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Sample records for neural tissue underlies

  1. Computational Assessment of Neural Probe and Brain Tissue Interface under Transient Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Polanco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional longevity of a neural probe is dependent upon its ability to minimize injury risk during the insertion and recording period in vivo, which could be related to motion-related strain between the probe and surrounding tissue. A series of finite element analyses was conducted to study the extent of the strain induced within the brain in an area around a neural probe. This study focuses on the transient behavior of neural probe and brain tissue interface with a viscoelastic model. Different stages of the interface from initial insertion of neural probe to full bonding of the probe by astro-glial sheath formation are simulated utilizing analytical tools to investigate the effects of relative motion between the neural probe and the brain while friction coefficients and kinematic frequencies are varied. The analyses can provide an in-depth look at the quantitative benefits behind using soft materials for neural probes.

  2. Bioprinting for Neural Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Anand, Shivesh; Shah, Twisha; Tasoglu, Savas

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a method by which a cell-encapsulating bioink is patterned to create complex tissue architectures. Given the potential impact of this technology on neural research, we review the current state-of-the-art approaches for bioprinting neural tissues. While 2D neural cultures are ubiquitous for studying neural cells, 3D cultures can more accurately replicate the microenvironment of neural tissues. By bioprinting neuronal constructs, one can precisely control the microenvironment by specifically formulating the bioink for neural tissues, and by spatially patterning cell types and scaffold properties in three dimensions. We review a range of bioprinted neural tissue models and discuss how they can be used to observe how neurons behave, understand disease processes, develop new therapies and, ultimately, design replacement tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrospun Nanofibrous Materials for Neural Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee-Shuan Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomaterials processed by the electrospinning technique has gained considerable interest for neural tissue engineering applications. The tissue engineering strategy is to facilitate the regrowth of nerves by combining an appropriate cell type with the electrospun scaffold. Electrospinning can generate fibrous meshes having fiber diameter dimensions at the nanoscale and these fibers can be nonwoven or oriented to facilitate neurite extension via contact guidance. This article reviews studies evaluating the effect of the scaffold’s architectural features such as fiber diameter and orientation on neural cell function and neurite extension. Electrospun meshes made of natural polymers, proteins and compositions having electrical activity in order to enhance neural cell function are also discussed.

  4. Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deciphering the Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms Underlying Auditory Learning. This project seeks to understand the brain mechanisms necessary for people to learn to perceive sounds. Neural circuits and learning. The research team will test people with and without musical training to evaluate their capacity to learn ...

  5. Neural crest specification: tissues, signals, and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C D; Jayasena, C S; Nie, S; Bronner, M E

    2012-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient population of multipotent and migratory cells unique to vertebrate embryos. Initially derived from the borders of the neural plate, these cells undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition to leave the central nervous system, migrate extensively in the periphery, and differentiate into numerous diverse derivatives. These include but are not limited to craniofacial cartilage, pigment cells, and peripheral neurons and glia. Attractive for their similarities to stem cells and metastatic cancer cells, neural crest cells are a popular model system for studying cell/tissue interactions and signaling factors that influence cell fate decisions and lineage transitions. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms required for neural crest formation in various vertebrate species, focusing on the importance of signaling factors from adjacent tissues and conserved gene regulatory interactions, which are required for induction and specification of the ectodermal tissue that will become neural crest. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Neural Dynamics Underlying Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor S.; Bressler, Steven L.; Knuth, Kevin H.; Ding, Ming-Zhou; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Ulbert, Istvan; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    There are two opposing hypotheses about the brain mechanisms underlying sensory event-related potentials (ERPs). One holds that sensory ERPs are generated by phase resetting of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and the other that they result from signal averaging of stimulus-evoked neural responses. We tested several contrasting predictions of these hypotheses by direct intracortical analysis of neural activity in monkeys. Our findings clearly demonstrate evoked response contributions to the sensory ERP in the monkey, and they suggest the likelihood that a mixed (Evoked/Phase Resetting) model may account for the generation of scalp ERPs in humans.

  7. Cellular neural network modelling of soft tissue dynamics for surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-07-20

    Currently, the mechanical dynamics of soft tissue deformation is achieved by numerical time integrations such as the explicit or implicit integration; however, the explicit integration is stable only under a small time step, whereas the implicit integration is computationally expensive in spite of the accommodation of a large time step. This paper presents a cellular neural network method for stable simulation of soft tissue deformation dynamics. The non-rigid motion equation is formulated as a cellular neural network with local connectivity of cells, and thus the dynamics of soft tissue deformation is transformed into the neural dynamics of the cellular neural network. Results show that the proposed method can achieve good accuracy at a small time step. It still remains stable at a large time step, while maintaining the computational efficiency of the explicit integration. The proposed method can achieve stable soft tissue deformation with efficiency of explicit integration for surgical simulation.

  8. Effect of Ionic Diffusion on Extracellular Potentials in Neural Tissue.

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    Geir Halnes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recorded potentials in the extracellular space (ECS of the brain is a standard measure of population activity in neural tissue. Computational models that simulate the relationship between the ECS potential and its underlying neurophysiological processes are commonly used in the interpretation of such measurements. Standard methods, such as volume-conductor theory and current-source density theory, assume that diffusion has a negligible effect on the ECS potential, at least in the range of frequencies picked up by most recording systems. This assumption remains to be verified. We here present a hybrid simulation framework that accounts for diffusive effects on the ECS potential. The framework uses (1 the NEURON simulator to compute the activity and ionic output currents from multicompartmental neuron models, and (2 the electrodiffusive Kirchhoff-Nernst-Planck framework to simulate the resulting dynamics of the potential and ion concentrations in the ECS, accounting for the effect of electrical migration as well as diffusion. Using this framework, we explore the effect that ECS diffusion has on the electrical potential surrounding a small population of 10 pyramidal neurons. The neural model was tuned so that simulations over ∼100 seconds of biological time led to shifts in ECS concentrations by a few millimolars, similar to what has been seen in experiments. By comparing simulations where ECS diffusion was absent with simulations where ECS diffusion was included, we made the following key findings: (i ECS diffusion shifted the local potential by up to ∼0.2 mV. (ii The power spectral density (PSD of the diffusion-evoked potential shifts followed a 1/f2 power law. (iii Diffusion effects dominated the PSD of the ECS potential for frequencies up to several hertz. In scenarios with large, but physiologically realistic ECS concentration gradients, diffusion was thus found to affect the ECS potential well within the frequency range picked up in

  9. Adhesion molecule-modified biomaterials for neural tissue engineering

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    Shreyas S Rao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion molecules (AMs represent one class of biomolecules that promote central nervous system regeneration. These tethered molecules provide cues to regenerating neurons that recapitulate the native brain environment. Improving cell adhesive potential of non-adhesive biomaterials is therefore a common goal in neural tissue engineering. This review discusses common AMs used in neural biomaterials and the mechanism of cell attachment to these AMs. Methods to modify materials with AMs are discussed and compared. Additionally, patterning of AMs for achieving specific neuronal responses is explored.

  10. Neural Crest Stem Cells from Dental Tissues: A New Hope for Dental and Neural Regeneration

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    Gaskon Ibarretxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs, which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

  11. Structural Analysis of Three-dimensional Human Neural Tissue derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terrence Brooks, Patrick; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at establishing a method for production of a three-dimensional (3D) human neural tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and analyzing the outcome by a combination of tissue ultrastructure and expression of neural markers. Methods: A two......-step cell culture procedure was implemented by subjecting human iPSCs to a 3D scaffoldbased neural differentiation protocol. First, neural fate-inducing small molecules were used to create a neuroepithelial monolayer. Second, the monolayer was trypsinized into single cells and seeded into a porous...... polystyrene scaffold and further cultured to produce a 3D neural tissue. The neural tissue was characterized by a combination of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: iPSCs developed into a 3D neural tissue expressing markers for neural progenitor cells, early neural...

  12. Classifications of multispectral colorectal cancer tissues using convolution neural network

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    Hawraa Haj-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer among men and women. Its diagnosis in early stages, typically done through the analysis of colon biopsy images, can greatly improve the chances of a successful treatment. This paper proposes to use convolution neural networks (CNNs to predict three tissue types related to the progression of CRC: benign hyperplasia (BH, intraepithelial neoplasia (IN, and carcinoma (Ca. Methods: Multispectral biopsy images of thirty CRC patients were retrospectively analyzed. Images of tissue samples were divided into three groups, based on their type (10 BH, 10 IN, and 10 Ca. An active contour model was used to segment image regions containing pathological tissues. Tissue samples were classified using a CNN containing convolution, max-pooling, and fully-connected layers. Available tissue samples were split into a training set, for learning the CNN parameters, and test set, for evaluating its performance. Results: An accuracy of 99.17% was obtained from segmented image regions, outperforming existing approaches based on traditional feature extraction, and classification techniques. Conclusions: Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of CNN for the classification of CRC tissue types, in particular when using presegmented regions of interest.

  13. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Compensatory and Noncompensatory Strategies in Risky Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Figner, B.; Weeda, W.D.; van der Molen, M.W.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Huizenga, H.M.

    Individuals may differ systematically in their applied decision strategies, which has critical implications for decision neuroscience but is yet scarcely studied. Our study's main focus was therefore to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying compensatory versus noncompensatory strategies in

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying compensatory and noncompensatory strategies in risky choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K. van; Figner, B.; Weeda, W.D.; Molen, M.W. van der; Jansen, B.R.J.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals may differ systematically in their applied decision strategies, which has critical implications for decision neuroscience but is yet scarcely studied. Our study's main focus was therefore to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying compensatory versus noncompensatory strategies in

  15. Multifunctional nanowire scaffolds for neural tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Samuel Leo

    Unlike other regions of the body, the nervous system is extremely vulnerable to damage and injury because it has a limited ability to self-repair. Over 250,000 people in the United States have spinal cord injuries and due to the complicated pathophysiology of such injuries, there are few options available for functional regeneration of the spinal column. Furthermore, peripheral nerve damage is troublingly common in the United States, with an estimated 200,000 patients treated surgically each year. The current gold standard in treatment for peripheral nerve damage is a nerve autograft. This technique was pioneered over 45 years ago, but suffers from a major drawback. By transecting a nerve from another part of the body, function is regained at the expense of destroying a nerve connection elsewhere. Because of these issues, the investigation of different materials for regenerating nervous tissue is necessary. This work examines multi-functional nanowire scaffolds to provide physical and chemical guidance cues to neural stem cells to enhance cellular activity from a biomedical engineering perspective. These multi-functional scaffolds include a unique nanowire nano-topography to provide physical cues to guide cellular adhesion. The nanowires were then coated with an electrically conductive polymer to further enhance cellular activity. Finally, nerve growth factor was conjugated to the surface of the scaffolds to provide chemical cues for the neural stem cells. The results in this work suggest that these multifunctional nanowire scaffolds could be used in vivo to repair nervous system tissue.

  16. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis; Kylie eRochford; Anthony Ian Jack

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950’s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task oriented and socio-emotional oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks -- the Task Positive Network (TPN) and the Default Mode Network (DMN). Neural activity in ...

  17. Expression of Intermediate Filament Nestin in Blood Vessels of Neural and Non-neural Tissues

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    Jaroslav Mokrý

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous findings performed in rat tissues demonstrated that intermediate filament nestin is expressed in endothelial cells of newly formed blood vessels of developing organs and neural transplants. The aim of the present study was to identify other cellular markers expressed in nestin-positive (nestin+ blood vessels. To reach this goal we performed double immunofluorescent study to co-localize nestin with endothelium-specific markers (CD31, CD34 II, vimentin or markers of perivascular cells (GFAP, SMA in paraffin-embedded sections of normal human brain tissue, low- and high-grade gliomas, postinfarcted heart and samples of non-neural tumours. Our findings documented that all the samples examined contained blood vessels with different ratio of nestin+ endothelial cells. Double immunostaining provided unambiguous evidence that endothelial cells expressed nestin and allowed them to distinguish from other nestin+ elements (perivascular astrocytic endfeet, undifferentiated tumour cells, smooth muscle cells and pericytes. Nestin+ endothelium was not confined only to newly formed capillaries but was also observed in blood vessels of larger calibres, frequently in arterioles and venules. We conclude that nestin represents a reliable vascular marker that is expressed in endothelial cells. Elevation of nestin expression likely corresponds to reorganization of intermediate filament network in the cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in the course of their maturation or adaptation to changes in growing tissues.

  18. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior.

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    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C; Kauvar, Isaac V; Fenno, Lief E; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Airan, Raag D; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Tye, Kay M; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-06-19

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social, but not novel object, interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type 1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of deep projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of mammalian circuit dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep convolutional neural network approach for forehead tissue thickness estimation

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    Manit Jirapong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented a deep convolutional neural network (CNN approach for forehead tissue thickness estimation. We use down sampled NIR laser backscattering images acquired from a novel marker-less near-infrared laser-based head tracking system, combined with the beam’s incident angle parameter. These two-channel augmented images were constructed for the CNN input, while a single node output layer represents the estimated value of the forehead tissue thickness. The models were – separately for each subject – trained and tested on datasets acquired from 30 subjects (high resolution MRI data is used as ground truth. To speed up training, we used a pre-trained network from the first subject to bootstrap training for each of the other subjects. We could show a clear improvement for the tissue thickness estimation (mean RMSE of 0.096 mm. This proposed CNN model outperformed previous support vector regression (mean RMSE of 0.155 mm or Gaussian processes learning approaches (mean RMSE of 0.114 mm and eliminated their restrictions for future research.

  20. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  1. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks - the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  2. Antagonistic Neural Networks Underlying Differentiated Leadership Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eleftherios Boyatzis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950’s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task oriented and socio-emotional oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks -- the Task Positive Network (TPN and the Default Mode Network (DMN. Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success.

  3. Antagonistic neural networks underlying differentiated leadership roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Richard E.; Rochford, Kylie; Jack, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of two distinct leadership roles, the task leader and the socio-emotional leader, has been documented in the leadership literature since the 1950s. Recent research in neuroscience suggests that the division between task-oriented and socio-emotional-oriented roles derives from a fundamental feature of our neurobiology: an antagonistic relationship between two large-scale cortical networks – the task-positive network (TPN) and the default mode network (DMN). Neural activity in TPN tends to inhibit activity in the DMN, and vice versa. The TPN is important for problem solving, focusing of attention, making decisions, and control of action. The DMN plays a central role in emotional self-awareness, social cognition, and ethical decision making. It is also strongly linked to creativity and openness to new ideas. Because activation of the TPN tends to suppress activity in the DMN, an over-emphasis on task-oriented leadership may prove deleterious to social and emotional aspects of leadership. Similarly, an overemphasis on the DMN would result in difficulty focusing attention, making decisions, and solving known problems. In this paper, we will review major streams of theory and research on leadership roles in the context of recent findings from neuroscience and psychology. We conclude by suggesting that emerging research challenges the assumption that role differentiation is both natural and necessary, in particular when openness to new ideas, people, emotions, and ethical concerns are important to success. PMID:24624074

  4. Analytic Modeling of Neural Tissue: I. A Spherical Bidomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Benjamin L; Chauhan, Munish; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2016-12-01

    Presented here is a model of neural tissue in a conductive medium stimulated by externally injected currents. The tissue is described as a conductively isotropic bidomain, i.e. comprised of intra and extracellular regions that occupy the same space, as well as the membrane that divides them, and the injection currents are described as a pair of source and sink points. The problem is solved in three spatial dimensions and defined in spherical coordinates [Formula: see text]. The system of coupled partial differential equations is solved by recasting the problem to be in terms of the membrane and a monodomain, interpreted as a weighted average of the intra and extracellular domains. The membrane and monodomain are defined by the scalar Helmholtz and Laplace equations, respectively, which are both separable in spherical coordinates. Product solutions are thus assumed and given through certain transcendental functions. From these electrical potentials, analytic expressions for current density are derived and from those fields the magnetic flux density is calculated. Numerical examples are considered wherein the interstitial conductivity is varied, as well as the limiting case of the problem simplifying to two dimensions due to azimuthal independence. Finally, future modeling work is discussed.

  5. Polypyrrole-coated electrospun PLGA nanofibers for neural tissue applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Y; Bashur, Chris A; Goldstein, Aaron S; Schmidt, Christine E

    2009-09-01

    Electrospinning is a promising approach to create nanofiber structures that are capable of supporting adhesion and guiding extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, electrical stimulation of neurons in the absence of topographical features also has been shown to guide axonal extension. Therefore, the goal of this study was to form electrically conductive nanofiber structures and to examine the combined effect of nanofiber structures and electrical stimulation. Conductive meshes were produced by growing polypyrrole (PPy) on random and aligned electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers, as confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and X-ray photon spectroscopy. PPy-PLGA electrospun meshes supported the growth and differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and hippocampal neurons comparable to non-coated PLGA control meshes, suggesting that PPy-PLGA may be suitable as conductive nanofibers for neuronal tissue scaffolds. Electrical stimulation studies showed that PC12 cells, stimulated with a potential of 10 mV/cm on PPy-PLGA scaffolds, exhibited 40-50% longer neurites and 40-90% more neurite formation compared to unstimulated cells on the same scaffolds. In addition, stimulation of the cells on aligned PPy-PLGA fibers resulted in longer neurites and more neurite-bearing cells than stimulation on random PPy-PLGA fibers, suggesting a combined effect of electrical stimulation and topographical guidance and the potential use of these scaffolds for neural tissue applications.

  6. Polypyrrole-Coated Electrospun PLGA Nanofibers for Neural Tissue Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Bashur, Chris A.; Goldstein, Aaron S.; Schmidt, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Electrospinning is a promising approach to create nanofiber structures that are capable of supporting adhesion and guiding extension of neurons for nerve regeneration. Concurrently, electrical stimulation of neurons in the absence of topographical features also has been shown to guide axonal extension. Therefore, the goal of this study was to form electrically conductive nanofiber structures and to examine the combined effect of nanofiber structures and electrical stimulation. Conductive meshes were produced by growing polypyrrole (PPy) on random and aligned electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanofibers, as confirmed by scanning electron micrographs and X-ray photon spectroscopy. PPy-PLGA electrospun meshes supported the growth and differentiation of rat pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells and hippocampal neurons comparable to non-coated PLGA control meshes, suggesting that PPy-PLGA may be suitable as conductive nanofibers for neuronal tissue scaffolds. Electrical stimulation studies showed that PC12 cells, stimulated with a potential of 10 mV/cm on PPy-PLGA scaffolds, exhibited 40–50% longer neurites and 40–90% more neurite formation compared to unstimulated cells on the same scaffolds. In addition, stimulation of the cells on aligned PPy-PLGA fibers resulted in longer neurites and more neurite-bearing cells than stimulation on random PPy-PLGA fibers, suggesting a combined effect of electrical stimulation and topographical guidance and the potential use of these scaffolds for neural tissue applications. PMID:19501901

  7. ChainMail based neural dynamics modeling of soft tissue deformation for surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinao; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-07-20

    Realistic and real-time modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation is a fundamental research issue in the field of surgical simulation. In this paper, a novel cellular neural network approach is presented for modeling and simulation of soft tissue deformation by combining neural dynamics of cellular neural network with ChainMail mechanism. The proposed method formulates the problem of elastic deformation into cellular neural network activities to avoid the complex computation of elasticity. The local position adjustments of ChainMail are incorporated into the cellular neural network as the local connectivity of cells, through which the dynamic behaviors of soft tissue deformation are transformed into the neural dynamics of cellular neural network. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed neural network approach is capable of modeling the soft tissues' nonlinear deformation and typical mechanical behaviors. The proposed method not only improves ChainMail's linear deformation with the nonlinear characteristics of neural dynamics but also enables the cellular neural network to follow the principle of continuum mechanics to simulate soft tissue deformation.

  8. Neural Circuitry and Plasticity Mechanisms Underlying Delay Eyeblink Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John H.; Steinmetz, Adam B.

    2011-01-01

    Pavlovian eyeblink conditioning has been used extensively as a model system for examining the neural mechanisms underlying associative learning. Delay eyeblink conditioning depends on the intermediate cerebellum ipsilateral to the conditioned eye. Evidence favors a two-site plasticity model within the cerebellum with long-term depression of…

  9. Electric field effects in hyperexcitable neural tissue: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, D.M

    2003-07-01

    Uniform electric fields applied to neural tissue can modulate neuronal excitability with a threshold value of about 1mV mm{sup -1} in normal physiological conditions. However, electric fields could have a lower threshold in conditions where field sensitivity is enhanced, such as those simulating epilepsy. Uniform electrical fields were applied to hippocampal brain slices exposed to picrotoxin, high potassium or low calcium solutions. The results in the low calcium medium show that neuronal activity can be completely blocked in 10% of the 30 slices tested with a field amplitude of 1mV mm{sup -1}. These results suggest that the threshold for this effect is clearly smaller than 1mV mm{sup -1}. The hypothesis that the extracellular resistance could affect the sensitivity to the electrical fields was tested by measuring the effect of the osmolarity of the extracellular solution on the efficacy of the field. A 10% decrease on osmolarity resulted in a 56% decrease (n=4) in the minimum field required for full suppression. A 14% in osmolarity produced an 81% increase in the minimum field required for full suppression. These results show that the extracellular volume can modulate the efficacy of the field and could lower the threshold field amplitudes to values lower than {approx}1mmV mm{sup -.} (author)

  10. Central neural control of thermoregulation and brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2016-04-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire that maintains body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and alters body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the experimental underpinnings of our current model of the CNS pathways controlling the principal thermoeffectors for body temperature regulation: cutaneous vasoconstriction controlling heat loss, and shivering and brown adipose tissue for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific, core efferent pathways within the CNS that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. Via the lateral parabrachial nucleus, skin thermal afferent input reaches the hypothalamic preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control heat production by inhibiting thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to thermogenesis-controlling premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation of spinal circuits necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a useful platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation and elucidating the hypothalamic circuitry and neurotransmitters involved in body temperature regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of possible neural architectures underlying information-geometric measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuno, Masami; Okada, Masato

    2004-04-01

    A novel analytical method based on information geometry was recently proposed, and this method may provide useful insights into the statistical interactions within neural groups. The link between informationgeometric measures and the structure of neural interactions has not yet been elucidated, however, because of the ill-posed nature of the problem. Here, possible neural architectures underlying information-geometric measures are investigated using an isolated pair and an isolated triplet of model neurons. By assuming the existence of equilibrium states, we derive analytically the relationship between the information-geometric parameters and these simple neural architectures. For symmetric networks, the first- and second-order information-geometric parameters represent, respectively, the external input and the underlying connections between the neurons provided that the number of neurons used in the parameter estimation in the log-linear model and the number of neurons in the network are the same. For asymmetric networks, however, these parameters are dependent on both the intrinsic connections and the external inputs to each neuron. In addition, we derive the relation between the information-geometric parameter corresponding to the two-neuron interaction and a conventional cross-correlation measure. We also show that the information-geometric parameters vary depending on the number of neurons assumed for parameter estimation in the log-linear model. This finding suggests a need to examine the information-geometric method carefully. A possible criterion for choosing an appropriate orthogonal coordinate is also discussed. This article points out the importance of a model-based approach and sheds light on the possible neural structure underlying the application of information geometry to neural network analysis.

  12. Binary tissue classification on wound images with neural networks and bayesian classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veredas, Francisco; Mesa, Héctor; Morente, Laura

    2010-02-01

    A pressure ulcer is a clinical pathology of localized damage to the skin and underlying tissue caused by pressure, shear, or friction. Diagnosis, treatment, and care of pressure ulcers are costly for health services. Accurate wound evaluation is a critical task for optimizing the efficacy of treatment and care. Clinicians usually evaluate each pressure ulcer by visual inspection of the damaged tissues, which is an imprecise manner of assessing the wound state. Current computer vision approaches do not offer a global solution to this particular problem. In this paper, a hybrid approach based on neural networks and Bayesian classifiers is used in the design of a computational system for automatic tissue identification in wound images. A mean shift procedure and a region-growing strategy are implemented for effective region segmentation. Color and texture features are extracted from these segmented regions. A set of k multilayer perceptrons is trained with inputs consisting of color and texture patterns, and outputs consisting of categorical tissue classes which are determined by clinical experts. This training procedure is driven by a k-fold cross-validation method. Finally, a Bayesian committee machine is formed by training a Bayesian classifier to combine the classifications of the k neural networks. Specific heuristics based on the wound topology are designed to significantly improve the results of the classification. We obtain high efficiency rates from a binary cascade approach for tissue identification. Results are compared with other similar machine-learning approaches, including multiclass Bayesian committee machine classifiers and support vector machines. The different techniques analyzed in this paper show high global classification accuracy rates. Our binary cascade approach gives high global performance rates (average sensitivity =78.7% , specificity =94.7% , and accuracy =91.5% ) and shows the highest average sensitivity score ( =86.3%) when detecting

  13. Neural Network Spectral Robustness under Perturbations of the Underlying Graph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rădulescu, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have been using graph-theoretical approaches to model complex networks (such as social, infrastructural, or biological networks) and how their hardwired circuitry relates to their dynamic evolution in time. Understanding how configuration reflects on the coupled behavior in a system of dynamic nodes can be of great importance, for example, in the context of how the brain connectome is affecting brain function. However, the effect of connectivity patterns on network dynamics is far from being fully understood. We study the connections between edge configuration and dynamics in a simple oriented network composed of two interconnected cliques (representative of brain feedback regulatory circuitry). In this article our main goal is to study the spectra of the graph adjacency and Laplacian matrices, with a focus on three aspects in particular: (1) the sensitivity and robustness of the spectrum in response to varying the intra- and intermodular edge density, (2) the effects on the spectrum of perturbing the edge configuration while keeping the densities fixed, and (3) the effects of increasing the network size. We study some tractable aspects analytically, then simulate more general results numerically, thus aiming to motivate and explain our further work on the effect of these patterns on the network temporal dynamics and phase transitions. We discuss the implications of such results to modeling brain connectomics. We suggest potential applications to understanding synaptic restructuring in learning networks and the effects of network configuration on function of regulatory neural circuits.

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal in addicted patients: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Babhadiashar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphine is one of the most potent alkaloid in opium, which has substantial medical uses and needs and it is the first active principle purified from herbal source. Morphine has commonly been used for relief of moderate to severe pain as it acts directly on the central nervous system; nonetheless, its chronic abuse increases tolerance and physical dependence, which is commonly known as opiate addiction. Morphine withdrawal syndrome is physiological and behavioral symptoms that stem from prolonged exposure to morphine. A majority of brain regions are hypofunctional over prolonged abstinence and acute morphine withdrawal. Furthermore, several neural mechanisms are likely to contribute to morphine withdrawal. The present review summarizes the literature pertaining to neural mechanisms underlying morphine withdrawal. Despite the fact that morphine withdrawal is a complex process, it is suggested that neural mechanisms play key roles in morphine withdrawal.

  15. Enhanced expression of FNDC5 in human embryonic stem cell-derived neural cells along with relevant embryonic neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahrizjani, Fatemeh Ahmadi; Ghaedi, Kamran; Salamian, Ahmad; Tanhaei, Somayeh; Nejati, Alireza Shoaraye; Salehi, Hossein; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-25

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has enhanced the capability of basic and clinical research in the context of human neural differentiation. Derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESCs facilitates the process of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes. We have recently indicated that fibronectin type III domain containing 5 protein (FNDC5) expression is required for appropriate neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Bioinformatics analyses have shown the presence of three isoforms for human FNDC5 mRNA. To differentiate which isoform of FNDC5 is involved in the process of human neural differentiation, we have used hESCs as an in vitro model for neural differentiation by retinoic acid (RA) induction. The hESC line, Royan H5, was differentiated into a neural lineage in defined adherent culture treated by RA and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). We collected all cell types that included hESCs, rosette structures, and neural cells in an attempt to assess the expression of FNDC5 isoforms. There was a contiguous increase in all three FNDC5 isoforms during the neural differentiation process. Furthermore, the highest level of expression of the isoforms was significantly observed in neural cells compared to hESCs and the rosette structures known as neural precursor cells (NPCs). High expression levels of FNDC5 in human fetal brain and spinal cord tissues have suggested the involvement of this gene in neural tube development. Additional research is necessary to determine the major function of FDNC5 in this process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glucocorticoid control of gene transcription in neural tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsink, Maarten Christian

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones exert modulatory effects on neural function in a delayed genomic fashion. The two receptor types that can bind glucocorticoids, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), are ligand-inducible transcription factors. Therefore, changes in gene

  17. Identification and target prediction of miRNAs specifically expressed in rat neural tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Kang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a large group of RNAs that play important roles in regulating gene expression and protein translation. Several studies have indicated that some miRNAs are specifically expressed in human, mouse and zebrafish tissues. For example, miR-1 and miR-133 are specifically expressed in muscles. Tissue-specific miRNAs may have particular functions. Although previous studies have reported the presence of human, mouse and zebrafish tissue-specific miRNAs, there have been no detailed reports of rat tissue-specific miRNAs. In this study, Home-made rat miRNA microarrays which established in our previous study were used to investigate rat neural tissue-specific miRNAs, and mapped their target genes in rat tissues. This study will provide information for the functional analysis of these miRNAs. Results In order to obtain as complete a picture of specific miRNA expression in rat neural tissues as possible, customized miRNA microarrays with 152 selected miRNAs from miRBase were used to detect miRNA expression in 14 rat tissues. After a general clustering analysis, 14 rat tissues could be clearly classified into neural and non-neural tissues based on the obtained expression profiles with p values Conclusion Our work provides a global view of rat neural tissue-specific miRNA profiles and a target map of miRNAs, which is expected to contribute to future investigations of miRNA regulatory mechanisms in neural systems.

  18. Uniform neural tissue models produced on synthetic hydrogels using standard culture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Christopher; Schmitz, Matthew T; Propson, Nicholas E; Hou, Zhonggang; Zhang, Jue; Nguyen, Bao K; Bolin, Jennifer M; Jiang, Peng; McIntosh, Brian E; Probasco, Mitchell D; Swanson, Scott; Stewart, Ron; Thomson, James A; Schwartz, Michael P; Murphy, William L

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to test sample reproducibility for model neural tissues formed on synthetic hydrogels. Human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived precursor cells were cultured on synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels to promote differentiation and self-organization into model neural tissue constructs. Neural progenitor, vascular, and microglial precursor cells were combined on PEG hydrogels to mimic developmental timing, which produced multicomponent neural constructs with 3D neuronal and glial organization, organized vascular networks, and microglia with ramified morphologies. Spearman's rank correlation analysis of global gene expression profiles and a comparison of coefficient of variation for expressed genes demonstrated that replicate neural constructs were highly uniform to at least day 21 for samples from independent experiments. We also demonstrate that model neural tissues formed on PEG hydrogels using a simplified neural differentiation protocol correlated more strongly to in vivo brain development than samples cultured on tissue culture polystyrene surfaces alone. These results provide a proof-of-concept demonstration that 3D cellular models that mimic aspects of human brain development can be produced from human pluripotent stem cells with high sample uniformity between experiments by using standard culture techniques, cryopreserved cell stocks, and a synthetic extracellular matrix. Impact statement Pluripotent stem (PS) cells have been characterized by an inherent ability to self-organize into 3D "organoids" resembling stomach, intestine, liver, kidney, and brain tissues, offering a potentially powerful tool for modeling human development and disease. However, organoid formation must be quantitatively reproducible for applications such as drug and toxicity screening. Here, we report a strategy to produce uniform neural tissue constructs with reproducible global gene expression profiles for replicate samples from multiple

  19. Wnt/Yes-Associated Protein Interactions During Neural Tissue Patterning of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejoy, Julie; Song, Liqing; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2017-08-31

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have special ability to self-assemble into neural spheroids or mini-brain-like structures. During the self-assembly process, Wnt signaling plays an important role in regional patterning and establishing positional identity of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors. Recently, the role of Wnt signaling in regulating Yes-associated protein (YAP) expression (nuclear or cytoplasmic), the pivotal regulator during organ growth and tissue generation, has attracted increasing interests. However, the interactions between Wnt and YAP expression for neural lineage commitment of hiPSCs remain poorly explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of Wnt signaling and YAP expression on the cellular population in three-dimensional (3D) neural spheroids derived from hiPSCs. In this study, Wnt signaling was activated using CHIR99021 for 3D neural spheroids derived from human iPSK3 cells through embryoid body formation. Our results indicate that Wnt activation induces nuclear localization of YAP and upregulates the expression of HOXB4, the marker for hindbrain/spinal cord. By contrast, the cells exhibit more rostral forebrain neural identity (expression of TBR1) without Wnt activation. Cytochalasin D was then used to induce cytoplasmic YAP and the results showed the decreased HOXB4 expression. In addition, the incorporation of microparticles in the neural spheroids was investigated for the perturbation of neural patterning. This study may indicate the bidirectional interactions of Wnt signaling and YAP expression during neural tissue patterning, which have the significance in neurological disease modeling, drug screening, and neural tissue regeneration.

  20. Neural circuitry underlying affective response to peer feedback in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E; Choate, Victoria R; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2012-01-01

    Peer feedback affects adolescents' behaviors, cognitions and emotions. We examined neural circuitry underlying adolescents' emotional response to peer feedback using a functional neuroimaging paradigm whereby, 36 adolescents (aged 9-17 years) believed they would interact with unknown peers postscan. Neural activity was expected to vary based on adolescents' perceptions of peers and feedback type. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) activity was found when adolescents indicated how they felt following feedback (acceptance or rejection) from peers of low vs high interest. Greater activation in both cortical (e.g. superior temporal gyrus, insula, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (e.g. striatum, thalamus) regions emerged in response to acceptance vs rejection feedback. Response to acceptance also varied by age and gender in similar regions (e.g. superior temporal gyrus, fusiform, insula), with greater age-related increases in activation to acceptance vs rejection for females than males. Affective response to rejection vs acceptance did not yield significantly greater neural activity in any region. vlPFC response suggests cognitive flexibility in reappraising initial perceptions of peers following feedback. Striatal response suggests that acceptance is a potent social reward for adolescents, an interpretation supported by more positive self-reported affective response to acceptance than rejection from high- but not low-interest peers.

  1. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Swaminathan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  3. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves. PMID:19939265

  4. Development of biomaterial scaffold for nerve tissue engineering: Biomaterial mediated neural regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Anuradha; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2009-11-25

    Neural tissue repair and regeneration strategies have received a great deal of attention because it directly affects the quality of the patient's life. There are many scientific challenges to regenerate nerve while using conventional autologous nerve grafts and from the newly developed therapeutic strategies for the reconstruction of damaged nerves. Recent advancements in nerve regeneration have involved the application of tissue engineering principles and this has evolved a new perspective to neural therapy. The success of neural tissue engineering is mainly based on the regulation of cell behavior and tissue progression through the development of a synthetic scaffold that is analogous to the natural extracellular matrix and can support three-dimensional cell cultures. As the natural extracellular matrix provides an ideal environment for topographical, electrical and chemical cues to the adhesion and proliferation of neural cells, there exists a need to develop a synthetic scaffold that would be biocompatible, immunologically inert, conducting, biodegradable, and infection-resistant biomaterial to support neurite outgrowth. This review outlines the rationale for effective neural tissue engineering through the use of suitable biomaterials and scaffolding techniques for fabrication of a construct that would allow the neurons to adhere, proliferate and eventually form nerves.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying melodic perception and memory for pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorre, R J; Evans, A C; Meyer, E

    1994-04-01

    The neural correlates of music perception were studied by measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes with positron emission tomography (PET). Twelve volunteers were scanned using the bolus water method under four separate conditions: (1) listening to a sequence of noise bursts, (2) listening to unfamiliar tonal melodies, (3) comparing the pitch of the first two notes of the same set of melodies, and (4) comparing the pitch of the first and last notes of the melodies. The latter two conditions were designed to investigate short-term pitch retention under low or high memory load, respectively. Subtraction of the obtained PET images, superimposed on matched MRI scans, provides anatomical localization of CBF changes associated with specific cognitive functions. Listening to melodies, relative to acoustically matched noise sequences, resulted in CBF increases in the right superior temporal and right occipital cortices. Pitch judgments of the first two notes of each melody, relative to passive listening to the same stimuli, resulted in right frontal-lobe activation. Analysis of the high memory load condition relative to passive listening revealed the participation of a number of cortical and subcortical regions, notably in the right frontal and right temporal lobes, as well as in parietal and insular cortex. Both pitch judgment conditions also revealed CBF decreases within the left primary auditory cortex. We conclude that specialized neural systems in the right superior temporal cortex participate in perceptual analysis of melodies; pitch comparisons are effected via a neural network that includes right prefrontal cortex, but active retention of pitch involves the interaction of right temporal and frontal cortices.

  6. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  7. Ontogeny of neural circuits underlying spatial memory in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Alexander Ainge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial memory is a well characterised psychological function in both humans and rodents. The combined computations of a network of systems including place cells in the hippocampus, grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and head direction cells found in numerous structures in the brain have been suggested to form the neural instantiation of the cognitive map as first described by Tolman in 1948. However, while our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying spatial representations in adults is relatively sophisticated, we know substantially less about how this network develops in young animals. In this article we review studies examining the developmental timescale that these systems follow. Electrophysiological recordings from very young rats show that directional information is at adult levels at the outset of navigational experience. The systems supporting allocentric memory, however, take longer to mature. This is consistent with behavioural studies of young rats which show that spatial memory based on head direction develops very early but that allocentric spatial memory takes longer to mature. We go on to report new data demonstrating that memory for associations between objects and their spatial locations is slower to develop than memory for objects alone. This is again consistent with previous reports suggesting that adult like spatial representations have a protracted development in rats and also suggests that the systems involved in processing non-spatial stimuli come online earlier.

  8. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Use of Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal and Neural Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naosuke Kamei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal and neural tissues including the bone, skeletal muscle, ligaments, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. EPCs can be mobilized from bone marrow and recruited to injured tissue to contribute to neovascularization and tissue repair. In addition, EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs promote neovascularization and tissue repair through their differentiation to endothelial cells or tissue-specific cells, the upregulation of growth factors, and the induction and activation of endogenous stem cells. Human peripheral blood CD34(+ cells containing EPCs have been used in clinical trials of bone repair. Thus, EPCs are a promising cell source for the treatment of musculoskeletal and neural tissue injury.

  10. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  11. Novel nanofibrous spiral scaffolds for neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Junping; Yu, Xiaojun

    2008-12-01

    Due to several drawbacks associated with autografts and allografts, tissue-engineering approaches have been widely used to repair peripheral nerve injuries. Most of the traditional tissue-engineered scaffolds in use are either tubular (single or multi-lumen) or hydrogel-based cylindrical grafts, which provide limited surface area for cell attachment and regeneration. Here, we show a novel poly(lactide-co-glycotide) (PLGA) microsphere-based spiral scaffold design with a nanofibrous surface that has enhanced surface areas and possesses sufficient mechanical properties and porosities to support the nerve regeneration process. These scaffolds have an open architecture that goes evenly throughout the scaffolds hence leaving enough volume for media influx and deeper cell penetration into the scaffolds. The in vitro tests conducted using Schwann cells show that the nanofibrous spiral scaffolds promote higher cell attachment and proliferation when compared to contemporary tubular scaffolds or nanofiber-based tubular scaffolds. Also, the nanofiber coating on the surfaces enhances the surface area, mimics the extracellular matrix and provides unidirectional alignment of cells along its direction. Hence, we propose that these scaffolds could alleviate some drawbacks in current nerve grafts and could potentially be used in nerve regeneration.

  12. Evaluation of Raman spectra of human brain tumor tissue using the learning vector quantization neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tuo; Chen, Changshui; Shi, Xingzhe; Liu, Chengyong

    2016-05-01

    The Raman spectra of tissue of 20 brain tumor patients was recorded using a confocal microlaser Raman spectroscope with 785 nm excitation in vitro. A total of 133 spectra were investigated. Spectra peaks from normal white matter tissue and tumor tissue were analyzed. Algorithms, such as principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and the support vector machine, are commonly used to analyze spectral data. However, in this study, we employed the learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network, which is typically used for pattern recognition. By applying the proposed method, a normal diagnosis accuracy of 85.7% and a glioma diagnosis accuracy of 89.5% were achieved. The LVQ neural network is a recent approach to excavating Raman spectra information. Moreover, it is fast and convenient, does not require the spectra peak counterpart, and achieves a relatively high accuracy. It can be used in brain tumor prognostics and in helping to optimize the cutting margins of gliomas.

  13. Imaging regenerating bone tissue based on neural networks applied to micro-diffraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campi, G.; Pezzotti, G. [Institute of Crystallography, CNR, via Salaria Km 29.300, I-00015, Monterotondo Roma (Italy); Fratini, M. [Centro Fermi -Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' Enrico Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Ricci, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Burghammer, M. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B. P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Cancedda, R.; Mastrogiacomo, M. [Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, and Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale dell' Università di Genova and AUO San Martino Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132, Genova (Italy); Bukreeva, I.; Cedola, A. [Institute for Chemical and Physical Process, CNR, c/o Physics Dep. at Sapienza University, P-le A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    We monitored bone regeneration in a tissue engineering approach. To visualize and understand the structural evolution, the samples have been measured by X-ray micro-diffraction. We find that bone tissue regeneration proceeds through a multi-step mechanism, each step providing a specific diffraction signal. The large amount of data have been classified according to their structure and associated to the process they came from combining Neural Networks algorithms with least square pattern analysis. In this way, we obtain spatial maps of the different components of the tissues visualizing the complex kinetic at the base of the bone regeneration.

  14. 3D culture models of tissues under tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S

    2017-01-01

    Cells dynamically assemble and organize into complex tissues during development, and the resulting three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix in turn feeds back to regulate cell and tissue function. Recent advances in engineered cultures of cells to model 3D tissues or organoids have begun to capture this dynamic reciprocity between form and function. Here, we describe the underlying principles that have advanced the field, focusing in particular on recent progress in using mechanical constraints to recapitulate the structure and function of musculoskeletal tissues. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the conductive PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold for neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Wenfang; Ge, Dan; Sun, Changkai; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-09-26

    Engineering scaffolds with excellent electro-activity is increasingly important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with hyaluronic acid (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized via chemical oxidant polymerization. A three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was then developed by introducing PEDOT-HA nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. HA, as a bridge, not only was used as a dopant, but also combined PEDOT into the Cs/Gel via chemical crosslinking. The PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was used as a conductive substrate for neural stem cell (NSC) culture in vitro. The results demonstrated that the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had excellent biocompatibility for NSC proliferation and differentiation. 3D confocal fluorescence images showed cells attached on the channel surface of Cs/Gel and PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffolds with a normal neuronal morphology. Compared to the Cs/Gel scaffold, the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold not only promoted NSC proliferation with up-regulated expression of Ki67, but also enhanced NSC differentiation into neurons and astrocytes with up-regulated expression of β tubulin-III and GFAP, respectively. It is expected that this electro-active and bio-active PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold will be used as a conductive platform to regulate NSC behavior for neural tissue engineering.

  16. Neural mechanism underlying autobiographical memory modulated by remoteness and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Ruiyang; Fu, Yan; Wang, DaHua; Yao, Li; Long, Zhiying

    2012-03-01

    Autobiographical memory is the ability to recollect past events from one's own life. Both emotional tone and memory remoteness can influence autobiographical memory retrieval along the time axis of one's life. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate brain regions involved in retrieving processes of autobiographical memory, the effect of emotional tone and memory age on autobiographical memory retrieval remains to be clarified. Moreover, whether the involvement of hippocampus in consolidation of autobiographical events is time dependent or independent has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of memory remoteness (factor1: recent and remote) and emotional valence (factor2: positive and negative) on neural correlates underlying autobiographical memory by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique. Although all four conditions activated some common regions known as "core" regions in autobiographical memory retrieval, there are some other regions showing significantly different activation for recent versus remote and positive versus negative memories. In particular, we found that bilateral hippocampal regions were activated in the four conditions regardless of memory remoteness and emotional valence. Thus, our study confirmed some findings of previous studies and provided further evidence to support the multi-trace theory which believes that the role of hippocampus involved in autobiographical memory retrieval is time-independent and permanent in memory consolidation.

  17. Neural circuitry underlying sentence-level linguistic prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunxia; Gandour, Jackson; Talavage, Thomas; Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Xu, Yisheng; Li, Xiaojian; Lowe, Mark

    2005-11-01

    This study investigates the neural substrates underlying the perception of two sentence-level prosodic phenomena in Mandarin Chinese: contrastive stress (initial vs. final emphasis position) and intonation (declarative vs. interrogative modality). In an fMRI experiment, Chinese and English listeners were asked to selectively attend to either stress or intonation in paired 3-word sentences, and make speeded-response discrimination judgments. Between-group comparisons revealed that the Chinese group exhibited significantly greater activity in the left supramarginal gyrus and posterior middle temporal gyrus relative to the English group for both tasks. These same two regions showed a leftward asymmetry in the stress task for the Chinese group only. For both language groups, rightward asymmetries were observed in the middle portion of the middle frontal gyrus across tasks. All task effects involved greater activity for the stress task as compared to intonation. A left-sided task effect was observed in the posterior middle temporal gyrus for the Chinese group only. Both language groups exhibited a task effect bilaterally in the intraparietal sulcus. These findings support the emerging view that speech prosody perception involves a dynamic interplay among widely distributed regions not only within a single hemisphere but also between the two hemispheres. This model of speech prosody processing emphasizes the role of right hemisphere regions for complex-sound analysis, whereas task-dependent regions in the left hemisphere predominate when language processing is required.

  18. Attention Modulates the Neural Processes Underlying Multisensory Integration of Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tam Ho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrating emotional information from multiple sensory modalities is generally assumed to be a pre-attentive process (de Gelder et al., 1999. This assumption, however, presupposes that the integrative process occurs independent of attention. Using event-potentials (ERP the present study investigated whether the neural processes underlying the integration of dynamic facial expression and emotional prosody is indeed unaffected by attentional manipulations. To this end, participants were presented with congruent and incongruent face-voice combinations (eg, an angry face combined with a neutral voice and performed different two-choice tasks in four consecutive blocks. Three of the tasks directed the participants' attention to emotion expressions in the face, the voice or both. The fourth task required participants to attend to the synchronicity between voice and lip movements. The results show divergent modulations of early ERP components by the different attentional manipulations. For example, when attention was directed to the face (or the voice, incongruent stimuli elicited a reduced N1 as compared to congruent stimuli. This effect was absent, when attention was diverted away from the emotionality in both face and voice suggesting that the detection of emotional incongruence already requires attention. Based on these findings, we question whether multisensory integration of emotion occurs indeed pre-attentively.

  19. Knockdown of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase impairs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermer, Vanessa; Ritter, Mathias; Albuquerque, Boris; Leib, Christoph; Stanke, Matthias; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2010-11-26

    In the adult mammalian brain the subependymal layer of the lateral ventricles houses neural stem cells giving rise to young neurons migrating towards the olfactory bulb. The molecular cues controlling essential functions within the neurogenesis pathway such as proliferation, short and long distance migration, differentiation and functional integration are poorly understood. Neural progenitors in situ express the tissue nonspecific form of alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), a cell surface-located nonspecific phosphomonoesterase capable of hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides. To gain insight into the functional role of TNAP in cultured multipotent neural stem cells we applied a knockdown protocol using RNA interference with shRNA and retroviral infection. We show that TNAP knockdown reduces cell proliferation and differentiation into neurons or oligodendrocytes. This effect is abrogated by addition of alkaline phosphatase to the culture medium. Our results suggest that TNAP is essential for NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and possibly also in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    , especially that of the prefrontal cortex and the posterior regions of the brain. (3) Autistic models, including those based on weak central coherence theory (Frith, 1989), that focus on how savant skills emerge from an autistic brain. Based on recent neuroimaging studies of ASD, Just et al. (2004) suggested the underconnectivity theory, which emphasizes the disruption of long-range connectivity and the relative intact or even more enhanced local connectivity in the autistic brain. All the models listed above have certain advantages and shortcomings. At the end of this review, we propose another integrative model of savant syndrome. In this model, we predict an altered balance of local/global connectivity patterns that contribute to an altered functional segregation/integration ratio. In particular, we emphasize the crucial role played by the disruption of global connectivity in a parallel distributed cortical network, which might result in impairment in integrated cognitive processing, such as impairment in executive function and social cognition. On the other hand, the reduced inter-regional collaboration could lead to a disinhibitory enhancement of neural activity and connectivity in local cortical regions. In addition, enhanced connectivity in the local brain regions is partly due to the abnormal organization of the cortical network as a result of developmental and pathological states. This enhanced local connectivity results in the specialization and facilitation of low-level cognitive processing. The disruption of connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and other regions is considered to be a particularly important factor because the prefrontal region shows the most influential inhibitory control on other cortical areas. We propose that these neural mechanisms as the underlying causes for the emergence of savant ability in ASD and FTD patients.

  1. Determination of platinum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in neural tissues from rats, monkeys and patients treated with cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rietz, B.; Krarup-Hansen, A.; Rorth, M.

    2001-01-01

    of the animals mentioned and in the neural tissues of human patients. For the determination of platinum in the tissues radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used. The detection limit is 1 ng Pt g(-1). The platinum results indicate that platinum becomes accumulated in the dorsal root ganglia......Cisplatin is one of the most used antineoplastic drugs, essential for the treatment of germ cell tumours. Its use in medical treatment of cancer patients often causes chronic peripheral neuropathy in these patients. The distribution of cisplatin in neural tissues is, therefore, of great interest....... Rats and monkeys were used as animal models for the study of sensory changes in different neural tissues, like spinal cord (ventral and dorsal part), dorsal root ganglia and sural nerve. The study was combined with quantitative measurements of the content of platinum in the neural tissues...

  2. Microinjection of membrane-impermeable molecules into single neural stem cells in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fong Kuan; Haffner, Christiane; Huttner, Wieland B; Taverna, Elena

    2014-05-01

    This microinjection protocol allows the manipulation and tracking of neural stem and progenitor cells in tissue at single-cell resolution. We demonstrate how to apply microinjection to organotypic brain slices obtained from mice and ferrets; however, our technique is not limited to mouse and ferret embryos, but provides a means of introducing a wide variety of membrane-impermeable molecules (e.g., nucleic acids, proteins, hydrophilic compounds) into neural stem and progenitor cells of any developing mammalian brain. Microinjection experiments are conducted by using a phase-contrast microscope equipped with epifluorescence, a transjector and a micromanipulator. The procedure normally takes ∼2 h for an experienced researcher, and the entire protocol, including tissue processing, can be performed within 1 week. Thus, microinjection is a unique and versatile method for changing and tracking the fate of a cell in organotypic slice culture.

  3. Trigger Points, Pressure Pain Hyperalgesia, and Mechanosensitivity of Neural Tissue in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Márquez, Pedro; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Ríos-Sánchez, Ana; Ocón-Hernández, Olga

    2017-08-25

    This study aims to evaluate the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs), widespread pressure pain sensitivity, and mechanosensitivity of neural tissue in women with chronic pelvic pain. Case-control study. Faculty of Health Sciences. Forty women with chronic pelvic pain between age 18 and 60 years and 40 matched healthy controls were included in the study. TrPs were bilaterally explored in gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadratus lumborum, and adductor magnus muscles. The referred pain reproduced lumbopelvic symptoms. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were also bilaterally assessed over the Pfannenstiel incision point on the abdominal, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle. Mechanosensitivity of neural tissue was assessed with the neurodynamics tests of slump and the straight-leg raising. Significant between-group differences were found in TrP presence in patients with chronic pelvic pain (P Neurodynamics show a significantly decreased value in women with CPP. Patients with chronic pelvic pain presented a high percentage of TrPs that reproduce their symptoms. Patients also showed a widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia and more mechanosensitive neural tissue due to a decrease on the range of motion related to neurodynamics.

  4. On random walks and entropy in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies of neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingo, Carson; Magin, Richard L; Colon-Perez, Luis; Triplett, William; Mareci, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    In diffusion-weighted MRI studies of neural tissue, the classical model assumes the statistical mechanics of Brownian motion and predicts a monoexponential signal decay. However, there have been numerous reports of signal decays that are not monoexponential, particularly in the white matter. We modeled diffusion in neural tissue from the perspective of the continuous time random walk. The characteristic diffusion decay is represented by the Mittag-Leffler function, which relaxes a priori assumptions about the governing statistics. We then used entropy as a measure of the anomalous features for the characteristic function. Diffusion-weighted MRI experiments were performed on a fixed rat brain using an imaging spectrometer at 17.6 T with b-values arrayed up to 25,000 s/mm(2). Additionally, we examined the impact of varying either the gradient strength, q, or mixing time, Δ, on the observed diffusion dynamics. In white and gray matter regions, the Mittag-Leffler and entropy parameters demonstrated new information regarding subdiffusion and produced different image contrast from that of the classical diffusion coefficient. The choice of weighting on q and Δ produced different image contrast within the regions of interest. We propose these parameters have the potential as biomarkers for morphology in neural tissue. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impedance of tissue-mimicking phantom material under compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Belmont

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioimpedance of tissues under compression is a field in need of study. While biological tissues can become compressed in a myriad of ways, very few experiments have been conducted to describe the relationship between the passive electrical properties of a material (impedance/admittance during mechanical deformation. Of the investigations that have been conducted, the exodus of fluid from samples under compression has been thought to be the cause of changes in impedance, though until now was not measured directly. Using a soft tissue-mimicking phantom material (tofu whose passive electrical properties are a function of the conducting fluid held within its porous structure, we have shown that the mechanical behavior of a sample under compression can be measured through bioimpedance techniques.

  6. Comparison of the acute effects of hemostatic agents on neural tissues in spine surgery: Histologic analysis in rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Meric

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Both gelatin sponge and oxidized cellulose did not increase the cellular necrosis of neural tissues. However, oxidized cellulose may lead to an increased local inflammatory reaction. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(1.000: 21-26

  7. 3-D Bioprinting of Neural Tissue for Applications in Cell Therapy and Drug Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals in North America and cost the health-care industry billions of dollars for treatment. Current treatment options for degenerative diseases focus on physical rehabilitation or drug therapies, which temporarily mask the effects of cell damage, but quickly lose their efficacy. Cell therapies for the central nervous system remain an untapped market due to the complexity involved in growing neural tissues, controlling their differentiation, and protecting them from the hostile environment they meet upon implantation. Designing tissue constructs for the discovery of better drug treatments are also limited due to the resolution needed for an accurate cellular representation of the brain, in addition to being expensive and difficult to translate to biocompatible materials. 3-D printing offers a streamlined solution for engineering brain tissue for drug discovery or, in the future, for implantation. New microfluidic and bioplotting devices offer increased resolution, little impact on cell viability and have been tested with several bioink materials including fibrin, collagen, hyaluronic acid, poly(caprolactone, and poly(ethylene glycol. This review details current efforts at bioprinting neural tissue and highlights promising avenues for future work.

  8. 3-D Bioprinting of Neural Tissue for Applications in Cell Therapy and Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michaela; Willerth, Stephanie M

    2017-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals in North America and cost the health-care industry billions of dollars for treatment. Current treatment options for degenerative diseases focus on physical rehabilitation or drug therapies, which temporarily mask the effects of cell damage, but quickly lose their efficacy. Cell therapies for the central nervous system remain an untapped market due to the complexity involved in growing neural tissues, controlling their differentiation, and protecting them from the hostile environment they meet upon implantation. Designing tissue constructs for the discovery of better drug treatments are also limited due to the resolution needed for an accurate cellular representation of the brain, in addition to being expensive and difficult to translate to biocompatible materials. 3-D printing offers a streamlined solution for engineering brain tissue for drug discovery or, in the future, for implantation. New microfluidic and bioplotting devices offer increased resolution, little impact on cell viability and have been tested with several bioink materials including fibrin, collagen, hyaluronic acid, poly(caprolactone), and poly(ethylene glycol). This review details current efforts at bioprinting neural tissue and highlights promising avenues for future work.

