female = 4) or mild deficits (n = 11, female = 4). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural images were acquired as per the standard protocols. Between-group differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were examined by dual regression analysis correcting for age, gender, and total brain volume. Patients with AD having severe VS deficits exhibited significantly reduced rsFC in bilateral lingual gyri of the visual network compared to patients with mild VS deficits. Reduced rsFC in the visual network in patients with more severe VS deficits may be a functional neuroimaging biomarker reflecting hypoconnectivity of the brain with progressive VS deficits during early AD. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  14. Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Older Veterans With Remote Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Carrie B; Gardner, Raquel C; Kenney, Kimbra; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Kramer, Joel H; Yaffe, Kristine

    While traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common across the life span, the detailed neurobehavioral characteristics of older adults with prior TBI remain unclear. Our goal was to compare the clinical profile of older independently living veterans with and without prior TBI. Two veterans' retirement communities. Seventy-five participants with TBI and 71 without (mean age = 78 years). Cross-sectional. TBI history was determined by the Ohio State University TBI Questionnaire. We assessed psychiatric and medical history via interviews and chart review and conducted measures assessing functional/lifestyle, psychiatric, and cognitive outcomes. Regression analyses (adjusted for demographics, diabetes, prior depression, substance abuse, and site) were performed to compare between TBI and non-TBI participants. Compared with veterans without TBI, those with TBI had greater functional impairment (adjusted P = .05), endorsed more current depressive (adjusted P = .04) and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (adjusted P = .01), and had higher rates of prior depression and substance abuse (both adjusted Ps < .01). While composite memory and language scores did not differ between groups, participants with TBI performed worse on tests of executive functioning/processing speed (adjusted P = .01). Our results suggest that TBI may have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences and that TBI-exposed adults may require careful screening and follow-up.

  15. The neurobehavioral teratology of retinoids: a 50-year history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This review of the central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral teratology of the retinoids over the last 50 years is a commemorative retrospective organized by decade to show the prominent research focus within each period and the most salient findings. In the 1960s, research focused on the gross CNS malformations associated with exposure and the delineation of dose-response and stage-specific responses in rodent models. Relevant scientific events before and during the 1960s are also discussed to provide the zeitgeist in which the field of neurobehavioral teratology emerged in the 1970s. During this period, studies demonstrated that adverse effects on postnatal behavior could be produced in animals exposed to doses of vitamin A lower than those that were teratogenic or impacted growth. Work during the 1980s showed an overrepresentation of behavioral studies focused on the reliability of screening methods, while the marked effects of human exposure were illustrated in children born to women treated with isotretinoin during pregnancy. The human catastrophe invigorated research during the 1990s, a period when technological advances allowed more elegant examinations of the developing CNS, of biochemical, cellular, and molecular developmental events and regulatory actions, and of the effects of direct genetic manipulations. Likewise, research in the 1990s reflected a reinvigoration of research in neurobehavioral teratology evinced in studies that used animal models to try to better understand human vulnerability. These foci continued in the 2000-2010 period while examinations of the role of retinoids in brain development and lifelong functioning became increasingly sophisticated and broader in scope. This review of the work on retinoids also provides a lens on the more general ontogeny of the field of neurobehavioral teratology. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Melatonin reverses H-89 induced spatial memory deficit: Involvement of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Rojin; Aghsami, Mehdi; Gharghabi, Mehdi; Sanati, Mehdi; Khorshidahmad, Tina; Vakilzadeh, Gelareh; Mehdizadeh, Hajar; Gholizadeh, Shervin; Taghizadeh, Ghorban; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play indispensable role in memory and learning impairment. Growing evidences have shed light on anti-oxidative role for melatonin in memory deficit. We have previously reported that inhibition of protein kinase A by H-89 can induce memory impairment. Here, we investigated the effect of melatonin on H-89 induced spatial memory deficit and pursued their interactive consequences on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in Morris Water Maze model. Rats received melatonin (50 and 100μg/kg/side) and H-89(10μM) intra-hippocampally 30min before each day of training. Animals were trained for 4 consecutive days, each containing one block from four trials. Oxidative stress indices, including thiobarbituric acid (TBARS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiol groups, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were assessed using spectrophotometer. Mitochondrial function was evaluated through measuring ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), swelling, outer membrane damage, and cytochrome c release. As expected from our previous report, H-89 remarkably impaired memory by increasing the escape latency and traveled distance. Intriguingly, H-89 significantly augmented TBARS and ROS levels, caused mitochondrial ROS production, swelling, outer membrane damage, and cytochrome c release. Moreover, H-89 lowered thiol, FRAP, and MMP values. Intriguingly, melatonin pre-treatment not only effectively hampered H-89-mediated spatial memory deficit at both doses, but also reversed the H-89 effects on mitochondrial and biochemical indices upon higher dose. Collectively, these findings highlight a protective role for melatonin against H-89-induced memory impairment and indicate that melatonin may play a therapeutic role in the treatment of oxidative- related neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Auditory and Visual Working Memory Functioning in College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and/or Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Nelson, Jason M

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the auditory and visual working memory functioning in college students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and clinical controls. We examined the role attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtype status played in working memory functioning. The unique influence that both domains of working memory have on reading and math abilities was investigated. A sample of 268 individuals seeking postsecondary education comprise four groups of the present study: 110 had an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis only, 72 had a learning disability diagnosis only, 35 had comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disability diagnoses, and 60 individuals without either of these disorders comprise a clinical control group. Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation, and licensed psychologists employed a multi-informant, multi-method approach in obtaining diagnoses. In the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there was no difference between auditory and visual working memory functioning, t(100) = -1.57, p = .12. In the learning disability group, however, auditory working memory functioning was significantly weaker compared with visual working memory, t(71) = -6.19, p attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder only group, there were no auditory or visual working memory functioning differences between participants with either a predominantly inattentive type or a combined type diagnosis. Visual working memory did not incrementally contribute to the prediction of academic achievement skills. Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder did not demonstrate significant working memory differences compared with clinical controls. Individuals with a learning disability demonstrated weaker auditory working memory than individuals in either the attention-deficit/hyperactivity or clinical control groups.

  18. Neurobehavioral adaptations to methylphenidate: the issue of early adolescent exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva M; Adriani, Walter; Ruocco, Lucia A; Canese, Rossella; Sadile, Adolfo G; Laviola, Giovanni

    2011-08-01

    Exposure to psychostimulants, including both abused and therapeutic drugs, can occur first during human adolescence. Animal modeling is useful not only to reproduce adolescent peculiarities but also to study neurobehavioral adaptations to psychostimulant consumption. Human adolescence (generally considered as the period between 9/12 and 18 years old) has been compared with the age window between postnatal days (pnd) 28/35 and 50 in rats and mice. These adolescent rodents display basal hyperlocomotion and higher rates of exploration together with a marked propensity for sensation-seeking and risk-taking behaviors. Moreover, peculiar responses to psychostimulants, including enhanced locomotor sensitization, no drug-induced stereotypy and reduced place conditioning have been described in adolescent rodents. During this age window, forebrain dopamine systems undergo profuse remodeling, thus providing a neuro-biological substrate to explain behavioral peculiarities observed during adolescence, as well as the reported vulnerabilities to several drugs. Further, methylphenidate (MPH, better known as Ritalin®), a psychostimulant extensively prescribed to children and adolescents diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), raises concerns for its long-term safety. Using magnetic resonance techniques, MPH-induced acute effects appear to be different in adolescent rats compared to adult animals. Moreover, adolescent exposure to MPH seems to provoke persistent neurobehavioral consequences: long-term modulation of self-control abilities, decreased sensitivity to natural and drug reward, enhanced stress-induced emotionality, together with an enhanced cortical control over sub-cortical dopamine systems and an enduring up-regulation of Htr7 gene expression within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). In summary, additional studies in animal models are necessary to better understand the long-term consequences of adolescent MPH, and to further investigate the safety of

  19. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Heffernan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered.

  20. Placental FKBP5 genetic and epigenetic variation is associated with infant neurobehavioral outcomes in the RICHS cohort.

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    Alison G Paquette

    Full Text Available Adverse maternal environments can lead to increased fetal exposure to maternal cortisol, which can cause infant neurobehavioral deficits. The placenta regulates fetal cortisol exposure and response, and placental DNA methylation can influence this function. FK506 binding protein (FKBP5 is a negative regulator of cortisol response, FKBP5 methylation has been linked to brain morphology and mental disorder risk, and genetic variation of FKBP5 was associated with post-traumatic stress disorder in adults. We hypothesized that placental FKBP5 methylation and genetic variation contribute to gene expression control, and are associated with infant neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS. In 509 infants enrolled in the Rhode Island Child Health Study, placental FKBP5 methylation was measured at intron 7 using quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing. Placental FKBP5 mRNA was measured in a subset of 61 infants by quantitative PCR, and the SNP rs1360780 was genotyped using a quantitative allelic discrimination assay. Relationships between methylation, expression and NNNS scores were examined using linear models adjusted for confounding variables, then logistic models were created to determine the influence of methylation on membership in high risk groups of infants. FKBP5 methylation was negatively associated with expression (P = 0.08, r = -0.22; infants with the TT genotype had higher expression than individuals with CC and CT genotypes (P = 0.06, and those with CC genotype displayed a negative relationship between methylation and expression (P = 0.06, r = -0.43. Infants in the highest quartile of FKBP5 methylation had increased risk of NNNS high arousal compared to infants in the lowest quartile (OR 2.22, CI 1.07-4.61. TT genotype infants had increased odds of high NNNS stress abstinence (OR 1.98, CI 0.92-4.26. Placental FKBP5 methylation reduces expression in

  1. Aspartame, behavior, and cognitive function in children with attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaywitz, B A; Sullivan, C M; Anderson, G M; Gillespie, S M; Sullivan, B; Shaywitz, S E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the effects of large doses of aspartame on behavior, cognition, and monoamine metabolism in children with attention deficit disorder. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of unmedicated children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed) criteria for attention deficit disorder. Behavioral assessments were performed in the child's home by their parents and in the classroom by a teacher. Cognitive tests were administered and blood drawing was performed during a 2-day inpatient admission to our Children's Study Center. Administration of aspartame (single morning dose, 34 mg/kg) or placebo for alternate 2-week periods. Behavioral and cognitive tests included the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT), Children's Checking Task (CCT), the Airplane Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Subjects Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (STESS), the Multigrade Inventory for Teachers (MIT), and the Conners Behavior Rating Scale. Blood was drawn for complete blood cell count and liver function tests, as well as amino acid, methanol, formate, serotonin, and monoamine metabolite analyses, and urine was collected for measurement of catecholamine and monoamine metabolite excretion. No clinically significant differences between aspartame and placebo were found for the STESS, MIT, or Conners ratings, or for the MFFT, CCT, WCST, or Airplane cognition tests. Also, no differences were noted for any of the biochemical measures, except for the expected increase in plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine following aspartame. The findings indicate that aspartame at greater than 10 times usual consumption has no effect on the cognitive and behavioral status of children with attention deficit disorder. In addition, aspartame does not appear to affect urinary excretion rates of monoamines and metabolites.

  2. The Role of Executive Function in the Semantic Comprehension Deficits of Stroke Aphasia and Semantic Dementia

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    Curtiss Chapman

    2015-05-01

    Results from 5 SD patients and 4 SA patients in our ongoing study suggest similar patterns of impairment on both semantic and executive function tasks for both patient groups. Both showed multi-modal semantic deficits via poor performance on at least 3 out of 5 semantic tasks tapping different modalities. Also, SA and SD patients showed no difference in consistency across semantic tasks (see Fig. 1a & b. Both groups also showed consistently poor performance on trail-making and verbal Stroop tasks compared to controls (see Figs. 1c & 1d. SD patients seem to be less impaired on both span measures (word span range: 2.17 – 4.43; digit span: 3.17 – 5.5 than SA patients (word span range: 1.63 – 3.75; digit span: 1.17 – 4.17, and performance was variable for both groups on non-verbal Stroop and picture-word interference. SD patients found many executive tasks too difficult to understand, which may be the reason for limited prior data for them on EF tasks.. These findings suggest that the use of syndrome categories like semantic dementia and comprehension-impaired stroke aphasia are not useful in distinguishing between storage and access deficits. Patients classified as having SD seem as likely as SA patients to have certain kinds of executive deficits and SA patients may be as likely as SD patients to show consistency across semantic tasks. The results imply that some other behavioral or neuroanatomical basis rather than syndrome classification should be used to address the hypothesized separation of storage vs. control aspects of semantic memory.

  3. Social Cognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Associations with Executive Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Miranda; Carmen Berenguer; Belén Roselló; Inmaculada Baixauli; Carla Colomer

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments. The first objective of this study was to analyze social cognition deficits of children with ADHD, high-functioning ASD (HFASD), and typical development (TD) in their performance on explicit and applied measures of theory of mind (ToM). The second objective was to investigate the relationships between executive functions and social cognition i...

  4. Abnormal amygdala functional connectivity associated with emotional lability in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulvershorn, L.A.; Mennes, M.; Castellanos, F.X.; Martino, A. Di; Milham, M.P.; Hummer, T.A.; Roy, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A substantial proportion of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) also display emotion regulation deficits manifesting as chronic irritability, severe temper outbursts, and aggression. The amygdala is implicated in emotion regulation, but its connectivity and

  5. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph; Tommerdahl, Mark; Napadow, Vitaly

    2014-06-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome, a median nerve entrapment neuropathy, is characterized by sensorimotor deficits. Recent reports have shown that this syndrome is also characterized by functional and structural neuroplasticity in the primary somatosensory cortex of the brain. However, the linkage between this neuroplasticity and the functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome is unknown. Sixty-three subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome aged 20-60 years and 28 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T while vibrotactile stimulation was delivered to median nerve innervated (second and third) and ulnar nerve innervated (fifth) digits. For each subject, the interdigit cortical separation distance for each digit's contralateral primary somatosensory cortex representation was assessed. We also evaluated fine motor skill performance using a previously validated psychomotor performance test (maximum voluntary contraction and visuomotor pinch/release testing) and tactile discrimination capacity using a four-finger forced choice response test. These biobehavioural and clinical metrics were evaluated and correlated with the second/third interdigit cortical separation distance. Compared with healthy control subjects, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced second/third interdigit cortical separation distance (P < 0.05) in contralateral primary somatosensory cortex, corroborating our previous preliminary multi-modal neuroimaging findings. For psychomotor performance testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated reduced maximum voluntary contraction pinch strength (P < 0.01) and a reduced number of pinch/release cycles per second (P < 0.05). Additionally, for four-finger forced-choice testing, subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome demonstrated greater response time (P < 0.05), and reduced sensory discrimination accuracy (P < 0.001) for median nerve, but not ulnar nerve

  6. Beliefs in being unlucky and deficits in executive functioning: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Campo Ríos, Jaime; Fuggetta, Giorgio; Maltby, John

    2015-01-01

    There has been initial evidence to support the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis, which proposes that beliefs in being unlucky are associated with deficits in executive functioning (Maltby et al., 2013). The present study tested the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis by examining whether deficits in the early stage of top down attentional control led to an increase of neural activity in later stages of response related selection process among those who thought themselves to be unlucky. Individuals with these beliefs were compared to a control group using an Event-Related Potential (ERP) measure assessing underlying neural activity of semantic inhibition while completing a Stroop test. Results showed stronger main interference effects in the former group, via greater reaction times and a more negative distributed scalp late ERP component during incongruent trials in the time window of 450-780 ms post stimulus onset. Further, less efficient maintenance of task set among the former group was associated with greater late ERP response-related activation to compensate for the lack of top-down attentional control. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence to support the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis.

  7. Beliefs in being unlucky and deficits in executive functioning: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Martín del Campo Ríos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been initial evidence to support the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis, which proposes that beliefs in being unlucky are associated with deficits in executive functioning (Maltby et al., 2013. The present study tested the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis by examining whether deficits in the early stage of top down attentional control led to an increase of neural activity in later stages of response related selection process among those who thought themselves to be unlucky. Individuals with these beliefs were compared to a control group using an Event-Related Potential (ERP measure assessing underlying neural activity of semantic inhibition while completing a Stroop test. Results showed stronger main interference effects in the former group, via greater reaction times and a more negative distributed scalp late ERP component during incongruent trials in the time window of 450–780 ms post stimulus onset. Further, less efficient maintenance of task set among the former group was associated with greater late ERP response-related activation to compensate for the lack of top-down attentional control. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence to support the Dysexecutive Luck hypothesis.

  8. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M; Klaver, P; Grüter, T; Specht, K; Weis, S; Kennerknecht, I; Elger, C E; Fernandez, G

    2011-05-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for faces with negative valence. Anatomical analysis revealed diminished gray matter density in the bilateral lingual gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In most of these areas, gray matter density correlated with memory success. Decreased functional activation was found in the left fusiform gyrus, a crucial area for face processing, and in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas activation of the medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. Hence, our data lend strength to the hypothesis that congenital prosopagnosia is explained by network dysfunction and suggest that anatomic curtailing of visual processing in the lingual gyrus plays a substantial role. The dysfunctional circuitry further encompasses the fusiform gyrus and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which may contribute to their difficulties in long-term memory for complex visual information. Despite their deficits in face identity recognition, processing of emotion related information is preserved and possibly mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. Congenital prosopagnosia may, therefore, be a blueprint of differential curtailing in networks of visual cognition.

  9. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  10. Brain functional domains inform therapeutic interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and pediatric bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarotti, Alessandra M; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2011-01-01

    A deeper understanding of how the relationships between impulsivity, reward systems and executive function deficits may be similar or different in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is fundamental for better defining phenotypy in these two developmental illnesses, and moving towards improved treatment and intervention. We focus our article on recent neurocognitive and neuroimaging data examining the behavioral and neural aspects of poor behavior regulation, response inhibition and reward systems in ADHD and PBD. In light of recent research evidence, we propose that the common behavioral manifestations of impulsivity in ADHD and PBD may indeed originate from different neural mechanisms mediated by altered reward systems. In order to define and differentiate these mechanisms, unlike previous approaches, our theoretical model examines the interface of the dorsal frontostriatal circuit, involved in behavior regulation, and the ventral frontostriatal circuit, which is involved in reward-related and affect processes. Preliminary evidence suggests that the neural systems involved in impulsivity, reward systems and executive function engage differently in the two illnesses. In PBD, `emotional impulsivity' is predominantly `bottom-up' and emotionally/motivationally driven, and stems from ventral frontostriatal circuitry dysfunction. By contrast, in ADHD `cognitive impulsivity' is predominantly `top-down' and more `cognitively driven', and stems from dorsal frontostriatal dysfunction. We discuss this evidence in view of clinically relevant questions and implications for illness-based intervention. We conclude that the reward-related mechanisms underlying the interactions between executive function, behavior regulation and impulsivity in PBD and ADHD may be differentially compromised, and in accordance differently shape the clinical symptoms of impulsivity and goal-directed behavior. PMID:21651336

  11. Functional correlates of verbal memory deficits emerging during nicotine withdrawal in abstinent adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Leslie K; Pugh, Kenneth R; Constable, Robert T; Westerveld, Michael; Mencl, W Einar

    2007-01-01

    Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance by adolescents and is typically consumed by this population in the context of ongoing tobacco use. Human studies have shown that both cannabis and tobacco exert effects on cognitive function; however, little is known about possible interacting effects of these drugs on brain function and cognition during adolescent development. Verbal learning and memory were assessed in 20 adolescent users of tobacco and cannabis and 25 adolescent tobacco users with minimal history of cannabis use. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine brain function and functional connectivity while a subset of these subjects performed a verbal working memory task. Delayed recall of verbal stimuli deteriorated during nicotine withdrawal among cannabis users but not among comparison subjects. During high verbal working memory load, nicotine withdrawal selectively increased task-related activation of posterior cortical regions and was associated with disruption of frontoparietal connectivity in adolescent cannabis users relative to comparison subjects. These observations suggest that cannabis use during adolescent development may disrupt neurocircuitry supporting verbal memory formation and that deficits associated with disruption of these neurocircuits are unmasked during nicotine withdrawal.

  12. Functional improvement and correlations with symptomatic improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving long-acting methylphenidate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Casas, M.; Philipsen, A.; Kooij, J.J.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Dejonckheere, J.; Oene, J.C. van; Schauble, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between core symptoms and daily functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are limited. Daily functioning was assessed as part of an open-label extension, and associations with symptom scores were evaluated. METHOD: After a 5-week

  13. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  14. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Olga V.; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Ryff, Carol D.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35–86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65–86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35–54) and middle-aged (aged 55–64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  15. A survey of neurobehavioral symptoms of welders exposed to manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hassani

    2013-05-01

    Conclusion: Welders’ exposure to manganese and its potential health effects should be evaluated periodically and effective control measures should be applied in order to to prevent neurobehavioral symptoms.

  16. Effects of perinatal exposure to environmentally persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children: IV. Thyroid hormones and neonatal neurobehavioral status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Nakai, K.; Oka, T.; Kurokawa, N.; Satoh, H. [Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hosokawa, T. [Dept. of Human Development, Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan); Okamura, K. [Dept. of Obstetrics, Tohoku Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Sakai, T. [Miyagi Childrens Hospital, Sendai (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    From several epidemiological studies, it has been reported that there are some associations between perinatal exposures to PCBs, dioxins and heavy metals, and neurobehavioral defects such as postnatal growth delay and poorer cognitive function. We have started a prospective cohort study to examine the effects of perinatal exposures to environmentally persistent organic pollutants on neurobehavioral development in Japanese children. Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development. A lack of THs in pregnancy can result in congenital hypothyroidism, which causes moderate to severe intellectual defects. It has been reported that perinatal exposure to PCBs adversely affects on children's intellectual functions. The chemical structures of some PCBs resembles thyroxine (T4), and therefore, it is suspected that the action mechanism of PCBs is disruption of TH function. Some PCBs and their metabolites are thought to bind with transthyretine (TTR), which is necessary for the transfer of T4 into the brain, and this may cause a shortage of T4 in the developing brain. To examine the effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs on children's development, it is essential to evaluate the functions of THs at a fundamental level. In this report, we examined the correlations of THs in maternal peripheral blood and cord blood, and the association between THs and neonatal neurobehavioral status.

  17. Reliability of Neurobehavioral Assessments from Birth to Term Equivalent Age in Preterm and Term Born Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Abbey L; Olsen, Joy E; Walsh, Jennifer M; McInnes, Emma K; Molesworth, Charlotte M L; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Doyle, Lex W; Spittle, Alicia J

    2017-02-01

    Neurobehavioral assessments provide insight into the functional integrity of the developing brain and help guide early intervention for preterm (term equivalent age. Few neurobehavioral assessments used in the preterm period have established interrater reliability. To evaluate the interrater reliability of the Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), when used both preterm and at term (>36 weeks). Thirty-five preterm infants and 11 term controls were recruited. Five assessors double-scored the HNNE and NNNS administered either preterm or at term. A one-way random effects, absolute, single-measures interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine interrater reliability. Interrater reliability for the HNNE was excellent (ICC > 0.74) for optimality scores, and good (ICC 0.60-0.74) to excellent for subtotal scores, except for 'Tone Patterns' (ICC 0.54). On the NNNS, interrater reliability was predominantly excellent for all items. Interrater agreement was generally excellent at both time points. Overall, the HNNE and NNNS neurobehavioral assessments demonstrated mostly excellent interrater reliability when used prior to term and at term.

  18. Mining Association Rules for Neurobehavioral and Motor Disorders in Children Diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chihwen; Burns, T G; Wang, May D

    2013-09-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) appear to be at high risk for developing neurobehavioral and motor disorders. The most common disorders for these children are impaired visual-perception skills and motor planning. Besides, they often have impaired executive functions, which can contribute to problematic emotional adjustment such as depression. Additionally, literature suggests that the tendency to develop these cognitive impairments and emotional abnormalities in pediatric CP is influenced by age and IQ. Because there are many other medical co-morbidities that can occur with CP (e.g., seizures and shunt placement), prediction of what percentages of patients will incur cognitive impairment and emotional abnormality is a difficult task. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between possible factors mentioned above, and neurobehavioral and motor disorders from a clinical database of pediatric subjects diagnosed with CP. The study resulted in 22 rules that can predict negative outcomes. These rules reinforced the growing body of literature supporting a link between CP, executive dysfunction, and subsequent neurobehavioral problems. The antecedents and consequents of some association rules were single factors, while other statistical associations were interactions of factor combinations. Further research is needed to include children's comprehensive treatment and medication history in order to determine additional impacts on their neurobehavioral and motor disorders.

  19. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvan, Michael J; Kalluvila, Thomas A; Klingler, Rebekah H; Larson, Jeremy K; Pickens, Matthew; Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Connaughton, Victoria P; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs]) and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion) in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM) for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation) and transgenerational actions (F2 generation) were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation) of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  20. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  1. Brazilian Portuguese transcultural adaptation of Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS

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    Victor Polignano Godoy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the importance of Executive Functions to clinical and nonclinical situations, Barkley proposed a new theory of executive functioning based on an evolutionary neuropsychological perspective and clinical research using large samples of clinical and community identified adults and children as well as children with ADHD followed to adulthood. Objective The present study aims to adapt the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functions Scales (BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and also assess its construct validity in a sample of normal Brazilian adults. Methods The original version of scale was adapted to Brazilian Portuguese according to the guideline from the ISPOR Task Force. To assess the semantic equivalence between the original and adapted version, both of them were applied into a sample of 25 Brazilian bilingual adults. Finally, 60 Brazilian adults completed the BDEFS and the Brazilian versions of Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 and Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 to assess convergent validity. Results The BDEFS Brazilian Portuguese version has semantic correspondence with the original version indicating that the adaptation procedure was successful. The BDEFS correlated significantly with the impulsivity and attention scores from the BIS-11 and ASRS-18 supporting its construct validity. Cronbach’s alpha (α = 0.961 indicated that the BDEFS translated version has satisfactory internal consistency. Discussion Together, these findings indicate the successful adaptation of the BDEFS to Brazilian Portuguese and support its utility in that population.

  2. Executive functions and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: Comparisons between probands, parents and controls in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is said to be a core feature of schizophrenia. Executive function is an important cognitive domain. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess cognitive impairment among Indian patients with schizophrenia (Sz or schizoaffective disorder (SzA, compared with their parents and unaffected individuals (controls. Settings and Design: Executive functions as measured by Trail-making Test (TMT, of patients and their parents were compared with controls. The patients were recruited from the Outpatients′ Department (OPD of a government hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed as Sz or SzA (n=172 and their parents (n=196: families n=132, 119 fathers and 77 mothers participated. We also included 120 persons with no history of psychiatric illness. Cognitive function was assessed with the TMT. The Information Score of the Post Graduate Institute Battery of Brain Dysfunction test, developed in India for Indian subjects was used as a proxy for general fixed knowledge. Statistical Analysis: Logistic and linear regression was used to compare cognitive deficits of cases, parents and controls. Results: Cases and their parents took significantly more time than controls on Part B of the TMT. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and parents on any of the TMT parameters. Using regression analysis, the most significant correlates of all TMT parameters among cases were with occurrence of auditory hallucinations and current age. Conclusion: Cases, as well as their parents showed more cognitive impairment than controls on the TMT.

  3. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yi Wang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls, aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2. A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36% children had significant motor impairments and seven (28% were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40% children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035. Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=−0.47, p=0.018, socialization (r=−0.49, p=0.013, and self-direction (r=−0.41, p=0.040. In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=−0.56, p=0.003. Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=−0.41, p=0.040. This study found significant correlation between motor ability and

  4. Motor ability and adaptive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Yi; Huang, Tzu-Hsiu; Lo, Sing-Kai

    2011-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder. Previous studies have reported that children with ADHD exhibit deficits of adaptive function and insufficient motor ability. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adaptive function and motor ability in children with ADHD compared with a group of normal children. The study group included 25 children with ADHD (19 boys and 6 girls), aged from 4.6 years to 8.6 years (mean±standard deviation, 6.5±1.2). A group of 24 children without ADHD (normal children) were selected to match the children with ADHD on age and gender. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children, which includes three subtests, was used to assess the motor ability of the children of both groups. The Chinese version of Adaptive Behavior Scales, which consists of 12 life domains, was used to assess adaptive function of the children with ADHD. Compared with the normal children, children with ADHD exhibited poorer motor ability on all the three subtests of motor assessment. In the ADHD group, nine (36%) children had significant motor impairments and seven (28%) were borderline cases. A total of 10 (40%) children with ADHD had definite adaptive problems in one or more adaptive domains. With statistically controlling of IQ for the ADHD group, those children with impaired motor ability had significantly poorer behaviors in the adaptive domain of home living (p=0.035). Moreover, children with ADHD who had severely impaired manual dexterity performed worse than the control group in the adaptive domains of home living (r=-0.47, p=0.018), socialization (r=-0.49, p=0.013), and self-direction (r=-0.41, p=0.040). In addition, children with poorer ball skills had worse home living behavior (r=-0.56, p=0.003). Children who had more impaired balance exhibited poorer performance in social behavior (r=-0.41, p=0.040). This study found significant correlation between motor ability and adaptive

  5. Shared and distinct intrinsic functional network centrality in autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Adriana; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Mennes, Maarten; Schvarcz, Ariel; Rodman, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2013-10-15

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Across both disorders, observations of distributed functional abnormalities suggest aberrant large-scale brain network connectivity. Yet, common and distinct network correlates of ASD and ADHD remain unidentified. Here, we aimed to examine patterns of dysconnection in school-age children with ASD and ADHD and typically developing children who completed a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. We measured voxelwise network centrality, functional connectivity metrics indexing local (degree centrality [DC]) and global (eigenvector centrality) functional relationships across the entire brain connectome, in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 56 children with ASD, 45 children with ADHD, and 50 typically developing children. A one-way analysis of covariance, with group as fixed factor (whole-brain corrected), was followed by post hoc pairwise comparisons. Cortical and subcortical areas exhibited centrality abnormalities, some common to both ADHD and ASD, such as in precuneus. Others were disorder-specific and included ADHD-related increases in DC in right striatum/pallidum, in contrast with ASD-related increases in bilateral temporolimbic areas. Secondary analyses differentiating children with ASD into those with or without ADHD-like comorbidity (ASD(+) and ASD(-), respectively) revealed that the ASD(+) group shared ADHD-specific abnormalities in basal ganglia. By contrast, centrality increases in temporolimbic areas characterized children with ASD regardless of ADHD-like comorbidity. At the cluster level, eigenvector centrality group patterns were similar to DC. ADHD and ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with distinct and overlapping clinical presentations. This work provides evidence for both shared and distinct underlying mechanisms at the large-scale network level. Copyright © 2013 Society of

  6. Cognitive Deficits in Executive Functions and Decision-Making Impairments Cluster Gambling Disorder Sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Tolosa-Sola, Iris; Fernández-Aranda, Fernándo; Granero, Roser; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Lozano-Madrid, María; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Aymamí, Neus; Borrás-González, Indira; Sánchez-González, Jessica; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2017-10-20

    To identify Gambling Disorder (GD) subtypes, in a population of men seeking treatment for GD, according to specific executive function domains (i.e., cognitive flexibility, inhibition and working memory as well as decision making) which are usually impaired in addictive behaviors. A total of 145 males ranging from 18 to 65 years diagnosed with GD were included in this study. All participants completed: (a) a set of questionnaires to assess psychopathological symptoms, personality and impulsivity traits, and (b) a battery of neuropsychological measures to test different executive functioning domains. Two clusters were identified based on the individual performance on the neuropsychological assessment. Cluster 1 [n = 106; labeled as Low Impaired Executive Function (LIEF)] was composed by patients with poor results in the neuropsychological assessment; cluster 2 patients [n = 46; labeled as High Impaired Executive Function (HIEF)] presented significantly higher deficits on the assessed domains and performed worse than the ones of LIEF cluster. Regarding the characterization of these two clusters, patients in cluster 2 were significantly older, unemployed and registered higher mean age of GD onset than patients in cluster 1. Additionally, patients in cluster 2 also obtained higher psychopathological symptoms, impulsivity (in both positive and negative urgency as well as sensation seeking) and some specific personality traits (higher harm avoidance as well as lower self-directedness and cooperativeness) than patients in cluster 1. The results of this study describe two different GD subtypes based on different cognitive domains (i.e., executive function performance). These two GD subtypes display different impulsivity and personality traits as well as clinical symptoms. The results provide new insight into the etiology and characterization of GD and have the potential to help improving current treatments.

  7. [Effect of methylphenidate on executive function for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Yang, Li; Cao, Qing-jiu; Wang, Yu-feng

    2007-06-18

    To explore whether methylphenidate (MPH) can improve the executive function (EF) of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and the degree of the improvements. We conducted an open study of 29 children (25 boys and 4 girls) who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. The variations of their EF before and after methylphenidate extended-release tablets [osmotic release oral system(OROS) methylphenidate] treatment were evaluated, and the differences of EF between 24 ADHD boys before and after treatment and 24 age-matched typically developing control boys were compared. The research instruments included Stroop color-word task, Rey complex figure test, digit span test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi and verbal fluency test. The performances of errors in Stroop 1, time and errors of Stroops 2 and 4; the immediate memory and delay recalling of structure and detail score of RCFT; time of number-letter trail making, shifting time; total time and steps, rule violation of tower of Hanoi improved significantly after OROS methylphenidate treatment as compared with those before treatment. They were no significant differences between ante- and post-treatment. The initiation planning time of tower of Hanoi was significantly shorter after treatment as compared with that before treatment . This study suggests that methylphenidate can improve the executive function in the aspects of inhibition, visual working memory, set shifting and planning in ADHD children, and almost all aspects of EF can reach the normal level except the inhibition.

  8. Anxiety and social deficits have distinct relationships with amygdala function in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D; Miller, Judith S; Pandey, Juhi; Schultz, Robert T

    2016-06-01

    Current neural models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety disorders suggest hyperactivation of amygdala in anxiety, but hypoactivation of amygdala in ASD. The objectives of this study were to (i) test the hypothesis that amygdala activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represents a hybrid signal of opposing social functions and anxiety symptoms, and (ii) determine whether longstanding findings of decreased amygdala activation in ASD apply only to those individuals with ASD and low levels of anxiety. During fMRI scanning, 81 youth with ASD and 67 non-ASD control participants completed a face recognition paradigm that elicits robust amygdala activation. Only individuals with ASD and low anxiety levels (a subsample of 28 participants) showed decreased amygdala activation relative to controls. In the ASD group, anxiety symptoms were positively correlated with amygdala activity across the full ASD group, whereas core ASD symptoms (including social deficits) were negatively correlated. Results indicate that hypoactivation of amygdala in ASD, a suggestive finding first reported nearly 20 years ago, can be masked by comorbid anxiety-thus bringing enhanced clarity to this line of work. Amygdala activity represents a hybrid signal of emotion and social processes that cannot be reduced to either alone. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Visual function and color vision in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Chen, Samantha; Tannock, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Color vision and self-reported visual function in everyday life in young adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Participants were 30 young adults with ADHD and 30 controls matched for age and gender. They were tested individually and completed the Visual Activities Questionnaire (VAQ), Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue Test (FMT) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT). The ADHD group reported significantly more problems in 4 of 8 areas on the VAQ: depth perception, peripheral vision, visual search and visual processing speed. Further analyses of VAQ items revealed that the ADHD group endorsed more visual problems associated with driving than controls. Color perception difficulties on the FMT were restricted to the blue spectrum in the ADHD group. FMT and AQT results revealed slower processing of visual stimuli in the ADHD group. A comprehensive investigation of mechanisms underlying visual function and color vision in adults with ADHD is warranted, along with the potential impact of these visual problems on driving performance. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Resting metabolic rate, pulmonary functions, and body composition parameters in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ucok, Kagan; Coşkun, Kerem Şenol; Genc, Abdurrahman; Karabacak, Hatice; Guzel, Halil Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Several studies of school-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have found a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with the general population. However, the scientific literature contains insufficient evidence to establish clear conclusions on pulmonary functions, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and body composition in children with ADHD. This study therefore investigates the pulmonary functions tests (PFTs), RMR, and body composition parameters in children with ADHD and evaluates their quality of life. Forty children with ADHD and 40 healthy controls participated in the study. The children's parents completed Conners' parent rating scale (CPRS) and the pediatric quality of life (PedsQL), and their teachers completed Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS). The child participants also completed the PedsQL. RMR, PFTs, and body composition parameters were investigated. No significant differences in age, gender, and socioeconomic level were found. All CPRS subscales, except anxiety and psychosomatic conditions, were significantly different (p ADHD group. The results showed that the ADHD group's quality of life is worse than the control group. Body mass index, body composition parameters, RMR, and PFTs were not statistically different between the children with ADHD and the healthy controls. Further studies with complex designs are needed to confirm the results.

  11. Evidence for deficit in tasks of ventral, but not dorsal, prefrontal executive function as an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangou, Sophia; Haldane, Morgan; Roddy, Darren; Kumari, Veena

    2005-11-15

    Trait functional abnormalities in BD patients have only been reported in the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC). We examined whether deficits in VPFC-related inhibitory processes, but not dorsal prefrontal (DPFC) based executive functions, represent an endophenotypic marker for bipolar disorder I (BDI). We used the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), commonly associated with DPFC function, and the Hayling Sentence Completion Task (HSCT) which engages the VPFC. Performance on these tests of 43 healthy participants was compared to that of 10 remitted BDI patients and 15 of their unaffected offspring. Compared to healthy participants, patients and their offspring made more errors in the HSCT but offspring achieved more categories and made fewer perseverative errors in the WCST. Impaired response inhibition, predominantly a VPFC related function, may reflect familial predisposition to BDI while deficits in rule attainment, a DPFC based function, may be associated only with the clinical phenotype.

  12. Membership function model for defining optimality of vapor pressure deficit in closed-field cultivation of tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamshiri, R.; Che Man, H.; Zakaria, A.J.; Beveren, van Peter; Wan Ismail, W.I.; Ahmad, D.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of plant's evapotranspiration (ET) or water loss to the atmosphere depends on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of the closed-field environment (greenhouse). The objective of this work was to develop a membership function model for defining optimal VPD of greenhouse air for tomato

  13. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venke Arntsberg Grane

    Full Text Available We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36 and in healthy controls (n = 35. Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.. Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A. There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD.

  14. Executive function in adolescence among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Chui-De; Shang, Chi-Yung; Cheng, Andrew Tai-Ann; Soong, Wei-Tsuen

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about executive function among adolescents with a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and there is a lack of such information in an ethnic Chinese population. This study investigated nonverbal executive functions in adolescence among Taiwanese children with ADHD. The sample included fifty-three 11- to 16-year-old adolescents (male, 75.5%) with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD according to the DSM-IV criteria, and 53 age-, sex-, IQ-, and parental education-matched comparison adolescents. They were assessed using psychiatric interviews (mothers included), the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children-3rd edition, and the tasks involving the executive functions of the Cambridge neuropsychological test automated battery: the spatial span, spatial working memory, intradimensional/extradimensional shifts, and stocking of Cambridge. A linear multilevel model was used for data analysis for the matched case-control study design and repeated measures within the same participants. Forty-three adolescents (81.1%) had persistent DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis. The ADHD group made more errors in the spatial span and spatial working memory, had more complete stage trials in the intradimensional/extradimensional shifts, and had fewer problems solved and shorter initial and subsequent thinking time in the stockings of Cambridge than the controls. The magnitudes of group differences increased with increased task difficulties. Persistent ADHD and methylphenidate did not make significant difference in executive functions. The findings of the authors suggest that adolescents with childhood ADHD need extra assistance when they are assigned complex tasks regardless of persistence of ADHD at adolescence.

  15. Neurobehavioral effects of developmental methylmercury exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, S.G.; Grant-Webster, K.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global environmental problem and is listed by the International Program of Chemical Safety as one of the six most dangerous chemicals in the world`s environment. Human exposure to MeHg primarily occurs through the consumption of contaminated food such as fish, although catastrophic exposures due to industrial pollution have occurred. The fetus is particularly sensitive to MeHg exposure and adverse effects on infant development have been associated with levels of exposure that result in few, if any, signs of maternal clinical illness or toxicity. High levels of prenatal exposure in humans result in neurobehavioral effects such as cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation. Prenatal exposure to MeHg in communities with chronic low-level exposure is related to decreased birthweight and early sensorimotor dysfunction such as delayed onset of walking. Neurobehavioral alterations have also been documented in studies with non human primates and rodents. Available information on the developmental neurotoxic effects of MeHg, particularly the neurobehavioral effects, indicates that the fetus and infant are more sensitive to adverse effects of MEHg. It is therefore recommended that pregnant women and women of childbearing age be strongly advised to limit their exposure to potential sources of MeHg. Based on results from human and animal studies on the developmental neurotoxic effects of methylmercury, the accepted reference dose should be lowered to 0.025 to 0.06 MeHg {mu}g/kg/day. Continued research on the neurotoxic effects associated with low level developmental exposure is needed. 107 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Maternal buprenorphine treatment and fetal neurobehavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Lauren M; Velez, Martha; McConnell, Krystle; Spencer, Nancy; Tuten, Michelle; Jones, Hendree E; King, Van L; Gandotra, Neeraj; Milio, Lorraine A; Voegtline, Kristin; DiPietro, Janet A

    2017-05-01

    Gestational opioid use/misuse is escalating in the United States; however, little is understood about the fetal effects of medications used to treat maternal opioid use disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal buprenorphine administration on longitudinal fetal neurobehavioral development. Forty-nine buprenorphine-maintained women who attended a substance use disorder treatment facility with generally uncomplicated pregnancies underwent fetal monitoring for 60 minutes at times of trough and peak maternal buprenorphine levels. Data were collected at 24, 28, 32, and 36 weeks gestation. Fetal neurobehavioral indicators (ie, heart rate, motor activity, and their integration [fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling]) were collected via an actocardiograph, digitized and quantified. Longitudinal data analysis relied on hierarchic linear modeling. Fetal heart rate, heart rate variability, and heart rate accelerations were significantly reduced at peak vs trough maternal buprenorphine levels. Effects were significant either by or after 28 weeks gestation and tended to intensify with advancing gestation. Fetal motor activity and fetal movement-fetal heart rate coupling were depressed from peak to trough at 36 weeks gestation. Polysubstance exposure did not significantly affect fetal neurobehavioral parameters, with the exception that fetuses of heavier smokers moved significantly less than those of lighter smokers at 36 weeks gestation. By the end of gestation, higher maternal buprenorphine dose was related to depression of baseline fetal cardiac measures at trough. Maternal buprenorphine administration has acute suppressive effects on fetal heart rate and movement, and the magnitude of these effects increases as gestation progresses. Higher dose (≥13 mg) appears to exert greater depressive effects on measures of fetal heart rate and variability. These findings should be balanced against comparisons to gestational methadone effects

  17. Predictive Capabilities of Neurobehavioral Diagnostics in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Oxana

    2016-05-01

    Modern world experiences annual increase in the number of children born with neurological problems, which in the future may stipulate the development of their neurobehavioral and neuropsychological aberrations. Specific functional features of a child's brain development depend on many factors, but there is a strong need for early clinical and psychological identification of a child's development with a view to elaborate preventive measures, which are often more effective than the treatment or correction of dysfunction, already complicated by compensatory bonds. One should note that despite a high interest in the possibility of predicting the future development of the child in the early ontogenesis, few studies have so far been devoted to the search for indicators that could be meaningful for neuropsychology, neurology, and educational, special, and clinical psychology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Audition-specific temporal processing deficits associated with language function in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss-Feig, Jennifer H; Schauder, Kimberly B; Key, Alexandra P; Wallace, Mark T; Stone, Wendy L

    2017-11-01

    Sensory processing alterations are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Neurobiologically-based theories of ASD propose that abnormalities in the processing of temporal aspects of sensory input could underlie core symptoms of ASD. For example, rapid auditory temporal processing is critical for speech perception, and language difficulties are central to the social communication deficits defining the disorder. This study assessed visual and auditory temporal processing abilities and tested their relation to core ASD symptoms. 53 children (26 ASD, 27 TD) completed visual and auditory psychophysical gap detection tasks to measure gap detection thresholds (i.e., the minimum interval between sequential stimuli needed for individuals to perceive an interruption between the stimuli) in each domain. Children were also administered standardized language assessments such that the relation between individual differences in auditory gap detection thresholds and degree of language and communication difficulties among children with ASD could be assessed. Children with ASD had substantially higher auditory gap detection thresholds compared to children with TD, and auditory gap detection thresholds were correlated significantly with several measures of language processing in this population. No group differences were observed in the visual temporal processing. Results indicate a domain-specific impairment in rapid auditory temporal processing in ASD that is associated with greater difficulties in language processing. Findings provide qualified support for temporal processing theories of ASD and highlight the need for future research testing the nature, extent, and universality of auditory temporal processing deficits in this population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1845-1856. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sensory symptoms are common in ASD. Temporal processing alterations are often implicated, but understudied. The ability to

  19. Memory functioning in children with reading disabilities and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a clinical investigation of their working memory and long-term memory functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Cohen, Morris J

    2008-11-01

    We examined memory functioning in children with reading disabilities (RD), Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and RD/ADHD using a clinic sample with a clinical instrument: the Children's Memory Scale, enhancing its generalizability. Participants included 23 children with RD, 30 with ADHD, 30 with RD/ADHD, and 30 controls. Children with RD presented with reduced verbal short-term memory (STM) but intact visual STM, central executive (CE), and long-term memory (LTM) functioning. Their deficit in STM appeared specific to tasks requiring phonetic coding of material. Children with ADHD displayed intact CE and LTM functioning but reduced visual-spatial STM, especially when off stimulant medication. Children with RD/ADHD had deficits consistent with both disorders.

  20. Criterion validity and clinical usefulness of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale IV in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a function of method and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José A; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús; López-Sánchez, María V; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana M; Martínez-Rivera, María T; Alberola-López, Susana

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scales IV (ADHD RS-IV) criteria validity and its clinical usefulness for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a function of assessment method and age. A sample was obtained from an epidemiological study (n = 1095, 6-16 years). Clinical cases of ADHD  (ADHD-CL) were selected by dimensional ADHD RS-IV and later by clinical interview (DSM-IV). ADHD-CL cases were compared with four categorical results of ADHD RS-IV provided by parents (CATPA), teachers (CATPR), either parents or teachers (CATPAOPR) and both parents and teachers (CATPA&PR). Criterion validity and clinical usefulness of the answer modalities to ADHD RS-IV were studied. ADHD-CL rate was 6.9% in childhood, 6.2% in preadolescence and 6.9% in adolescence. Alternative methods to the clinical interview led to increased numbers of ADHD cases in all age groups analyzed, in the following sequence: CATPAOPR> CATPRO> CATPA> CATPA&PR> ADHD-CL. CATPA&PR was the procedure with the greatest validity, specificity and clinical usefulness in all three age groups, particularly in the childhood. Isolated use of ADHD RS-IV leads to an increase in ADHD cases compared to clinical interview, and varies depending on the procedure used.

  1. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions.

  2. The relationship between cerebral hemisphere volume and receptive language functioning in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibby, Michelle Y; Pavawalla, Shital P; Fancher, Jill B; Naillon, Angela J; Hynd, George W

    2009-04-01

    Because poor comprehension has been associated with small cerebral volume and there is a high comorbidity between developmental dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and specific language impairment, the goal of this study was to determine whether cerebral volume is reduced in dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in general, as some suggest, or whether the reduction in volume corresponds to poor receptive language functioning, regardless of the diagnosis. Participants included 46 children with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, aged 8 to 12 years. Our results indicated that cerebral volume was comparable between those with and without dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder overall. However, when groups were further divided into those with and without receptive language difficulties, children with poor receptive language had smaller volumes bilaterally as hypothesized. Nonetheless, the relationship between cerebral volume and receptive language was not linear; rather, our results suggest that small volume is associated with poor receptive language only in those with the smallest volumes in both dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  3. The canonical relationship between sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S; Pass, Lisa A; Finch, W Holmes; Dean, Raymond S; Woodcock, Richard W

    2009-05-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) typically exhibits a pattern of behavioral deficits, impairment in academic achievement, and cognitive processing, and presents with sensory-motor deficits. This study examined the relationships between sensory-motor tasks, cognitive processing, and academic achievement for a group of 67 children with ADHD. Strong canonical correlations emerged between sensory-motor functioning and academic achievement (.93) and sensory-motor functioning and cognitive processing (.98). An analysis of the redundancy coefficient showed that sensory-motor skills accounted for 65% of the variance in the achievement variables and 31% of the variance in the cognitive processing variables. The strong relationship between sensory-motor skills and higher order cognitive processes indicates that early assessment of sensory-motor skills may be useful in the identification of subsequent deficits in academic performance. Neuropsychologists should carefully consider the contribution of sensory-motor functioning to the more widely studied and assessed constructs of academic, behavioral, and emotional problems in children with ADHD.

  4. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-08-01

    Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. © 2015 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Emotion regulation deficits in euthymic bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder: a functional and diffusion-tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Lawrence, Natalia S; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Watts, Jessica; Jones, Derek K; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion regulation deficits are a core feature of bipolar disorder. However, their potential neurobiological underpinnings and existence beyond bipolar I disorder remain unexplored. Our main goal was to investigate whether both individuals with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder show deficits in emotion regulation during an attention control task, and to explore the neurophysiological underpinnings of this potential deficit. Methods Twenty healthy controls, 16 euthymic participants with bipolar I disorder, and 19 euthymic participants with bipolar II disorder completed psychometric and clinical assessments, a neuroimaging emotion regulation paradigm, and an anatomical diffusion-weighted scan. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal IQ. Results During the presence of emotional distracters, subjects with bipolar I disorder showed slowed reaction times to targets, and increased blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the amygdala, accumbens, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but not increased inverse functional connectivity between these prefrontal and subcortical areas, and altered white matter microstructure organization in the right uncinate fasciculus. Subjects with bipolar II disorder showed no altered reaction times, increased BOLD responses in the same brain areas, increased inverse functional connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, and no abnormalities in white matter organization. Conclusions Participants with bipolar I disorder showed abnormalities in functional and anatomical connectivity between prefrontal cortices and subcortical structures in emotion regulation circuitry. However, these deficits did not extend to subjects with bipolar II disorder, suggesting fundamental differences in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder subtypes. PMID:25771686

  6. Altered brain serotonergic neurotransmission following caffeine withdrawal produces behavioral deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Saima; Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Faizan; Perveen, Tahira; Saleem, Sadia; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Caffeine administration has been shown to enhance performance and memory in rodents and humans while its withdrawal on the other hand produces neurobehavioral deficits which are thought to be mediated by alterations in monoamines neurotransmission. A role of decreased brain 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels has been implicated in impaired cognitive performance and depression. Memory functions of rats were assessed by Water Maze (WM) and immobility time by Forced Swim Test (FST). The results of this study showed that repeated caffeine administration for 6 days at 30 mg/kg dose significantly increases brain 5-HT (pcaffeine. Withdrawal of caffeine however produced memory deficits and significantly increases the immobility time of rats in FST. The results of this study are linked with caffeine induced alterations in serotonergic neurotransmission and its role in memory and depression.

  7. A Follow-up Study of Academic Functioning and Social Adjustment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin Garg; Priti Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists in a majority of adolescents. It has been reported that ADHD patients have poor social functioning and risk for developing co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Aims: To determine the retention of diagnosis of ADHD and to assess social adjustment, academic functioning and co-morbidities at follow-up. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: ADHD patients of 5-14 years of age who came to the out-patient departme...

  8. Working Memory Arrest in Children with High-Functioning Autism Compared to Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a 2-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N.; Skogli, Erik W.; Hovik, Kjell T.; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically…

  9. Functional neuroimaging of visuospatial working memory tasks enables accurate detection of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding neurobiological markers for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, is a major objective of clinicians and neuroscientists. We examined if functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI data from a few distinct visuospatial working memory (VSWM tasks enables accurately detecting cases with ADHD. We tested 20 boys with ADHD combined type and 20 typically developed (TD boys in four VSWM tasks that differed in feedback availability (feedback, no-feedback and reward size (large, small. We used a multimodal analysis based on brain activity in 16 regions of interest, significantly activated or deactivated in the four VSWM tasks (based on the entire participants' sample. Dimensionality of the data was reduced into 10 principal components that were used as the input variables to a logistic regression classifier. fMRI data from the four VSWM tasks enabled a classification accuracy of 92.5%, with high predicted ADHD probability values for most clinical cases, and low predicted ADHD probabilities for most TDs. This accuracy level was higher than those achieved by using the fMRI data of any single task, or the respective behavioral data. This indicates that task-based fMRI data acquired while participants perform a few distinct VSWM tasks enables improved detection of clinical cases.

  10. Intranasal Insulin Prevents Anesthesia-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Chronic Neurobehavioral Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM 2–6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17–18 months old wild-type (WT mice and in adult (7–8 months old 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but not in adult WT mice. Anesthesia resulted in long-term neurobehavioral changes in the fear conditioning task carried out 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. Importantly, daily intranasal administration of insulin (1.75 U/mouse/day for only 3 days prior to anesthesia completely prevented the anesthesia-induced deficits in spatial learning and memory and the long-term neurobehavioral changes tested 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that aging and AD-like brain pathology increase the vulnerability to cognitive impairment after anesthesia and that intranasal treatment with insulin can prevent anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment.

  11. Comparison of the developmental milestones and preweaning neurobehavioral parameters in rat pups exposed to lead (Pb) during gestation, lactation and pregestation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Barkur, Rajashekar; Bairy, Laxminarayana K

    2016-01-01

    Studies in urban children exposed to low lead (Pb) have shown neurobehavioral deficits in the domains of intelligence, reaction time and attention. The structures - hippocampus (vital for learning and memory) and cerebellum (play a role in motor behavior and cognition) - which develop postnatally, are affected by developmental Pb exposure. The effect of low level of Pb exposure during specific periods of early brain development on early neurobehavioral outcomes in rat pups has not been studied. So in this study, pregnant albino Wistar strain rats were exposed to low levels of Pb in drinking water during gestation period (G group), lactation period (L group), both gestation and lactation period (GL group) and prior to pregnancy (a period of 1 month) (PG group). The rat pups born in each of these groups were assessed in preweaning neurobehavioral parameters including surface righting reflex, swimming development, negative geotaxis and ascending wire mesh test. The swimming development scores were low in the GL group of rats. The negative geotaxis score in GL and G groups were altered. The day of achievement of ascending wire mesh test was significantly delayed in GL, G and L groups of rats. To conclude, results show that (a) low level of Pb exposure during gestation and lactation period of brain development causes significant alterations in the early neurobehavioral and sensorimotor reflex development in the absence of concomitant weight loss and (b) gestation period only and lactation period only, Pb exposure causes alteration in some of the neurobehavioral outcomes.

  12. Is Work-Related Rumination Associated with Deficits in Executive Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Mark; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Querstret, Dawn; Beck, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Work-related rumination, that is, perseverative thinking about work during leisure time, has been associated with a range of negative health and wellbeing issues. The present paper examined the association between work-related rumination and cognitive processes centerd around the theoretical construct of executive functioning. Executive functioning is an umbrella term for high level cognitive processes such as planning, working memory, inhibition, mental flexibility; and it underlies how people manage and regulate their goal directed behavior. Three studies are reported. Study I, reports the results of a cross-sectional study of 240 employees, and demonstrates significant correlations between work-related rumination and three proxy measures of executive functioning: cognitive failures (0.33), cognitive flexibility (-0.24), and situational awareness at work (-0.28). Study II (n = 939), expands on the findings from study 1 and demonstrates that workers reporting medium and high work-related rumination were 2.8 and 5 times, respectively, more likely to report cognitive failures relative to low ruminators. High ruminators also demonstrated greater difficulties with 'lapses of attention' (OR = 4.8), 'lack of focus of attention' (OR = 3.4), and 'absent mindedness' (OR = 4.3). The final study, examined the association between work-related rumination and executive functioning using interview data from 2460 full time workers. Workers were divided into tertiles low, medium, and high. The findings showed that high work-related rumination was associated with deficits in starting (OR = 2.3) and finishing projects (OR = 2.4), fidgeting (OR = 1.9), memory (OR = 2.2), pursuing tasks in order (OR = 1.8), and feeling compelled to do things (OR = 2.0). It was argued that work-related rumination may not be related to work demands per se, but appears to be an executive functioning/control issue. Such findings are important for the design and delivery of intervention programes aimed at

  13. Iron deficiency in infancy and neurocognitive functioning at 19 years: evidence of long-term deficits in executive function and recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Angela F; Koss, Marlene; Burden, Matthew J; Jonides, John; Nelson, Charles A; Kaciroti, Niko; Jimenez, Elias; Lozoff, Betsy

    2010-04-01

    Iron deficiency in infancy negatively impacts a variety of neurodevelopmental processes at the time of nutrient insufficiency, with persistent central nervous system alterations and deficits in behavioral functioning, despite iron therapy. In rodent models, early iron deficiency impairs the hippocampus and the dopamine system. We examined the possibility that young adults who had experienced chronic, severe, iron deficiency as infants would exhibit deficits on neurocognitive tests with documented frontostriatal (Trail Making Test, Intra-/Extra-dimensional Shift, Stockings of Cambridge, Spatial Working Memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing) and hippocampal specificity (Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory). Participants with chronic, severe iron deficiency in infancy performed less well on frontostriatal-mediated executive functions, including inhibitory control, set-shifting, and planning. Participants also exhibited impairment on a hippocampus-based recognition memory task. We suggest that these deficits may result from the long-term effects of early iron deficiency on the dopamine system, the hippocampus, and their interaction.

  14. Executive Functions, Memory, and Social Cognitive Deficits and Recovery in Chronic Alcoholism: A Critical Review to Inform Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Anne-Pascale; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholism is a complex and dynamic disease, punctuated by periods of abstinence and relapse, and influenced by a multitude of vulnerability factors. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cognitive deficits, ranging from mild to severe, in executive functions, memory, and metacognitive abilities, with associated impairment in emotional processes and social cognition. These deficits can compromise efforts in initiating and sustaining abstinence by hampering efficacy of clinical treatment and can obstruct efforts in enabling good decision making success in interpersonal/social interactions, and awareness of cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Despite evidence for differences in recovery levels of selective cognitive processes, certain deficits can persist even with prolonged sobriety. Herein is presented a review of alcohol-related cognitive impairments affecting component processes of executive functioning, memory, and the recently investigated cognitive domains of metamemory, social cognition, and emotional processing; also considered are trajectories of cognitive recovery with abstinence. Finally, in the spirit of critical review, limitations of current knowledge are noted and avenues for new research efforts are proposed that focus on (i) the interaction among emotion-cognition processes and identification of vulnerability factors contributing to the development of emotional and social processing deficits and (ii) the time line of cognitive recovery by tracking alcoholism's dynamic course of sobriety and relapse. Knowledge about the heterochronicity of cognitive recovery in alcoholism has the potential of indicating at which points during recovery intervention may be most beneficial. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Overweight in Boys With ADHD Is Related to Candidate Genes and Not to Deficits in Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanć, Tomasz; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Borkowska, Aneta; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Pytlińska, Natalia; Rybakowski, Filip; Słopień, Radosław; Słopień, Agnieszka

    2016-11-03

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of overweight, the polymorphisms of selected candidate genes, and deficits in the executive functions among children with ADHD. We examined 109 boys with ADHD aged between 7 and 17 years. The study indicated variants of 14 polymorphisms in eight candidate genes. We applied seven neuropsychological tests to evaluate the executive functions. Overweight was diagnosed on the basis of the guidelines of the International Obesity Task Force. Analyses revealed significant association between DRD4 rs1800955, SNAP25 rs363039 and rs363043, 5HTR2A rs17288723, and overweight in boys with ADHD. There were no significant differences in the level of neuropsychological test results between patients with overweight and without overweight. Overweight in boys with ADHD is associated with polymorphisms in three candidate genes: DRD4, SNAP25, and 5HTR2A, but not through conditioning deficits in cognitive functions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Effects of Methylphenidate on Sleep Functioning in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Froehlich, Tanya E; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of stimulant medication on the sleep functioning of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and identify predictors of sleep problems as a side effect of taking stimulant medication. One hundred sixty-three stimulant-naïve children (72% boys) aged 7 to 11 years diagnosed with ADHD (120 with ADHD predominantly inattentive type, 43 with ADHD combined type) participated in a 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of once-daily (long-acting) methylphenidate (MPH). Parents completed weekly side-effect ratings including an item related to sleep problems. Ten percent of patients had parent-rated sleep problems before the initiation of medication. Rates of parent-rated sleep problems during MPH titration generally increased with increasing MPH dose (placebo: 8%; low dose: 18%; medium dose: 15%; high dose: 25%). Differences emerged between children with (n = 16) or without (n = 147) preexisting sleep problems. Although 23% of children without preexisting sleep problems went on to have sleep problems at the highest MPH dose, only 37.5% of children with preexisting sleep problems still had sleep problems at the highest MPH dose. Lower weight and lower body mass index (BMI) were associated with increased sleep problems during MPH titration. This study demonstrated a general association between increased MPH dose and increased sleep problems in children with ADHD, particularly for children of lower weight/BMI. However, a substantial proportion of children with preexisting sleep difficulties no longer had sleep problems on the highest MPH dose, which may help explain mixed findings reported to date in studies examining the impact of MPH on sleep functioning in children with ADHD and suggests that MPH dose titration should not be avoided solely on the basis of a child's premorbid sleep problems. Future research is needed to replicate and extend these findings to more specific domains of sleep functioning and to

  17. ADAPTATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH SYSTEM (BARS) FOR EVALUATING NEUROBEHAVIORAL PERFORMANCE IN FILIPINO CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M.; Mateo, Patrocinio C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M.