  9. Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Gazzaley, Adam

    2009-03-11

    Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant information and ignore distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortex (i.e., top-down modulation). Such selective, goal-directed modulation of activity may be intimately related to memory, such that the focus of attention biases the likelihood of successfully maintaining relevant information by limiting interference from irrelevant stimuli. Despite recent studies elucidating the mechanistic overlap between attention and memory, the relationship between top-down modulation of visual processing during working memory (WM) encoding, and subsequent recognition performance has not yet been established. Here, we provide neurophysiological evidence in healthy, young adults that top-down modulation of early visual processing (memory, motion direction and color. Moreover, attention to irrelevant stimuli was reflected neurally during the WM maintenance period as an increased memory load. These results suggest that neural enhancement of relevant information is not the primary determinant of high-level performance, but rather optimal WM performance is dependent on effectively filtering irrelevant information through neural suppression to prevent overloading a limited memory capacity.

  10. Neural processing of reward magnitude under varying attentional demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Strumpf, Hendrik; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens-Max; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2011-04-06

    Central to the organization of behavior is the ability to represent the magnitude of a prospective reward and the costs related to obtaining it. Therein, reward-related neural activations are discounted in dependence of the effort required to resolve a given task. Varying attentional demands of the task might however affect reward-related neural activations. Here we employed fMRI to investigate the neural representation of expected values during a monetary incentive delay task with varying attentional demands. Following a cue, indicating at the same time the difficulty (hard/easy) and the reward magnitude (high/low) of the upcoming trial, subjects performed an attention task and subsequently received feedback about their monetary reward. Consistent with previous results, activity in anterior-cingulate, insular/orbitofrontal and mesolimbic regions co-varied with the anticipated reward-magnitude, but also with the attentional requirements of the task. These activations occurred contingent on action-execution and resembled the response time pattern of the subjects. In contrast, cue-related activations, signaling the forthcoming task-requirements, were only observed within attentional control structures. These results suggest that anticipated reward-magnitude and task-related attentional demands are concurrently processed in partially overlapping neural networks of anterior-cingulate, insular/orbitofrontal, and mesolimbic regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D bioprinting: A new insight into the therapeutic strategy of neural tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic injuries and chronic degenerative diseases represent the world's largest unmet medical need. There are over 50 million people worldwide suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are only a few treatment options available for acute traumatic injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. In this commentary, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving neural stem cells (NSCs) embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane (PU) bioink is reviewed. The thermoresponsive and biodegradable PU dispersion can form gel near 37 °C without any crosslinker. NSCs embedded within the water-based PU hydrogel with appropriate stiffness showed comparable viability and differentiation after printing. Moreover, in the zebrafish embryo neural deficit model, injection of the NSC-laden PU hydrogels promoted the repair of damaged CNS. In addition, the function of adult zebrafish with traumatic brain injury was rescued after implantation of the 3D-printed NSC-laden constructs. Therefore, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique may offer new possibilities for future therapeutic strategy of neural tissue regeneration.

  12. Improved Selectivity From a Wavelength Addressable Device for Wireless Stimulation of Neural Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ç. Seymour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrical neural stimulation with micro electrodes is a promising technique for restoring lost functions in the central nervous system as a result of injury or disease. One of the problems related to current neural stimulators is the tissue response due to the connecting wires and the presence of a rigid electrode inside soft neural tissue. We have developed a novel, optically activated, microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator based on a custom layered compound semiconductor heterostructure that is both wireless and has a comparatively small volume. Optical activation provides a wireless means of energy transfer to the neurostimulator, eliminating wires and the associated complications. This neurostimulator was shown to evoke action potentials and a functional motor response in the rat spinal cord. In this work, we extend our design to include wavelength selectivity and thus allowing independent activation of devices. As a proof of concept, we fabricated two different microscale devices with different spectral responsivities in the near-infrared region. We assessed the improved addressability of individual devices via wavelength selectivity as compared to spatial selectivity alone through on-bench optical measurements of the devices in combination with an in vivo light intensity profile in the rat cortex obtained in a previous study. We show that wavelength selectivity improves the individual addressability of the floating stimulators, thus increasing the number of devices that can be implanted in close proximity to each other.

  13. 3D bioprinting: A new insight into the therapeutic strategy of neural tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Fu-Yu; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute traumatic injuries and chronic degenerative diseases represent the world’s largest unmet medical need. There are over 50 million people worldwide suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are only a few treatment options available for acute traumatic injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. In this commentary, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique involving neural stem cells (NSCs) embedded in the thermoresponsive biodegradable polyurethane (PU) bioink is reviewed. The thermoresponsive and biodegradable PU dispersion can form gel near 37°C without any crosslinker. NSCs embedded within the water-based PU hydrogel with appropriate stiffness showed comparable viability and differentiation after printing. Moreover, in the zebrafish embryo neural deficit model, injection of the NSC-laden PU hydrogels promoted the repair of damaged CNS. In addition, the function of adult zebrafish with traumatic brain injury was rescued after implantation of the 3D-printed NSC-laden constructs. Therefore, the newly developed 3D bioprinting technique may offer new possibilities for future therapeutic strategy of neural tissue regeneration. PMID:26709633

  14. PANP is a novel O-glycosylated PILR{alpha} ligand expressed in neural tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogure, Amane [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shiratori, Ikuo [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Wang, Jing [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Lanier, Lewis L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Arase, Hisashi, E-mail: arase@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Immunochemistry, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); JST CREST, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} A Novel molecule, PANP, was identified to be a PILR{alpha} ligand. {yields} Sialylated O-glycan structures on PANP were required for PILR{alpha} recognition. {yields} Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. {yields} PANP seems to be involved in immune regulation as a ligand for PILR{alpha}. -- Abstract: PILR{alpha} is an immune inhibitory receptor possessing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in its cytoplasmic domain enabling it to deliver inhibitory signals. Binding of PILR{alpha} to its ligand CD99 is involved in immune regulation; however, whether there are other PILR{alpha} ligands in addition to CD99 is not known. Here, we report that a novel molecule, PILR-associating neural protein (PANP), acts as an additional ligand for PILR{alpha}. Transcription of PANP was mainly observed in neural tissues. PILR{alpha}-Ig fusion protein bound cells transfected with PANP and the transfectants stimulated PILR{alpha} reporter cells. Specific O-glycan structures on PANP were found to be required for PILR recognition of this ligand. These results suggest that PANP is involved in immune regulation as a ligand of the PILR{alpha}.

  15. Applicability of Under Vacuum Fresh Tissue Sealing and Cooling to Omics Analysis of Tumor Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroni, Silvia; Dugo, Matteo; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Iorio, Egidio; Valeri, Barbara; Pinciroli, Patrizia; De Bortoli, Maida; Marchesi, Edoardo; Miodini, Patrizia; Taverna, Elena; Ricci, Alessandro; Canevari, Silvana; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Bongarzone, Italia

    2016-12-01

    Biobanks of frozen human normal and malignant tissues represent a valuable source for "omics" analysis in translational cancer research and molecular pathology. However, the success of molecular and cellular analysis strongly relies on the collection, handling, storage procedures, and quality control of fresh human tissue samples. We tested whether under vacuum storage (UVS) effectively preserves tissues during the time between surgery and storage for "omics" analyses. Normal and matched tumor specimens, obtained from 16 breast, colon, or lung cancer patients and 5 independent mesenchymal tumors, were dissected within 20 minutes from surgical excision and divided in three to five aliquots; for each tissue sample, one aliquot was snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen (defined as baseline or T0 samples), and the other portions were sealed into plastic bags and kept at 4°C for 1, 24, 48, or 72 hours under vacuum and then frozen. The tissue and molecular preservation under vacuum was evaluated over time in terms of histomorphology, transcription (Illumina microarrays), protein (surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight/mass spectrometry and Western blot), and metabolic profile (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Tissue morphology, Mib-1, and vimentin immunostaining were preserved over time without signs of tissue degradation. Principal variance component analysis showed that time of storage had a minimal effect on gene expression or the proteome, but affected the preservation of some metabolites to a greater extent. UVS did not impact the RNA and protein integrity or specific phosphorylation sites on mTOR and STAT3. Measurement of metabolites revealed pronounced changes after 1 hour of storage. Our results show that UVS can preserve tissue specimens for histological, transcriptomic, and proteomic examinations up to 48 hours and possibly longer, whereas it has limitations for metabolomic applications.

  16. Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zanto, Theodore P.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Our ability to focus attention on task-relevant information and ignore distractions is reflected by differential enhancement and suppression of neural activity in sensory cortex (i.e., top-down modulation). Such selective, goal-directed modulation of activity may be intimately related to memory, such that the focus of attention biases the likelihood of successfully maintaining relevant information by limiting interference from irrelevant stimuli. Despite recent studies elucidating the mechani...

  17. Neural ensemble dynamics underlying a long-term associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Benjamin F.; Gründemann, Jan; Kitch, Lacey J.; Lecoq, Jerome A.; Parker, Jones G.; Marshall, Jesse D.; Larkin, Margaret C.; Jercog, Pablo E.; Grenier, Francois; Li, Jin Zhong; Lüthi, Andreas; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    The brain’s ability to associate different stimuli is vital to long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala (BLA) encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS, US). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked BLA ensemble neural Ca2+ dynamics during fear learning and extinction over six days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells’ CS-evoked responses. This bi-directional plasticity mainly occurred after conditioning and reshaped the CS ensemble neural representation to gain similarity to the US-representation. During extinction training with repetitive CS presentations, the CS-representation became more distinctive without reverting to its original form. Throughout, the strength of the ensemble-encoded CS-US association predicted each mouse’s level of behavioral conditioning. These findings support a supervised learning model in which activation of the US-representation guides the transformation of the CS-representation. PMID:28329757

  18. Discriminating solitary cysts from soft tissue lesions in mammography using a pretrained deep convolutional neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Thijs; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico; den Heeten, Ard

    2017-03-01

    It is estimated that 7% of women in the western world will develop palpable breast cysts in their lifetime. Even though cysts have been correlated with risk of developing breast cancer, many of them are benign and do not require follow-up. We develop a method to discriminate benign solitary cysts from malignant masses in digital mammography. We think a system like this can have merit in the clinic as a decision aid or complementary to specialized modalities. We employ a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify cyst and mass patches. Deep CNNs have been shown to be powerful classifiers, but need a large amount of training data for which medical problems are often difficult to come by. The key contribution of this paper is that we show good performance can be obtained on a small dataset by pretraining the network on a large dataset of a related task. We subsequently investigate the following: (a) when a mammographic exam is performed, two different views of the same breast are recorded. We investigate the merit of combining the output of the classifier from these two views. (b) We evaluate the importance of the resolution of the patches fed to the network. (c) A method dubbed tissue augmentation is subsequently employed, where we extract normal tissue from normal patches and superimpose this onto the actual samples aiming for a classifier invariant to occluding tissue. (d) We combine the representation extracted using the deep CNN with our previously developed features. We show that using the proposed deep learning method, an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.80 can be obtained on a set of benign solitary cysts and malignant mass findings recalled in screening. We find that it works significantly better than our previously developed approach by comparing the AUC of the ROC using bootstrapping. By combining views, the results can be further improved, though this difference was not found to be significant. We find no significant difference between

  19. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  20. Child Maltreatment and Neural Systems Underlying Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Peverill, Matthew; Gold, Andrea L; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A

    2015-09-01

    The strong associations between child maltreatment and psychopathology have generated interest in identifying neurodevelopmental processes that are disrupted following maltreatment. Previous research has focused largely on neural response to negative facial emotion. We determined whether child maltreatment was associated with neural responses during passive viewing of negative and positive emotional stimuli and effortful attempts to regulate emotional responses. A total of 42 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years, half with exposure to physical and/or sexual abuse, participated. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response was measured during passive viewing of negative and positive emotional stimuli and attempts to modulate emotional responses using cognitive reappraisal. Maltreated adolescents exhibited heightened response in multiple nodes of the salience network, including amygdala, putamen, and anterior insula, to negative relative to neutral stimuli. During attempts to decrease responses to negative stimuli relative to passive viewing, maltreatment was associated with greater recruitment of superior frontal gyrus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and frontal pole; adolescents with and without maltreatment down-regulated amygdala response to a similar degree. No associations were observed between maltreatment and neural response to positive emotional stimuli during passive viewing or effortful regulation. Child maltreatment heightens the salience of negative emotional stimuli. Although maltreated adolescents modulate amygdala responses to negative cues to a degree similar to that of non-maltreated youths, they use regions involved in effortful control to a greater degree to do so, potentially because greater effort is required to modulate heightened amygdala responses. These findings are promising, given the centrality of cognitive restructuring in trauma-focused treatments for children. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

  1. Neural Systems Underlying Individual Differences in Intertemporal Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Smith, Christopher T; Parrish, Michael H; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2017-03-01

    Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD. To do so, we scanned 95 social drinkers (18-40 years old; 50 women) using fMRI during hypothetical choices between small monetary amounts available "today" or larger amounts available later. We identified neural networks engaged during Now/Later choice using independent component analysis and tested the relationship between component activation and degree of DD. The activity of two components during Now/Later choice correlated with individual DD rates: A temporal lobe network positively correlated with DD, whereas a frontoparietal-striatal network negatively correlated with DD. Activation differences between these networks predicted individual differences in DD, and their negative correlation during Now/Later choice suggests functional competition. A generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis confirmed a decrease in their functional connectivity during decision-making. The functional connectivity of these two networks negatively correlates with alcohol-related harm, potentially implicating these networks in AUDs. These findings provide novel insight into the neural underpinnings of individual differences in impulsive decision-making with potential implications for addiction and related disorders in which impulsivity is a defining feature.

  2. Neural mechanisms underlying social conformity in an ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu eWei

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When individuals’ actions are incongruent with those of the group they belong to, they may change their initial behavior in order to conform to the group norm. This phenomenon is known as social conformity. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain activity in response to group opinion during an ultimatum game. Results showed that participants changed their choices when these choices conflicted with the normative opinion of the group they were members of, especially in conditions of unfair treatment. The fMRI data revealed that a conflict with group norms activated the brain regions involved in norm violations and behavioral adjustment. Furthermore, in the reject-unfair condition, we observed that a conflict with group norms activated the medial frontal gyrus. These findings contribute to recent research examining neural mechanisms involved in detecting violations of social norms, and provide information regarding the neural representation of conformity behavior in an economic game.

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying social conformity in an ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhiying; Zheng, Yong

    2013-01-01

    When individuals' actions are incongruent with those of the group they belong to, they may change their initial behavior in order to conform to the group norm. This phenomenon is known as "social conformity." In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain activity in response to group opinion during an ultimatum game. Results showed that participants changed their choices when these choices conflicted with the normative opinion of the group they were members of, especially in conditions of unfair treatment. The fMRI data revealed that a conflict with group norms activated the brain regions involved in norm violations and behavioral adjustment. Furthermore, in the reject-unfair condition, we observed that a conflict with group norms activated the medial frontal gyrus. These findings contribute to recent research examining neural mechanisms involved in detecting violations of social norms, and provide information regarding the neural representation of conformity behavior in an economic game.

  4. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Smolka, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs n...

  5. Neural adaptations underlying cross-education after unilateral strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimland, Marius S; Helgerud, Jan; Solstad, Gerd Marie; Iversen, Vegard Moe; Leivseth, Gunnar; Hoff, Jan

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4-week (16 sessions) unilateral, maximal isometric strength training on contralateral neural adaptations. Subjects were randomised to a strength training group (TG, n = 15) or to a control group (CG, n = 11). Both legs of both groups were tested for plantar flexion maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs), surface electromyogram (EMG), H-reflexes and V-waves in the soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) superimposed during MVC and normalised by the M-wave (EMG/M(SUP), H(SUP)/M(SUP), V/M(SUP), respectively), before and after the training period. For the untrained leg, the TG increased compared to the CG for MVC torque (33%, P cross-education of strength.

  6. Model of electrical activity in cardiac tissue under electromagnetic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuqiang; Wang, Chunni; Xu, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-12-23

    Complex electrical activities in cardiac tissue can set up time-varying electromagnetic field. Magnetic flux is introduced into the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model to describe the effect of electromagnetic induction, and then memristor is used to realize the feedback of magnetic flux on the membrane potential in cardiac tissue. It is found that a spiral wave can be triggered and developed by setting specific initials in the media, that is to say, the media still support the survival of standing spiral waves under electromagnetic induction. Furthermore, electromagnetic radiation is considered on this model as external stimuli, it is found that spiral waves encounter breakup and turbulent electrical activities are observed, and it can give guidance to understand the occurrence of sudden heart disorder subjected to heavily electromagnetic radiation.

  7. Stem Cell Bioprinting: Functional 3D Neural Mini-Tissues from Printed Gel-Based Bioink and Human Neural Stem Cells (Adv. Healthcare Mater. 12/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Tomaskovic-Crook, Eva; Lozano, Rodrigo; Chen, Yu; Kapsa, Robert M; Zhou, Qi; Wallace, Gordon G; Crook, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    On page 1429 G. G. Wallace, J. M. Crook, and co-workers report the first example of fabricating neural tissue by 3D bioprinting human neural stem cells. A novel polysaccharide based bioink preserves stem cell viability and function within the printed construct, enabling self-renewal and differentiation to neurons and supporting neuroglia. Neurons are predominantly GABAergic, establish networks, are spontaneously active, and show a bicuculline induced increased calcium response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. An Inquiry into the Neural Plasticity Underlying Everyday Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Tisdale

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available How does the brain change with respect to how we live our daily lives? Modern studies on how specific actions affect the anatomy of the brain have shown that different actions shape the way the brain is oriented. While individual studies might point towards these effects occurring in daily actions, the concept that morphological changes occur throughout the numerous fields of neuroplasticity based on daily actions has yet to become a well established and discussed phenomena. It is the goal of this article to view a few fields of neuroplasticity to answer this overarching question and review brain imaging studies indicating such morphological changes associated with the fields of neuroplasticity and everyday actions. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach revolving around scholarly search engines was used to briefly explore each studied field of interest. In this article, the activities of music production, video game play, and sleep are analyzed indicating such morphological change. These activities show changes to the respective areas of the brain in which the tasks are processed with a trend arising from the amount of time spent performing each action. It is shown from these fields of study that this classification of relating everyday actions to morphological change through neural plasticity does hold validity with respect to experimental studies.

  9. Common neural mechanisms underlying reversal learning by reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gui; Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Read, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in flexible goal-directed decisions, often examined by reversal learning, are associated with behavioral abnormalities characterized by impulsiveness and disinhibition. Although the lateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC) has been consistently implicated in reversal learning, it is still unclear whether this region is involved in negative feedback processing, behavioral control, or both, and whether reward and punishment might have different effects on lateral OFC involvement. Using a relatively large sample (N = 47), and a categorical learning task with either monetary reward or moderate electric shock as feedback, we found overlapping activations in the right lateral OFC (and adjacent insula) for reward and punishment reversal learning when comparing correct reversal trials with correct acquisition trials, whereas we found overlapping activations in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when negative feedback signaled contingency change. The right lateral OFC and DLPFC also showed greater sensitivity to punishment than did their left homologues, indicating an asymmetry in how punishment is processed. We propose that the right lateral OFC and anterior insula are important for transforming affective feedback to behavioral adjustment, whereas the right DLPFC is involved in higher level attention control. These results provide insight into the neural mechanisms of reversal learning and behavioral flexibility, which can be leveraged to understand risky behaviors among vulnerable populations.

  10. Feline Neural Progenitor Cells I: Long-Term Expansion under Defined Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cells (NPCs of feline origin (cNPCs have demonstrated utility in transplantation experiments, yet are difficult to grow in culture beyond the 1 month time frame. Here we use an enriched, serum-free base medium (Ultraculture and report the successful long-term propagation of these cells. Primary cultures were derived from fetal brain tissue and passaged in DMEM/F12-based or Ultraculture-based proliferation media, both in the presence of EGF + bFGF. Cells in standard DMEM/F12-based medium ceased to proliferate by 1-month, whereas the cells in the Ultraculture-based medium continued to grow for at least 5 months (end of study with no evidence of senescence. The Ultraculture-based cultures expressed lower levels of progenitor and lineage-associated markers under proliferation conditions but retained multipotency as evidenced by the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia following growth factor removal in the presence of FBS. Importantly, later passage cNPCs did not develop chromosomal aberrations.

  11. Cortical Neural Activity Predicts Sensory Acuity Under Optogenetic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, John J; Aizenberg, Mark; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Geffen, Maria N

    2018-02-21

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the mammalian sensory cortex form interconnected circuits that control cortical stimulus selectivity and sensory acuity. Theoretical studies have predicted that suppression of inhibition in such excitatory-inhibitory networks can lead to either an increase or, paradoxically, a decrease in excitatory neuronal firing, with consequent effects on stimulus selectivity. We tested whether modulation of inhibition or excitation in the auditory cortex of male mice could evoke such a variety of effects in tone-evoked responses and in behavioral frequency discrimination acuity. We found that, indeed, the effects of optogenetic manipulation on stimulus selectivity and behavior varied in both magnitude and sign across subjects, possibly reflecting differences in circuitry or expression of optogenetic factors. Changes in neural population responses consistently predicted behavioral changes for individuals separately, including improvement and impairment in acuity. This correlation between cortical and behavioral change demonstrates that, despite the complex and varied effects that these manipulations can have on neuronal dynamics, the resulting changes in cortical activity account for accompanying changes in behavioral acuity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Excitatory and inhibitory interactions determine stimulus specificity and tuning in sensory cortex, thereby controlling perceptual discrimination acuity. Modeling has predicted that suppressing the activity of inhibitory neurons can lead to increased or, paradoxically, decreased excitatory activity depending on the architecture of the network. Here, we capitalized on differences between subjects to test whether suppressing/activating inhibition and excitation can in fact exhibit such paradoxical effects for both stimulus sensitivity and behavioral discriminability. Indeed, the same optogenetic manipulation in the auditory cortex of different mice could improve or impair frequency discrimination

  12. Finite-time synchronization of uncertain coupled switched neural networks under asynchronous switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanyuan; Cao, Jinde; Li, Qingbo; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the finite-time synchronization problem for a class of uncertain coupled switched neural networks under asynchronous switching. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-like functionals and using the average dwell time technique, some sufficient criteria are derived to guarantee the finite-time synchronization of considered uncertain coupled switched neural networks. Meanwhile, the asynchronous switching feedback controller is designed to finite-time synchronize the concerned networks. Finally, two numerical examples are introduced to show the validity of the main results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thymidine Kinase-Negative Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Efficiently Establish Persistent Infection in Neural Tissues of Nude Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Yao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Li-Chiu; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Hsu, Sheng-Min; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2017-02-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neural tissues of immunocompetent mice but persists in both peripheral and neural tissues of lymphocyte-deficient mice. Thymidine kinase (TK) is believed to be essential for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues of immunocompromised mice, because infectious virus of a mutant with defects in both TK and UL24 is detected only in peripheral tissues, but not in neural tissues, of severe combined immunodeficiency mice (T. Valyi-Nagy, R. M. Gesser, B. Raengsakulrach, S. L. Deshmane, B. P. Randazzo, A. J. Dillner, and N. W. Fraser, Virology 199:484-490, 1994, https://doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1150). Here we find infiltration of CD4 and CD8 T cells in peripheral and neural tissues of mice infected with a TK-negative mutant. We therefore investigated the significance of viral TK and host T cells for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues using three genetically engineered mutants with defects in only TK or in both TK and UL24 and two strains of nude mice. Surprisingly, all three mutants establish persistent infection in up to 100% of brain stems and 93% of trigeminal ganglia of adult nude mice at 28 days postinfection, as measured by the recovery of infectious virus. Thus, in mouse neural tissues, host T cells block persistent HSV-1 infection, and viral TK is dispensable for the virus to establish persistent infection. Furthermore, we found 30- to 200-fold more virus in neural tissues than in the eye and detected glycoprotein C, a true late viral antigen, in brainstem neurons of nude mice persistently infected with the TK-negative mutant, suggesting that adult mouse neurons can support the replication of TK-negative HSV-1. Acyclovir is used to treat herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected immunocompromised patients, but treatment is hindered by the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, mostly those with mutations in viral thymidine kinase (TK), which activates acyclovir. TK mutants are detected in brains of immunocompromised

  14. Studies of Neuronal Gene Regulation Controlling the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Neural Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuchi, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of the development and function of the nervous system is not preprogramed but responds to environmental stimuli to change neural development and function flexibly. This neural plasticity is a characteristic property of the nervous system. For example, strong synaptic activation evoked by environmental stimuli leads to changes in synaptic functions (known as synaptic plasticity). Long-lasting synaptic plasticity is one of the molecular mechanisms underlying long-term learning and memory. Since discovering the role of the transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein in learning and memory, it has been widely accepted that gene regulation in neurons contributes to long-lasting changes in neural functions. However, it remains unclear how synaptic activation is converted into gene regulation that results in long-lasting neural functions like long-term memory. We continue to address this question. This review introduces our recent findings on the gene regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and discusses how regulation of the gene participates in long-lasting changes in neural functions.

  15. New tissue dissociation protocol for scaled-up production of neural stem cells in suspension bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arindom; Kallos, Michael S; Behie, Leo A

    2004-01-01

    The successful dissociation of mammalian neural stem cell (NSC) aggregates (neurospheres) into a single-cell suspension is an important procedure when expanding NSCs for clinical use, or when performing important assays such as clonal analyses. Until now, researchers have had to rely primarily on destructive mechanical methods such as trituration with a pipette tip to break apart the aggregates. In this study we report on a new chemical dissociation procedure that is efficient, cost effective, reproducible, and much less harmful to murine NSCs than both mechanical and enzymatic techniques. This method, involving the manipulation of environmental pH levels, resulted in 40% higher measured cell densities and 15-20% higher viabilities compared with mechanical dissociation. Moreover, chemical dissociation resulted in the production of significantly less cellular debris. Chemical dissociation was found to have no adverse effects on the long-term proliferation of the NSCs, which retained the ability to proliferate, form neurospheres, self-renew, and exhibit multipotentiality. This chemical method represents a new approach for the dissociation of tissues.

  16. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  17. Maternal Antiviral Immunoglobulin Accumulates in Neural Tissue of Neonates To Prevent HSV Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yike Jiang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While antibody responses to neurovirulent pathogens are critical for clearance, the extent to which antibodies access the nervous system to ameliorate infection is poorly understood. In this study on herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1, we demonstrate that HSV-specific antibodies are present during HSV-1 latency in the nervous systems of both mice and humans. We show that antibody-secreting cells entered the trigeminal ganglion (TG, a key site of HSV infection, and persisted long after the establishment of latent infection. We also demonstrate the ability of passively administered IgG to enter the TG independently of infection, showing that the naive TG is accessible to antibodies. The translational implication of this finding is that human fetal neural tissue could contain HSV-specific maternally derived antibodies. Exploring this possibility, we observed HSV-specific IgG in HSV DNA-negative human fetal TG, suggesting passive transfer of maternal immunity into the prenatal nervous system. To further investigate the role of maternal antibodies in the neonatal nervous system, we established a murine model to demonstrate that maternal IgG can access and persist in neonatal TG. This maternal antibody not only prevented disseminated infection but also completely protected the neonate from neurological disease and death following HSV challenge. Maternal antibodies therefore have a potent protective role in the neonatal nervous system against HSV infection. These findings strongly support the concept that prevention of prenatal and neonatal neurotropic infections can be achieved through maternal immunization.

  18. Expression of the synaptic vesicle proteins VAMPs/synaptobrevins 1 and 2 in non-neural tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralston, E; Beushausen, S; Ploug, Thorkil

    1994-01-01

    for Vp/Syb 2 detected a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi area of skeletal muscle. Thus Vp/Sybs 1 and 2 are not restricted to the nervous system but appear to be co-expressed with cellubrevin in many different tissues. This redundancy of Vp/Sybs in a single cell may be required to control......The VAMPs/synaptobrevins (Vp/Sybs) are small integral membrane proteins. Two isoforms, Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2, are considered to be specific to neural tissue. They are associated with synaptic vesicles and are believed to play an important role in neurotransmitter release. A third isoform......, cellubrevin, has recently been found in non-neural tissues. We now report that the distribution of Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2 is wider than previously thought. RNA transcripts for both Vp/Syb 1 and Vp/Syb 2 were found in rat skeletal muscle and in several other rat non-neural tissues, and antibodies specific...

  19. Advanced biomaterial strategies to transplant preformed micro-tissue engineered neural networks into the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. P.; Struzyna, L. A.; Murphy, P. L.; Adewole, D. O.; Kuo, E.; Cullen, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Connectome disruption is a hallmark of many neurological diseases and trauma with no current strategies to restore lost long-distance axonal pathways in the brain. We are creating transplantable micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), which are preformed constructs consisting of embedded neurons and long axonal tracts to integrate with the nervous system to physically reconstitute lost axonal pathways. Approach. We advanced micro-tissue engineering techniques to generate micro-TENNs consisting of discrete populations of mature primary cerebral cortical neurons spanned by long axonal fascicles encased in miniature hydrogel micro-columns. Further, we improved the biomaterial encasement scheme by adding a thin layer of low viscosity carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to enable needle-less insertion and rapid softening for mechanical similarity with brain tissue. Main results. The engineered architecture of cortical micro-TENNs facilitated robust neuronal viability and axonal cytoarchitecture to at least 22 days in vitro. Micro-TENNs displayed discrete neuronal populations spanned by long axonal fasciculation throughout the core, thus mimicking the general systems-level anatomy of gray matter—white matter in the brain. Additionally, micro-columns with thin CMC-coating upon mild dehydration were able to withstand a force of 893 ± 457 mN before buckling, whereas a solid agarose cylinder of similar dimensions was predicted to withstand less than 150 μN of force. This thin CMC coating increased the stiffness by three orders of magnitude, enabling needle-less insertion into brain while significantly reducing the footprint of previous needle-based delivery methods to minimize insertion trauma. Significance. Our novel micro-TENNs are the first strategy designed for minimally invasive implantation to facilitate nervous system repair by simultaneously providing neuronal replacement and physical reconstruction of long-distance axon pathways in the brain

  20. New bioactive motifs and their use in functionalized self-assembling peptides for NSC differentiation and neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelain, F.; Cigognini, D.; Caprini, A.; Silva, D.; Colleoni, B.; Donegá, M.; Antonini, S.; Cohen, B. E.; Vescovi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the discovery of novel functional motifs fostering transplanted stem cell engraftment and nervous fiber regeneration. Using phage display technology we have discovered new peptide sequences that bind to murine neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), and promote their viability and differentiation in vitro when linked to LDLK12 self-assembling peptide (SAPeptide). We characterized the newly functionalized LDLK12 SAPeptides via atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism and rheology, obtaining nanostructured hydrogels that support human and murine NSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro. One functionalized SAPeptide (Ac-FAQ), showing the highest stem cell viability and neural differentiation in vitro, was finally tested in acute contusive spinal cord injury in rats, where it fostered nervous tissue regrowth and improved locomotor recovery. Interestingly, animals treated with the non-functionalized LDLK12 had an axon sprouting/regeneration intermediate between Ac-FAQ-treated animals and controls. These results suggest that hydrogels functionalized with phage-derived peptides may constitute promising biomimetic scaffolds for in vitro NSC differentiation, as well as regenerative therapy of the injured nervous system. Moreover, this multi-disciplinary approach can be used to customize SAPeptides for other specific tissue engineering applications.Developing functionalized biomaterials for enhancing transplanted cell engraftment in vivo and stimulating the regeneration of injured tissues requires a multi-disciplinary approach customized for the tissue to be regenerated. In particular, nervous tissue engineering may take a great advantage from the

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attribution outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Brosch, Tobias; Schiller, Daniela; Mojdehbakhsh, Rachel; Uleman, James S.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    When forming impressions and trying to figure out why other people behave the way they do, we should take into account not only dispositional factors (i.e. personality traits) but also situational constraints as potential causes for a behavior. However, in their attributions, people often ignore the importance of situational factors. To investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the integration of situational information into attributions, we decomposed the attribution process by separately...

  2. Anger under control: neural correlates of frustration as a function of trait aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Pawliczek

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior and aggression are prominent symptoms in several psychiatric disorders including antisocial personality disorder. An established precursor to aggression is a frustrating event, which can elicit anger or exasperation, thereby prompting aggressive responses. While some studies have investigated the neural correlates of frustration and aggression, examination of their relation to trait aggression in healthy populations are rare. Based on a screening of 550 males, we formed two extreme groups, one including individuals reporting high (n=21 and one reporting low (n=18 trait aggression. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 3T, all participants were put through a frustration task comprising unsolvable anagrams of German nouns. Despite similar behavioral performance, males with high trait aggression reported higher ratings of negative affect and anger after the frustration task. Moreover, they showed relatively decreased activation in the frontal brain regions and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC as well as relatively less amygdala activation in response to frustration. Our findings indicate distinct frontal and limbic processing mechanisms following frustration modulated by trait aggression. In response to a frustrating event, HA individuals show some of the personality characteristics and neural processing patterns observed in abnormally aggressive populations. Highlighting the impact of aggressive traits on the behavioral and neural responses to frustration in non-psychiatric extreme groups can facilitate further characterization of neural dysfunctions underlying psychiatric disorders that involve abnormal frustration processing and aggression.

  3. A convolutional neural network for steady state visual evoked potential classification under ambulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, No-Sang; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-01-01

    The robust analysis of neural signals is a challenging problem. Here, we contribute a convolutional neural network (CNN) for the robust classification of a steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigm. We measure electroencephalogram (EEG)-based SSVEPs for a brain-controlled exoskeleton under ambulatory conditions in which numerous artifacts may deteriorate decoding. The proposed CNN is shown to achieve reliable performance under these challenging conditions. To validate the proposed method, we have acquired an SSVEP dataset under two conditions: 1) a static environment, in a standing position while fixated into a lower-limb exoskeleton and 2) an ambulatory environment, walking along a test course wearing the exoskeleton (here, artifacts are most challenging). The proposed CNN is compared to a standard neural network and other state-of-the-art methods for SSVEP decoding (i.e., a canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based classifier, a multivariate synchronization index (MSI), a CCA combined with k-nearest neighbors (CCA-KNN) classifier) in an offline analysis. We found highly encouraging SSVEP decoding results for the CNN architecture, surpassing those of other methods with classification rates of 99.28% and 94.03% in the static and ambulatory conditions, respectively. A subsequent analysis inspects the representation found by the CNN at each layer and can thus contribute to a better understanding of the CNN’s robust, accurate decoding abilities. PMID:28225827

  4. A convolutional neural network for steady state visual evoked potential classification under ambulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, No-Sang; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2017-01-01

    The robust analysis of neural signals is a challenging problem. Here, we contribute a convolutional neural network (CNN) for the robust classification of a steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) paradigm. We measure electroencephalogram (EEG)-based SSVEPs for a brain-controlled exoskeleton under ambulatory conditions in which numerous artifacts may deteriorate decoding. The proposed CNN is shown to achieve reliable performance under these challenging conditions. To validate the proposed method, we have acquired an SSVEP dataset under two conditions: 1) a static environment, in a standing position while fixated into a lower-limb exoskeleton and 2) an ambulatory environment, walking along a test course wearing the exoskeleton (here, artifacts are most challenging). The proposed CNN is compared to a standard neural network and other state-of-the-art methods for SSVEP decoding (i.e., a canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based classifier, a multivariate synchronization index (MSI), a CCA combined with k-nearest neighbors (CCA-KNN) classifier) in an offline analysis. We found highly encouraging SSVEP decoding results for the CNN architecture, surpassing those of other methods with classification rates of 99.28% and 94.03% in the static and ambulatory conditions, respectively. A subsequent analysis inspects the representation found by the CNN at each layer and can thus contribute to a better understanding of the CNN's robust, accurate decoding abilities.

  5. Soldiers and Marksmen Under Fire: Monitoring Performance with Neural Correlates of Small Arms Fire Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eSherwin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Important decisions in the heat of battle occur rapidly and a key aptitude of a good combat soldier is the ability to determine whether he is under fire. This rapid decision requires the soldier to make a judgment in a fraction of a second, based on a barrage of multisensory cues coming from the auditory, tactile and visual domains. The present study uses an auditory oddball paradigm to examine listener ability to differentiate shooter locations from audio recordings of small arms fire. More importantly, we address the neural correlates involved in this rapid decision process by employing single-trial analysis of electroencephalography (EEG. In particular, we examine small arms expert listeners as they differentiate the sounds of small arms firing events recorded at different observer positions relative to a shooter. Using signal detection theory, we find clear neural signatures related to shooter firing angle by identifying the times of neural discrimination on a trial-to-trial basis. Similar to previous results in oddball experiments, we find common windows relative to the response and the stimulus when neural activity discriminates between target stimuli (forward fire: observer 0° to firing angle vs. standards (off-axis fire: observer 90° to firing angle. We also find, using windows of maximum discrimination, that auditory target vs. standard discrimination yields neural sources in Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19, i.e., in the visual cortex. In summary, we show that single-trial analysis of EEG yields informative scalp distributions and source current localization of discriminating activity when the small arms experts discriminate between forward and off-axis fire observer positions. Furthermore, this perceptual decision implicates brain regions involved in visual processing, even though the task is purely auditory. Finally, we utilize these techniques to quantify the level of expertise in these subjects for the chosen task, having implications for

  6. Brain tissue aspiration neural tube defect Aspiração de tecido cerebral em casos de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural

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    Luiz Cesar Peres

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find out how frequent is brain tissue aspiration and if brain tissue heterotopia could be found in the lung of human neural tube defect cases. Histological sections of each lobe of both lungs of 22 fetuses and newborn with neural tube defect were immunostained for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. There were 15 (68.2% females and 7 (31.8% males. Age ranged from 18 to 40 weeks of gestation (mean= 31.8. Ten (45.5% were stillborn, the same newborn, and 2 (9.1% were abortuses. Diagnosis were: craniorrhachischisis (9 cases, 40.9%, anencephaly (8 cases, 36,4%, ruptured occipital encephalocele and rachischisis (2 cases, 9.1% each, and early amniotic band disruption sequence (1 case, 4.5%. Only one case (4.5% exhibited GFAP positive cells inside bronchioles and alveoli admixed to epithelial amniotic squames. No heterotopic tissue was observed in the lung interstitium. We concluded that aspiration of brain tissue from the amniotic fluid in neural tube defect cases may happen but it is infrequent and heterotopia was not observed.O objetivo do estudo foi identificar qual a freqüência de aspiração de tecido cerebral e a existência de heterotopia nos pulmões de casos humanos de defeito de fechamento do tubo neural através da reação imuno-histoquímica para proteína fibrilar glial ácida (GFAP em cortes histológicos de todos os lobos de ambos os pulmões de 22 casos de fetos e neonatos com defeito de fechamento do tubo neural. Havia 15 casos femininos (68,2% e 7 masculinos (31,8%, com idade gestacional variando de 18 a 40 semanas (média= 31,8, sendo natimortos e neomortos 10 (45,5% cada e 2 (9,1% abortos. Os diagnósticos foram: Craniorraquisquise (9 casos, 40,9%, anencefalia (8 casos, 36,4%, encefalocele occipital rota e raquisquise (2 casos, 9,1% e 1 (4,5%caso de seqüência de disruptura amniótica precoce. Somente 1 caso (4,5% apresentou células positivas dentro de bronquíolos e alvéolos em meio a células epiteliais

  7. Transplantation of tissue engineering neural network and formation of neuronal relay into the transected rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bi-Qin; Che, Ming-Tian; Du, Bao-Ling; Zeng, Xiang; Ma, Yuan-Huan; Feng, Bo; Qiu, Xue-Chen; Zhang, Ke; Liu, Shu; Shen, Hui-Yong; Wu, Jin-Lang; Ling, Eng-Ang; Zeng, Yuan-Shan

    2016-12-01

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) causes loss of neural connectivity and permanent functional deficits. Re-establishment of new neuronal relay circuits after SCI is therefore of paramount importance. The present study tested our hypothesis if co-culture of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) gene-modified Schwann cells (SCs, NT-3-SCs) and TrkC (NT-3 receptor) gene-modified neural stem cells (NSCs, TrkC-NSCs) in a gelatin sponge scaffold could construct a tissue engineering neural network for re-establishing an anatomical neuronal relay after rat spinal cord transection. Eight weeks after transplantation, the neural network created a favorable microenvironment for axonal regeneration and for survival and synaptogenesis of NSC-derived neurons. Biotin conjugates of cholera toxin B subunit (b-CTB, a transneuronal tracer) was injected into the crushed sciatic nerve to label spinal cord neurons. Remarkably, not only ascending and descending nerve fibers, but also propriospinal neurons, made contacts with b-CTB positive NSC-derived neurons. Moreover, b-CTB positive NSC-derived neurons extended their axons making contacts with the motor neurons located in areas caudal to the injury/graft site of spinal cord. Further study showed that NT-3/TrkC interactions activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and PI3K/AKT/CREB pathway affecting synaptogenesis of NSC-derived neurons. Together, our findings suggest that NT-3-mediated TrkC signaling plays an essential role in constructing a tissue engineering neural network thus representing a promising avenue for effective exogenous neuronal relay-based treatment for SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control of men with lifelong antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Mu Ller, Bernhard; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-04-30

    Results of meta-analyses suggested subtle deficits in cognitive control among antisocial individuals. Because almost all studies focused on children with conduct problems or adult psychopaths, however, little is known about cognitive control mechanisms among the majority of persistent violent offenders who present an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). The present study aimed to determine whether offenders with ASPD, relative to non-offenders, display dysfunction in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and to assess the extent to which these dysfunctions are associated with psychopathic traits and trait impulsivity. Participants comprised 21 violent offenders and 23 non-offenders who underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a non-verbal Stroop task. The offenders, relative to the non-offenders, exhibited reduced response time interference and a different pattern of conflict- and error-related activity in brain areas involved in cognitive control, attention, language, and emotion processing, that is, the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal, superior temporal and postcentral cortices, putamen, thalamus, and amygdala. Moreover, between-group differences in behavioural and neural responses revealed associations with core features of psychopathy and attentional impulsivity. Thus, the results of the present study confirmed the hypothesis that offenders with ASPD display alterations in the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive control and that those alterations relate, at least in part, to personality characteristics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Regional cerebral glucose metabolic changes in oculopalatal myoclonus: implication for neural pathways, underlying the disorder

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    Cho, Sang Soo; Moon, So Young; Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Sang Eun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Palatal myoclonus (PM) is characterized by rhythmic involuntary jerky movements of the soft palate of the throat. When associated with eye movements, it is called oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM). Ordinary PM is characterized by hypertrophic olivary degeneration, a trans-synaptic degeneration following loss of neuronal input to the inferior olivary nucleus due to an interruption of the Guillain-Mollaret triangle usually by a hemorrhage. However, the neural pathways underlying the disorder are uncertain. In an attempt to understand the pathologic neural pathways, we examined the metabolic correlates of this tremulous condition. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in 8 patients with OPM (age, 49.9{+-}4.6 y: all males: 7 with pontine hemorrhage, 1 with diffuse brainstem infarction) and age-matched 50 healthy males (age, 50.7{+-} 9.0) and the regional glucose metabolism compared using SPM99. For group analysis, the hemispheres containing lesions were assigned to the right side of the brain. Patients with OPM had significant hypometabolism in the ipsilateral (to the lesion) brainstem and superior temporal and parahippocampal gyri (P < 0.05 corrected, k = 100). By contrast, there was significant hypermetabolism in the contralateral middle and inferior temporal gyri, thalamus, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus (P < 0.05 corrected, k=l00). Our data demonstrate the distinct metabolic changes between several ipsilateral and contralateral brain regions (hypometabolism vs. hypermetabolism) in patients with OPM. This may provide clues for understanding the neural pathways underlying the disorder.

  10. Pinning cluster synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks under event-based mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lulu; Ho, Daniel W C; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan

    2016-04-01

    Cluster synchronization is a typical collective behavior in coupled dynamical systems, where the synchronization occurs within one group, while there is no synchronization among different groups. In this paper, under event-based mechanism, pinning cluster synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks is studied. A new event-triggered sampled-data transmission strategy, where only local and event-triggering states are utilized to update the broadcasting state of each agent, is proposed to realize cluster synchronization of the coupled neural networks. Furthermore, a self-triggered pinning cluster synchronization algorithm is proposed, and a set of iterative procedures is given to compute the event-triggered time instants. Hence, this will reduce the computational load significantly. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Engagement of neural circuits underlying 2D spatial navigation in a rodent virtual reality system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronov, Dmitriy; Tank, David W

    2014-10-22

    Virtual reality (VR) enables precise control of an animal's environment and otherwise impossible experimental manipulations. Neural activity in rodents has been studied on virtual 1D tracks. However, 2D navigation imposes additional requirements, such as the processing of head direction and environment boundaries, and it is unknown whether the neural circuits underlying 2D representations can be sufficiently engaged in VR. We implemented a VR setup for rats, including software and large-scale electrophysiology, that supports 2D navigation by allowing rotation and walking in any direction. The entorhinal-hippocampal circuit, including place, head direction, and grid cells, showed 2D activity patterns similar to those in the real world. Furthermore, border cells were observed, and hippocampal remapping was driven by environment shape, suggesting functional processing of virtual boundaries. These results illustrate that 2D spatial representations can be engaged by visual and rotational vestibular stimuli alone and suggest a novel VR tool for studying rat navigation.

  12. Culturing functional cartilage tissue under a novel bionic mechanical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Minglin; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Chunqiu; Zhu, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Bioreactor, which is used for in vitro construction of tissue-engineered cartilage, has been extensively studied by researchers. The growth and development of articular cartilage tissue are affected by biomechanical and biochemical factors, especially mechanical condition. Kinds of mechanical conditions including compressive and shear force, fluid flow, hydrostatic pressure, and tissue deformation, were developed in the past years. However, most mechanical conditions of improved bioreactor involve only one or two external force, which is merely partial for engineering cartilage tissue. No bioreactor which can simulate a normal articular cartilage in terms of structure and function has been reported. Consequently, simulation of bionic mechanical environment of a normal articular cartilage is considered to be the optimal environment for culturing the functional articular cartilage in vitro. Based upon this purpose, we designed a rolling-compression loading bioreactor. It could provide cultures with multi-mechanical stimulations and sufficiently mimic the complex mechanical environment of a normal articular cartilage. We propose that this comprehensive rolling-compression loading bioreactor can enhance the cultivation of functional cartilage constructs in vitro. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of EGFP-Labeled Neural Crest Cells From Murine Embryonic Craniofacial Tissue

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    Saurabh Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the early stages of embryogenesis, pluripotent neural crest cells (NCC are known to migrate from the neural folds to populate multiple target sites in the embryo where they differentiate into various derivatives, including cartilage, bone, connective tissue, melanocytes, glia, and neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The ability to obtain pure NCC populations is essential to enable molecular analyses of neural crest induction, migration, and/or differentiation. Crossing Wnt1-Cre and Z/EG transgenic mouse lines resulted in offspring in which the Wnt1-Cre transgene activated permanent EGFP expression only in NCC. The present report demonstrates a flow cytometric method to sort and isolate populations of EGFP-labeled NCC. The identity of the sorted neural crest cells was confirmed by assaying expression of known marker genes by TaqMan Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR. The molecular strategy described in this report provides a means to extract intact RNA from a pure population of NCC thus enabling analysis of gene expression in a defined population of embryonic precursor cells critical to development.

  14. Metaplasticity as a Neural Substrate for Adaptive Learning and Choice under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farashahi, Shiva; Donahue, Christopher H; Khorsand, Peyman; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Soltani, Alireza

    2017-04-19

    Value-based decision making often involves integration of reward outcomes over time, but this becomes considerably more challenging if reward assignments on alternative options are probabilistic and non-stationary. Despite the existence of various models for optimally integrating reward under uncertainty, the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here we propose that reward-dependent metaplasticity (RDMP) can provide a plausible mechanism for both integration of reward under uncertainty and estimation of uncertainty itself. We show that a model based on RDMP can robustly perform the probabilistic reversal learning task via dynamic adjustment of learning based on reward feedback, while changes in its activity signal unexpected uncertainty. The model predicts time-dependent and choice-specific learning rates that strongly depend on reward history. Key predictions from this model were confirmed with behavioral data from non-human primates. Overall, our results suggest that metaplasticity can provide a neural substrate for adaptive learning and choice under uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-Organizing 3D Human Neural Tissue Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Recapitulate Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes.

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    Waseem K Raja

    Full Text Available The dismal success rate of clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD motivates us to develop model systems of AD pathology that have higher predictive validity. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs allows us to model pathology and study disease mechanisms directly in human neural cells from healthy individual as well as AD patients. However, two-dimensional culture systems do not recapitulate the complexity of neural tissue, and phenotypes such as extracellular protein aggregation are difficult to observe. We report brain organoids that use pluripotent stem cells derived from AD patients and recapitulate AD-like pathologies such as amyloid aggregation, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and endosome abnormalities. These pathologies are observed in an age-dependent manner in organoids derived from multiple familial AD (fAD patients harboring amyloid precursor protein (APP duplication or presenilin1 (PSEN1 mutation, compared to controls. The incidence of AD pathology was consistent amongst several fAD lines, which carried different mutations. Although these are complex assemblies of neural tissue, they are also highly amenable to experimental manipulation. We find that treatment of patient-derived organoids with β- and γ-secretase inhibitors significantly reduces amyloid and tau pathology. Moreover, these results show the potential of this model system to greatly increase the translatability of pre-clinical drug discovery in AD.

  16. The characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and corresponding heat affected zone of a 2 micron Tm3+ doped fiber laser(Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andrew J.; Jivraj, Jamil; Reyes, Robnier; Ramjist, Joel; Gu, Xijia J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2017-02-01

    Tissue removal using electrocautery is standard practice in neurosurgery since tissue can be cut and cauterized simultaneously. Thermally mediated tissue ablation using lasers can potentially possess the same benefits but with increased precision. However, given the critical nature of the spine, brain, and nerves, the effects of direct photo-thermal interaction on neural tissue needs to be known, yielding not only high precision of tissue removal but also increased control of peripheral heat damage. The proposed use of lasers as a neurosurgical tool requires that a common ground is found between ablation rates and resulting peripheral heat damage. Most surgical laser systems rely on the conversion of light energy into heat resulting in both desirable and undesirable thermal damage to the targeted tissue. Classifying the distribution of thermal energy in neural tissue, and thus characterizing the extent of undesirable thermal damage, can prove to be exceptionally challenging considering its highly inhomogenous composition when compared to other tissues such as muscle and bone. Here we present the characterization of neural tissue ablation rate and heat affected zone of a 1.94 micron thulium doped fiber laser for neural tissue ablation. In-Vivo ablation of porcine cerebral cortex is performed. Ablation volumes are studied in association with laser parameters. Histological samples are taken and examined to characterize the extent of peripheral heat damage.

  17. ALK5-mediated transforming growth factor β signaling in neural crest cells controls craniofacial muscle development via tissue-tissue interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Arum; Zhao, Hu; Li, Jingyuan; Pelikan, Richard; Chai, Yang

    2014-08-01

    The development of the craniofacial muscles requires reciprocal interactions with surrounding craniofacial tissues that originate from cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs). However, the molecular mechanism involved in the tissue-tissue interactions between CNCCs and muscle progenitors during craniofacial muscle development is largely unknown. In the current study, we address how CNCCs regulate the development of the tongue and other craniofacial muscles using Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice, in which loss of Alk5 in CNCCs results in severely disrupted muscle formation. We found that Bmp4 is responsible for reduced proliferation of the myogenic progenitor cells in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice during early myogenesis. In addition, Fgf4 and Fgf6 ligands were reduced in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice and are critical for differentiation of the myogenic cells. Addition of Bmp4 or Fgf ligands rescues the proliferation and differentiation defects in the craniofacial muscles of Alk5 mutant mice in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that CNCCs play critical roles in controlling craniofacial myogenic proliferation and differentiation through tissue-tissue interactions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Neural network-based brain tissue segmentation in MR images using extracted features from intraframe coding in H.264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mehdi; Kasaei, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    Automatic brain tissue segmentation is a crucial task in diagnosis and treatment of medical images. This paper presents a new algorithm to segment different brain tissues, such as white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), background (BKG), and tumor tissues. The proposed technique uses the modified intraframe coding yielded from H.264/(AVC), for feature extraction. Extracted features are then imposed to an artificial back propagation neural network (BPN) classifier to assign each block to its appropriate class. Since the newest coding standard, H.264/AVC, has the highest compression ratio, it decreases the dimension of extracted features and thus yields to a more accurate classifier with low computational complexity. The performance of the BPN classifier is evaluated using the classification accuracy and computational complexity terms. The results show that the proposed technique is more robust and effective with low computational complexity compared to other recent works.

  19. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  20. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

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    Pei-Chen Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph. Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y, the influence of source signal Y on sink signal X, was applied to the nonlinear dynamical model in phase space reconstructed from multichannel EEG. Experimental group involved ten experienced Chan-Meditation practitioners, while control group included ten healthy subjects within the same age range, yet, without any meditation experience. Nonlinear interdependence among various cortical regions was explored for five local neural-network regions, frontal, posterior, right-temporal, left-temporal, and central regions. In the experimental group, the inter-regional interaction was evaluated for the brain dynamics under three different stages, at rest (stage R, pre-meditation background recording, in Chan meditation (stage M, and the unique Chakra-focusing practice (stage C. Experimental group exhibits stronger interactions among various local neural networks at stages M and C compared with those at stage R. The intergroup comparison demonstrates that Chan-meditation brain possesses better cortical inter-regional interactions than the resting brain of control group.

  1. The impact of abacus training on working memory and underlying neural correlates in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shanshan; Wang, Chunjie; Xie, Ye; Hu, Yuzheng; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2016-09-22

    Abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) activates the frontoparietal areas largely overlapping with the working memory (WM) network. Given the critical role of WM in cognition, how to improve WM capability has attracted intensive attention in past years. However, it is still unclear whether WM could be enhanced by AMC training. The current research thus explored the impact of AMC training on verbal and visuospatial WM, as well as the underlying neural basis. Participants were randomly assigned to an abacus group and a control group. Their verbal WM was evaluated by digit/letter memory span (DMS/LMS) tests, and visuospatial WM was assessed by a visuospatial n-back task. Neural activity during the n-back task was examined using functional MRI. Our results showed reliable improvements of both verbal and visuospatial WM in the abacus group after 20-day AMC training but not in the control. In addition, the n-back task-induced activations in the right frontoparietal circuitry and left occipitotemporal junction (OTJ) declined as a result of training. Notably, the decreases in activity were positively correlated with performance gains across trained participants. These results suggest AMC training not only improves calculating skills but also have the potential to promote individuals' WM capabilities, which is associated with the functional plasticity of the common neural substrates. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural Adaptive Decentralized Coordinated Control with Fault-Tolerant Capability for DFIGs under Stochastic Disturbances

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    Xiao-ming Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, most methodologies proposed to control over double fed induction generators (DFIGs are based on single machine model, where the interactions from network have been neglected. Considering this, this paper proposes a decentralized coordinated control of DFIG based on the neural interaction measurement observer. An artificial neural network is employed to approximate the nonlinear model of DFIG, and the approximation error due to neural approximation has been considered. A robust stabilization technique is also proposed to override the effect of approximation error. A H2 controller and a H∞ controller are employed to achieve specified engineering purposes, respectively. Then, the controller design is formulated as a mixed H2/H∞ optimization with constrains of regional pole placement and proportional plus integral (PI structure, which can be solved easily by using linear matrix inequality (LMI technology. The results of simulations are presented and discussed, which show the capabilities of DFIG with the proposed control strategy to fault-tolerant control of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT under slight sensor faults, low voltage ride-through (LVRT, and its contribution to power system transient stability support.