    2007-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, c...

  18. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Sleep deprivation led to increased variability on objective performance measures. There were between-subjects differences in response to sleep loss that were task-specific, suggesting that adolescents may not only vary in terms of the degree to which they are affected by sleep loss but also the domains in which they are affected. These findings suggest that one night of total sleep deprivation has significant deleterious effects upon neurobehavioral performance and subjective sleepiness. These factors impair daytime functioning in adolescents, leaving them at greater risk of poor academic and social functioning and accidents and injuries.

  19. A chronic longitudinal characterization of neurobehavioral and neuropathological cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Gulf War agent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchra eZakirova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991 exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI.For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22.5 months post exposure in order to address the persistence and chronicity of effects suffered by the current GWI patient population, 24 years post-exposure. Mice were evaluated using a battery of neurobehavioral testing paradigms, including Open Field Test, Elevated Plus Maze, Three Chamber Testing, Radial Arm Water Maze and Barnes Maze Test. We also carried out neuropathological analyses at 22.5 months post exposure to GW agents after the final behavioral testing. Our results demonstrate that PB+PER exposed mice exhibit neurobehavioral deficits beginning at the 13 months post exposure time point and continuing trends through the 22.5 month post exposure time point. Furthermore, neuropathological changes, including an increase in GFAP staining in the cerebral cortices of exposed mice, were noted 22.5 months post exposure. Thus, the persistent neuroinflammation evident in our model presents a platform with which to identify novel biological pathways, correlating with emergent outcomes that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting. Furthermore, in this work we confirmed our previous findings that GW agent exposure causes neuropathological changes, and have presented novel data which demonstrate increased disinhibition, and lack of social preference in PB+PER exposed mice at 13 months after exposure. We also extended upon our previous work to cover the lifespan

  20. The Back Squat Part 2: Targeted Training Techniques to Correct Functional Deficits and Technical Factors that Limit Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, Adam M.; Brent, Jensen L.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Hugentobler, Jason; Lloyd, Rhodri S.; Vermeil, Al; Chu, Donald A.; Harbin, Jason; McGill, Stuart M.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The back squat is a well-researched and widely used exercise to enhance fundamental movement competency that creates a foundation for optimal mechanical strategies during a broad range of activities. The primary commentary introduced the Back Squat Assessment (BSA): a criterion based assessment of the back squat that delineates 30 potentially observable functional deficits. This follow-up commentary provides a targeted system of training cues and exercises to supplement the BSA to guide corre...

  1. Deficits of hot executive function in 0 crossmark developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues (Reprinted from Human Movement Science, vol 38, pg 209-224)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder – DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli,

  2. Predictive value of ischemic lesion volume assessed with magnetic resonance imaging for neurological deficits and functional outcome poststroke: A critical review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemanck, S.K.; Kwakkel, G.; Post, M.W.; Prevo, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ischemic lesion volume is assumed to be an important predictor of poststroke neurological deficits and functional outcome. This critical review examines the methodological quality of MRI studies and the predictive value of hemispheric infarct volume for neurological deficits (at body

  3. Assessment and evaluation of the high risk neonate: the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Barry M; Andreozzi-Fontaine, Lynne; Tronick, Edward; Bigsby, Rosemarie

    2014-08-25

    There has been a long-standing interest in the assessment of the neurobehavioral integrity of the newborn infant. The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. These are infants who are at increased risk for poor developmental outcome because of insults during prenatal development, such as substance exposure or prematurity or factors such as poverty, poor nutrition or lack of prenatal care that can have adverse effects on the intrauterine environment and affect the developing fetus. The NNNS assesses the full range of infant neurobehavioral performance including neurological integrity, behavioral functioning, and signs of stress/abstinence. The NNNS is a noninvasive neonatal assessment tool with demonstrated validity as a predictor, not only of medical outcomes such as cerebral palsy diagnosis, neurological abnormalities, and diseases with risks to the brain, but also of developmental outcomes such as mental and motor functioning, behavior problems, school readiness, and IQ. The NNNS can identify infants at high risk for abnormal developmental outcome and is an important clinical tool that enables medical researchers and health practitioners to identify these infants and develop intervention programs to optimize the development of these infants as early as possible. The video shows the NNNS procedures, shows examples of normal and abnormal performance and the various clinical populations in which the exam can be used.

  4. A comparative, developmental and clinical perspective of neurobehavioral sexual dimorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Paz eViveros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sexual differentiation of the central nervous system will be presented with a comparative view across vertebrates. Women and men differ in a wide variety of behavioral traits and in the probabilities of developing certain mental disorders. A brief overview of sex-chromosome pathways underlying sexual dimorphisms will be provided. We will describe most common brain phenotypes derived in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging, discuss the challenges in interpreting these phenotypes vis-à-vis the underlying neurobiology and revise the known sex differences in brain structure from birth, through adolescence, to adulthood. Clinical and epidemiological data indicate important sex differences in the prevalence, course, and expression of psychopathologies such as schizophrenia, and mood disorders including major depression and bipolar illness. Recent evidence implies that mood disorders and psychosis share some common genetic predispositions, as well as some neurobiological basis. Therefore, modern research is emphasizing dimensional representation of mental disorders and conceptualization of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression as a continuum of cognitive deficits and neurobiological abnormalities. Herein, we have examined available evidence on cerebral sexual dimorphism in all three conditions to verify if sex differences vary quantitatively and/or qualitatively along the psychoses-depression continuum. Sex differences in posttraumatic disorders prevalence have also been described, thus data on differences at genomic and molecular levels will be considered. Finally, we will discuss the important contribution - advantages and limitations - of animal models in the investigation of underlying mechanisms of neurobehavioral sex differences in neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug dependence, with special emphasis in experimental models based on the neurodevelopmental and three hits hypotheses.

  5. BDNF Regains Function in Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation Deficits Caused by Diencephalic Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C.; Savage, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD), commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, leads to diencephalic damage, hippocampal dysfunction, and spatial learning and memory deficits. We show a decrease in the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at CA3-CA1 synapses, independent of sex, following diencephalic damage…

  6. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…

  7. Cognitive and Neurobehavioral Profile in Boys With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Rudaina; Smile, Sharon; Yoon, Grace; Dupuis, Annie; Mosleh, Maureen; Snider, Andrea; McAdam, Laura

    2015-10-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a progressive neuromuscular condition that has a high rate of cognitive and learning disabilities as well as neurobehavioral disorders, some of which have been associated with disruption of dystrophin isoforms. Retrospective cohort of 59 boys investigated the cognitive and neurobehavioral profile of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Full-scale IQ of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Thought, language, and communication deficits and association with everyday functional outcomes among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Finch, Anastasia; Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

    2017-08-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia experience poorer community integration and social functioning compared to same-age peers with no mental health disorders; these individuals are at elevated risk for functional decline and early institutionalization in long-term care facilities. Deficits in thought, language, and communication (TLC; that is, thought disorder and alogia) are core features of schizophrenia and may worsen with age; however, little research focuses on the functional sequelae of these impairments among older adults with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine the relationships among age, TLC deficits, and functional outcomes in a sample of community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults with schizophrenia (N=245; ages 40-85). Participants completed assessments of symptoms, neurocognition, TLC deficits, and functional outcomes. Two different categories of TLC deficits were examined: verbal underproductivity (i.e., alogia) and disconnected speech. Regression analyses, controlling for gender, age, Veteran status, smoking status, cognitive impairment, and symptom severity, found that disconnected speech predicted occupational functioning, while verbal underproductivity predicted capacity to communicate skillfully in semi-structured social situations, as well as community functioning across interpersonal, occupational, and everyday living domains. Exploratory mediation analyses found significant indirect effects of age, through TLC deficits, on certain functional outcomes. Targeted training to improve TLC deficits, especially verbal underproductivity, among older adults with schizophrenia could have downstream effects on community functioning, improving outcomes for a vulnerable group. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Early executive function deficit in preterm children and its association with neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of deficits of executive function (EF) and neurodevelopmental disorders in preterm children and the potential of assessing EF in infants as means of early identification. EF refers to a collection of related but somewhat discrete abilities, the main ones being working memory, inhibition, and planning. There is a general consensus that EF governs goal-directed behavior that requires holding those plans or programs on-line until executed, inhibiting irrelevant action and planning a sequence of actions. EF plays an essential role in cognitive development and is vital to individual social and intellectual success. Most researchers believe in the coordination and integrate cognitive-perceptual processes in relation to time and space, thus regulating higher-order cognitive processes, such as problem solving, reasoning, logical and flexible thinking, and decision-making. The importance of the maturation of the frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex, to the development of EF in childhood has been emphasized. Therefore, any abnormal development in the prefrontal lobes of infants and children could be expected to result in significant deficits in cognitive functioning. As this is a late-maturing part of the brain, various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, language disorders, and schizophrenia, as well as acquired disorders of the right brain (and traumatic brain injury) impair EF, and the prefrontal cortex may be particularly susceptible to delayed development in these populations. The deficits of EF in infants are persistent into childhood and related to neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence.

  10. The Effect of One Night's Sleep Deprivation on Adolescent Neurobehavioral Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Mia; Short, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of one night's sleep deprivation on neurobehavioral functioning in adolescents. Design: Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery measuring sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, sleepiness, and fatigue every 2 h during wakefulness. Baseline performance (defined as those test bouts between 09:00 and 19:00 on days 2 and 3, following two 10-h sleep opportunities) were compared to performance at the same clock time the day following total sleep deprivation. Setting: The sleep laboratory at the Centre for Sleep Research. Participants: Twelve healthy adolescents (6 male), aged 14-18 years (mean = 16.17, standard deviation = 0.83). Measurements and Results: Sustained attention, reaction speed, cognitive processing speed, and subjective sleepiness were all significantly worse following one night without sleep than following 10-h sleep opportunities (all main effects of day, P Louca M, Short MA. The effect of one night's sleep deprivation on adolescent neurobehavioral performance. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1799-1807. PMID:25364075

  11. Loss of LMO4 in the retina leads to reduction of GABAergic amacrine cells and functional deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe M Duquette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: LMO4 is a transcription cofactor expressed during retinal development and in amacrine neurons at birth. A previous study in zebrafish reported that morpholino RNA ablation of one of two related genes, LMO4b, increases the size of eyes in embryos. However, the significance of LMO4 in mammalian eye development and function remained unknown since LMO4 null mice die prior to birth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We observed the presence of a smaller eye and/or coloboma in ∼40% LMO4 null mouse embryos. To investigate the postnatal role of LMO4 in retinal development and function, LMO4 was conditionally ablated in retinal progenitor cells using the Pax6 alpha-enhancer Cre/LMO4flox mice. We found that these mice have fewer Bhlhb5-positive GABAergic amacrine and OFF-cone bipolar cells. The deficit appears to affect the postnatal wave of Bhlhb5+ neurons, suggesting a temporal requirement for LMO4 in retinal neuron development. In contrast, cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine, rod bipolar and photoreceptor cell numbers were not affected. The selective reduction in these interneurons was accompanied by a functional deficit revealed by electroretinography, with reduced amplitude of b-waves, indicating deficits in the inner nuclear layer of the retina. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Inhibitory GABAergic interneurons play a critical function in controlling retinal image processing, and are important for neural networks in the central nervous system. Our finding of an essential postnatal function of LMO4 in the differentiation of Bhlhb5-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the retina may be a general mechanism whereby LMO4 controls the production of inhibitory interneurons in the nervous system.

  12. Let thy left brain know what thy right brain doeth: Inter-hemispheric compensation of functional deficits after brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomeo, Paolo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2016-12-01

    Recent evidence revealed the importance of inter-hemispheric communication for the compensation of functional deficits after brain damage. This review summarises the biological consequences observed using histology as well as the longitudinal findings measured with magnetic resonance imaging methods in brain damaged animals and patients. In particular, we discuss the impact of post-stroke brain hyperactivity on functional recovery in relation to time. The reviewed evidence also suggests that the proportion of the preserved functional network both in the lesioned and in the intact hemispheres, rather than the simple lesion location, determines the extent of functional recovery. Hence, future research exploring longitudinal changes in patients with brain damage may unveil potential biomarkers underlying functional recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo is Associated With Poorer Study Skills, More Executive Functioning Deficits, and Greater Impairment in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Andrew J; Luebbe, Aaron M; Becker, Stephen P

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have examined sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in college students even though extant research suggests a higher prevalence rate of SCT symptoms in this population compared to general adult or youth samples. The current study examined SCT symptoms in relation to two domains related to college student's academic success, study skills and daily life executive functioning (EF), as well as specific domains of functional impairment. 158 undergraduate students (Mage = 19.05 years; 64% female) completed measures of psychopathology symptoms, study skills, daily life EF, and functional impairment. After controlling for demographics and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, and depression, SCT remained significantly associated with poorer study skills, greater daily life EF deficits, and global impairment and with greater functional impairment in the specific domains of educational activities, work, money/finances, managing chores and household tasks, community activities, and social situations with strangers and friends. In many instances, ADHD inattentive symptoms were no longer significantly associated with study skills or impairment after SCT symptoms were added to the model. SCT is associated with poorer college student functioning. Findings highlight the need for increased specificity in studies examining the relation between SCT and adjustment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hippocampal physiology, structure and function and the neuroscience of schizophrenia: a unified account of declarative memory deficits, working memory deficits and schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wible, Cynthia G

    2013-06-01

    Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  15. Hippocampal Physiology, Structure and Function and the Neuroscience of Schizophrenia: A Unified Account of Declarative Memory Deficits, Working Memory Deficits and Schizophrenic Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Wible

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Memory impairment is a consistent feature of the schizophrenic syndrome. Hippocampal dysfunction has also been consistently demonstrated. This review will discuss neurophysiological and neuroanatomical aspects of memory formation and how they relate to memory impairment in schizophrenia. An understanding of the cellular physiology and connectivity of the hippocampus with other regions can also aid in understanding the relationship between schizophrenic declarative or relational memory deficits, working memory deficits and the clinical symptoms of the syndrome.

  16. Environmental Enrichment Decreases Asphyxia-Induced Neurobehavioral Developmental Delay in Neonatal Rats

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    Peter Kiss

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term disability and represents a major problem in neonatal and pediatric care. Numerous neuroprotective approaches have been described to decrease the effects of perinatal asphyxia. Enriched environment is a popular strategy to counteract nervous system injuries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether enriched environment is able to decrease the asphyxia-induced neurobehavioral developmental delay in neonatal rats. Asphyxia was induced in ready-to-deliver mothers by removing the pups by caesarian section after 15 min of asphyxia. Somatic and neurobehavioral development was tested daily and motor coordination weekly. Our results show that rats undergoing perinatal asphyxia had a marked developmental delay and worse performance in motor coordination tests. However, pups kept in enriched environment showed a decrease in the developmental delay observed in control asphyctic pups. Rats growing up in enriched environment did not show decrease in weight gain after the first week and the delay in reflex appearance was not as marked as in control rats. In addition, the development of motor coordination was not as strikingly delayed as in the control group. Short-term neurofunctional outcome are known to correlate with long-term deficits. Our results thus show that enriched environment could be a powerful strategy to decrease the deleterious developmental effects of perinatal asphyxia.

  17. Environmental Enrichment Protects against Functional Deficits caused by Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    daily olfactory stimulation consisting of variously perfumed paper strips presented in the cage for 10 minutes (Maegele et al., 2005). The scents...to their original cages with cage mates. The EC animals were returned to their original cages, but no longer received additional enrichment, and...could not be attributed to motor deficits affecting swimming speed. On the last day of MWM testing, the platform ( originally in quadrant C) was

  18. Low Dopamine Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Should Genotyping Signify Early Diagnosis in Children?

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    Mark S. Gold; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Eric R. Braverman

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor self-esteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with > 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has ...

  19. Pragmatic Ability Deficit in Schizophrenia and Associated Theory of Mind and Executive Function

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    Xiaoming Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in pragmatic abilities have frequently been observed in patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between pragmatic deficits, ToM deficits and executive dysfunctions in schizophrenia. A group of 42 schizophrenic patients and 42 healthy controls were assessed on irony task (one type of pragmatic language, two subcomponents of ToM (cognitive and affective, and three subcomponents of EF (inhibition, updating, and switching. The clinical symptoms in schizophrenia were assessed using the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group exhibited significant impairments in all above tasks compared to the control group. Correlation results found that irony scores were correlated with the two subcomponents of ToM and two of the three subcomponents of EF (inhibition and updating. The regression analysis revealed that the cognitive ToM and inhibition predicted 9.2% and 29.9% of the variance of irony comprehension in the patient group, and inhibition was the best predictor for performance on irony task. Irony understanding was related to positive symptoms, but not to negative symptoms. The results suggest that the ability to interpret pragmatic language depends on schizophrenic patients’ ability to infer mental states and the ability of inhibition. It provides empirical evidence for a particular target of inhibition for rehabilitation and intervention programs developed for schizophrenic patients.

  20. Enduring deficits in brain reward function after chronic social defeat in rats: susceptibility, resilience, and antidepressant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S; Kesby, James P; Nestler, Eric J; Markou, Athina

    2014-10-01

    Anhedonia, or diminished interest or pleasure in rewarding activities, characterizes depression and reflects deficits in brain reward circuitries. Social stress induces anhedonia and increases risk of depression, although the effect of social stress on brain reward function is incompletely understood. This study assessed the following: 1) brain reward function in rats (using the intracranial self-stimulation procedure) and protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and related signaling molecules in response to chronic social defeat, 2) brain reward function during social defeat and long-term treatment with the antidepressants fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) and desipramine (10 mg/kg/day), and 3) forced swim test behavior after social defeat and fluoxetine treatment. Social defeat profoundly and persistently decreased brain reward function, reflecting an enduring anhedonic response, in susceptible rats, whereas resilient rats showed no long-term brain reward deficits. In the ventral tegmental area, social defeat, regardless of susceptibility or resilience, decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and increased phosphorylated AKT, whereas only susceptibility was associated with increased phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin. Fluoxetine and desipramine reversed lower, but not higher, stress-induced brain reward deficits in susceptible rats. Fluoxetine decreased immobility in the forced swim test, as did social defeat. These results suggest that the differential persistent anhedonic response to psychosocial stress may be mediated by ventral tegmental area signaling molecules independent of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and indicate that greater stress-induced anhedonia is associated with resistance to antidepressant treatment. Consideration of these behavioral and neurobiological factors associated with resistance to stress and antidepressant action may promote the discovery of novel targets to treat stress-related mood disorders. Copyright © 2014

  1. Executive Function Predicts Adaptive Behavior in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; O’Brien, Jessica W.; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Roesch, Scott C.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of Study Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these two domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, non-exposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. Methods As part of a multisite study, three groups of children (8-18y, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, N=142), non-exposed children with ADHD (ADHD, N=82), and typically developing controls (CON, N=133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS). Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with three of the four EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. Conclusion These results support prior research in ADHD suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory

  2. Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law Smith, Miriam J; Montagne, Barbara; Perrett, David I; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial expressions of basic emotions is conflicting. Many studies reporting no deficits have used stimuli that may be too simple (with associated ceiling effects), for example, 100% 'full-blown' expressions. In order to investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, 21 adolescent males with high-functioning Austism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 16 age and IQ matched typically developing control males completed a new sensitive test of facial emotion recognition which uses dynamic stimuli of varying intensities of expressions of the six basic emotions (Emotion Recognition Test; Montagne et al., 2007). Participants with ASD were found to be less accurate at processing the basic emotional expressions of disgust, anger and surprise; disgust recognition was most impaired--at 100% intensity and lower levels, whereas recognition of surprise and anger were intact at 100% but impaired at lower levels of intensity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy or observation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lisa M; Tanenbaum, Molly L; Dijkers, Marcel P J M; Amidi, Ali; Hall, Simon J; Penedo, Frank J; Diefenbach, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have investigated prostate cancer patients' experiences of cognitive functioning or neurobehavioral symptoms (i.e., behavioral changes associated with neurological dysfunction) following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Semi-structured interviews conducted from the US by phone and in-person were used to explore and characterize the: 1) experience of cognitive and neurobehavioral functioning in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT (n = 19) compared with patients who had not undergone ADT (n = 20); 2) perceived causes of cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms; 3) impact of these symptoms on quality of life; and 4) strategies used to cope with or compensate for these symptoms. Neuropsychological performance was assessed to characterize the sample. Overall, ADT patients experienced marginally more cognitive problems than non-ADT (nADT) patients even though there were no significant differences between groups in neuropsychological performance. ADT patients also experienced more declines in prospective memory and multi-tasking than nADT patients. Significant proportions of participants in both groups also experienced retrospective memory, attention and concentration, and information processing difficulties. With respect to neurobehavioral symptoms, more ADT patients experienced emotional lability and impulsivity (both aspects of disinhibition) than nADT patients. Among the causes to which participants attributed declines, both groups attributed them primarily to aging. A majority of ADT patients also attributed declines to ADT. For both groups, increased cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms negatively impacted quality of life, and most participants developed strategies to ameliorate these problems. ADT patients are more vulnerable to experiencing specific cognitive and neurobehavioral symptoms than nADT patients. This study highlights the importance of capturing: a) cognitive symptoms not easily detected using neuropsychological

  4. Do executive functioning deficits underpin binge eating disorder? A comparison of overweight women with and without binge eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara

    2015-09-01

    Deficits in executive function (EF)-including inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, decision-making, and working memory-may be risk or maintenance factors for binge eating disorder (BED). However, there is mixed evidence regarding EF deficits in individuals with BED. Significant methodological weaknesses (e.g., use of a single EF measure, omission of relevant covariates) in the current literature represent one reason for lack of consensus. This study compared EF in a sample of overweight women with (n = 31) and without (n = 43) full or subthreshold BED, with the aim of conducting a multifaceted investigation of the neurocognitive profile of BED. A neuropsychological battery of EF was administered to all participants. After controlling for IQ and age, individuals with binge eating displayed significantly poorer performance on tasks of problem-solving and inhibitory control, and displayed higher prioritization of immediate versus delayed rewards, but the two groups did not appear to differ on set-shifting, working memory, and risk taking. Differences in inhibitory control were no longer statistically significant when depressive symptomology was added as a covariate and correction for multiple comparisons was applied. Exploratory analyses indicated that full and sub-threshold BED groups did not differ in EF. Results partially support the hypothesis of relative EF deficits in individuals with BED, suggesting that binge eating may be maintained by cognitive factors distinct from those of obesity. Future research should aim to replicate with a larger sample, control for a wider range of psychiatric comorbidities, and examine whether EF deficits predict treatment outcome. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova,2 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Radek Ptacek,4 Craig BH Surman5 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Statistics, 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001. They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001 in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131 and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001. The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to

  6. Executive function predicts adaptive behavior in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Crocker, Nicole; O'Brien, Jessica W; Deweese, Benjamin N; Roesch, Scott C; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol often results in disruption to discrete cognitive and behavioral domains, including executive function (EF) and adaptive functioning. In the current study, the relation between these 2 domains was examined in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure, nonexposed children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing controls. As part of a multisite study, 3 groups of children (8 to 18 years, M = 12.10) were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC, n = 142), nonexposed children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 82), and typically developing controls (CON, n = 133) who did not have ADHD or a history of prenatal alcohol exposure. Children completed subtests of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), and their primary caregivers completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Analyses showed that EF measures were predictive of adaptive abilities, and significant interactions between D-KEFS measures and group were present. For the ADHD group, the relation between adaptive abilities and EF was more general, with 3 of the 4 EF measures showing a significant relation with adaptive score. In contrast, for the ALC group, this relation was specific to the nonverbal EF measures. In the CON group, performance on EF tasks did not predict adaptive scores over the influence of age. These results support prior research in ADHD, suggesting that EF deficits are predictive of poorer adaptive behavior and extend this finding to include children with heavy prenatal exposure to alcohol. However, the relation between EF and adaptive ability differed by group, suggesting unique patterns of abilities in these children. These results provide enhanced understanding of adaptive deficits in these populations, as well as demonstrate the ecological validity of laboratory measures of EF. Copyright © 2012 by the Research

  7. Stimulation of 5-HT2C receptors improves cognitive deficits induced by human tryptophan hydroxylase 2 loss of function mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del'Guidice, Thomas; Lemay, Francis; Lemasson, Morgane; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; Manta, Stella; Etievant, Adeline; Escoffier, Guy; Doré, François Y; Roman, François S; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2014-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Deficits in cognitive flexibility and perseverative behaviors are shared common symptoms in these disorders. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on cognition. Mice expressing a human TPH2 variant (Tph2-KI) were used to investigate cognitive consequences of TPH2 loss of function and pharmacological treatments. We applied a recently developed behavioral assay, the automated H-maze, to study cognitive functions in Tph2-KI mice. This assay involves the consecutive discovery of three different rules: a delayed alternation task, a non-alternation task, and a delayed reversal task. Possible contribution of locomotion, reward, and sensory perception were also investigated. The expression of loss-of-function mutant Tph2 in mice was associated with impairments in reversal learning and cognitive flexibility, accompanied by perseverative behaviors similar to those observed in human clinical studies. Pharmacological restoration of 5-HT synthesis with 5-hydroxytryptophan or treatment with the 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist CP809.101 reduced cognitive deficits in Tph2-KI mice and abolished perseveration. In contrast, treatment with the psychostimulant methylphenidate exacerbated cognitive deficits in mutant mice. Results from this study suggest a contribution of TPH2 in the regulation of cognition. Furthermore, identification of a role for a 5-HT(2) receptor agonist as a cognition-enhancing agent in mutant mice suggests a potential avenue to explore for the personalized treatment of cognitive symptoms in humans with reduced 5-HT synthesis and TPH2 polymorphisms.

  8. The Back Squat Part 2: Targeted Training Techniques to Correct Functional Deficits and Technical Factors that Limit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Adam M.; Brent, Jensen L.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Hugentobler, Jason; Lloyd, Rhodri S.; Vermeil, Al; Chu, Donald A.; Harbin, Jason; McGill, Stuart M.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The back squat is a well-researched and widely used exercise to enhance fundamental movement competency that creates a foundation for optimal mechanical strategies during a broad range of activities. The primary commentary introduced the Back Squat Assessment (BSA): a criterion based assessment of the back squat that delineates 30 potentially observable functional deficits. This follow-up commentary provides a targeted system of training cues and exercises to supplement the BSA to guide corrective intervention. We propose a criterion driven approach to corrective exercise that can support practitioners in their goal to help individuals achieve movement competency in the back squat. PMID:26823657

  9. Functional and structural deficits at accumbens synapses in a mouse model of Fragile X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eNeuhofer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and a leading cause of autism. The disease is caused by mutation of a single X-linked gene called fmr1 that codes for the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, a 71 kDa protein, which acts mainly as a translation inhibitor. Fragile X patients suffer from cognitive and emotional deficits that coincide with abnormalities in dendritic spines. Changes in spine morphology are often associated with altered excitatory transmission and long-term plasticity, the most prominent deficit in fmr1-/y mice. The nucleus accumbens, a central part of the mesocortico-limbic reward pathway, is now considered as a core structure in the control of social behaviors. Although the socio-affective impairments observed in Fragile X suggest dysfunctions in the accumbens, the impact of the lack of FMRP on accumbal synapses has scarcely been studied. Here we report for the first time a new spike timing-dependent plasticity paradigm that reliably triggers NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP of excitatory afferent inputs of medium spiny neurons (MSN in the nucleus accumbens core region. Notably, we discovered that this LTP was completely absent in fmr1-/y mice. In the fmr1-/y accumbens intrinsic membrane properties of MSNs and basal excitatory neurotransmission remained intact in the fmr1-/y accumbens but the deficit in LTP was accompanied by an increase in evoked AMPA/NMDA ratio and a concomitant reduction of spontaneous NMDAR-mediated currents. In agreement with these physiological findings, we found significantly more filopodial spines in fmr1-/y mice by using an ultrastructural electron microscopic analysis of accumbens core medium spiny neuron spines. Surprisingly, spine elongation was specifically due to the longer longitudinal axis and larger area of spine necks, whereas spine head morphology and postsynaptic density size on spine heads remained unaffected in the fmr1-/y accumbens

  10. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Ashley L; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-05-01

    Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. This study examined the interaction between these 2 factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8 to 16 years, M = 12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with ADHD (AE+, n = 82), children with prenatal alcohol exposure without ADHD (AE-, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects analyses of covariance. There were significant main effects of AE (p 0.27). Follow-up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE-), and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE- vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these 2 factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broaden our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Idiom Comprehension Deficits in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder Using a Korean Autism Social Language Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Bee; Song, Seung Ha; Ham, Ju Hyun; Song, Dong Ho; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2015-11-01

    High-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves pragmatic impairment of language skills. Among numerous tasks for assessing pragmatic linguistic skills, idioms are important to evaluating high-functioning ASD. Nevertheless, no assessment tool has been developed with specific consideration of Korean culture. Therefore, we designed the Korean Autism Social Language Task (KASLAT) to test idiom comprehension in ASD. The aim of the current study was to introduce this novel psychological tool and evaluate idiom comprehension deficits in high-functioning ASD. The participants included 42 children, ages 6-11 years, who visited our child psychiatric clinic between April 2014 and May 2015. The ASD group comprised 16 children; the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) group consisted of 16 children. An additional 10 normal control children who had not been diagnosed with either disorder participated in this study. Idiom comprehension ability was assessed in these three groups using the KASLAT. Both ASD and ADHD groups had significantly lower scores on the matched and mismatched tasks, compared to the normal control children (matched tasks mean score: ASD 11.56, ADHD 11.56, normal control 14.30; mismatched tasks mean score: ASD 6.50, ADHD 4.31, normal control 11.30). However, no significant differences were found in scores of KASLAT between the ADHD and ASD groups. These findings suggest that children with ASD exhibit greater impairment in idiom comprehension, compared to normal control children. The KASLAT may be useful in evaluating idiom comprehension ability.