  3. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph). Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y), the influence of source signal Y on sink signal X, was applied to the nonlinear dynamical model in phase space reconstructed from multichannel EEG. Experimental group involved ten experienced Chan-Meditation practitioners, while control group included ten healthy subjects within the same age range, yet, without any meditation experience. Nonlinear interdependence among various cortical regions was explored for five local neural-network regions, frontal, posterior, right-temporal, left-temporal, and central regions. In the experimental group, the inter-regional interaction was evaluated for the brain dynamics under three different stages, at rest (stage R, pre-meditation background recording), in Chan meditation (stage M), and the unique Chakra-focusing practice (stage C). Experimental group exhibits stronger interactions among various local neural networks at stages M and C compared with those at stage R. The intergroup comparison demonstrates that Chan-meditation brain possesses better cortical inter-regional interactions than the resting brain of control group. PMID:24489583

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying the cost of task switching: an ERP study.

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    Ling Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When switching from one task to a new one, reaction times are prolonged. This phenomenon is called switch cost (SC. Researchers have recently used several kinds of task-switching paradigms to uncover neural mechanisms underlying the SC. Task-set reconfiguration and passive dissipation of a previously relevant task-set have been reported to contribute to the cost of task switching. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An unpredictable cued task-switching paradigm was used, during which subjects were instructed to switch between a color and an orientation discrimination task. Electroencephalography (EEG and behavioral measures were recorded in 14 subjects. Response-stimulus interval (RSI and cue-stimulus interval (CSI were manipulated with short and long intervals, respectively. Switch trials delayed reaction times (RTs and increased error rates compared with repeat trials. The SC of RTs was smaller in the long CSI condition. For cue-locked waveforms, switch trials generated a larger parietal positive event-related potential (ERP, and a larger slow parietal positivity compared with repeat trials in the short and long CSI condition. Neural SC of cue-related ERP positivity was smaller in the long RSI condition. For stimulus-locked waveforms, a larger switch-related central negative ERP component was observed, and the neural SC of the ERP negativity was smaller in the long CSI. Results of standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA for both ERP positivity and negativity showed that switch trials evoked larger activation than repeat trials in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and posterior parietal cortex (PPC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide evidence that both RSI and CSI modulate the neural activities in the process of task-switching, but that these have a differential role during task-set reconfiguration and passive dissipation of a previously relevant task-set.

  5. Novel high-viscosity polyacrylamidated chitosan for neural tissue engineering: fabrication of anisotropic neurodurable scaffold via molecular disposition of persulfate-mediated polymer slicing and complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Pillay, Viness

    2012-10-29

    Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS) mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%), grafting ratio (GR = 263%), intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g) and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da) compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers-"polymer slicing"-thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT)-"polymer complexation". Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness, superior hydrophilicity as well as

  6. Novel High-Viscosity Polyacrylamidated Chitosan for Neural Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of Anisotropic Neurodurable Scaffold via Molecular Disposition of Persulfate-Mediated Polymer Slicing and Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viness Pillay

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%, grafting ratio (GR = 263%, intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness

  7. Artificial neural networks based estimation of optical parameters by diffuse reflectance imaging under in vitro conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozan Gökkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical parameters (properties of tissue-mimicking phantoms are determined through noninvasive optical imaging. Objective of this study is to decompose obtained diffuse reflectance into these optical properties such as absorption and scattering coefficients. To do so, transmission spectroscopy is firstly used to measure the coefficients via an experimental setup. Next, the optical properties of each characterized phantom are input for Monte Carlo (MC simulations to get diffuse reflectance. Also, a surface image for each single phantom with its known optical properties is obliquely captured due to reflectance-based geometrical setup using CMOS camera that is positioned at 5∘ angle to the phantoms. For the illumination of light, a laser light source at 633nm wavelength is preferred, because optical properties of different components in a biological tissue on that wavelength are nonoverlapped. During in vitro measurements, we prepared 30 different mixture samples adding clinoleic intravenous lipid emulsion (CILE and evans blue (EB dye into a distilled water. Finally, all obtained diffuse reflectance values are used to estimate the optical coefficients by artificial neural networks (ANNs in inverse modeling. For a biological tissue it is found that the simulated and measured values in our results are in good agreement.

  8. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  9. Experimental study and artificial neural network modeling of tartrazine removal by photocatalytic process under solar light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebti, Aicha; Souahi, Fatiha; Mohellebi, Faroudja; Igoud, Sadek

    2017-07-01

    This research focuses on the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the removal efficiency of tartrazine from simulated wastewater using a photocatalytic process under solar illumination. A program is developed in Matlab software to optimize the neural network architecture and select the suitable combination of training algorithm, activation function and hidden neurons number. The experimental results of a batch reactor operated under different conditions of pH, TiO2 concentration, initial organic pollutant concentration and solar radiation intensity are used to train, validate and test the networks. While negligible mineralization is demonstrated, the experimental results show that under sunlight irradiation, 85% of tartrazine is removed after 300 min using only 0.3 g/L of TiO2 powder. Therefore, irradiation time is prolonged and almost 66% of total organic carbon is reduced after 15 hours. ANN 5-8-1 with Bayesian regulation back-propagation algorithm and hyperbolic tangent sigmoid transfer function is found to be able to predict the response with high accuracy. In addition, the connection weights approach is used to assess the importance contribution of each input variable on the ANN model response. Among the five experimental parameters, the irradiation time has the greatest effect on the removal efficiency of tartrazine.

  10. The influence of a depressed scapular alignment on upper limb neural tissue mechanosensitivity and local pressure pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Merinero, Patricia; Lluch, Enriqe; Gallezo-Izquierdo, Tomas; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Nuñez-Nagy, Susana; Falla, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    A depressed scapular alignment could lead to prolonged and repetitive stress or compression of the brachial plexus, resulting in sensitization of neural tissue. However, no study has investigated the influence of alignment of the scapulae on sensitization of upper limb neural tissue in otherwise asymptomatic people. In this case-control study, we investigate the influence of a depressed scapular alignment on mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT). Asymptomatic individuals with neutral vertical scapular alignment (n = 25) or depressed scapular alignment (n = 25) participated. We measured the upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT1), including assessment of symptom response and elbow range of motion (ROM), and PPT measured over upper limb peripheral nerve trunks, the upper trapezius muscle and overlying cervical zygapophyseal joints. Subjects with a depressed scapular reported significantly greater pain intensity (t = 5.7, p < 0.0001) and reduced elbow extension ROM (t = -2.7, p < 0.01) during the ULNT1 compared to those with a normal scapular orientation. Regardless of the location tested, the group presenting with a depressed scapular had significantly lower PPT compared to those with a normal scapular orientation (PPT averaged across all sites: normal orientation: 3.3 ± 0.6 kg/cm(2), depressed scapular: 2.1 ± 0.5 kg/cm(2), p < 0.00001). Despite being asymptomatic, people with a depressed scapular have greater neck and upper limb neural tissue mechanosensitivity when compared to people with a normal scapular orientation. This study offers insight into the potential development of neck-arm pain due to a depressed scapular position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abnormal neural activation patterns underlying working memory impairment in chronic phencyclidine-treated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosefu Arime

    Full Text Available Working memory impairment is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and is thought be caused by dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC and associated brain regions. However, the neural circuit anomalies underlying this impairment are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to assess working memory performance in the chronic phencyclidine (PCP mouse model of schizophrenia, and to identify the neural substrates of working memory. To address this issue, we conducted the following experiments for mice after withdrawal from chronic administration (14 days of either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg: (1 a discrete paired-trial variable-delay task in T-maze to assess working memory, and (2 brain-wide c-Fos mapping to identify activated brain regions relevant to this task performance either 90 min or 0 min after the completion of the task, with each time point examined under working memory effort and basal conditions. Correct responses in the test phase of the task were significantly reduced across delays (5, 15, and 30 s in chronic PCP-treated mice compared with chronic saline-treated controls, suggesting delay-independent impairments in working memory in the PCP group. In layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex, the number of working memory effort-elicited c-Fos+ cells was significantly higher in the chronic PCP group than in the chronic saline group. The main effect of working memory effort relative to basal conditions was to induce significantly increased c-Fos+ cells in the other layers of prelimbic cortex and the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex regardless of the different chronic regimens. Conversely, this working memory effort had a negative effect (fewer c-Fos+ cells in the ventral hippocampus. These results shed light on some putative neural networks relevant to working memory impairments in mice chronically treated with PCP, and emphasize the importance of the layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex of the PFC.

  12. Abnormal neural activation patterns underlying working memory impairment in chronic phencyclidine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arime, Yosefu; Akiyama, Kazufumi

    2017-01-01

    Working memory impairment is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and is thought be caused by dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated brain regions. However, the neural circuit anomalies underlying this impairment are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to assess working memory performance in the chronic phencyclidine (PCP) mouse model of schizophrenia, and to identify the neural substrates of working memory. To address this issue, we conducted the following experiments for mice after withdrawal from chronic administration (14 days) of either saline or PCP (10 mg/kg): (1) a discrete paired-trial variable-delay task in T-maze to assess working memory, and (2) brain-wide c-Fos mapping to identify activated brain regions relevant to this task performance either 90 min or 0 min after the completion of the task, with each time point examined under working memory effort and basal conditions. Correct responses in the test phase of the task were significantly reduced across delays (5, 15, and 30 s) in chronic PCP-treated mice compared with chronic saline-treated controls, suggesting delay-independent impairments in working memory in the PCP group. In layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex, the number of working memory effort-elicited c-Fos+ cells was significantly higher in the chronic PCP group than in the chronic saline group. The main effect of working memory effort relative to basal conditions was to induce significantly increased c-Fos+ cells in the other layers of prelimbic cortex and the anterior cingulate and infralimbic cortex regardless of the different chronic regimens. Conversely, this working memory effort had a negative effect (fewer c-Fos+ cells) in the ventral hippocampus. These results shed light on some putative neural networks relevant to working memory impairments in mice chronically treated with PCP, and emphasize the importance of the layer 2-3 of the prelimbic cortex of the PFC.

  13. Neural substrates underlying motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is critical in post-stroke motor recovery, but little is known about its underlying neural substrates. Recently, using a new visuomotor skill learning paradigm involving a speed/accuracy trade-off in healthy individuals we identified three subpopulations based on their behavioral trajectories: fitters (in whom improvement in speed or accuracy coincided with deterioration in the other parameter), shifters (in whom speed and/or accuracy improved without degradation of the other parameter), and non-learners. We aimed to identify the neural substrates underlying the first stages of motor skill learning in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients and to determine whether specific neural substrates were recruited in shifters versus fitters. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 23 patients learned the visuomotor skill with their paretic upper limb. In the whole-group analysis, correlation between activation and motor skill learning was restricted to the dorsal prefrontal cortex of the damaged hemisphere (DLPFCdamh: r = -0.82) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMddamh: r = 0.70); the correlations was much lesser (-0.16 0.25) in the other regions of interest. In a subgroup analysis, significant activation was restricted to bilateral posterior parietal cortices of the fitters and did not correlate with motor skill learning. Conversely, in shifters significant activation occurred in the primary sensorimotor cortexdamh and supplementary motor areadamh and in bilateral PMd where activation changes correlated significantly with motor skill learning (r = 0.91). Finally, resting-state activity acquired before learning showed a higher functional connectivity in the salience network of shifters compared with fitters (qFDR skill learning with the paretic upper limb in chronic hemiparetic stroke patients, with a key role of bilateral PMd.

  14. Neural Activities Underlying the Feedback Express Salience Prediction Errors for Appetitive and Aversive Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Hu, Xueping; Pan, Weigang; Yang, Chun; Wang, Lijun; Li, Yiyuan; Chen, Antao

    2016-10-03

    Feedback information is essential for us to adapt appropriately to the environment. The feedback-related negativity (FRN), a frontocentral negative deflection after the delivery of feedback, has been found to be larger for outcomes that are worse than expected, and it reflects a reward prediction error derived from the midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), as stated in reinforcement learning theory. In contrast, the prediction of response-outcome (PRO) model claims that the neural activity in the mediofrontal cortex (mPFC), especially the ACC, is sensitive to the violation of expectancy, irrespective of the valence of feedback. Additionally, increasing evidence has demonstrated significant activities in the striatum, anterior insula and occipital lobe for unexpected outcomes independently of their valence. Thus, the neural mechanism of the feedback remains under dispute. Here, we investigated the feedback with monetary reward and electrical pain shock in one task via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results revealed significant prediction-error-related activities in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and left cingulate gyrus for both money and pain. This implies that some regions underlying the feedback may signal a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error.

  15. A comparison of neural correlates underlying social cognition in Klinefelter syndrome and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg-Goddard, Marcia N; van Rijn, Sophie; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Veer, Ilya M; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a genetic syndrome characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome that appears to increase the risk of psychopathology, such as autism symptoms. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine underlying mechanisms related to this risk, with the aim of gaining insight into neural mechanisms behind social-cognitive dysfunction in KS and autism, and understanding similarities and differences in social information processing deficits. Fourteen boys with KS, seventeen boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and nineteen non-clinical male controls aged 10-18 years were scanned while matching and labeling facial expressions (i.e. face processing and affect labeling, respectively). No group differences in neural activation were found during face processing. However, during affect labeling, the ASD group showed increased activation in the amygdala compared with controls, while the KS group showed increased activation in frontal areas compared with both controls and the ASD group. No group differences in task performance were found. Although behavioral symptoms of social dysfunction appear similar both in boys with KS and ASD, this is the first study to demonstrate different underlying etiologies. These results may aid in identifying different pathways to autism symptoms, which may help understanding variability within the ASD spectrum. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic

  17. Travelling waves in models of neural tissue: from localised structures to periodic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Hil Gaétan Ellart; Coombes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We consider travelling waves (fronts, pulses and periodics) in spatially extended one dimensional neural field models. We demonstrate for an excitatory field with linear adaptation that, in addition to an expected stable pulse solution, a stable anti-pulse can exist. Varying the adaptation strength

  18. A fully-automated neural network analysis of AFM force-distance curves for cancer tissue diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Eleonora; Ciasca, Gabriele; Sassun, Tanya Enny; Antonelli, Manila; Palmieri, Valentina; Papi, Massimiliano; Maulucci, Giuseppe; Santoro, Antonio; Giangaspero, Felice; Delfini, Roberto; Campi, Gaetano; De Spirito, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has the unique capability of probing the nanoscale mechanical properties of biological systems that affect and are affected by the occurrence of many pathologies, including cancer. This capability has triggered growing interest in the translational process of AFM from physics laboratories to clinical practice. A factor still hindering the current use of AFM in diagnostics is related to the complexity of AFM data analysis, which is time-consuming and needs highly specialized personnel with a strong physical and mathematical background. In this work, we demonstrate an operator-independent neural-network approach for the analysis of surgically removed brain cancer tissues. This approach allowed us to distinguish—in a fully automated fashion—cancer from healthy tissues with high accuracy, also highlighting the presence and the location of infiltrating tumor cells.

  19. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-12-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingalcoholalcohol specifically increased proactive (unprovoked) but not reactive (provoked) aggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation.

  1. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Alcohol-Induced Aggression Under Provocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Gabriela; Sterzer, Philipp; Marxen, Michael; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol consumption is linked to increased aggression, its neural correlates have not directly been studied in humans so far. Based on a comprehensive neurobiological model of alcohol-induced aggression, we hypothesized that alcohol-induced aggression would go along with increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity and impaired functioning of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) under alcohol. We measured neural and behavioral correlates of alcohol-induced aggression in a provoking vs non-provoking condition with a variant of the Taylor aggression paradigm (TAP) allowing to differentiate between reactive (provoked) and proactive (unprovoked) aggression. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design with moderate alcohol intoxication (~0.6 g/kg), 35 young healthy adults performed the TAP during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Analyses revealed that provoking vs non-provoking conditions and alcohol vs placebo increased aggression and decreased brain responses in the anterior cingulate cortex/dorso-medial PFC (provokingalcoholalcohol specifically increased proactive (unprovoked) but not reactive (provoked) aggression (alcohol × provocation interaction). However, investigation of inter-individual differences revealed (1) that pronounced alcohol-induced proactive aggression was linked to higher levels of aggression under placebo, and (2) that pronounced alcohol-induced reactive aggression was related to increased amygdala and ventral striatum reactivity under alcohol, providing evidence for their role in human alcohol-induced reactive aggression. Our findings suggest that in healthy young adults a liability for alcohol-induced aggression in a non-provoking context might depend on overall high levels of aggression, but on alcohol-induced increased striatal and amygdala reactivity when triggered by provocation. PMID:25971590

  2. A neural network underlying intentional emotional facial expression in neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gola, Kelly A; Shany-Ur, Tal; Pressman, Peter; Sulman, Isa; Galeana, Eduardo; Paulsen, Hillary; Nguyen, Lauren; Wu, Teresa; Adhimoolam, Babu; Poorzand, Pardis; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2017-01-01

    Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls) were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters. Participants also underwent face-to-face socioemotional testing and informants described participants' typical socioemotional behavior. Patients' performance on emotion expression tasks was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) across the entire sample. We found that intentional emotional imitation scores were related to fundamental socioemotional deficits; patients with known socioemotional deficits performed worse than controls on intentional emotion imitation; and intentional emotional expression predicted caregiver ratings of empathy and interpersonal warmth. Whole brain VBMs revealed a rightward cortical atrophy pattern homologous to the left lateralized speech production network was associated with intentional emotional imitation deficits. Results point to a possible neural mechanisms underlying complex socioemotional communication deficits in neurodegenerative disease patients.

  3. Tracting the neural basis of music: Deficient structural connectivity underlying acquired amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Särkämö, Teppo; Leo, Vera; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Saunavaara, Jani; Parkkola, Riitta; Soinila, Seppo

    2017-12-01

    Acquired amusia provides a unique opportunity to investigate the fundamental neural architectures of musical processing due to the transition from a functioning to defective music processing system. Yet, the white matter (WM) deficits in amusia remain systematically unexplored. To evaluate which WM structures form the neural basis for acquired amusia and its recovery, we studied 42 stroke patients longitudinally at acute, 3-month, and 6-month post-stroke stages using DTI [tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and deterministic tractography (DT)] and the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Non-recovered amusia was associated with structural damage and subsequent degeneration in multiple WM tracts including the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), arcuate fasciculus (AF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), uncinate fasciculus (UF), and frontal aslant tract (FAT), as well as in the corpus callosum (CC) and its posterior part (tapetum). In a linear regression analysis, the volume of the right IFOF was the main predictor of MBEA performance across time. Overall, our results provide a comprehensive picture of the large-scale deficits in intra- and interhemispheric structural connectivity underlying amusia, and conversely highlight which pathways are crucial for normal music perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A neural network underlying intentional emotional facial expression in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Gola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intentional facial expression of emotion is critical to healthy social interactions. Patients with neurodegenerative disease, particularly those with right temporal or prefrontal atrophy, show dramatic socioemotional impairment. This was an exploratory study examining the neural and behavioral correlates of intentional facial expression of emotion in neurodegenerative disease patients and healthy controls. One hundred and thirty three participants (45 Alzheimer's disease, 16 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, 8 non-fluent primary progressive aphasia, 10 progressive supranuclear palsy, 11 right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, 9 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia patients and 34 healthy controls were video recorded while imitating static images of emotional faces and producing emotional expressions based on verbal command; the accuracy of their expression was rated by blinded raters. Participants also underwent face-to-face socioemotional testing and informants described participants' typical socioemotional behavior. Patients' performance on emotion expression tasks was correlated with gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM across the entire sample. We found that intentional emotional imitation scores were related to fundamental socioemotional deficits; patients with known socioemotional deficits performed worse than controls on intentional emotion imitation; and intentional emotional expression predicted caregiver ratings of empathy and interpersonal warmth. Whole brain VBMs revealed a rightward cortical atrophy pattern homologous to the left lateralized speech production network was associated with intentional emotional imitation deficits. Results point to a possible neural mechanisms underlying complex socioemotional communication deficits in neurodegenerative disease patients.

  5. Mitochondrial ultrastructure and tissue respiration of pea leaves under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brykov, Vasyl

    2016-07-01

    Respiration is essential for growth, maintenance, and carbon balance of all plant cells. Mitochondrial respiration in plants provides energy for biosynthesis, and its balance with photosynthesis determines the rate of plant biomass accumulation (production). Mitochondria are not only the energetic organelles in a cell but they play an essential regulatory role in many basic cellular processes. As plants adapt to real and simulated microgravity, it is very important to understand the state of mitochondria in these conditions. Disturbance of respiratory metabolism can significantly affect the productivity of plants in long-term space flights. We have established earlier that the rate of respiration in root apices of pea etiolated seedlings rose after 7 days of clinorotation. These data indicate the oxygen increased requirement by root apices under clinorotation, that confirms the necessity of sufficient substrate aeration in space greenhouses to provide normal respiratory metabolism and supply of energy for root growth. In etiolated seedlings, substrate supply of mitochondria occurs at the expense of the mobilization of cotyledon nutrients. A goal of our work was to study the ultrastructure and respiration of mitochondria in pea leaves after 12 days of clinorotation during (2 rpm/min). Plants grew at a light level of 180 μµmol m ^{-2} s ^{-1} PAR and a photoperiod of 16 h light/4 h dark. It was showed an essential increase in the mitochondrion area on 53% in palisade parenchyma cells at the sections. Such phenomenon can not be described as swelling of mitochondria, since enlarged mitochondria contained a more quantity of crista 1.76 times. In addition, the cristae total area per organelle also increased in comparison with that in control. An increase in a size of mitochondria in the experimental conditions is supposed to occur by a partial alteration of the chondriom. Thus, a size of 49% mitochondria in control was 0.1 - 0.3 μµm ^{2}, whereas only 26

  6. eaf tissue flows in ryegrass managed under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônique Foggiato da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphogenetic, structural variables and leaf biomass flows of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. were evaluated under two stocking rates: ‘Low’ and ‘High’. These rates were determined by heifers exclusively on pasture or on pasture and supplemented with corn grain. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement, two stocking rates, two and four replications of area for the stocking rates ‘low’ and ‘high’, respectively. The morphogenetic variables, the number of green leaves and tiller density were similar in both stocking rates. Leaf senescence rate was higher with low stocking rate. Heifers grazed with similar intensity and frequency in both stocking rates. The increase by 33.6% in the stocking rate caused by the use of supplement does not change the leaf biomass flow of Italian ryegrass, but alters its potential efficiency of use near the reproductive stage of the plant.

  7. Automated cell-specific laser detection and ablation of neural circuits in neonatal brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Hayes, John A; Picardo, Maria Cristina D; Del Negro, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    A key feature of neurodegenerative disease is the pathological loss of neurons that participate in generating behaviour. To investigate network properties of neural circuits and provide a complementary tool to study neurodegeneration in vitro or in situ, we developed an automated cell-specific laser detection and ablation system. The instrument consists of a two-photon and visible-wavelength confocal imaging setup, controlled by executive software, that identifies neurons in preparations based on genetically encoded fluorescent proteins or Ca2+ imaging, and then sequentially ablates cell targets while monitoring network function concurrently. Pathological changes in network function can be directly attributed to ablated cells, which are logged in real time. Here, we investigated brainstem respiratory circuits to demonstrate single-cell precision in ablation during physiological network activity, but the technique could be applied to interrogate network properties in neural systems that retain network functionality in reduced preparations in vitro or in situ. PMID:23440965

  8. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  9. Star poly(ethylene glycol) as a tunable scaffold for neural tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zustiak, Silviya Petrova

    The primary focus of this work was to develop a novel synthetic hydrogel scaffold as an in vitro model to enable future detailed studies of how neurons grow in environments with controllable diffusion profiles of soluble cues and tunable neuronmatrix interactions. The development of in vitro models that enable elucidation of the mechanisms of system performance is a recently emerging goal of tissue engineering. The design of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds in particular, is motivated by the need to develop model systems that better mimic native tissue as compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture substrates. An ideal scaffold is degradable, porous, biocompatible, with mechanical properties to match those of the tissues of interest and with a suitable surface chemistry for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. Although naturally derived materials are more versatile in providing complex biological cues, synthetic polymers are preferable for the design of in vitro models as they provide wider range of properties, controllable degradation rates, and easier processing. Most importantly, their mechanical properties can be decoupled from their biological properties, a crucial issue in interpreting cell responses. The synthetic material provides the structural backbone of the scaffold while biochemical function is added via incorporation of ligands or proteins aimed at triggering specific cell behaviors. As presented in this dissertation, we have developed and characterized a new synthetic 3D hydrogel scaffold from cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG was selected because it is hydrophilic, non-toxic, biocompatible, and inert to protein adhesion. The chosen cross-linking chemistry was a highly specific reaction that occurred under physiological conditions so that cells could be embedded within the gel prior to cross-linking. Controllable degradability was imparted via series of hydrolytically degradable PEG cross-linkers. Thorough

  10. Proteomic Profiling of Neuroblastoma Cells Adhesion on Hyaluronic Acid-Based Surface for Neural Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of neuron cells plays a crucial role in regulating neural development and regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA biomaterial has been applied in a wide range of medical and biological fields and plays important roles in neural regeneration. PC12 cells have been reported to be capable of endogenous NGF synthesis and secretion. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of HA biomaterial combining with PC12 cells conditioned media (PC12 CM in neural regeneration. Using SH-SY5Y cells as an experimental model, we found that supporting with PC12 CM enhanced HA function in SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Through RP-nano-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, we identified increased expression of HSP60 and RanBP2 in SH-SY5Y cells grown on HA-modified surface with cotreatment of PC12 CM. Moreover, we also identified factors that were secreted from PC12 cells and may promote SH-SY5Y cell proliferation and adhesion. Here, we proposed a biomaterial surface enriched with neurotrophic factors for nerve regeneration application.

  11. Prediction of Maximum Story Drift of MDOF Structures under Simulated Wind Loads Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Payán-Serrano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the prediction of maximum story drift of Multi-Degree of Freedom (MDOF structures subjected to dynamics wind load using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs through the combination of several structural and turbulent wind parameters. The maximum story drift of 1600 MDOF structures under 16 simulated wind conditions are computed with the purpose of generating the data set for the networks training with the Levenberg–Marquardt method. The Shinozuka and Newmark methods are used to simulate the turbulent wind and dynamic response, respectively. In order to optimize the computational time required for the dynamic analyses, an array format based on the Shinozuka method is presented to perform the parallel computing. Finally, it is observed that the already trained ANNs allow for predicting adequately the maximum story drift with a correlation close to 99%.

  12. Live tissue imaging shows reef corals elevate pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Venn

    Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.

  13. Media Compositions for Three Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth Under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  14. Media Compositions for Three-Dimensional Mammalian Tissue Growth under Microgravity Culture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue.The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cells aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  15. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna; Liu, Hanli

    2007-01-01

    Objective/Hypothesis: By monitoring global and local vascular oxygenation and tissue oxygen tension in breast tumors under HBO exposure with several different gas interventions, we wish to prove the following two hypotheses: that 1...

  16. Neural stem cell differentiation by electrical stimulation using a cross-linked PEDOT substrate: Expanding the use of biocompatible conjugated conductive polymers for neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Filipa; Ferreira, Quirina; Rodrigues, Carlos A V; Morgado, Jorge; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo

    2015-06-01

    The use of conjugated polymers allows versatile interactions between cells and flexible processable materials, while providing a platform for electrical stimulation, which is particularly relevant when targeting differentiation of neural stem cells and further application for therapy or drug screening. Materials were tested for cytotoxicity following the ISO10993-5. PSS was cross-linked. ReNcellVM neural stem cells (NSC) were seeded in laminin coated surfaces, cultured for 4 days in the presence of EGF (20 ng/mL), FGF-2 (20 ng/mL) and B27 (20 μg/mL) and differentiated over eight additional days in the absence of those factors under 100Hz pulsed DC electrical stimulation, 1V with 10 ms pulses. NSC and neuron elongation aspect ratio as well as neurite length were assessed using ImageJ. Cells were immune-stained for Tuj1 and GFAP. F8T2, MEH-PPV, P3HT and cross-linked PSS (x PSS) were assessed as non-cytotoxic. L929 fibroblast population was 1.3 higher for x PSS than for glass control, while F8T2 presents moderate proliferation. The population of neurons (Tuj1) was 1.6 times higher with longer neurites (73 vs 108 μm) for cells cultured under electrical stimulus, with cultured NSC. Such stimulus led also to longer neurons. x PSS was, for the first time, used to elongate human NSC through the application of pulsed current, impacting on their differentiation towards neurons and contributing to longer neurites. The range of conductive conjugated polymers known as non-cytotoxic was expanded. x PSS was introduced as a stable material, easily processed from solution, to interface with biological systems, in particular NSC, without the need of in-situ polymerization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Common Aphasia Assessments to Underlying Cognitive Processes and Their Neural Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Xing, Shihui; Fama, Mackenzie E; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between clinical tests, the processes they measure, and the brain networks underlying them, is critical in order for clinicians to move beyond aphasia syndrome classification toward specification of individual language process impairments. To understand the cognitive, language, and neuroanatomical factors underlying scores of commonly used aphasia tests. Twenty-five behavioral tests were administered to a group of 38 chronic left hemisphere stroke survivors and a high-resolution magnetic resonance image was obtained. Test scores were entered into a principal components analysis to extract the latent variables (factors) measured by the tests. Multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to localize lesions associated with the factor scores. The principal components analysis yielded 4 dissociable factors, which we labeled Word Finding/Fluency, Comprehension, Phonology/Working Memory Capacity, and Executive Function. While many tests loaded onto the factors in predictable ways, some relied heavily on factors not commonly associated with the tests. Lesion symptom mapping demonstrated discrete brain structures associated with each factor, including frontal, temporal, and parietal areas extending beyond the classical language network. Specific functions mapped onto brain anatomy largely in correspondence with modern neural models of language processing. An extensive clinical aphasia assessment identifies 4 independent language functions, relying on discrete parts of the left middle cerebral artery territory. A better understanding of the processes underlying cognitive tests and the link between lesion and behavior may lead to improved aphasia diagnosis, and may yield treatments better targeted to an individual's specific pattern of deficits and preserved abilities.

  18. Dual origins of measured phase-amplitude coupling reveal distinct neural mechanisms underlying episodic memory in the human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Alex P; Yaffe, Robert B; Wittig, John H; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-01

    Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) is hypothesized to coordinate neural activity, but its role in successful memory formation in the human cortex is unknown. Measures of PAC are difficult to interpret, however. Both increases and decreases in PAC have been linked to memory encoding, and PAC may arise due to different neural mechanisms. Here, we use a waveform analysis to examine PAC in the human cortex as participants with intracranial electrodes performed a paired associates memory task. We found that successful memory formation exhibited significant decreases in left temporal lobe and prefrontal cortical PAC, and these two regions exhibited changes in PAC within different frequency bands. Two underlying neural mechanisms, nested oscillations and sharp waveforms, were responsible for the changes in these regions. Our data therefore suggest that decreases in measured cortical PAC during episodic memory reflect two distinct underlying mechanisms that are anatomically segregated in the human brain. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Reorganization of pathological control functions of memory-A neural model for tissue healing by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wess, Othmar

    2005-04-01

    Since 1980 shock waves have proven effective in the field of extracorporeal lithotripsy. More than 10 years ago shock waves were successfully applied for various indications such as chronic pain, non-unions and, recently, for angina pectoris. These fields do not profit from the disintegration power but from stimulating and healing effects of shock waves. Increased metabolism and neo-vascularization are reported after shock wave application. According to C. J. Wang, a biological cascade is initiated, starting with a stimulating effect of physical energy resulting in increased circulation and metabolism. Pathological memory of neural control patterns is considered the reason for different pathologies characterized by insufficient metabolism. This paper presents a neural model for reorganization of pathological reflex patterns. The model acts on associative memory functions of the brain based on modification of synaptic junctions. Accordingly, pathological memory effects of the autonomous nervous system are reorganized by repeated application of shock waves followed by development of normal reflex patterns. Physiologic control of muscle and vascular tone is followed by increased metabolism and tissue repair. The memory model may explain hyper-stimulation effects in pain therapy.

  20. Artificial neural network model for estimating the soil respiration under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mitra; Sarikhani, Mohammad Reza; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Abbas; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Soil respiration is a biological process in microbes that convert organic carbon to atmospheric CO2. This process is considered to be one of the largest global carbon fluxes and is affected by different physicochemical and biological properties of soil, land usageuse, vegetation types and climate patterns. The aim of this study was to estimate the soil basal (BR) and substrate induced respiration (SIR) of 150 data obtained from soil samples collected from depth (0-25 cm) under different land uses by Artificial Neural Network. Soil samples were chosen from three provinces of Iran, with humid subtropical and semi-arid climate patterns. In each soil sample, soil texture, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), organic carbon (OC), OC fractionation data e.g. light fraction OC (LOC), heavy fraction OC (HOC), cold water extractable OC (COC) and warm water extractable OC (WOC), population of fungi, bacteria and actinomycete, BR and SIR were measured. Our goal was to use the most efficient ANN-model to predict soil respiration with simple soil data. Our results indicated that in an ANN model containing all the measured parameters, the R2 and RMSE values for BR prediction were 0.64 and 0.047 while these statistical indicators for SIR obtained 0.58 and 0.15, respectively. The R2 and RMSE values of the BR-ANN and SIR-ANN predicted models comprising 7 variables (including OC, pH, EC, CCE and soil texture) were estimated at 0.66, 0.043 and 0.52, 0.16, respectively. It was concluded that ANN modeling is a reliable method for predicting soil respiration. KEYWORDS: Artificial neural network; Land use; Soil physicochemical properties; Soil respiration; Soil microorganism

  1. The effect of ionic diffusion on extracellular potentials in neural tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Halnes, Geir; Keller, Daniel; Pettersen, Klas H; Eivenoll, Gaute T

    2015-01-01

    In computational neuroscience, it is common to use the simplifying assumption that diffusive currents are negligible compared to Ohmic currents. However, endured periods of intense neural signaling may cause local ion concentration changes in the millimolar range. Theoretical studies have identified scenarios where steep concentration gradients give rise to diffusive currents that are of comparable magnitude with Ohmic currents, and where the simplifying assumption that diffusion can be neglected does not hold. We here propose a novel formalism for computing (1) the ion concentration dynamics and (2) the electrical potential in the extracellular space surrounding multi-compartmental neuron models or networks of such (e.g., the Blue-Brain simulator). We use this formalism to explore the effects that diffusive currents can have on the extracellular (ECS) potential surrounding a small population of active cortical neurons. Our key findings are: (i) Sustained periods of neuronal output (simulations were run for 8...

  2. Outsourcing neural active control to passive composite mechanics: a tissue engineered cyborg ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzola, Mattia; Park, Sung Jin; Park, Kyung Soo; Park, Shirley; di Santo, Valentina; Deisseroth, Karl; Lauder, George V.; Mahadevan, L.; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2016-11-01

    Translating the blueprint that stingrays and skates provide, we create a cyborg swimming ray capable of orchestrating adaptive maneuvering and phototactic navigation. The impossibility of replicating the neural system of batoids fish is bypassed by outsourcing algorithmic functionalities to the body composite mechanics, hence casting the active control problem into a design, passive one. We present a first step in engineering multilevel "brain-body-flow" systems that couple sensory information to motor coordination and movement, leading to behavior. This work paves the way for the development of autonomous and adaptive artificial creatures able to process multiple sensory inputs and produce complex behaviors in distributed systems and may represent a path toward soft-robotic "embodied cognition".

  3. Deep convolutional neural network and 3D deformable approach for tissue segmentation in musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhou, Zhaoye; Jang, Hyungseok; Samsonov, Alexey; Zhao, Gengyan; Kijowski, Richard

    2017-07-21

    To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification. The 3D simplex deformable modeling refined the output from SegNet to preserve the overall shape and maintain a desirable smooth surface for musculoskeletal structure. The fully automated segmentation method was tested using a publicly available knee image data set to compare with currently used state-of-the-art segmentation methods. The fully automated method was also evaluated on two different data sets, which include morphological and quantitative MR images with different tissue contrasts. The proposed fully automated segmentation method provided good segmentation performance with segmentation accuracy superior to most of state-of-the-art methods in the publicly available knee image data set. The method also demonstrated versatile segmentation performance on both morphological and quantitative musculoskeletal MR images with different tissue contrasts and spatial resolutions. The study demonstrates that the combined CNN and 3D deformable modeling approach is useful for performing rapid and accurate cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. The CNN has promising potential applications in musculoskeletal imaging. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Cytokine gene signatures in neural tissue of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis or equine herpes type 1 myeloencephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, N; Wilson, W D; Conrad, P A; Barr, B C; Ferraro, G L; Daft, B M; Leutenegger, C M

    2006-09-09

    This study was designed to determine the relative levels of gene transcription of selected pathogens and cytokines in the brain and spinal cord of 12 horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), 11 with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) myeloencephalopathy, and 12 healthy control horses by applying a real time pcr to the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Total rna was extracted from each tissue, transcribed to complementary dna (cDNA) and assayed for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora hughesi, EHV-1, equine GAPDH (housekeeping gene), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 AND IL-12 p40. S neurona cdna was detected in the neural tissue from all 12 horses with EPM, and two of them also had amplifiable cDNA of N hughesi. The relative levels of transcription of protozoal cdna ranged from 1 to 461 times baseline (mean 123). All the horses with ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy had positive viral signals by PCR with relative levels of transcription ranging from 1 to 1618 times baseline (mean 275). All the control horses tested negative for S neurona, N hughesi and EHV-1 cdna. The cytokine profiles of each disease indicated a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. In the horses with epm the pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines (IL-8, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) were commonly expressed but the anti-inflammatory Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6 AND IL-10) were absent or rare. In the horses with ehv-1 the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 was commonly expressed, but IL-10 and IFN-gamma were not, and TNF-alpha was rare. Tissue from the control horses expressed only the gene GAPDH.

  5. Neural Mechanisms for Acoustic Signal Detection under Strong Masking in an Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarakos, Konstantinos; Römer, Heiner

    2015-07-22

    produces an extremely noisy sound, yet the second species still detects its own song. Using intracellular recording techniques we identified two neural mechanisms underlying the surprising behavioral signal detection at the level of single identified interneurons. These neural mechanisms for signal detection are likely to be important for other sensory modalities as well, where noise in the communication channel creates similar problems. Also, they may be used for the development of algorithms for the filtering of specific signals in technical microphones or hearing aids. Copyright © 2015 Kostarakos and Römer.

  6. Polypyrrole/Alginate Hybrid Hydrogels: Electrically Conductive and Soft Biomaterials for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Potential Neural Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sumi; Jang, LindyK; Kim, Semin; Yang, Jongcheol; Yang, Kisuk; Cho, Seung-Woo; Lee, Jae Young

    2016-11-01

    Electrically conductive biomaterials that can efficiently deliver electrical signals to cells or improve electrical communication among cells have received considerable attention for potential tissue engineering applications. Conductive hydrogels are desirable particularly for neural applications, as they can provide electrical signals and soft microenvironments that can mimic native nerve tissues. In this study, conductive and soft polypyrrole/alginate (PPy/Alg) hydrogels are developed by chemically polymerizing PPy within ionically cross-linked alginate hydrogel networks. The synthesized hydrogels exhibit a Young's modulus of 20-200 kPa. Electrical conductance of the PPy/Alg hydrogels could be enhanced by more than one order of magnitude compared to that of pristine alginate hydrogels. In vitro studies with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) reveal that cell adhesion and growth are promoted on the PPy/Alg hydrogels. Additionally, the PPy/Alg hydrogels support and greatly enhance the expression of neural differentiation markers (i.e., Tuj1 and MAP2) of hMSCs compared to tissue culture plate controls. Subcutaneous implantation of the hydrogels for eight weeks induces mild inflammatory reactions. These soft and conductive hydrogels will serve as a useful platform to study the effects of electrical and mechanical signals on stem cells and/or neural cells and to develop multifunctional neural tissue engineering scaffolds. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Spatio-temporal regulation of ADAR editing during development in porcine neural tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard; Bramsen, Jesper Bertram; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Editing by ADAR enzymes is essential for mammalian life. Still, knowledge of the spatio-temporal editing patterns in mammals is limited. By use of 454 amplicon sequencing we examined the editing status of 12 regionally extracted mRNAs from porcine developing brain encompassing a total of 64...... putative ADAR editing sites. In total 24 brain tissues, dissected from up to five regions from embryonic gestation day 23, 42, 60, 80, 100 and 115, were examined for editing....

  8. Tissue heterogeneity as a mechanism for localized neural stimulation by applied electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P C [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Correia, L [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Salvador, R [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Basser, P J [Section on Tissue Biophysics and Biomimetics, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1428 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    We investigate the heterogeneity of electrical conductivity as a new mechanism to stimulate excitable tissues via applied electric fields. In particular, we show that stimulation of axons crossing internal boundaries can occur at boundaries where the electric conductivity of the volume conductor changes abruptly. The effectiveness of this and other stimulation mechanisms was compared by means of models and computer simulations in the context of transcranial magnetic stimulation. While, for a given stimulation intensity, the largest membrane depolarization occurred where an axon terminates or bends sharply in a high electric field region, a slightly smaller membrane depolarization, still sufficient to generate action potentials, also occurred at an internal boundary where the conductivity jumped from 0.143 S m{sup -1} to 0.333 S m{sup -1}, simulating a white-matter-grey-matter interface. Tissue heterogeneity can also give rise to local electric field gradients that are considerably stronger and more focal than those impressed by the stimulation coil and that can affect the membrane potential, albeit to a lesser extent than the two mechanisms mentioned above. Tissue heterogeneity may play an important role in electric and magnetic 'far-field' stimulation.

  9. Engineered neural tissue with Schwann cell differentiated human dental pulp stem cells: potential for peripheral nerve repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanen, Kathleen; Martens, Wendy; Georgiou, Melanie; Ameloot, Marcel; Lambrichts, Ivo; Phillips, James

    2017-01-04

    Despite the spontaneous regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, large gap peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) require bridging strategies. The limitations and suboptimal results obtained with autografts or hollow nerve conduits in the clinic urge the need for alternative treatments. Recently, we have described promising neuroregenerative capacities of Schwann cells derived from differentiated human dental pulp stem cells (d-hDPSCs) in vitro. Here, we extended the in vitro assays to show the pro-angiogenic effects of d-hDPSCs, such as enhanced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. In addition, for the first time we evaluated the performance of d-hDPSCs in an in vivo rat model of PNI. Eight weeks after transplantation of NeuraWrap™ conduits filled with engineered neural tissue (EngNT) containing aligned d-hDPSCs in 15-mm rat sciatic nerve defects, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural analysis revealed ingrowing neurites, myelinated nerve fibres and blood vessels along the construct. Although further research is required to optimize the delivery of this EngNT, our findings suggest that d-hDPSCs are able to exert a positive effect in the regeneration of nerve tissue in vivo. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  11. Neural correlates underlying naloxone-induced amelioration of sexual behavior deterioration due to an alarm pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKobayashi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior is suppressed by various types of stressors. We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released by stressed male Wistar rats is a stressor to other rats, increases the number of mounts needed for ejaculation, and decreases the hit rate (described as the number of intromissions/sum of the mounts and intromissions. This deterioration in sexual behavior was ameliorated by pretreatment with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. However, the neural mechanism underlying this remains to be elucidated. Here, we examined Fos expression in 31 brain regions of pheromone-exposed rats and naloxone-pretreated pheromone-exposed rats 60 min after 10 intromissions. As previously reported, the alarm pheromone increased the number of mounts and decreased the hit rate. In addition, Fos expression was increases in the anterior medial division, anterior lateral division and posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, parvocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, dorsolateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Fos expression decreased in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Pretreatment with naloxone blocked the pheromone-induced changes in Fos expression in the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, and nucleus paragigantocellularis. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the alarm pheromone deteriorated sexual behavior by activating the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray-nucleus paragigantocellularis cluster and suppressing the magnocellular part of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus via the opioidergic pathway.

  12. Neural and computational processes underlying dynamic changes in self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is shaped by the appraisals we receive from others. Here, we characterize neural and computational mechanisms underlying this form of social influence. We introduce a computational model that captures fluctuations in self-esteem engendered by prediction errors that quantify the difference between expected and received social feedback. Using functional MRI, we show these social prediction errors correlate with activity in ventral striatum/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, while updates in self-esteem resulting from these errors co-varied with activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We linked computational parameters to psychiatric symptoms using canonical correlation analysis to identify an ‘interpersonal vulnerability’ dimension. Vulnerability modulated the expression of prediction error responses in anterior insula and insula-vmPFC connectivity during self-esteem updates. Our findings indicate that updating of self-evaluative beliefs relies on learning mechanisms akin to those used in learning about others. Enhanced insula-vmPFC connectivity during updating of those beliefs may represent a marker for psychiatric vulnerability. PMID:29061228

  13. Stability of Neural Firing in the Trigeminal Nuclei under Mechanical Whisker Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri A. Makarov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory information handling is an essentially nonstationary process even under a periodic stimulation. We show how the time evolution of ridges in the wavelet spectrum of spike trains can be used for quantification of the dynamical stability of the neuronal responses to a stimulus. We employ this method to study neuronal responses in trigeminal nuclei of the rat provoked by tactile whisker stimulation. Neurons from principalis (Pr5 and interpolaris (Sp5i show the maximal stability at the intermediate (50 ms stimulus duration, whereas Sp5o cells “prefer” shorter (10 ms stimulation. We also show that neurons in all three nuclei can perform as stimulus frequency filters. The response stability of about 33% of cells exhibits low-pass frequency dynamics. About 57% of cells have band-pass dynamics with the optimal frequency at 5 Hz for Pr5 and Sp5i, and 4 Hz for Sp5o, and the remaining 10% show no prominent dependence on the stimulus frequency. This suggests that the neural coding scheme in trigeminal nuclei is not fixed, but instead it adapts to the stimulus characteristics.

  14. UTX-guided neural crest function underlies craniofacial features of Kabuki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpargel, Karl B; Starmer, Joshua; Wang, Chaochen; Ge, Kai; Magnuson, Terry

    2017-10-24

    Kabuki syndrome, a congenital craniofacial disorder, manifests from mutations in an X-linked histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase (UTX/KDM6A) or a H3 lysine 4 methylase (KMT2D). However, the cellular and molecular etiology of histone-modifying enzymes in craniofacial disorders is unknown. We now establish Kabuki syndrome as a neurocristopathy, whereby the majority of clinical features are modeled in mice carrying neural crest (NC) deletion of UTX, including craniofacial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, and postnatal growth retardation. Female UTX NC knockout (FKO) demonstrates enhanced phenotypic severity over males (MKOs), due to partial redundancy with UTY, a Y-chromosome demethylase-dead homolog. Thus, NC cells may require demethylase-independent UTX activity. Consistently, Kabuki causative point mutations upstream of the JmjC domain do not disrupt UTX demethylation. We have isolated primary NC cells at a phenocritical postmigratory timepoint in both FKO and MKO mice, and genome-wide expression and histone profiling have revealed UTX molecular function in establishing appropriate chromatin structure to regulate crucial NC stem-cell signaling pathways. However, the majority of UTX regulated genes do not experience aberrations in H3K27me3 or H3K4me3, implicating alternative roles for UTX in transcriptional control. These findings are substantiated through demethylase-dead knockin mutation of UTX, which supports appropriate facial development. Published under the PNAS license.

  15. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. An Actomyosin-Arf-GEF Negative Feedback Loop for Tissue Elongation under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Junior J; Zulueta-Coarasa, Teresa; Maier, Janna A; Lee, Donghoon M; Bruce, Ashley E E; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Harris, Tony J C

    2017-08-07

    In response to a pulling force, a material can elongate, hold fast, or fracture. During animal development, multi-cellular contraction of one region often stretches neighboring tissue. Such local contraction occurs by induced actomyosin activity, but molecular mechanisms are unknown for regulating the physical properties of connected tissue for elongation under stress. We show that cytohesins, and their Arf small G protein guanine nucleotide exchange activity, are required for tissues to elongate under stress during both Drosophila dorsal closure (DC) and zebrafish epiboly. In Drosophila, protein localization, laser ablation, and genetic interaction studies indicate that the cytohesin Steppke reduces tissue tension by inhibiting actomyosin activity at adherens junctions. Without Steppke, embryogenesis fails, with epidermal distortions and tears resulting from myosin misregulation. Remarkably, actomyosin network assembly is necessary and sufficient for local Steppke accumulation, where live imaging shows Steppke recruitment within minutes. This rapid negative feedback loop provides a molecular mechanism for attenuating the main tension generator of animal tissues. Such attenuation relaxes tissues and allows orderly elongation under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal regeneration in the newt: a model to study the partly reconstruction of the neural tissue in real and simulated weightles sness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, H.; Grigoryan, E.; Mitashov, V.

    The micro -"g" effect on nervous tissue regeneration in newts has been investigated by our group for many years. It has been performed in real and in simulated microgravity with a clinostat. During limb regeneration the motor - and sensory nerves regrow perfectly within the newly formed limb. Like in `1g' conditions they are responsible for the initiation of blastema formation and continuity of g owth andr differentiation. Except for a general acceleration of growth and differentiation processes no differences became visible. Tail regeneration, which is perfectly regulated in newts during their whole life, includes the restoration of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. They follow or initiate an accelerated growth. Up to the present the cellular derivation of the sensory neurones within the regenerate has not yet been clarified. But growth acceleration comprises the whole nervous system. That means a totally new formation of the sensory connection from the periphery to the whole spinal cord. Regeneration must be initiated by the outgrowth of nerve fibres into the wound area. This may be performed by the remaining cut sensory fibres of the last stump segment and should be followed by the differentiation of undifferentiated cells of neural crest origin nearby the amputation area. Such cells are present in the form of meningeal cells which are the origin of mantle and Schwann cells too. Corresponding to the well proved growth acceleration of lens, retina, connective tissue, muscle and skin, the real and simulated microgravity affects the nervous system in the same manner. Tissues and organs of adult organisms have no chance to remain unaffected by the microgravity effect. We try to find the trigger which initiates the accelerated proliferation of the stem cells of sensory neurons, mantle and sheath cells under micro-"g" conditions.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEURAL TISSUE MOBILISATION ON PAIN, PAIN FREE PASSIVE SLR RANGE OF MOTION AND FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN LOW BACK ACHE SUBJECTS WITH SCIATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Geethika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain is a common, benign, and self-limiting disease that affects almost all persons, with a lifetime prevalence of up to 84%. In contrast, sciatica affects only 40 % of all persons in the Western industrialized countries. In sciatica, pain radiates down the legs, below the knee along the distribution of sciatic nerve. Nerve root compression is the most common cause of sciatica. Neuro dynamics or Neural Tissue Mobilization is relatively new approach in treatment of neuro musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of the study to determine the effectiveness of Neural Tissue mobilization on pain, pain free passive SLR ROM &functional disability in LBA subjects with Sciatica. Objective of the study is to study and compare the effectiveness of Neural tissue mobilization in LBA subjects with sciatica in terms of pain, pain free SLR ROM and Oswestry Disability Index. Methods: 30 subjects were selected by simple random sampling and assigned in to Control(n=15 &Experimental group(n=15.The subjects in control group were given conventional physiotherapy and those in Experimental group were given Neural Tissue Mobilization in addition to conventional therapy. All the participants were assessed with VAS, ODI and pain free passive SLR ROM. Results: After the analysis, the results were found to be significant improvement in pain, pain free SLR ROM, ODI in both groups (p< 0.00.But there is a high significance in Experimental group when compared to control group. Conclusion: Results suggest that NEURAL TISSUE MOBILIZATION along with conventional therapy is more effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving SLR ROM.

  19. Neural substrates underlying stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Stéphanie; Dricot, Laurence; Laloux, Patrice; Gradkowski, Wojciech; Desfontaines, Philippe; Evrard, Frédéric; Peeters, André; Jamart, Jacques; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Motor skill learning is one of the key components of motor function recovery after stroke, especially recovery driven by neurorehabilitation. Transcranial direct current stimulation can enhance neurorehabilitation and motor skill learning in stroke patients. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the retention of stimulation-enhanced motor skill learning involving a paretic upper limb have not been resolved. These neural substrates were explored by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nineteen chronic hemiparetic stroke patients participated in a double-blind, cross-over randomized, sham-controlled experiment with two series. Each series consisted of two sessions: (i) an intervention session during which dual transcranial direct current stimulation or sham was applied during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb; and (ii) an imaging session 1 week later, during which the patients performed the learned motor skill. The motor skill learning task, called the 'circuit game', involves a speed/accuracy trade-off and consists of moving a pointer controlled by a computer mouse along a complex circuit as quickly and accurately as possible. Relative to the sham series, dual transcranial direct current stimulation applied bilaterally over the primary motor cortex during motor skill learning with the paretic upper limb resulted in (i) enhanced online motor skill learning; (ii) enhanced 1-week retention; and (iii) superior transfer of performance improvement to an untrained task. The 1-week retention's enhancement driven by the intervention was associated with a trend towards normalization of the brain activation pattern during performance of the learned motor skill relative to the sham series. A similar trend towards normalization relative to sham was observed during performance of a simple, untrained task without a speed/accuracy constraint, despite a lack of behavioural difference between the dual transcranial direct current stimulation and sham

  20. Outcome assessment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma under systemic therapy using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Alexander; Kendlbacher, Martin; Nuhn, Philipp; Tüllmann, Cordula; Haseke, Nicolas; Stief, Christian G; Staehler, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The outcome of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) under systemic therapy shows remarkable variability, and there is a need to identify prognostic parameters that allow individual prognostic stratification and selection of optimal therapy. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are software systems that can be trained to recognize complex data patterns. In this study, we used ANNs to identify poor prognosis of patients with RCC based on common clinical parameters available at the beginning of systemic therapy. Data from patients with RCC who started systemic therapy were collected prospectively in a single center database; 175 data sets with follow-up data (median, 36 months) were available for analysis. Age, sex, body mass index, performance status, histopathologic parameters, time interval between primary tumor and detection of metastases, type of systemic therapy, number of metastases, and metastatic sites were used as input data for the ANN. The target variable was overall survival after 36 months. Logistic regression models were constructed by using the same variables. Death after 36 months occurred in 26% of the patients in the tyrosine kinase inhibitors group and in 37% of the patients in the immunotherapy group (P = .22). ANN achieved 95% overall accuracy and significantly outperformed logistic regression models (78% accuracy). Pathologic T classification, invasion of vessels, and tumor grade had the highest impact on the network's decision. ANN is a promising approach for individual risk stratification of patients with advanced RCC under systemic therapy, based on clinical parameters, and can help to optimize the therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF CULTURED PLANT TISSUES UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS AND UNDER STRESS

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    Dolgikh Yu.I.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability induced by in vitro conditions known as somaclonal variation is of practical interest due to its potential uses in plant breeding but, on the other hand, if clonal propagation or transformation is main goal, it becomes an unwelcome phenomenon. Thus, it is important to know frequency, the genomic distribution, the mechanisms and factors influencing somaclonal variation. We studied variability of PCR-based DNA markers of cultured tissues and regenerated plants of maize and bread wheat. The original A188 line of maize and the somaclones obtained were tested using 38 RAPD and 10 ISSR primers. None of the A188 plants showed variation in the RAPD and ISSR spectra for any of the primers used. However, the PCR spectra obtained from the somaclones demonstrated some variations, i.e., 22 RAPD primers and 6 ISSR primers differentiated at least one somaclonal variant from the progenitor line. Six SCAR markers were developed based on several RAPD and ISSR fragments. The inheritance of these SCAR markers was verified in the selfing progeny of each somaclone in the R1–R4 generations and in the hybrids, with A188 as the parental line in the F1 and F2 generations. These markers were sequenced and bioinformatic searches were performed to understand the molecular events that may underlie the variability observed in the somaclones. All changes were found in noncoding sequences and were induced by different molecular events, such as the insertion of long terminal repeat transposon, precise miniature inverted repeat transposable element (MITE excision, microdeletion, recombination, and a change in the pool of mitochondrial DNA. In two groups of independently produced somaclones, the same features (morphological, molecular were variable, which confirms the theory of ‘hot spots’ occurring in the genome. The presence of the same molecular markers in the somaclones and in different non-somaclonal maize variants suggests that in some cases

  2. Butyrate reduces appetite and activates brown adipose tissue via the gut-brain neural circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhuang; Yi, Chun-Xia; Katiraei, Saeed; Kooijman, Sander; Zhou, Enchen; Chung, Chih Kit; Gao, Yuanqing; van den Heuvel, José K.; Meijer, Onno C.; Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Heijink, Marieke; Giera, Martin; Willems van Dijk, Ko; Groen, Albert K.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Wang, Yanan

    2017-01-01

    Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. Acute effects

  3. Tissue specific responses alter the biomass accumulation in wheat under gradual and sudden salt stress

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    Yumurtaci A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation, while importance of salinity x genotype interaction for fresh weights was 5%, association for salinity x tissue type was found as 1% important. Interestingly, root branching and development of lateral roots were much more negatively affected by gradual stress rather than sudden salt application. Our results demonstrated that root and leaf were both critical tissues to test the salt tolerance by physiologically but sheath tissue might be used as an alternative source of variation for solving the interactions between root and leaves in wheat.

  4. Neural network underlying ictal pouting ("chapeau de gendarme") in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souirti, Zouhayr; Landré, Elisabeth; Mellerio, Charles; Devaux, Bertrand; Chassoux, Francine

    2014-08-01

    In order to determine the anatomical neural network underlying ictal pouting (IP), with the mouth turned down like a "chapeau de gendarme", in frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), we reviewed the video-EEG recordings of 36 patients with FLE who became seizure-free after surgery. We selected the cases presenting IP, defined as a symmetrical and sustained (>5s) lowering of labial commissures with contraction of chin, mimicking an expression of fear, disgust, or menace. Ictal pouting was identified in 11 patients (8 males; 16-48 years old). We analyzed the clinical semiology, imaging, and electrophysiological data associated with IP, including FDG-PET in 10 and SEEG in 9 cases. In 37 analyzed seizures (2-7/patient), IP was an early symptom, occurring during the first 10s in 9 cases. The main associated features consisted of fear, anguish, vegetative disturbances, behavioral disorders (sudden agitation, insults, and fighting), tonic posturing, and complex motor activities. The epileptogenic zone assessed by SEEG involved the mesial frontal areas, especially the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 8 patients, whereas lateral frontal onset with an early spread to the ACC was seen in the other patient. Ictal pouting associated with emotional changes and hypermotor behavior had high localizing value for rostroventral "affective" ACC, whereas less intense facial expressions were related to the dorsal "cognitive" ACC. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography demonstrated the involvement of both the ACC and lateral cortex including the anterior insula in all cases. We propose that IP is sustained by reciprocal mesial and lateral frontal interactions involved in emotional and cognitive processes, in which the ACC plays a pivotal role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying the conditioned diminution of the unconditioned fear response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly H; Ver Hoef, Lawrence W; Knight, David C

    2012-03-01

    Recognizing cues that predict an aversive event allows one to react more effectively under threatening conditions, and minimizes the reaction to the threat itself. This is demonstrated during Pavlovian fear conditioning when the unconditioned response (UCR) to a predictable unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is diminished compared to the UCR to an unpredictable UCS. The present study investigated the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal response associated with Pavlovian conditioned UCR diminution to better understand the relationship between individual differences in behavior and the neural mechanisms of the threat-related emotional response. Healthy volunteers participated in a fear conditioning study in which trait anxiety, skin conductance response (SCR), UCS expectancy, and the fMRI signal were assessed. During acquisition trials, a tone (CS+) was paired with a white noise UCS and a second tone (CS-) was presented without the UCS. Test trials consisted of the CS+ paired with the UCS, CS- paired with the UCS, and presentations of the UCS alone to assess conditioned UCR diminution. UCR diminution was observed within the dorsolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), anterior insula, and amygdala. The threat-related activity within the dorsolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, posterior cingulate cortex, and IPL varied with individual differences in trait anxiety. In addition, anticipatory (i.e. CS elicited) activity within the PFC showed an inverse relationship with threat-related (i.e. UCS elicited) activity within the PFC, IPL, and amygdala. Further, the emotional response (indexed via SCR) elicited by the threat was closely linked to amygdala activity. These findings are consistent with the view that the amygdala and PFC support learning-related processes that influence the emotional response evoked by a threat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural activity changes underlying the working memory deficit in alpha-CaMKII heterozygous knockout mice

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    Naoki Matsuo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (α-CaMKII is expressed abundantly in the forebrain and is considered to have an essential role in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Previously, we reported that mice heterozygous for a null mutation of α-CaMKII (α-CaMKII+/- have profoundly dysregulated behaviors including a severe working memory deficit, which is an endophenotype of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In addition, we found that almost all the neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG of the mutant mice failed to mature at molecular, morphological and electrophysiological levels. In the present study, to identify the brain substrates of the working memory deficit in the mutant mice, we examined the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain after a working memory version of the eight-arm radial maze test. c-Fos expression was abolished almost completely in the DG and was reduced significantly in neurons in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus, central amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. However, c-Fos expression was intact in the entorhinal and visual cortices. Immunohistochemical studies using arc promoter driven dVenus transgenic mice demonstrated that arc gene activation after the working memory task occurred in mature, but not immature neurons in the DG of wild-type mice. These results suggest crucial insights for the neural circuits underlying spatial mnemonic processing during a working memory task and suggest the involvement of α-CaMKII in the proper maturation and integration of DG neurons into these circuits.

  7. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

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    Birgit Abler

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12, and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12 not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation, activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual

  8. An approach for tissue density classification in mammographic images using artificial neural network based on wavelet and curvelet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Hüseyin; Ceylan, Murat

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the types of cancer which is most commonly seen in women. Density of breast is an important indicator for the risk of cancer. In addition, densities of tissue may harden the diagnosis by hiding the abnormalities occurring on the breast. For this reason, during the process of diagnosis, the process of automatic classification of breast density has a significant importance. In this study, a new system with the base of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and multiple resolution analysis is suggested. Wavelet and curvelet analyses having the most common use have been used as multi resolution analysis. 4 pieces of statistics which are minimum value, maximum value, mean value and standard deviation have been extracted from the images which have been eluted to their sub-bands via multi resolution analysis. For the purpose of testing the success of the system, 322 pieces of images which are in MIAS database have been used. The obtained results for different backgrounds are so satisfying; and the highest classification values have been obtained as 97.16 % with Wavelet transform and ANN for fatty background and 79.80 % with Wavelet transform and ANN for fatty-glanduar background. The same results have been obtained using Wavelet transform and ANN and Curvelet transform and ANN for dense background and accuracy rate of 84.82 % have been reached. The results of mean classification have been obtained, for three pieces of tissue types (fatty, fatty-glanduar, dense), in sequence as 84.47 % with the use of ANN, 85.71 % with the use of curvelet analysis and ANN; and 87.26 % with the use of wavelet analysis and ANN.

  9. Convolutional neural networks for an automatic classification of prostate tissue slides with high-grade Gleason score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez del Toro, Oscar; Atzori, Manfredo; Otálora, Sebastian; Andersson, Mats; Eurén, Kristian; Hedlund, Martin; Rönnquist, Peter; Müller, Henning

    2017-03-01

    The Gleason grading system was developed for assessing prostate histopathology slides. It is correlated to the outcome and incidence of relapse in prostate cancer. Although this grading is part of a standard protocol performed by pathologists, visual inspection of whole slide images (WSIs) has an inherent subjectivity when evaluated by different pathologists. Computer aided pathology has been proposed to generate an objective and reproducible assessment that can help pathologists in their evaluation of new tissue samples. Deep convolutional neural networks are a promising approach for the automatic classification of histopathology images and can hierarchically learn subtle visual features from the data. However, a large number of manual annotations from pathologists are commonly required to obtain sufficient statistical generalization when training new models that can evaluate the daily generated large amounts of pathology data. A fully automatic approach that detects prostatectomy WSIs with high-grade Gleason score is proposed. We evaluate the performance of various deep learning architectures training them with patches extracted from automatically generated regions-of-interest rather than from manually segmented ones. Relevant parameters for training the deep learning model such as size and number of patches as well as the inclusion or not of data augmentation are compared between the tested deep learning architectures. 235 prostate tissue WSIs with their pathology report from the publicly available TCGA data set were used. An accuracy of 78% was obtained in a balanced set of 46 unseen test images with different Gleason grades in a 2-class decision: high vs. low Gleason grade. Grades 7-8, which represent the boundary decision of the proposed task, were particularly well classified. The method is scalable to larger data sets with straightforward re-training of the model to include data from multiple sources, scanners and acquisition techniques. Automatically

  10. A reduction in DNA damage in neural tissue and peripheral blood of old mice treated with caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Garcez, Michelle Lima; Letieli de Abreu, Larissa; Tavares, Taís Helena; Rodrigues Boeck, Carina; Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Studies on caffeine consumption have shown a negative correlation with development of some diseases with subsequent beneficial manifestations. Our aim was to assess the effects of caffeine on peripheral blood and neural tissue DNA in young adult and aged mice. Male Swiss mice (age 2-3 or 16-18 months, respectively) were treated with a caffeine solution (0.3 g/l) for 4 weeks, while controls received water. After the treatments, blood and hippocampal cells (for a comet assay) and femurs (for a micronucleus [MN] test) were collected. The comet assay of peripheral blood and hippocampal cells demonstrated no significant differences between caffeine-treated and control young adult mice in terms of DNA damage index (DI) and frequency. In contrast, when comparing young adult with aged animals, significant differences were observed in DNA damage in blood and hippocampal cells. The differences between aged animals (with or without caffeine) consisted of a significant decrease in DNA DI in the group that received caffeine. In the MN test, an increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic (PCE) erythrocytes was noted in aged animals that received water compared to young adult mice. In addition, comparing treated with control aged murine groups, a decrease in frequency of MN was found in PCE erythrocytes of caffeine-treated mice. Chronic caffeine consumption was neither genotoxic nor mutagenic at the dose tested; however, it appears that caffeine actually protected mice from genotoxicity and mutagenicity, consequences attributed to aging.

  11. Neural restrictive silencer factor and choline acetyltransferase expression in cerebral tissue of Alzheimer’s Disease patients: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castañeda, Rocío E.; Sánchez-González, Víctor J.; Flores-Soto, Mario; Vázquez-Camacho, Gonzalo; Macías-Islas, Miguel A.; Ortiz, Genaro G.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT) brain level is one of the main biochemical disorders in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). In rodents, recent data show that the CHAT gene can be regulated by a neural restrictive silencer factor (NRSF). The aim of the present work was to evaluate the gene and protein expression of CHAT and NRSF in frontal, temporal, entorhinal and parietal cortices of AD patient brains. Four brains from patients with AD and four brains from subjects without dementia were studied. Cerebral tissues were obtained and processed by the guanidine isothiocyanate method for RNA extraction. CHAT and NRSF gene and protein expression were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. CHAT gene expression levels were 39% lower in AD patients as compared to the control group (p 0.05, U test) than in the control subjects. These findings suggest for the first time that in the brain of AD patients high NRSF protein levels are related to low CHAT gene expression levels. PMID:23569405

  12. Development of a Multi-Functional Biopolymer Scaffold for Neural Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Nicola Louise

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects approximately 270,000 people in the U.S., with approximately 12,000 new cases occurring every year. Several strategies have been investigated to enhance axonal regeneration after SCI, however, the resulting growth can be random and disorganized. Bioengineered scaffolds provide a physical substrate for the guidance of regenerating axons towards their targets, and can be produced by freeze casting. This technique involves the controlled directional solidification of an aqueous solution or suspension, resulting in a linearly aligned porous structure caused by ice templating. In this thesis, freeze casting was used to create novel porous chitosan-alginate (C/A) scaffolds with longitudinally aligned channels and a compressive modulus (5.08 ± 0.61 kPa) comparable to that of native spinal cord tissue. These C/A scaffolds supported the viability, attachment, and directionally oriented growth of chick dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurites in vitro, with surface adsorptions of polycations and laminin promoting significantly longer neurite growth than the uncoated scaffolds (pvitro, while chABC was released for up to 35 days. However, up to 85% of biomolecules emained entrapped within the scaffold walls, due to limitation of diffusion by the scaffold wall mesh size. Release of bioactive chABC and neurotrophins from the multifunctional scaffolds promoted the growth of DRG neurites through an in vitro barrier of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, a main inhibitory component of the growth-inhibiting glial scar in the injured spinal cord. The present data suggest these multi-functional scaffolds are suitable for use and future testing in vivo as a combination strategy for spinal cord repair due to their ability to promote the directionally oriented growth of neurites and their ability to provide the sustained release of therapeutic bioactive molecules for the stimulation of axonal growth through the glial scar.

  13. Dynamics of BMP and Hes1/Hairy1 signaling in the dorsal neural tube underlies the transition from neural crest to definitive roof plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Erez; Avraham, Oshri; Kahane, Nitza; Ofek, Shai; Kumar, Deepak; Kalcheim, Chaya

    2016-03-24

    The dorsal midline region of the neural tube that results from closure of the neural folds is generally termed the roof plate (RP). However, this domain is highly dynamic and complex, and is first transiently inhabited by prospective neural crest (NC) cells that sequentially emigrate from the neuroepithelium. It only later becomes the definitive RP, the dorsal midline cells of the spinal cord. We previously showed that at the trunk level of the axis, prospective RP progenitors originate ventral to the premigratory NC and progressively reach the dorsal midline following NC emigration. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the end of NC production and formation of the definitive RP remain virtually unknown. Based on distinctive cellular and molecular traits, we have defined an initial NC and a subsequent RP stage, allowing us to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the transition between the two phases. We demonstrate that in spite of the constant production of BMP4 in the dorsal tube at both stages, RP progenitors only transiently respond to the ligand and lose competence shortly before they arrive at their final location. In addition, exposure of dorsal tube cells at the NC stage to high levels of BMP signaling induces premature RP traits, such as Hes1/Hairy1, while concomitantly inhibiting NC production. Reciprocally, early inhibition of BMP signaling prevents Hairy1 mRNA expression at the RP stage altogether, suggesting that BMP is both necessary and sufficient for the development of this RP-specific trait. Furthermore, when Hes1/Hairy1 is misexpressed at the NC stage, it inhibits BMP signaling and downregulates BMPR1A/Alk3 mRNA expression, transcription of BMP targets such as Foxd3, cell-cycle progression, and NC emigration. Reciprocally, Foxd3 inhibits Hairy1, suggesting that repressive cross-interactions at the level of, and downstream from, BMP ensure the temporal separation between both lineages. Together, our data suggest that BMP signaling is

  14. Analysis of optically anisotropic properties of biological tissues under stretching based on differential Mueller matrix formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Wei; Huang, Chih-Ling; Lo, Yu-Lung; Chang, You-Ren

    2017-03-01

    The optical properties of biological tissues under stretching are investigated using a full-field ellipsometry technique based on a differential Mueller matrix formalism. Traditional photoelastic-based formalism for extracting the linear birefringence (LB) properties of stretched anisotropic optical samples ignores the effects of the other optical properties of the sample. By contrast, in the formalism proposed in this study, the LB, linear dichroism (LD), circular birefringence (CB), circular dichroism (CD), and depolarization (Dep) properties are fully decoupled. Simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the two formalisms in extracting the LB properties of optically anisotropic samples with different degrees of Dep, CB, LD, and CD. The practical feasibility of the proposed all-parameter decoupled formalism is then demonstrated using chicken breast muscle tissue. In general, the results show that both formalisms provide a reliable LB measurement performance for healthy chicken breast tissue under stretching. However, while the LB-only formalism has good robustness toward scattering, its measurement performance is seriously degraded for samples with high CB. Thus, of the two formalisms, the proposed all-parameter decoupled formalism provides a more effective approach for examining the anisotropic properties of biological tissues under stretching.

  15. Mineralization of human bone tissue under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Verentsov, Grigori E.; Abratov, Nikolai I.

    It has been suggested that physical exercise and calcium supplements may be used to prevent demineralization of bone tissue under hypokinesia (diminished muscular activity). Thus, the aim of this study was to determine mineral content of bones of 12 physically healthy men aged 19-24 years under 90 days of hypokinesia and intensive physical exercise (PE) with calcium lactate (C) supplements. They were divided into experimental and control groups with 6 men in each. The experimental group of men were subjected to hypokinesia (HK) and intensive PE and took 650 mg C 6 times per day; the control group was placed under pure HK, i.e. without the use of any preventive measures. The mineral content of different bone tissues was measured with a densitometric X-ray method in milligrams of calcium per 1 mm 3 before and after exposure to HK. The level of bone density of the examined bone tissues decreased by 7-9% and 5-7% for the control and experimental groups of men, respectively. A statistical analysis revealed that the reduction of bone mineralization was significant with P bone density changes in the control and experimental groups of men failed to demonstrate significant differences. It was concluded that the level of mineralization of bone tissues decreased under hypokinesia and physical exercise with calcium supplements. Experimental studies of hypokinetic physiology are generally based on the assumption that diminished muscular activity (progressive reduction of number of steps per day) is detrimental to animal and human organisms, since the entire animal kingdom had been formed in an environment of high motor activity which left its imprint on the evolution, structure, function and behaviour of animals and men. The impossibility of the body tissues to retain optimum amounts of fluid and electrolytes is the dominant hypokinetic effect.

  16. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contraction and elongation: Mechanics underlying cell boundary deformations in epithelial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yusuke

    2017-06-01

    The cell-cell boundaries of epithelial cells form cellular frameworks at the apical side of tissues. Deformations in these boundaries, for example, boundary contraction and elongation, and the associated forces form the mechanical basis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. In this review, using data from recent Drosophila studies on cell boundary contraction and elongation, I provide an overview of the mechanism underlying the bi-directional deformations in the epithelial cell boundary, that are sustained by biased accumulations of junctional and apico-medial non-muscle myosin II. Moreover, how the junctional tensions exist on cell boundaries in different boundary dynamics and morphologies are discussed. Finally, some future perspectives on how recent knowledge about single cell boundary-level mechanics will contribute to our understanding of epithelial tissue morphogenesis are discussed. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  18. An auditory neural correlate suggests a mechanism underlying holistic pitch perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Wile

    Full Text Available Current theories of auditory pitch perception propose that cochlear place (spectral and activity timing pattern (temporal information are somehow combined within the brain to produce holistic pitch percepts, yet the neural mechanisms for integrating these two kinds of information remain obscure. To examine this process in more detail, stimuli made up of three pure tones whose components are individually resolved by the peripheral auditory system, but that nonetheless elicit a holistic, "missing fundamental" pitch percept, were played to human listeners. A technique was used to separate neural timing activity related to individual components of the tone complexes from timing activity related to an emergent feature of the complex (the envelope, and the region of the tonotopic map where information could originate from was simultaneously restricted by masking noise. Pitch percepts were mirrored to a very high degree by a simple combination of component-related and envelope-related neural responses with similar timing that originate within higher-frequency regions of the tonotopic map where stimulus components interact. These results suggest a coding scheme for holistic pitches whereby limited regions of the tonotopic map (spectral places carrying envelope- and component-related activity with similar timing patterns selectively provide a key source of neural pitch information. A similar mechanism of integration between local and emergent object properties may contribute to holistic percepts in a variety of sensory systems.

  19. Developmental Pathway Genes and Neural Plasticity Underlying Emotional Learning and Stress-Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheau, Marissa E.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2017-01-01

    The manipulation of neural plasticity as a means of intervening in the onset and progression of stress-related disorders retains its appeal for many researchers, despite our limited success in translating such interventions from the laboratory to the clinic. Given the challenges of identifying individual genetic variants that confer increased risk…

  20. Dissociable neural mechanisms underlying the modulation of pain and anxiety? An FMRI pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Wiech

    Full Text Available The down-regulation of pain through beliefs is commonly discussed as a form of emotion regulation. In line with this interpretation, the analgesic effect has been shown to co-occur with reduced anxiety and increased activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, which is a key region of emotion regulation. This link between pain and anxiety modulation raises the question whether the two effects are rooted in the same neural mechanism. In this pilot fMRI study, we compared the neural basis of the analgesic and anxiolytic effect of two types of threat modulation: a "behavioral control" paradigm, which involves the ability to terminate a noxious stimulus, and a "safety signaling" paradigm, which involves visual cues that signal the threat (or absence of threat that a subsequent noxious stimulus might be of unusually high intensity. Analgesia was paralleled by VLPFC activity during behavioral control. Safety signaling engaged elements of the descending pain control system, including the rostral anterior cingulate cortex that showed increased functional connectivity with the periaqueductal gray and VLPFC. Anxiety reduction, in contrast, scaled with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during behavioral control but had no distinct neural signature during safety signaling. Our pilot data therefore suggest that analgesic and anxiolytic effects are instantiated in distinguishable neural mechanisms and differ between distinct stress- and pain-modulatory approaches, supporting the recent notion of multiple pathways subserving top-down modulation of the pain experience. Additional studies in larger cohorts are needed to follow up on these preliminary findings.

  1. Infants' somatotopic neural responses to seeing human actions: I've got you under my skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni N Saby

    Full Text Available Human infants rapidly learn new skills and customs via imitation, but the neural linkages between action perception and production are not well understood. Neuroscience studies in adults suggest that a key component of imitation-identifying the corresponding body part used in the acts of self and other-has an organized neural signature. In adults, perceiving someone using a specific body part (e.g., hand vs. foot is associated with activation of the corresponding area of the sensory and/or motor strip in the observer's brain-a phenomenon called neural somatotopy. Here we examine whether preverbal infants also exhibit somatotopic neural responses during the observation of others' actions. 14-month-old infants were randomly assigned to watch an adult reach towards and touch an object using either her hand or her foot. The scalp electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded and event-related changes in the sensorimotor mu rhythm were analyzed. Mu rhythm desynchronization was greater over hand areas of sensorimotor cortex during observation of hand actions and was greater over the foot area for observation of foot actions. This provides the first evidence that infants' observation of someone else using a particular body part activates the corresponding areas of sensorimotor cortex. We hypothesize that this somatotopic organization in the developing brain supports imitation and cultural learning. The findings connect developmental cognitive neuroscience, adult neuroscience, action representation, and behavioral imitation.

  2. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of a protocol involving soft tissue techniques and/or neural mobilization techniques in the management of patients with frequent episodic tension-type headache (FETTH) and those with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled before and after trial. Rehabilitation area of the local hospital and a private physiotherapy center. Patients (N=97; 78 women, 19 men) diagnosed with FETTH or CTTH were randomly assigned to groups A, B, C, or D. (A) Placebo superficial massage; (B) soft tissue techniques; (C) neural mobilization techniques; (D) a combination of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques. The pressure pain threshold (PPT) in the temporal muscles (points 1 and 2) and supraorbital region (point 3), the frequency and maximal intensity of pain crisis, and the score in the Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) were evaluated. All variables were assessed before the intervention, at the end of the intervention, and 15 and 30 days after the intervention. Groups B, C, and D had an increase in PPT and a reduction in frequency, maximal intensity, and HIT-6 values in all time points after the intervention as compared with baseline and group A (P<.001 for all cases). Group D had the highest PPT values and the lowest frequency and HIT-6 values after the intervention. The application of soft tissue and neural mobilization techniques to patients with FETTH or CTTH induces significant changes in PPT, the characteristics of pain crisis, and its effect on activities of daily living as compared with the application of these techniques as isolated interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Histological characterization and quantification of cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healty and demyelinated CNS tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, J.; SANTERMANS, Eva; Reekmans, K.; de Vocht, N.; Le Blon, D.; Hoornaert, C.; Daans, J.; Goossens, H.; Berneman, Z.; HENS, Niel; Van der Linden, A.; Ponsaerts, P.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical animal studies involving intracerebral (stem) cell grafting are gaining popularity in many laboratories due to the reported beneficial effects of cell grafting on various diseases or traumata of the central nervous system (CNS). In this chapter, we describe a histological workflow to characterize and quantify cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healthy and demyelinated CNS tissue. First, we provide standardized protocols to isolate and cult...

  4. Mechanisms Underlying the Emergence of Post-acidosis Arrhythmia at the Tissue Level: A Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jieyun; Yin, Renli; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, Henggui

    2017-01-01

    Acidosis has complex electrophysiological effects, which are associated with a high recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Through multi-scale cardiac computer modeling, this study investigated the mechanisms underlying the emergence of post-acidosis arrhythmia at the tissue level. In simulations, ten Tusscher-Panfilov ventricular model was modified to incorporate various data on acidosis-induced alterations of cellular electrophysiology and intercellular electrical coupling. The single cell models were incorporated into multicellular one-dimensional (1D) fiber and 2D sheet tissue models. Electrophysiological effects were quantified as changes of action potential profile, sink-source interactions of fiber tissue, and the vulnerability of tissue to the genesis of unidirectional conduction that led to initiation of re-entry. It was shown that acidosis-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium load contributed to delayed afterdepolarizations (DADs) in single cells. These DADs may be synchronized to overcome the source-sink mismatch arising from intercellular electrotonic coupling, and produce a premature ventricular complex (PVC) at the tissue level. The PVC conduction can be unidirectionally blocked in the transmural ventricular wall with altered electrical heterogeneity, resulting in the genesis of re-entry. In conclusion, altered source-sink interactions and electrical heterogeneity due to acidosis-induced cellular electrophysiological alterations may increase susceptibility to post-acidosis ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:28424631

  5. Anatomically Inspired Three-dimensional Micro-tissue Engineered Neural Networks for Nervous System Reconstruction, Modulation, and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzyna, Laura A; Adewole, Dayo O; Gordián-Vélez, Wisberty J; Grovola, Michael R; Burrell, Justin C; Katiyar, Kritika S; Petrov, Dmitriy; Harris, James P; Cullen, D Kacy

    2017-05-31

    Functional recovery rarely occurs following injury or disease-induced degeneration within the central nervous system (CNS) due to the inhibitory environment and the limited capacity for neurogenesis. We are developing a strategy to simultaneously address neuronal and axonal pathway loss within the damaged CNS. This manuscript presents the fabrication protocol for micro-tissue engineered neural networks (micro-TENNs), implantable constructs consisting of neurons and aligned axonal tracts spanning the extracellular matrix (ECM) lumen of a preformed hydrogel cylinder hundreds of microns in diameter that may extend centimeters in length. Neuronal aggregates are delimited to the extremes of the three-dimensional encasement and are spanned by axonal projections. Micro-TENNs are uniquely poised as a strategy for CNS reconstruction, emulating aspects of brain connectome cytoarchitecture and potentially providing means for network replacement. The neuronal aggregates may synapse with host tissue to form new functional relays to restore and/or modulate missing or damaged circuitry. These constructs may also act as pro-regenerative "living scaffolds" capable of exploiting developmental mechanisms for cell migration and axonal pathfinding, providing synergistic structural and soluble cues based on the state of regeneration. Micro-TENNs are fabricated by pouring liquid hydrogel into a cylindrical mold containing a longitudinally centered needle. Once the hydrogel has gelled, the needle is removed, leaving a hollow micro-column. An ECM solution is added to the lumen to provide an environment suitable for neuronal adhesion and axonal outgrowth. Dissociated neurons are mechanically aggregated for precise seeding within one or both ends of the micro-column. This methodology reliably produces self-contained miniature constructs with long-projecting axonal tracts that may recapitulate features of brain neuroanatomy. Synaptic immunolabeling and genetically encoded calcium

  6. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between “seen” trials and “not seen” trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expre...

  7. CMOS-based Stochastically Spiking Neural Network for Optimization under Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    uncertainties. We discuss a ‘scenario generation’ circuit to non- parametrically estimate/emulate statistics of uncertain cost/constraints...are explored: (1) We discuss a ‘scenario generation’ circuit to non- parametrically estimate and emulate statistics of uncertain cost/constraints...uncertainties. The discussed mixed-signal, CMOS-based architecture of stochastically spiking neural network minimizes area/power of each cell and

  8. Neural tissue-spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Johansen, Mathias; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2007-01-01

    -spheres (NTS) in EGF and FGF2 containing medium. The spheres were cut into quarters when passaged every 10-15th day, avoiding mechanical or enzymatic dissociation in order to minimize cellular trauma and preserve intercellular contacts. For analysis of regional differences within the forebrain SVZ, NTS were...

  9. Neural activity underlying motor-action preparation and cognitive narrowing in approach-motivated goal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Threadgill, A Hunter; Adams, David L

    2016-02-01

    High-approach-motivated (pre-goal) positive affect states encourage tenacious goal pursuit and narrow cognitive scope. As such, high approach-motivated states likely enhance the neural correlates of motor-action preparation to aid in goal acquisition. These neural correlates may also relate to the cognitive narrowing associated with high approach-motivated states. In the present study, we investigated motor-action preparation during pre-goal and post-goal states using an index of beta suppression over the motor cortex. The results revealed that beta suppression was greatest in pre-goal positive states, suggesting that higher levels of motor-action preparation occur during high approach-motivated positive states. Furthermore, beta and alpha suppression in the high approach-motivated positive states predicted greater cognitive narrowing. These results suggest that approach-motivated pre-goal states engage the neural substrates of motor-action preparation and cognitive narrowing. Individual differences in motor-action preparation relate to the degree of cognitive narrowing.

  10. Artificial language training reveals the neural substrates underlying addressed and assembled phonologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Mei

    Full Text Available Although behavioral and neuropsychological studies have suggested two distinct routes of phonological access, their neural substrates have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we designed an artificial language (based on Korean Hangul that can be read either through addressed (i.e., whole word mapping or assembled (i.e., grapheme-to-phoneme mapping phonology. Two matched groups of native English-speaking participants were trained in one of the two conditions, one hour per day for eight days. Behavioral results showed that both groups correctly named more than 90% of the trained words after training. At the neural level, we found a clear dissociation of the neural pathways for addressed and assembled phonologies: There was greater involvement of the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right orbital frontal cortex, angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus for addressed phonology, but stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus for assembled phonology. Furthermore, we found evidence supporting the strategy-shift hypothesis, which postulates that, with practice, reading strategy shifts from assembled to addressed phonology. Specifically, compared to untrained words, trained words in the assembled phonology group showed stronger activation in the addressed phonology network and less activation in the assembled phonology network. Our results provide clear brain-imaging evidence for the dual-route models of reading.

  11. Predicting Carbonation Depth of Prestressed Concrete under Different Stress States Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two artificial neural networks (ANN, back-propagation neural network (BPNN and the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN, are proposed to predict the carbonation depth of prestressed concrete. In order to generate the training and testing data for the ANNs, an accelerated carbonation experiment was carried out, and the influence of stress level of concrete on carbonation process was taken into account especially. Then, based on the experimental results, the BPNN and RBFNN models which all take the stress level of concrete, water-cement ratio, cement-fine aggregate, cement-coarse aggregate ratio and testing age as input parameters were built and all the training and testing work was performed in MATLAB. It can be found that the two ANN models seem to have a high prediction and generalization capability in evaluation of carbonation depth, and the largest absolute percentage errors of BPNN and RBFNN are 10.88% and 8.46%, respectively. The RBFNN model shows a better prediction precision in comparison to BPNN model.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying sound-induced visual motion perception: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Souta; Higuchi, Satomi; Teramoto, Wataru; Sugita, Yoichi

    2017-07-01

    Studies of crossmodal interactions in motion perception have reported activation in several brain areas, including those related to motion processing and/or sensory association, in response to multimodal (e.g., visual and auditory) stimuli that were both in motion. Recent studies have demonstrated that sounds can trigger illusory visual apparent motion to static visual stimuli (sound-induced visual motion: SIVM): A visual stimulus blinking at a fixed location is perceived to be moving laterally when an alternating left-right sound is also present. Here, we investigated brain activity related to the perception of SIVM using a 7T functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. Specifically, we focused on the patterns of neural activities in SIVM and visually induced visual apparent motion (VIVM). We observed shared activations in the middle occipital area (V5/hMT), which is thought to be involved in visual motion processing, for SIVM and VIVM. Moreover, as compared to VIVM, SIVM resulted in greater activation in the superior temporal area and dominant functional connectivity between the V5/hMT area and the areas related to auditory and crossmodal motion processing. These findings indicate that similar but partially different neural mechanisms could be involved in auditory-induced and visually-induced motion perception, and neural signals in auditory, visual, and, crossmodal motion processing areas closely and directly interact in the perception of SIVM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination of fiber-guided pulsed erbium and holmium laser radiation for tissue ablation under water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratisto, H; Frenz, M; Ith, M; Altermatt, H J; Jansen, E D; Weber, H P

    1996-07-01

    Because of the high absorption of near-infrared laser radiation in biological tissue, erbium lasers and holmium lasers emitting at 3 and 2 µm, respectively, have been proven to have optimal qualities for cutting or welding and coagulating tissue. To combine the advantages of both wavelengths, we realized a multiwavelength laser system by simultaneously guiding erbium and holmium laser radiation by means of a single zirconium fluoride (ZrF(4)) fiber. Laser-induced channel formation in water and poly(acrylamide) gel was investigated by the use of a time-resolved flash-photography setup, while pressure transients were recorded simultaneously with a needle hydrophone. The shapes and depths of vapor channels produced in water and in a submerged gel after single erbium and after combination erbium-holmium radiation delivered by means of a 400-µm ZrF(4) fiber were measured. Transmission measurements were performed to determine the amount of pulse energy available for tissue ablation. The effects of laser wavelength and the delay time between pulses of different wavelengths on the photomechanical and photothermal responses of meniscal tissue were evaluated in vitro by the use of histology. It was observed that the use of a short (200-µs, 100-mJ) holmium laser pulse as a prepulse to generate a vapor bubble through which the ablating erbium laser pulse can be transmitted (delay time, 100 µs) increases the cutting depth in meniscus from 450 to 1120 µm as compared with the depth following a single erbium pulse. The results indicate that a combination of erbium and holmium laser radiation precisely and efficiently cuts tissue under water with 20-50-µm collateral tissue damage.

  14. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudachkova N.E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

  15. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between “seen” trials and “not seen” trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expression, and written words). Results showed the typical visual ERP components in both “seen” and “not seen” trials. There was no statistical difference in the ERP peak latencies between the “seen” and “not seen” trials, suggesting a similar timing of the cortical neural synchronization regardless the primary visual consciousness. In contrast, ERP sources showed differences between “seen” and “not seen” trials. For the visuospatial stimuli, the primary consciousness was related to higher activity in dorsal occipital and parietal sources at about 400 ms post-stimulus. For the emotional face expressions, there was greater activity in parietal and frontal sources at about 180 ms post-stimulus. For the written letters, there was higher activity in occipital, parietal and temporal sources at about 230 ms post-stimulus. These results hint that primary visual consciousness is associated with an enhanced cortical neural synchronization having entirely different spatiotemporal characteristics as a function of the features of the visual stimuli and possibly, the relative qualia (i.e., visuospatial, face expression, and words). In this framework, the dorsal visual stream may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of visuospatial and emotional face contents. Analogously, both dorsal and ventral visual streams may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of linguistic contents. In this line of reasoning, the ensemble

  16. Cortical Neural Synchronization Underlies Primary Visual Consciousness of Qualia: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Soricelli, Andrea; Cordone, Susanna; Millán-Calenti, José Carlos; Del Percio, Claudio; Buján, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews three experiments on event-related potentials (ERPs) testing the hypothesis that primary visual consciousness (stimulus self-report) is related to enhanced cortical neural synchronization as a function of stimulus features. ERP peak latency and sources were compared between "seen" trials and "not seen" trials, respectively related and unrelated to the primary visual consciousness. Three salient features of visual stimuli were considered (visuospatial, emotional face expression, and written words). Results showed the typical visual ERP components in both "seen" and "not seen" trials. There was no statistical difference in the ERP peak latencies between the "seen" and "not seen" trials, suggesting a similar timing of the cortical neural synchronization regardless the primary visual consciousness. In contrast, ERP sources showed differences between "seen" and "not seen" trials. For the visuospatial stimuli, the primary consciousness was related to higher activity in dorsal occipital and parietal sources at about 400 ms post-stimulus. For the emotional face expressions, there was greater activity in parietal and frontal sources at about 180 ms post-stimulus. For the written letters, there was higher activity in occipital, parietal and temporal sources at about 230 ms post-stimulus. These results hint that primary visual consciousness is associated with an enhanced cortical neural synchronization having entirely different spatiotemporal characteristics as a function of the features of the visual stimuli and possibly, the relative qualia (i.e., visuospatial, face expression, and words). In this framework, the dorsal visual stream may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of visuospatial and emotional face contents. Analogously, both dorsal and ventral visual streams may be synchronized in association with the primary consciousness of linguistic contents. In this line of reasoning, the ensemble of the cortical neural networks

  17. Transplanted neurally modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote tissue protection and locomotor recovery in spinal cord injured rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Arshak R; Fehlings, Michael G; Zhang, Zhiying; Maiman, Dennis J

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy for repair and replacement of lost neural cells is a promising treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neural phenotypes and be isolated and expanded for autotransplantation with no risk of rejection. The authors examined whether transplanted neurally induced human MSCs (NI hMSCs), developed by a new procedure, can survive, differentiate, and promote tissue protection and functional recovery in injured spinal cord (ISC) rats. Neural induction was achieved by exposing cells simultaneously to inhibitors of DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and pharmacological agents that increased cAMP levels. Three groups of adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injected immediately rostral and caudal to the midline lesion with phosphate-buffered saline, MSCs, or NI hMSCs, 1 week after a spinal cord impact injury at T-8. Functional outcome was measured using the Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and thermal sensitivity test on a weekly basis up to 12 weeks postinjury. Graft integration and anatomy of spinal cord was assessed by stereological, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques. The transplanted NI hMSCs survived, differentiated, and significantly improved locomotor recovery of ISC rats. Transplantation also reduced the volume of lesion cavity and white matter loss. This method of hMSC modification may provide an alternative source of autologous adult stem cells for CNS repair.

  18. Robust Finite-Time Stabilization of Fractional-Order Neural Networks With Discontinuous and Continuous Activation Functions Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhixia; Zeng, Zhigang; Wang, Leimin

    2017-03-10

    This paper is concerned with robust finite-time stabilization for a class of fractional-order neural networks (FNNs) with two types of activation functions (i.e., discontinuous and continuous activation function) under uncertainty. It is worth noting that there exist few results about FNNs with discontinuous activation functions, which is mainly because classical solutions and theories of differential equations cannot be applied in this case. Especially, there is no relevant finite-time stabilization research for such system, and this paper makes up for the gap. The existence of global solution under the framework of Filippov for such system is guaranteed by limiting discontinuous activation functions. According to set-valued analysis and Kakutani's fixed point theorem, we obtain the existence of equilibrium point. In particular, based on differential inclusion theory and fractional Lyapunov stability theory, several new sufficient conditions are given to ensure finite-time stabilization via a novel discontinuous controller, and the upper bound of the settling time for stabilization is estimated. In addition, we analyze the finite-time stabilization of FNNs with Lipschitz-continuous activation functions under uncertainty. The results of this paper improve corresponding ones of integer-order neural networks with discontinuous and continuous activation functions. Finally, three numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  19. Electrospun Collagen/Silk Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: Fiber Fabrication, Post-Treatment Optimization, and Application in Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bofan

    Biocompatible scaffolds mimicking the locally aligned fibrous structure of native extracellular matrix (ECM) are in high demand in tissue engineering. In this thesis research, unidirectionally aligned fibers were generated via a home-built electrospinning system. Collagen type I, as a major ECM component, was chosen in this study due to its support of cell proliferation and promotion of neuroectodermal commitment in stem cell differentiation. Synthetic dragline silk proteins, as biopolymers with remarkable tensile strength and superior elasticity, were also used as a model material. Good alignment, controllable fiber size and morphology, as well as a desirable deposition density of fibers were achieved via the optimization of solution and electrospinning parameters. The incorporation of silk proteins into collagen was found to significantly enhance mechanical properties and stability of electrospun fibers. Glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor post-treatment was demonstrated as a simple and effective way to tune the properties of collagen/silk fibers without changing their chemical composition. With 6-12 hours GA treatment, electrospun collagen/silk fibers were not only biocompatible, but could also effectively induce the polarization and neural commitment of stem cells, which were optimized on collagen rich fibers due to the unique combination of biochemical and biophysical cues imposed to cells. Taken together, electrospun collagen rich composite fibers are mechanically strong, stable and provide excellent cell adhesion. The unidirectionally aligned fibers can accelerate neural differentiation of stem cells, representing a promising therapy for neural tissue degenerative diseases and nerve injuries.

  20. Neural systems underlying aversive conditioning in humans with primary and secondary reinforcers

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    Mauricio R Delgado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Money is a secondary reinforcer commonly used across a range of disciplines in experimental paradigms investigating reward learning and decision-making. The effectiveness of monetary reinforcers during aversive learning and its neural basis, however, remains a topic of debate. Specifically, it is unclear if the initial acquisition of aversive representations of monetary losses depends on similar neural systems as more traditional aversive conditioning that involves primary reinforcers. This study contrasts the efficacy of a biologically defined primary reinforcer (shock and a socially defined secondary reinforcer (money during aversive learning and its associated neural circuitry. During a two-part experiment, participants first played a gambling game where wins and losses were based on performance to gain an experimental bank. Participants were then exposed to two separate aversive conditioning sessions. In one session, a primary reinforcer (mild shock served as an unconditioned stimulus (US and was paired with one of two colored squares, the conditioned stimuli (CS+ and CS-, respectively. In another session, a secondary reinforcer (loss of money served as the US and was paired with one of two different CS. Skin conductance responses were greater for CS+ compared to CS- trials irrespective of type of reinforcer. Neuroimaging results revealed that the striatum, a region typically linked with reward-related processing, was found to be involved in the acquisition of aversive conditioned response irrespective of reinforcer type. In contrast, the amygdala was involved during aversive conditioning with primary reinforcers, as suggested by both an exploratory fMRI analysis and a follow-up case study with a patient with bilateral amygdala damage. Taken together, these results suggest that learning about potential monetary losses may depend on reinforcement learning related systems, rather than on typical structures involved in more biologically based

  1. Effect of abacus training on executive function development and underlying neural correlates in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Weng, Jian; Yao, Yuan; Dong, Shanshan; Liu, Yuqiu; Chen, Feiyan

    2017-10-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of cognitive abilities involved in self-regulated behavior. Given the critical role of EF in cognition, strategies for improving EF have attracted intensive attention in recent years. Previous studies have explored the effects of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training on several cognitive abilities. However, it remains unclear whether AMC training affects EF and its neural correlates. In this study, participants were randomly assigned to AMC or control groups upon starting primary school. The AMC group received 2 h AMC training every week, while the control group did not have any abacus experience. Neural activity during an EF task was examined using functional MRI for both groups in their 4th and 6th grades. Our results showed that the AMC group performed better and faster than the control group in both grades. They also had lower activation in the frontoparietal reigons than the control group in the 6th grade. From the 4th to the 6th grade, the AMC group showed activation decreases in the frontoparietal regions, while the control group exhibited an opposite pattern. Furthermore, voxel-wise regression analyses revealed that better performance was associated with lower task-relevant brain activity in the AMC group but associated with greater task-relevant brain activity in the control group. These results suggest that long-term AMC training, with calculation ability as its original target, may improve EF and enhance neural efficiency of the frontoparietal regions during development. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5234-5249, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Involves Activation of the Wnt5a/JNK Signalling

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    Sujeong Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are a powerful resource for cell-based transplantation therapies, but understanding of stem cell differentiation at the molecular level is not clear yet. We hypothesized that the Wnt pathway controls stem cell maintenance and neural differentiation. We have characterized the transcriptional expression of Wnt during the neural differentiation of hADSCs. After neural induction, the expressions of Wnt2, Wnt4, and Wnt11 were decreased, but the expression of Wnt5a was increased compared with primary hADSCs in RT-PCR analysis. In addition, the expression levels of most Fzds and LRP5/6 ligand were decreased, but not Fzd3 and Fzd5. Furthermore, Dvl1 and RYK expression levels were downregulated in NI-hADSCs. There were no changes in the expression of ß-catenin and GSK3ß. Interestingly, Wnt5a expression was highly increased in NI-hADSCs by real time RT-PCR analysis and western blot. Wnt5a level was upregulated after neural differentiation and Wnt3, Dvl2, and Naked1 levels were downregulated. Finally, we found that the JNK expression was increased after neural induction and ERK level was decreased. Thus, this study shows for the first time how a single Wnt5a ligand can activate the neural differentiation pathway through the activation of Wnt5a/JNK pathway by binding Fzd3 and Fzd5 and directing Axin/GSK-3ß in hADSCs.

  3. Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mayao; Gao, Xing; Abdel-Wahab, Adel; Li, Simin; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Riedel, Christoph; Busse, Björn; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-09-01

    Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control), young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM) was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the lowest.

  4. Effect of micromorphology of cortical bone tissue on crack propagation under dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mayao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural integrity of bone tissue plays an important role in daily activities of humans. However, traumatic incidents such as sports injuries, collisions and falls can cause bone fracture, servere pain and mobility loss. In addition, ageing and degenerative bone diseases such as osteoporosis can increase the risk of fracture [1]. As a composite-like material, a cortical bone tissue is capable of tolerating moderate fracture/cracks without complete failure. The key to this is its heterogeneously distributed microstructural constituents providing both intrinsic and extrinsic toughening mechanisms. At micro-scale level, cortical bone can be considered as a four-phase composite material consisting of osteons, Haversian canals, cement lines and interstitial matrix. These microstructural constituents can directly affect local distributions of stresses and strains, and, hence, crack initiation and propagation. Therefore, understanding the effect of micromorphology of cortical bone on crack initiation and propagation, especially under dynamic loading regimes is of great importance for fracture risk evaluation. In this study, random microstructures of a cortical bone tissue were modelled with finite elements for four groups: healthy (control, young age, osteoporosis and bisphosphonate-treated, based on osteonal morphometric parameters measured from microscopic images for these groups. The developed models were loaded under the same dynamic loading conditions, representing a direct impact incident, resulting in progressive crack propagation. An extended finite-element method (X-FEM was implemented to realize solution-dependent crack propagation within the microstructured cortical bone tissues. The obtained simulation results demonstrate significant differences due to micromorphology of cortical bone, in terms of crack propagation characteristics for different groups, with the young group showing highest fracture resistance and the senior group the

  5. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Musical Pitch Perception and Clinical Applications Including Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Parviz, Mahsa; Loui, Psyche; Wan, Catherine Y; Pearl, Phillip L

    2015-08-01

    Music production and perception invoke a complex set of cognitive functions that rely on the integration of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional pathways. Pitch is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sound and a building block for both music and speech. Although the cerebral processing of pitch is not completely understood, recent advances in imaging and electrophysiology have provided insight into the functional and anatomical pathways of pitch processing. This review examines the current understanding of pitch processing and behavioral and neural variations that give rise to difficulties in pitch processing, and potential applications of music education for language processing disorders such as dyslexia.

  6. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Musical Pitch Perception and Clinical Applications including Developmental Dyselxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Parviz, Mahsa; Loui, Psyche; Wan, Catherine Y.; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2017-01-01

    Music production and perception invoke a complex set of cognitive functions that rely on the integration of sensory-motor, cognitive, and emotional pathways. Pitch is a fundamental perceptual attribute of sound and a building block for both music and speech. Although the cerebral processing of pitch is not completely understood, recent advances in imaging and electrophysiology have provided insight into the functional and anatomical pathways of pitch processing. This review examines the current understanding of pitch processing, behavioral and neural variations that give rise to difficulties in pitch processing, and potential applications of music education for language processing disorders such as dyslexia. PMID:26092314

  7. Plasma and tissue clindamycin antimicrobial activity after parenteral administration to cats under surgical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Passini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Clindamycin plasma and tissue disposition in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration at a dose rate of 10 mg/kg were studied. After intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration, peak plasma concentrations were 10.93±3.78 μg/mL (Cp(0, 5.93±1.18 μg/mL (Cmax and 6.30±0.88 μg/mL (Cmax, respectively. Eight hours after clindamycin IV, IM and SC administration plasma concentrations declined to 2.01±0.61 μg/mL, 2.96±0.43 μg/mL and 3.36±0.97 μg/mL, respectively. Sixty to 90 minutes after clindamycin administration, tissue concentrations ranged from a minimum in subcutaneous tissue of 4.90 μg/g (IV, 3.06 μg/g (IM and, 3.13 μg/g (SC to a maximum in uterus of 13.41 μg/g (IV, 14.07 μg/g (IM and, 14.44 μg/g (SC. The lowest tissue/plasma concentration ratio for the three administration routes was observed in subcutaneous tissue, while the highest was observed at genital level (ovary for IV and IM and uterus for SC. Estimated efficacy predictor (AUC/MIC, considering MIC breakpoint for bacteria isolated from animals, indicates that clindamycin administered IV, IM or SC at the studied dose is appropriated for perioperative prophylactic protocols and that given with a dose interval of 12 hours would be effective for susceptible infection treatment in cats.

  8. Quantification of Age‐Related Lung Tissue Mechanics under Mechanical Ventilation

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    JongWon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elderly patients with obstructive lung diseases often receive mechanical ventilation to support their breathing and restore respiratory function. However, mechanical ventilation is known to increase the severity of ventilator‐induced lung injury (VILI in the elderly. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of aging to better understand the lung tissue mechanics to estimate the severity of ventilator‐induced lung injuries. Two age‐related geometric models involving human bronchioles from generation G10 to G23 and alveolar sacs were developed. The first is for a 50‐year‐old (normal and second is for an 80‐year old (aged model. Lung tissue mechanics of normal and aged models were investigated under mechanical ventilation through computational simulations. Results obtained indicated that lung tissue strains during inhalation (t = 0.2 s decreased by about 40% in the alveolar sac (G23 and 27% in the bronchiole (G20, respectively, for the 80‐year‐old as compared to the 50‐year‐old. The respiratory mechanics parameters (work of breathing per unit volume and maximum tissue strain over G20 and G23 for the 80‐year‐old decreased by about 64% (three‐fold and 80% (four‐fold, respectively, during the mechanical ventilation breathing cycle. However, there was a significant increase (by about threefold in lung compliance for the 80‐year‐old in comparison to the 50‐year‐old. These findings from the computational simulations demonstrated that lung mechanical characteristics are significantly compromised in aging tissues, and these effects were quantified in this study.

  9. Quantification of Age-Related Lung Tissue Mechanics under Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JongWon; Heise, Rebecca L; Reynolds, Angela M; Pidaparti, Ramana M

    2017-09-29

    Elderly patients with obstructive lung diseases often receive mechanical ventilation to support their breathing and restore respiratory function. However, mechanical ventilation is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in the elderly. Therefore, it is important to investigate the effects of aging to better understand the lung tissue mechanics to estimate the severity of ventilator-induced lung injuries. Two age-related geometric models involving human bronchioles from generation G10 to G23 and alveolar sacs were developed. The first is for a 50-year-old (normal) and second is for an 80-year old (aged) model. Lung tissue mechanics of normal and aged models were investigated under mechanical ventilation through computational simulations. Results obtained indicated that lung tissue strains during inhalation (t = 0.2 s) decreased by about 40% in the alveolar sac (G23) and 27% in the bronchiole (G20), respectively, for the 80-year-old as compared to the 50-year-old. The respiratory mechanics parameters (work of breathing per unit volume and maximum tissue strain) over G20 and G23 for the 80-year-old decreased by about 64% (three-fold) and 80% (four-fold), respectively, during the mechanical ventilation breathing cycle. However, there was a significant increase (by about threefold) in lung compliance for the 80-year-old in comparison to the 50-year-old. These findings from the computational simulations demonstrated that lung mechanical characteristics are significantly compromised in aging tissues, and these effects were quantified in this study.

  10. Connective-Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2 Induces Astrogenesis and Fibronectin Expression of Embryonic Neural Cells In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A Mendes

    Full Text Available Connective-tissue growth factor (CTGF is a modular secreted protein implicated in multiple cellular events such as chondrogenesis, skeletogenesis, angiogenesis and wound healing. CTGF contains four different structural modules. This modular organization is characteristic of members of the CCN family. The acronym was derived from the first three members discovered, cysteine-rich 61 (CYR61, CTGF and nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV. CTGF is implicated as a mediator of important cell processes such as adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. Extensive data have shown that CTGF interacts particularly with the TGFβ, WNT and MAPK signaling pathways. The capacity of CTGF to interact with different growth factors lends it an important role during early and late development, especially in the anterior region of the embryo. ctgf knockout mice have several cranio-facial defects, and the skeletal system is also greatly affected due to an impairment of the vascular-system development during chondrogenesis. This study, for the first time, indicated that CTGF is a potent inductor of gliogenesis during development. Our results showed that in vitro addition of recombinant CTGF protein to an embryonic mouse neural precursor cell culture increased the number of GFAP- and GFAP/Nestin-positive cells. Surprisingly, CTGF also increased the number of Sox2-positive cells. Moreover, this induction seemed not to involve cell proliferation. In addition, exogenous CTGF activated p44/42 but not p38 or JNK MAPK signaling, and increased the expression and deposition of the fibronectin extracellular matrix protein. Finally, CTGF was also able to induce GFAP as well as Nestin expression in a human malignant glioma stem cell line, suggesting a possible role in the differentiation process of gliomas. These results implicate ctgf as a key gene for astrogenesis during development, and suggest that its mechanism may involve activation of p44/42 MAPK signaling

  11. Identifying temporal and causal contributions of neural processes underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT

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    Chad Edward Forbes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Implicit Association Test (IAT is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength IAT blocks were separately analyzed using EEG (event-related potentials, or ERPs, and coherence; Study 1 and lesion (Study 2 methodologies. Compared to incongruent blocks, performance on congruent IAT blocks was associated with more positive ERPs that manifested in frontal and occipital regions at automatic processing speeds, occipital regions at more controlled processing speeds and was compromised by volume loss in the anterior temporal lobe, insula and medial PFC. Performance on incongruent blocks was associated with volume loss in supplementary motor areas, cingulate gyrus and a region in medial PFC similar to that found for congruent blocks. Greater coherence was found between frontal and occipital regions to the extent individuals exhibited more bias. This suggests there are separable neural contributions to congruent and incongruent blocks of the IAT but there is also a surprising amount of overlap. Given the temporal and regional neural distinctions, these results provide converging evidence that stereotypic associative strength assessed by the IAT indexes automatic processing to a degree.

  12. Neural emotion regulation circuitry underlying anxiolytic effects of perceived control over pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Tim V; Nusslock, Robin; Detloff, Allison; Johnstone, Tom; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-02-01

    Anxiolytic effects of perceived control have been observed across species. In humans, neuroimaging studies have suggested that perceived control and cognitive reappraisal reduce negative affect through similar mechanisms. An important limitation of extant neuroimaging studies of perceived control in terms of directly testing this hypothesis, however, is the use of within-subject designs, which confound participants' affective response to controllable and uncontrollable stress. To compare neural and affective responses when participants were exposed to either uncontrollable or controllable stress, two groups of participants received an identical series of stressors (thermal pain stimuli). One group ("controllable") was led to believe they had behavioral control over the pain stimuli, whereas another ("uncontrollable") believed they had no control. Controllable pain was associated with decreased state anxiety, decreased activation in amygdala, and increased activation in nucleus accumbens. In participants who perceived control over the pain, reduced state anxiety was associated with increased functional connectivity between each of these regions and ventral lateral/ventral medial pFC. The location of pFC findings is consistent with regions found to be critical for the anxiolytic effects of perceived control in rodents. Furthermore, interactions observed between pFC and both amygdala and nucleus accumbens are remarkably similar to neural mechanisms of emotion regulation through reappraisal in humans. These results suggest that perceived control reduces negative affect through a general mechanism involved in the cognitive regulation of emotion.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-04

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/352308-13$15.00/0.