  12. Explicit verbal memory impairments associated with brain functional deficits and morphological alterations in patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chung-Man; Yang, Jong-Chul; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with brain function and morphological alterations. This study investigated explicit verbal memory impairment in patients with GAD in terms of brain functional deficits in combination with morphologic changes. Seventeen patients with GAD and 17 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education level underwent high-resolution T1-weighted MRI and fMR imaging at 3 T during explicit verbal memory tasks with emotionally neutral and anxiety-inducing words. In response to the neutral words, the patients showed significantly lower activities in the regions of the hippocampus (Hip), middle cingulate gyrus (MCG), putamen (Pu) and head of the caudate nucleus (HCd) compared with healthy controls. In response to the anxiety-inducing words, the patients showed significantly higher activities in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus. However, they showed lower activities in the Hip, MCG, Pu and HCd. In addition, patients with GAD showed a significant reduction in gray matter volumes, especially in the regions of the Hip, midbrain, thalamus, insula and superior temporal gyrus, compared with healthy controls. This study examined a small sample sizes in each of the groups, and there was no consideration of a medication effect on brain activity and volume changes. This study provides evidence for the association between brain functional deficits and morphometric alterations in an explicit verbal memory task for patients with GAD. This finding is helpful for understanding explicit verbal memory impairment in connection with GAD symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Managing neurobehavioral capability when social expediency trumps biological imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep, which is evolutionarily conserved across species, is a biological imperative that cannot be ignored or replaced. However, the percentage of habitually sleep-restricted adults has increased in recent decades. Extended work hours and commutes, shift work schedules, and television viewing are particularly potent social factors that influence sleep duration. Chronic partial sleep restriction, a product of these social expediencies, leads to the accumulation of sleep debt over time and consequently increases sleep propensity, decreases alertness, and impairs critical aspects of cognitive functioning. Significant interindividual variability in the neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction exists—this variability is stable and phenotypic—suggesting a genetic basis. Identifying vulnerability to sleep loss is essential as many adults cannot accurately judge their level of impairment in response to sleep restriction. Indeed, the consequences of impaired performance and the lack of insight due to sleep loss can be catastrophic. In order to cope with the effects of social expediencies on biological imperatives, identification of biological (including genetic) and behavioral markers of sleep loss vulnerability as well as development of technological approaches for fatigue management are critical. PMID:22877676

  14. Coloboma hyperactive mutant exhibits delayed neurobehavioral developmental milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, C J; Wilson, M C; Gold, L H

    1995-11-21

    The coloboma mutation (Cm) is a neutron-irradiation induced gene deletion located on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 2. This deletion region includes a gene encoding the synaptic vesicle docking fusion protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). The resulting mutation is semi-dominant with heterozygote mice exhibiting a triad of phenotypic abnormalities that comprise profound spontaneous hyperactivity, head bobbing and a prominent eye dysmorphology. Because the expression pattern of two SNAP-25 isoforms begins to change during the first postnatal week, neurobehavioral developmental milestones were examined in order to determine if the expression of the coloboma behavioral phenotype could be detected during this period of postnatal development. The early classification of coloboma mutant offspring may help to further describe the penetrance of this mutation as well as the contribution of developmental changes to the adult behavioral phenotype. The coloboma mutation resulted in delays in some tests of complex motor skills including righting reflex and bar holding. In addition, coloboma mutants were characterized by body weight differences (first appearance day 7) and hyperreactivity to touch (day 11) and head bobbing (day 14). These data demonstrate disruptions in the time course of attaining developmental milestones in coloboma mutants and provide further evidence supporting the hypotheses that alterations in Snap gene expression are associated with functional behavioral consequences in developing offspring.

  15. Depression during gestation in adolescent mothers interferes with neonatal neurobehavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carvalho de Moraes Barros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent mothers without psychiatric disorders. Maternal psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 and neonatal neurobehavior by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS at 24 to 72 hours of life. Neurobehavioral outcomes were analyzed by ANOVA adjusted for confounders. Results: 37 infants born to mothers with depression during gestation were compared to 332 infants born to mothers without psychiatric disorders. Infants of mothers with depression had smaller head circumferences. Significant interactions of maternal depression and male gender, gestational age > 40 weeks, regional anesthesia during delivery, vaginal delivery, and infant head circumference ≥ 34 cm were found. Worse performance was noted in the following neonatal neurobehavioral parameters: arousal, excitability, lethargy, hypotonicity, and signs of stress and abstinence. Conclusion: Infants born to adolescent mothers with depression exhibit some behavioral changes in the first days of life. These changes are associated with infant sex, gestational age, type of anesthesia, mode of delivery, and head circumference.

  16. Inbred mice strain shows neurobehavioral changes when exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Oliveira Mendes, Bruna; Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Costa Estrela, Dieferson; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The bovine leather processing (tanning industries) stands as a generating activity of potentially toxic waste. The emission of untreated effluents into the environment may cause serious harm to human and environmental health. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the possible effects of intake of these effluents in experimental mammalian models. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of chronic intake of different tannery effluent concentrations diluted with water (0.1, 1, and 5%) in male C57BL/6J mice. After 120 days of exposure, the animals were subjected to different behavioral tests, predictive of anxiety (elevated plus maze (EPM), open-field (OF), and neophobia test), depression (forced swim), and memory deficits (object recognition test). From the EPM test, it was observed that the mice exposed to 0.1, 1, and 5% of tannery effluents showed higher anxiety scores compared to the animals in the control group. However, the results of this study revealed no differences among the experimental groups in the proportion (percentage) of locomotion in the central quarters/total locomotion calculated (by OF), considered an indirect measure for anxiety. At neophobia test, all the animals exposed to chronic intake of tannery effluents showed higher latency time to start eating, which corresponds to an anxiogenic behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, it was observed that the animals exposed to tannery effluents had longer time in immobility behavior, suggesting a predictive behavior to depression. Finally, the object recognition test showed that the treatments did not cause damage to the animals' memory. The recognition rate of the new object did not differ among the experimental groups. Thus, it is concluded that male C57BL/6J mice (inbred strain) exposed to tannery effluents have predictive neurobehavioral changes of anxiety and depression, without memory deficit.

  17. Comparison of the Recovery Patterns of Language and Cognitive Functions in Patients with Post-Traumatic Language Processing Deficits and in Patients with Aphasia Following a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mile; Vuksanovic, Jasmina; Vukovic, Irena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the recovery patterns of language and cognitive functions in patients with post-traumatic language processing deficits and in patients with aphasia following a stroke. The correlation of specific language functions and cognitive functions was analyzed in the acute phase and 6 months later. Significant recovery of the…

  18. Neurobehavioral toxicity of carbon nanotubes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamine, Babak; Karimi, Isaac; Salimi, Amir; Mazdarani, Parisa; Becker, Lora A

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neurobehavioral toxicity of single-walled (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in mice. Male NMRI mice were randomized into 5 groups ( n = 10 each): Normal control (NC) group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.8; ca. 1 mL), MW80 and MW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS and SW80 and SW800 groups were injected with either i.p. 80 or 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs suspended in 1 mL of PBS. After 2 weeks, five mice from each group were evaluated for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA expression and protein content of brain tissues. Locomotion, anxiety, learning and memory, and depression were measured by open field test (OFT), elevated plus-maze (EPM), object recognition test (ORT), and forced swimming test (FST), respectively. Ambulation time and center arena time in the OFT did not change among groups. In the EPM paradigm, SWNTs (800 mg kg-1) and MWNTs (80 and 800 mg kg-1) showed an anxiogenic effect. In ORT, MWNTs (80 mg kg-1) increased the discrimination ratio while in FST, MWNTs showed a depressant effect as compared to vehicle. The BDNF gene expression in mice treated with 80 and 800 mg kg-1 SWNTs or 80 mg kg-1 MWNTs decreased as compared to NC mice although BDNF gene expression increased in mice that were treated with 800 mg kg-1 MWNTs. The whole brain BDNF protein content did not change among groups. Our study showed that i.p. exposure to carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may result in behavioral toxicity linked with expression of depression or anxiety that depends on the type of CNTs. In addition, exposure to CNTs changed BDNF gene expression.

  19. A continuum of executive function deficits in early subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Felipe Kenji; Amado, Patricia; Alves, Gilberto Sousa; Laks, Jerson; Engelhardt, Eliasz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Background. Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment (SVCI) is a clinical continuum of vascular-related cognitive impairment, including Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment (VaMCI) and Vascular Dementia. Deficits in Executive Function (EF) are hallmarks of the disorder, but the best methods to assess this function have yet to be determined. The insidious and almost predictable course of SVCI and the multidimensional concept of EF suggest that a temporal dissociation of impairments in EF domains exists early in the disorder. Objective: This study aims to review and analyze data from the literature about performance of VaMCI patients on the most used EF tests through a meta-analytic approach. Methods: Medline, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched, using the terms: “vascular mild cognitive impairment” OR “vascular cognitive impairment no dementia” OR “vascular mild neurocognitive disorder” AND “dysexecutive” OR “executive function”. Meta-analyses were conducted for each of the selected tests, using random-effect models. Results: Systematic review showed major discrepancies among the results of the studies included. Meta-analyses evidenced poorer performance on the Trail-Making Test part B and the Stroop color test by VaMCI patients compared to controls. Conclusion: A continuum of EF impairments has been proposed in SVCI. Early deficits appear to occur in cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control. PMID:29354217

  20. Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

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    Sebla Gokce Imren

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD or conduct disorder ( CD. Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %. ADHD families scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “ in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of “unhealthy functioning “. Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 22-30

  1. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal: prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Tomokazu; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Tamura, Manabu; Maruyama, Takashi; Nitta, Masayuki; Niki, Chiharu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (DHS-L) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between DHS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change. RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (DHS-L motor recovery at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery (r = 0.87, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Navigated TMS is a useful tool for identifying motor eloquent

  2. Neurocognitive processes of decision-making in adults with ADHD – Deficits in behavior and functional brain processing, and the effects of methylphenidate

    OpenAIRE

    Mowinckel, Athanasia Monika

    2017-01-01

    The work presented contributes to the further understanding and establishment of decision-making deficits in adults with ADHD. The meta-analysis in article I clearly identifies deficits in decision-making as an important factor in ADHD. The mechanistic, model-based fMRI analysis in article II provides strong evidence for reduced striatal reward coding in ADHD, and that treatment with methylphenidate at least partly remediates this abnormality. Lower-level cognitive functions are thus disrupte...

  3. Social Cognition in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Associations with Executive Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Miranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social impairments. The first objective of this study was to analyze social cognition deficits of children with ADHD, high-functioning ASD (HFASD, and typical development (TD in their performance on explicit and applied measures of theory of mind (ToM. The second objective was to investigate the relationships between executive functions and social cognition in HFASD and ADHD. One hundred and twenty-six 7- to 11-year old children, 52 with HFASD, 35 with ADHD, and 39 with TD, performed the NEPSY-II social perception subtests. Parents estimated their children's ToM skills using the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI. Teacher-reported data from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF were also obtained. The HFASD and ADHD groups showed worse performance on the verbal ToM task than the TD group, and only the performance of the HFASD group was significantly lower than the TD group on the contextual ToM task. Parents also estimated that the HFASD group had more difficulties on the applied ToM than the ADHD and TD groups. Furthermore, there is a different executive function-theory of mind link in the HFASD and ADHD groups: behavioral regulation processes such as inhibition and emotional control are more associated with social cognition in children with ADHD, whereas metacognitive processes such as initiation and planning have a strong association with social cognition in children with HFASD. These findings have implications for understanding social perception deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, highlighting the need for early intervention.

  4. Failure to find executive function deficits following one night's total sleep deprivation in university students under naturalistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Hutcherson, Cendri A; Bemporad, Brenda; Morgan, Alexandra; Kumar, Arjun; Hobson, J Allan; Stickgold, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Young adult male students participated in a naturalistic, group-design experiment to ascertain the effects of one night's total sleep deprivation (TSD) on performance of diverse executive function tasks presented as an extended, multitask battery. On the majority of component tasks in this battery, performance has been reported to be impaired following one night's TSD when tasks are administered in isolation. However, participants sleep deprived 35 to 39 hr showed few performance deficits among tests in this battery when compared with non-sleep-deprived controls. Sleep-deprived participants showed only poorer recognition memory and overconfidence in incorrect temporal judgments. Behavioral and physiological adaptation to chronically sleep-restricting lifestyles may confer resistance to the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation in high-functioning young adults.

  5. Neurobehavioral toxicity of cadmium sulfate to the planarian Dugesia dorotocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebe, E.; Schaeffer, D.J. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The authors are developing bioassays which use planarians (free-living platyhelminthes) for the rapid determination of various types of toxicity, including acute mortality, tumorigenicity, and short-term neurobehavioral responses. Their motivation for using these animals is due to their importance as components of the aquatic ecology of unpolluted streams their sensitivity to low concentrations of environmental toxicants and the presence of a sensitive neurological system with a true brain which allows for complex social behavior. A previous paper described the results of a neurobehavioral bioassay using phenol in a crossover study. This paper reports a similar crossover study using cadmium sulfate.

  6. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs.

  7. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

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    Eraldo Paulesu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971, a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain

  8. Anatomical Modularity of Verbal Working Memory? Functional Anatomical Evidence from a Famous Patient with Short-Term Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulesu, Eraldo; Shallice, Tim; Danelli, Laura; Sberna, Maurizio; Frackowiak, Richard S. J.; Frith, Chris D.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are the emergent property of distributed neural networks. The distributed nature of these networks does not necessarily imply a lack of specialization of the individual brain structures involved. However, it remains questionable whether discrete aspects of high-level behavior might be the result of localized brain activity of individual nodes within such networks. The phonological loop of working memory, with its simplicity, seems ideally suited for testing this possibility. Central to the development of the phonological loop model has been the description of patients with focal lesions and specific deficits. As much as the detailed description of their behavior has served to refine the phonological loop model, a classical anatomoclinical correlation approach with such cases falls short in telling whether the observed behavior is based on the functions of a neural system resembling that seen in normal subjects challenged with phonological loop tasks or whether different systems have taken over. This is a crucial issue for the cross correlation of normal cognition, normal physiology, and cognitive neuropsychology. Here we describe the functional anatomical patterns of JB, a historical patient originally described by Warrington et al. (1971), a patient with a left temporo-parietal lesion and selective short phonological store deficit. JB was studied with the H215O PET activation technique during a rhyming task, which primarily depends on the rehearsal system of the phonological loop. No residual function was observed in the left temporo-parietal junction, a region previously associated with the phonological buffer of working memory. However, Broca's area, the major counterpart of the rehearsal system, was the major site of activation during the rhyming task. Specific and autonomous activation of Broca's area in the absence of afferent inputs from the other major anatomical component of the phonological loop shows that a certain degree of functional

  9. A Follow-up Study of Academic Functioning and Social Adjustment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Jasmin; Arun, Priti

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) persists in a majority of adolescents. It has been reported that ADHD patients have poor social functioning and risk for developing co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. To determine the retention of diagnosis of ADHD and to assess social adjustment, academic functioning and co-morbidities at follow-up. Retrospective cohort study. ADHD patients of 5-14 years of age who came to the out-patient department from 2005 to 2008 were contacted telephonically. Fifty one patients could be contacted. Parents of patients were interviewed using Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale for diagnosing ADHD and co-morbidities. Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescent was administered for assessing their academic and social functioning. Chi square test, Mann-Whitney Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Pearson's product moment correlations were used for statistical analysis. At current assessment, out of 51 patients, 38 were still fulfilling diagnosis of ADHD. Of these, 21 were of inattention type, 3 were hyperactive, and 14 were of combined type. Social functioning and academic functioning were significantly better in those who currently did not fulfill the criteria for ADHD (N=13). Twelve patients developed features of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)/conduct disorder (CD) at follow-up. ADHD persists in the majority of adolescents. Decline with age is seen more in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms than inattentive symptoms. Several adolescents also develop features of ODD/CD in addition to poorer functioning. Continuation of treatment is crucial to prevent such consequences.

  10. N-nitro-L-arginine, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aggravates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicities in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2012-11-01

    Exposure of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) to rodents produces permanent behavioral syndrome characterized by repetitive head movements, circling and back walking. Other synthetic nitriles of industrial importance such as crotonitrile and allylnitrile are also able to produce similar motor deficits in experimental animals. However, due to the well-defined behavioral deficits and their easy quantification, IDPN-induced behavioral syndrome is a preferential animal model to test the interaction of various agents with synthetic nitriles. This study reports the effect of non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine (NARG) on IDPN-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Four groups of animals were given i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. These rats were treated with oral administration of NARG in the doses of 0 (IDPN alone group), 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN, respectively. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of NARG alone (without IDPN). The results showed that NARG significantly exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements, circling and back walking. The histology of inner ear showed massive degeneration of the sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris of rats receiving the combined treatment with IDPN and NARG, suggesting a possible role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral syndrome in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism is associated with the cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity of executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Jung, Minyoung; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Shimada, Koji; Saito, Daisuke N; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2017-07-07

    The cerebellum, although traditionally considered a motor structure, has been increasingly recognized to play a role in regulating executive function, the dysfunction of which is a factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Additionally, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with executive function. We examined whether the cortico-cerebellar executive function network is altered in children with ADHD and whether COMT polymorphism is associated with the altered network. Thirty-one children with ADHD and thirty age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) controls underwent resting-state functional MRI, and functional connectivity of executive function-related Crus I/II in the cerebellum was analysed. COMT Val158Met genotype data were also obtained from children with ADHD. Relative to TD controls, children with ADHD showed significantly lower functional connectivity of the right Crus I/II with the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the functional connectivity of children with ADHD was modulated by COMT polymorphism, with Met-carriers exhibiting significantly lower functional connectivity than the Val/Val genotype. These results suggest the existence of variations, such as ethnic differences, in COMT genetic effects on the cortico-cerebellar executive function network. These variations contribute to heterogeneity in ADHD. Further neuroimaging genetics study might lead to the development of fundamental therapies that target ADHD pathophysiology.

  12. A preliminary study of the effects of working memory training on brain function in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael C.; Gaynor, Alexandra; Bessette, Katie L.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) training improves WM ability in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but its efficacy for non-cognitive ADHD impairments ADHD has been sharply debated. The purpose of this preliminary study was to characterize WM training-related changes in ADHD brain function and see if they were linked to clinical improvement. We examined 18 adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV Combined-subtype ADHD before and after 25 sessions of WM training using a frequently employed approach (CogmedTM) using a nonverbal Sternberg WM fMRI task, neuropsychological tests, and participant- and parent-reports of ADHD symptom severity and associated functional impairment. Whole brain SPM8 analyses identified ADHD activation deficits compared to 18 non-ADHD control participants, then tested whether impaired ADHD frontoparietal brain activation would increase following WM training. Post hoc tests examined the relationships between neural changes and neurocognitive or clinical improvements. As predicted, WM training increased WM performance, ADHD clinical functioning, and WM-related ADHD brain activity in several frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions. Increased left inferior frontal sulcus region activity was seen in all Encoding, Maintenance, and Retrieval Sternberg task phases. ADHD symptom severity improvements were most often positively correlated with activation gains in brain regions known to be engaged for WM-related executive processing; improvement of different symptom types had different neural correlates. The responsiveness of both amodal WM frontoparietal circuits and executive process-specific WM brain regions was altered by WM training. The latter might represent a promising, relatively unexplored treatment target for researchers seeking to optimize clinical response in ongoing ADHD WM training development efforts. PMID:26138580

  13. Low Dopamine Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Should Genotyping Signify Early Diagnosis in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Mark S.; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor self-esteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with > 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches. PMID:24393762

  14. Low dopamine function in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: should genotyping signify early diagnosis in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Mark S; Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 8% to 12% of children, and 4% of adults worldwide. Children with ADHD can have learning impairments, poor selfesteem, social dysfunction, and an increased risk of substance abuse, including cigarette smoking. Overall, the rate of treatment with medication for patients with ADHD has been increasing since 2008, with ≥ 2 million children now being treated with stimulants. The rise of adolescent prescription ADHD medication abuse has occurred along with a concomitant increase of stimulant medication availability. Of adults presenting with a substance use disorder (SUD), 20% to 30% have concurrent ADHD, and 20% to 40% of adults with ADHD have a history of SUD. Following a brief review of the etiology of ADHD, its diagnosis and treatment, we focus on the benefits of early and appropriate testing for a predisposition to ADHD. We suggest that by genotyping patients for a number of known, associated dopaminergic polymorphisms, especially at an early age, misdiagnoses and/or over-diagnosis can be reduced. Ethical and legal issues of early genotyping are considered. As many as 30% of individuals with ADHD are estimated to either have secondary side-effects or are not responsive to stimulant medication. We also consider the benefits of non-stimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities, which include diet, herbal medications, iron supplementation, and neurofeedback. With the goals of improving treatment of patients with ADHD and SUD prevention, we encourage further work in both genetic diagnosis and novel treatment approaches.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder phenotype is influenced by a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálmason, Haukur; Moser, Dirk; Sigmund, Jessica; Vogler, Christian; Hänig, Susann; Schneider, Anna; Seitz, Christiane; Marcus, Alexander; Meyer, Jobst; Freitag, Christine M

    2010-02-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) plays a crucial role in the metabolism of catecholamines in the frontal cortex. A single nucleotide polymorphism (Val(158)Met SNP, rs4680) leads to either methionine (Met) or valine (Val) at codon 158, resulting in a three- to fourfold reduction in COMT activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the COMT Val(158)Met SNP as a risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ADHD symptom severity and co-morbid conduct disorder (CD) in 166 children with ADHD. The main finding of the present study is that the Met allele of the COMT Val(158)Met SNP was associated with ADHD and increased ADHD symptom severity. No association with co-morbid CD was observed. In addition, ADHD symptom severity and early adverse familial environment were positive predictors of lifetime CD. These findings support previous results implicating COMT in ADHD symptom severity and early adverse familial environment as risk factors for co-morbid CD, emphasizing the need for early intervention to prevent aggressive and maladaptive behavior progressing into CD, reducing the overall severity of the disease burden in children with ADHD.

  16. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  17. Proposition of a protocol to evaluate upper-extremity functional deficits and compensation mechanisms: application to elbow contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradet, Laetitia; Liefhold, Beate; Rettig, Oliver; Bruckner, Thomas; Akbar, Michael; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2015-03-01

    Instrumented gait analysis is widely accepted as an objective assessment of lower-extremity function. Conversely, upper-extremity function suffers from lack of objective evaluation. The present paper aims at proposing a protocol to be used to clinically and objectively evaluate upper-extremity function whatever the pathological joint. Secondly, it aims at better understanding the consequences on upper-extremity function and the compensation mechanisms induced by elbow contracture. Elbow contracture was simulated in this study by using a brace. Twelve healthy subjects followed an instrumented 3D movement analysis while performing 11 daily life movements. The movements were performed with 3 different elbow contracture conditions, simulated by wearing an adjustable elbow brace. The proposed protocol was successful in creating a wide range of motion at all the upper-extremity joints. The activity-related range of motion and the mean range of motion computed on the whole set of daily life movements were effective in evaluating the severity of elbow contracture. The lack of elbow flexion was compensated by trunk flexion, hand flexion and radial deviation, and combined movement of shoulder flexion, abduction, and humeral internal rotation. Deficit in elbow extension was mainly compensated by the use of trunk flexion. A protocol could be proposed for the objective evaluation of upper-extremity function. Its application to elbow contracture suggests that loss of elbow flexion affects more movements than loss of elbow extension.

  18. Managing temptation in obesity treatment: A neurobehavioral model of intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a 2-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andersen, P.N.; Skogli, E.W.; Hovik, K.T.; Geurts, H.; Egeland, J.; Øie, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with

  20. Early life stress induces attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral and brain metabolic dysfunctions: functional imaging of methylphenidate treatment in a novel rodent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, J; Breuer, S; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2017-03-01

    In a novel animal model Octodon degus we tested the hypothesis that, in addition to genetic predisposition, early life stress (ELS) contributes to the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder-like behavioral symptoms and the associated brain functional deficits. Since previous neurochemical observations revealed that early life stress impairs dopaminergic functions, we predicted that these symptoms can be normalized by treatment with methylphenidate. In line with our hypothesis, the behavioral analysis revealed that repeated ELS induced locomotor hyperactivity and reduced attention towards an emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus. Functional imaging using ( 14 C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose-autoradiography revealed that the behavioral symptoms are paralleled by metabolic hypoactivity of prefrontal, mesolimbic and subcortical brain areas. Finally, the pharmacological intervention provided further evidence that the behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions are due to impaired dopaminergic neurotransmission. Elevating dopamine in ELS animals by methylphenidate normalized locomotor hyperactivity and attention-deficit and ameliorated brain metabolic hypoactivity in a dose-dependent manner.

  1. Myrtle McGraw's Neurobehavioral Theory of Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C.

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that McGraw conducted a more complex analysis of neurobehavior than acknowledged by those characterizing her position as maturationist; that she advanced a unique analysis of brain development and consciousness, singling out the reciprocal relationship between neural growth processes and early experience; and that her studies of the role…

  2. Neurobehavioral and histological effects of Akaki extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neurobehavioral and histological effect of akaki extract on the temporal lobe of wister rats was carried out. In the study we evaluate a traditional prescription method for the treatment of mental illness using the akaki extract on the temporal lobe. Material and Methods: Twenty rats of average weight 200 g were ...

  3. Neurobehavioral effects of cyclohexane in rat and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; McKee, R.H.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    The neurobehavioral effects of inhaled cyclohexane in rats and humans are investigated to define relationships between internal doses and acute central nervous system effects. Rats are exposed for 3 consecutive days at target concentrations of 0, 1.4, 8, and 28 g/m3, 8 h/d. Measurements include

  4. Childhood Predictors of Adult Functional Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunima; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; Swanson, James M; Molina, Brooke S G; Sibley, Margaret H; Howard, Andrea L

    2017-08-01

    Recent results from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; MTA) have demonstrated impairments in several functioning domains in adults with childhood ADHD. The childhood predictors of these adult functional outcomes are not adequately understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of childhood demographic, clinical, and family factors on adult functional outcomes in individuals with and without childhood ADHD from the MTA cohort. Regressions were used to determine associations of childhood factors (age range 7-10 years) of family income, IQ, comorbidity (internalizing, externalizing, and total number of non-ADHD diagnoses), parenting styles, parental education, number of household members, parental marital problems, parent-child relationships, and ADHD symptom severity with adult outcomes (mean age 25 years) of occupational functioning, educational attainment, emotional functioning, sexual behavior, and justice involvement in participants with (n = 579) and without (n = 258) ADHD. Predictors of adult functional outcomes in ADHD included clinical factors such as baseline ADHD severity, IQ, and comorbidity; demographic factors such as family income, number of household members and parental education; and family factors such as parental monitoring and parental marital problems. Predictors of adult outcomes were generally comparable for children with and without ADHD. Childhood ADHD symptoms, IQ, and household income levels are important predictors of adult functional outcomes. Management of these areas early on, through timely treatments for ADHD symptoms, and providing additional support to children with lower IQ and from households with low incomes, could assist in improving adult functioning. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Designing Homework to Mediate Executive Functioning Deficits in Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Designing homework to mediate executive functioning disorders of students with disabilities is critical to their future academic success. The article explains and defines different executive functions of the brain and how these impact students' ability to benefit from homework assignments. Specific strategies are provided for designing…

  6. Functional deficits in carpal tunnel syndrome reflect reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Holden, Jameson; Lee, Jeungchan; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Im, Jaehyun; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Park, Kyungmo; Audette, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The functional significance of brain plasticity seen in carpal tunnel syndrome is unclear. Using functional MRI and bio-behavioural testing, Maeda et al. link blurred primary somatosensory cortical representations of median nerve innervated fingers with symptomatology and impaired psychomotor performance and discrimination accuracy. Neuroplasticity in these patients is thus indeed maladaptive.

  7. Effect of elastic taping on postural control deficits in subjects with healthy ankles, copers, and individuals with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Christina A; Needle, Alan R; Rose, William C; Swanik, Charles B; Kaminski, Thomas W

    2013-10-01

    Ankle sprains are the most common injury among physically active people, with common sequelae including repeated episodes of giving way, termed functional ankle instability. Copers are a cohort in ankle research comprised of those who have sprained their ankle but have not suffered any further dysfunction. The use of an elastic tape, Kinesio Tape, in sports medicine practice has recently gained popularity and may help improve postural control deficits related to functional ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate and prolonged effects of Kinesio Taping on postural control in healthy, coper, and unstable ankles as measured through single-limb balance on a force plate. Sixty physically active, college-aged participants (72.5 ± 9.7 cm, 74.2 ± 16.2 kg, 21.5 ± 2.6 years) were stratified into healthy, coper, or unstable groups using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT) combined with their history of ankle injury. Dependent variables included time-to-boundary (TTB) measures and traditional center of pressure (COP) measures in both the mediolateral (frontal) and anteroposterior (sagittal) planes. Testing was performed prior to tape application, immediately after application of the tape, 24 hours following tape application, and immediately after tape removal. Significant differences between groups were observed for COP standard deviation and range in the sagittal plane. Significant differences between tape conditions for TTB absolute minima and standard deviation were also noted. Post hoc testing revealed large to medium effect sizes for the group differences and very small effect sizes for the differences between conditions. Our study did not reveal decisively relevant changes following application of Kinesio Tape to the ankle. However, we did observe sagittal plane postural control deficits in subjects with ankle instability measured through summary COP variables over 20-second trials. Ankle instability is a concern for many

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, adaptive functioning, and quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Darryn M; Vora, Parul; Coury, Daniel L; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the frequency of co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a well-defined cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and to examine the relationship between ADHD symptoms and both adaptive functioning and health-related quality of life as reported by parents or other primary caregivers. T scores on 2 ADHD-related scales from the Child Behavior Checklist were used to indicate the presence of ADHD symptoms. Participants were divided into groups based on whether their parents/caregivers rated them as having clinically significant T scores on the Attention Problem and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Problem subscales. Standard scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition and raw scores from the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory were then compared between groups with the use of multivariate analyses. Approximately 40% of participants had 1 elevated T score, and 19% had both ADHD-related T scores elevated on the Child Behavior Checklist. The ASD + ADHD group had lower scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory in comparison with the ASD alone group. Results suggest greater impairment in adaptive functioning and a poorer health-related quality of life for children with ASDs and clinically significant ADHD symptoms in comparison with children with ASDs and fewer ADHD symptoms. Physicians are encouraged to evaluate for the presence of ADHD symptoms in their patients with ASDs and, if present, include symptom treatment in the overall care plan.

  9. Methylphenidate treatment in adolescent rats with an attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder phenotype: cocaine addiction vulnerability and dopamine transporter function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Roxann C; Sen, Sucharita; Deaciuc, Agripina; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-03-01

    Appropriate animal models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug reinforcement allow investigation of possible underlying biological bases of ADHD and its comorbidity with cocaine addiction. Toward this end, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibiting an ADHD phenotype were compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS) rats. Initially, 1.5 mg/kg oral methylphenidate or vehicle was administered between postnatal days 28 and 55, and acquisition of visual discrimination learning was examined. After discontinuing adolescent treatments, adult rats were evaluated for cocaine self-administration and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. During adolescence, SHRs showed deficits in visual discrimination relative to WKY and WIS rats when non-medicated. Methylphenidate improved visual discrimination only in SHRs. Compared with WKY and WIS rats, SHRs with previous methylphenidate treatment acquired cocaine self-administration faster, identified cocaine as a highly efficacious reinforcer by displaying an upward shift in the cocaine dose-response function, and showed the greatest motivation to self-administer cocaine by exhibiting the highest progressive ratio breakpoints. In the PFC, the maximal dopamine uptake (V(max)) at DAT was decreased in SHRs and increased in WKY and WIS rats by previous methylphenidate treatment. The affinity (K(m)) for dopamine at DAT in the PFC was not different between strains, nor was V(max) or K(m) altered in the striatum by previous methylphenidate treatment in any strain. Methylphenidate-induced decreases in dopamine clearance by DAT in the PFC may underlie increased cocaine self-administration in SHRs. These preclinical findings suggest that caution should be exercised when methylphenidate is prescribed for first-time treatment of ADHD in adolescent patients, as cocaine addiction vulnerability may be augmented.

  10. Improving visual memory, attention, and school function with atomoxetine in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chi-Yung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-10-01

    Atomoxetine is efficacious in reducing symptoms of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its effect on visual memory and attention needs more investigation. This study aimed to assess the effect of atomoxetine on visual memory, attention, and school function in boys with ADHD in Taiwan. This was an open-label 12 week atomoxetine treatment trial among 30 drug-naíve boys with ADHD, aged 8-16 years. Before administration of atomoxetine, the participants were assessed using psychiatric interviews, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edition (WISC-III), the school function of the Chinese version of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA), the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and the tasks of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) involving visual memory and attention: Pattern Recognition Memory, Spatial Recognition Memory, and Reaction Time, which were reassessed at weeks 4 and 12. Our results showed there was significant improvement in pattern recognition memory and spatial recognition memory as measured by the CANTAB tasks, sustained attention and response inhibition as measured by the CPT, and reaction time as measured by the CANTAB after treatment with atomoxetine for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. In addition, atomoxetine significantly enhanced school functioning in children with ADHD. Our findings suggested that atomoxetine was associated with significant improvement in visual memory, attention, and school functioning in boys with ADHD.

  11. Differential patterns of executive function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder according to gender and subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, S; Douglas, G; West, J; Whiting, K; Wall, M; Langsford, S; Powell, L; Carroll, A

    1999-12-01

    The present investigation examined differential patterns in executive functions of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; no diagnosed comorbid disorders) according to subtype and gender, and identified instrumentation sensitive to executive function in children aged 6 to 12 years with ADHD. Data were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with ADHD (predominantly inattentive, n = 32, ADHD combined, n = 62), and from 28 controls. Participants with ADHD, who were unmedicated at the time of testing, were administered five tests of executive function (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Test, the Trail Making Test, and the Tower of London). A two-way multivariate analysis of covariance with age as the covariate and subtype and gender as the independent variables was conducted on all of the tests administered. While children with ADHD predominantly inattentive and those with ADHD combined differed from controls, it was only the latter subtype that differed significantly in perseveration and response inhibition. The absence of diagnosed comorbidity in the children with ADHD at the time of test administration demonstrates that the impairments in executive function are clearly located in ADHD, particularly in the ADHD combined subtype, thus providing support for Barkley's proposed unifying theory of ADHD.

  12. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by g...

  13. The Neurobehavioral Phenotype in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, E; King, K; Ahmed, A; Rudser, K; Rumsey, R; Yund, B; Delaney, K; Nestrasil, I; Whitley, C; Potegal, M

    2016-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would manifest similar attributes when assessed with the same neurobehavioral protocol. Ten patients with MPS IIIB were compared with 9 MPS IIIA patients, all older than 6. 8 younger children with Hurler syndrome (1H) were chosen as a comparison group for the Risk Room procedure; MPS IH does not directly affect social/emotional function and these younger children were closer to the developmental level of the MPS IIIB group. To examine disease severity, cognitive ability was assessed. Four evaluations were used: the Risk Room procedure (to measure social-emotional characteristics, especially fear and startle responses), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Sanfilippo Behavior Rating Scale (SBRS), and amygdala brain volumes calculated from manually-traced MRI images. The two groups are equivalent in severity and show severe cognitive impairment. On the ADOS, the MPS IIIB patients exhibited the same autistic features as IIIA. The IIIB means differed from MPS IH means on most measures. However, the IIIB group did not approach the Risk Room stranger, like the MPS IH group who kept their distance, but unlike the IIIA group who showed no fear of the stranger. On the SBRS, the MPS IIIB patients were described as more inattentive and more fearful, especially of new people than the MPS IIIA. Onsets of some disease characteristics appeared more closely spaced and slightly earlier in MPS IIIB than IIIA. On most behavioral measures, MPS IIIB patients did not differ substantially from MPS IIIA

  14. PER3 polymorphism predicts cumulative sleep homeostatic but not neurobehavioral changes to chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namni Goel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism 5-repeat allele of the circadian gene PERIOD3 (PER3(5/5 has been associated with cognitive decline at a specific circadian phase in response to a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD, relative to the 4-repeat allele (PER3(4/4. PER3(5/5 has also been related to higher sleep homeostasis, which is thought to underlie this cognitive vulnerability. To date, no study has used a candidate gene approach to investigate the response to chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD, a condition distinct from TSD and one commonly experienced by millions of people on a daily and persistent basis. We evaluated whether the PER3 VNTR polymorphism contributed to cumulative neurobehavioral deficits and sleep homeostatic responses during PSD.PER3(5/5 (n = 14, PER3(4/5 (n = 63 and PER3(4/4 (n = 52 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y demonstrated large, but equivalent cumulative decreases in cognitive performance and physiological alertness, and cumulative increases in sleepiness across 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h per night. Such effects were accompanied by increasing daily inter-subject variability in all groups. The PER3 genotypes did not differ significantly at baseline in habitual sleep, physiological sleep structure, circadian phase, physiological sleepiness, cognitive performance, or subjective sleepiness, although during PSD, PER3(5/5 subjects had slightly but reliably elevated sleep homeostatic pressure as measured physiologically by EEG slow-wave energy in non-rapid eye movement sleep compared with PER3(4/4 subjects. PER3 genotypic and allelic frequencies did not differ significantly between Caucasians and African Americans.The PER3 VNTR polymorphism was not associated with individual differences in neurobehavioral responses to PSD, although it was related to one marker of sleep homoeostatic response during PSD. The comparability of PER3 genotypes at baseline and their equivalent inter-individual vulnerability

  15. Neurobehavioral consequences of chronic intrauterine opioid exposure in infants and preschool children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, Alex; Arbuckle, Kathleen; Petrie, Dennis J; McCowan, Colin

    2014-04-08

    It is assumed within the accumulated literature that children born of pregnant opioid dependent mothers have impaired neurobehavioral function as a consequence of chronic intrauterine opioid use. Quantitative and systematic review of the literature on the consequences of chronic maternal opioid use during pregnancy on neurobehavioral function of children was conducted using the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Cinahl, EMBASE, PsychINFO and MEDLINE between the periods of January 1995 to January 2012. There were only 5 studies out of the 200 identified that quantitatively reported on neurobehavioral function of children after maternal opioid use during pregnancy. All 5 were case control studies with the number of exposed subjects within the studies ranging from 33-143 and 45-85 for the controls. This meta-analysis showed no significant impairments, at a non-conservative significance level of p opioid using mothers. The magnitude of all possible effects was small according to Cohen's benchmark criteria. Chronic intra-uterine opioid exposed infants and pre-school children experienced no significant impairment in neurobehavioral outcomes when compared to non-exposed peers, although in all domains there was a trend to poorer outcomes. The findings of this review are limited by the small number of studies analysed, the heterogenous populations and small numbers within the individual studies. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if any neuropsychological impairments appear after the age of 5 years and to help investigate further the role of environmental risk factors on the effect of 'core' phenotypes.

  16. Characterizing adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and comorbid borderline personality disorder: ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, G K; McHugh, L; Mac Giollabhui, N; Bramham, J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize adults with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) with regard to ADHD symptoms, psychopathology, cognitive functioning and psychosocial factors. A between-group design compared a group of individuals diagnosed with ADHD (n=40) with a group diagnosed with BPD and who also met the criteria for ADHD (ADHD+BPD) (n=20). Significant differences were observed for both childhood and current impulsivity symptoms, whereby ADHD+BPD exhibited increased impulsivity; no differences on self-report and cognitive measures of impulsivity were reported. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly higher on measures of depression, anxiety and numerous other axis I and II conditions. The ADHD+BPD group scored significantly lower on most measures of intellectual functioning and attention, however largely not on those relating to response inhibition. Furthermore, group differences were observed for psychosocial factors, including education, substance use and criminal record. Comorbid ADHD and BPD is characterized by more symptoms of impulsivity, additional psychopathology, comparatively lower intellectual and attentional functioning and increased psychosocial difficulties. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Pharmacological treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: functional outcomes in children and adolescents from non-Western countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Altin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Functional outcomes were measured over a 12-month period in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD after they received monotherapy. Design: Prospective, observational, noninterventional study. Setting: Conducted in six non-Western countries. Participants: Outpatients 6 to 17 years of age with a verified diagnosis of ADHD in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR, together with their physicians, decided to initiate or switch treatment for ADHD. Patients were prescribed pharmacological monotherapy: methylphenidate (n=221, nootropic agents (n=91, or atomoxetine (n=234. Measurements: Patients were followed for changes in their functional status and quality of life, which were assessed with the Child Health and Illness Profile–Child Edition (CHIPCE Achievement domain. Results: At the end of the study, a mean improvement on the CHIP-CE Achievement domain score was observed for all countries and therapies except in Taiwan, where patients received atomoxetine, and in Lebanon, where patients received methylphenidate. No patient experienced a serious adverse event during the study. Four patients discontinued due to a treatment-emergent adverse event. Conclusion: After 12 months of treatment, clinical and functional outcomes were improved in children and adolescents from non-Western countries who initiated and remained on their prescribed pharmacological monotherapy.

  18. Concurrent Validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Mojgan; Shahrivar, Zahra; Tehrani Doost, Mehdi; Khademi, Mojgan; Zargari Nejad, Ghazale

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in which impairment of executive functions plays an important role. The main objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in children with ADHD. Thirty children, aged 7-12 years, attending the child and adolescent clinic of Roozbeh hospital and diagnosed with ADHD according to interview with a child and adolescent psychiatrist, formed our ADHD group. In contrast, thirty participants of the control group were selected from 7 to 12 year-old students according to Conners' Teacher/Parent Rating Scale and did not have ADHD. The kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia-present and lifetime version-Persian version was also completed for all children to rule out other psychiatric disorders. After oral consent, parents of 60 children (ADHD = 30, control = 30), completed three questionnaires of ADHD-Rating Scale-IV, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short Version and BRIEF. Children in ADHD group got higher scores than those in the control group in all subscales and indices of BRIEF (P behavioral aspects of executive functions, especially to discriminate children with ADHD and normal ones.

  19. Working memory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a lack of specialization of brain function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fassbender

    Full Text Available Working memory impairments are frequent in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and create problems along numerous functional dimensions. The present study utilized the Visual Serial Addition Task (VSAT and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to explore working memory processes in thirteen typically developing (TD control and thirteen children with ADHD, Combined type. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used to examine both main effects and interactions. Working memory-specific activity was found in TD children in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast the within-group map in ADHD did not reveal any working-memory specific regions. Main effects of condition suggested that the right middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and the right precuneus were engaged by both groups during working memory processing. Group differences were driven by significantly greater, non-working memory-specific, activation in the ADHD relative to TD group in the bilateral insula extending into basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex. A region of interest analysis revealed a region in left middle frontal gyrus that was more active during working memory in TD controls. Thus, only the TD group appeared to display working memory-modulated brain activation. In conclusion, children with ADHD demonstrated reduced working memory task specific brain activation in comparison to their peers. These data suggest inefficiency in functional recruitment by individuals with ADHD represented by a poor match between task demands and appropriate levels of brain activity.

  20. Working memory in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a lack of specialization of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbender, Catherine; Schweitzer, Julie B; Cortes, Carlos R; Tagamets, Malle A; Windsor, T Andrew; Reeves, Gloria M; Gullapalli, Rao

    2011-01-01

    Working memory impairments are frequent in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and create problems along numerous functional dimensions. The present study utilized the Visual Serial Addition Task (VSAT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore working memory processes in thirteen typically developing (TD) control and thirteen children with ADHD, Combined type. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to examine both main effects and interactions. Working memory-specific activity was found in TD children in the bilateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast the within-group map in ADHD did not reveal any working-memory specific regions. Main effects of condition suggested that the right middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and the right precuneus were engaged by both groups during working memory processing. Group differences were driven by significantly greater, non-working memory-specific, activation in the ADHD relative to TD group in the bilateral insula extending into basal ganglia and the medial prefrontal cortex. A region of interest analysis revealed a region in left middle frontal gyrus that was more active during working memory in TD controls. Thus, only the TD group appeared to display working memory-modulated brain activation. In conclusion, children with ADHD demonstrated reduced working memory task specific brain activation in comparison to their peers. These data suggest inefficiency in functional recruitment by individuals with ADHD represented by a poor match between task demands and appropriate levels of brain activity.

  1. Chronic Irreducible Anterior Dislocation of the Shoulder without Significant Functional Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hoejeong; Yoon, Yeo-Seung; Shin, Ji-Soo; Shin, John Junghun; Kim, Doosup

    2016-09-01

    Shoulder dislocation is frequently encountered by orthopedists, and closed manipulation is often sufficient to treat the injury in an acute setting. Although most dislocations are diagnosed and managed promptly, there are rare cases that are missed or neglected, leading to a chronically dislocated state of the joint. They are usually irreducible and cause considerable pain and functional disability in most affected patients, prompting the need to find a surgical method to reverse the worsening conditions caused by the dislocated joint. However, there are cases of even greater rarity in which chronic shoulder dislocations are asymptomatic with minimal functional or structural degeneration in the joint. These patients are usually left untreated, and most show good tolerance to their condition without developing disabling symptoms or significant functional loss over time. We report on one such patient who had a chronic shoulder dislocation for more than 2 years without receiving treatment.

  2. Nonoccupational environmental exposure to manganese is linked to deficits in peripheral and central olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Ortiz-Romo, Nahum; Alcaraz-Zubeldia, Mireya; Drucker-Colín, René; Hudson, Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Manganese is of growing concern as a toxic air pollutant. It is readily transported from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, and unlike other metals, it is transported transynaptically to structures deep within the brain. However, little is known regarding the possible effect of nonoccupational exposure to manganese on olfactory function. Using the Sniffin' Sticks test battery, we compared the olfactory performance of subjects from a manganese mining district living central effects on olfactory function of big city air pollution, which mostly consists of toxicants known to affect the olfactory epithelium but with lower transynaptic transport capacity compared with manganese. We conclude that nonoccupational exposure to airborne manganese is associated with decrements in both peripheral and central olfactory function.

  3. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A.; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Hendy, Olfat; Rasoul, Gaafar Abdel; Rohlman, Diane S.

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health. PMID:28880741

  4. The impact of repeated organophosphorus pesticide exposure on biomarkers and neurobehavioral outcomes among adolescent pesticide applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed A; Wang, Kai; Olson, James R; Bonner, Matthew R; Hendy, Olfat; Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar; Rohlman, Diane S

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian adolescents are hired as seasonal workers to apply pesticides to the cotton crop and may perform this occupation for several years. However, few studies examined the effects of repeated pesticide exposure on health outcomes The goal of this study was to determine the impact of repeated pesticide exposure on neurobehavioral (NB) performance and biomarkers of exposure (urinary metabolite) and effect (cholinesterase activity). Eighty-four adolescents from two field stations in Menoufia, Egypt, were examined four times: before and during pesticide application season in 2010 and again before and during application season in 2011. At each of the four time points, participants completed a questionnaire, performed an NB test battery, and were assessed for urinary levels of the chlorpyrifos metabolite TCPy (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) and blood cholinesterase activity. Following the study cohort over two consecutive pesticide application seasons revealed that TCPy levels significantly increased following exposure, and returned to baseline levels following the end of the application season. Blood butyryl cholinesterase activity exhibited a similar pattern. Although NB outcomes displayed learning and practice effects over time, deficits in performance were significantly associated with increased TCPy levels with reduction in the number of NB measures showing improvement over time. Biomarkers of exposure and effect demonstrated changes associated with pesticide application and recovery after application ended. Deficits in NB performance were correlated with elevated pesticide exposure. Data demonstrated that repeated pesticide exposure may exert a long-term adverse impact on human health.

  5. Anosognosia for memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment: Insight into the neural mechanism using functional and molecular imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Vannini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions. Thirty-one subjects (mean age: 74.1; Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR global score: 0.5 with aMCI, and 251 cognitively normal (CN older adults (mean age: 73.3; CDR: 0 were included as a reference group for behavioral and FDG data. An anosognosia index was obtained by calculating a discrepancy score between subjective and objective memory scores. All subjects underwent FDG-PET for glucose metabolism measurement, and aMCI subjects underwent additional rs-fMRI for intrinsic connectivity measurement. Voxel-wise correlations between anosognosia and neuroimaging data were conducted in the aMCI subjects. Subjects with aMCI had significantly decreased memory awareness as compared to the CN older adults. Greater anosognosia in aMCI subjects was associated with reduced glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate (PCC cortices and hippocampus. Intrinsic connectivity analyses revealed a significant association between anosognosia and attenuated functional connectivity between the PCC seed region and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC as well as bilateral inferior parietal lobes (IPL. These findings provide further

  6. Passive immunization with phospho-tau antibodies reduces tau pathology and functional deficits in two distinct mouse tauopathy models.

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    Sethu Sankaranarayanan

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, an extensive accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal tau tangles, along with neuronal loss, is evident in distinct brain regions. Staging of tau pathology by postmortem analysis of AD subjects suggests a sequence of initiation and subsequent spread of neurofibrillary tau tangles along defined brain anatomical pathways. Further, the severity of cognitive deficits correlates with the degree and extent of tau pathology. In this study, we demonstrate that phospho-tau (p-tau antibodies, PHF6 and PHF13, can prevent the induction of tau pathology in primary neuron cultures. The impact of passive immunotherapy on the formation and spread of tau pathology, as well as functional deficits, was subsequently evaluated with these antibodies in two distinct transgenic mouse tauopathy models. The rTg4510 transgenic mouse is characterized by inducible over-expression of P301L mutant tau, and exhibits robust age-dependent brain tau pathology. Systemic treatment with PHF6 and PHF13 from 3 to 6 months of age led to a significant decline in brain and CSF p-tau levels. In a second model, injection of preformed tau fibrils (PFFs comprised of recombinant tau protein encompassing the microtubule-repeat domains into the cortex and hippocampus of young P301S mutant tau over-expressing mice (PS19 led to robust tau pathology on the ipsilateral side with evidence of spread to distant sites, including the contralateral hippocampus and bilateral entorhinal cortex 4 weeks post-injection. Systemic treatment with PHF13 led to a significant decline in the spread of tau pathology in this model. The reduction in tau species after p-tau antibody treatment was associated with an improvement in novel-object recognition memory test in both models. These studies provide evidence supporting the use of tau immunotherapy as a potential treatment option for AD and other tauopathies.

  7. Functional EEG network analysis in schizophrenia: Evidence of larger segregation and deficit of modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier; Lubeiro, Alba; Poza, Jesús; Hornero, Roberto; Ayuso, Marta; Valcárcel, César; Haidar, Karim; Blanco, José A; Molina, Vicente

    2017-06-02

    Higher mental functions depend on global cerebral functional coordination. Our aim was to study fast modulation of functional networks in schizophrenia that has not been previously assessed. Graph-theory was used to analyze the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during an odd-ball task in 57 schizophrenia patients (18 first episode patients, FEPs) and 59 healthy controls. Clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path length (PL) and small-worldness (SW) were computed at baseline ([-300 0] ms prior to stimulus delivery) and response ([150 450] ms post-stimulus) windows. Clinical and cognitive assessments were performed. CLC, PL and SW showed a significant modulation between baseline and response in controls but not in patients. Patients obtained higher CLC and SW at baseline, lower CLC and higher PL at response, and diminished modulation of CLC and SW as compared to controls. In patients, CLC and SW modulation were inversely associated to cognitive performance in executive tasks and directly associated to working memory. Similar patterns were observed in FEPs. CLC and SW during the baseline were inversely associated to their respective modulation magnitudes. Our results are coherent with a hyper-segregated network at baseline (higher CLC) and a decreased modulation of the functional connectivity during cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Motor function deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI and VBM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Center, Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)

  9. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  10. Behavioral Deficits Following Withdrawal from Chronic Ethanol Are Influenced by SLO Channel Function in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Luisa L; Davis, Scott J; Yen, Rachel C; Ordemann, Greg J; Nordquist, Sarah K; Bannai, Deepthi; Pierce, Jonathan T

    2017-07-01

    Symptoms of withdrawal from chronic alcohol use are a driving force for relapse in alcohol dependence. Thus, uncovering molecular targets to lessen their severity is key to breaking the cycle of dependence. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we tested whether one highly conserved ethanol target, the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (known as the BK channel or Slo1), modulates ethanol withdrawal. Consistent with a previous report, we found that C. elegans displays withdrawal-related behavioral impairments after cessation of chronic ethanol exposure. We found that the degree of impairment is exacerbated in worms lacking the worm BK channel, SLO-1, and is reduced by selective rescue of this channel in the nervous system. Enhanced SLO-1 function, via gain-of-function mutation or overexpression, also dramatically reduced behavioral impairment during withdrawal. Consistent with these results, we found that chronic ethanol exposure decreased SLO-1 expression in a subset of neurons. In addition, we found that the function of a distinct, conserved Slo family channel, SLO-2, showed an inverse relationship to withdrawal behavior, and this influence depended on SLO-1 function. Together, our findings show that modulation of either Slo family ion channel bidirectionally regulates withdrawal behaviors in worm, supporting further exploration of the Slo family as targets for normalizing behaviors during alcohol withdrawal. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  12. Theory of Mind Deficits and Social Emotional Functioning in Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Constance; Koolen, Sophieke

    2016-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM). In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years) with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  13. Functional Gene-Set Analysis Does Not Support a Major Role for Synaptic Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Anke R. Hammerschlag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite high heritability estimates, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have failed to find significant genetic associations, likely due to the polygenic character of ADHD. Nevertheless, genetic studies suggested the involvement of several processes important for synaptic function. Therefore, we applied a functional gene-set analysis to formally test whether synaptic functions are associated with ADHD. Gene-set analysis tests the joint effect of multiple genetic variants in groups of functionally related genes. This method provides increased statistical power compared to conventional GWAS. We used data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium including 896 ADHD cases and 2455 controls, and 2064 parent-affected offspring trios, providing sufficient statistical power to detect gene sets representing a genotype relative risk of at least 1.17. Although all synaptic genes together showed a significant association with ADHD, this association was not stronger than that of randomly generated gene sets matched for same number of genes. Further analyses showed no association of specific synaptic function categories with ADHD after correction for multiple testing. Given current sample size and gene sets based on current knowledge of genes related to synaptic function, our results do not support a major role for common genetic variants in synaptic genes in the etiology of ADHD.

  14. Neuroepidemiologic and Neurobehavioral Characteristics of Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome in an Old-Old Population: The Kurihara Project

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    Keiichi Kumai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. Aim: To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. Method: The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity. The prevalence of MCR and conversion to dementia (AD8 Dementia Screening Interview cutoff 2/8, together with the neurobehavioral characteristics of the MCR group, were analyzed. Results: The prevalence was 11.1%, and the conversion ratio in the MCR group was higher than that in the non-MCR group (OR = 1.38. The MCR group had lower scores on the executive function test as well as gait velocity. Conclusions: The MCR syndrome increases the rate of conversion to dementia, and both slow gait and lower scores in executive tests, which are ‘frontal-based' functions, are predictive of higher rates of conversion to dementia.

  15. Cognitive Function of Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Difficulties: A Developmental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Sun, Li; Qian, Ying; Liu, Lu; Ma, Quan-Gang; Yang, Li; Cheng, Jia; Cao, Qing-Jiu; Su, Yi; Gao, Qian; Wu, Zhao-Min; Li, Hai-Mei; Qian, Qiu-Jin; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2016-08-20

    The cognitive function of children with either attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disabilities (LDs) is known to be impaired. However, little is known about the cognitive function of children with comorbid ADHD and LD. The present study aimed to explore the cognitive function of children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties in comparison with children with ADHD and healthy controls in different age groups in a large Chinese sample. Totally, 1043 participants with ADHD and learning difficulties (the ADHD + learning difficulties group), 870 with pure ADHD (the pure ADHD group), and 496 healthy controls were recruited. To investigate the difference in cognitive impairment using a developmental approach, all participants were divided into three age groups (6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 years old). Measurements were the Chinese-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, the Stroop Color-Word Test, the Trail-Making Test, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Parents (BRIEF). Multivariate analysis of variance was used. The results showed that after controlling for the effect of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD + learning difficulties group was still significantly worse than the pure ADHD group, which was, in turn, worse than the control group on full intelligence quotient (98.66 ± 13.87 vs. 105.17 ± 14.36 vs. 112.93 ± 13.87, P Children and adolescents with ADHD and learning difficulties have more severe cognitive impairment than pure ADHD patients even after controlling for the effect of ADHD symptoms. However, the differences in impairment in inhibition and shift function are no longer significant when these individuals were 12-14 years old.

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  17. A Computational Model for the Automatic Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Based on Functional Brain Volume

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    Lirong Tan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the problem of computer-aided diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD using machine learning techniques. With the ADHD-200 dataset, we developed a Support Vector Machine (SVM model to classify ADHD patients from typically developing controls (TDCs, using the regional brain volumes as predictors. Conventionally, the volume of a brain region was considered to be an anatomical feature and quantified using structural magnetic resonance images. One major contribution of the present study was that we had initially proposed to measure the regional brain volumes using fMRI images. Brain volumes measured from fMRI images were denoted as functional volumes, which quantified the volumes of brain regions that were actually functioning during fMRI imaging. We compared the predictive power of functional volumes with that of regional brain volumes measured from anatomical images, which were denoted as anatomical volumes. The former demonstrated higher discriminative power than the latter for the classification of ADHD patients vs. TDCs. Combined with our two-step feature selection approach which integrated prior knowledge with the recursive feature elimination (RFE algorithm, our SVM classification model combining functional volumes and demographic characteristics achieved a balanced accuracy of 67.7%, which was 16.1% higher than that of a relevant model published previously in the work of Sato et al. Furthermore, our classifier highlighted 10 brain regions that were most discriminative in distinguishing between ADHD patients and TDCs. These 10 regions were mainly located in occipital lobe, cerebellum posterior lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe. Our present study using functional images will likely provide new perspectives about the brain regions affected by ADHD.