  14. Neural circuit dynamics underlying accumulation of time-varying evidence during perceptual decision making

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    Kong-Fatt Wong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available How do neurons in a decision circuit integrate time-varying signals, in favor of or against alternative choice options? To address this question, we used a recurrent neural circuit model to simulate an experiment in which monkeys performed a direction-discrimination task on a visual motion stimulus. In a recent study, it was found that brief pulses of motion perturbed neural activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP, and exerted corresponding effects on the monkey's choices and response times. Our model reproduces the behavioral observations and replicates LIP activity which, depending on whether the direction of the pulse is the same or opposite to that of a preferred motion stimulus, increases or decreases persistently over a few hundred milliseconds. Furthermore, our model accounts for the observation that the pulse exerts a weaker influence on LIP neuronal responses when the pulse is late relative to motion stimulus onset. We show that this violation of time-shift invariance (TSI is consistent with a recurrent circuit mechanism of time integration. We further examine time integration using two consecutive pulses of the same or opposite motion directions. The induced changes in the performance are not additive, and the second of the paired pulses is less effective than its standalone impact, a prediction that is experimentally testable. Taken together, these findings lend further support for an attractor network model of time integration in perceptual decision making.

  15. Neural network configuration and efficiency underlies individual differences in spatial orientation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Protzner, Andrea B; Bray, Signe; Levy, Richard M; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    Spatial orientation is a complex cognitive process requiring the integration of information processed in a distributed system of brain regions. Current models on the neural basis of spatial orientation are based primarily on the functional role of single brain regions, with limited understanding of how interaction among these brain regions relates to behavior. In this study, we investigated two sources of variability in the neural networks that support spatial orientation--network configuration and efficiency--and assessed whether variability in these topological properties relates to individual differences in orientation accuracy. Participants with higher accuracy were shown to express greater activity in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right precentral cortex, and the left hippocampus, over and above a core network engaged by the whole group. Additionally, high-performing individuals had increased levels of global efficiency within a resting-state network composed of brain regions engaged during orientation and increased levels of node centrality in the right supramarginal gyrus, the right primary motor cortex, and the left hippocampus. These results indicate that individual differences in the configuration of task-related networks and their efficiency measured at rest relate to the ability to spatially orient. Our findings advance systems neuroscience models of orientation and navigation by providing insight into the role of functional integration in shaping orientation behavior.

  16. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097

  17. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.

  18. Tissue-engineered nerve constructs under a microgravity system for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailang; Zhu, Bin; Zhang, Yongjie; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in a 3D scaffold often present characteristics of low proliferation and migration, which affect the microstructure of tissue-engineered nerves (TENs) and impair the therapeutic effects of nerve defects. By promoting MSC differentiation and mass/nutrient transport, rotary cell culture systems (RCCSs) display potential for advancing the construction of MSC-based TENs. Thus, in this study, we attempted to construct a TEN composed of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and acellular nerve graft (ANG) utilizing an RCCS. Compared to TENs prepared in a static 3D approach, MTT and cell count results displayed an increased number of ADSCs for TENs in an RCCS. The similarity in cell cycle states and high rates of apoptosis in the static 3D culture demonstrated that the higher proliferation in the RCCS was not due to microgravity regulation but a result of preferential mass/nutrient transport. Quantitative PCR and ELISA indicated that the RCCS promoted the expression of ADSC neural differentiation-associated genes compared to the static 3D culture. Furthermore, this difference was eliminated by adding the Notch1 signaling pathway inhibitor DAPT to the 3D static culture. TEM, axon immunostaining, and retrograde labeling analysis after sciatic nerve transplantation indicated that the TENs prepared in the RCCS exhibited more regenerative characteristics for repairing peripheral nerves than those prepared in a static 3D approach. Therefore, these findings suggest that the RCCS can modulate the construction, morphology, and function of engineered nerves as a promising alternative for nerve regeneration.

  19. Protection of Lotus Seedpod Proanthocyanidins on Organs and Tissues under High-intensity Excercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengyan, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Lotus seedpod proanthocyanidins (LSPC) as a kind of polyphenols is widely used in medicines, cosmetics, health products. High-intensity exercise can cause damage to the body's organs and tissues. Different doses of LSPC is given to mice to check the function of protect effect to the body's organs and tissues under high-intensity exercise. The hemoglobin (HB) content, red blood cell (RBC) number and white blood cell (WBC) number were tested for mice after exercise. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in muscle and viscera were evaluated. The result showed that LSPC can effectively reduce inflammation reaction in the body of mice with high intensity exercise, alleviate oxidative stress-induced injury of tissues and organs, and execute protective function on skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. And the LSPC could enhance myocardial anti-oxygen and enzymatic activity which suggests the protective effects of resveratrol against exercise-induced myocardial damage in mice.

  20. YB-1 gene expression is kept constant during myocyte differentiation through replacement of different transcription factors and then falls gradually under the control of neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Toru; Moue, Masamitsu; Ohashi, Sachiyo; Nishikawa, Taishi

    2015-11-01

    We have previously reported that translation of acetylcholine receptor α-subunit (AChR α) mRNA in skeletal muscle cells is regulated by Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) in response to neural activity, and that in the postnatal mouse developmental changes in the amount of YB-1 mRNA are similar to those of AChR α mRNA, which is known to be regulated by myogenic transcription factors. Here, we examined transcriptional regulation of the YB-1 gene in mouse skeletal muscle and differentiating C2C12 myocytes. Although neither YB-1 nor AChR α was detected at either the mRNA or protein level in adult hind limb muscle, YB-1 expression was transiently activated in response to denervation of the sciatic nerve and completely paralleled that of AChR α, suggesting that these genes are regulated by the same transcription factors. However, during differentiation of C2C12 cells to myotubes, the level of YB-1 remained constant even though the level of AChR α increased markedly. Reporter gene, gel mobility shift and ChIP assays revealed that in the initial stage of myocyte differentiation, transcription of the YB-1 gene was regulated by E2F1 and Sp1, and was then gradually replaced under the control of both MyoD and myogenin through an E-box sequence in the proximal region of the YB-1 gene promoter. These results suggest that transcription factors for the YB-1 gene are exchanged during skeletal muscle cell differentiation, perhaps playing a role in translational control of mRNAs by YB-1 in both myotube formation and the response of skeletal muscle tissues to neural stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Under-Actuated Robot Manipulator Positioning Control Using Artificial Neural Network Inversion Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali T. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to solve the positioning control problem of underactuated robot manipulator. Artificial Neural Networks Inversion technique was used where a network represents the forward dynamics of the system trained to learn the position of the passive joint over the working space of a 2R underactuated robot. The obtained weights from the learning process were fixed, and the network was inverted to represent the inverse dynamics of the system and then used in the estimation phase to estimate the position of the passive joint for a new set of data the network was not previously trained for. Data used in this research are recorded experimentally from sensors fixed on the robot joints in order to overcome whichever uncertainties presence in the real world such as ill-defined linkage parameters, links flexibility, and backlashes in gear trains. Results were verified experimentally to show the success of the proposed control strategy.

  2. Estimation of lost circulation amount occurs during under balanced drilling using drilling data and neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Behnoud far

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost circulation can cause an increase in time and cost of operation. Pipe sticking, formation damage and uncontrolled flow of oil and gas may be consequences of lost circulation. Dealing with this problem is a key factor to conduct a successful drilling operation. Estimation of lost circulation amount is necessary to find a solution. Lost circulation is influenced by different parameters such as mud weight, pump pressure, depth etc. Mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate of mud should be designed to prevent induced fractures and have the least amount of lost circulation. Artificial neural network is useful to find the relations of parameters with lost circulation. Genetic algorithm is applied on the achieved relations to determine the optimum mud weight, pump pressure, and flow rate. In an Iranian oil field, daily drilling reports of wells which are drilled using UBD technique are studied. Asmari formation is the most important oil reservoir of the studied field and UBD is used only in this interval. Three wells with the most, moderate and without lost circulation are chosen. In this article, the effect of mud weight, depth, pump pressure and flow rate of pump on lost circulation in UBD of Asmari formation in one of the Southwest Iranian fields is studied using drilling data and artificial neural network. In addition, the amount of lost circulation is predicted precisely with respect to two of the studied parameters using the presented correlations and the optimum mud weight, pump pressure and flow rate are calculated to minimize the lost circulation amount.

  3. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Affective Theory of Mind in Violent Antisocial Personality Disorder and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Boris; Pawliczek, Christina; Müller, Bernhard W; Wiltfang, Jens; Brüne, Martin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R; Leygraf, Norbert; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2017-10-21

    Among violent offenders with schizophrenia, there are 2 sub-groups, one with and one without, conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), who differ as to treatment response and alterations of brain structure. The present study aimed to determine whether the 2 groups also differ in Theory of Mind and neural activations subsuming this task. Five groups of men were compared: 3 groups of violent offenders-schizophrenia plus CD/ASPD, schizophrenia with no history of antisocial behavior prior to illness onset, and CD/ASPD with no severe mental illness-and 2 groups of non-offenders, one with schizophrenia and one without (H). Participants completed diagnostic interviews, the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version Interview, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, authorized access to clinical and criminal files, and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an adapted version of the Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Task (RMET). Relative to H, nonviolent and violent men with schizophrenia and not CD/ASPD performed more poorly on the RMET, while violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, performed similarly. The 2 groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD, both those with and without schizophrenia, relative to the other groups, displayed higher levels of activation in a network of prefrontal and temporal-parietal regions and reduced activation in the amygdala. Relative to men without CD/ASPD, both groups of violent offenders with CD/ASPD displayed a distinct pattern of neural responses during emotional/mental state attribution pointing to distinct and comparatively successful processing of social information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evoked EMG-based torque prediction under muscle fatigue in implanted neural stimulation

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    Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro; Zhang, Qin; Guiraud, David; Fattal, Charles

    2011-10-01

    In patients with complete spinal cord injury, fatigue occurs rapidly and there is no proprioceptive feedback regarding the current muscle condition. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the muscle state and assess the expected muscle response to improve the current FES system toward adaptive force/torque control in the presence of muscle fatigue. Our team implanted neural and epimysial electrodes in a complete paraplegic patient in 1999. We carried out a case study, in the specific case of implanted stimulation, in order to verify the corresponding torque prediction based on stimulus evoked EMG (eEMG) when muscle fatigue is occurring during electrical stimulation. Indeed, in implanted stimulation, the relationship between stimulation parameters and output torques is more stable than external stimulation in which the electrode location strongly affects the quality of the recruitment. Thus, the assumption that changes in the stimulation-torque relationship would be mainly due to muscle fatigue can be made reasonably. The eEMG was proved to be correlated to the generated torque during the continuous stimulation while the frequency of eEMG also decreased during fatigue. The median frequency showed a similar variation trend to the mean absolute value of eEMG. Torque prediction during fatigue-inducing tests was performed based on eEMG in model cross-validation where the model was identified using recruitment test data. The torque prediction, apart from the potentiation period, showed acceptable tracking performances that would enable us to perform adaptive closed-loop control through implanted neural stimulation in the future.

  5. Measurements of erbium laser-ablation efficiency in hard dental tissues under different water cooling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuščer, Lovro; Diaci, Janez

    2013-10-01

    Laser triangulation measurements of Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG laser-ablated volumes in hard dental tissues are made, in order to verify the possible existence of a "hydrokinetic" effect that has been proposed as an alternative to the "subsurface water expansion" mechanism for hard-tissue laser ablation. No evidence of the hydrokinetic effect could be observed under a broad range of tested laser parameters and water cooling conditions. On the contrary, the application of water spray during laser exposure of hard dental material is observed to diminish the laser-ablation efficiency (AE) in comparison with laser exposure under the absence of water spray. Our findings are in agreement with the generally accepted principle of action for erbium laser ablation, which is based on fast subsurface expansion of laser-heated water trapped within the interstitial structure of hard dental tissues. Our measurements also show that the well-known phenomenon of ablation stalling, during a series of consecutive laser pulses, can primarily be attributed to the blocking of laser light by the loosely bound and recondensed desiccated minerals that collect on the tooth surface during and following laser ablation. In addition to the prevention of tooth bulk temperature buildup, a positive function of the water spray that is typically used with erbium dental lasers is to rehydrate these minerals, and thus sustaining the subsurface expansion ablation process. A negative side effect of using a continuous water spray is that the AE gets reduced due to the laser light being partially absorbed in the water-spray particles above the tooth and in the collected water pool on the tooth surface. Finally, no evidence of the influence of the water absorption shift on the hypothesized increase in the AE of the Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is observed.

  6. Patterns of nocturnal rehydration in root tissues of Vaccinium corymbosum L. under severe drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Richards, James H; Diaz, Andres; Eissensat, David M

    2009-01-01

    Although roots in dry soil layers are commonly rehydrated by internal hydraulic redistribution during the nocturnal period, patterns of tissue rehydration are poorly understood. Rates of nocturnal rehydration were examined in roots of different orders in Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Bluecrop' (Northern highbush blueberry) grown in a split-pot system with one set of roots in relatively moist soil and the other set of roots in dry soil. Vaccinium is noted for a highly branched and extremely fine root system. It is hypothesized that nocturnal root tissue rehydration would be slow, especially in the distal root orders because of their greater hydraulic constraints (smaller vessel diameters and fewer number of vessels). Vaccinium root hydraulic properties delayed internal water movement. Even when water was readily available to roots in the wet soil and transpiration was minimal, it took a whole night-time period of 12 h for the distal finest roots (1st to 4th order) under dry soil conditions to reach the same water potentials as fine roots in moist soil (1st to 4th order). Even though roots under dry soil equilibrated with roots in moist soil, the equilibrium point reached before sunrise was about -1.2 MPa, indicating that tissues were not fully rehydrated. Using a single-branch root model, it was estimated that individual roots exhibiting the lowest water potentials in dry soil were 1st order roots (distal finest roots of the root system). However, considered at the branch level, root orders with the highest hydraulic resistances corresponded to the lowest orders of the permanent root system (3rd-, 4th-, and 5th-order roots), thus indicating possible locations of hydraulic safety control in the root system of this species.

  7. Tissue-Specific Methylation of Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element-1 of Homo Sapiens (L1Hs) During Human Embryogenesis and Roles in Neural Tube Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Chang, S; Guan, J; Shangguan, S; Lu, X; Wang, Z; Wu, L; Zou, J; Zhao, H; Bao, Y; Qiu, Z; Niu, B; Zhang, T

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) retrotransposition events plays crucial roles during early development. Previously we showed that LINE-1 hypomethylation in neuronal tissues is associated with pathogenesis of neural tube defect (NTD). Herein, we further evaluated LINE-1 Homo sapiens (L1Hs) methylation in tissues derived from three germ layers of stillborn NTD fetuses, to define patterns of tissue specific methylation and site-specific hypomethylation at CpG sites within an L1Hs promoter region. Stable, tissue-specific L1Hs methylation patterns throughout three germ layer lineages of the fetus, placenta, and maternal peripheral blood were observed. Samples from maternal peripheral blood exhibited the highest level of L1Hs methylation (64.95%) and that from placenta showed the lowest (26.82%). Between samples from NTDs and controls, decrease in L1Hs methylation was only significant in NTD-affected brain tissue at 7.35%, especially in females (8.98%). L1Hs hypomethylation in NTDs was also associated with a significant increase in expression level of an L1Hs-encoded transcript in females (r = -0.846, p = 0.004). This could be due to genomic DNA instability and alternation in chromatins accessibility resulted from abnormal L1Hs hypomethylation, as showed in this study with HCT-15 cells treated with methylation inhibitor 5-Aza.

  8. Neural sensitivity to statistical regularities as a fundamental biological process that underlies auditory learning: the role of musical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Schön, Daniele

    2014-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that humans and other nonhuman mammals are sensitive to the statistical structure of auditory input. Indeed, neural sensitivity to statistical regularities seems to be a fundamental biological property underlying auditory learning. In the case of speech, statistical regularities play a crucial role in the acquisition of several linguistic features, from phonotactic to more complex rules such as morphosyntactic rules. Interestingly, a similar sensitivity has been shown with non-speech streams: sequences of sounds changing in frequency or timbre can be segmented on the sole basis of conditional probabilities between adjacent sounds. We recently ran a set of cross-sectional and longitudinal experiments showing that merging music and speech information in song facilitates stream segmentation and, further, that musical practice enhances sensitivity to statistical regularities in speech at both neural and behavioral levels. Based on recent findings showing the involvement of a fronto-temporal network in speech segmentation, we defend the idea that enhanced auditory learning observed in musicians originates via at least three distinct pathways: enhanced low-level auditory processing, enhanced phono-articulatory mapping via the left Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Pre-Motor cortex and increased functional connectivity within the audio-motor network. Finally, we discuss how these data predict a beneficial use of music for optimizing speech acquisition in both normal and impaired populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A multiphysics 3D model of tissue growth under interstitial perfusion in a tissue-engineering bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Michele M; Raimondi, Manuela T; Pietrabissa, Riccardo

    2013-11-01

    The main challenge in engineered cartilage consists in understanding and controlling the growth process towards a functional tissue. Mathematical and computational modelling can help in the optimal design of the bioreactor configuration and in a quantitative understanding of important culture parameters. In this work, we present a multiphysics computational model for the prediction of cartilage tissue growth in an interstitial perfusion bioreactor. The model consists of two separate sub-models, one two-dimensional (2D) sub-model and one three-dimensional (3D) sub-model, which are coupled between each other. These sub-models account both for the hydrodynamic microenvironment imposed by the bioreactor, using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, the mass transport equation and the biomass growth. The biomass, assumed as a phase comprising cells and the synthesised extracellular matrix, has been modelled by using a moving boundary approach. In particular, the boundary at the fluid-biomass interface is moving with a velocity depending from the local oxygen concentration and viscous stress. In this work, we show that all parameters predicted, such as oxygen concentration and wall shear stress, by the 2D sub-model with respect to the ones predicted by the 3D sub-model are systematically overestimated and thus the tissue growth, which directly depends on these parameters. This implies that further predictive models for tissue growth should take into account of the three dimensionality of the problem for any scaffold microarchitecture.

  10. Neural mechanisms underlying stop-and-restart difficulties: involvement of the motor and perceptual systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Yamanaka

    Full Text Available The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes. However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times. We investigated performance (response time of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI, and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties. Next, we investigated motor evoked potentials (MEPs in a moving muscle induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during a go/stop/re-go task. In re-go trials with a short SRSI (100 ms, the MEP amplitude continued to decrease after the re-go-signal onset, indicating that stop-and-restart difficulties with short SRSIs might be associated with a neural mechanism in the human motor system, namely, stop-related suppression of corticomotor (CM excitability. Finally, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG activity during a go/stop/re-go task and performed a single-trial-based EEG power and phase time-frequency analysis. Alpha-band EEG phase locking to re-go-signal, which was only observed in re-go trials with long SRSI (250 ms, weakened in the delayed re-go response trials. These EEG phase dynamics indicate an association between stop-and-restart difficulties with long SRSIs and a neural mechanism in the human perception system, namely, decreased probability of EEG phase locking to visual stimuli. In contrast, smooth stop-and-restart human movement can be achieved in re-go trials with sufficient SRSI (150-200 ms, because release of stop-related suppression and simultaneous counter-activation of CM excitability may occur as a single task without second re-go-signal perception. These results

  11. Neural mechanisms underlying stop-and-restart difficulties: involvement of the motor and perceptual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Kentaro; Nozaki, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    The ability to suddenly stop a planned movement or a movement being performed and restart it after a short interval is an important mechanism that allows appropriate behavior in response to contextual or environmental changes. However, performing such stop-and-restart movements smoothly is difficult at times. We investigated performance (response time) of stop-and-restart movements using a go/stop/re-go task and found consistent stop-and-restart difficulties after short (~100 ms) stop-to-restart intervals (SRSI), and an increased probability of difficulties after longer (>200 ms) SRSIs, suggesting that two different mechanisms underlie stop-and-restart difficulties. Next, we investigated motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in a moving muscle induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation during a go/stop/re-go task. In re-go trials with a short SRSI (100 ms), the MEP amplitude continued to decrease after the re-go-signal onset, indicating that stop-and-restart difficulties with short SRSIs might be associated with a neural mechanism in the human motor system, namely, stop-related suppression of corticomotor (CM) excitability. Finally, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during a go/stop/re-go task and performed a single-trial-based EEG power and phase time-frequency analysis. Alpha-band EEG phase locking to re-go-signal, which was only observed in re-go trials with long SRSI (250 ms), weakened in the delayed re-go response trials. These EEG phase dynamics indicate an association between stop-and-restart difficulties with long SRSIs and a neural mechanism in the human perception system, namely, decreased probability of EEG phase locking to visual stimuli. In contrast, smooth stop-and-restart human movement can be achieved in re-go trials with sufficient SRSI (150-200 ms), because release of stop-related suppression and simultaneous counter-activation of CM excitability may occur as a single task without second re-go-signal perception. These results suggest that

  12. Neural oscillatory mechanisms during novel grammar learning underlying language analytical abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; Pereda, Ernesto; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the initial phases of novel grammar learning on a neural level, concentrating on mechanisms responsible for individual variability between learners. Two groups of participants, one with high and one with average language analytical abilities, performed an Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) task consisting of learning and test phases. During the task, EEG signals from 32 cap-mounted electrodes were recorded and epochs corresponding to the learning phases were analysed. We investigated spectral power modulations over time, and functional connectivity patterns by means of a bivariate, frequency-specific index of phase synchronization termed Phase Locking Value (PLV). Behavioural data showed learning effects in both groups, with a steeper learning curve and higher ultimate attainment for the highly skilled learners. Moreover, we established that cortical connectivity patterns and profiles of spectral power modulations over time differentiated L2 learners with various levels of language analytical abilities. Over the course of the task, the learning process seemed to be driven by whole-brain functional connectivity between neuronal assemblies achieved by means of communication in the beta band frequency. On a shorter time-scale, increasing proficiency on the AGL task appeared to be supported by stronger local synchronisation within the right hemisphere regions. Finally, we observed that the highly skilled learners might have exerted less mental effort, or reduced attention for the task at hand once the learning was achieved, as evidenced by the higher alpha band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neural mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitivity across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Hermans, Erno J; van Wingen, Guido A; Kooijman, Sabine C; Johansson, Inga-Maj; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle are thought to play a central role in premenstrual mood symptoms. In agreement, fluctuations in gonadal hormone levels affect brain processes in regions involved in emotion regulation. Recent findings, however, implicate psychological stress as a potential mediating factor and thus, we investigated whether effects of moderate psychological stress on relevant brain regions interact with menstrual cycle phase. Twenty-eight healthy women were tested in a crossover design with menstrual cycle phase (late luteal versus late follicular) and stress (stress induction versus control) as within-subject factors. After stress induction (or control), we probed neural responses to facial expressions using fMRI. During the late luteal phase, negative affect was highest and the stress-induced increase in heart rate was mildly augmented. fMRI data of the control condition replicate previous findings of elevated amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses when comparing the late luteal with the late follicular phase. Importantly, stress induction had opposite effects in the two cycle phases, with unexpected lower response magnitudes in the late luteal phase. Moreover, the larger the increase in allopregnanolone concentration across the menstrual cycle was, the smaller the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses were after stress induction in the late luteal phase. Our findings show that moderate psychological stress influences menstrual cycle effects on activity in the emotion regulation circuitry. These results provide potential insights into how fluctuations in allopregnanolone that naturally occur during the menstrual cycle may change stress vulnerability.

  14. Reduced Fidelity of Neural Representation Underlies Episodic Memory Decline in Normal Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li; Gao, Zhiyao; Xiao, Xiaoqian; Ye, Zhifang; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2017-06-07

    Emerging studies have emphasized the importance of the fidelity of cortical representation in forming enduring episodic memory. No study, however, has examined whether there are age-related reductions in representation fidelity that can explain memory declines in normal aging. Using functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis, we found that older adults showed reduced representation fidelity in the visual cortex, which accounted for their decreased memory performance even after controlling for the contribution of reduced activation level. This reduced fidelity was specifically due to older adults' poorer item-specific representation, not due to their lower activation level and variance, greater variability in neuro-vascular coupling, or decreased selectivity of categorical representation (i.e., dedifferentiation). Older adults also showed an enhanced subsequent memory effect in the prefrontal cortex based on activation level, and their prefrontal activation was associated with greater fidelity of representation in the visual cortex and better memory performance. The fidelity of cortical representation thus may serve as a promising neural index for better mechanistic understanding of the memory declines and its compensation in normal aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Neural computations underlying arbitration between model-based and model-free learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Wan; Shimojo, Shinsuke; O’Doherty, John P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY There is accumulating neural evidence to support the existence of two distinct systems for guiding action-selection in the brain, a deliberative “model-based” and a reflexive “model-free” system. However, little is known about how the brain determines which of these systems controls behavior at one moment in time. We provide evidence for an arbitration mechanism that allocates the degree of control over behavior by model-based and model-free systems as a function of the reliability of their respective predictions. We show that inferior lateral prefrontal and frontopolar cortex encode both reliability signals and the output of a comparison between those signals, implicating these regions in the arbitration process. Moreover, connectivity between these regions and model-free valuation areas is negatively modulated by the degree of model-based control in the arbitrator, suggesting that arbitration may work through modulation of the model-free valuation system when the arbitrator deems that the model-based system should drive behavior. PMID:24507199

  16. What ethologically based models have taught us about the neural systems underlying fear and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Canteras

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Classical Pavlovian fear conditioning to painful stimuli has provided the generally accepted view of a core system centered in the central amygdala to organize fear responses. Ethologically based models using other sources of threat likely to be expected in a natural environment, such as predators or aggressive dominant conspecifics, have challenged this concept of a unitary core circuit for fear processing. We discuss here what the ethologically based models have told us about the neural systems organizing fear responses. We explored the concept that parallel paths process different classes of threats, and that these different paths influence distinct regions in the periaqueductal gray - a critical element for the organization of all kinds of fear responses. Despite this parallel processing of different kinds of threats, we have discussed an interesting emerging view that common cortical-hippocampal-amygdalar paths seem to be engaged in fear conditioning to painful stimuli, to predators and, perhaps, to aggressive dominant conspecifics as well. Overall, the aim of this review is to bring into focus a more global and comprehensive view of the systems organizing fear responses.

  17. Neural Responses to Truth Telling and Risk Propensity under Asymmetric Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hideo; Misaki, Masaya; Krueger, Frank; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Trust is multi-dimensional because it can be characterized by subjective trust, trust antecedent, and behavioral trust. Previous research has investigated functional brain responses to subjective trust (e.g., a judgment of trustworthiness) or behavioral trust (e.g., decisions to trust) in perfect information, where all relevant information is available to all participants. In contrast, we conducted a novel examination of the patterns of functional brain activity to a trust antecedent, specifically truth telling, in asymmetric information, where one individual has more information than others, with the effect of varying risk propensity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and recruited 13 adults, who played the Communication Game, where they served as the "Sender" and chose either truth telling (true advice) or lie telling (false advice) regarding the best payment allocation for their partner. Our behavioral results revealed that subjects with recreational high risk tended to choose true advice. Moreover, fMRI results yielded that the choices of true advice were associated with increased cortical activation in the anterior rostral medial and frontopolar prefrontal cortices, middle frontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, and precuneus. Furthermore, when we specifically evaluated a role of the bilateral amygdala as the region of interest (ROI), decreased amygdala response was associated with high risk propensity, regardless of truth telling or lying. In conclusion, our results have implications for how differential functions of the cortical areas may contribute to the neural processing of truth telling.

  18. Preservation of neuronal functions by exosomes derived from different human neural cell types under ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Mingyang; Xiao, Han; Peng, Hongling; Yuan, Huan; Xu, Yunxiao; Zhang, Guangsen; Tang, Jianguang; Hu, Zhiping

    2017-11-27

    Stem cell-based therapies have been reported in protecting cerebral infarction-induced neuronal dysfunction and death. However, most studies used rat/mouse neuron as model cell when treated with stem cell or exosomes. Whether these findings can be translated from rodent to humans has been in doubt. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons to detect the protective potential of exosomes against ischemia. Neurons were treated with in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 1 h. For treatment group, different exosomes were derived from neuron, embryonic stem cell, neural progenitor cell and astrocyte differentiated from H9 human embryonic stem cell and added to culture medium 30 min after OGD (100 μg/mL). Western blotting was performed 12 h after OGD, while cell counting and electrophysiological recording were performed 48 h after OGD. We found that these exosomes attenuated OGD-induced neuronal death, Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), pro-inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathway changes, as well as basal spontaneous synaptic transmission inhibition in varying degrees. The results implicate the protective effect of exosomes on OGD-induced neuronal death and dysfunction in human embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, potentially through their modulation on mTOR, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neural correlates of exemplar novelty processing under different spatial attention conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Christian Michael; Boehler, Carsten Nicolas; Strumpf, Hendrik; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Hopf, Jens Max; Düzel, Emrah; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2009-11-01

    The detection of novel events and their identification is a basic prerequisite in a rapidly changing environment. Recently, the processing of novelty has been shown to rely on the hippocampus and to be associated with activity in reward-related areas. The present study investigated the influence of spatial attention on neural processing of novel relative to frequently presented standard and target stimuli. Never-before-seen Mandelbrot-fractals absent of semantic content were employed as stimulus material. Consistent with current theories, novelty activated a widespread network of brain areas including the hippocampus. No activity, however, could be observed in reward-related areas with the novel stimuli absent of a semantic meaning employed here. In the perceptual part of the novelty-processing network a region in the lingual gyrus was found to specifically process novel events when they occurred outside the focus of spatial attention. These findings indicate that the initial detection of unexpected novel events generally occurs in specialized perceptual areas within the ventral visual stream, whereas activation of reward-related areas appears to be restricted to events that do possess a semantic content indicative of the biological relevance of the stimulus.

  20. Genetic, epigenetic, and environmental contributions to neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Jonathan J; Petersen, Juliette R; Niswander, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the embryonic brain and spinal cord begins as the neural plate bends to form the neural folds, which meet and adhere to close the neural tube. The neural ectoderm and surrounding tissues also coordinate proliferation, differentiation, and patterning. This highly orchestrated process is susceptible to disruption, leading to neural tube defects (NTDs), a common birth defect. Here, we highlight genetic and epigenetic contributions to neural tube closure. We describe an online database we created as a resource for researchers, geneticists, and clinicians. Neural tube closure is sensitive to environmental influences, and we discuss disruptive causes, preventative measures, and possible mechanisms. New technologies will move beyond candidate genes in small cohort studies toward unbiased discoveries in sporadic NTD cases. This will uncover the genetic complexity of NTDs and critical gene-gene interactions. Animal models can reveal the causative nature of genetic variants, the genetic interrelationships, and the mechanisms underlying environmental influences.

  1. Tissue breathing and topology of rats thymocytes surface under acute total γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina, I A; Gritsuk, A I

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of the effect of single total γ irradiation to the parameters of mitochondrial oxidation and the topology of the thymocyte surface. The study was performed in sexually mature white outbreeding male rats divided into three groups: two experimental and one control. The states of energy metabolism were determined by the rate of oxygen consumption by the thymus tissues on endogenous substrates at the presence of 2,4 dinitrophenol, uncoupler of a tissue breathing (TB) and oxidative phosphorylation (OP) after a single total γ irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy at 3, 10, 40 and 60 days. The topology of thymus cells was assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On the 3rd and 10th days after total gamma irradiation at a dose of 1.0 Gy, a significant decrease in respira tory activity was determined in thymus tissues on endogenous substrates. Simultaneously, on the 3rd day, pro nounced changes in the morphological parameters of thymocytes (height, volume, area of contact with the sub strate) and the topology of their surface were also observed. On the 10th day after irradiation, most of the morpho logical parameters of thymocytes, except for their volume, were characterized by restoration to normal. In the long term (on the 30th and 60th days after exposure), a gradual but not complete recovery of the respiratory activity of thymocytes was observed, accompanied by an increase in the degree of dissociation of TD and OP. The obtained data reflect and refine mechanisms of post radiation repair of lymphopoiesis, showing the presence of conjugated changes in the parameters of aerobic energy metabolism of thymocytes, morphology and topology of their surface. The synchronism of changes in the parameters under study is a reflection of the state of the cytoskeleton, the functional activity of which largely depends on the level and efficiency of mitochondrial oxidation. І. A. Nikitina, A. I. Gritsuk.

  2. A discrete fibre dispersion method for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of fibrous tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, micro-sphere-based methods derived from the angular integration approach have been used for excluding fibres under compression in the modelling of soft biological tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that many of the widely used numerical integration schemes over the unit sphere are inaccurate for large deformation problems even without excluding fibres under compression. Thus, in this study, we propose a discrete fibre dispersion model based on a systematic method for discretizing a unit hemisphere into a finite number of elementary areas, such as spherical triangles. Over each elementary area, we define a representative fibre direction and a discrete fibre density. Then, the strain energy of all the fibres distributed over each elementary area is approximated based on the deformation of the representative fibre direction weighted by the corresponding discrete fibre density. A summation of fibre contributions over all elementary areas then yields the resultant fibre strain energy. This treatment allows us to exclude fibres under compression in a discrete manner by evaluating the tension-compression status of the representative fibre directions only. We have implemented this model in a finite-element programme and illustrate it with three representative examples, including simple tension and simple shear of a unit cube, and non-homogeneous uniaxial extension of a rectangular strip. The results of all three examples are consistent and accurate compared with the previously developed continuous fibre dispersion model, and that is achieved with a substantial reduction of computational cost. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Fabrication of Nerve Growth Factor Encapsulated Aligned Poly(ε-Caprolactone Nanofibers and Their Assessment as a Potential Neural Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury is a serious clinical problem to be solved. There has been no breakthrough so far and neural tissue engineering offers a promising approach to promote the regeneration of peripheral neural injuries. In this study, emulsion electrospinning technique was introduced as a flexible and promising technique for the fabrication of random (R and aligned (A Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL-Nerve Growth Factor (NGF&Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA nanofibrous scaffolds [(R/A-PCL-NGF&BSA], where NGF and BSA were encapsulated in the core while PCL form the shell. Random and aligned pure PCL, PCL-BSA, and PCL-NGF nanofibers were also produced for comparison. The scaffolds were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM and water contact angle test. Release study showed that, with the addition of stabilizer BSA, a sustained release of NGF from emulsion electrospun PCL nanofibers was observed over 28 days. [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] assay revealed that (R/A-PCL-NGF and (R/A-PCL-NGF&BSA scaffolds favored cell growth and showed no cytotoxicity to PC12 cells. Laser scanning confocal microscope images exhibited that the A-PCL-NGF&BSA scaffold increased the length of neurites and directed neurites extension along the fiber axis, indicating that the A-PCL-NGF&BSA scaffold has a potential for guiding nerve tissue growth and promoting nerve regeneration.

  4. Histological characterization and quantification of cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healthy and demyelinated CNS tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praet, Jelle; Santermans, Eva; Reekmans, Kristien; de Vocht, Nathalie; Le Blon, Debbie; Hoornaert, Chloé; Daans, Jasmijn; Goossens, Herman; Berneman, Zwi; Hens, Niel; Van der Linden, Annemie; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical animal studies involving intracerebral (stem) cell grafting are gaining popularity in many laboratories due to the reported beneficial effects of cell grafting on various diseases or traumata of the central nervous system (CNS). In this chapter, we describe a histological workflow to characterize and quantify cellular events following neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cell grafting in healthy and demyelinated CNS tissue. First, we provide standardized protocols to isolate and culture eGFP(+) neural and fibroblast(-like) stem cells from embryonic mouse tissue. Second, we describe flow cytometric procedures to determine cell viability, eGFP transgene expression, and the expression of different stem cell lineage markers. Third, we explain how to induce reproducible demyelination in the CNS of mice by means of cuprizone administration, a validated mouse model for human multiple sclerosis. Fourth, the technical procedures for cell grafting in the CNS are explained in detail. Finally, an optimized and validated workflow for the quantitative histological analysis of cell graft survival and endogenous astroglial and microglial responses is provided.

  5. Modeling Root Length Density of Field Grown Potatoes under Different Irrigation Strategies and Soil Textures Using Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Sepaskhah, A R; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2014-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) is a highly wanted parameter for use in crop growth modeling but difficult to measure under field conditions. Therefore, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were implemented to predict the RLD of field grown potatoes that were subject to three irrigation strategies and three...... soil textures with different soil water status and soil densities. The objectives of the study were to test whether soil textural information, soil water status, and soil density might be used by ANN to simulate RLD at harvest. In the study 63 data pairs were divided into data sets of training (80......% of the data) and testing (20% of the data). A feed forward three-layer perceptron network and the sigmoid, hyperbolic tangent, and linear transfer functions were used for the ANN modeling. The RLDs (target variable) in different soil layers were predicted by nine ANNs representing combinations (models...

  6. Exploring the developmental mechanisms underlying Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: Evidence for defects in neural crest cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Erin L; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2016-12-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation, craniofacial malformation, and defects in skeletal and heart development. The syndrome is associated with irregularities on the short arm of chromosome 4, including deletions of varying sizes and microduplications. Many of these genotypic aberrations in humans have been correlated with the classic WHS phenotype, and animal models have provided a context for mapping these genetic irregularities to specific phenotypes; however, there remains a significant knowledge gap concerning the cell biological mechanisms underlying these phenotypes. This review summarizes literature that has made recent contributions to this topic, drawing from the vast body of knowledge detailing the genetic particularities of the disorder and the more limited pool of information on its cell biology. Finally, we propose a novel characterization for WHS as a pathophysiology owing in part to defects in neural crest cell motility and migration during development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arachidonic acid metabolism in reproductive tissues of pregnant guinea pig under in vivo circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mucha, I.; Tanacs, B.; Bagdany, S.

    1983-10-01

    Uptake and metabolism of tritium labelled arachidonic acid have been studied under in vivo circumstances in placenta, uterus and fetal membranes of pregnant guinea pigs on days 40 and 60 of pregnancy. Distribution of radioactivity within the lipid fractions of the selected tissues showed a characteristic pattern depending on the gestational ages. Composition of labelled lipids was determined by radio thin layer chromatography and quantitated with liquid scintillation measurements. The main site of arachidonic acid incorporation was the 2-position of phosphatidylcholine. Near term, a considerable PGF2 alpha-synthesis from exogenously administered 3-H-arachidonic acid could be demonstrated for the first time ''in vivo''.

  8. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks for improving optrode-neural tissue interface in optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Li, Yanling; Pan, Jianqing; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Nan; Wu, Bifeng; Cheng, Jinbo; Lu, Caiyi; Wang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The field of optogenetics has been successfully used to understand the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric diseases through the precise spatial and temporal control of specific groups of neurons in a neural circuitry. However, it remains a great challenge to integrate optogenetic modulation with electrophysiological and behavioral read out methods as a means to explore the causal, temporally precise, and behaviorally relevant interactions of neurons in the specific circuits of freely behaving animals. In this study, an eight-channel chronically implantable optrode array was fabricated and modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate)-poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) interpenetrating polymer networks (PEDOT/PSS-PVA/PAA IPNs) for improving the optrode-neural tissue interface. The conducting polymer-hydrogel IPN films exhibited a significantly higher capacitance and lower electrochemical impedance at 1 kHz as compared to unmodified optrode sites and showed significantly improved mechanical and electrochemical stability as compared to pure conducting polymer films. The cell attachment and neurite outgrowth of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells on the IPN films were clearly observed through calcein-AM staining. Furthermore, the optrode arrays were chronically implanted into the hippocampus of SD rats after the lentiviral expression of synapsin-ChR2-EYFP, and light-evoked, frequency-dependant action potentials were obtained in freely moving animals. The electrical recording results suggested that the modified optrode arrays showed significantly reduced impedance and RMS noise and an improved SNR as compared to unmodified sites, which may have benefited from the improved electrochemical performance and biocompatibility of the deposited IPN films. All these characteristics are greatly desired in optogenetic applications, and the fabrication method of conducting polymer-hydrogel IPNs can be easily integrated with other modification methods to build a

  9. Looking for underlying features in automatic and reviewed seismic bulletins through a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluccio, R.; Console, R.; Chiappini, M.; Chiappini, S.

    2009-12-01

    SEL1 bulletins are, among all IDC products, a fundamental tool for NDCs in their task of national assessment of compliance with the CTBT. This is because SEL1s are expected to be disseminated within 2 hours from the occurrence of any detected waveform event, and the National Authorities are supposed to take a political decision in nearly real time, especially in the case when the event could triggers the request for an on site inspection. In this context not only the rapidity, but also the reliability of the SEL1 is a fundamental requirement. Our last years experience gained in the comparison between SEL1 and Italian Seismic Bulletin events has shown that SEL1s usually contain a big fraction of bogus events (sometimes close to 50%). This is due to many factors, all related to the availability of processing data and to the fast automatic algorithms involved. On the other hand, REBs are much more reliable as proved by our experience. Therefore, in spite of their relevant time delay by which they are distributed, which prevents their real-time use, REBs can be still useful in a retrospective way as reference information for comparison with SEL1s. This study tries to set up a sort of logical filter on the SEL1s that, while maintaining the rapidity requirements, improves their reliability. Our idea is based on the assumption that the SEL1s are produced by systematic algorithm of phase association and therefore some patterns among the input and output data could exist and be recognized. Our approach was initially based on a set of rules suggested by human experts on their personal experience, and its application on large datasets on a global scale. Other approaches not involving human interaction (data mining techniques) do exist. This study refers specifically to a semi-automatic approach: fitting of multi-parametric relationships hidden in the data set, through the application of neural networks by an algorithm of supervised learning. Full SEL1 and REB bulletins from

  10. Colour or shape: examination of neural processes underlying mental flexibility in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, E W; Sedge, P; Grodecki, R; Robertson, A; MacDonald, M J; Jetly, R; Shek, P N; Taylor, M J

    2014-08-05

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder that stems from exposure to one or more traumatic events. While PTSD is thought to result from a dysregulation of emotional neurocircuitry, neurocognitive difficulties are frequently reported. Mental flexibility is a core executive function that involves the ability to shift and adapt to new information. It is essential for appropriate social-cognitive behaviours. Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a neuroimaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been used to track the progression of brain activation during tasks of mental flexibility called set-shifting. We hypothesized that the sensitivity of MEG would be able to capture the abnormal neurocircuitry implicated in PTSD and this would negatively impact brain regions involved in set-shifting. Twenty-two soldiers with PTSD and 24 matched control soldiers completed a colour-shape set-shifting task. MEG data were recorded and source localized to identify significant brain regions involved in the task. Activation latencies were obtained by analysing the time course of activation in each region. The control group showed a sequence of activity that involved dorsolateral frontal cortex, insula and posterior parietal cortices. The soldiers with PTSD showed these activations but they were interrupted by activations in paralimbic regions. This is consistent with models of PTSD that suggest dysfunctional neurocircuitry is driven by hyper-reactive limbic areas that are not appropriately modulated by prefrontal cortical control regions. This is the first study identifying the timing and location of atypical neural responses in PTSD with set-shifting and supports the model that hyperactive limbic structures negatively impact cognitive function.

  11. Neural substrates of cognitive control under the belief of getting neurofeedback training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eNinaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning to modulate one’s own brain activity is the fundament of neurofeedback (NF applications. Besides the neural networks directly involved in the generation and modulation of the neurophysiological parameter being specifically trained, more general determinants of NF efficacy such as self-referential processes and cognitive control have been frequently disregarded. Nonetheless, deeper insight into these cognitive mechanisms and their neuronal underpinnings sheds light on various open NF related questions concerning individual differences, brain-computer interface (BCI illiteracy as well as a more general model of NF learning. In this context, we investigated the neuronal substrate of these more general regulatory mechanisms that are engaged when participants believe that they are receiving NF. Twenty healthy participants (40-63 years, 10 female performed a sham NF paradigm during fMRI scanning. All participants were novices to NF-experiments and were instructed to voluntarily modulate their own brain activity based on a visual display of moving color bars. However, the bar depicted a recording and not the actual brain activity of participants. Reports collected at the end of the experiment indicate that participants were unaware of the sham feedback. In comparison to a passive watching condition, bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor and dorsomedial and lateral prefrontal area were activated when participants actively tried to control the bar. In contrast, when merely watching moving bars, increased activation in the left angular gyrus was observed. These results show that the intention to control a moving bar is sufficient to engage a broad frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular network involved in cognitive control. The results of the present study indicate that tasks such as those generally employed in NF training recruit the neuronal correlates of cognitive control even when only sham NF is presented.

  12. Neural mechanisms underlying catastrophic failure in human-machine interaction during aerial navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saproo, Sameer; Shih, Victor; Jangraw, David C.; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash—these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). Approach. We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment. Main results. We find that workload buildup in a BAT can be successfully decoded from oscillatory features in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Information in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma spectral bands of the EEG all contribute to successful decoding, however gamma band activity with a lateralized somatosensory topography has the highest contribution, while theta band activity with a fronto-central topography has the most robust contribution in terms of real-world usability. We show that the output of the spectral decoder can be used to predict PIO susceptibility. We also find that workload buildup in the task induces pupil dilation, the magnitude of which is significantly correlated with the magnitude of the decoded EEG signals. These results suggest that PIOs may result from the dysregulation of cortical networks such as the locus coeruleus (LC)—anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) circuit. Significance. Our findings may generalize to similar control failures in other cases of tight man-machine coupling where gains and latencies in the control system must be inferred and compensated for by the human operators. A closed-loop intervention using neurophysiological decoding of workload buildup that targets the LC-ACC circuit may positively impact operator performance in such situations.

  13. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi J. Sihvonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM and morphometry (VBM study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90, we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA. Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of

  14. Bearing Fault Diagnosis under Variable Speed Using Convolutional Neural Networks and the Stochastic Diagonal Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tra, Viet; Kim, Jaeyoung; Khan, Sheraz Ali; Kim, Jong-Myon

    2017-12-06

    This paper presents a novel method for diagnosing incipient bearing defects under variable operating speeds using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) trained via the stochastic diagonal Levenberg-Marquardt (S-DLM) algorithm. The CNNs utilize the spectral energy maps (SEMs) of the acoustic emission (AE) signals as inputs and automatically learn the optimal features, which yield the best discriminative models for diagnosing incipient bearing defects under variable operating speeds. The SEMs are two-dimensional maps that show the distribution of energy across different bands of the AE spectrum. It is hypothesized that the variation of a bearing's speed would not alter the overall shape of the AE spectrum rather, it may only scale and translate it. Thus, at different speeds, the same defect would yield SEMs that are scaled and shifted versions of each other. This hypothesis is confirmed by the experimental results, where CNNs trained using the S-DLM algorithm yield significantly better diagnostic performance under variable operating speeds compared to existing methods. In this work, the performance of different training algorithms is also evaluated to select the best training algorithm for the CNNs. The proposed method is used to diagnose both single and compound defects at six different operating speeds.

  15. Memory trace in feeding neural circuitry underlying conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuro Ito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis can maintain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA as a long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP evoked in the neuron 1 medial (N1M cell by activation of the cerebral giant cell (CGC in taste aversion-trained snails was larger and lasted longer than that in control snails. The N1M cell is one of the interneurons in the feeding central pattern generator (CPG, and the CGC is a key regulatory neuron for the feeding CPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Previous studies have suggested that the neural circuit between the CGC and the N1M cell consists of two synaptic connections: (1 the excitatory connection from the CGC to the neuron 3 tonic (N3t cell and (2 the inhibitory connection from the N3t cell to the N1M cell. However, because the N3t cell is too small to access consistently by electrophysiological methods, in the present study the synaptic inputs from the CGC to the N3t cell and those from the N3t cell to the N1M cell were monitored as the monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP recorded in the large B1 and B3 motor neurons, respectively. The evoked monosynaptic EPSPs of the B1 motor neurons in the brains isolated from the taste aversion-trained snails were identical to those in the control snails, whereas the spontaneous monosynaptic EPSPs of the B3 motor neurons were significantly enlarged. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that, after taste aversion training, the monosynaptic inputs from the N3t cell to the following neurons including the N1M cell are specifically facilitated. That is, one of the memory traces for taste aversion remains as an increase in neurotransmitter released from the N3t cell. We thus conclude that the N3t cell suppresses the N1M cell in the feeding CPG, in response to the conditioned stimulus in Lymnaea CTA.

  16. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Héricé, C.; Khalil, R.; Moftah, M.; Boraud, T.; Guthrie, M.J.; Garenne, A.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used

  17. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Social Intelligence and Their Relationship with the Performance of Sales Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Dietvorst (Roeland)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIdentifying the drivers of salespeople’s performance, strategies and moral behavior have been under the scrutiny of marketing scholars for many years. The functioning of the drivers of salespeople’s behaviors rests on processes going on in the minds of salespeople. However, research to

  18. Biaxial testing of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under changing salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques M. Huyghe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo mechanics of the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc is one of biaxial rather than uniaxial loading. The material properties of the annulus are intimately linked to the osmolarity in the tissue. This paper presents biaxial relaxation experiments of canine annulus fibrosus tissue under stepwise changes of external salt concentration. The force tracings show that stresses are strongly dependent on time, salt concentration and orientation. The force tracing signature of are sponse to a change instrain, is one of a jumpin stress that relaxes partly as the new strain is maintained. The force tracing signature of a stepwise change in salt concentration is a progressive monotonous change in stress towards a new equilibrium value. Although the number of samples does not allow any definitive quantitative conclusions, the trends may shed light on the complex interaction among the directionality of forces, strains and fiber orientation on one hand, and on the other hand, the osmolarity of the tissue. The dual response to a change in strain is understood as an immediate response before fluid flows in or out of the tissue, followed by a progressive readjustment of the fluid content in time because of the gradient in fluid chemical potential between the tissue and the surrounding solution.A mecânica in vivo do anel fibroso do disco intervertebral é baseada em carregamento biaxial ao invés de uniaxial. As propriedades materiais do anel estão intimamente ligadas à osmolaridade no tecido. O artigo apresenta experimentos de relaxação biaxiais do anel fibroso de um tecido canino sob mudanças abruptas na concentração externa de sal. A assinatura da força devido à mudança brusca de salinidade resulta em uma progressiva e monótona mudança na tensão em direção a um novo valor de equilíbrio. Embora o número de amostras não permita nenhuma conclusão quantitativa, as tendências podem abrir uma luz no entendimento das intera

  19. Artificial neural network for prediction of the area under the disease progress curve of tomato late blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pedrosa Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Artificial neural networks (ANN are computational models inspired by the neural systems of living beings capable of learning from examples and using them to solve problems such as non-linear prediction, and pattern recognition, in addition to several other applications. In this study, ANN were used to predict the value of the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC for the tomato late blight pathosystem. The AUDPC is widely used by epidemiologic studies of polycyclic diseases, especially those regarding quantitative resistance of genotypes. However, a series of six evaluations over time is necessary to obtain the final area value for this pathosystem. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of ANN to construct an AUDPC in the tomato late blight pathosystem, using a reduced number of severity evaluations. For this, four independent experiments were performed giving a total of 1836 plants infected with Phytophthora infestans pathogen. They were assessed every three days, comprised six opportunities and AUDPC calculations were performed by the conventional method. After the ANN were created it was possible to predict the AUDPC with correlations of 0.97 and 0.84 when compared to conventional methods, using 50 % and 67 % of the genotype evaluations, respectively. When using the ANN created in an experiment to predict the AUDPC of the other experiments the average correlation was 0.94, with two evaluations, 0.96, with three evaluations, between the predicted values of the ANN and they were observed in six evaluations. We present in this study a new paradigm for the use of AUDPC information in tomato experiments faced with P. infestans. This new proposed paradigm might be adapted to different pathosystems.

  20. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munira A Kadhim

    2010-03-05

    To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these “non-targeted” responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and γ-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim

  1. Artificial neural networks for control of a grid-connected rectifier/inverter under disturbance, dynamic and power converter switching conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Fairbank, Michael; Johnson, Cameron; Wunsch, Donald C; Alonso, Eduardo; Proaño, Julio L

    2014-04-01

    Three-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable and electric power system applications. Traditionally, grid-connected converters are controlled with standard decoupled d-q vector control mechanisms. However, recent studies indicate that such mechanisms show limitations in their applicability to dynamic systems. This paper investigates how to mitigate such restrictions using a neural network to control a grid-connected rectifier/inverter. The neural network implements a dynamic programming algorithm and is trained by using back-propagation through time. To enhance performance and stability under disturbance, additional strategies are adopted, including the use of integrals of error signals to the network inputs and the introduction of grid disturbance voltage to the outputs of a well-trained network. The performance of the neural-network controller is studied under typical vector control conditions and compared against conventional vector control methods, which demonstrates that the neural vector control strategy proposed in this paper is effective. Even in dynamic and power converter switching environments, the neural vector controller shows strong ability to trace rapidly changing reference commands, tolerate system disturbances, and satisfy control requirements for a faulted power system.

  2. Decision making under uncertainty in a spiking neural network model of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héricé, Charlotte; Khalil, Radwa; Moftah, Marie; Boraud, Thomas; Guthrie, Martin; Garenne, André

    2016-12-01

    The mechanisms of decision-making and action selection are generally thought to be under the control of parallel cortico-subcortical loops connecting back to distinct areas of cortex through the basal ganglia and processing motor, cognitive and limbic modalities of decision-making. We have used these properties to develop and extend a connectionist model at a spiking neuron level based on a previous rate model approach. This model is demonstrated on decision-making tasks that have been studied in primates and the electrophysiology interpreted to show that the decision is made in two steps. To model this, we have used two parallel loops, each of which performs decision-making based on interactions between positive and negative feedback pathways. This model is able to perform two-level decision-making as in primates. We show here that, before learning, synaptic noise is sufficient to drive the decision-making process and that, after learning, the decision is based on the choice that has proven most likely to be rewarded. The model is then submitted to lesion tests, reversal learning and extinction protocols. We show that, under these conditions, it behaves in a consistent manner and provides predictions in accordance with observed experimental data.

  3. The Extent of Tissue Damage in the Epidural Space by Ho / YAG Laser During Epiduroscopic Laser Neural Decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Daehyun; Lee, Dong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Lasers have recently become very useful for epiduroscopy. As the use of lasers increases, the potential for unwanted complications with direct application of laser energy to nerve tissue has also increased. Even using the lowest laser power to test for nerve stimulation, there are still risks of laser ablation. However, there are no studies investigating tissue damage from laser procedures in the epidural space. This is a study on the risks of Ho/YAG laser usage during epiduroscopy. Observatory cadaver study. Department of anatomy and clinical research institute at the University Hospital. We used 5 cadavers for this study. After removing the dura and nerve root from the spinal column, laser energy from a Ho/YAG laser was applied directly to the dura and nerve root as well as in the virtual epidural space, which mimicked the conditions of epiduroscopy with the dura folded. Tissue destruction at all laser ablation sites was observed with the naked eye as well as with a microscope. Specimens were collected from each site of laser exposure, fixed in 10% neutral formalin, and dyed with H/E staining. Tissue destruction was observed in all laser ablation sites, regardless of the length of exposure and the power of the laser beam. A cadaver is not exactly the same as a living human because dura characteristics change and tissue damage can be influenced by dura thickness according to the spinal level. Even with low power and short duration, a laser can destroy tissue if the laser beam makes direct contact with the tissue.