  18. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairment in 105 adults with indoor exposure to molds compared to 100 exposed to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2009-01-01

    Patients exposed at home to molds and mycotoxins and those exposed to chemicals (CE) have many similar symptoms of eye, nose, and throat irritation and poor memory, concentration, and other neurobehavioral dysfunctions. To compare the neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with indoor exposures to mold and to chemicals. 105 consecutive adults exposed to molds (ME) indoors at home and 100 patients exposed to other chemicals were compared to 202 community referents without mold or chemical exposure. To assess brain functions, we measured 26 neurobehavioral functions. Medical and exposure histories, mood states score, and symptoms frequencies were obtained. Vital capacity and flows were measured by spirometry. Groups were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) after adjusting for age, educational attainment, and sex, by calculating predicted values (observed/predicted x 100 = % predicted). And p mold had a total of 6.1 abnormalities and those exposed to chemicals had 7.1 compared to 1.2 abnormalities in referents. Compared to referents, the exposed groups had balance decreased, longer reaction times, and blink reflex latentcies lengthened. Also, color discrimination errors were increased and visual field performances and grip strengths were reduced. The cognitive and memory performance measures were abnormal in both exposed groups. Culture Fair scores, digit symbol substitution, immediate and delayed verbal recall, picture completion, and information were reduced. Times for peg-placement and trail making A and B were increased. One difference was that chemically exposed patients had excess fingertip number writing errors, but the mold-exposed did not. Mood State scores and symptom frequencies were greater in both exposed groups than in referents. Vital capacities were reduced in both groups. Neurobehavioral and pulmonary impairments associated with exposures to indoor molds and mycotoxins were not different from those with various chemical exposures.

  19. Brief report: Neurocognitive functioning in adolescents following childhood maltreatment and evidence for underlying planning & organizational deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Holler, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment are at risk for a host of psychiatric conditions, although the underlying neurocognitive functioning of these individuals remains largely understudied. This study examined the neurocognitive functioning of childhood maltreatment victims in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient setting. The sample consisted of adolescent inpatients (ages 13-19) that completed intellectual testing as part of a neuropsychological/psychological assessment during hospitalization (n = 39). The sample was grouped based on childhood maltreatment history with one group categorized by maltreatment history (n = 15) and the other group characterized by no maltreatment history (n = 24). Analyses revealed statistically significant differences (p organizational and planning difficulties in those individuals with maltreatment history. Group differences in the frequency of impaired performance for neuropsychological tasks were largest (p history of childhood maltreatment.

  20. Effects of a selected exercise programon executive function of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarmoghaddam, M; Torbati, H T; Sohrabi, M; Mashhadi, A; Kashi, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Selected exercise program on the executive function of children with ADHD. Method. The participants were 40 male students, aged 7-11 years. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in an exercise program for 24 sessions, 90 minutes per session. The control group did not receive any intervention. Before and after the exercise period, all the participants were assessed with Stroop and Go-No-Go tests, and the resulting data were analyzed by using MANCOVA. Result. The results showed that the cognitive inhibition of the children in the experimental group was significantly different compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the behavioral inhibition (p < 0.05). Conclusion. An organized physical activity helps to improve the executive function in children with ADHD.

  1. Cortical substrates and functional correlates of auditory deviance processing deficits in schizophrenia

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    Anthony J. Rissling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although sensory processing abnormalities contribute to widespread cognitive and psychosocial impairments in schizophrenia (SZ patients, scalp-channel measures of averaged event-related potentials (ERPs mix contributions from distinct cortical source-area generators, diluting the functional relevance of channel-based ERP measures. SZ patients (n = 42 and non-psychiatric comparison subjects (n = 47 participated in a passive auditory duration oddball paradigm, eliciting a triphasic (Deviant−Standard tone ERP difference complex, here termed the auditory deviance response (ADR, comprised of a mid-frontal mismatch negativity (MMN, P3a positivity, and re-orienting negativity (RON peak sequence. To identify its cortical sources and to assess possible relationships between their response contributions and clinical SZ measures, we applied independent component analysis to the continuous 68-channel EEG data and clustered the resulting independent components (ICs across subjects on spectral, ERP, and topographic similarities. Six IC clusters centered in right superior temporal, right inferior frontal, ventral mid-cingulate, anterior cingulate, medial orbitofrontal, and dorsal mid-cingulate cortex each made triphasic response contributions. Although correlations between measures of SZ clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functioning and standard (Fz scalp-channel ADR peak measures were weak or absent, for at least four IC clusters one or more significant correlations emerged. In particular, differences in MMN peak amplitude in the right superior temporal IC cluster accounted for 48% of the variance in SZ-subject performance on tasks necessary for real-world functioning and medial orbitofrontal cluster P3a amplitude accounted for 40%/54% of SZ-subject variance in positive/negative symptoms. Thus, source-resolved auditory deviance response measures including MMN may be highly sensitive to SZ clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics.

  2. Neuromodulation and Neurorehabilitation for Treatment of Functional Deficits after mTBI plus PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...14. ABSTRACT This study is a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using repeated measures. The objective is to improve...recovery of functional skills for persons living in states of seriously impaired consciousness 3 to 12 months after severe TBI. This will be achieved by

  3. Symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and peer functioning: a transactional model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kawabata, Yoshito; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-11-01

    The goals of this short-term longitudinal study were to investigate differential, independent effects of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on children's peer relationships and the dynamic, transactional interplay between ADHD symptoms and indices of peer functioning over time. This study used a community sample that included 739 preadolescents (239 fourth graders and 500 fifth graders; 52.23 % boys) from northern Taiwan, who were assessed every six months at three time points. Children's ADHD symptoms were measured using the parent report on the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Positive and negative facets of peer functioning, including peer rejection, peer acceptance, and the number of friendships, were assessed via peer nomination. Results of cross-lagged models indicated that inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, predicted subsequent peer impairment (i.e., lower peer acceptance and fewer dyadic friendships). Findings also showed a vicious cycle in which inattentive symptoms predicted later peer impairment, which in turn led to increases in both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. These findings did not differ across gender, and the majority of the findings remained significant even after controlling for age and physical aggression. Taken together, this study demonstrated the detrimental effect of inattention on children's peer functioning and the transactional and dynamic interplay between inattention and peer impairment in a Chinese culture.

  4. Autonomic Function Impairment and Brain Perfusion Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAutonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson’s disease (PD components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF in patients with PD.MethodsBrain ASL MRI was carried out in 20 patients with PD (6 men and 14 women, mean age: 63.3 ± 6.4 years and 22 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers to assess whole-brain CBF and the effects of dopaminergic therapy on perfusion. All subjects underwent a standardized evaluation of cardiovagal and adrenergic function including a deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and 5-min head-up tilt test. Perfusion MRI data were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner with a pulsed continuous ASL technique. The CBF, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were analyzed after adjusting for age and sex.ResultsPatients exhibited a decline in autonomic function (rapid heart rate in response to deep breathing, low baroreflex sensitivity, high systolic and diastolic pressure, and altered tilting test response, widespread low CBF, and robust response to dopaminergic therapy. Lower perfusion in the middle frontal gyrus was associated with increased clinical disease severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale I score, P < 0.001. Lower perfusion in autonomic control areas, such as the frontal lobe and insula, were significantly associated with autonomic impairment (P < 0.001.ConclusionsOur study indicates that PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that changes the perfusion of central nervous system

  5. A Comparison of the Relation of Depression, and Cognitive, Motor and Functional Deficits in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ghaffari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim and background: One of the most important psychological disorders after stroke is depression, which leads to reduced quality of life, optimal rehabilitation failure, loss of cognitive tasks and decrease in the recovery process. In this research, relation between patterns of depression and cognitive, motor and function deficits in people with chronic stroke was studied. Methods and materials: In a pilot cross-sectional study, 40 patients with chronic stroke (more than 6 months were enrolled. Depression (Beck Depression Inventory, cognition (attention test TMT-A & B and Wechsler memory, motor (Motorcity index, basic activities of daily living (Barthel scale and instrumental activities of daily living (Lawton scale were evaluated. Results: The results of the study revealed a significant positive correlation between post stroke depression and verbal memory (r=0.440،P<.05, attention (r=0.615،P<.05, motor function(r-0.368،P<.05, independence in basic activities of daily living (r=0.781،P<.05 and instrumental activities of daily living (r=0.741, P<.05. Conclusion: According to the findings, further studies of factors affecting post stroke depression (PSD clinical and practical aspects are necessary. Cognitive rehabilitation programs with motor rehabilitation can decrease depression and gain independence in activities of daily living and more participation in society activities.

  6. Abnormalities of resting state functional connectivity are related to sustained attention deficits in MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Loitfelder

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Resting state (RS functional MRI recently identified default network abnormalities related to cognitive impairment in MS. fMRI can also be used to map functional connectivity (FC while the brain is at rest and not adhered to a specific task. Given the importance of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for higher executive functioning in MS, we here used the ACC as seed-point to test for differences and similarities in RS-FC related to sustained attention between MS patients and controls. DESIGN: Block-design rest phases of 3 Tesla fMRI data were analyzed to assess RS-FC in 31 patients (10 clinically isolated syndromes, 16 relapsing-remitting, 5 secondary progressive MS and 31 age- and gender matched healthy controls (HC. Participants underwent extensive cognitive testing. OBSERVATIONS: In both groups, signal changes in several brain areas demonstrated significant correlation with RS-activity in the ACC. These comprised the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, insular cortices, the right caudate, right middle temporal gyrus, angular gyri, the right hippocampus, and the cerebellum. Compared to HC, patients showed increased FC between the ACC and the left angular gyrus, left PCC, and right postcentral gyrus. Better cognitive performance in the patients was associated with increased FC to the cerebellum, middle temporal gyrus, occipital pole, and the angular gyrus. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence for adaptive changes in RS-FC in MS patients compared to HC in a sustained attention network. These results extend and partly mirror findings of task-related fMRI, suggesting FC may increase our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in MS.

  7. Exploring the Phenotype of Phonological Reading Disability as a Function of the Phonological Deficit Severity: Evidence from the Error Analysis Paradigm in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Ibrahim, Raphiq; Khateb, Asaid

    2014-01-01

    The dominant error types were investigated as a function of phonological processing (PP) deficit severity in four groups of impaired readers. For this aim, an error analysis paradigm distinguishing between four error types was used. The findings revealed that the different types of impaired readers were characterized by differing predominant error…

  8. Working memory arrest in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Per N; Skogli, Erik W; Hovik, Kjell T; Geurts, Hilde; Egeland, Jens; Øie, Merete

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the development of verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. A total of 34 children with high-functioning autism, 72 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 45 typically developing children (age 9-16 years) were included at baseline and followed up approximately 25 months later. The children were given a letter/number sequencing task to assess verbal working memory. The performance of children with high-functioning autism on verbal working memory did not improve after 2 years, while improvement was observed in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. The results indicate a different developmental trajectory for verbal working memory in children with high-functioning autism compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children. More research is needed to construct a developmental framework more suitable for children with autism spectrum disorder. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Insufficient stromal support in MDS results from molecular and functional deficits of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyh, S; Oz, S; Cadeddu, R-P; Fröbel, J; Brückner, B; Kündgen, A; Fenk, R; Bruns, I; Zilkens, C; Hermsen, D; Gattermann, N; Kobbe, G; Germing, U; Lyko, F; Haas, R; Schroeder, T

    2013-09-01

    Ineffective hematopoiesis is a major characteristic of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) causing relevant morbidity and mortality. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to physiologically support hematopoiesis, but their contribution to the pathogenesis of MDS remains elusive. We show that MSC from patients across all MDS subtypes (n=106) exhibit significantly reduced growth and proliferative capacities accompanied by premature replicative senescence. Osteogenic differentiation was significantly reduced in MDS-derived MSC, indicated by cytochemical stainings and reduced expressions of Osterix and Osteocalcin. This was associated with specific methylation patterns that clearly separated MDS-MSC from healthy controls and showed a strong enrichment for biological processes associated with cellular phenotypes and transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, in MDS-MSC, we detected altered expression of key molecules involved in the interaction with hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), in particular Osteopontin, Jagged1, Kit-ligand and Angiopoietin as well as several chemokines. Functionally, this translated into a significantly diminished ability of MDS-derived MSC to support CD34+ HSPC in long-term culture-initiating cell assays associated with a reduced cell cycle activity. Taken together, our comprehensive analysis shows that MSC from all MDS subtypes are structurally, epigenetically and functionally altered, which leads to impaired stromal support and seems to contribute to deficient hematopoiesis in MDS.

  10. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Bildgebende Darstellung neurokognitiver Dysfunktionen bei der Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitaetsstoerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, I. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters der Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany); NMR-Forschung der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany); Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G. [NMR-Forschung der Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany). Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie; Schmidt, M.H. [Klinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie des Kindes- und Jugendalters der Universitaet Heidelberg, Zentralinstitut fuer Seelische Gesundheit, Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [German] Die Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitaetsstoerung (ADHS) ist eine neurobiologische Funktionsstoerung mit Beginn im fruehen Kindesalter, die sich durch ueberdauernde Beeintraechtigungen kognitiver Funktionen der Aufmerksamkeit, Impulsivitaet und in fakultativ motorischer Hyperaktivitaet aeussert. Die Stoerung persistiert haeufig bis ins Erwachsenenalter, und ihr Erscheinungsbild ist vielfaeltig. Als moegliche Ursachen von ADHS werden verschiedene Faktoren diskutiert, wobei vor allem strukturell bildgebende Studien und molekulargenetische Untersuchungen der 90er Jahre auf eine

  11. Patterns of compensation of functional deficits of the knee joint in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a group of pathological syndromes of unknown aetiology, observed at the developmental age. Their common feature is sustained chronic arthritis with flares and remissions. Clinical signs and symptoms include joint pain, periarticular tissue oedema or articular exudate, frequently associated with hypertrophy of the synovial membrane. The intra- and extra-articular structural damage impairs the motion range and smoothness. The disease process may involve any joint. The knee joint is the most frequently affected in oligo- and polyarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine a direct correlation between disorders of knee joint function and the change in the range of motion of the ankle and hip joints of both lower extremities, and the so--called indirect impact of these changes on patients’ posture. Material and methods : The study included 36 JIA patients and 56 healthy controls aged 8–16 years. The evaluation was based on physical examination. Results : The results showed differences in the values of quality and range of motion between patients and controls. In the patient group pes planovalgus was more frequently associated with knee joint dysfunction along with the inherent restriction of dorsal flexion of the foot. Shortening of the iliotibial band, increased outward rotation of the right lower extremity with enlarged joint contour and augmented inward rotation of the contralateral healthy extremity all proved significant. Changes in motion range in the joints below and over the knee were associated with alterations of antero-posterior spine curvatures and vertebral rotation along the long spinal axis. Based on the results, the mechanism of the compensation is outlined. Conclusions : The observed differences in the range and quality of motion in the ankle, hip and spinal joints between patients and healthy children provide evidence that dysfunction of the knee joint affects the function

  12. Functional connectivity abnormalities and associated cognitive deficits in fetal alcohol Spectrum disorders (FASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Mueller, Bryon A; Mattson, Sarah N; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Jones, Kenneth L; Boys, Christopher J; Lim, Kelvin O; Riley, Edward P; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2017-10-01

    Consistent with well-documented structural and microstructural abnormalities in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), recent studies suggest that functional connectivity (FC) may also be disrupted. We evaluated whole-brain FC in a large multi-site sample, examined its cognitive correlates, and explored its potential to objectively identify neurodevelopmental abnormality in individuals without definitive dysmorphic features. Included were 75 children with PAE and 68 controls from four sites. All participants had documented heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. All underwent a formal evaluation of physical anomalies and dysmorphic facial features. MRI data were collected using modified matched protocols on three platforms (Siemens, GE, and Philips). Resting-state FC was examined using whole-brain graph theory metrics to characterize each individual's connectivity. Although whole-brain FC metrics did not discriminate prenatally-exposed from unexposed overall, atypical FC (> 1 standard deviation from the grand mean) was significantly more common (2.7 times) in the PAE group vs. In a subset of 55 individuals (PAE and controls) whose dysmorphology examination could not definitively characterize them as either Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) or non-FAS, atypical FC was seen in 27 % of the PAE group, but 0 % of controls. Across participants, a 1 % difference in local network efficiency was associated with a 36 point difference in global cognitive functioning. Whole-brain FC metrics have potential to identify individuals with objective neurodevelopmental abnormalities from prenatal alcohol exposure. When applied to individuals unable to be classified as FAS or non-FAS from dysmorphology alone, these measures separate prenatally-exposed from non-exposed with high specificity.

  13. The pig as a model animal for studying cognition and neurobehavioral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieling, Elise T; Schuurman, Teun; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, F Josef

    2011-01-01

    In experimental animal research, a short phylogenetic distance, i.e., high resemblance between the model species and the species to be modeled is expected to increase the relevance and generalizability of results obtained in the model species. The (mini)pig shows multiple advantageous characteristics that have led to an increase in the use of this species in studies modeling human medical issues, including neurobehavioral (dys)functions. For example, the cerebral cortex of pigs, unlike that of mice or rats, has cerebral convolutions (gyri and sulci) similar to the human neocortex. We expect that appropriately chosen pig models will yield results of high translational value. However, this claim still needs to be substantiated by research, and the area of pig research is still in its infancy. This chapter provides an overview of the pig as a model species for studying cognitive dysfunctions and neurobehavioral disorders and their treatment, along with a discussion of the pros and cons of various tests, as an aid to researchers considering the use of pigs as model animal species in biomedical research.

  14. Acute minocycline treatment prevents neurobehavioral impairment in a rat model of mild blast traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet eKovesdi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild blast induced traumatic brain injury (mbTBI and its associated memory impairment and anxiety elevation currently represent one of the major military health challenges. Our earlier work using a rodent model of mbTBI indicated that the pathology underlying the observed neurobehavioral abnormalities includes neuroinflammation. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of acute treatment with minocycline, an FDA approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, on the functional and molecular outcomes of mbTBI. Beginning four hours after a single exposure to mild blast overpressure, animals received a daily dose of minocycline (50 mg/kg or physiological saline intraperitoneally (i.p. for 4 days. Physiological parameters (arterial blood O2 saturation, heart and breath rates, and pulse distension and neurobehavior (locomotor activity, anxiety, and spatial memory were monitored at multiple time points. At the termination of the experiment (51 days post-injury, we analyzed sera and select brain regions for changes in protein markers of inflammation as well as vascular, neuronal, and glial integrity. We found that acute treatment with minocycline completely prevented memory impairment and anxiety development by ameliorating the inflammatory response to injury and substantially reducing neuronal and glial cell loss. Based on our findings, we urge testing the effect of minocycline treatment in human mbTBI.

  15. Repeated exposure of rats to JP-4 vapor induces changes in neurobehavioral capacity and 5-HT/5-HIAA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholm, A F; Rossi, J; Ritchie, G D; McInturf, S; Hulme, M E; McCool, C; Narayanan, L; MacMahon, K L; Eggers, J; Leahy, H F; Wolfe, R E

    1999-04-09

    Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for 6 h/d for 14 consecutive days to JP-4 jet fuel vapor (2 mg/L) or room air control conditions. Following a 14- or 60-d recovery period, rats completed a battery of 8 tests selected from the Navy Neurobehavioral Toxicity Assessment Battery (NTAB) to evaluate changes in performance capacity. Exposure to JP-4 vapor resulted in significant changes in neurobehavioral capacity on several tests that varied as a function of the duration of the recovery period. Rats were evaluated for major neurotransmitter and metabolite levels in five brain regions and in the blood serum. Levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were shown to be significantly elevated in several brain regions as well as in the blood serum in the vapor-exposed groups. Results of the rat study are compared to previously reported neurobehavioral evaluations of European manufacturing personnel exposed chronically to jet fuel vapor.

  16. Iron-Responsive Olfactory Uptake of Manganese Improves Motor Function Deficits Associated with Iron Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghan; Li, Yuan; Buckett, Peter D.; Böhlke, Mark; Thompson, Khristy J.; Takahashi, Masaya; Maher, Timothy J.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D2 (D2R) levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed “rescue response” with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status. PMID:22479410

  17. Functional deficits in athletes with a history of low back pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Scott F; Moley, Peter; Malanga, Gerard A; Rubbani, Mariam; Prybicien, Michael; Feinberg, Joseph H

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate whether athletes with a history of low back pain (LBP) would, on average, perform slower on a timed 20-m shuttle run as compared with a normal athletic population. A timed shuttle run to evaluate residual functional limitations in college athletes with resolved LBP. National College Athletic Association (NCAA) division I college. NCAA division I athletes (161 men, 50 women). A timed 20-m shuttle run. Each athlete was timed in a divided 20 m (66 ft) run in which 2 taped lines were positioned 6.7 m (22 ft) apart. Of 211 athletes evaluated, 27 had been treated for LBP during the previous year. Currently asymptomatic athletes with a recent history of LBP were slower (6.3s vs 5.8s) during performance of the timed 20-m shuttle run than athletes without LBP (P=.0002). Athletes with resolved LBP were slower than a matched group of normal athletes without LBP in the timed 20-m shuttle run. Further research is needed to support these findings and to understand fully the influence of the kinetic chain and the effects of both gender and sport on the observed findings. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Histone deacetylase inhibition rescues structural and functional brain deficits in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Hans T.; Benjamin, Joel S.; Zhang, Li; Weissman, Jacqueline; Gerber, Elizabeth E.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Vaurio, Rebecca G.; Potter, Michelle C.; Hansen, Kasper D.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency for either of two genes that promote the opening of chromatin. If an imbalance between open and closed chromatin is central to the pathogenesis of Kabuki syndrome, agents that promote chromatin opening might have therapeutic potential. We have characterized a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome with a heterozygous deletion in the gene encoding the lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D (Kmt2d), leading to impairment of methyltransferase function. In vitro reporter alleles demonstrated a reduction in histone 4 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) activity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Kmt2d+/βGeo mice. These activities were normalized in response to AR-42, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In vivo, deficiency of H3K4me3 in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of Kmt2d+/βGeo mice correlated with reduced neurogenesis and hippocampal memory defects. These abnormalities improved upon postnatal treatment with AR-42. Our work suggests that a reversible deficiency in postnatal neurogenesis underlies intellectual disability in Kabuki syndrome. PMID:25273096

  19. Iron-responsive olfactory uptake of manganese improves motor function deficits associated with iron deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghan Kim

    Full Text Available Iron-responsive manganese uptake is increased in iron-deficient rats, suggesting that toxicity related to manganese exposure could be modified by iron status. To explore possible interactions, the distribution of intranasally-instilled manganese in control and iron-deficient rat brain was characterized by quantitative image analysis using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Manganese accumulation in the brain of iron-deficient rats was doubled after intranasal administration of MnCl(2 for 1- or 3-week. Enhanced manganese level was observed in specific brain regions of iron-deficient rats, including the striatum, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Iron-deficient rats spent reduced time on a standard accelerating rotarod bar before falling and with lower peak speed compared to controls; unexpectedly, these measures of motor function significantly improved in iron-deficient rats intranasally-instilled with MnCl(2. Although tissue dopamine concentrations were similar in the striatum, dopamine transporter (DAT and dopamine receptor D(1 (D1R levels were reduced and dopamine receptor D(2 (D2R levels were increased in manganese-instilled rats, suggesting that manganese-induced changes in post-synaptic dopaminergic signaling contribute to the compensatory effect. Enhanced olfactory manganese uptake during iron deficiency appears to be a programmed "rescue response" with beneficial influence on motor impairment due to low iron status.

  20. Multilevel Analysis of Air Pollution and Early Childhood Neurobehavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Chun; Yang, Shih-Kuan; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Ho, Wen-Chao; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between the ambient air pollution levels during the prenatal and postnatal stages and early childhood neurobehavioral development, our study recruited 533 mother-infant pairs from 11 towns in Taiwan. All study subjects were asked to complete childhood neurobehavioral development scales and questionnaires at 6 and 18 months. Air pollution, including particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and hydrocarbons, was measured at air quality monitoring stations in the towns where the subjects lived. Multilevel analyses were applied to assess the association between air pollution and childhood neurobehavioral development during pregnancy and when the children were 0 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and 13 to 18 months old. At 18 months, poor subclinical neurodevelopment in early childhood is associated with the average SO2 exposure of prenatal, during all trimesters of pregnancy and at postnatal ages up to 12 months (first trimester β = −0.083, se = 0.030; second and third trimester β = −0.114, se = 0.045; from birth to 12 months of age β = −0.091, se = 0.034). Furthermore, adverse gross motor below average scores at six months of age were associated with increased average non-methane hydrocarbon, (NMHC) levels during the second and third trimesters (β = −8.742, se = 3.512). Low-level SO2 exposure prenatally and up to twelve months postnatal could cause adverse neurobehavioral effects at 18 months of age. Maternal NMHC exposure during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy would be also associated with poor gross motor development in their children at 6 months of age. PMID:24992486

  1. The neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, E; King, K; A Ahmed; Rudser, K.; Rumsey, R.; Yund, B; Delaney, K.; Nestrasil, I.; C. Whitley; M. Potegal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal was to describe the neurobehavioral phenotype in mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIB (MPS IIIB). Parents report that behavioral abnormalities are a major problem in MPS III posing serious challenges to parenting and quality-of-life for both patient and parent. Our previous research on MPS IIIA identified autistic symptoms, and a Klüver-Bucy-type syndrome as indicated by reduced startle and loss of fear associated with amygdala atrophy. We hypothesized that MPS IIIB would mani...

  2. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, RC; Possin, KL; Hess, CP; Huang, EJ; Grinberg, LT; Nolan, AL; Cohn-Sheehy, BI; Ghosh, PM; Lanata, S; Merrilees, J; Kramer, JH; Berger, MS; Miller, BL; Yaffe, K; Rabinovici, GD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Academy of Neurology. Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE...

  3. The atypical antipsychotic blonanserin reverses (+)-PD-128907- and ketamine-induced deficit in executive function in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Manato; Enomoto, Takeshi; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Kiyoshi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Ikejiri, Masaru; Nakayama, Tatsuo; Ogi, Yuji; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2016-05-15

    Antagonism of the dopamine D3 receptor is considered a promising strategy for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. We have previously reported that the atypical antipsychotic blonanserin, a dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, highly occupies dopamine D3 receptors at its antipsychotic dose range in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of blonanserin on executive function in common marmosets using the object retrieval with detour (ORD) task. The dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist (+)-PD-128907 at 1mg/kg decreased success rate in the difficult trial, but not in the easy trial. Since the difference between the two trials is only cognitive demand, our findings indicate that excess activation of dopamine D3 receptors impairs executive function in common marmosets. Blonanserin at 0.1mg/kg reversed the decrease in success rate induced by (+)-PD-128907 in the difficult trial. This finding indicates that blonanserin has beneficial effect on executive function deficit induced by activation of the dopamine D3 receptor in common marmosets. Next, and based on the glutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia, the common marmosets were treated with the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine. Ketamine at sub-anesthetic doses decreased success rate in the difficult trial, but not in the easy trial. Blonanserin at 0.1mg/kg reversed the decrease in success rate induced by ketamine in the difficult trial. The findings of this study suggest that blonanserin might have beneficial effect on executive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  5. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  6. Methylene blue improves streptozotocin-induced memory deficit by restoring mitochondrial function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Qin, Li; Lu, Hai-Long; Li, Ping-Jing; Song, Yuan-Jian; Yang, Rong-Li

    2017-02-15

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented to involve mitochondrial dysfunction which causes subsequent oxidative stress and energy metabolic failure in hippocampus. Methylene blue (MB) has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases by restoring mitochondrial function. The present work was to examine if MB was able to improve streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's type dementia in a rat model by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction-derived oxidative stress and ATP synthesis decline. MB was administrated at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for consecutive 7days after bilateral STZ intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection (2.5mg/kg). We first demonstrated that MB treatment significantly ameliorated STZ-induced hippocampus-dependent memory loss in passive avoidance test. We also found that MB has the properties to preserve neuron survival and attenuate neuronal degeneration in hippocampus CA1 region after STZ injection. In addition, oxidative stress was subsequently evaluated by measuring the content of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Importantly, results from our study showed a remarkable suppression of MB treatment on both MDA production and 4-HNE immunoactivity. Finally, energy metabolism in CA1 region was examined by detecting mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) activity and the resultant ATP production. Of significant interest, our result displayed a robust facilitation of MB on CCO activity and the consequent ATP synthesis. The current study indicates that MB may be a promising therapeutic agent targeting oxidative damage and ATP synthesis failure during AD progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of cognitive deficits with elevated homocysteine levels in euthymic bipolar patients and its impact on psychosocial functioning: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S; Seemüller, F; Schwarz, M J; Kleindienst, N; Stampfer, R; Zach, J; Born, C; Bernhard, B; Fast, K; Grunze, H; Engel, R R; Severus, E

    2007-01-01

    Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been demonstrated to have a negative impact on cognitive functioning in healthy elderly people. Further studies suggest that they are an independent risk factor for dementia, in particular for Alzheimer's disease. Bipolar disorder is also associated with cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms of these deficits have not been elucidated yet. This study examines the role of Hcy on cognition and its impact on psychosocial functioning in euthymic bipolar patients. A total of 55 euthymic bipolar patients and 17 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Neuropsychological assessments consisted of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3(rd) edition (WAIS-III) subtest Letter-Number Sequencing Test (LNST) and the HAWIE-R (German version of the WAIS-R) subtest Information. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). To obtain plasma levels of Hcy, blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes, immediately put on ice, centrifuged within 15 min and stored at -80 degrees C. Total Hcy concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the neuropsychological tests, patients differed significantly from healthy controls on the TMT B and the RBANS composite indices Language, Attention and Total Score. No differences were found on the HAWIE-R subtest Information, the TMT A, LNST or the RBANS composite indices Immediate Memory, Visuospatial/Constructional Abilities and Delayed Memory. Mean Hcy levels were 9.8 +/- 3.2 microm/L in the patient group and 7.8 +/- 2.1 microm/L in the control group, respectively (p = 0.012). In the patient group Hcy levels significantly correlated with gender, diagnosis and RBANS index scores for Immediate Memory, Language, Attention and Total Score. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant and independent association

  8. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  9. The “Double-Edge Sword” of Human Empathy: A Unifying Neurobehavioral Theory of Compassion Stress Injury

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    Mark Russell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An integrative neurobehavioral model for “compassion stress injury” is offered to explain the “double-edge sword” of empathy and inherent vulnerability of helping professionals and care-givers. One of the most strikingly robust, yet largely invisible scientific findings to emerge over the past decade is identifying the neurophysiological mechanisms enabling human beings to understand and feel what another is feeling. The compelling convergence of evidence from multi-disciplinary lines of primary research and studies of paired-deficits has revealed that the phenomenon of human beings witnessing the pain and suffering of others is clearly associated with activation of neural structures used during first-hand experience. Moreover, it is now evident that a large part of the neural activation shared between self- and other-related experiences occurs automatically, outside the observer’s conscious awareness or control. However, it is also well established that full blown human empathic capacity and altruistic behavior is regulated by neural pathways responsible for flexible consciously controlled actions of the observer. We review the history, prevalence, and etiological models of “compassion stress injury” such as burnout, secondary traumatic stress, vicarious traumatization, compassion fatigue, and empathic distress fatigue, along with implications of the neurobehavioral approach in future research.

  10. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  11. Association between autism symptoms and family functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessica L; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Efron, Daryl; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Hazell, Philip; Sciberras, Emma

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms are elevated in populations of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined cross-sectional associations between ASD symptoms and family functioning in children with and without ADHD. Participants were recruited to a longitudinal cohort study, aged 6-10 years (164 ADHD; 198 controls). ADHD cases were ascertained using community-based screening and diagnostic confirmation from a diagnostic interview. ASD symptoms were measured using the Social Communication Questionnaire. Outcome variables were parent mental health, family quality of life (FQoL), couple conflict and support, and parenting behaviours. After adjustment for a range of child and family factors (including other mental health comorbidities), higher ASD symptoms were associated with poorer FQoL across all three domains; emotional impact (p = 0.008), family impact (p = 0.001) and time impact (p = 0.003). In adjusted analyses by subgroup, parents of children with ADHD+ASD had poorer parent self-efficacy (p = 0.01), poorer FQoL (p ≤ 0.05), with weak evidence of an association for less couple support (p = 0.06), compared to parents of children with ADHD only. Inspection of covariates in the adjusted analyses indicated that the association between ASD symptoms and most family functioning measures was accounted forby child internalising and externalising disorders, ADHD severity, and socioeconomic status; however, ASD symptoms appear to be independently associated with poorer FQoL in children with ADHD. The presence of ASD symptoms in children with ADHD may signal the need for enhanced family support.

  12. Infant brain structures, executive function, and attention deficit/hyperactivity problems at preschool age. A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ghassabian (Akhgar); C.M. Herba (Catherine); S.J. Roza (Sabine); P. Govaert (Paul); J.J. Schenk (Jacqueline); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); T.J.H. White (Tonya); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Neuroimaging findings have provided evidence for a relation between variations in brain structures and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, longitudinal neuroimaging studies are typically confined to children who have already been diagnosed with ADHD. In

  13. Deficits in Sustained Attention and Changes in Dopaminergic Protein Levels following Exposure to Proton Radiation Are Related to Basal Dopaminergic Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Davis

    Full Text Available The current report assessed the effects of low-level proton irradiation in inbred adult male Fischer 344 and Lewis rats performing an analog of the human Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT, commonly utilized as an object risk assessment tool to quantify fatigue and sustained attention in laboratory, clinical, and operational settings. These strains were used to determine if genetic differences in dopaminergic function would impact radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention. Exposure to head-only proton irradiation (25 or 100 cGy disrupted rPVT performance in a strain-specific manner, with 25 cGy-exposed Fischer 344 rats displaying the most severe deficits in sustained attention (i.e., decreased accuracy and increased premature responding; Lewis rats did not display behavioral deficits following radiation. Fischer 344 rats displayed greater tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels in the frontal cortex compared to the Lewis rats, even though radiation exposure increased both of these proteins in the Lewis rats only. Tyrosine hydroxylase was decreased in the parietal cortex of both rat strains following radiation exposure, regardless of proton dose. Strain-specific cytokine changes were also found in the frontal cortex, with the Lewis rats displaying increased levels of putative neurotrophic cytokines (e.g., CNTF. These data support the hypothesis that basal dopaminergic function impacts the severity of radiation-induced deficits in sustained attention.

  14. The functioning and behaviour of biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, attending the outpatient department at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria

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    Ravindra Sundarlall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is gradually being acknowledged as a functionally impairing disorder across the lifespan, underscored by heritability. Nonetheless, lack of ADHD (adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder data from South Africa is alarming which could be due to either the unawareness of ADHD symptoms or underutilization of available screening measures. Undiagnosed ADHD may influence family- and working lives unpleasantly. Parenting a child with ADHD may intensify parental stress through functional impairment notwithstanding the diagnosis of ADHD. Methods: Eighty-one biological parents of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder were screened using self-reporting measurements. ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-V 1.1 identified either positive or negative subgroups; the Weiss functional impairment rating scale (WFIR-S for functional impairment and the Jerome driving questionnaire (JDQ for risk-taking behaviour specifically driving. Results: Of the 39 (48% parents who experienced impairment in all seven areas of functioning, 23 (59% screened negative for ADHD, while 16 (41% screened positive. A significant association was found between parents who screened either positive or negative for ADHD and functional impairment across five of the seven individual categories namely family, work, self-concept, life-skills and social functioning. Conclusion: This study emphasized the high incidence of functional impairment in parents of ADHD children. Although a substantial number of parents screened negative for ADHD, they still reported impairment in functioning; probably due to undiagnosed ADHD with comorbid psychiatric disorders, and/or parental stress due to the complex behaviour of the child. Parents of children diagnosed with ADHD should be screened for functional impairment followed by referral for psychiatric assessment and parent management training to achieve better clinical outcomes.

  15. A longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning and academic achievement in children with and without signs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Brandon; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret; Swanson, H Lee

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with poor academic functioning. Deficits in academic functioning have proven to be less responsive to intervention than behavioral deficits in this population, yet the causes of this academic underperformance are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between ADHD and academic performance in elementary-aged children in a developmental context. To do this, we study important cognitive variables and academic achievement over a three-year timeframe. Based on teacher ratings of ADHD, children were divided into a high symptom group (n = 17) and a low symptom group (n = 34). A thorough battery of cognitive and academic tests was administered at Time 1 and again 2 years later. Cognitive measures focused specifically on working memory and response inhibition. RESULTS indicate that children who have high levels of ADHD signs differ from their low-sign peers in academic achievement and in several cognitive domains. Differences in cognitive functioning show a developmental trend consistent with earlier developmental delays in response inhibition and later delays in working memory. Working memory appears to be particularly important in several academic domains. Importantly, in a longitudinal model, working memory was more predictive of math achievement for students demonstrating signs of ADHD than for those who did not. The relationship between these cognitive variables and academic functioning are explicated in the domains of reading, math, and problem solving.

  16. [Practical executive function performance in high intelligence quotient children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-xiao; Qian, Ying; Wang, Yu-feng

    2013-01-15

    To explore the practical executive function profiles in high IQ (intelligence quotient) children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a Chinese sample population. For this cross-sectional study, we identified 124 outpatients aged 6.8 - 13.1 years with a high IQ fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV), 68 children and adolescents without ADHD aged 6.5 - 13.1 years with a high IQ matched by high IQ children and adolescents with ADHD, 124 outpatients aged 6.8 - 13.2 years with an average IQ with ADHD and 68 normal children and adolescents aged 6.4 - 13.1 years with an average IQ matched by IQ. We operationalized high IQ as having a full scale intelligence quotient (IQ or FSIQ) ≥ 120 on Chinese version Wechsler intelligence scale for children (C-WISC) and an average IQ as 90 ≤ IQ < 110. All the above groups were matched by age. All subjects completed practical executive function tests, including Stroop color-word, trail-making, digit span, Tower of Hanoi task and verbal fluency to assess their ability in the aspects of inhibition, shifting, working memory, planning and verbal fluency. ADHD group with a high IQ performed worse on the Stroop color-word (3.18 ± 0.05) and trail-making tests (4.38 ± 0.55) than normal control group with a high IQ (2.92 ± 0.07 and 4.05 ± 0.07) (P < 0.01). The test performances of trail-making, digit span (4.86 ± 0.13) and fluency (23.0 ± 0.5) were significantly better in high IQ ADHD group than average IQ ADHD group (4.10 ± 0.07 and 19.9 ± 0.5) (P < 0.01). Though a bit better than average IQ ADHD group in shifting, working memory and verbal fluency, the high IQ children and adolescents with ADHD perform worse than high-IQ controls on inhibition and shifting. IQ may protect practical executive function.

  17. TNF-α protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation

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    Belarbi Karim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurological disorders associated with cognitive loss. Activated microglia and secreted factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α are key mediators of neuroinflammation and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide, 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (DT, an agent with anti-TNF-α activity, in a model of chronic neuroinflammation. Methods Lipopolysaccharide or artificial cerebrospinal fluid was infused into the fourth ventricle of three-month-old rats for 28 days. Starting on day 29, animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of DT (56 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 14 days. Thereafter, cognitive function was assessed by novel object recognition, novel place recognition and Morris water maze, and animals were euthanized 25 min following water maze probe test evaluation. Results Chronic LPS-infusion was characterized by increased gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus. Treatment with DT normalized TNF-α levels back to control levels but not IL-1β. Treatment with DT attenuated the expression of TLR2, TLR4, IRAK1 and Hmgb1, all genes involved in the TLR-mediated signaling pathway associated with classical microglia activation. However DT did not impact the numbers of MHC Class II immunoreactive cells. Chronic neuroinflammation impaired novel place recognition, spatial learning and memory function; but it did not impact novel object recognition. Importantly, treatment with DT restored cognitive function in LPS-infused animals and normalized the fraction of hippocampal neurons expressing the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor DT can significantly reverse hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation. These results suggest that TNF-α is a

  18. Novel subgroups of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by topological data analysis and their functional network modular organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyeong, Sunghyon; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Eunjoo

    2017-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition and identification of clinically meaningful subgroups would open up a new window for personalized medicine. Thus, we aimed to identify new clinical phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD and to investigate whether neuroimaging findings validate the identified phenotypes. Neuroimaging and clinical data from 67 children with ADHD and 62 typically developing controls (TDCs) from the ADHD-200 database were selected. Clinical measures of ADHD symptoms and intelligence quotient (IQ) were used as input features into a topological data analysis (TDA) to identify ADHD subgroups within our sample. As external validators, graph theoretical measures obtained from the functional connectome were compared to address the biological meaningfulness of the identified subtypes. The TDA identified two unique subgroups of ADHD, labelled as mild symptom ADHD (mADHD) and severe symptom ADHD (sADHD). The output topology shape was repeatedly observed in the independent validation dataset. The graph theoretical analysis showed a decrease in the degree centrality and PageRank in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex in the sADHD group compared with the TDC group. The mADHD group showed similar patterns of intra- and inter-module connectivity to the sADHD group. Relative to the TDC group, the inter-module connectivity between the default mode network and executive control network were significantly increased in the sADHD group but not in the mADHD group. Taken together, our results show that the data-driven TDA is potentially useful in identifying objective and biologically relevant disease phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  19. A selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor improves prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function: potential relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Zemlan, Frank P; Berridge, Craig W

    2013-01-01

    Drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive function. The majority of ADHD-related treatments act either as dual norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitors (psychostimulants) or selective NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Certain benztropine analogs act as highly selective DA reuptake inhibitors while lacking the reinforcing actions, and thus abuse potential, of psychostimulants. To assess the potential use of these compounds in the treatment of ADHD, we examined the effects of a well-characterized benztropine analog, AHN 2-005, on performance of rats in a PFC-dependent delayed-alternation task of spatial working memory. Similar to that seen with all drugs currently approved for ADHD, AHN 2-005 dose-dependently improved performance in this task. Clinically-relevant doses of psychostimulants and SNRIs elevate NE and DA preferentially in the PFC. Despite the selectivity of this compound for the DA transporter, additional microdialysis studies demonstrated that a cognition-enhancing dose of AHN 2-005 that lacked locomotor activating effects increased extracellular levels of both DA and NE in the PFC. AHN 2-005 produced a larger increase in extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens, although the magnitude of this was well below that seen with motor activating doses of psychostimulants. Collectively, these observations suggest that benztropine analogs may be efficacious in the treatment of ADHD or other disorders associated with PFC dysfunction. These studies provide a strong rationale for future research focused on the neural mechanisms contributing to the cognition-enhancing actions and the potential clinical utility of AHN 2-005 and related compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional deficit of T regulatory cells in Fulani, an ethnic group with low susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torcia, Maria G; Santarlasci, Veronica; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Clemente, AnnMaria; Maggi, Laura; Mangano, Valentina D; Verra, Federica; Bancone, Germana; Nebie, Issa; Sirima, Bienvenu Sodiomon; Liotta, Francesco; Frosali, Francesca; Angeli, Roberta; Severini, Carlo; Sannella, Anna R; Bonini, Paolo; Lucibello, Maria; Maggi, Enrico; Garaci, Enrico; Coluzzi, Mario; Cozzolino, Federico; Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Sergio; Modiano, David

    2008-01-15

    Previous interethnic comparative studies on the susceptibility to malaria performed in West Africa showed that Fulani are more resistant to Plasmodium falciparum malaria than are sympatric ethnic groups. This lower susceptibility is not associated to classic malaria-resistance genes, and the analysis of the immune response to P. falciparum sporozoite and blood stage antigens, as well as non-malaria antigens, revealed higher immune reactivity in Fulani. In the present study we compared the expression profile of a panel of genes involved in immune response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Fulani and sympatric Mossi from Burkina Faso. An increased expression of T helper 1 (TH1)-related genes (IL-18, IFNgamma, and TBX21) and TH2-related genes (IL-4 and GATA3) and a reduced expression of genes distinctive of T regulatory activity (CTLA4 and FOXP3) were observed in Fulani. Microarray analysis on RNA from CD4+ CD25+ (T regulatory) cells, performed with a panel of cDNA probes specific for 96 genes involved in immune modulation, indicated obvious differences between the two ethnic groups with 23% of genes, including TGFbeta, TGFbetaRs, CTLA4, and FOXP3, less expressed in Fulani compared with Mossi and European donors not exposed to malaria. As further indications of a low T regulatory cell activity, Fulani showed lower serum levels of TGFbeta and higher concentrations of the proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10 and CCL22 compared with Mossi; moreover, the proliferative response of Fulani to malaria antigens was not affected by the depletion of CD25+ regulatory cells whereas that of Mossi was significantly increased. The results suggest that the higher resistance to malaria of the Fulani could derive from a functional deficit of T regulatory cells.

  1. Novel subgroups of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder identified by topological data analysis and their functional network modular organizations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunghyon Kyeong

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a clinically heterogeneous condition and identification of clinically meaningful subgroups would open up a new window for personalized medicine. Thus, we aimed to identify new clinical phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD and to investigate whether neuroimaging findings validate the identified phenotypes. Neuroimaging and clinical data from 67 children with ADHD and 62 typically developing controls (TDCs from the ADHD-200 database were selected. Clinical measures of ADHD symptoms and intelligence quotient (IQ were used as input features into a topological data analysis (TDA to identify ADHD subgroups within our sample. As external validators, graph theoretical measures obtained from the functional connectome were compared to address the biological meaningfulness of the identified subtypes. The TDA identified two unique subgroups of ADHD, labelled as mild symptom ADHD (mADHD and severe symptom ADHD (sADHD. The output topology shape was repeatedly observed in the independent validation dataset. The graph theoretical analysis showed a decrease in the degree centrality and PageRank in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortex in the sADHD group compared with the TDC group. The mADHD group showed similar patterns of intra- and inter-module connectivity to the sADHD group. Relative to the TDC group, the inter-module connectivity between the default mode network and executive control network were significantly increased in the sADHD group but not in the mADHD group. Taken together, our results show that the data-driven TDA is potentially useful in identifying objective and biologically relevant disease phenotypes in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  2. NEUROBEHAVIORAL RELATIONSHIPS AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    The behavioural and cognitive development were studied of 68 children with and 259 without minor neurological function (MND) at 14 years, when the majority of children showed three or more physical signs of puberty. MND was differentiated into fine manipulative disability, co-ordination problems,

  3. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  4. Aluminum-Induced Cholinergic Deficits in Different Brain Parts and Its Implications on Sociability and Cognitive Functions in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Syeda Mehpara; Mahboob, Aamra; Iqbal, Ghazala; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2017-05-01

    Aluminum is associated with etiology of many neurodegenerative diseases specially Alzheimer's disease. Chronic exposure to aluminum via drinking water results in aluminum deposition in the brain that leads to cognitive deficits. The study aimed to determine the effects of aluminum on cholinergic biomarkers, i.e., acetylcholine level, free choline level, and choline acetyltransferase gene expression, and how cholinergic deficit affects novel object recognition and sociability in mice. Mice were treated with AlCl3 (250 mg/kg). Acetylcholine level, free choline level, and choline acetyltransferase gene expression were determined in cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala. The mice were subjected to behavior tests (novel object recognition and social novelty preference) to assess memory deficits. The acetylcholine level in cortex and hippocampus was significantly reduced in aluminum-treated animals, as compared to cortex and hippocampus of control animals. Acetylcholine level in amygdala of aluminum-treated animals remained unchanged. Free choline level in all the three brain parts was found unaltered in aluminum-treated mice. The novel object recognition memory was severely impaired in aluminum-treated mice, as compared to the control group. Similarly, animals treated with aluminum showed reduced sociability compared to the control mice group. Our study demonstrates that aluminum exposure via drinking water causes reduced acetylcholine synthesis in spite of normal free choline availability. This deficit is caused by reduced recycling of acetylcholine due to lower choline acetyltransferase level. This cholinergic hypofunction leads to cognitive and memory deficits. Moreover, hippocampus is the most affected brain part after aluminum intoxication.

  5. Severe multisensory speech integration deficits in high-functioning school-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their resolution during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A

    2015-02-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5-12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13-15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Resolution During Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136

  7. Neurobehavioral observation and hearing impairment in children at school age in eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovcikova, E.; Trnovec, T.; Petrik, J.; Kocan, A.; Drobna, B.; Wimmerova, S.; Wsolova, L. [Slovak Medical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Hustak, M. [Air Force Military Hospital, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2004-09-15

    Neurotoxicity of PCBs has been reported in humans and confirmed in animal studies. It was shown that PCBs can alter a number of developmental physiological processes in which the thyroid plays an essential role. In children, the prenatal exposure to PCBs was associated with reduced birth weight and poor recognition memory. In children with longer duration of breast feeding implying higher PCB exposure, altered behavior, lengthening of psychomotor activities, worse attention, and worse memory performance were found. The so far published data on the association between PCBs exposure and hearing were based mainly on animal observations. Low-frequency auditory impairments have been documented in PCB exposed rats, including elevated behavioral auditory thresholds, decreased amplitude and prolonged latency auditory evoked brain stem responses. Two papers were related to humans only. The first one reported PCB-associated increased thresholds at two out of eight frequencies on audiometry, but only on the left side, and no deficits on evoked potentials or contrast sensitivity in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants. The other paper was focused on hearing impairments in boys of fish-eating mothers, but no individual PCB exposure data were available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between exposure to PCBs and health outcomes assessed, as performance in neurobehavioral tests, thyroid hormones production and hearing status. Selected confounder factors such as heavy metals and health/social background of development in children were also taken into consideration.

  8. Kangaroo-mother care method and neurobehavior of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Margareth Gurgel de Castro; Barros, Marina Carvalho de Moraes; Pessoa, Úrsula Maria Lima; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of kangaroo-mother care (KMC) in preterm (PT) neurobehavior between 36 and 41 weeks post-conceptual age (PCA). A prospective cohort of 61 preterm infants with gestational age (GA) of 28-32 w evaluated by the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS), with 36-41 w PCA. Infants with clinical instability were excluded. They were analyzed in 2 groups: - Kangaroo (KAN): KMC for 7 or more days; Conventional (CON): did not receive KMC. Scores of the 13 NNNS variables were compared between groups and the effect of KMC in the scores of the variables of NNNS were evaluated by multiple linear regression, controlling for confounders. The KAN groups (n=24) and CON (n=37) were similar regarding main demographic and clinical maternal and neonatal characteristics. Mean GA was 30.3 w; and birth weight was 1170 g for both groups. PT of KAN group were admitted in KMC with PCA of 35.8 w (38.5 days of life) and remained with this care for 14.3 days. The NNNS was applied 13 days after the start of KMC. PT submitted to KMC showed higher quality of movements (KAN: 4.98 ± 0.53 vs CON: 4.53 ± 0.47; p=0.001) and lower scores on Signs of stress and abstinence (KAN: 0.03 ± 0.03 vs CON: 0.05 ± 0.03; p=0.001). Controlling for confounders, the KMC was associated with higher scores on the variables Attention, Quality of movements, and lower scores on Asymmetry and Signs of stress and abstinence. PT submitted to the KMC, compared to those non-submitted, have better neurobehavior performance between 36 and 41 weeks of post-conceptual age. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. ["Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in forensic psychiatry: A review"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, D; Tisserant, I; Notardonato, L

    2017-05-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common and challenging childhood neurobehavioral disorders. ADHD may have behavioral consequences and involvements in minor and serious crimes. Our work aims to establish links between ADHD and forensic psychiatry. A review of international scientific literature concerning the relationship between ADHD and forensic psychiatry was conducted using the PudMed electronic database. We used the Mesh terms: "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" and "forensic psychiatry". We also used the "related articles" function of PubMed, the bibliography of selected articles and the Google Scholar database to identify possible additional papers. The prevalence of ADHD in prison populations may vary but remain higher than those found in the general population. Violence committed by a person with ADHD seems to be against other persons rather than property offences. Reactive-impulsive violence seems to be more prevalent than pro-active instrumental violence. The existence of ADHD does not appear as a risk factor of recidivism. The violence risk may be increased by the occurrence of comorbidities as conduct disorders and mental deficiency. There may exist a preferential association between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder or substance abuse which both increase the risk of violence. To put in perspective forensic psychiatry and ADHD allowed us to identify typology of violence, epidemiological aspect of ADHD in a prison environment and comorbidities involved in the risk of violence. This research permits to precise elements of prevention, diagnosis and assistance in the management of violent behaviour in ADHD and in expert practice. Copyright © 2016 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Neurobehavioral Effects of Levetiracetam in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Benge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of acquired epilepsy. Prophylaxis for seizures is the standard of care for individuals with moderate to severe injuries at risk for developing seizures, though relatively limited comparative data is available to guide clinicians in their choice of agents. There have however been experimental studies which demonstrate potential neuroprotective qualities of levetiracetam after TBI, and in turn there is hope that eventually such agents may improve neurobehavioral outcomes post-TBI. This mini-review summarizes the available studies and suggests areas for future studies.

  11. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control - a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lieb, Klaus; Schmahl, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control, and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive vs. reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, patients with BPD exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas patients with ADHD displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  12. Frontal Dysfunctions of Impulse Control – A Systematic Review in Borderline Personality Disorder and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Jung, Patrick; Krause-Utz, Annegret; Lieb, Klaus; Schmahl, Christian; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control, and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive vs. reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, patients with BPD exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas patients with ADHD displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders. PMID

  13. Frontal dysfunctions of impulse control – a systematic review in borderline personality disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eSebastian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Disorders such as borderline personality disorder (BPD or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are characterized by impulsive behaviors. Impulsivity as used in clinical terms is very broadly defined and entails different categories including personality traits as well as different cognitive functions such as emotion regulation or interference resolution and impulse control. Impulse control as an executive function, however, is neither cognitively nor neurobehaviorally a unitary function. Recent findings from behavioral and cognitive neuroscience studies suggest related but dissociable components of impulse control along functional domains like selective attention, response selection, motivational control and behavioral inhibition. In addition, behavioral and neural dissociations are seen for proactive versus reactive inhibitory motor control. The prefrontal cortex with its sub-regions is the central structure in executing these impulse control functions. Based on these concepts of impulse control, neurobehavioral findings of studies in BPD and ADHD were reviewed and systematically compared. Overall, BPD patients exhibited prefrontal dysfunctions across impulse control components rather in orbitofrontal, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, whereas ADHD patients displayed disturbed activity mainly in ventrolateral and medial prefrontal regions. Prefrontal dysfunctions, however, varied depending on the impulse control component and from disorder to disorder. This suggests a dissociation of impulse control related frontal dysfunctions in BPD and ADHD, although only few studies are hitherto available to assess frontal dysfunctions along different impulse control components in direct comparison of these disorders. Yet, these findings might serve as a hypothesis for the future systematic assessment of impulse control components to understand differences and commonalities of prefrontal cortex dysfunction in impulsive disorders.

  14. Neurobehavioral Mechanisms of Temporal Processing Deficits In Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    depression (Geriatric Depression Score $10), or had a medical history of neurological diagnoses other than PD, severe psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV...features of progressive supranuclear palsy , corticobasal degeneration, multi- ple systems atrophy, or dementia. Eighteen PD participants were taking...differences in striatal, cerebral , and cerebellar volume, automated cortical reconstruction and volumetric seg- mentation of T1-weighted images was

  15. Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Nielsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    To determine the possible neurotoxic impact of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we analyzed banked cord blood from a Faroese birth cohort for PCBs. The subjects were born in 1986-1987, and 917 cohort members had completed a series of neuropsychological tests at age 7years...

  16. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates neuroinflammation and neurobehavioral deficits induced by experimental traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casili, Giovanna; Campolo, Michela; Paterniti, Irene; Lanza, Marika; Filippone, Alessia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Esposito, Emanuela

    2018-01-23

    TBI is a serious neuropathology that causes secondary injury mechanisms, including dynamic interplay between ischemic, inflammatory and cytotoxic processes. Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) showed beneficial effects in preclinical models of neuroinflammation and toxic oxidative stress, so the aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), the most pharmacologically effective molecules among the FAEs, in a mouse model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI). Mice were orally administered with DMF at the doses of 1, 10 and 30 mg/Kg, 1h and 4h after CCI. We performed histological, molecular, and immunohistochemistry analysis on the traumatic penumbral areas of the brain 24 hours after CCI. DMF treatment notably reduced histological damage and behavioral impairments, reducing neurodegeneration as evidenced by assessments of neuronal loss, Fluoro-jade C and TUNEL staining; also, treatment with DMF blocked apoptosis process increasing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) expression in injured cortex. Furthermore, DMF treatment up-regulated antioxidant Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/ Nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor (Keap-1/Nrf-2) pathway, inducing activation of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reducing 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) staining. Also, regulating NF-κB pathway, DMF treatment decreased the severity of inflammation through a modulation of neuronal nitrite oxide synthase (nNOS), interleukin 1 (Il-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reducing ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Our results support the thesis that DMF may be an effective neuroprotectant after brain trauma and warrants further study.

  17. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2010-01-01

    -Binet Copying Recall Test). These associations corresponded to a developmental delay of 1.5-2 years. Prenatal pesticide exposure was also significantly associated with an average increase of 3.6 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and a slight decrease in body mass index of 1.1 kg/m2. Inclusion of the pilot data...

  18. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  19. Adaptation of the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) for evaluating neurobehavioral performance in Filipino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlman, Diane S; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Ramos, Essie Ann M; Mateo, Patrocinio C; Bielawski, Dawn M; Chiodo, Lisa M; Delaney-Black, Virginia; McCauley, Linda; Ostrea, Enrique M

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests have long been used to assess health effects in exposed working adult populations. The heightened concern over the potential impact of environmental exposures on neurological functioning in children has led to the development of test batteries for use with children. There is a need for reliable, easy-to-administer batteries to assess neurotoxic exposure in children. One such test battery previously validated with Spanish- and English-speaking children ages 4 and older, combines computerized tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) with non-computerized tests. The goal of the present study was to determine the feasibility of using standardized neurobehavioral tests in preschool and school-aged Filipino children. Test instructions were translated into the vernacular, Tagalog or Tagalog-English ("Taglish") and some instructions and materials were modified to be appropriate for the target populations. The battery was administered to 4-6-year-old Filipino children (N=50). The performance of the Filipino children was compared to data previously collected from Spanish- and English-speaking children tested in the US. The majority of children had no difficulty completing the tests in the battery with the exception of the Symbol-Digit test and Digit Span-reverse. The three groups showed similar patterns of performance on the tests and the older children performed better than the younger children on all of the tests. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of using this test battery to assess cognitive and motor performance in Filipino children. Tests in the battery assess a range of functions and the measures are sensitive to age differences. The current battery has been utilized in several cultures and socio-economic status classes, with only minor modifications needed. This study demonstrates the importance of pilot testing the methods before use in a new population, to ensure that the test is valid for that culture.

  20. Reduced protein turnover mediates functional deficits in transgenic mice expressing the 25 kDa C-terminal fragment of TDP-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, Antonella; Shaw, Darren M; Guarino, Francesca; Messina, Angela; Walker, Aaron W; Oddo, Salvatore

    2015-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD-TDP) are two neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of TDP-43. TDP-43 is proteolitically cleaved to generate two major C-terminal fragments of 35 and 25 kDa. The latter, known as TDP-25, is a consistent feature of FTLD-TDP and ALS; however, little is known about its role in disease pathogenesis. We have previously developed transgenic mice overexpressing low levels of TDP-25 (TgTDP-25(+/0)), which at 6 months of age show mild cognitive impairments and no motor deficits. To better understand the role of TDP-25 in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTLD-TDP, we generated TDP-25 homozygous mice (TgTDP-25(+/+)), thereby further increasing TDP-25 expression. We found a gene-dosage effect on cognitive and motor function at 15 months of age, as the TgTDP-25(+/+) showed more severe spatial and working memory deficits as well as worse motor performance than TgTDP-25(+/0) mice. These behavioral deficits were associated with increased soluble levels of TDP-25 in the nucleus and cytosol. Notably, high TDP-25 levels were also linked to reduced autophagy induction and proteasome function, two events that have been associated with both ALS and FTLD-TDP. In summary, we present strong in vivo evidence that high levels of TDP-25 are sufficient to cause behavioral deficits and reduce function of two of the major protein turnover systems: autophagy and proteasome. These mice represent a new tool to study the role of TDP-25 in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTLD-TDP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Health in relation to occupational exposure to pesticides in the Dutch flower bulb culture : Part 3A : neurobehavioral assessment of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides in the bulb growing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Hooisma, J.; Kullig, B.M.; Brouwer, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on central nervous system (CNS) function. A variety of neurobehavioral functions were assessed in a group of 129 workers in the bulb growing industry with at least ten years occupational

  2. Infant Brain Structures, Executive Function, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems at Preschool Age. A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Herba, Catherine M.; Roza, Sabine J.; Govaert, Paul; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Jaddoe, Vincent W.; Hofman, Albert; White, Tonya; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2013-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging findings have provided evidence for a relation between variations in brain structures and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, longitudinal neuroimaging studies are typically confined to children who have already been diagnosed with ADHD. In a population-based study, we aimed to characterize the…

  3. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  4. The prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yousefi-Nouraie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood. Children with ADHD may experience significant functional problems. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of ADHD and its subtypes in Iran. "nMethods: Pubmed, ISI web of science, psychinfo, Iranpsych, Iranmedex, Irandoc were searched. Irandoc, Iranmedex and Iranpsych are Iranian databases of which the last one is especially for psychiatry and psychology literature.Inclusion criteria were:  conducting studies by random sampling, using valid instruments to assess ADHD diagnosis or symptoms ,and presenting a prevalence of ADHD or attention deficit and / or hyperactivity symptoms. "nResults: after quality assessment, 16 studies were accepted. Their estimation of prevalence was different as different scales were used. Hyperactive type was more prevalent in boys, and inattentive type was more prevalent in girls. "nConclusion: Being aware of the epidemiology of ADHD in Iran helps us to make improvements in planning the allocation of funds for mental health services. Using one instrument in studying the prevalence of ADHD in a population may lead to more precise estimations.