  4. Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadhim, Munira A

    2012-08-22

    The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program. To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e. less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these "non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation with a focus on the induction of genomic instability (GI) in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/CaH and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition in these models on genomic instability. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to the dose of 10mGy (0.01Gy) X-rays. Using conventional X-ray and we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various conditions at a range of doses down to the very low dose of 0.01Gy. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for such studies. Mechanistic studies of instability in different cell

  5. The influence of continuous magnetic field on periodontal tissues under overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković-Popović Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Last remained teeth with reduced alveolar support do not have long-term prognosis, which is the reason for prolonging the life and thus providing a stable support of overdenture. The data from literature point out that static magnetic field has certain possibilities in resolving such problems. Objective. Having in mind the pathogenetic factors which cause the reduction of the alveolar ridge and periodontal problems in our population, as well as osteoblastic and antiinflamatory activity, the aim of this investigation was to assess the effect of static magnetic field on periodontal tissue under the overdenture. Methods. The investigation involved 38 partially edentulous patients, of both sexes and similar oral status who were bearers of a lower complete overdenture and upper classic complete denture as antagonist restoration. In the base of the lower overdenture the micromagnets were installed in the region of the remained teeth, which had static concentrated field of 60-80 mT power. The evaluation was done after 3, 6 and 12 months using the method of light densitometry. Periodontologic analysis was performed by standard and modified periodontologic tests. Results. In patients with overdentures, after exposure to a magnetic field, the density of bone was not significantly changed, but the use of ANOVA disclosed changes in the observed interval. The tendency of increased density of the alveolar part of the observed region was noted. The region of the corresponding tooth of the contralateral side without magnetic influence showed decreased density of this region in the observed intervals. Plaque index and gingival index were improved under the influence of the magnetic field, while after 6 and 12 months following the magnet insertion statistically significant changes were confirmed. The magnetic devices did not show any influence on the level of the gingival margin and junction epithelium. Conclusion. Static magnetic field is to be

  6. Fibronectin peptides that bind PDGF-BB enhance survival of cells and tissue under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fubao; Zhu, Jia; Tonnesen, Marcia G.; Taira, Breena R.; McClain, Steve A.; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Stressors after injury from a multitude of factors can lead to cell death. We have identified four fibronectin (FN) peptides, two from the first FN type III repeat (FNIII1), one from the 13th FN type III repeat (FNIII13), and one from FN variable region (IIICS), that when tethered to a surface acted as platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) enhancers to promote cell survival. One of the FNIII1 peptides and its smallest (14mer) bioactive form (P12) were also active in solution. Specifically, P12 bound PDGF-BB (KD = 200nM), enhanced adult human dermal fibroblast (AHDF) survival under serum starvation, oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressors, and limited burn injury progression in a rat hot comb model. Furthermore, P12 inhibited ER stress-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Although many growth factors have been found to bind FN directly or indirectly, this is the first report to identify peptide sequences of growth factor-binding sites in FN. The finding of these novel peptides further delineated how the extracellular matrix protein FN can support cell survival. Since the peptide P12 is active in either soluble form or tethered to a substrate, it will have multifactorial uses as a bioactive in tissue engineering. PMID:24126844

  7. Exposure of bovine dermal tissue to ultraviolet light under the Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Takayuki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Hattori, Shunji; Kudoh, Sakae; Imura, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Bovine dermis was exposed outdoors in the Antarctic in 2013 to study the skin damage caused by short-wavelength ultraviolet light under the ozone hole. Collagen was extracted from the exposed dermis with pepsin. The amount of solubilized collagen in the exposed dermis was only 20%-40% of that in dermis shielded from ultraviolet light. The dermis was most difficult to extract when exposed in summer, and then when exposed in spring. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the melting endothermic behavior of the dermal tissue. The peak temperature was highest for the dermis exposed in summer. The exposed dermis was degraded with cyanogen bromide to determine whether cross-linking had occurred. Cross-linked peptides were detected in the dermis exposed in summer or spring, but the dermis exposed in autumn did not differ markedly from the light-shielded dermis. These data show that cross-linkages were readily formed in the collagen molecule chains in dermis exposed to ultraviolet light in summer, when solar elevation is highest and the period of sunshine is longest. A comparison of the dermis exposed in spring and that exposed in autumn showed that cross-linkages were formed more readily by ultraviolet light in spring, when the ozone hole occurred.

  8. Serotonin-Sensitive Adenylate Cyclase in Neural Tissue and Its Similarity to the Serotonin Receptor: A Possible Site of Action of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide

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    Nathanson, James A.; Greengard, Paul

    1974-01-01

    An adenylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1) that is activated specifically by low concentrations of serotonin has been identified in homogenates of the thoracic ganglia of an insect nervous system. The activation of this enzyme by serotonin was selectively inhibited by extremely low concentrations of D-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 2-bromo-LSD, and cyproheptadine, agents which are known to block certain serotonin receptors in vivo. The inhibition was competitive with respect to serotonin, and the calculated inhibitory constant of LSD for this serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase was 5 nM. The data are consistent with a model in which the serotonin receptor of neural tissue is intimately associated with a serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase which mediates serotonergic neurotransmission. The results are also compatible with the possibility that some of the physiological effects of LSD may be mediated through interaction with serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. PMID:4595572

  9. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor-encoding gene V28 is closely related to genes for chemokine receptors and is expressed in lymphoid and neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raport, C J; Schweickart, V L; Eddy, R L; Shows, T B; Gray, P W

    1995-10-03

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy with degenerate primers was used to identify novel G-protein-coupled receptor-encoding genes from human genomic DNA. One of the isolated clones, termed V28, showed high sequence similarity to the genes encoding human chemokine receptors for monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha)/RANTES, and to the rat orphan receptor-encoding gene RBS11. When RNA was analyzed by Northern blot, V28 was found to be most highly expressed in neural and lymphoid tissues. Myeloid cell lines, particularly THP.1 cells, showed especially high expression of V28. We have mapped V28 to human chromosome 3p21-3pter, near the MIP-1 alpha/RANTES receptor-encoding gene.

  10. Neural and psychophysiological correlates of human performance under stress and high mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrick, Kevin; Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Rémy, Florence; Lepron, Evelyne; Causse, Mickaël

    2016-12-01

    In our anxiogenic and stressful world, the maintenance of an optimal cognitive performance is a constant challenge. It is particularly true in complex working environments (e.g. flight deck, air traffic control tower), where individuals have sometimes to cope with a high mental workload and stressful situations. Several models (i.e. processing efficiency theory, cognitive-energetical framework) have attempted to provide a conceptual basis on how human performance is modulated by high workload and stress/anxiety. These models predict that stress can reduce human cognitive efficiency, even in the absence of a visible impact on the task performance. Performance may be protected under stress thanks to compensatory effort, but only at the expense of a cognitive cost. Yet, the psychophysiological cost of this regulation remains unclear. We designed two experiments involving pupil diameter, cardiovascular and prefrontal oxygenation measurements. Participants performed the Toulouse N-back Task that intensively engaged both working memory and mental calculation processes under the threat (or not) of unpredictable aversive sounds. The results revealed that higher task difficulty (higher n level) degraded the performance and induced an increased tonic pupil diameter, heart rate and activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, and a decreased phasic pupil response and heart rate variability. Importantly, the condition of stress did not impact the performance, but at the expense of a psychophysiological cost as demonstrated by lower phasic pupil response, and greater heart rate and prefrontal activity. Prefrontal cortex seems to be a central region for mitigating the influence of stress because it subserves crucial functions (e.g. inhibition, working memory) that can promote the engagement of coping strategies. Overall, findings confirmed the psychophysiological cost of both mental effort and stress. Stress likely triggered increased motivation and the recruitment of additional

  11. A View of the Neural Representation of Second Language Syntax through Artificial Language Learning under Implicit Contexts of Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Short, Kara; Deng, ZhiZhou; Brill-Schuetz, Katherine A.; Faretta- Stutenberg, Mandy; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wong, Francis C. K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2…

  12. The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization versus therapeutic ultrasound for patients with neck and arm pain with evidence of neural mechanosensitivity: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael; Puentedura, Emilio 'Louie' J; Cleland, Josh; Ciccone, Charles D

    2016-07-01

    Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization (STM) versus therapeutic ultrasound (US) in patients with neck and arm pain who demonstrate neural mechanical sensitivity. While experts have suggested that individuals with neck and arm pain associated with neural tissue mechanical sensitivity may benefit from STM, there has been little research to investigate this hypothesis. Twenty-three patients with neck and arm pain and a positive upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT) were randomly assigned to receive STM or therapeutic US during a single session. Outcome measures were collected immediately before and after treatment, and at 2-4 day follow-up. Primary outcomes were the Global Rating of Change (GROC), range of motion (ROM) during the ULNT, and pain rating during the ULNT. Secondary measures included the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and active range of shoulder abduction motion combined with the wrist neutral or wrist extension. A greater proportion of patients in the STM group reported a significant improvement on the GROC immediately after treatment (P = 0·003, STM = 75%, US = 9%), and at 2-4 day follow-up (P = 0·027, STM = 58%, US = 9%). Patients who received STM demonstrated greater improvements in ROM during ULNT (P = 0·026), PSFS (P = 0·007), and shoulder active ROM combined with wrist extension (P = 0·028). Improvements in Numeric Pain Rating Scale and pain during the ULNT were observed only in the STM group. There was no difference between groups for the NDI or shoulder abduction ROM with wrist neutral. Patients with neck and arm pain demonstrated greater improvements in ULNT ROM, GROC, and PSFS, and pain following STM than after receiving therapeutic US. Therapy, level 1b.

  13. The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization versus therapeutic ultrasound for patients with neck and arm pain with evidence of neural mechanosensitivity: a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael; Puentedura, Emilio ‘Louie’ J.; Cleland, Josh; Ciccone, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To investigate the immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization (STM) versus therapeutic ultrasound (US) in patients with neck and arm pain who demonstrate neural mechanical sensitivity. Background While experts have suggested that individuals with neck and arm pain associated with neural tissue mechanical sensitivity may benefit from STM, there has been little research to investigate this hypothesis. Methods Twenty-three patients with neck and arm pain and a positive upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT) were randomly assigned to receive STM or therapeutic US during a single session. Outcome measures were collected immediately before and after treatment, and at 2–4 day follow-up. Primary outcomes were the Global Rating of Change (GROC), range of motion (ROM) during the ULNT, and pain rating during the ULNT. Secondary measures included the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and active range of shoulder abduction motion combined with the wrist neutral or wrist extension. Results A greater proportion of patients in the STM group reported a significant improvement on the GROC immediately after treatment (P = 0·003, STM = 75%, US = 9%), and at 2–4 day follow-up (P = 0·027, STM = 58%, US = 9%). Patients who received STM demonstrated greater improvements in ROM during ULNT (P = 0·026), PSFS (P = 0·007), and shoulder active ROM combined with wrist extension (P = 0·028). Improvements in Numeric Pain Rating Scale and pain during the ULNT were observed only in the STM group. There was no difference between groups for the NDI or shoulder abduction ROM with wrist neutral. Conclusion Patients with neck and arm pain demonstrated greater improvements in ULNT ROM, GROC, and PSFS, and pain following STM than after receiving therapeutic US. Level of evidence Therapy, level 1b. PMID:27559283

  14. Do horizontal saccadic eye movements increase interhemispheric coherence? Investigation of a hypothesized neural mechanism underlying EMDR

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    Zoe eSamara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Series of horizontal saccadic eye movements (EMs are known to improve episodic memory retrieval in healthy adults and to facilitate the processing of traumatic memories in eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR therapy. Several authors have proposed that EMs achieve these effects by increasing the functional connectivity of the two brain hemispheres, but direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether memory enhancement following bilateral EMs is associated with increased interhemispheric coherence in the electroencephalogram (EEG. Fourteen healthy young adults were asked to freely recall lists of studied neutral and emotional words after a series of bilateral EMs and a control procedure. Baseline EEG activity was recorded before and after the EM and control procedures. Phase and amplitude coherence between bilaterally homologous brain areas were calculated for six frequency bands and electrode pairs across the entire scalp. Behavioral analyses showed that participants recalled more emotional (but not neutral words following the EM procedure than following the control procedure. However, the EEG analyses indicated no evidence that the EMs altered participants’ interhemispheric coherence or that improvements in recall were correlated with such changes in coherence. These findings cast doubt on the interhemispheric interaction hypothesis, and therefore may have important implications for future research on the neurobiological mechanism underlying EMDR.

  15. Changes in the population of perivascular cells in the bone tissue remodeling zones under microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkova, Olena; Rodionova, Natalia; Shevel, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    cells reveal signs of destruction. Thus it was found that number of the alkaline phosphatase containing cells (i.e. osteogenic cells) declines in perivascular cells population. It is one of the mechanisms of the osteogenic process decrease of intensity in bones because of lessening support loading on the bone skeleton. In the adaptive remodeling zones of bone tissue (near the vascular canals) in experiments fibroblasts and fibrosis zones were found - areas filled with non-mineralized collagen fibrils on the bones surfaces. Hence it should be considered that decrease (removal) of support loading slows down osteogenic differentiation of the part of perivascular cells and stimulates differentiation of the fibroblast cells. Obtained data is considered as one of the cellular mechanisms of the adaptive reactions development in spongy bone under microgravity which could lead to the bone mass loss.

  16. Finding the self by losing the self: Neural correlates of ego-dissolution under psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Lövdén, Martin; Rosenthal, Gidon; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J; Carhart-Harris, Robin L

    2015-08-01

    Ego-disturbances have been a topic in schizophrenia research since the earliest clinical descriptions of the disorder. Manifesting as a feeling that one's "self," "ego," or "I" is disintegrating or that the border between one's self and the external world is dissolving, "ego-disintegration" or "dissolution" is also an important feature of the psychedelic experience, such as is produced by psilocybin (a compound found in "magic mushrooms"). Fifteen healthy subjects took part in this placebo-controlled study. Twelve-minute functional MRI scans were acquired on two occasions: subjects received an intravenous infusion of saline on one occasion (placebo) and 2 mg psilocybin on the other. Twenty-two visual analogue scale ratings were completed soon after scanning and the first principal component of these, dominated by items referring to "ego-dissolution", was used as a primary measure of interest in subsequent analyses. Employing methods of connectivity analysis and graph theory, an association was found between psilocybin-induced ego-dissolution and decreased functional connectivity between the medial temporal lobe and high-level cortical regions. Ego-dissolution was also associated with a "disintegration" of the salience network and reduced interhemispheric communication. Addressing baseline brain dynamics as a predictor of drug-response, individuals with lower diversity of executive network nodes were more likely to experience ego-dissolution under psilocybin. These results implicate MTL-cortical decoupling, decreased salience network integrity, and reduced inter-hemispheric communication in psilocybin-induced ego disturbance and suggest that the maintenance of "self"or "ego," as a perceptual phenomenon, may rest on the normal functioning of these systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Changes in Neural Activity Underlying Working Memory after Computerized Cognitive Training in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusch, Erich S; Alperin, Brittany R; Ryan, Eliza; Holcomb, Phillip J; Mohammed, Abdul H; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    Computerized cognitive training (CCT) may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM) CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ∼40 min sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, event-related potentials were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with three levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back). The anterior P3a served as an index of directing attention and the posterior P3b as an index of categorization/WM updating. We hypothesized that adaptive CCT would be associated with decreased P3 amplitude at low WM demand and increased P3 amplitude at high WM demand. The adaptive CCT group exhibited a training-related increase in the amplitude of the anterior P3a and posterior P3b in response to target stimuli across n-back tasks, while subjects in the active control CCT group demonstrated a post-training decrease in the anterior P3a. Performance did not differ between groups or sessions. Larger overall P3 amplitudes were strongly associated with better task performance. Increased post-CCT P3 amplitude correlated with improved task performance; this relationship was especially robust at high task load. Our findings suggest that adaptive WM training was associated with increased orienting of attention, as indexed by the P3a, and the enhancement of categorization/WM updating processes, as indexed by the P3b. Increased P3 amplitude was linked to improved performance; however. there was no direct association between adaptive training and improved performance.

  18. Changes in neural activity underlying working memory after computerized cognitive training in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Tusch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Computerized cognitive training (CCT may counter the impact of aging on cognition, but both the efficacy and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying CCT remain controversial. In this study, 35 older individuals were randomly assigned to Cogmed adaptive working memory (WM CCT or an active control CCT, featuring five weeks of five ~40 minute sessions per week. Before and after the 5-week intervention, ERPs were measured while subjects completed a visual n-back task with 3 levels of demand (0-back, 1-back, 2-back. The anterior P3a served as an index of directing attention and the posterior P3b as an index of categorization/WM updating. We hypothesized that adaptive CCT would be associated with decreased P3 amplitude at low WM demand and increased P3 amplitude at high WM demand. The adaptive CCT group exhibited a training-related increase in the amplitude of the anterior P3a and posterior P3b in response to target stimuli across n-back tasks, while subjects in the active control CCT group demonstrated a post-training decrease in the anterior P3a. Performance did not differ between groups or sessions. Larger overall P3 amplitudes were strongly associated with better task performance. Increased post-CCT P3 amplitude correlated with improved task performance; this relationship was especially robust at high task load. Our findings suggest that adaptive WM training was associated with increased orienting of attention, as indexed by the P3a, and the enhancement of categorization/WM updating processes, as indexed by the P3b. Increased P3 amplitude was linked to improved performance; however there was no direct association between adaptive training and improved performance.

  19. S1-2: The Temporal Aspect of Neural Activities Underlying the Perception of Biological Motion in Infants, Children, Adults, and Patients with Developmental Disorders

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    Masahiro Hirai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that our visual system can extract rich visual information from point-light motion. Despite the fact that we can perceive human actions from point-light motion with a brief exposure, the temporal aspect of the neural activities underlying the perception of biological motion has not been well explored. In this talk, I'll introduce a series of behavioral, electroencephalography (EEG, and magnetoencephalography (MEG studies on biological motion perception and propose a hierarchical model for its processing based on these findings. I'll then show the developmental changes of the neural responses to biological motion in infants and children and how developmental disorders such as Williams Syndrome and pervasive development disorder (PDD alter its neural responses.

  20. Neural mechanisms underlying the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces: a tentative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In our daily lives, we form some impressions of other people. Although those impressions are affected by many factors, face-based affective signals such as facial expression, facial attractiveness, or trustworthiness are important. Previous psychological studies have demonstrated the impact of facial impressions on remembering other people, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying this psychological process. The purpose of this article is to review recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies to investigate the effects of face-based affective signals including facial expression, facial attractiveness, and trustworthiness on memory for faces, and to propose a tentative concept for understanding this affective-cognitive interaction. On the basis of the aforementioned research, three brain regions are potentially involved in the processing of face-based affective signals. The first candidate is the amygdala, where activity is generally modulated by both affectively positive and negative signals from faces. Activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as the second candidate, increases as a function of perceived positive signals from faces; whereas activity in the insular cortex, as the third candidate, reflects a function of face-based negative signals. In addition, neuroscientific studies have reported that the three regions are functionally connected to the memory-related hippocampal regions. These findings suggest that the effects of face-based affective signals on memory for faces could be modulated by interactions between the regions associated with the processing of face-based affective signals and the hippocampus as a memory-related region.

  1. Mixed Stimulus-Induced Mode Selection in Neural Activity Driven by High and Low Frequency Current under Electromagnetic Radiation

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    Lulu Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activities of neurons are dependent on the complex electrophysiological condition in neuronal system, the three-variable Hindmarsh-Rose (HR neuron model is improved to describe the dynamical behaviors of neuronal activities with electromagnetic induction being considered, and the mode transition of electrical activities in neuron is detected when external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the neuron. In this paper, different types of electrical stimulus impended with a high-low frequency current are imposed on new HR neuron model, and mixed stimulus-induced mode selection in neural activity is discussed in detail. It is found that mode selection of electrical activities stimulated by high-low frequency current, which also changes the excitability of neuron, can be triggered owing to adding the Gaussian white noise. Meanwhile, the mode selection of the neuron electrical activity is much dependent on the amplitude B of the high frequency current under the same noise intensity, and the high frequency response is selected preferentially by applying appropriate parameters and noise intensity. Our results provide insights into the transmission of complex signals in nerve system, which is valuable in engineering prospective applications such as information encoding.

  2. Mechanisms Underlying the Antiproliferative and Prodifferentiative Effects of Psoralen on Adult Neural Stem Cells via DNA Microarray

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    You Ning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult neural stem cells (NSCs persist throughout life to replace mature cells that are lost during turnover, disease, or injury. The investigation of NSC creates novel treatments for central nervous system (CNS injuries and neurodegenerative disorders. The plasticity and reparative potential of NSC are regulated by different factors, which are critical for neurological regenerative medicine research. We investigated the effects of Psoralen, which is the mature fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L., on NSC behaviors and the underlying mechanisms. The self-renewal and proliferation of NSC were examined. We detected neuron- and/or astrocyte-specific markers using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, which could evaluate NSC differentiation. Psoralen treatment significantly inhibited neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner. Psoralen treatment increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific marker but decreased neuron-specific marker expression. These results suggested that Psoralen was a differentiation inducer in astrocyte. Differential gene expression following Psoralen treatment was screened using DNA microarray and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our microarray study demonstrated that Psoralen could effectively regulate the specific gene expression profile of NSC. The genes involved in the classification of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism, the transcription factors belonging to Ets family, and the hedgehog pathway may be closely related to the regulation.

  3. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

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    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  4. Disease-associated prion protein in neural and lymphoid tissues of mink (Mustela vison) inoculated with transmissible mink encephalopathy.

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    Schneider, D A; Harrington, R D; Zhuang, D; Yan, H; Truscott, T C; Dassanayake, R P; O'Rourke, K I

    2012-11-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are diagnosed by immunodetection of disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d)). The distribution of PrP(d) within the body varies with the time-course of infection and between species, during interspecies transmission, as well as with prion strain. Mink are susceptible to a form of TSE known as transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME), presumed to arise due to consumption of feed contaminated with a single prion strain of ruminant origin. After extended passage of TME isolates in hamsters, two strains emerge, HY and DY, each of which is associated with unique structural isoforms of PrP(TME) and of which only the HY strain is associated with accumulation of PrP(TME) in lymphoid tissues. Information on the structural nature and lymphoid accumulation of PrP(TME) in mink is limited. In this study, 13 mink were challenged by intracerebral inoculation using late passage TME inoculum, after which brain and lymphoid tissues were collected at preclinical and clinical time points. The distribution and molecular nature of PrP(TME) was investigated by techniques including blotting of paraffin wax-embedded tissue and epitope mapping by western blotting. PrP(TME) was detected readily in the brain and retropharyngeal lymph node during preclinical infection, with delayed progression of accumulation within other lymphoid tissues. For comparison, three mink were inoculated by the oral route and examined during clinical disease. Accumulation of PrP(TME) in these mink was greater and more widespread, including follicles of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Western blot analyses revealed that PrP(TME) accumulating in the brain of mink is structurally most similar to that accumulating in the brain of hamsters infected with the DY strain. Collectively, the results of extended passage in mink are consistent with the presence of only a single strain of TME, the DY strain, capable of inducing accumulation of PrP(TME) in the lymphoid

  5. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

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    Jonas Kalderstam

    Full Text Available We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart, which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  6. Temporal entrainment of cognitive functions: musical mnemonics induce brain plasticity and oscillatory synchrony in neural networks underlying memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaut, Michael H; Peterson, David A; McIntosh, Gerald C

    2005-12-01

    In a series of experiments, we have begun to investigate the effect of music as a mnemonic device on learning and memory and the underlying plasticity of oscillatory neural networks. We used verbal learning and memory tests (standardized word lists, AVLT) in conjunction with electroencephalographic analysis to determine differences between verbal learning in either a spoken or musical (verbal materials as song lyrics) modality. In healthy adults, learning in both the spoken and music condition was associated with significant increases in oscillatory synchrony across all frequency bands. A significant difference between the spoken and music condition emerged in the cortical topography of the learning-related synchronization. When using EEG measures as predictors during learning for subsequent successful memory recall, significantly increased coherence (phase-locked synchronization) within and between oscillatory brain networks emerged for music in alpha and gamma bands. In a similar study with multiple sclerosis patients, superior learning and memory was shown in the music condition when controlled for word order recall, and subjects were instructed to sing back the word lists. Also, the music condition was associated with a significant power increase in the low-alpha band in bilateral frontal networks, indicating increased neuronal synchronization. Musical learning may access compensatory pathways for memory functions during compromised PFC functions associated with learning and recall. Music learning may also confer a neurophysiological advantage through the stronger synchronization of the neuronal cell assemblies underlying verbal learning and memory. Collectively our data provide evidence that melodic-rhythmic templates as temporal structures in music may drive internal rhythm formation in recurrent cortical networks involved in learning and memory.

  7. Finding Risk Groups by Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks on the Area under the Survival Curve Using Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalderstam, Jonas; Edén, Patrik; Ohlsson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a new method to place patients into risk groups in censored survival data. Properties such as median survival time, and end survival rate, are implicitly improved by optimizing the area under the survival curve. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are trained to either maximize or minimize this area using a genetic algorithm, and combined into an ensemble to predict one of low, intermediate, or high risk groups. Estimated patient risk can influence treatment choices, and is important for study stratification. A common approach is to sort the patients according to a prognostic index and then group them along the quartile limits. The Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) is one example of this approach. Another method of doing risk grouping is recursive partitioning (Rpart), which constructs a decision tree where each branch point maximizes the statistical separation between the groups. ANN, Cox, and Rpart are compared on five publicly available data sets with varying properties. Cross-validation, as well as separate test sets, are used to validate the models. Results on the test sets show comparable performance, except for the smallest data set where Rpart's predicted risk groups turn out to be inverted, an example of crossing survival curves. Cross-validation shows that all three models exhibit crossing of some survival curves on this small data set but that the ANN model manages the best separation of groups in terms of median survival time before such crossings. The conclusion is that optimizing the area under the survival curve is a viable approach to identify risk groups. Training ANNs to optimize this area combines two key strengths from both prognostic indices and Rpart. First, a desired minimum group size can be specified, as for a prognostic index. Second, the ability to utilize non-linear effects among the covariates, which Rpart is also able to do.

  8. Calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues of rats under condition of subchronic lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Tatjana; Vujanovic, Dragana; Dozic, Ivan; Petkovic-Curcin, Aleksandra

    2008-03-01

    Lead manifests toxic effects in almost all organs and tissues, especially in: the nervous system, hematopoietic system, kidney and liver. This metal has a special affinity for deposition in hard tissue, i.e., bones and teeth. It is generally believed that the main mechanism of its toxicity relies on its interaction with bioelements, especially with Ca and Mg. This article analyses the influence of Pb poisoning on Ca and Mg content in hard tissues, (mandible, femur, teeth and skull) of female and young rats. Experiments were carried out on 60 female rats, AO breed, and on 80 of their young rats (offspring). Female rats were divided into three groups: the first one was a control group, the second one received 100 mg/kg Pb2+ kg b.wt. per day in drinking water, the third one received 30 mg/kg Pb(2+) kg b.wt. per day in drinking water. Young rats (offspring) were divided into the same respective three groups. Lead, calcium and magnesium content in hard tissues (mandible, femur, teeth-incisors and skull) was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry in mineralized samples. There was a statistically significant Pb deposition in all analyzed female and young rat hard tissues. Ca and Mg contents were significantly reduced in all female and young rat hard tissues. These results show that Pb poisoning causes a significant reduction in Ca and Mg content in animal hard tissues, which is probably the consequence of competitive antagonism between Pb and Ca and Mg.

  9. THE VARIATIONS OF WATER IN HUMAN TISSUE UNDER CERTAIN COMPRESSION: STUDIED WITH DIFFUSE REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENXI LI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The reflectance spectrum has been widely adopted to extract diagnosis information of human tissue because it possesses the advantages of noninvasive and rapidity. The external pressure brought by fiber optic probe may influence the accuracy of measurement. In this paper, a systematic study is focused on the effects of probe pressure on intrinsic changes of water and scattering particles in tissue. According to the biphasic nonlinear mixture model, the pressure modulated reflectance spectrum of both in vitro and in vivo tissue is measured and processed with second-derivation. The results indicate that the variations of bulk and bonded water in tissue have a nonlinear relationship with the pressure. Differences in tissue structure and morphology contribute to site-specific probe pressure effects. Then the finite element (FEM and Monte Carlo (MC method is employed to simulate the deformation and reflectance spectrum variations of tissue before and after compression. The simulation results show that as the pressure of fiber optic probe applied to the detected skin increased to 80 kPa, the effective photon proportion form dermis decreases significantly from 86% to 76%. Future designs might benefit from the research of change of water volume inside the tissue to mitigate the pressure applied to skin.

  10. Automated cancer stem cell recognition in H and E stained tissue using convolutional neural networks and color deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Wolfgang; Krappe, Sebastian; Cetin, A. Enis; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul; Üner, Aysegül; Benz, Michaela; Wittenberg, Thomas; Stamminger, Marc; Münzenmayer, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The analysis and interpretation of histopathological samples and images is an important discipline in the diagnosis of various diseases, especially cancer. An important factor in prognosis and treatment with the aim of a precision medicine is the determination of so-called cancer stem cells (CSC) which are known for their resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment and involvement in tumor recurrence. Using immunohistochemistry with CSC markers like CD13, CD133 and others is one way to identify CSC. In our work we aim at identifying CSC presence on ubiquitous Hematoxilyn and Eosin (HE) staining as an inexpensive tool for routine histopathology based on their distinct morphological features. We present initial results of a new method based on color deconvolution (CD) and convolutional neural networks (CNN). This method performs favorably (accuracy 0.936) in comparison with a state-of-the-art method based on 1DSIFT and eigen-analysis feature sets evaluated on the same image database. We also show that accuracy of the CNN is improved by the CD pre-processing.

  11. Protein kinase C substrate phosphorylation in relation to neural growth and synaptic plasticity: a common molecular mechanism underlying multiple neural functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    In these studies, we addressed the issues of: (1) whether neural protein kinase C (PKC) substrates might be altered in phosphorylation following induction of long-term potentiation (LTP); (2) whether PKC substrate phosphorylation might be specifically related to a model of neural plasticity other than LTP; and (3) whether the PKC substrates implicated in adult synaptic plasticity might be present in axonal growth cones given reports that high concentrations of PKC are found in these structures. Using quantitative analysis of multiple two-dimensional gels, we found that the two major substrates of exogenous purified PKC in adult hippocampal homogenate are both directly correlated to persistence of LTP. In rhesus monkey cerebral cortex, the proteins corresponding to protein F1 and 80k displayed topographical gradients in /sup 32/P-incorporation along the occipitotemporal visual processing pathway. The phosphorylation of both proteins was 11- and 14-fold higher, respectively, in temporal regions of this pathway implicated in the storage of visual representations, than in occipital regions, which do not appear to directly participate in visual memory functions.

  12. Normative data on development of neural and behavioral mechanisms underlying attention orienting toward social-emotional stimuli: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstrom, Kara; Guyer, Amanda E; Mogg, Karin; Bradley, Brendan P.; Fox, Nathan A.; Ernst, Monique; Nelson, Eric E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Britton, Jennifer C.; Monk, Christopher S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2009-01-01

    The ability of positive and negative facial signals to influence attention orienting is crucial to social functioning. Given the dramatic developmental change in neural architecture supporting social function, positive and negative facial cues may influence attention orienting differently in relatively young or old individuals. However, virtually no research examines such age-related differences in the neural circuitry supporting attention orienting to emotional faces. We examined age-related...

  13. Artificial Neural Network Modelling of Photodegradation in Suspension of Manganese Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles under Visible-Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Abdollahi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The artificial neural network (ANN modeling of m-cresol photodegradation was carried out for determination of the optimum and importance values of the effective variables to achieve the maximum efficiency. The photodegradation was carried out in the suspension of synthesized manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible-light irradiation. The input considered effective variables of the photodegradation were irradiation time, pH, photocatalyst amount, and concentration of m-cresol while the efficiency was the only response as output. The performed experiments were designed into three data sets such as training, testing, and validation that were randomly splitted by the software’s option. To obtain the optimum topologies, ANN was trained by quick propagation (QP, Incremental Back Propagation (IBP, Batch Back Propagation (BBP, and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM algorithms for testing data set. The topologies were determined by the indicator of minimized root mean squared error (RMSE for each algorithm. According to the indicator, the QP-4-8-1, IBP-4-15-1, BBP-4-6-1, and LM-4-10-1 were selected as the optimized topologies. Among the topologies, QP-4-8-1 has presented the minimum RMSE and absolute average deviation as well as maximum R-squared. Therefore, QP-4-8-1 was selected as final model for validation test and navigation of the process. The model was used for determination of the optimum values of the effective variables by a few three-dimensional plots. The optimum points of the variables were confirmed by further validated experiments. Moreover, the model predicted the relative importance of the variables which showed none of them was neglectable in this work.

  14. Multifractal analysis of information processing in hippocampal neural ensembles during working memory under Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterhoff, Dustin; Opris, Ioan; Simpson, Sean L; Deadwyler, Sam A; Hampson, Robert E; Kraft, Robert A

    2015-04-15

    Multifractal analysis quantifies the time-scale-invariant properties in data by describing the structure of variability over time. By applying this analysis to hippocampal interspike interval sequences recorded during performance of a working memory task, a measure of long-range temporal correlations and multifractal dynamics can reveal single neuron correlates of information processing. Wavelet leaders-based multifractal analysis (WLMA) was applied to hippocampal interspike intervals recorded during a working memory task. WLMA can be used to identify neurons likely to exhibit information processing relevant to operation of brain-computer interfaces and nonlinear neuronal models. Neurons involved in memory processing ("Functional Cell Types" or FCTs) showed a greater degree of multifractal firing properties than neurons without task-relevant firing characteristics. In addition, previously unidentified FCTs were revealed because multifractal analysis suggested further functional classification. The cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) partial agonist, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), selectively reduced multifractal dynamics in FCT neurons compared to non-FCT neurons. WLMA is an objective tool for quantifying the memory-correlated complexity represented by FCTs that reveals additional information compared to classification of FCTs using traditional z-scores to identify neuronal correlates of behavioral events. z-Score-based FCT classification provides limited information about the dynamical range of neuronal activity characterized by WLMA. Increased complexity, as measured with multifractal analysis, may be a marker of functional involvement in memory processing. The level of multifractal attributes can be used to differentially emphasize neural signals to improve computational models and algorithms underlying brain-computer interfaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Species and tissue type regulate long-term decomposition of brackish marsh plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A.; Cherry, Julia A.; McKee, Karen L.

    2016-02-01

    Organic matter accumulation, the net effect of plant production and decomposition, contributes to vertical soil accretion in coastal wetlands, thereby playing a key role in whether they keep pace with sea-level rise. Any factor that affects decomposition may affect wetland accretion, including atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Higher CO2 can influence decomposition rates by altering plant tissue chemistry or by causing shifts in plant species composition or biomass partitioning. A combined greenhouse-field experiment examined how elevated CO2 affected plant tissue chemistry and subsequent decomposition of above- and belowground tissues of two common brackish marsh species, Schoenoplectus americanus (C3) and Spartina patens (C4). Both species were grown in monoculture and in mixture under ambient (350-385 μL L-1) or elevated (ambient + 300 μL L-1) atmospheric CO2 conditions, with all other growth conditions held constant, for one growing season. Above- and belowground tissues produced under these treatments were decomposed under ambient field conditions in a brackish marsh in the Mississippi River Delta, USA. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced nitrogen content of S. americanus, but not sufficiently to affect subsequent decomposition. Instead, long-term decomposition (percent mass remaining after 280 d) was controlled by species composition and tissue type. Shoots of S. patens had more mass remaining (41 ± 2%) than those of S. americanus (12 ± 2%). Belowground material decomposed more slowly than that placed aboveground (62 ± 1% vs. 23 ± 3% mass remaining), but rates belowground did not differ between species. Increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration will likely have a greater effect on overall decomposition in this brackish marsh community through shifts in species dominance or biomass allocation than through effects on tissue chemistry. Consequent changes in organic matter accumulation may alter marsh capacity to accommodate sea-level rise through vertical

  16. Neural substrates underlying reconcentration for the preparation of an appropriate cognitive state to prevent future mistakes: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eMiura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to reconcentrate on the present situation by recognizing one’s own recent errors is a cognitive mechanism that is crucial for safe and appropriate behavior in a particular situation. However, an individual may not be able to adequately perform a subsequent task even if he/she recognize his/her own error; thus, it is hypothesized that the neural mechanisms underlying the reconcentration process are different from the neural substrates supporting error recognition. The present study performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI analysis to explore the neural substrates associated with reconcentration related to achieving an appropriate cognitive state, and to dissociate these brain regions from the neural substrates involved in recognizing one’s own mistake. This study included 44 healthy volunteers who completed an experimental procedure that was based on the Eriksen flanker task and included feedback regarding the results of the current trial. The hemodynamic response induced by each instance of feedback was modeled using a combination of the successes and failures of the current and subsequent trials in order to identify the neural substrates underlying the ability to reconcentrate for the next situation and to dissociate them from those involved in recognizing current errors. The fMRI findings revealed significant and specific activation in the dorsal aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex (MFC when participants successfully reconcentrated on the task after recognizing their own error based on feedback. Additionally, this specific activation was clearly dissociated from the activation foci that occurred during error recognition. These findings indicate that the dorsal aspect of the MFC may be a distinct functional region that specifically supports the reconcentration process and that is associated with the prevention of successive errors when a human subject recognizes his/her own mistake. Furthermore, it is likely

  17. Neural substrates underlying reconcentration for the preparation of an appropriate cognitive state to prevent future mistakes: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Naoki; Nozawa, Takayuki; Takahashi, Makoto; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Sasaki, Yukako; Sakaki, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    The ability to reconcentrate on the present situation by recognizing one’s own recent errors is a cognitive mechanism that is crucial for safe and appropriate behavior in a particular situation. However, an individual may not be able to adequately perform a subsequent task even if he/she recognize his/her own error; thus, it is hypothesized that the neural mechanisms underlying the reconcentration process are different from the neural substrates supporting error recognition. The present study performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis to explore the neural substrates associated with reconcentration related to achieving an appropriate cognitive state, and to dissociate these brain regions from the neural substrates involved in recognizing one’s own mistake. This study included 44 healthy volunteers who completed an experimental procedure that was based on the Eriksen flanker task and included feedback regarding the results of the current trial. The hemodynamic response induced by each instance of feedback was modeled using a combination of the successes and failures of the current and subsequent trials in order to identify the neural substrates underlying the ability to reconcentrate for the next situation and to dissociate them from those involved in recognizing current errors. The fMRI findings revealed significant and specific activation in the dorsal aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex (MFC) when participants successfully reconcentrated on the task after recognizing their own error based on feedback. Additionally, this specific activation was clearly dissociated from the activation foci that occurred during error recognition. These findings indicate that the dorsal aspect of the MFC may be a distinct functional region that specifically supports the reconcentration process and that is associated with the prevention of successive errors when a human subject recognizes his/her own mistake. Furthermore, it is likely that this

  18. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  19. Dissociable neural modulation underlying lasting first impressions, changing your mind for the better, and changing it for the worse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Jamil P; Beer, Jennifer S

    2013-05-29

    Unattractive job candidates face a disadvantage when interviewing for a job. Employers' evaluations are colored by the candidate's physical attractiveness even when they take job interview performance into account. This example illustrates unexplored questions about the neural basis of social evaluation in humans. What neural regions support the lasting effects of initial impressions (even after getting to know someone)? How does the brain process information that changes our minds about someone? Job candidates' competence was evaluated from photographs and again after seeing snippets of job interviews. Left lateral orbitofrontal cortex modulation serves as a warning signal for initial reactions that ultimately undermine evaluations even when additional information is taken into account. The neural basis of changing one's mind about a candidate is not a simple matter of computing the amount of competence-affirming information in their job interview. Instead, seeing a candidate for the better is somewhat distinguishable at the neural level from seeing a candidate for the worse. Whereas amygdala modulation marks the extremity of evaluation change, favorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of lateral prefrontal cortex and unfavorable impression change additionally draws on parametric modulation of medial prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and striatum. Investigating social evaluation as a dynamic process (rather than a one-time impression) paints a new picture of its neural basis and highlights the partially dissociable processes that contribute to changing your mind about someone for the better or the worse.

  20. CAT & MAUS: A novel system for true dynamic motion measurement of underlying bony structures with compensation for soft tissue movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Monk, Paul; Murray, David; Noble, J Alison; Mellon, Stephen

    2017-09-06

    Optoelectronic motion capture systems are widely employed to measure the movement of human joints. However, there can be a significant discrepancy between the data obtained by a motion capture system (MCS) and the actual movement of underlying bony structures, which is attributed to soft tissue artefact. In this paper, a computer-aided tracking and motion analysis with ultrasound (CAT & MAUS) system with an augmented globally optimal registration algorithm is presented to dynamically track the underlying bony structure during movement. The augmented registration part of CAT & MAUS was validated with a high system accuracy of 80%. The Euclidean distance between the marker-based bony landmark and the bony landmark tracked by CAT & MAUS was calculated to quantify the measurement error of an MCS caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. The average Euclidean distance between the target bony landmark measured by each of the CAT & MAUS system and the MCS alone varied from 8.32mm to 16.87mm in gait. This indicates the discrepancy between the MCS measured bony landmark and the actual underlying bony landmark. Moreover, Procrustes analysis was applied to demonstrate that CAT & MAUS reduces the deformation of the body segment shape modeled by markers during motion. The augmented CAT & MAUS system shows its potential to dynamically detect and locate actual underlying bony landmarks, which reduces the MCS measurement error caused by soft tissue artefact during movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The concentration distribution around a growing gas bubble in a bio tissue under the effect of suction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadein, S A

    2014-07-01

    The concentration distribution around a growing nitrogen gas bubble in the blood and other bio tissues of divers who ascend to surface too quickly is obtained by Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) for variant and constant ambient pressure through the decompression process. In this paper, the growing of gas bubbles and concentration distribution under the effect of suction process are studied as a modification of Mohammadein and Mohamed model (zero suction). The growth of gas bubble is affected by ascent rate, tissue diffusivity, initial concentration difference, surface tension and void fraction. Mohammadein and Mohamed model (2010) is obtained as a special case from the present model. Results showed that, the suction process activates the systemic blood circulation and delay the growth of gas bubbles in the bio tissues to avoid the incidence of decompression sickness (DCS). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Cali, Corrado

    2015-07-14

    Advances for application of electron microscopy to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions (3D). From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here, we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room where we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of electron microscopy (EM) preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to observe a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunohistochemical study of PrPSc distribution in neural and extraneural tissues of two cats with feline spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wunderlin Sabina S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two domestic shorthair cats presenting with progressive hind-limb ataxia and increased aggressiveness were necropsied and a post mortem diagnosis of Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE was made. A wide spectrum of tissue samples was collected and evaluated histologically and immunohistologically for the presence of PrPSc. Results Histopathological examination revealed a diffuse vacuolation of the grey matter neuropil with the following areas being most severely affected: corpus geniculatum medialis, thalamus, gyrus dentatus of the hippocampus, corpus striatum, and deep layers of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex as well as in the brain stem. In addition, a diffuse glial reaction involving astrocytes and microglia and intraneuronal vacuolation in a few neurons in the brain stem was present. Heavy PrPSc immunostaining was detected in brain, retina, optic nerve, pars nervosa of the pituitary gland, trigeminal ganglia and small amounts in the myenteric plexus of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and slightly in the medulla of the adrenal gland. Conclusion The PrPSc distribution within the brain was consistent with that described in other FSE-affected cats. The pattern of abnormal PrP in the retina corresponded to that found in a captive cheetah with FSE, in sheep with scrapie and was similar to nvCJD in humans.

  4. Comparative Study of Various Delivery Methods for the Supply of Alpha-Ketoglutarate to the Neural Cells for Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Vishnoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery of growth factors or bioactive molecules plays an important role in tissue engineering, as the duration to which these are supplied can modulate the cell fate. Thus, the delivery method plays an important role, and the same is presented in this work wherein the exogenous supply of alpha-ketoglutarate (α-KG gave better results for fast proliferating cells as compared to delivery by microspheres or microspheres incorporated scaffolds which can be used while culturing slow growing cells. All these studies were performed in two dimensional (2D and three dimensional (3D setups in which chitosan-gelatin-polypyrrole has been used as 3-D scaffolds. Chitosan and gelatin microspheres alone as well as incorporated in the cryogels were characterized. MTT assay done using neuro-2a cell line showed approximately 42% and 70% increment in cellular proliferation when gelatin and chitosan microspheres were added in a 3-D setup, respectively, as compared to the control. Biochemical analysis of ammonia showed 6-fold reductions in ammonia level in a 3-D setup compared to the control. We also studied the synthesis of a neurotransmitter-like glutamate and found that its concentration increased up to 0.25 mg/ml when the microspheres were added exogenously in a 3-D system.

  5. Three-dimensional immersive virtual reality for studying cellular compartments in 3D models from EM preparations of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Corrado; Baghabra, Jumana; Boges, Daniya J; Holst, Glendon R; Kreshuk, Anna; Hamprecht, Fred A; Srinivasan, Madhusudhanan; Lehväslaiho, Heikki; Magistretti, Pierre J

    2016-01-01

    Advances in the application of electron microscopy (EM) to serial imaging are opening doors to new ways of analyzing cellular structure. New and improved algorithms and workflows for manual and semiautomated segmentation allow us to observe the spatial arrangement of the smallest cellular features with unprecedented detail in full three-dimensions. From larger samples, higher complexity models can be generated; however, they pose new challenges to data management and analysis. Here we review some currently available solutions and present our approach in detail. We use the fully immersive virtual reality (VR) environment CAVE (cave automatic virtual environment), a room in which we are able to project a cellular reconstruction and visualize in 3D, to step into a world created with Blender, a free, fully customizable 3D modeling software with NeuroMorph plug-ins for visualization and analysis of EM preparations of brain tissue. Our workflow allows for full and fast reconstructions of volumes of brain neuropil using ilastik, a software tool for semiautomated segmentation of EM stacks. With this visualization environment, we can walk into the model containing neuronal and astrocytic processes to study the spatial distribution of glycogen granules, a major energy source that is selectively stored in astrocytes. The use of CAVE was key to the observation of a nonrandom distribution of glycogen, and led us to develop tools to quantitatively analyze glycogen clustering and proximity to other subcellular features. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Conducting Polymers for Neural Prosthetic and Neural Interface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Neural interfacing devices are an artificial mechanism for restoring or supplementing the function of the nervous system lost as a result of injury or disease. Conducting polymers (CPs) are gaining significant attention due to their capacity to meet the performance criteria of a number of neuronal therapies including recording and stimulating neural activity, the regeneration of neural tissue and the delivery of bioactive molecules for mediating device-tissue interactions. CPs form a flexible platform technology that enables the development of tailored materials for a range of neuronal diagnostic and treatment therapies. In this review the application of CPs for neural prostheses and other neural interfacing devices are discussed, with a specific focus on neural recording, neural stimulation, neural regeneration, and therapeutic drug delivery. PMID:26414302

  7. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender P Dubey

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse.Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i. to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25% of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle.This study reevaluated

  8. Effect of Butler's neural tissue mobilization and Mulligan's bent leg raise on pain and straight leg raise in patients of low back ache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambekar, Neha; Sabnis, Shaila; Phadke, Apoorva; Bedekar, Nilima

    2016-04-01

    Low back ache (LBA) is a common musculoskeletal disorder sometimes associated with a positive limited Straight leg raise (SLR) test. Mulligan's bent leg raise (BLR) and Butler's neural tissue mobilization (NTM) are commonly used techniques for the treatment of low back ache where SLR is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the techniques on pain and limited SLR in patients with LBA. Thirty one patients with LBA with radiculopathy were randomly allocated into 2 groups; BLR [n = 16] NTM [n = 15]. The outcome measures i.e. visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and universal goniometer for measuring SLR range of motion (SROM) were assessed at the baseline, post intervention and after 24 h (follow up). Within group analysis using paired t-test revealed a significant difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment VAS and SROM score(p  0.05). The study showed that both techniques produce immediate improvement in pain and SLR range but this effect was not maintained during the follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural Crest Cell Implantation Restores Enteric Nervous System Function and Alters the Gastrointestinal Transcriptome in Human Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlieve, Christopher R; Fowler, Kathryn L; Thornton, Matthew; Huang, Sha; Hajjali, Ibrahim; Hou, Xiaogang; Grubbs, Brendan; Spence, Jason R; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2017-09-12

    Acquired or congenital disruption in enteric nervous system (ENS) development or function can lead to significant mechanical dysmotility. ENS restoration through cellular transplantation may provide a cure for enteric neuropathies. We have previously generated human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from human intestinal organoids (HIOs). However, HIO-TESI fails to develop an ENS. The purpose of our study is to restore ENS components derived exclusively from hPSCs in HIO-TESI. hPSC-derived enteric neural crest cell (ENCC) supplementation of HIO-TESI establishes submucosal and myenteric ganglia, repopulates various subclasses of neurons, and restores neuroepithelial connections and neuron-dependent contractility and relaxation in ENCC-HIO-TESI. RNA sequencing identified differentially expressed genes involved in neurogenesis, gliogenesis, gastrointestinal tract development, and differentiated epithelial cell types when ENS elements are restored during in vivo development of HIO-TESI. Our findings validate an effective approach to restoring hPSC-derived ENS components in HIO-TESI and may implicate their potential for the treatment of enteric neuropathies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. A constitutive model for mechanical response characterization of pumpkin peel and flesh tissues under tensile and compressive loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirmohammadi, Maryam; Yarlagadda, Prasad K D V; Gu, YuanTong

    2015-08-01

    Enhancing quality of food products and reducing volume of waste during mechanical operations of food industry requires a comprehensive knowledge of material response under loadings. While research has focused on mechanical response of food material, the volume of waste after harvesting and during processing stages is still considerably high in both developing and developed countries. This research aims to develop and evaluate a constitutive model of mechanical response of tough skinned vegetables under postharvest and processing operations. The model focuses on both tensile and compressive properties of pumpkin flesh and peel tissues where the behaviours of these tissues vary depending on various factors such as rheological response and cellular structure. Both elastic and plastic response of tissue were considered in the modelling process and finite elasticity combined with pseudo elasticity theory was applied to generate the model. The outcomes were then validated using the published results of experimental work on pumpkin flesh and peel under uniaxial tensile and compression. The constitutive coefficients for peel under tensile test was α = 25.66 and β = -18.48 Mpa and for flesh α = -5.29 and β = 5.27 Mpa. under compression the constitutive coefficients were α = 4.74 and β = -1.71 Mpa for peel and α = 0.76 and β = -1.86 Mpa for flesh samples. Constitutive curves predicted the values of force precisely and close to the experimental values. The curves were fit for whole stress versus strain curve as well as a section of curve up to bio yield point. The modelling outputs had presented good agreement with the empirical values and the constructive curves exhibited a very similar pattern to the experimental curves. The presented constitutive model can be applied next to other agricultural materials under loading in future.

  11. METOVITAN PREVENTS THE ACCUMULATION OF THIAMINE DIPHOSPHATE OXIDIZED FORM IN RAT TISSUES UNDER IRRADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhomenko Yu. M.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the ability of the drug "Metovitan" to prevent the redox balance disturbance in the tissues and thiamine diphosphate irreversible oxidation upon exposure of ionizing radiation on the body. The rats were subjected to a single exposure of the X-ray therapeutic instrument RUM-17 to create a dose of 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 Gray. Preparation "Metovitan" was administered at a dose of 25 mg per 1 kg body weight for 22–24 h before irradiation. Contents of thiamine diphosphate, reduced SH-groups and reactive oxygen species in blood and brain were determined using previously described methods. It has been shown that the active form of the thiamine diphosphate content in the blood was decreased depending on the doses (from 0.5 to 5.0 Gray. At the same time the content of thiamine diphosphate oxidized form was increased. Furthermore the critical changes occurred in metabolic processes redox state parameters, namely, the level of free SH-groups was reduced and the level of reactive oxygen species was increased. Similar changes were observed in the brain tissue. The Metovitan single administration to the animals the day before irradiation, at 25 mg per 1 kg of body weight dose, promotes the protection of the intracellular thiamine diphosphate and redox status in animal tissues (blood, brain tissue from the negative influence of irradiation (at 0.5; 1.0 Gray doses. These results give reason to recommend the drug for treating of the staff that is involved in the elimination of radioactive contamination. To provide the protection from the higher doses, other scheme of the treatment should be probably recommended.

  12. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicell-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Viral Infectivity and Oxidative Stress and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex threedimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6].

  13. Combining ground-based and airborne EM through Artificial Neural Networks for modelling glacial till under saline groundwater conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Bosch, A.; Siemon, B.

    2012-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods supply data over large areas in a cost-effective way. We used ArtificialNeural Networks (ANN) to classify the geophysical signal into a meaningful geological parameter. By using examples of known relations between ground-based geophysical data (in this case...

  14. Untangling the neurobiology of coping styles in rodents : Towards neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Sietse F; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding

  15. The interaction of force and repetition on musculoskeletal and neural tissue responses and sensorimotor behavior in a rat model of work-related musculoskeletal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the relationship of musculoskeletal risk factors underlying force and repetition on tissue responses in an operant rat model of repetitive reaching and pulling, and if force x repetition interactions were present, indicative of a fatigue failure process. We examined exposure-dependent changes in biochemical, morphological and sensorimotor responses occurring with repeated performance of a handle-pulling task for 12 weeks at one of four repetition and force levels: 1) low repetition with low force, 2) high repetition with low force, 3) low repetition with high force, and 4) high repetition with high force (HRHF). Methods Rats underwent initial training for 4–6 weeks, and then performed one of the tasks for 12 weeks, 2 hours/day, 3 days/week. Reflexive grip strength and sensitivity to touch were assayed as functional outcomes. Flexor digitorum muscles and tendons, forelimb bones, and serum were assayed using ELISA for indicators of inflammation, tissue stress and repair, and bone turnover. Histomorphometry was used to assay macrophage infiltration of tissues, spinal cord substance P changes, and tissue adaptative or degradative changes. MicroCT was used to assay bones for changes in bone quality. Results Several force x repetition interactions were observed for: muscle IL-1alpha and bone IL-1beta; serum TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-1beta; muscle HSP72, a tissue stress and repair protein; histomorphological evidence of tendon and cartilage degradation; serum biomarkers of bone degradation (CTXI) and bone formation (osteocalcin); and morphological evidence of bone adaptation versus resorption. In most cases, performance of the HRHF task induced the greatest tissue degenerative changes, while performance of moderate level tasks induced bone adaptation and a suggestion of muscle adaptation. Both high force tasks induced median nerve macrophage infiltration, spinal cord sensitization (increased substance P), grip strength declines and forepaw

  16. Analysis of sequence variation underlying tissue-specific transcription factor binding and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Karen M; De Gobbi, Marco; Hughes, Jim R; Derry, Christopher J; Ayyub, Helena; Sloane-Stanley, Jacqueline A; Vernimmen, Douglas; Garrick, David; Gibbons, Richard J; Higgs, Douglas R

    2013-08-01

    Although mutations causing monogenic disorders most frequently lie within the affected gene, sequence variation in complex disorders is more commonly found in noncoding regions. Furthermore, recent genome- wide studies have shown that common DNA sequence variants in noncoding regions are associated with "normal" variation in gene expression resulting in cell-specific and/or allele-specific differences. The mechanism by which such sequence variation causes changes in gene expression is largely unknown. We have addressed this by studying natural variation in the binding of key transcription factors (TFs) in the well-defined, purified cell system of erythropoiesis. We have shown that common polymorphisms frequently directly perturb the binding sites of key TFs, and detailed analysis shows how this causes considerable (~10-fold) changes in expression from a single allele in a tissue-specific manner. We also show how a SNP, located at some distance from the recognized TF binding site, may affect the recruitment of a large multiprotein complex and alter the associated chromatin modification of the variant regulatory element. This study illustrates the principles by which common sequence variation may cause changes in tissue-specific gene expression, and suggests that such variation may underlie an individual's propensity to develop complex human genetic diseases. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  17. Integrin β1 Gene Therapy Enhances in Vitro Creation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Under Periodic Mechanical Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Liang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Periodic mechanical stress activates integrin β1-initiated signal pathways to promote chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. Integrin β1 overexpression has been demonstrated to play important roles in improving the activities and functions of several non-chondrocytic cell types. Therefore, in the current study, we evaluated the effects of integrin β1 up-regulation on periodic mechanical stress-induced chondrocyte proliferation, matrix synthesis and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in chondrocyte monolayer culture, and evaluated the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage constructed in vitro under periodic mechanical stress combined with integrin β1 up-regulation. Methods and Results: Our results revealed that under periodic mechanical stress, pre-treatment with integrin β1-wild type vector significantly enhanced chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis and promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation in comparison to mock transfectants. Furthermore, when chondrocytes were seeded in PLGA scaffolds, more accumulated GAG and type II collagen tissue were detected after Lv-integrin β1 transfection compared with sham controls exposed to periodic mechanical stress. In contrast, in the Lv-shRNA-integrin β1 group, the opposite results were observed. Conclusion: Our findings collectively suggest that in addition to periodic mechanical stress, integrin β1 up-regulation in chondrocytes could further improve the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage.