  5. Poor response inhibition: at the nexus between substance abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alex S; Jentsch, J David

    2009-05-01

    The co-morbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse and dependence disorders may have multiple causes and consequences. In this review, we will describe neurobehavioral, genetic and animal model studies that support the notion that a common, genetically determined failure of response inhibition function is an endophenotype for both disorders. Through an impairment in the ability to cognitively control pre-potent behaviors, subjects can exhibit a collection of ADHD-like traits (impulsivity and hyperactivity), as well as susceptibility for the initiation of drug taking and its ultimate progression to an inflexible, uncontrollable form. At the neural level, dysfunction within circuitry that includes the ventrolateral frontal and cingulate cortices, as well as in associated basal ganglia zones, contributes to a common pattern of behavioral impairment, explaining aspects of co-morbidity. Animal models of substance abuse/dependence and ADHD that exhibit deficits in response inhibition have substantiated the role of this endophenotype in both disorders and their co-morbidity and should provide a testing ground for interventions targeting it. New directions for research that will further explore this hypothesis and begin to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms will be proposed.

  6. Motor function deficits in the 12 month-old female 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T P; Robertson, A; Chipman, P H; Rafuse, V F; Brown, R E

    2018-01-30

    Motor problems occur early in some patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and as the disease progresses many patients develop motor dysfunction. Motor dysfunction has been reported in some mouse models of AD, including the 5xFAD mouse, thus this model may be particularly useful for studying motor dysfunction in AD. In order to determine the extent of motor dysfunction in these mice, we tested 11-13 month old female 5xFAD and wildtype (WT) control mice in a battery of motor behaviour tasks. The 5xFAD mice showed hind limb clasping, weighed less and had slower righting reflexes than WT mice. In the open field, the 5xFAD mice travelled a shorter distance than the WT mice, spent less time moving and had a slower movement speed. The 5xFAD mice fell faster than the WT mice from the balance beam, wire suspension, grid suspension and rotarod tasks, indicating dysfunctions in balance, grip strength, motor co-ordination and motor learning. The 5xFAD mice had a short, shuffling gait with a shorter stride length than WT mice and had a slower swim speed. The 5xFAD mice also failed to show an acoustic startle response, likely due to motor dysfunction and previously reported hearing impairment. The 5xFAD mice did not show deficits in the ability of peripheral motor nerves to drive muscle output, suggesting that motor impairments are not due to dysfunction in peripheral motor nerves. These results indicate that the aged 5xFAD mice are deficient in numerous motor behaviours, and suggest that these mice may prove to be a good model for studying the mechanisms of motor dysfunction in AD, and motor behaviour might prove useful for assessing the efficacy of AD therapeutics. Motor dysfunction in 5xFAD mice must also be considered in behavioural tests of sensory and cognitive function so that performance is not confounded by impaired locomotor or swimming behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attention network functioning in children with anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and non-clinical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogg, K; Salum, G A; Bradley, B P; Gadelha, A; Pan, P; Alvarenga, P; Rohde, L A; Pine, D S; Manfro, G G

    2015-01-01

    Research with adults suggests that anxiety is associated with poor control of executive attention. However, in children, it is unclear (a) whether anxiety disorders and non-clinical anxiety are associated with deficits in executive attention, (b) whether such deficits are specific to anxiety versus other psychiatric disorders, and (c) whether there is heterogeneity among anxiety disorders (in particular, specific phobia versus other anxiety disorders). We examined executive attention in 860 children classified into three groups: anxiety disorders (n = 67), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 67) and no psychiatric disorder (n = 726). Anxiety disorders were subdivided into: anxiety disorders excluding specific phobia (n = 43) and specific phobia (n = 21). The Attention Network Task was used to assess executive attention, alerting and orienting. Findings indicated heterogeneity among anxiety disorders, as children with anxiety disorders (excluding specific phobia) showed impaired executive attention, compared with disorder-free children, whereas children with specific phobia showed no executive attention deficit. Among disorder-free children, executive attention was less efficient in those with high, relative to low, levels of anxiety. There were no anxiety-related deficits in orienting or alerting. Children with ADHD not only had poorer executive attention than disorder-free children, but also higher orienting scores, less accurate responses and more variable response times. Impaired executive attention in children (reflected by difficulty inhibiting processing of task-irrelevant information) was not fully explained by general psychopathology, but instead showed specific associations with anxiety disorders (other than specific phobia) and ADHD, as well as with high levels of anxiety symptoms in disorder-free children.

  8. Development of a Swedish Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for adult patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Staffan; Pettersson, Richard; Edlund-Söderström, Kerstin; Ganse, Gunnar; Holmkvist, Eva; Westin, Olof; Haglund, Lena

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is a phenomenon that attracts a lot of attention in society today. Advances in research have made it clear that many conditions that make people seek medical and psychiatric care may have pervasive deficits in attention, motor control and impulsivity at their roots. Since ADHD in adults is a relatively new and very versatile concept, there is a great need for systemized classification of the ramifications of the deficit that extends into every aspect of these patients' lives. To develop a Swedish Comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for adult patients with ADHD. A national expert survey was conducted using the Delphi technique and a formal consensus conference. Forty-two experts from different professions and organizations, including psychiatrists and physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, a counsellor, a specialist nurse, representatives from a patient organization and representatives from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency, participated in the Delphi process and 28 participants from the expert group attended the consensus conference. At the formal consensus conference, 66 categories from the ICF were identified and included in the national Comprehensive Core Set for ADHD: 21 categories from the component body functions, 26 categories from the component activities and participation, and 19 categories from the component environmental factors. The Comprehensive Core Set for ADHD should be regarded as national and preliminary, and should be further tested and evaluated by experts in ADHD in clinical settings in Sweden.

  9. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  10. Mindfulness Training among Individuals with Parkinson's Disease: Neurobehavioral Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, Barbara; Hirsch, Mark A.; Van Hecke, Wim; Mariën, Peter; Parizel, Paul M.; Crosiers, David; Cras, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate possible neurobehavioral changes secondary to a mindfulness based intervention (MBI) training for individuals living with Parkinson's disease (PD). Background. In the context of complementary medicine, MBIs are increasingly being used for stress reduction and in patient populations coping with chronic illness. The use of alternative and complementary medicine may be higher in patients with chronic conditions such as PD. However, behavioral effects of mindfulness training in PD have not yet been reported in the literature and this points to an unmet need and warrants further examination. Methods. A total of 27 out of 30 PD patients completed a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Questionnaires and the UPDRS I–IV were obtained at baseline and 8-week follow-up. Results. Significant changes after the MBI were found including a 5.5 point decrease on the UPDRS motor score, an increase of 0.79 points on Parkinson's disease questionnaire (PDQ-39) pain item, and a 3.15 point increase in the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire observe facet. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative analysis of neurobehavioral effects of MBI in PD. PMID:26101690

  11. Neurobehavioral effects of acute styrene exposure in fiberglass boatbuilders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.; Mahoney, F.C.; Hershman, D.L.; Woskie, S.; Smith, T.J. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A field investigation of the effects of acute exposure to styrene among fiberglass boatbuilders was performed. Personal samples of styrene in breathing zone air and postshift urinary mandelic acid were collected for 105 workers exposed and not exposed to styrene in 6 fiberglass boatbuilding companies in New England. Three tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) were performed by the subjects in the morning before exposure to styrene, near midday, and at the end of the work day. Duration of exposure averaged 2.9 years (SD = 4.6), 8-hour TWA styrene exposure averaged 29.9 ppm (SD = 36.2), and urinary mandelic acid averaged 347 mg/g creatinine (SD = 465). Regression analyses indicated a statistically significant relationship between postshift performance on the Symbol-Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic acid. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50 ppm styrene also showed a significant effect on Symbol-Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test-retest correlation coefficients above .80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  12. Validation of a neurobehavioral test system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letz, R.

    1990-03-09

    The study attempted to validate tests from the computerized Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES) for use in field investigations where repeated testing of the same subjects is required. Personal samples of styrene (100425) in the breathing zone air and post shift urinary mandelic-acid (90642) were collected for 116 workers in six fiberglass boat building companies located in New England. The average exposure to styrene was 4.6 years with an 8 hour time weighted average styrene exposure of 29.9 parts per million (ppm) and urinary mandelic-acid averaging 490 milligrams/gram creatinine. A statistically significant relationship was found between post shift performance on the Symbol/Digit test and both acute styrene exposure and mandelic-acid concentration. Other analyses comparing workers exposed to less than 50 ppm and greater than 50ppm styrene also showed a significant difference in Symbol/Digit performance. All three NES tests showed test/retest correlation coefficients above 0.80, and ease of use for collection of neurobehavioral data under field conditions was demonstrated.

  13. The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory functions in the presence of distracting stimuli in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, high-functioning autism and oppositional defiant disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to elucidate the specific nature of attention and response inhibition deficits in three clinical groups: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and high-functioning autism, as compared to children with a typical development. The analysis approached task performance dynamics as a function of time and the presence of distracting stimuli. Material and method: 108 children aged 7–12 years participated in the study – 21 diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, 21 with high-functioning autism, 19 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; 47 made the control group. The study employed the MOXO-CPT to evaluate attention and inhibition functions. Results: Pairwise comparisons of clinical groups with typically-developing children in their performance on the entire test indicated considerable differences between the control group and children with both oppositional defiant disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, but not between healthy subjects and children with autism. Performance profiles varied depending on the group, i.e. the type of disorder, and the level of the test, i.e. stimulus duration and intensity, but they were different for the particular studied aspects of attention and/or inhibition. High levels of similarity in functioning for all clinical groups were found in the measures of response accuracy, i.e. sustained attention and the speed of accurate response. The tendency to provide unnecessary responses and difficulties in complying with rules were found only in children with oppositional-defiant disorders. Impulsiveness rates increased over time in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, fluctuated over time in autism, while in the oppositional defiant disorder group performance was stable over time, but worse than in the control group. Conclusions: The dynamics of attentional and inhibitory control in clinical groups

  14. Are psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions related to treatment response to methylphenidate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan MH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandy H Chan,1 Patrick WL Leung,2 Ting-pong Ho,3 Se-fong Hung,4 Chi-chiu Lee,5 Chun-pan Tang,5 Ka-chai Cheung,2 Fung-yee Ching,2 Fefe HK Chan,6 Lu-hua Chen,2 Merce Garcia-Barcelo,7 Pak-chung Sham3 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Kowloon Hospital, Hospital Authority, 2Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Department of Psychiatry, Kwai Chung Hospital, Hospital Authority, 6Department of Clinical Psychology, Alice Ho Mui Ling Nethersole Hospital, Hospital Authority, 7Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Background: Methylphenidate (MPH has been found to be an effective medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on whether psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions of ADHD are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children.Objectives: This study investigated whether psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children. In some ways, it is preferable to have a drug that the effectiveness of which to a disorder is not affected by its associated cognitive functions and psychiatric comorbidities. On the other hand, it is likely that the baseline symptom severity of ADHD is associated with the effectiveness of MPH treatment on the symptoms post treatment.Methods: A total of 149 Chinese boys (aged 6–12 years with ADHD, combined type, and normal IQ participated in this study. Assessment of ADHD symptom severity was conducted pre and post MPH treatment, while assessment of psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits was performed in a non-medicated condition. Treatment response was defined as the ADHD symptom severity post MPH treatment.Results: Results indicated that MPH

  15. Neurobehavioral alterations and histopathological changes in brain and spinal cord of rats intoxicated with acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangir, Babu Lal; Mahaprabhu, R; Rahangadale, Santosh; Bhandarkar, Arun G; Kurkure, Nitin V

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this project was to study the clinical manifestations, neurobehavioral, hematobiochemical, oxidative stress, genotoxicity, and histopathological changes during acrylamide toxicity in rats. A total of 30 adult male Wistar rats were divided in 5 equal groups and received 0, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg body weight acrylamide as oral gavage, while group 5 was micronucleus (MN) control. Functional observational battery (FOB) parameters were studied at the 28th day of post treatment. Toxicological manifestations were evident in acrylamide-treated rats from 14th day onward. FOB revealed a significant change in central nervous system, neuromuscular, and autonomic domains. The hematological changes include significant decrease in concentration of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and mean corpuscular volume. The biochemical parameters aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin showed significant increase, while the levels of serum globulin and glucose were found to decrease significantly. The MN assay revealed the significant increase in frequencies of micronuclei and number of polychromatic erythrocytes. The oxidative stress parameters revealed no significant difference as compared to control rats. Histopathological changes observed in brain include neuronal degeneration, edema, and congestion, while spinal cord revealed demyelination in low-dose group and bilateral necrosis with malacia, liquefaction of white matter, and loss of myelin from gray matter in high-dose groups. The result indicates pathological alterations in brain and spinal cord and is responsible for neurobehavioral changes in rats. The FOB changes and histopathological alterations in spinal cord are in dose dependent to acrylamide intoxication. Various toxicological effects observed in experiment direct us to focus on a deep study and evaluate the possible causes pertaining to toxicity of this chemical. It would furnish the scientists with better options that

  16. Division III Collision Sports Are Not Associated with Neurobehavioral Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Berkner, Paul; Sandstrom, Noah J; Peluso, Mark W; Kurtz, Matthew M; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mannix, Rebekah

    2016-01-15

    We sought to determine whether the exposure to the sub-concussive blows that occur during division III collegiate collision sports affect later life neurobehavioral quality-of-life measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study of alumni from four division III colleges, targeting those between the ages of 40-70 years, using several well-validated quality-of-life measures for executive function, general concerns, anxiety, depression, emotional and behavior dyscontrol, fatigue, positive affect, sleep disturbance, and negative consequences of alcohol use. We used multivariable linear regression to assess for associations between collision sport participation and quality-of-life measures while adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, annual income, highest educational degree, college grades, exercise frequency, and common medical conditions. We obtained data from 3702 alumni, more than half of whom (2132) had participated in collegiate sports, 23% in collision sports, 23% in non-contact sports. Respondents with a history of concussion had worse self-reported health on several measures. When subjects with a history of concussion were removed from the analyses in order to assess for any potential effect of sub-concussive blows alone, negative consequences of alcohol use remained higher among collision sport athletes (β-coefficient 1.957, 95% CI 0.827-3.086). There were, however, no other significant associations between exposure to collision sports during college and any other quality-of-life measures. Our results suggest that, in the absence of a history of concussions, participation in collision sports at the Division III collegiate level is not a risk factor for worse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, despite exposure to repeated sub-concussive blows.

  17. Methylphenidate normalises activation and functional connectivity deficits in attention and motivation networks in medication-naïve children with ADHD during a rewarded continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, Katya; Halari, Rozmin; Cubillo, Ana; Mohammad, Abdul-Majeed; Brammer, Mick; Taylor, Eric

    2009-12-01

    Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have deficits in motivation and attention that can be ameliorated with the indirect dopamine agonist Methylphenidate (MPH). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of MPH in medication-naïve children with ADHD on the activation and functional connectivity of "cool" attentional as well as "hot" motivation networks. 13 medication-naïve children with ADHD were scanned twice, under either an acute clinical dose of MPH or Placebo, in a randomised, double-blind design, while they performed a rewarded continuous performance task that measured vigilant selective attention and the effects of reward. Brain activation and functional connectivity was compared to that of 13 healthy age-matched controls to test for normalisation effects of MPH. MPH normalised performance deficits that were observed in children with ADHD compared to controls. Under placebo, children with ADHD showed reduced activation and functional inter-connectivity in bilateral fronto-striato-parieto-cerebellar networks during the attention condition, but enhanced activation in the orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices for reward. MPH within children with ADHD enhanced the activation of fronto-striato-cerebellar and parieto-temporal regions. Compared to controls, MPH normalised differences during vigilant attention in parieto-temporal activation and fronto-striatal and fronto-cerebellar connectivity; MPH also normalised the enhanced orbitofrontal activation in children with ADHD in response to reward. MPH normalised attention differences between children with ADHD and controls by both up-regulation of dysfunctional fronto-striato-thalamo-cerebellar and parieto-temporal attention networks and down-regulation of hyper-sensitive orbitofrontal activation for reward processing. MPH thus shows context-dependent dissociative modulation of both motivational and attentional neuro-functional networks in

  18. The impact of anxiety, seizure severity, executive dysfunction, subjectively perceived psychological deficits, and depression on social function in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Christina; Walter, Uwe; Rösche, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The impact of anxiety, seizure severity, executive dysfunction, subjectively perceived psychological deficits, and depression on social function in patients with epilepsy (PWE) was analyzed. A brief cognitive screening test (EpiTrack) and an estimation of the last 6 months' cumulative seizure severity (Chalfont seizure severity scale) were performed, and questionnaires on subjectively perceived cognitive deficits (c.I.-Skala), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAIX1 and STAIX2), depression (Self Rating Depression Scale, SDS), and social function (Soziale Aktivität Selbstbeurteilungsskala, SASS) were completed. Forty PWE (aged 41.8 years, SD 16; 24 female, 16 male) were analyzed. Thirty-eight point 5 percent had a score signifying depression in the SDS; 20% had a pathological result in at least one of the anxiety scores. The ANOVA revealed that only anxiety as a trait symptom (STAIX2) had a significant influence on social function apart from the other factors (panxiety impair the social function of patients with epilepsy apart from depression, cognitive function, and seizure severity. They should be taken into account in the treatment of patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deficits of cognitive theory of mind and its relationship with functioning in individuals with an at-risk mental state and first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuro, Noriyuki; Katsura, Masahiro; Obara, Chika; Kikuchi, Tatsuo; Sakuma, Atsushi; Iizuka, Kunio; Hamaie, Yumiko; Ito, Fumiaki; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori

    2016-09-30

    Disturbance of theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship with functioning in schizophrenia is well documented; however, this is unclear in spectrum disorders like at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). To assess mental state reasoning ability, the total score of the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task questionnaire was compared among 36 Japanese individuals with ARMS, 40 with FEP, and 25 healthy controls (HC). Pearson's correlations between ToM performance and global and social functioning indices were examined. ToM performance for FEP and ARMS subjects was significantly lower than that for HC, though the significance of the difference between the ARMS and HC disappeared when controlling for premorbid IQ. ToM deficits in ARMS subjects were confirmed only in the comprehension of higher-order false belief. Only among FEP subjects were ToM performance and global functioning significantly correlated, though the significance disappeared when controlling for neurocognitive performance or dose of antipsychotics. No significant correlation between ToM performance and social functioning was observed in the FEP and ARMS groups. The current findings suggest that ToM deficits emerge in ARMS subjects confined within a higher-order domain, and that the relationship between ToM impairment and functional deterioration might be established after psychosis onset. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical and functional correlates of processing speed in pediatric Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nathan E; Braaten, Ellen B; Surman, Craig B H

    2017-03-27

    It is well established that processing speed is negatively impacted in children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, exactly how processing speed vulnerabilities manifest in daily functioning has not been well established. To support clinical care of youth with ADHD, it is important to better understand the functional consequences and relevant outcomes associated with processing speed deficits. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to identify the association between processing speed and clinical or functional correlates among children or adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 409 abstracts were screened, of which, 60 full-text articles were identified as potentially relevant, and 8 of these studies met inclusion criteria. Domains evaluated across these studies included reading skills, mathematics skills, written expression, anxiety, self-appraisals of competence, and adaptive functioning. Six studies reported an association between processing speed and reading skills, allowing for meta-analysis. Processing speed difficulties among youth with ADHD appear strongly associated with several clinical and functional correlates including weaker academic skills, poorer adaptive skills, increased self-reported anxiety, and overestimates of social competence. Meta-analytic results for studies reporting the association between processing speed and reading skills indicate a medium overall weighted mean effect size (r = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.28 -0.39) with minimal heterogeneity (I2 = 0.17). Clinical implications of these findings, limitations in the current knowledge base, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Training on Movement Figure-Ground Discrimination Remediates Low-Level Visual Timing Deficits in the Dorsal Stream, Improving High-Level Cognitive Functioning, Including Attention, Reading Fluency, and Working Memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teri Lawton; John Shelley-Tremblay

    2017-01-01

    ... (PATH to Reading neurotraining) acts to remediate visual timing deficits in the dorsal stream, thereby improving processing speed, reading fluency, and the executive control functions of attention and working memory...

  2. Stimulation of 5-HT2C Receptors Improves Cognitive Deficits Induced by Human Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 Loss of Function Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Del'Guidice, Thomas; Lemay, Francis; Lemasson, Morgane; Levasseur-Moreau, Jean; Manta, Stella; Etievant, Adeline; Escoffier, Guy; Doré, François Y; Roman, François S; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in the gene encoding the serotonin synthesis enzyme Tph2 have been identified in mental illnesses, including bipolar disorder, major depression, autism, schizophrenia, and ADHD. Deficits in cognitive flexibility and perseverative behaviors are shared common symptoms in these disorders. However, little is known about the impact of Tph2 gene variants on cognition. Mice expressing a human TPH2 variant (Tph2-KI) were used to investigate cognitive consequences of TPH2 loss of functio...

  3. Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have impaired balance function: involvement of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shum, Selina B M; Pang, Marco Y C

    2009-08-01

    To compare standing balance performance and sensory organization of balance control in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (combined type) (ADHD-C) and typically developing children. School-aged children (n = 43) with ADHD-C and 50 age- and sex-matched typically developing children participated in the study. Sensory organization of standing balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test (SOT). In addition to the composite equilibrium score, somatosensory, vestibular, and visual ratios, which were indicators of the ability of the child to use information from the respective sensory systems to maintain balance, were computed. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to compare the outcome variables between the 2 groups while controlling for physical activity level. MANCOVA revealed that children with ADHD-C had significantly lower composite equilibrium scores (P visual ratios (P = .001) than control children, by 10.3%, 2.1%, 15.6%, and 16.0%, respectively. Children with ADHD-C had significant deficits in standing balance performance in all conditions that included a disruption of sensory signals. The visual system tends to be more involved in contributing to the balance deficits in children with ADHD-C than the somatosensory and vestibular systems.

  4. Schizophrenia, culture and neuropsychology: sensory deficits, language impairments and social functioning in Chinese-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Chen, S; Chen, C-M; Khan, F; Forchelli, G; Javitt, D C

    2012-07-01

    While 20% of schizophrenia patients worldwide speak tonal languages (e.g. Mandarin), studies are limited to Western-language patients. Western-language patients show tonal deficits that are related to impaired emotional processing of speech. However, language processing is minimally affected. In contrast, in Mandarin, syllables are voiced in one of four tones, with word meaning varying accordingly. We hypothesized that Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients would show impairments in underlying basic auditory processing that, unlike in Western groups, would relate to deficits in word recognition and social outcomes. Altogether, 22 Mandarin-speaking schizophrenia patients and 44 matched healthy participants were recruited from New York City. The auditory tasks were: (1) tone matching; (2) distorted tunes; (3) Chinese word discrimination; (4) Chinese word identification. Social outcomes were measured by marital status, employment and most recent employment status. Patients showed deficits in tone-matching, distorted tunes, word discrimination and word identification versus controls (all psocial outcomes, tonally impaired patients had 'lower-status' jobs overall when compared with tonally intact patients (pculturally, their consequences may be language- and culture-dependent.

  5. Early life bisphenol A exposure and neurobehavior at 8years of age: Identifying windows of heightened vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Papandonatos, George D; Calafat, Antonia M; Chen, Aimin; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2017-10-01

    Early life BPA exposure could affect neurobehavior, but few studies have investigated whether there are developmental periods when the fetus or child is more vulnerable to these potential effects. We explored windows of vulnerability to BPA exposure in a multiethnic cohort of 228 mothers and their children from Cincinnati, Ohio. We measured urinary BPA concentrations at up to two prenatal and six postnatal time points from the 2nd trimester of pregnancy until the child was age 8years. At age 8years, we administered the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2), Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. We estimated covariate-adjusted differences in composite scores from each instrument using a multiple informant model designed to identify heightened windows of vulnerability. Among all children, there was not strong evidence that the associations between BPA and neurobehavior varied by the timing of exposure (Visit x BPA p-values≥0.16). However, child sex modified the associations of repeated BPA measures with BASC-2 scores (Visit x Sex x BPA p-values=0.02-0.23). For example, each 10-fold increase in prenatal BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in girls (β=6.2, 95% CI: 0.8, 11.6), but not boys (β=-0.8, 95% CI: -5.0, 3.4). In contrast, a 10-fold increase in 8-year BPA was associated with more externalizing behaviors in boys (β=3.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 7.2), but not girls (β=0.3, 95% CI: -3.5, 4.1). We found that sex-dependent associations between BPA and child neurobehavior may depend on the timing of BPA exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early developmental cues for diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Itai; Nevo, Yoram

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset disorder that is considered one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders. The symptoms of ADHD should be cast, not as static or fixed neurobehavioral deficits, but rather in terms of underlying developmental processes. Targeting attentional disorders early in life can bring about fundamental alterations in the pathogenesis of ADHD, and thus prevent or moderate the course of the disorder. The developmental approach can enable predictions concerning characteristics of ADHD that develop over time and inform us about multiple risk and protective factors that transact to impact its development, as well as the development of a broad range of associated co-morbid features. In this review, we describe the complex factors that predict and mediate the developmental course of ADHD, providing early cues for ADHD diagnosis and intervention in young children that will optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Atypical within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connections in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. McLeod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are highly comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the neural mechanisms of this comorbidity are poorly understood. Previous research has demonstrated that children with DCD and ADHD have altered brain region communication, particularly within the motor network. The structure and function of the motor network in a typically developing brain exhibits hemispheric dominance. It is plausible that functional deficits observed in children with DCD and ADHD are associated with neurodevelopmental alterations in within- and between-hemisphere motor network functional connection strength that disrupt this hemispheric dominance. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine functional connections of the left and right primary and sensory motor (SM1 cortices in children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD, relative to typically developing children. Our findings revealed that children with DCD, ADHD and DCD + ADHD exhibit atypical within- and between-hemisphere functional connection strength between SM1 and regions of the basal ganglia, as well as the cerebellum. Our findings further support the assertion that development of atypical motor network connections represents common and distinct neural mechanisms underlying DCD and ADHD. In children with DCD and DCD + ADHD (but not ADHD, a significant correlation was observed between clinical assessment of motor function and the strength of functional connections between right SM1 and anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and regions involved in visuospatial processing. This latter finding suggests that behavioral phenotypes associated with atypical motor network development differ between individuals with DCD and those with ADHD.

  8. Improving executive function deficits by playing interactive video-games: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial for individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental-Iluz, Clara; Zeilig, Gabi; Weingarden, Harold; Rand, Debbie

    2016-08-01

    Executive function deficits negatively impact independence and participation in everyday life of individuals with chronic stroke. Therefore, it is important to explore therapeutic interventions to improve executive functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 3-month interactive video-game group intervention compared to a traditional motor group intervention for improving executive functions in individuals with chronic stroke. This study is a secondary analysis of a single-blind randomized controlled trial for improving factors related to physical activity of individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments were administered pre and post the intervention and at 3-month follow-up by assessors blind to treatment allocation. Thirty-nine individuals with chronic stroke with executive function deficits participated in an interactive video-game group intervention (N.=20) or a traditional group intervention (N.=19). The intervention included two 1-hour group sessions per week for three months, either playing video-games or performing traditional exercises/activities. Executive function deficits were assessed using The Trail Making Test (Parts A and B) and by two performance-based assessments; the Bill Paying Task from the Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) and the Executive Function Route-Finding Task (EFRT). Following intervention, scores for the Bill Paying Task (EFPT) decreased by 27.5% and 36.6% for the participants in the video-game and traditional intervention, respectively (F=17.3, Pvideo-game group with small effect sizes. Effect size was small to medium for the TMT-B (F=0.003, P=0.954) and EFRT (F=1.2, P=0.28), without any statistical significance difference. Interactive video-games provide combined cognitive-motor stimulation and therefore have potential to improve executive functioning of individuals with chronic stroke. Further research is needed. These findings highlight the potential of utilizing interactive video-games in a

  9. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  10. The intersection of risk assessment and neurobehavioral toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B.; Elsner, J.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Neurobehavioral toxicology is now established as a core discipline of the environmental health sciences. Despite its recognized scientific prowess, stemming from its deep roots in psychology and neuroscience and its acknowledged successes, it faces additional demands and challenges. The latter, in fact, are a product of its achievements because success at one level leads to new and higher expectations. Now the discipline is counted upon to provide more definitive and extensive risk assessments than in the past. These new demands are the basis for the appraisals presented in the SGOMSEC 11 workshop. They extend beyond what would be offered in a primer of methodology. Instead, these appraisals are framed as issues into which what are usually construed as methodologies have be