  18. 1D-FALCON: Accelerating Deep Convolutional Neural Network Inference by Co-optimization of Models and Underlying Arithmetic Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Maji, PP; Mullins, R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which are at the heart of many new emerging applications, achieve remarkable performance in audio and visual recognition tasks, at the expense of high computational complexity, limiting their deployability. In modern CNNs, convolutional layers mostly consume 90% of the processing time during a forward inference and acceleration of these layers are of great research and commercial interest. In this paper, we examine the effects of co-optimizing intern...

  19. Age related changes in the bone tissue under conditions of hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrushnyak, E. P.; Suslov, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    Microroentgenography of nine young people, aged 24-29, before and after hypokinesia (16-37 days strict bed rest), showed that the heel bone density of those with initially high bone density generally decreased and that of those with initially low bone density generally increased. X-ray structural analysis of the femurs of 25 corpses of accidentally killed healthy people, aged 18-70, data are presented and discussed, with the conclusion that the bone hydroxyapatite crystal structure stabilizes by ages 20 to 25, is stable from ages 25 to 60 and decreases in density after age 60. It is concluded that bone tissue structure changes, both with age, and in a comparatively short time in hypokinesia.

  20. Thermal Damage Analysis in Biological Tissues Under Optical Irradiation: Application to the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, Félix; Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Solana-Quirós, José Ramón; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2009-07-01

    The use of optical sources in medical praxis is increasing nowadays. In this study, different approaches using thermo-optical principles that allow us to predict thermal damage in irradiated tissues are analyzed. Optical propagation is studied by means of the radiation transport theory (RTT) equation, solved via a Monte Carlo analysis. Data obtained are included in a bio-heat equation, solved via a numerical finite difference approach. Optothermal properties are considered for the model to be accurate and reliable. Thermal distribution is calculated as a function of optical source parameters, mainly optical irradiance, wavelength and exposition time. Two thermal damage models, the cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM) 43 °C approach and the Arrhenius analysis, are used. The former is appropriate when dealing with dosimetry considerations at constant temperature. The latter is adequate to predict thermal damage with arbitrary temperature time dependence. Both models are applied and compared for the particular application of skin thermotherapy irradiation.

  1. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  2. Serotonin 2A Receptor Signaling Underlies LSD-induced Alteration of the Neural Response to Dynamic Changes in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Preller, Katrin H; Herdener, Marcus; Janata, Petr; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-09-28

    Classic psychedelic drugs (serotonin 2A, or 5HT2A, receptor agonists) have notable effects on music listening. In the current report, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was collected during music listening in 25 healthy adults after administration of placebo, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and LSD pretreated with the 5HT2A antagonist ketanserin, to investigate the role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in the neural response to the time-varying tonal structure of music. Tonality-tracking analysis of BOLD data revealed that 5HT2A receptor signaling alters the neural response to music in brain regions supporting basic and higher-level musical and auditory processing, and areas involved in memory, emotion, and self-referential processing. This suggests a critical role of 5HT2A receptor signaling in supporting the neural tracking of dynamic tonal structure in music, as well as in supporting the associated increases in emotionality, connectedness, and meaningfulness in response to music that are commonly observed after the administration of LSD and other psychedelics. Together, these findings inform the neuropsychopharmacology of music perception and cognition, meaningful music listening experiences, and altered perception of music during psychedelic experiences. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Watanabe

    Full Text Available Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G. Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  4. Statistical model for the mechanical behavior of the tissue engineering non-woven fibrous matrices under large deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Pal, Anupam

    2014-09-01

    The fibrous matrices are widely used as scaffolds for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues due to their structural and mechanical similarities with the fibrous components of the extracellular matrix. These scaffolds not only provide the appropriate microenvironment for the residing cells but also act as medium for the transmission of the mechanical stimuli, essential for the tissue regeneration, from macroscopic scale of the scaffolds to the microscopic scale of cells. The requirement of the mechanical loading for the tissue regeneration requires the fibrous scaffolds to be able to sustain the complex three-dimensional mechanical loading conditions. In order to gain insight into the mechanical behavior of the fibrous matrices under large amount of elongation as well as shear, a statistical model has been formulated to study the macroscopic mechanical behavior of the electrospun fibrous matrix and the transmission of the mechanical stimuli from scaffolds to the cells via the constituting fibers. The study establishes the load-deformation relationships for the fibrous matrices for different structural parameters. It also quantifies the changes in the fiber arrangement and tension generated in the fibers with the deformation of the matrix. The model reveals that the tension generated in the fibers on matrix deformation is not homogeneous and hence the cells located in different regions of the fibrous scaffold might experience different mechanical stimuli. The mechanical response of fibrous matrices was also found to be dependent on the aspect ratio of the matrix. Therefore, the model establishes a structure-mechanics interdependence of the fibrous matrices under large deformation, which can be utilized in identifying the appropriate structure and external mechanical loading conditions for the regeneration of load-bearing tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Open-air multispectral fluorescence-guided surgery platform for intraoperative detection of malignant tissue under ambient lighting conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrooz, Ali; Vasquez, Kristine O.; Waterman, Peter; Meganck, Jeff; Peterson, Jeffrey D.; Miller, Peter; Kempner, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Intraoperative resection of tumors currently relies upon the surgeon's ability to visually locate and palpate tumor nodules. Undetected residual malignant tissue often results in the need for additional treatment or surgical intervention. The Solaris platform is a multispectral open-air fluorescence imaging system designed for translational fluorescence-guided surgery. Solaris supports video-rate imaging in four fixed fluorescence channels ranging from visible to near infrared, and a multispectral channel equipped with a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) for multispectral image acquisition (520-620 nm). Identification of tumor margins using reagents emitting in the visible spectrum (400-650 nm), such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), present challenges considering the presence of auto-fluorescence from tissue and food in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To overcome this, Solaris acquires LCTF-based multispectral images, and by applying an automated spectral unmixing algorithm to the data, separates reagent fluorescence from tissue and food auto-fluorescence. The unmixing algorithm uses vertex component analysis to automatically extract the primary pure spectra, and resolves the reagent fluorescent signal using non-negative least squares. For validation, intraoperative in vivo studies were carried out in tumor-bearing rodents injected with FITC-dextran reagent that is primarily residing in malignant tissue 24 hours post injection. In the absence of unmixing, fluorescence from tumors is not distinguishable from that of surrounding tissue. Upon spectral unmixing, the FITC-labeled malignant regions become well defined and detectable. The results of these studies substantiate the multispectral power of Solaris in resolving FITC-based agent signal in deep tumor masses, under ambient and surgical light, and enhancing the ability to surgically resect them.

  6. A two-step convolutional neural network based computer-aided detection scheme for automatically segmenting adipose tissue volume depicting on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Qiu, Yuchen; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Accurately assessment of adipose tissue volume inside a human body plays an important role in predicting disease or cancer risk, diagnosis and prognosis. In order to overcome limitation of using only one subjectively selected CT image slice to estimate size of fat areas, this study aims to develop and test a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme based on deep learning technique to automatically segment subcutaneous fat areas (SFA) and visceral fat areas (VFA) depicting on volumetric CT images. A retrospectively collected CT image dataset was divided into two independent training and testing groups. The proposed CAD framework consisted of two steps with two convolution neural networks (CNNs) namely, Selection-CNN and Segmentation-CNN. The first CNN was trained using 2,240 CT slices to select abdominal CT slices depicting SFA and VFA. The second CNN was trained with 84,000pixel patches and applied to the selected CT slices to identify fat-related pixels and assign them into SFA and VFA classes. Comparing to the manual CT slice selection and fat pixel segmentation results, the accuracy of CT slice selection using the Selection-CNN yielded 95.8%, while the accuracy of fat pixel segmentation using the Segmentation-CNN was 96.8%. This study demonstrated the feasibility of applying a new deep learning based CAD scheme to automatically recognize abdominal section of human body from CT scans and segment SFA and VFA from volumetric CT data with high accuracy or agreement with the manual segmentation results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Uniform tissues engineered by seeding and culturing cells in 3D scaffolds under perfusion at defined oxygen tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, D; Stroebel, S; Jakob, M; John, G T; Martin, I

    In this work, we assessed whether culture of uniformly seeded chondrocytes under direct perfusion, which supplies the cells with normoxic oxygen levels, can maintain a uniform distribution of viable cells throughout porous scaffolds several milimeters in thickness, and support the development of uniform tissue grafts. An integrated bioreactor system was first developed to streamline the steps of perfusion cell seeding of porous scaffolds and perfusion culture of the cell-seeded scaffolds. Oxygen tensions in perfused constructs were monitored by in-line oxygen sensors incorporated at the construct inlet and outlet. Adult human articular chondrocytes were perfusion-seeded into 4.5 mm thick foam scaffolds at a rate of 1 mm/s. Cell-seeded foams were then either cultured statically in dishes or further cultured under perfusion at a rate of 100 microm/s for 2 weeks. Following perfusion seeding, viable cells were uniformly distributed throughout the foams. Constructs subsequently cultured statically were highly heterogeneous, with cells and matrix concentrated at the construct periphery. In contrast, constructs cultured under perfusion were highly homogeneous, with uniform distributions of cells and matrix. Oxygen tensions of the perfused medium were maintained near normoxic levels (inlet congruent with 20%, outlet > 15%) at all times of culture. We have demonstrated that perfusion culture of cells seeded uniformly within porous scaffolds, at a flow rate maintaining a homogeneous oxygen supply, supports the development of uniform engineering tissue grafts of clinically relevant thicknesses.

  8. Viscoelastic behaviour of hydrogel-based composites for tissue engineering under mechanical load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocen, Rok; Gasik, Michael; Gantar, Ana; Novak, Saša

    2017-03-06

    Along with biocompatibility, bioinductivity and appropriate biodegradation, mechanical properties are also of crucial importance for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels, such as gellan gum (GG), are usually soft materials, which may benefit from the incorporation of inorganic particles, e.g. bioactive glass, not only due to the acquired bioactivity, but also due to improved mechanical properties. They exhibit complex viscoelastic properties, which can be evaluated in various ways. In this work, to reliably evaluate the effect of the bioactive glass (BAG) addition on viscoelastic properties of the composite hydrogel, we employed and compared the three most commonly used techniques, analyzing their advantages and limitations: monotonic uniaxial unconfined compression, small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Creep and small amplitude dynamic strain-controlled tests in DMA are suggested as the best ways for the characterization of mechanical properties of hydrogel composites, whereas the SAOS rheology is more useful for studying the hydrogel's processing kinetics, as it does not induce volumetric changes even at very high strains. Overall, the results confirmed a beneficial effect of BAG (nano)particles on the elastic modulus of the GG-BAG composite hydrogel. The Young's modulus of 6.6 ± 0.8 kPa for the GG hydrogel increased by two orders of magnitude after the addition of 2 wt.% BAG particles (500-800 kPa).

  9. Substrate-Mediated Laser Ablation under Ambient Conditions for Spatially-Resolved Tissue Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2015-12-17

    Numerous applications of ambient Mass Spectrometry (MS) have been demonstrated over the past decade. They promoted the emergence of various micro-sampling techniques such as Laser Ablation/Droplet Capture (LADC). LADC consists in the ablation of analytes from a surface and their subsequent capture in a solvent droplet which can then be analyzed by MS. LADC is thus generally performed in the UV or IR range, using a wavelength at which analytes or the matrix absorb. In this work, we explore the potential of visible range LADC (532 nm) as a micro-sampling technology for large-scale proteomics analyses. We demonstrate that biomolecule analyses using 532 nm LADC are possible, despite the low absorbance of biomolecules at this wavelength. This is due to the preponderance of an indirect substrate-mediated ablation mechanism at low laser energy which contrasts with the conventional direct ablation driven by sample absorption. Using our custom LADC system and taking advantage of this substrate-mediated ablation mechanism, we were able to perform large-scale proteomic analyses of micro-sampled tissue sections and demonstrated the possible identification of proteins with relevant biological functions. Consequently, the 532 nm LADC technique offers a new tool for biological and clinical applications.

  10. Substrate-Mediated Laser Ablation under Ambient Conditions for Spatially-Resolved Tissue Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatou, Benoit; Wisztorski, Maxence; Focsa, Cristian; Salzet, Michel; Ziskind, Michael; Fournier, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Numerous applications of ambient Mass Spectrometry (MS) have been demonstrated over the past decade. They promoted the emergence of various micro-sampling techniques such as Laser Ablation/Droplet Capture (LADC). LADC consists in the ablation of analytes from a surface and their subsequent capture in a solvent droplet which can then be analyzed by MS. LADC is thus generally performed in the UV or IR range, using a wavelength at which analytes or the matrix absorb. In this work, we explore the potential of visible range LADC (532 nm) as a micro-sampling technology for large-scale proteomics analyses. We demonstrate that biomolecule analyses using 532 nm LADC are possible, despite the low absorbance of biomolecules at this wavelength. This is due to the preponderance of an indirect substrate-mediated ablation mechanism at low laser energy which contrasts with the conventional direct ablation driven by sample absorption. Using our custom LADC system and taking advantage of this substrate-mediated ablation mechanism, we were able to perform large-scale proteomic analyses of micro-sampled tissue sections and demonstrated the possible identification of proteins with relevant biological functions. Consequently, the 532 nm LADC technique offers a new tool for biological and clinical applications. PMID:26674367

  11. Changes in bone tissue under conditions of hypokinesia and in connection with age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podrushnyak, E. P.; Suslov, E. I.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray micrography was used to study the optical density of the blackening of X-ray photographs made of five bones in 9 young people (ages 24 to 29) before and after strict bed rest for 16 to 37 days. Photometric studies of the X-ray film determined the relative concentration of bone structure before and after hypokinesia. In addition, the bone tissues of 25 cadavers of practically healthy individuals (aged 18 to 70) who died from injuries were investigated using X-ray structural analysis. Results show that the reaction to the state of hypokinesia is not uniform in different individuals and is quite often directly reversed. It was established that pronounced osteoporosis can be found in a relatively short time after conditions of hypokinesia in healthy young individuals. Results show that the stabilization of the crystalline structure of hydroxyapatite, especially its crystal formation, is finished by the age of 20 to 25. From 25 to 60, the crystal lattice remains in stable condition but X-ray analysis shows a reduction in the hydroxyapatite density.

  12. Carbon Fluxes between Primary Metabolism and Phenolic Pathway in Plant Tissues under Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Caretto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants synthesize an amazing diversity of phenolic secondary metabolites. Phenolics are defined secondary metabolites or natural products because, originally, they were considered not essential for plant growth and development. Plant phenolics, like other natural compounds, provide the plant with specific adaptations to changing environmental conditions and, therefore, they are essential for plant defense mechanisms. Plant defensive traits are costly for plants due to the energy drain from growth toward defensive metabolite production. Being limited with environmental resources, plants have to decide how allocate these resources to various competing functions. This decision brings about trade-offs, i.e., promoting some functions by neglecting others as an inverse relationship. Many studies have been carried out in order to link an evaluation of plant performance (in terms of growth rate with levels of defense-related metabolites. Available results suggest that environmental stresses and stress-induced phenolics could be linked by a transduction pathway that involves: (i the proline redox cycle; (ii the stimulated oxidative pentose phosphate pathway; and, in turn, (iii the reduced growth of plant tissues.

  13. Laser cutting of bone tissue under bulk water with a pulsed ps-laser at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulea, Cristian-Alexander; Caron, Jan; Gehlich, Nils; Lenenbach, Achim; Noll, Reinhard; Loosen, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Hard-tissue ablation was already investigated for a broad variety of pulsed laser systems, which cover almost the entire range of available wavelengths and pulse parameters. Most effective in hard-tissue ablation are Er:YAG and CO2 lasers, both utilizing the effect of absorption of infrared wavelengths by water and so-called explosive vaporization, when a thin water film or water-air spray is supplied. The typical flow rates and the water layer thicknesses are too low for surgical applications where bleeding occurs and wound flushing is necessary. We studied a 20 W ps-laser with 532 nm wavelength and a pulse energy of 1 mJ to effectively ablate bones that are submerged 14 mm under water. For these laser parameters, the plasma-mediated ablation mechanism is dominant. Simulations based on the blow-off model predict the cut depth and cross-sectional shape of the incision. The model is modified considering the cross section of the Gaussian beam, the incident angle, and reflections. The ablation rate amounts to 0.2 mm3/s, corresponding to an increase by at least 50% of the highest values published so far for ultrashort laser ablation of hard tissue.

  14. Concise Review: Reprogramming, Behind the Scenes: Noncanonical Neural Stem Cell Signaling Pathways Reveal New, Unseen Regulators of Tissue Plasticity With Therapeutic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Steven W; Chenoweth, Josh G; Colantuoni, Carlo; Masjkur, Jimmy; Chrousos, George; Bornstein, Stefan R; McKay, Ronald D; Androutsellis-Theotokis, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Interest is great in the new molecular concepts that explain, at the level of signal transduction, the process of reprogramming. Usually, transcription factors with developmental importance are used, but these approaches give limited information on the signaling networks involved, which could reveal new therapeutic opportunities. Recent findings involving reprogramming by genetic means and soluble factors with well-studied downstream signaling mechanisms, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and hairy and enhancer of split 3 (Hes3), shed new light into the molecular mechanisms that might be involved. We examine the appropriateness of common culture systems and their ability to reveal unusual (noncanonical) signal transduction pathways that actually operate in vivo. We then discuss such novel pathways and their importance in various plastic cell types, culminating in their emerging roles in reprogramming mechanisms. We also discuss a number of reprogramming paradigms (mouse induced pluripotent stem cells, direct conversion to neural stem cells, and in vivo conversion of acinar cells to β-like cells). Specifically for acinar-to-β-cell reprogramming paradigms, we discuss the common view of the underlying mechanism (involving the Janus kinase-STAT pathway that leads to STAT3-tyrosine phosphorylation) and present alternative interpretations that implicate STAT3-serine phosphorylation alone or serine and tyrosine phosphorylation occurring in sequential order. The implications for drug design and therapy are important given that different phosphorylation sites on STAT3 intercept different signaling pathways. We introduce a new molecular perspective in the field of reprogramming with broad implications in basic, biotechnological, and translational research. Reprogramming is a powerful approach to change cell identity, with implications in both basic and applied biology. Most efforts involve the forced expression of key transcription

  15. Evaluation of alginate hydrogels under in vivo-like bioreactor conditions for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovska, Jasmina; Bugarski, Branko; Obradovic, Bojana

    2010-10-01

    Alginate hydrogels in forms of discs and packed beds of microbeads (~800 μm) were tested in a novel bioreactor at 10% strain using two regimes: at a loading rate of 337.5 μm/s and at sequential increments of 50 μm displacement every 30 min. Compressive strength increased with the increase in alginate concentration (1.5 vs. 2% w/w) and the content of guluronic residues (38.5 vs. 67%). Packed beds of microbeads exhibited significantly higher (~1.5-3.4 fold) compression moduli than the respective discs indicating the effects of gel form and entrapped water. Short-term cultivation of microbeads with immobilized bovine calf chondrocytes (1.5% w/w, 33 × 10(6) cells/ml) under biomimetic conditions (dynamic compression: 1 h on/1 h off, 0.42 Hz, 10% strain) resulted in cell proliferation and bed compaction, so that the compression modulus slightly increased. Thus, the novel bioreactor demonstrated advantages in evaluation of biomaterial properties and cell-biomaterial interactions under in vivo-like settings.

  16. Morphogenesis and tissue flow in Tanzânia grass under different forage allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify effective strategies for grazing managing of Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzãnia, under continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, based on assessments of their morphogenetic and structural characteristics. Four forage allowances: 3, 7, 11, and 15% BW were studied. A randomized block design, with three replicates was used, with split plot, where FA 4 as main plots and subplots were established cages. The number of basal tillers per cage protected and unprotected, both remaining as the new, decreased with FA. The unprotected tillers had higher numbers than cage protected. The weight of tillers and roots showed curvilinear response function in the FA. There was no effect of period at tillering (P> 0.05 of Tanzania grass. The total length of sheets, protected or not by exclusion cage and ligule height of tillers per cage had unprotected quadratic fit function OF. The ligule height protected tillers showed linear response function in the OF. The total number of leaves, expanded and expanding, tiller protected or not by exclusion cage, showed no differences between the FA and cage exclusion. The use of forage allowance of 11% of body weight for tanzania grass managed under continuous grazing and variable stocking rate, seems to be more sustainable

  17. Development of the single nodular VX-2 carcinoma model in rabbit liver: tissue chip implantation under ultrasonographic guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung Jun; Shim, Hyung Jin; Kwak, Byung Kook; Lee, Jong Beom; Lee, Kang Hyuk; Ryu, Seung Hun; Kim, Mi Hyun; Kwak, Seo hyun [Chungang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Hyun [Hyun-Dai Radiology Clinic (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-01-01

    To implant tissue chips in New Zealand rabbits, and thus reduce the frequency with which scattered VX2 carcinoma nodures and early metastasis develop in these animals.VX2-carcinoma tissue chips of two different sizes were implanted under ultrasonographic guidance. In each of 12 New Zealand rabbits (group1), there 1-mm tissue chips were implanted in the liver using an 18-gauge needle, and in the same way, one 3-mm chip with an added gelfoam pellet was implanted in the proximal lumen of the liver of each of ten other New Zealand rabbits (group 2). Three weeks after implantation, the animals underwent dval-phase CT scanning and were sacrificed, and the Number and size of tumor nodures, and metastasis were evaluated either macro-or microscopically. In ten rabbits in group I, a total of 21 nodules (16 in the liver, 5 in the peritoneal wall) were observed, which in nine rabbits in group 2, a total of ten nodures-all in the liver-were present. CT scans depicted tumor nodures in 50% of group-I rabbits, and in 29% those in group 2. Mean tumor diameter was 12{+-}9 mm in group 1 and 6.4{+-} mm in group 2. Histologic examination indicated the presence of nodular VX2 carcinoma, with varying degrees of central necrosis, a feature more prominent in group 2. To provide a well-localized tumor nodure in rabbit liver, tissue chip implantation of VX2 carcinoma, especially with added gelfoam, is a good alternative to intraparenchymal injection of tumor suspension.

  18. [Features of lung tissue cell membrane lipid composition under acute emotional stress in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netiukhaĭlo, L G; Tarasenko, L M

    2001-01-01

    The lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membrane in rats which have been under the acute emotional pain stress action is studied. These results are compared with the control group of animals. It is shown that at acute stress the changes of lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membranes are manifested in decrease the phospholipids and increase of cholesterol levels. The correlation of phospholipids/cholesterol in plasmic membranes in the lungs decreases at stress. At the same time the decrease of triglyceroles and diglyceroles contents is observed as well as the increase of fat acids' number. The changes that take place in the lipid contents of the lung plasmatic membranes at acute stress can play an essential role in the mechanism of cell damage development.

  19. Prediction of hydrogen concentration in nuclear power plant containment under severe accidents using cascaded fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun, E-mail: magyna@chosun.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • We present a hydrogen-concentration prediction method in an NPP containment. • The cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) is used in this prediction model. • The CFNN model is much better than the existing FNN model. • This prediction can help prevent severe accidents in NPP due to hydrogen explosion. - Abstract: Recently, severe accidents in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have attracted worldwide interest since the Fukushima accident. If the hydrogen concentration in an NPP containment is increased above 4% in atmospheric pressure, hydrogen combustion will likely occur. Therefore, the hydrogen concentration must be kept below 4%. This study presents the prediction of hydrogen concentration using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model was developed using data on severe accidents in NPPs. The data were obtained by numerically simulating the accident scenarios using the MAAP4 code for optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The root-mean-square error level predicted by the CFNN model is below approximately 5%. It was confirmed that the CFNN model could accurately predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment. If NPP operators can predict the hydrogen concentration in the containment using the CFNN model, this prediction can assist them in preventing a hydrogen explosion.

  20. Social pain and social gain in the adolescent brain: A common neural circuitry underlying both positive and negative social evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Tim; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Mobbs, Dean; Schweizer, Susanne; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Dunn, Barnaby; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Stretton, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Social interaction inherently involves the subjective evaluation of cues salient to social inclusion and exclusion. Testifying to the importance of such social cues, parts of the neural system dedicated to the detection of physical pain, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI), have been shown to be equally sensitive to the detection of social pain experienced after social exclusion. However, recent work suggests that this dACC-AI matrix may index any socially pertinent information. We directly tested the hypothesis that the dACC-AI would respond to cues of both inclusion and exclusion, using a novel social feedback fMRI paradigm in a population-derived sample of adolescents. We show that the dACC and left AI are commonly activated by feedback cues of inclusion and exclusion. Our findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the dACC-AI network as a neural alarm system restricted within the social domain to the processing of signals of exclusion require significant revision. PMID:28169323

  1. Untangling the neurobiology of coping styles in rodents: Towards neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sietse F; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2017-03-01

    Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding of coping style variation is fundamental for biobehavioral neurosciences in probing individual disease susceptibility. This review outlines individual differences in trait-aggressiveness as an adaptive component of the natural sociobiology of rats and mice, and highlights that these reflect the general style of coping that varies from proactive (aggressive) to reactive (docile). We propose that this qualitative coping style can be disentangled into multiple quantitative behavioral domains, e.g., flexibility/impulse control, emotional reactivity and harm avoidance/reward processing, that each are encoded into selective neural circuitries. Since functioning of all these brain circuitries rely on fine-tuned serotonin signaling, autoinhibitory control mechanisms of serotonergic neuron (re)activity are crucial in orchestrating general coping style. Untangling the precise neuromolecular mechanisms of different coping styles will provide a roadmap for developing better therapeutic strategies of stress-related diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combined Use of Tissue Morphology, Neural Network Analysis of Chromatin Texture and Clinical Variables to Predict Prostate Cancer Agressiveness from Biopsy Water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partin, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To combine clinical, serum, pathologic and computer derived information into an artificial neural network to develop/validate a model to predict prostate cancer tumor aggressiveness in both a...

  3. Combined Use of Tissue Morphology, Neural Network Analysis of Chromatin Texture & Clinical Variables to Predict Prostate Cancer Agressiveness from Biopsy Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Partin, Alan

    1999-01-01

    the purpose of this report is to combine clinical, serum, pathological and computer derived information into an artificial neural network to develop/validate a model to predict prostate cancer tumor...

  4. States versus rewards: dissociable neural prediction error signals underlying model-based and model-free reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläscher, Jan; Daw, Nathaniel; Dayan, Peter; O'Doherty, John P

    2010-05-27

    Reinforcement learning (RL) uses sequential experience with situations ("states") and outcomes to assess actions. Whereas model-free RL uses this experience directly, in the form of a reward prediction error (RPE), model-based RL uses it indirectly, building a model of the state transition and outcome structure of the environment, and evaluating actions by searching this model. A state prediction error (SPE) plays a central role, reporting discrepancies between the current model and the observed state transitions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans solving a probabilistic Markov decision task, we found the neural signature of an SPE in the intraparietal sulcus and lateral prefrontal cortex, in addition to the previously well-characterized RPE in the ventral striatum. This finding supports the existence of two unique forms of learning signal in humans, which may form the basis of distinct computational strategies for guiding behavior. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Melanoma Spheroids Grown Under Neural Crest Cell Conditions Are Highly Plastic Migratory/Invasive Tumor Cells Endowed with Immunomodulator Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalou, Claude; Lauden, Laura; Michel, Laurence; de la Grange, Pierre; Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Aoudjit, Fawzi; Charron, Dominique; Alcaide-Loridan, Catherine; Al-Daccak, Reem

    2011-01-01

    Background The aggressiveness of melanoma tumors is likely to rely on their well-recognized heterogeneity and plasticity. Melanoma comprises multi-subpopulations of cancer cells some of which may possess stem cell-like properties. Although useful, the sphere-formation assay to identify stem cell-like or tumor initiating cell subpopulations in melanoma has been challenged, and it is unclear if this model can predict a functional phenotype associated with aggressive tumor cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the molecular and functional phenotypes of melanoma spheroids formed in neural crest cell medium. Whether from metastatic or advanced primary tumors, spheroid cells expressed melanoma-associated markers. They displayed higher capacity to differentiate along mesenchymal lineages and enhanced expression of SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, and/or OCT4 transcription factors, but not enhanced self-renewal or tumorigenicity when compared to their adherent counterparts. Gene expression profiling attributed a neural crest cell signature to these spheroids and indicated that a migratory/invasive and immune-function modulating program could be associated with these cells. In vitro assays confirmed that spheroids display enhanced migratory/invasive capacities. In immune activation assays, spheroid cells elicited a poorer allogenic response from immune cells and inhibited mitogen-dependent T cells activation and proliferation more efficiently than their adherent counterparts. Our findings reveal a novel immune-modulator function of melanoma spheroids and suggest specific roles for spheroids in invasion and in evasion of antitumor immunity. Conclusion/Significance The association of a more plastic, invasive and evasive, thus a more aggressive tumor phenotype with melanoma spheroids reveals a previously unrecognized aspect of tumor cells expanded as spheroid cultures. While of limited efficiency for melanoma initiating cell identification, our melanoma spheroid model predicted

  6. Tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of musa (banana and plantain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, N.; De Langhe, E.

    1985-01-01

    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and Ba (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15/sup 0/ C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature. 20 references.

  7. [Mechanisms of nitroxide-ergic dysregulation in tissues of parodontium in rats under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Богданов, Алексей В; Гришко, Юлия М; Костенко, Виталий А

    intake of inorganic nitrates is typically accompanied by production of excessive amount of nitric oxide (NO), which level is maintained by the mechanism of autoregulation known as the NO cycle. Hypothetically, this process may be disrupted with fluorides that are able to suppress arginase pathway of L-arginine metabolism, which competes with NO-synthase pathway. to study mechanisms of disregulation of oxidative (NO-synthase) and non-oxidative (arginase) metabolic pathways of L-arginine in the tissues of periodontium under combined excessive sodium nitrate and fluoride intake. these investigations were carried out on 90 white Wistar rats. Homogenates of parodontium soft tissues were used to assess spectrophotometrically the total activities of NO-synthase (NOS), arginase, ornithine decarboxylase as well as the peroxynitrite concentration. typical for the isolated sodium nitrate administration inhibition of total NOS activity varies under combined administration of nitrate and sodium fluoride and is usually manifested by its hyperactivation that is accompanied by an increase in peroxynitrite concentration. At this time arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activity is observed to be substantially reduced. The administration of aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor, (20 mg/kg, twice a week during the experiment) increases arginase and ornithine decarboxylase activities, and the administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, twice a week) results in the increase of arginase activity. The administration of L-selenomethionine, a peroxynitrite scavenger (3 mg/kg, twice a week), and JSH-23 (4-methyl-N-(3-phenylpropyl) benzene-1,2-diamine, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation (1 mg/kg, twice a week) for modeling binary nitrate and fluoride intoxication reduces the total concentration of NOS activity and peroxynitrite concentration, and increases ornithine decarboxylase activity. the combined effect of nitrate and sodium fluoride for 30 days leads to disregulatory increased activity of NO

  8. System and method for controlling depth of imaging in tissues using fluorescence microscopy under ultraviolet excitation following staining with fluorescing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Stavros; Levenson, Richard

    2017-04-18

    The present disclosure relates to a method for analyzing tissue specimens. In one implementation the method involves obtaining a tissue sample and exposing the sample to one or more fluorophores as contrast agents to enhance contrast of subcellular compartments of the tissue sample. The tissue sample is illuminated by an ultraviolet (UV) light having a wavelength between about 200 nm to about 400 nm, with the wavelength being selected to result in penetration to only a specified depth below a surface of the tissue sample. Inter-image operations between images acquired under different imaging parameters allow for improvement of the image quality via removal of unwanted image components. A microscope may be used to image the tissue sample and provide the image to an image acquisition system that makes use of a camera. The image acquisition system may create a corresponding image that is transmitted to a display system for processing and display.

  9. Risk-taking and social exclusion in adolescence: neural mechanisms underlying peer influences on decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Shannon J; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; Moore, William E; Pfeifer, Jennifer H

    2013-11-15

    Social exclusion and risk-taking are both common experiences of concern in adolescence, yet little is known about how the two may be related at behavioral or neural levels. In this fMRI study, adolescents (N=27, 14 male, 14-17years-old) completed a series of tasks in the scanner assessing risky decision-making before and after an episode of social exclusion. In this particular context, exclusion was associated with greater behavioral risk-taking among adolescents with low self-reported resistance to peer influence (RPI). When making risky decisions after social exclusion, adolescents who had lower RPI exhibited higher levels of activity in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), and this response in rTPJ was a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. Lower RPI was also associated with lower levels of activity in lPFC during crashes following social exclusion, but unlike rTPJ this response in lPFC was not a significant mediator of the relationship between RPI and greater risk-taking after social exclusion. The results suggest that mentalizing and/or attentional mechanisms have a unique direct effect on adolescents' vulnerability to peer influence on risk-taking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced functional integration and segregation of distributed neural systems underlying social and emotional information processing in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudie, Jeffrey D; Shehzad, Zarrar; Hernandez, Leanna M; Colich, Natalie L; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Iacoboni, Marco; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-05-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to altered communication between brain regions. Here, we present findings showing that ASD is characterized by a pattern of reduced functional integration as well as reduced segregation of large-scale brain networks. Twenty-three children with ASD and 25 typically developing matched controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while passively viewing emotional face expressions. We examined whole-brain functional connectivity of two brain structures previously implicated in emotional face processing in autism: the amygdala bilaterally and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus (rIFGpo). In the ASD group, we observed reduced functional integration (i.e., less long-range connectivity) between amygdala and secondary visual areas, as well as reduced segregation between amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. For the rIFGpo seed, we observed reduced functional integration with parietal cortex and increased integration with right frontal cortex as well as right nucleus accumbens. Finally, we observed reduced segregation between rIFGpo and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. We propose that a systems-level approach-whereby the integration and segregation of large-scale brain networks in ASD is examined in relation to typical development-may provide a more detailed characterization of the neural basis of ASD.

  11. Combining ground-based and airborne EM through Artificial Neural Networks for modelling glacial till under saline groundwater conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Gunnink

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Airborne electromagnetic (AEM methods supply data over large areas in a cost-effective way. We used Artificial Neural Networks (ANN to classify the geophysical signal into a meaningful geological parameter. By using examples of known relations between ground-based geophysical data (in this case electrical conductivity, EC, from electrical cone penetration tests and geological parameters (presence of glacial till, we extracted learning rules that could be applied to map the presence of a glacial till using the EC profiles from the airborne EM data. The saline groundwater in the area was obscuring the EC signal from the till but by using ANN we were able to extract subtle and often non-linear, relations in EC that were representative of the presence of the till. The ANN results were interpreted as the probability of having till and showed a good agreement with drilling data. The glacial till is acting as a layer that inhibits groundwater flow, due to its high clay-content, and is therefore an important layer in hydrogeological modelling and for predicting the effects of climate change on groundwater quantity and quality.

  12. Changes of vessel-cells complex in zones of adaptive remodeling of the bone tissue under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, N.; Oganov, V.; Nosova, L.

    The development and differentiation of osteogenic cells in organism happen in closely topographical and functional connection with blood capillaries. We formerly proofed, that small-differentiated cells, which are in the population of perivascular cells are osteogenic cells -precursors . At the present time it is actually to clear up, how these biostructures react on conditions of less of biomechanical load on skeleton bones. We researched peculiarities of blood-bed structure and perivascular cells in metaphises of thighbones and tibial bones in rats, which were onboard the American space station SLS-2 and in experiments of modeling hypokinesia. There were used methods of cytochemistry, histology and electron microscopy. We established, that under the support and functional load decreasing in zones of bones adaptive remodeling, comparatively to control, on histosections the own volume of sinusoid capillaries reduces. The small vessels prevail here. The spaces of sinusoid capillaries are limited by 1 2 cells of the endothelia. Endotheliocytes in- general have the typical ultrastructure. Basal membranes are expressed not-distinctly. Perivascular cells don't create the unbroken layer. The population of these cells is not-homogeneous. It includes enclosed to endothelia small-differentiated forms and separating cells with sings of fibroblastic differentiation (the own volume of rough endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasm induces). The part of these cells reacts on the alkaline phosphatase (the marker of the osteogenic differentiation). Under the conditions of support load decreasing (especially under the microgravity) there is a tendency to reducing of separating osteogenic cells number. We noted the priority of differentiating fibroblasts. It leads to further development in zones of bone remodeling of hearths of fibrous tissue, that doesn't mineralize. The obtained data are seen as one of mechanisms of osteoporosis and osteopenia development under the deficite of support

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn under Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments and Different Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Zhao

    Full Text Available Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn is one of the main traditional Chinese medicines producing coumarins and plenty of literatures are focused on the biosynthesis of coumarins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR is a widely used method in studying the biosynthesis pathway and the selection of reference genes plays a crucial role in accurate normalization. To facilitate biosynthesis study of coumarins, twelve candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome database of P. praeruptorum according to previous studies. Then, BestKeeper, geNoFrm and NormFinder were used for selecting stably expressed reference genes in different tissues and under various stress treatments. The results indicated that, among the twelve candidate reference genes, the SAND family protein (SAND, actin 2 (ACT2, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9, protein phosphatase 2A gene (PP2A and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1 were the most stable reference genes under different experimental treatments, while glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tubulin beta-6 (TUB6 were the least stable genes. In addition, the suitability of SAND, TIP41-like protein (TIP41, UBC9, ACT2, TUB6 and their combination as reference genes were confirmed by normalizing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO in different treatments. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in P. praeruptorum and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate qRT-PCR results in P. praeruptorum and other plant species.

  14. Meta Review of Systematic and Meta Analytic Reviews on Movement Differences, Effect of Movement Based Interventions, and the Underlying Neural Mechanisms in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide eMiyahara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purposes: The aims of this paper are three-folds: first, to identify and appraise evidence from published systematic and meta-analytic reviews on 1 movement characteristics of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; 2 the effects of movement based interventions for ASD; 3 hypothesized underlying neural mechanisms for the movement characteristics. Methods: A meta review of published systematic and meta-analytic reviews on movement characteristics, structural and functional brain anomalies in ASD and the effects of movement based interventions for individuals with ASD between 1806 and October 2012. The methodological quality of the identified systematic and meta-analytic reviews was independently assessed by two assessors with the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR.Results: The search yielded a total of twelve reviews on the movement differences or the movement based interventions. The methodological quality of the reviews varied, but the review conclusions were similar. Although individuals with ASD generally perform less well than age-matched controls in developmental movement tasks, there are few exceptions whose movement abilities are intact. Most movement based interventions report their efficacies. However, all existing studies employ the research design that is inherently incapable of providing strong evidence, and they often fail to report the extent of psychosocial interactions within the movement interventions. The hypothesized neural mechanisms are still under development and speculative in nature.Conclusions: It is premature to designate movement disturbance as a core symptom of ASD. The effects of movement based interventions on ASD core symptoms need to be further validated by stronger evidence based on verified theoretical mechanisms linking ASD with movement disorders.

  15. Interactive actions of Bdnf methylation and cell metabolism for building neural resilience under the influence of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Ethika; Zhuang, Yumei; Agrawal, Rahul; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Quality nutrition during the period of brain formation is a predictor of brain functional capacity and plasticity during adulthood; however it is not clear how this conferred plasticity imparts long-term neural resilience. Here we report that early exposure to dietary omega-3 fatty acids orchestrates key interactions between metabolic signals and Bdnf methylation creating a reservoir of neuroplasticity that can protect the brain against the deleterious effects of switching to a Western diet (WD). We observed that the switch to a WD increased Bdnf methylation specific to exon IV, in proportion to anxiety-like behavior, in Sprague Dawley rats reared in low omega-3 fatty acid diet, and these effects were abolished by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Blocking methylation also counteracted the reducing action of WD on the transcription regulator CTCF binding to Bdnf promoter IV. In vitro studies confirmed that CTCF binding to Bdnf promoter IV is essential for the action of DHA on BDNF regulation. Diet is also intrinsically associated to cell metabolism, and here we show that the switch to WD downregulated cell metabolism (NAD/NADH ratio and SIRT1). The fact that DNA methyltransferase inhibitor did not alter these parameters suggests they occur upstream to methylation. In turn, the methylation inhibitor counteracted the action of WD on PGC-1α, a mitochondrial transcription co-activator and BDNF regulator, suggesting that PGC-1α is an effector of Bdnf methylation. Results support a model in which diet can build an "epigenetic memory" during brain formation that confers resilience to metabolic perturbations occurring in adulthood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac, mandibular and thymic phenotypical association indicates that cranial neural crest underlies bicuspid aortic valve formation in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Martínez-Vargas

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most prevalent human congenital cardiac malformation. It may appear isolated, associated with other cardiovascular malformations, or forming part of syndromes. Cranial neural crest (NC defects are supposed to be the cause of the spectrum of disorders associated with syndromic BAV. Experimental studies with an inbred hamster model of isolated BAV showed that alterations in the migration or differentiation of the cardiac NC cells in the embryonic cardiac outflow tract are most probably responsible for the development of this congenital valvular defect. We hypothesize that isolated BAV is not the result of local, but of early alterations in the behavior of the NC cells, thus also affecting other cranial NC-derived structures. Therefore, we tested whether morphological variation of the aortic valve is linked to phenotypic variation of the mandible and the thymus in the hamster model of isolated BAV, compared to a control strain. Our results show significant differences in the size and shape of the mandible as well as in the cellular composition of the thymus between the two strains, and in mandible shape regarding the morphology of the aortic valve. Given that both the mandible and the thymus are cranial NC derivatives, and that the cardiac NC belongs to the cephalic domain, we propose that the causal defect leading to isolated BAV during embryonic development is not restricted to local alterations of the cardiac NC cells in the cardiac outflow tract, but it is of pleiotropic or polytopic nature. Our results suggest that isolated BAV may be the forme fruste of a polytopic syndrome involving the cranial NC in the hamster model and in a proportion of affected patients.

  17. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  18. Neural Correlates of Antidepressant-Related Sexual Dysfunction: A Placebo-Controlled fMRI Study on Healthy Males Under Subchronic Paroxetine and Bupropion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Birgit; Seeringer, Angela; Hartmann, Antonie; Grön, Georg; Metzger, Coraline; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like paroxetine in the treatment of depression, imposing a considerable risk on medication adherence and hence therapeutic success. Bupropion, a norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is recommended as an alternative treatment without adverse effects concerning sexual arousal and libido. We investigated the neural bases of paroxetine-related subjective sexual dysfunction when compared with bupropion and placebo. We scanned 18 healthy, heterosexual males in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject design while watching video clips of erotic and nonerotic content under steady-state conditions after taking 20 mg of paroxetine, 150 mg of bupropion, and placebo for 7 days each. Under paroxetine, ratings of subjective sexual dysfunction increased compared with placebo or bupropion. Activation along the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), including subgenual, pregenual, and midcingulate cortices, in the ventral striatum and midbrain was decreased when compared with placebo. In contrast, bupropion let subjective ratings and ACC activations unchanged and increased activity of brain regions including posterior midcingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and extended amygdala relative to placebo and paroxetine. Brain regions that have been related to the processing of motivational (ventral striatum), emotional, and autonomic components of erotic stimulation (anterior cingulate) in previous studies showed reduced responsiveness under paroxetine in our study. Drug effects on these regions may be part of the mechanism underlying SSRI-related sexual dysfunction. Increased activation under bupropion may point to an opposite effect that may relate to the lack of impaired sexual functioning. PMID:21544071

  19. Cell proliferation in lymphoid tissue and the seminiferous epithelium under continuous low level irradiation. Final report, 1 June 1967 to 15 July 1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J I

    1978-10-19

    The scientific scope and primary objectives of the research program concern investigations on (1) the kinetics of cellular proliferation and differentiation in the immunohematopoietic tissues and the reproductive tissues, and (2) the cellular response and cell population kinetics of these renewal tissues of the body under the stress of continuous low level irradiation. The directions and objectives of the research program have been continually broadened to include investigations on (1) the dynamics of the cellular and humoral immune responses, (2) interactions of host-defense mechanisms, (3) the cell proliferation kinetics in the ovary, and (4) cellular control mechanisms and human tumor cell kinetics.

  20. Characteristics of soft tissues at the apex of the deformity in patients with kyphoscoliosis with underlying type 1 neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shchurova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluation of skin sensitivity and analysis of morphological changes in paravertebral muscles and back skin in kyphoscoliotic deformity projection in patients with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1.Materials and methods. Ten NF-1 patients who underwent surgery to treat kyphoscoliosis were examined. Using an electrical esthesiometer thermal pain sensitivity before the surgery was studied in dermatomes corresponding to the apex of the deformity. Skin and muscle biopsy samples were collected intraoperatively in the projection of the apex of the deformity curve and were subsequently analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy.Results. Patients with kyphoscoliosis with underlying NF-1 were characterized by abnormal thermal pain sensitivity, pathological structural changes in skin and muscles accompanied by disrupted innervation and blood supply.Discussion. The observed changes may be responsible for lowered postoperative reparative potential of tissues and they must be considered in prevention and prognosis of treatment and rehabilitation efficacy.

  1. Influence of Rhizobia Inoculation on Biomass Gain and Tissue Nitrogen Content of Leucaena leucocephala Seedlings under Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pereyra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated increases in the frequency of heat waves and drought spells may have negative effects on the ability of leguminous trees to fix nitrogen (N. In seedlings of Leucaena leucocephala inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti or Rhizobium tropici, we investigated how the developmental stage and a short drought influenced overall biomass and the accumulation of carbon and N in plant tissues. In early developmental stages, the number of nodules and nodule biomass were correlated with total plant biomass and δ15N, and nodules and roots contributed 33%–35% of the seedling total N. Seedlings associated with R. tropici fixed more N and exhibited higher overall biomass compared with M. loti seedlings. Four and a half months after inoculation (140 days after inoculation, DAI, a short (15-day drought inhibited seedling growth and caused a decline in total plant N, with the smallest decline in R. tropici seedlings. After 15 days of drought, i.e., 155 DAI, the nodules had accumulated proline, but the total amino acid concentration did not change. Our results indicate that N-fixation is independent of seedlings growth. In addition, R. tropici is a better choice than M. loti as a symbiont for Leucaena seedlings for forest restoration and agroforestry applications under increasingly drier conditions.

  2. Computational model of soft tissues in the human upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelteret, J-P V; Reddy, B D

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of the tongue and surrounding soft tissues with potential application to the study of sleep apnoea and of linguistics and speech therapy. The anatomical data was obtained from the Visible Human Project, and the underlying histological data was also extracted and incorporated into the model. Hyperelastic constitutive models were used to describe the material behaviour, and material incompressibility was accounted for. An active Hill three-element muscle model was used to represent the muscular tissue of the tongue. The neural stimulus for each muscle group was determined through the use of a genetic algorithm-based neural control model. The fundamental behaviour of the tongue under gravitational and breathing-induced loading is investigated. It is demonstrated that, when a time-dependent loading is applied to the tongue, the neural model is able to control the position of the tongue and produce a physiologically realistic response for the genioglossus.

  3. Rod-Shaped Neural Units for Aligned 3D Neural Network Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Negishi, Midori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Ito, Akane; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes neural tissue units with aligned nerve fibers (called rod-shaped neural units) that connect neural networks with aligned neurons. To make the proposed units, 3D fiber-shaped neural tissues covered with a calcium alginate hydrogel layer are prepared with a microfluidic system and are cut in an accurate and reproducible manner. These units have aligned nerve fibers inside the hydrogel layer and connectable points on both ends. By connecting the units with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) guide, 3D neural tissues can be constructed and maintained for more than two weeks of culture. In addition, neural networks can be formed between the different neural units via synaptic connections. Experimental results indicate that the proposed rod-shaped neural units are effective tools for the construction of spatially complex connections with aligned nerve fibers in vitro. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Co-combustion of sewage sludge and coffee grounds under increased O2/CO2 atmospheres: Thermodynamic characteristics, kinetics and artificial neural network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiacong; Xie, Candie; Liu, Jingyong; He, Yao; Xie, Wuming; Zhang, Xiaochun; Chang, Kenlin; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Zheng, Li; Sun, Shuiyu; Buyukada, Musa; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2017-11-13

    (Co-)combustion characteristics of sewage sludge (SS), coffee grounds (CG) and their blends were quantified under increased O2/CO2 atmosphere (21, 30, 40 and 60%) using a thermogravimetric analysis. Observed percentages of CG mass loss and its maximum were higher than those of SS. Under the same atmospheric O2 concentration, both higher ignition and lower burnout temperatures occurred with the increased CG content. Results showed that ignition temperature and comprehensive combustion index for the blend of 60%SS-40%CG increased, whereas burnout temperature and co-combustion time decreased with the increased O2 concentration. Artificial neural network was applied to predict mass loss percent as a function of gas mixing ratio, heating rate, and temperature, with a good agreement between the experimental and ANN-predicted values. Activation energy in response to the increased O2 concentration was found to increase from 218.91 to 347.32 kJ·mol-1 and from 218.34 to 340.08 kJ·mol-1 according to the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering three dimensional micro nerve tissue using postnatal stem cells from human dental apical papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Jun, Sung-Min; Kim, So Yeon; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Choe, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun-Chul; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Jinseok; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Hwang, Yu-Shik

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro generation of cell-based three dimensional (3D) nerve tissue is an attractive subject to improve graft survival and integration into host tissue for neural tissue regeneration or to model biological events in stem cell differentiation. Although 3D organotypic culture strategies are well established for 3D nerve tissue formation of pluripotent stem cells to study underlying biology in nerve development, cell-based nerve tissues have not been developed using human postnatal stem cells with therapeutic potential. Here, we established a culture strategy for the generation of in vitro cell-based 3D nerve tissue from postnatal stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) of teeth, which originate from neural crest-derived ectomesenchyme cells. A stem cell population capable of differentiating into neural cell lineages was generated during the ex vivo expansion of SCAPs in the presence of EGF and bFGF, and SCAPs differentiated into neural cells, showing neural cell lineage-related molecular and gene expression profiles, morphological changes and electrophysical property under neural-inductive culture conditions. Moreover, we showed the first evidence that 3D cell-based nerve-like tissue with axons and myelin structures could be generated from SCAPs via 3D organotypic culture using an integrated bioprocess composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microwell-mediated cell spheroid formation and subsequent dynamic culture in a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor. In conclusion, the culture strategy in our study provides a novel approach to develop in vitro engineered nerve tissue using SCAPs and a foundation to study biological events in the neural differentiation of postnatal stem cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 903-914. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Histone deacetylase activity and reactive oxygen species content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and development of acute osmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Jadko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC in regulation of ROS content in the tissue culture of Arabidopsis thaliana under normal conditions and under development of acute osmotic stress was studied by using inhibition assay with application of trichostatin A (TSA. It was found that in the tissue culture grown under normal conditions a decrease in HDAC activity by means of TSA led to increase of the ROS content. Similar but more pronounced alterations occurred under stress. At the same time an increase in histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity was also observed. The possible mechanisms of HDAC and HAT participation in regulation of ROS content by changes in expression of genes that are responsible for ROS production and antioxidant activity are discussed.

  7. Effect of force on ablation depth for a XeCl excimer laser beam delivered by an optical fiber in contact with arterial tissue under saline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, G. H.; van den Broecke, D. G.; Sprangers, R. L.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of force applied to a 430 micron single fiber, delivering 60 pulses of 308 nm XeCl laser radiation at 20 Hz, on the ablation depth in porcine aortic tissue under saline has been investigated. Energy densities of 8, 15, 25, 28, 31, 37, and 45 mJ/mm2 were used. Force was applied by adding

  8. AcconPred: Predicting Solvent Accessibility and Contact Number Simultaneously by a Multitask Learning Framework under the Conditional Neural Fields Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhu Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The solvent accessibility of protein residues is one of the driving forces of protein folding, while the contact number of protein residues limits the possibilities of protein conformations. The de novo prediction of these properties from protein sequence is important for the study of protein structure and function. Although these two properties are certainly related with each other, it is challenging to exploit this dependency for the prediction. Method. We present a method AcconPred for predicting solvent accessibility and contact number simultaneously, which is based on a shared weight multitask learning framework under the CNF (conditional neural fields model. The multitask learning framework on a collection of related tasks provides more accurate prediction than the framework trained only on a single task. The CNF method not only models the complex relationship between the input features and the predicted labels, but also exploits the interdependency among adjacent labels. Results. Trained on 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein datasets, AcconPred could reach 0.68 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility and 0.75 correlation for contact number. Tested on the 105 CASP11 domain datasets for solvent accessibility, AcconPred could reach 0.64 accuracy, which outperforms existing methods.

  9. AcconPred: Predicting Solvent Accessibility and Contact Number Simultaneously by a Multitask Learning Framework under the Conditional Neural Fields Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianzhu; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The solvent accessibility of protein residues is one of the driving forces of protein folding, while the contact number of protein residues limits the possibilities of protein conformations. The de novo prediction of these properties from protein sequence is important for the study of protein structure and function. Although these two properties are certainly related with each other, it is challenging to exploit this dependency for the prediction. We present a method AcconPred for predicting solvent accessibility and contact number simultaneously, which is based on a shared weight multitask learning framework under the CNF (conditional neural fields) model. The multitask learning framework on a collection of related tasks provides more accurate prediction than the framework trained only on a single task. The CNF method not only models the complex relationship between the input features and the predicted labels, but also exploits the interdependency among adjacent labels. Trained on 5729 monomeric soluble globular protein datasets, AcconPred could reach 0.68 three-state accuracy for solvent accessibility and 0.75 correlation for contact number. Tested on the 105 CASP11 domain datasets for solvent accessibility, AcconPred could reach 0.64 accuracy, which outperforms existing methods.

  10. A Computational Analysis of Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Maturation of Multisensory Speech Integration in Neurotypical Children and Those on the Autism Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuppini, Cristiano; Ursino, Mauro; Magosso, Elisa; Ross, Lars A; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI) of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD. The model posits that strengthening of feedforward and cross-sensory connections, responsible for the alignment of auditory and visual speech sound representations in posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, can explain behavioral data on the acquisition of MSI. This was simulated by a training phase during which the network was exposed to unisensory and multisensory stimuli, and projections were crafted by Hebbian rules of potentiation and depression. In its mature architecture, the network also reproduced the well-known multisensory McGurk speech effect. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in ASD were well accounted for by fewer multisensory exposures, compatible with a lack of attention, but not by reduced synaptic connectivity or synaptic plasticity.

  11. A Computational Analysis of Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Maturation of Multisensory Speech Integration in Neurotypical Children and Those on the Autism Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Cuppini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure to appropriately develop multisensory integration (MSI of audiovisual speech may affect a child's ability to attain optimal communication. Studies have shown protracted development of MSI into late-childhood and identified deficits in MSI in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Currently, the neural basis of acquisition of this ability is not well understood. Here, we developed a computational model informed by neurophysiology to analyze possible mechanisms underlying MSI maturation, and its delayed development in ASD. The model posits that strengthening of feedforward and cross-sensory connections, responsible for the alignment of auditory and visual speech sound representations in posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, can explain behavioral data on the acquisition of MSI. This was simulated by a training phase during which the network was exposed to unisensory and multisensory stimuli, and projections were crafted by Hebbian rules of potentiation and depression. In its mature architecture, the network also reproduced the well-known multisensory McGurk speech effect. Deficits in audiovisual speech perception in ASD were well accounted for by fewer multisensory exposures, compatible with a lack of attention, but not by reduced synaptic connectivity or synaptic plasticity.

  12. Reconstruction of the interdental papilla with an underlying subepithelial connective tissue graft: technical considerations and case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Nelson; Zogbi, Carim

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a surgical technique developed to achieve soft tissue augmentation of the interproximal space. The technique was designed to minimize surgical trauma and blockage of blood supply to the existing papilla by accessing the papillary area through vertical incisions and by elevating a single full-thickness flap without disrupting the papillary bridge. A free connective tissue graft was placed beneath the undermined papilla and secured with sutures. Advantages and variations of the technique are discussed.

  13. THE REACTIONS BETWEEN BACTERIA AND ANIMAL TISSUES UNDER CONDITIONS OF ARTIFICIAL CULTIVATION : III. THE ACTION OF BACTERIAL VACCINES ON TISSUE CULTURES IN VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, H F

    1916-03-01

    These results seem to indicate that many bacteria may be utilized by tissue cells as food for growth or may contain a substance or substances stimulating cell growth or multiplication. This substance is stable and is not destroyed by heating to 100 degrees C. or by long standing. With Micrococcus aureus this action is often neutralized or overcome by a substance inhibitory to growth. The nature of these substances has not yet been determined, though several attempts along this line were made by endeavoring to split the typhoid bacterial substance according to the method of Vaughan See PDF for Structure and testing the poisonous and non-poisonous residues separately. However, at the time too little bacterial substance was used to obtain enough end-products to be of much use, and the products so obtained prevented the plasma from coagulating. Even in the uncoagulated plasma there appeared to be an increase of cells in the cultures with the non-poisonous residue. The author hopes to be able to repeat these tests with split products at a later time when more bacterial substance is available, with the hope of obtaining more definite results.

  14. Role of Rab11 in planar cell polarity and apical constriction during vertebrate neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossipova, Olga; Kim, Kyeongmi; Lake, Blue B; Itoh, Keiji; Ioannou, Andriani; Sokol, Sergei Y

    2014-05-13

    Epithelial folding is a critical process underlying many morphogenetic events including vertebrate neural tube closure, however, its spatial regulation is largely unknown. Here we show that during neural tube formation Rab11-positive recycling endosomes acquire bilaterally symmetric distribution in the Xenopus neural plate, being enriched at medial apical cell junctions. This mediolateral polarization was under the control of planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling, was necessary for neural plate folding and was accompanied by the polarization of the exocyst component Sec15. Our further experiments demonstrate that similar PCP-dependent polarization of Rab11 is essential for ectopic apical constriction driven by the actin-binding protein Shroom and during embryonic wound repair. We propose that anisotropic membrane trafficking has key roles in diverse morphogenetic behaviours of individual cells and propagates in a tissue by a common mechanism that involves PCP.

  15. Classification of Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectra from Normal and Malignant bladder tissues using Learning Vector Quantization Neural Network in Bladder Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Mascarenhas, Kim Komal; Patil, Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we discuss the potential of recently developed classification algorithm, Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ), for the analysis of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Spectra, recorded from normal and malignant bladder tissue samples. The algorithm is prototype based and inherently...

  16. Influence of neural adaptation on dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2017-12-01

    How neural adaptation affects neural information processing (i.e. the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities) is a central question in computational neuroscience. In my previous works, I analytically clarified the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring-type neural network model that is widely used to model the visual cortex, motor cortex, and several other brain regions. The neural dynamics and the equilibrium state in the neural network model corresponded to a Bayesian computation and statistically optimal multiple information integration, respectively, under a biologically inspired condition. These results were revealed in an analytically tractable manner; however, adaptation effects were not considered. Here, I analytically reveal how the dynamics and equilibrium state of neural activities in a ring neural network are influenced by spike-frequency adaptation (SFA). SFA is an adaptation that causes gradual inhibition of neural activity when a sustained stimulus is applied, and the strength of this inhibition depends on neural activities. I reveal that SFA plays three roles: (1) SFA amplifies the influence of external input in neural dynamics; (2) SFA allows the history of the external input to affect neural dynamics; and (3) the equilibrium state corresponds to the statistically optimal multiple information integration independent of the existence of SFA. In addition, the equilibrium state in a ring neural network model corresponds to the statistically optimal integration of multiple information sources under biologically inspired conditions, independent of the existence of SFA.

  17. Neural repair in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Acute or chronic injury to the adult brain often results in substantial loss of neural tissue and subsequent permanent functional impairment. Over the last two decades, a number of approaches have been developed to harness the regenerative potential of neural stem cells and the existing fate plasticity of neural cells in the nervous system to prevent tissue loss or to enhance structural and functional regeneration upon injury. Here, we review recent advances of stem cell-associated neural repair in the adult brain, discuss current challenges and limitations, and suggest potential directions to foster the translation of experimental stem cell therapies into the clinic. PMID:26918167

  18. Ruminant Metabolic Systems Biology: Reconstruction and Integration of Transcriptome Dynamics Underlying Functional Responses of Tissues to Nutrition and Physiological Statea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionaz, Massimo; Loor, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ‘omics’ data analysis via bioinformatics is one key component of the systems biology approach. The systems approach is particularly well-suited for the study of the interactions between nutrition and physiological state with tissue metabolism and functions during key life stages of organisms such as the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mammals, ie, the peripartal period. In modern dairy cows with an unprecedented genetic potential for milk synthesis, the nature of the physiologic and metabolic adaptations during the peripartal period is multifaceted and involves key tissues such as liver, adipose, and mammary. In order to understand such adaptation, we have reviewed several works performed in our and other labs. In addition, we have used a novel bioinformatics approach, Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), in combination with partly previously published data to help interpret longitudinal biological adaptations of bovine liver, adipose, and mammary tissue to lactation using transcriptomics datasets. Use of DIA with transcriptomic data from those tissues during normal physiological adaptations and in animals fed different levels of energy prepartum allowed visualization and integration of most-impacted metabolic pathways around the time of parturition. The DIA is a suitable tool for applying the integrative systems biology approach. The ultimate goal is to visualize the complexity of the systems at study and uncover key molecular players involved in the tissue’s adaptations to physiological state or nutrition. PMID:22807626

  19. A comparison of the techniques of secondary ion mass spectrometry and resonance ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of potentially toxic element accumulation in neural tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, O R; Perks, R M; Abraham, C J; Telle, H H; Oakley, A E

    1997-01-01

    A comparison is made of the techniques of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) for the detection of the neuro-toxic element aluminium in cortical tissue. Experiments were performed using a reflectron-type time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) in conjunction with an Ar+ source for target sputtering and a pulsed tuneable dye laser system for resonance ionization. It is shown how isobaric interference of species such as CNH and C2H3 in the case of aluminium greatly affect the quantitative accuracy and the detection limit of aluminium in biological samples when analysed using SIMS. In contrast the use of RIMS virtually eliminates this problem, so allowing easier quantification and much lower detection limits to be achieved. Detection limits of approximately 3 ppm for aluminium in brain tissue homogenates were achieved using RIMS, with a spatial resolution of less than 100 microns.

  20. Tissue segmentation-assisted analysis of fMRI for human motor response: an approach combining artificial neural network and fuzzy C means

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, MJ; Lin, CC; Chuang, KH; Chen, JH; Huang, KM

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed an automated algorithm for segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the human brain. They investigated the quantitative analysis of tissue-specific human motor response through an approach combining gradient echo functional MRI and automated segmentation analysis. Fifteen healthy volunteers, placed in a 1.5 T clinical MR imager, performed a self-paced finger opposition throughout the activation periods. T1-weighted images (WI), T2WI, and proton density WI ...

  1. Tissue segmentation-assisted analysis of fMRI for human motor response: an approach combining artificial neural network and fuzzy C means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, M J; Lin, C C; Chuang, K H; Chen, J H; Huang, K M

    2001-03-01

    The authors have developed an automated algorithm for segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the human brain. They investigated the quantitative analysis of tissue-specific human motor response through an approach combining gradient echo functional MRI and automated segmentation analysis. Fifteen healthy volunteers, placed in a 1.5 T clinical MR imager, performed a self-paced finger opposition throughout the activation periods. T1-weighted images (WI), T2WI, and proton density WI were acquired for segmentation analysis. Single-slice axial T2* fast low-angle shot (FLASH) images were obtained during the functional study. Pixelwise cross-correlation analysis was performed to obtain an activation map. A cascaded algorithm, combining Kohonen feature maps and fuzzy C means, was applied for segmentation. After processing, masks for gray matter, white matter, small vessels, and large vessels were generated. Tissue-specific analysis showed a signal change rate of 4.53% in gray matter, 2.98% in white matter, 5.79% in small vessels, and 7.24% in large vessels. Different temporal patterns as well as different levels of activation were identified in the functional response from various types of tissue. High correlation exists between cortical gray matter and subcortical white matter (r = 0.957), while the vessel behaves somewhat different temporally. The cortical gray matter fits best to the assumed input function (r = 0.957) followed by subcortical white matter (r = 0.829) and vessels (r = 0.726). The automated algorithm of tissue-specific analysis thus can assist functional MRI studies with different modalities of response in different brain regions.

  2. Mapping of the Underlying Neural Mechanisms of Maintenance and Manipulation in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Using An n-back Mental Rotation Task: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lamp, Gemma; Alexander, Bonnie; Laycock, Robin; Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of the underlying neural mechanisms of visuo-spatial working memory (WM) has been shown to consistently elicit activity in right hemisphere dominant fronto-parietal networks. However to date, the bulk of neuroimaging literature has focused largely on the maintenance aspect of visuo-spatial WM, with a scarcity of research into the aspects of WM involving manipulation of information. Thus, this study aimed to compare maintenance-only with maintenance and manipulation of visuo-spatial st...

  3. [The development and application of computer assisted photogrammetric-system of facial soft tissue running under multiple facilities for taking image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, B; Yu, S; Tan, J

    1997-08-01

    The photogrammetric-system was developed by using multimedia computer, colour television camera, SE100 video blaster, Newsketch 1212 HR digitizer and by using Visual Basic language. It ran under Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. The features of this system: 1. It had three kinds of functions: photogrammetric function for frontal and profile facial soft tissue, function for managing file and function for forming dynamic data base. 2. It ran under different facilities for taking image (television camera with video blaster, digitizer, scanner) speedily and specificly, and had very friendly interface, and was of multimedia. The application of this system: 1. assisting diagnosing, making plan for treatment and observing results of treatment in clinic of orthodontics, orthopedics and facial plastics, 2. assisting analysing the features of facial soft tissue about certain people, 3. assisting the multimedia teaching.

  4. GXNOR-Net: Training deep neural networks with ternary weights and activations without full-precision memory under a unified discretization framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Jiao, Peng; Pei, Jing; Wu, Zhenzhi; Li, Guoqi

    2018-02-02

    Although deep neural networks (DNNs) are being a revolutionary power to open up the AI era, the notoriously huge hardware overhead has challenged their applications. Recently, several binary and ternary networks, in which the costly multiply-accumulate operations can be replaced by accumulations or even binary logic operations, make the on-chip training of DNNs quite promising. Therefore there is a pressing need to build an architecture that could subsume these networks under a unified framework that achieves both higher performance and less overhead. To this end, two fundamental issues are yet to be addressed. The first one is how to implement the back propagation when neuronal activations are discrete. The second one is how to remove the full-precision hidden weights in the training phase to break the bottlenecks of memory/computation consumption. To address the first issue, we present a multi-step neuronal activation discretization method and a derivative approximation technique that enable the implementing the back propagation algorithm on discrete DNNs. While for the second issue, we propose a discrete state transition (DST) methodology to constrain the weights in a discrete space without saving the hidden weights. Through this way, we build a unified framework that subsumes the binary or ternary networks as its special cases, and under which a heuristic algorithm is provided at the website https://github.com/AcrossV/Gated-XNOR. More particularly, we find that when both the weights and activations become ternary values, the DNNs can be reduced to sparse binary networks, termed as gated XNOR networks (GXNOR-Nets) since only the event of non-zero weight and non-zero activation enables the control gate to start the XNOR logic operations in the original binary networks. This promises the event-driven hardware design for efficient mobile intelligence. We achieve advanced performance compared with state-of-the-art algorithms. Furthermore, the computational sparsity

  5. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Cohn, Shara; Wheeler, Amanda; Lee, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is n...

  6. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Allen-John Webb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired.

  7. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christopher Allen-John; Weyker, Paul David; Cohn, Shara; Wheeler, Amanda; Lee, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired.

  8. Applying Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy (BDS) for the Biophysical Characterization of Mammalian Tissues under a Variety of Cellular Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Maria P; Klonos, Panagiotis; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Mavragani, Ifigeneia V; Pateras, Ioannis S; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Margaritis, Lukas H; Zoumpoulis, Pavlos; Kaklamanis, Loukas; Kletsas, Dimitris; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Kyritsis, Apostolos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Georgakilas, Alexandros G

    2017-04-15

    The dielectric properties of biological tissues can contribute non-invasively to a better characterization and understanding of the structural properties and physiology of living organisms. The question we asked, is whether these induced changes are effected by an endogenous or exogenous cellular stress, and can they be detected non-invasively in the form of a dielectric response, e.g., an AC conductivity switch in the broadband frequency spectrum. This study constitutes the first methodological approach for the detection of environmental stress-induced damage in mammalian tissues by the means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) at the frequencies of 1-10⁶ Hz. Firstly, we used non-ionizing (NIR) and ionizing radiation (IR) as a typical environmental stress. Specifically, rats were exposed to either digital enhanced cordless telecommunication (DECT) radio frequency electromagnetic radiation or to γ-radiation, respectively. The other type of stress, characterized usually by high genomic instability, was the pathophysiological state of human cancer (lung and prostate). Analyzing the results of isothermal dielectric measurements provided information on the tissues' water fraction. In most cases, our methodology proved sufficient in detecting structural changes, especially in the case of IR and malignancy. Useful specific dielectric response patterns are detected and correlated with each type of stress. Our results point towards the development of a dielectric-based methodology for better understanding and, in a relatively invasive way, the biological and structural changes effected by radiation and developing lung or prostate cancer often associated with genomic instability.

  9. Dynamic behaviors of the non-neural ectoderm during mammalian cranial neural tube closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Heather J; Niswander, Lee A

    2016-08-15

    The embryonic brain and spinal cord initially form through the process of neural tube closure (NTC). NTC is thought to be highly similar between rodents and humans, and studies of mouse genetic mutants have greatly increased our understanding of the molecular basis of NTC with relevance for human neural tube defects. In addition, studies using amphibian and chick embryos have shed light into the cellular and tissue dynamics underlying NTC. However, the dynamics of mammalian NTC has been difficult to study due to in utero development until recently when advances in mouse embryo ex vivo culture techniques along with confocal microscopy have allowed for imaging of mouse NTC in real time. Here, we have performed live imaging of mouse embryos with a particular focus on the non-neural ectoderm (NNE). Previous studies in multiple model systems have found that the NNE is important for proper NTC, but little is known about the behavior of these cells during mammalian NTC. Here we utilized a NNE-specific genetic labeling system to assess NNE dynamics during murine NTC and identified different NNE cell behaviors as the cranial region undergoes NTC. These results bring valuable new insight into regional differences in cellular behavior during NTC that may be driven by different molecular regulators and which may underlie the various positional disruptions of NTC observed in humans with neural tube defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and Evaluation of Micro-Electrocorticography Arrays for Neural Interfacing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Amelia Ann

    the transparency necessary to image tissues directly below the micro-ECoG electrode sites, and to transmit light through the electrode sites to underlying neural tissue, for optical stimulation of neural cells. The flexibility and broad-spectrum transparency of graphene make it an ideal choice for thin-film, flexible electronic devices.

  11. Uptake and bio-reactivity of polystyrene nanoparticles is affected by surface modifications, ageing and LPS adsorption: in vitro studies on neural tissue cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Kumarasamy; Kenesei, Kata; Li, Yang; Demeter, Kornél; Környei, Zsuzsanna; Madarász, Emilia

    2015-02-01

    Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the role of the chemical composition of particle surfaces in the in vitro interaction with different neural cell types. PS NPs within a size-range of 45-70 nm influenced the metabolic activity of cells depending on the cell-type, but caused toxicity only at extremely high particle concentrations. Neurons did not internalize particles, while microglial cells ingested a large amount of carboxylated but almost no PEGylated NPs. PEGylation reduced the protein adsorption, toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs. After storage (shelf-life >6 months), the toxicity and cellular uptake of NPs increased. The altered biological activity of ``aged'' NPs was due to particle aggregation and due to the adsorption of bioactive compounds on NP surfaces. Aggregation by increasing the size and sedimentation velocity of NPs results in increased cell-targeted NP doses. The ready endotoxin adsorption which cannot be prevented by PEG coating, can render the particles toxic. The age-dependent changes in otherwise harmless NPs could be the important sources for variability in the effects of NPs, and could explain the contradictory data obtained with ``identical'' NPs.Because of their capacity of crossing an intact blood-brain barrier and reaching the brain through an injured barrier or via the nasal epithelium, nanoparticles have been considered as vehicles to deliver drugs and as contrast materials for brain imaging. The potential neurotoxicity of nanoparticles, however, is not fully explored. Using particles with a biologically inert polystyrene core material, we investigated the

  12. A critical appraisal of neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder: toward a new conceptualization of underlying neural circuitry and roadmap for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Swartz, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This critical review appraises neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder in emotion processing, emotion regulation, and reward processing neural circuitry, to synthesize current knowledge of the neural underpinnings of bipolar disorder, and provide a neuroimaging research “roadmap” for future studies. Method We examined findings from all major studies in bipolar disorder that used fMRI, volumetric analyses, diffusion imaging, and resting state techniques, to inform current conceptual models of larger-scale neural circuitry abnormalities in bipolar disorder Results Bipolar disorder can be conceptualized in neural circuitry terms as parallel dysfunction in bilateral prefrontal cortical (especially ventrolateral prefrontal cortical)-hippocampal-amygdala emotion processing and emotion regulation neural circuitries, together with an “overactive” left-sided ventral striatal-ventrolateral and orbitofrontal cortical reward processing circuitry, that result in characteristic behavioral abnormalities associated with bipolar disorder: emotional lability, emotional dysregulation and heightened reward sensitivity. A potential structural basis for these functional abnormalities are gray matter decreases in prefrontal and temporal cortices, amygdala and hippocampus, and fractional anisotropy decreases in white matter tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical regions. Conclusion Neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder clearly demonstrate abnormalities in neural circuitries supporting emotion processing, emotion regulation and reward processing, although there are several limitations to these studies. Future neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder should include studies adopting dimensional approaches; larger studies examining neurodevelopmental trajectories in bipolar disorder and at-risk youth; multimodal neuroimaging studies using integrated systems approaches; and studies using pattern recognition approaches to provide clinically useful, individual

  13. A hybrid hardware and software approach for cancelling stimulus artifacts during same-electrode neural stimulation and recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culaclii, Stanislav; Kim, Brian; Yi-Kai Lo; Wentai Liu

    2016-08-01

    Recovering neural responses from electrode recordings is fundamental for understanding the dynamics of neural networks. This effort is often obscured by stimulus artifacts in the recordings, which result from stimuli injected into the electrode-tissue interface. Stimulus artifacts, which can be orders of magnitude larger than the neural responses of interest, can mask short-latency evoked responses. Furthermore, simultaneous neural stimulation and recording on the same electrode generates artifacts with larger amplitudes compared to a separate electrode setup, which inevitably overwhelm the amplifier operation and cause unrecoverable neural signal loss. This paper proposes an end-to-end system combining hardware and software techniques for actively cancelling stimulus artifacts, avoiding amplifier saturation, and recovering neural responses during current-controlled in-vivo neural stimulation and recording. The proposed system is tested in-vitro under various stimulation settings by stimulating and recording on the same electrode with a superimposed pre-recorded neural signal. Experimental results show that neural responses can be recovered with minimal distortion even during stimulus artifacts that are several orders greater in magnitude.

  14. Applications of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Neural Crest Cells in Craniofacial Skeletal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Morikawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial skeletal tissues are composed of tooth and bone, together with nerves and blood vessels. This composite material is mainly derived from neural crest cells (NCCs. The neural crest is transient embryonic tissue present during neural tube formation whose cells have high potential for migration and differentiation. Thus, NCCs are promising candidates for craniofacial tissue regeneration; however, the clinical application of NCCs is hindered by their limited accessibility. In contrast, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are easily accessible in adults, have similar potential for self-renewal, and can differentiate into skeletal tissues, including bones and cartilage. Therefore, MSCs may represent good sources of stem cells for clinical use. MSCs are classically identified under adherent culture conditions, leading to contamination with other cell lineages. Previous studies have identified mouse- and human-specific MSC subsets using cell surface markers. Additionally, some studies have shown that a subset of MSCs is closely related to neural crest derivatives and endothelial cells. These MSCs may be promising candidates for regeneration of craniofacial tissues from the perspective of developmental fate. Here, we review the fundamental biology of MSCs in craniofacial research.

  15. Mechanics of neurulation: From classical to current perspectives on the physical mechanics that shape, fold, and form the neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayraghavan, Deepthi S; Davidson, Lance A

    2017-01-30

    Neural tube defects arise from mechanical failures in the process of neurulation. At the most fundamental level, formation of the neural tube relies on coordinated, complex tissue movements that mechanically transform the flat neural epithelium into a lumenized epithelial tube (Davidson, 2012). The nature of this mechanical transformation has mystified embryologists, geneticists, and clinicians for more than 100 years. Early embryologists pondered the physical mechanisms that guide this transformation. Detailed observations of cell and tissue movements as well as experimental embryological manipulations allowed researchers to generate and test elementary hypotheses of the intrinsic and extrinsic forces acting on the neural tissue. Current research has turned toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying neurulation. Genetic and molecular perturbation have identified a multitude of subcellular components that correlate with cell behaviors and tissue movements during neural tube formation. In this review, we focus on methods and conceptual frameworks that have been applied to the study of amphibian neurulation that can be used to determine how molecular and physical mechanisms are integrated and responsible for neurulation. We will describe how qualitative descriptions and quantitative measurements of strain, force generation, and tissue material properties as well as simulations can be used to understand how embryos use morphogenetic programs to drive neurulation. Birth Defects Research 109:153-168, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Experimental system for in-situ measurement of temperature rise in animal tissue under exposure to acoustic radiation force impulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Sasanuma, Hideki; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) has recently been used for tissue elasticity measurement and imaging. On the other hand, it is predicted that a rise in temperature occurs. In-situ measurement of temperature rise in animal experiments is important, yet measurement using thermocouples has some problems such as position mismatch of the temperature measuring junction of the thermocouple and the focal point of ultrasound. Therefore, an in-situ measurement system for solving the above problems was developed in this study. The developed system is composed mainly of an ultrasound irradiation unit including a custom-made focused transducer with a through hole for inserting a thin-wire thermocouple, and a temperature measurement unit including the thermocouple. The feasibility of the developed system was evaluated by means of experiments using a tissue-mimicking material (TMM), a TMM containing a bone model or a chicken bone, and an extracted porcine liver. The similarity between the experimental results and the results of simulation using a finite element method (FEM) implied the reasonableness of in-situ temperature rise measured by the developed system. The developed system will become a useful tool for measuring in-situ temperature rise in animal experiments and obtaining findings with respect to the relationship between ultrasound irradiation conditions and in-situ temperature rise.

  17. The neural basis of emotions varies over time: different regions go with onset- and offset-bound processes underlying emotion intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Résibois, Maxime; Verduyn, Philippe; Delaveau, Pauline; Rotgé, Jean-Yves; Kuppens, Peter; Van Mechelen, Iven; Fossati, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    According to theories of emotion dynamics, emotions unfold across two phases in which different types of processes come to the fore: emotion onset and emotion offset. Differences in onset-bound processes are reflected by the degree of explosiveness or steepness of the response at onset, and differences in offset-bound processes by the degree of accumulation or intensification of the subsequent response. Whether onset- and offset-bound processes have distinctive neural correlates and, hence, whether the neural basis of emotions varies over time, still remains unknown. In the present fMRI study, we address this question using a recently developed paradigm that allows to disentangle explosiveness and accumulation. Thirty-one participants were exposed to neutral and negative social feedback, and asked to reflect on its contents. Emotional intensity while reading and thinking about the feedback was measured with an intensity profile tracking approach. Using non-negative matrix factorization, the resulting profile data were decomposed in explosiveness and accumulation components, which were subsequently entered as continuous regressors of the BOLD response. It was found that the neural basis of emotion intensity shifts as emotions unfold over time with emotion explosiveness and accumulation having distinctive neural correlates. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Functional Comparison of Neuronal Cells Differentiated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells under Different Oxygen and Medium Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuto; Fukushima, Kazuyuki; Sugawara, Michiko; Tabata, Yoshikuni; Imaizumi, Yoichi; Ishihara, Yasuharu; Ito, Masashi; Tsukahara, Kappei; Kohyama, Jun; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-12-01

    Because neurons are difficult to obtain from humans, generating functional neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is important for establishing physiological or disease-relevant screening systems for drug discovery. To examine the culture conditions leading to efficient differentiation of functional neural cells, we investigated the effects of oxygen stress (2% or 20% O2) and differentiation medium (DMEM/F12:Neurobasal-based [DN] or commercial [PhoenixSongs Biologicals; PS]) on the expression of genes related to neural differentiation, glutamate receptor function, and the formation of networks of neurons differentiated from hiPSCs (201B7) via long-term self-renewing neuroepithelial-like stem (lt-NES) cells. Expression of genes related to neural differentiation occurred more quickly in PS and/or 2% O2 than in DN and/or 20% O2, resulting in high responsiveness of neural cells to glutamate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA), and ( S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (an agonist for mGluR1/5), as revealed by calcium imaging assays. NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors, mGluR1, and mGluR5 were functionally validated by using the specific antagonists MK-801, NBQX, JNJ16259685, and 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine, respectively. Multielectrode array analysis showed that spontaneous firing occurred earlier in cells cultured in 2% O2 than in 20% O2. Optimization of O2 tension and culture medium for neural differentiation of hiPSCs can efficiently generate physiologically relevant cells for screening systems.

  19. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  20. Enrichment of skin-derived neural precursor cells from dermal cell populations by altering culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Vahid; Gazor, Rohoullah; Nejatbakhsh, Reza; Negad Dehbashi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    As stem cells play a critical role in tissue repair, their manipulation for being applied in regenerative medicine is of great importance. Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) may be good candidates for use in cell-based therapy as the only neural stem cells which can be isolated from an accessible tissue, skin. Herein, we presented a simple protocol to enrich neural SKPs by monolayer adherent cultivation to prove the efficacy of this method. To enrich neural SKPs from dermal cell populations, we have found that a monolayer adherent cultivation helps to increase the numbers of neural precursor cells. Indeed, we have cultured dermal cells as monolayer under serum-supplemented (control) and serum-supplemented culture, followed by serum free cultivation (test) and compared. Finally, protein markers of SKPs were assessed and compared in both experimental groups and differentiation potential was evaluated in enriched culture. The cells of enriched culture concurrently expressed fibronectin, vimentin and nestin, an intermediate filament protein expressed in neural and skeletal muscle precursors as compared to control culture. In addition, they possessed a multipotential capacity to differentiate into neurogenic, glial, adipogenic, osteogenic and skeletal myogenic cell lineages. It was concluded that serum-free adherent culture reinforced by growth factors have been shown to be effective on proliferation of skin-derived neural precursor cells (skin-NPCs) and drive their selective and rapid expansion.

  1. Measurement of Local Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Brain Tissue under Normoxia and Epilepsy with Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Zhang

    Full Text Available In this work a method for measuring brain oxygen partial pressure with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy system is reported. When used in conjunction with a dendritic phosphorescent probe, Oxyphor G4, this system enabled minimally invasive measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO2 in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution during 4-AP induced epileptic seizures. Investigating epileptic events, we characterized the spatio-temporal distribution of the "initial dip" in pO2 near the probe injection site and along nearby arterioles. Our results reveal a correlation between the percent change in the pO2 signal during the "initial dip" and the duration of seizure-like activity, which can help localize the epileptic focus and predict the length of seizure.

  2. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  3. Psychopharmacological Effects of Alkaloid Z77 under Conditions of Posthypoxic Encephalopathy and Mechanisms of Their Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuz'kov, G N; Losev, E A; Chaikovskii, A V; Suslov, N I; Zhdanov, V V; Udut, E V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Polyakova, T Yu; Povet'eva, T N; Nesterova, Yu V; Stavrova, L A; Udut, V V; Minakova, M Yu; Dygai, A M

    2016-05-01

    Psychopharmacological effects of atisine-type diterpene alkaloid Z77 were studied under conditions of experimental posthypoxic encephalopathy. The preparation had a pronounced cerebroprotective effect consisting in normalization of orientation and exploratory behavior and conditioned activity in experimental animals. These changes were accompanied by significant increase in the number of neural stem cells in the paraventricular region of the brain and markedly enhanced production of neurotrophic growth factors by neural tissue microenvironment cells.

  4. Microtubule-associated protein 1b is required for shaping the neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Pradeepa; Olmo, Valerie N; Sanchez, Stephanie P; McFarland, Rebecca J; Vital, Eudorah; Werner, Jonathan M; Hong, Elim; Sanchez-Alberola, Neus; Molodstov, Aleksey; Brewster, Rachel M

    2016-01-18

    Shaping of the neural tube, the precursor of the brain and spinal cord, involves narrowing and elongation of the neural tissue, concomitantly with other morphogenetic changes that contribue to this process. In zebrafish, medial displacement of neural cells (neural convergence or NC), which drives the infolding and narrowing of the neural ectoderm, is mediated by polarized migration and cell elongation towards the dorsal midline. Failure to undergo proper NC results in severe neural tube defects, yet the molecular underpinnings of this process remain poorly understood. We investigated here the role of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton in mediating NC in zebrafish embryos using the MT destabilizing and hyperstabilizing drugs nocodazole and paclitaxel respectively. We found that MTs undergo major changes in organization and stability during neurulation and are required for the timely completion of NC by promoting cell elongation and polarity. We next examined the role of Microtubule-associated protein 1B (Map1b), previously shown to promote MT dynamicity in axons. map1b is expressed earlier than previously reported, in the developing neural tube and underlying mesoderm. Loss of Map1b function using morpholinos (MOs) or δMap1b (encoding a truncated Map1b protein product) resulted in delayed NC and duplication of the neural tube, a defect associated with impaired NC. We observed a loss of stable MTs in these embryos that is likely to contribute to the NC defect. Lastly, we found that Map1b mediates cell elongation in a cell autonomous manner and polarized protrusive activity, two cell behaviors that underlie NC and are MT-dependent. Together, these data highlight the importance of MTs in the early morphogenetic movements that shape the neural tube and reveal a novel role for the MT regulator Map1b in mediating cell elongation and polarized cell movement in neural progenitor cells.

  5. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamorano, M; Torres-Silva, H [Departamento de Electronica, Universidad de Tarapaca, 18 de Septiembre 2222, Arica (Chile)

    2006-04-07

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  6. CHARGEd with neural crest defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Silke; Bajpai, Ruchi; Borchers, Annette

    2017-10-30

    Neural crest cells are highly migratory pluripotent cells that give rise to diverse derivatives including cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, pigment, and endocrine cells as well as neurons and glia. Abnormalities in neural crest-derived tissues contribute to the etiology of CHARGE syndrome, a complex malformation disorder that encompasses clinical symptoms like coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear anomalies, and deafness. Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene are causative of CHARGE syndrome and loss-of-function data in different model systems have firmly established a role of CHD7 in neural crest development. Here, we will summarize our current understanding of the function of CHD7 in neural crest development and discuss possible links of CHARGE syndrome to other developmental disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or...... and testis following toxicological exposure. For future studies, we propose the use of more than one verified reference gene and the continuous monitoring of their suitability under various experimental conditions, including toxicological studies, based on changes in threshold (Ct) values from cDNA samples...

  8. Thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation under hypothermic conditions: an in vitro evaluation of tissue factor initiated whole blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Kiankhooy, Armin; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E

    2014-02-01

    Despite trauma-induced hypothermic coagulopathy being familiar in the clinical setting, empirical experimentation concerning this phenomenon is lacking. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothermia on thrombin generation, clot formation, and global hemostatic functions in an in vitro environment using a whole blood model and thromboelastography, which can recapitulate hypothermia. Blood was collected from healthy individuals through venipuncture and treated with corn trypsin inhibitor, to block the contact pathway. Coagulation was initiated with 5pM tissue factor at temperatures 37°C, 32°C, and 27°C. Reactions were quenched over time, with soluble and insoluble components analyzed for thrombin generation, fibrinogen consumption, factor (f)XIII activation, and fibrin deposition. Global coagulation potential was evaluated through thromboelastography. Data showed that thrombin generation in samples at 37°C and 32°C had comparable rates, whereas 27°C had a much lower rate (39.2 ± 1.1 and 43 ± 2.4 nM/min vs 28.6 ± 4.4 nM/min, respectively). Fibrinogen consumption and fXIII activation were highest at 37°C, followed by 32°C and 27°C. Fibrin formation as seen through clot weights also followed this trend. Thromboelastography data showed that clot formation was fastest in samples at 37°C and lowest at 27°C. Maximum clot strength was similar for each temperature. Also, percent lysis of clots was highest at 37°C followed by 32°C and then 27°C. Induced hypothermic conditions directly affect the rate of thrombin generation and clot formation, whereas global clot stability remains intact. © 2013.

  9. [Effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical processes intensity, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate content in rats tissues under hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S; Agarkov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of melaxen and valdoxan on the biochemiluminescence parameters, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate level in rats heart and liver during development of experimental hyperthyroidism has been investigated. Administration of these substances promoted a decrease of biochemiluminescence parameters, which had been increased in tissues of rats in response to the development of oxidative stress under hyperthyroidism. Aconitate hydratase activity and citrate concentration in rats liver and heart, growing at pathological conditions, changed towards control value after administration of the drugs correcting melatonin level. The results indicate the positive effect of valdoxan and melaxen on oxidative status of the organism under the development of experimental hyperthyroidism that is associated with antioxidant action of melatonin.

  10. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Schmidt, Holger; Pfannenberg, Christina A; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Schick, Fritz; Schwenzer, Nina F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT. 120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years) were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data. Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%). Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness. We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  11. A system for precise temperature control of isolated nervous tissue under optical access: application to multi-electrode recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Malte T; Ammermüller, Josef

    2013-09-30

    Since temperature severely affects all physiological processes, exact temperature control during electrophysiological measurements is indispensable. However, none of the tempering system approaches previously described is fully satisfactory for extracellular recordings with sharp multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). We developed a set-up offering a homogeneously tempered and at the same time light-transparent stage for an ex vivo preparation. The Peltier element based tempering unit of our system is physically separated from the preparation stage avoiding electrical disturbances of extracellular recordings. We implemented a digital feedback controller on a microcontroller to minimise the deviation between actual and set point temperature. Our tempering system allows operation from 10°C to 45°C with a control error in steady state between 0.052°C (RMSE) and 0.115°C (RMSE). To document the versatility of our system, we performed extracellular MEA recordings from retinal ganglion cells of isolated retina under different temperature conditions. We found strong influences on light response properties, even for small temperature changes. Currently used heating systems that allow top and bottom side optical access to a preparation typically exhibit low temperature accuracy, precision or homogeneity. Our system is adequate not only for experiments on a variety of species under physiological temperature conditions but also for studies on temperature effects on physiology in general. Though the setup was developed for the context of MEA recordings from retina it may be useful in other cases where optical access to the preparation from both, top and bottom side is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A finite element-based machine learning approach for modeling the mechanical behavior of the breast tissues under compression in real-time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, F; Rupérez-Moreno, M J; Martínez-Sober, M; Solves-Llorens, J A; Lorente, D; Serrano-López, A J; Martínez-Sanchis, S; Monserrat, C; Martín-Guerrero, J D

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a data-driven method to simulate, in real-time, the biomechanical behavior of the breast tissues in some image-guided interventions such as biopsies or radiotherapy dose delivery as well as to speed up multimodal registration algorithms. Ten real breasts were used for this work. Their deformation due to the displacement of two compression plates was simulated off-line using the finite element (FE) method. Three machine learning models were trained with the data from those simulations. Then, they were used to predict in real-time the deformation of the breast tissues during the compression. The models were a decision tree and two tree-based ensemble methods (extremely randomized trees and random forest). Two different experimental setups were designed to validate and study the performance of these models under different conditions. The mean 3D Euclidean distance between nodes predicted by the models and those extracted from the FE simulations was calculated to assess the performance of the models in the validation set. The experiments proved that extremely randomized trees performed better than the other two models. The mean error committed by the three models in the prediction of the nodal displacements was under 2 mm, a threshold usually set for clinical applications. The time needed for breast compression prediction is sufficiently short to allow its use in real-time (<0.2 s). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the "majority-flipping attacker," does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker's outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  14. Cooperating attackers in neural cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Lanir N.; Klein, Einat; Mislovaty, Rachel; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2004-06-01

    A successful attack strategy in neural cryptography is presented. The neural cryptosystem, based on synchronization of neural networks by mutual learning, has been recently shown to be secure under different attack strategies. The success of the advanced attacker presented here, called the “majority-flipping attacker,” does not decay with the parameters of the model. This attacker’s outstanding success is due to its using a group of attackers which cooperate throughout the synchronization process, unlike any other attack strategy known. An analytical description of this attack is also presented, and fits the results of simulations.

  15. Neural components of altruistic punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eDu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Altruistic punishment, which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish in response to unfairness or a norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation. The neural correlates underlying costly punishment have only recently begun to be explored. Here we review the current state of research on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment, emphasizing the importance of characterizing elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish. In particular, we emphasize three cognitive processes that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most scenarios: inequity aversion, cost-benefit calculation, and social reference frame to distinguish self from others. Overall, we argue for the importance of understanding the neural correlates of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish.

  16. Neural components of altruistic punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Emily; Chang, Steve W C

    2015-01-01

    Altruistic punishment, which occurs when an individual incurs a cost to punish in response to unfairness or a norm violation, may play a role in perpetuating cooperation. The neural correlates underlying costly punishment have only recently begun to be explored. Here we review the current state of research on the neural basis of altruism from the perspectives of costly punishment, emphasizing the importance of characterizing elementary neural processes underlying a decision to punish. In particular, we emphasize three cognitive processes that contribute to the decision to altruistically punish in most scenarios: inequity aversion, cost-benefit calculation, and social reference frame to distinguish self from others. Overall, we argue for the importance of understanding the neural correlates of altruistic punishment with respect to the core computations necessary to achieve a decision to punish.

  17. Manganese Supplementation in Deer under Balanced Diet Increases Impact Energy and Contents in Minerals of Antler Bone Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Cappelli

    Full Text Available Bone ash, collagen, Ca and P composition, are considered the main factors affecting mechanical properties in bones. However, a series of studies in bone and antler have shown that some trace minerals, such as manganese, may play a role whose importance exceeds what may be expected considering their low content. A previous study showed that a reduction in manganese in antlers during a year of late winter frosts led to generalized antler breakage in Spain, which included a reduction of 30% of cortical thickness, 27% reduction in impact energy, and 10% reduction in work to peak force. Starting for this observation, we experimentally studied the effects of manganese supplementation in adults and yearling (yearlings red deer under a balanced diet. Subjects were 29 deer of different age classes (adult n = 19, yearlings n = 10 that were divided in a manganese injected group (n = 14 and a control group (n = 15. Antler content in ashes and minerals, intrinsic mechanical properties and cross section structure were examined at 4 points along the antler beam. A one way ANOVA (mean per antler showed that in yearlings, manganese supplementation only increased its content and that of Fe. However, in adults, Mn supplementation increased the mean content per antler of Ca, Na, P, B, Co, Cu, K, Mn, Ni, Se (while Si content was reduced, and impact work but not Young's modulus of elasticity, bending strength or work to peak force. A GLM series on characteristics in the uppermost part examined in the antler, often showing physiological exhaustion and depletion of body stores, showed also a 16% increase in work to peak force in the antlers of the treated group. Thus, manganese supplementation altered mineral composition of antler and improved structure and some mechanical properties despite animals having a balanced diet.

  18. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  19. Seeding neural progenitor cells on silicon-based neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Erdrin; Gobbel, Glenn T; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-09-01

    Chronically implanted neural electrode arrays have the potential to be used as neural prostheses in patients with various neurological disorders. While these electrodes perform well in acute recordings, they often fail to function reliably in clinically relevant chronic settings because of glial encapsulation and the loss of neurons. Surface modification of these implants may provide a means of improving their biocompatibility and integration within host brain tissue. The authors proposed a method of improving the brain-implant interface by seeding the implant's surface with a layer of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine subependyma. Neural progenitor cells may reduce the foreign body reaction by presenting a tissue-friendly surface and repair implant-induced injury and inflammation by releasing neurotrophic factors. In this study, the authors evaluated the growth and differentiation of NPCs on laminin-immobilized probe surfaces and explored the potential impact on transplant survival of these cells. Laminin protein was successfully immobilized on the silicon surface via covalent binding using silane chemistry. The growth, adhesion, and differentiation of NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) on laminin-modified silicon surfaces were characterized in vitro by using immunocytochemical techniques. Shear forces were applied to NPC cultures in growth medium to evaluate their shearing properties. In addition, neural probes seeded with GFP-labeled NPCs cultured in growth medium for 14 days were implanted in murine cortex. The authors assessed the adhesion properties of these cells during implantation conditions. Moreover, the tissue response around NPC-seeded implants was observed after 1 and 7 days postimplantation. Significantly improved NPC attachment and growth was found on the laminin-immobilized surface compared with an unmodified control before and after shear force application. The NPCs grown on the laminin-immobilized surface

  20. Células mesenquimales de médula ósea: Diferenciación y potencial reemplazo neuronal Mesenchymal stem cells: Differentiation and alternative source of neural tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina C. Bianchi de Di Risio

    2004-12-01

    cells to repair damaged tissues. Particularly neuronal differentiation from progenitors obtained from mesenchymae non hemopoietic cells offers a new possibility in the field of neural transplantation and tissue engineering to repair functional entities in the nervous system.

  1. Adipose stromal cells contain phenotypically distinct adipogenic progenitors derived from neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Sowa

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs contain phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous subpopulations of cells, but their developmental origin and their relative differentiation potential remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed at investigating how and to what extent the neural crest contributes to ASCs using Cre-loxP-mediated fate mapping. ASCs harvested from subcutaneous fat depots of either adult P0-Cre/or Wnt1-Cre/Floxed-reporter mice contained a few neural crest-derived ASCs (NCDASCs. This subpopulation of cells was successfully expanded in vitro under standard culture conditions and their growth rate was comparable to non-neural crest derivatives. Although NCDASCs were positive for several mesenchymal stem cell markers as non-neural crest derivatives, they exhibited a unique bipolar or multipolar morphology with higher expression of markers for both neural crest progenitors (p75NTR, Nestin, and Sox2 and preadipocytes (CD24, CD34, S100, Pref-1, GATA2, and C/EBP-delta. NCDASCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes with high efficiency but their osteogenic and chondrogenic potential was markedly attenuated, indicating their commitment to adipogenesis. In vivo, a very small proportion of adipocytes were originated from the neural crest. In addition, p75NTR-positive neural crest-derived cells were identified along the vessels within the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but they were negative for mural and endothelial markers. These results demonstrate that ASCs contain neural crest-derived adipocyte-restricted progenitors whose phenotype is distinct from that of non-neural crest derivatives.

  2. Analysis of the scattering performance of human retinal tissue layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Gao, Zhisan; Ye, Haishui; Yuan, Qun

    2017-02-01

    Human retina is different from other ocular tissues, such as cornea, crystalline lens and vitreous because of high scattering performance. As an anisotropic tissue, we cannot neglect its impact on the polarization state of the scattered light. In this paper, Mie scattering and radiative transfer theory are applied to analyze the polarization state of backscattered light from four types of retinal tissues, including neural retina, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE), choroid and sclera. The results show that the most backscattered zones in different depths have almost the same electrical fields of Jones vector, which represents the polarization state of light, whether neural retina layer is under normal incidence or oblique incidence. Very little change occurs in the polarization of backscattered light compared to that of the incident light. Polarization distribution of backward scattered light from neural retina layer doesn't make apparent effects on polarization phase shifting in spectral domain OCT because its thickness is far less than photon mean free path, while other retinal tissues do not meet this rule.

  3. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  4. Implantable liquid metal-based flexible neural microelectrode array and its application in recovering animal locomotion functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    With significant advantages in rapidly restoring the nerve function, electrical stimulation of nervous tissue is a crucial treatment of peripheral nerve injuries leading to common movement disorder. However, the currently available stimulating electrodes generally based on rigid conductive materials would cause a potential mechanical mismatch with soft neural tissues which thus reduces long-term effects of electrical stimulation. Here, we proposed and fabricated a flexible neural microelectrode array system based on the liquid metal GaIn alloy (75.5% Ga and 24.5% In by weight) and via printing approach. Such an alloy with a unique low melting point (10.35 °C) owns excellent electrical conductivity and high compliance, which are beneficial to serve as implantable flexible neural electrodes. The flexible neural microelectrode array embeds four liquid metal electrodes and stretchable interconnects in a PDMS membrane (500 µm in thickness) that possess a lower elastic modulus (1.055 MPa), which is similar to neural tissues with elastic moduli in the 0.1-1.5 MPa range. The electrical experiments indicate that the liquid metal interconnects could sustain over 7000 mechanical stretch cycles with resistance approximately staying at 4 Ω. Over the conceptual experiments on animal sciatic nerve electrical stimulation, the dead bullfrog implanted with flexible neural microelectrode array could even rhythmically contract and move its lower limbs under the electrical stimulations from the implant. This demonstrates a highly efficient way for quickly recovering biological nerve functions. Further, the good biocompatibility of the liquid metal material was justified via a series of biological experiments. This liquid metal modality for neural stimulation is expected to play important roles as biologic electrodes to overcome the fundamental mismatch in mechanics between biological tissues and electronic devices in the coming time.

  5. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  6. A practical clinical classification of spinal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, J Gordon

    2015-10-01

    Current commonly used terminology to describe neural tube defects (NTD) is inconsistent, overlapping, contradictory and, at times, inaccurate making it difficult to convey the nature of the malformation and what needs to be done to optimally treat patients with these congenital abnormalities.NTD can be broadly divided into those that are open with exposed neural tissue and leaking cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and those that are closed with no exposed neural tissue nor loss of CSF. It appears that the loss of CSF during development is the underlying factor that leads to the entire central nervous system involvement with an open NTD and lack thereof with a closed NTD, wherein only the spinal cord is malformed. There are, however, rare transitional cases that bridge the gap between the two forms.Agreeing on a nomenclature that is used in a standard fashion would be of help in addressing this group of congenital anomalies that have a great deal of variability and, at times, can be quite complex.

  7. Energy efficient neural stimulation: coupling circuit design and membrane biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, Thomas J; Ackermann, D Michael; Kilgore, Kevin L; McIntyre, Cameron C

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of therapeutic levels of electrical current to neural tissue is a well-established treatment for numerous indications such as Parkinson's disease and chronic pain. While the neuromodulation medical device industry has experienced steady clinical growth over the last two decades, much of the core technology underlying implanted pulse generators remain unchanged. In this study we propose some new methods for achieving increased energy-efficiency during neural stimulation. The first method exploits the biophysical features of excitable tissue through the use of a centered-triangular stimulation waveform. Neural activation with this waveform is achieved with a statistically significant reduction in energy compared to traditional rectangular waveforms. The second method demonstrates energy savings that could be achieved by advanced circuitry design. We show that the traditional practice of using a fixed compliance voltage for constant-current stimulation results in substantial energy loss. A portion of this energy can be recuperated by adjusting the compliance voltage to real-time requirements. Lastly, we demonstrate the potential impact of axon fiber diameter on defining the energy-optimal pulse-width for stimulation. When designing implantable pulse generators for energy efficiency, we propose that the future combination of a variable compliance system, a centered-triangular stimulus waveform, and an axon diameter specific stimulation pulse-width has great potential to reduce energy consumption and prolong battery life in neuromodulation devices.

  8. Mapping of the Underlying Neural Mechanisms of Maintenance and Manipulation in Visuo-Spatial Working Memory Using An n-back Mental Rotation Task: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Gemma; Alexander, Bonnie; Laycock, Robin; Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of the underlying neural mechanisms of visuo-spatial working memory (WM) has been shown to consistently elicit activity in right hemisphere dominant fronto-parietal networks. However to date, the bulk of neuroimaging literature has focused largely on the maintenance aspect of visuo-spatial WM, with a scarcity of research into the aspects of WM involving manipulation of information. Thus, this study aimed to compare maintenance-only with maintenance and manipulation of visuo-spatial stimuli (3D cube shapes) utilizing a 1-back task while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were acquired. Sixteen healthy participants (9 women, M = 23.94 years, SD = 2.49) were required to perform the 1-back task with or without mentally rotating the shapes 90° on a vertical axis. When no rotation was required (maintenance-only condition), a right hemispheric lateralization was revealed across fronto-parietal areas. However, when the task involved maintaining and manipulating the same stimuli through 90° rotation, activation was primarily seen in the bilateral parietal lobe and left fusiform gyrus. The findings confirm that the well-established right lateralized fronto-parietal networks are likely to underlie simple maintenance of visuo-spatial stimuli. The results also suggest that the added demand of manipulation of information maintained online appears to require further neural recruitment of functionally related areas. In particular mental rotation of visuospatial stimuli required bilateral parietal areas, and the left fusiform gyrus potentially to maintain a categorical or object representation. It can be concluded that WM is a complex neural process involving the interaction of an increasingly large network.

  9. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  10. Neural network technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, James A.

    1991-01-01

    A whole new arena of computer technologies is now beginning to form. Still in its infancy, neural network technology is a biologically inspired methodology which draws on nature's own cognitive processes. The Software Technology Branch has provided a software tool, Neural Execution and Training System (NETS), to industry, government, and academia to facilitate and expedite the use of this technology. NETS is written in the C programming language and can be executed on a variety of machines. Once a network has been debugged, NETS can produce a C source code which implements the network. This code can then be incorporated into other software systems. Described here are various software projects currently under development with NETS and the anticipated future enhancements to NETS and the technology.

  11. The Neural Crest in Cardiac Congenital Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyte, Anna; Hutson, Mary Redmond

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the function of neural crest as they relate to cardiovascular defects. The cardiac neural crest cells are a subpopulation of cranial neural crest discovered nearly 30 years ago by ablation of premigratory neural crest. The cardiac neural crest cells are necessary for normal cardiovascular development. We begin with a description of the crest cells in normal development, including their function in remodeling the pharyngeal arch arteries, outflow tract septation, valvulogenesis, and development of the cardiac conduction system. The cells are also responsible for modulating signaling in the caudal pharynx, including the second heart field. Many of the molecular pathways that are known to influence specification, migration, patterning and final targeting of the cardiac neural crest cells are reviewed. The cardiac neural crest cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various human cardiocraniofacial syndromes such as DiGeorge, Velocardiofacial, CHARGE, Fetal Alcohol, Alagille, LEOPARD, and Noonan syndromes, as well as Retinoic Acid Embryopathy. The loss of neural crest cells or their dysfunction may not always directly cause abnormal cardiovascular development, but are involved secondarily because crest cells represent a major component in the complex tissue interactions in the head, pharynx and outflow tract. Thus many of the human syndromes linking defects in the heart, face and brain can be better understood when considered within the context of a single cardiocraniofacial developmental module with the neural crest being a key cell type that interconnects the regions. PMID:22595346

  12. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vitamin, before and during pregnancy prevents most neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are usually diagnosed before the infant is ... or imaging tests. There is no cure for neural tube defects. The nerve damage and loss of function ...

  13. An adaptive recurrent neural-network controller using a stabilization matrix and predictive inputs to solve a tracking problem under disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Michael; Li, Shuhui; Fu, Xingang; Alonso, Eduardo; Wunsch, Donald

    2014-01-01

    We present a recurrent neural-network (RNN) controller designed to solve the tracking problem for control systems. We demonstrate that a major difficulty in training any RNN is the problem of exploding gradients, and we propose a solution to this in the case of tracking problems, by introducing a stabilization matrix and by using carefully constrained context units. This solution allows us to achieve consistently lower training errors, and hence allows us to more easily introduce adaptive capabilities. The resulting RNN is one that has been trained off-line to be rapidly adaptive to changing plant conditions and changing tracking targets. The case study we use is a renewable-energy generator application; that of producing an efficient controller for a three-phase grid-connected converter. The controller we produce can cope with the random variation of system parameters and fluctuating grid voltages. It produces tracking control with almost instantaneous response to changing reference states, and virtually zero oscillation. This compares very favorably to the classical proportional integrator (PI) controllers, which we show produce a much slower response and settling time. In addition, the RNN we propose exhibits better learning stability and convergence properties, and can exhibit faster adaptation, than has been achieved with adaptive critic designs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural recording and modulation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ritchie; Canales, Andres; Anikeeva, Polina

    2017-01-01

    In the mammalian nervous system, billions of neurons connected by quadrillions of synapses exchange electrical, chemical and mechanical signals. Disruptions to this network manifest as neurological or psychiatric conditions. Despite decades of neuroscience research, our ability to treat or even to understand these conditions is limited by the capability of tools to probe the signalling complexity of the nervous system. Although orders of magnitude smaller and computationally faster than neurons, conventional substrate-bound electronics do not recapitulate the chemical and mechanical properties of neural tissue. This mismatch results in a foreign-body response and the encapsulation of devices by glial scars, suggesting that the design of an interface between the nervous system and a synthetic sensor requires additional materials innovation. Advances in genetic tools for manipulating neural activity have fuelled the demand for devices that are capable of simultaneously recording and controlling individual neurons at unprecedented scales. Recently, flexible organic electronics and bio- and nanomaterials have been developed for multifunctional and minimally invasive probes for long-term interaction with the nervous system. In this Review, we discuss the design lessons from the quarter-century-old field of neural engineering, highlight recent materials-driven progress in neural probes and look at emergent directions inspired by the principles of neural transduction.

  15. Computational models of the neural control of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Rubin, Jonathan E; Rybak, Ilya A; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing process of breathing underlies the gas exchange essential for mammalian life. Each respiratory cycle ensues from the activity of rhythmic neural circuits in the brainstem, shaped by various modulatory signals, including mechanoreceptor feedback sensitive to lung inflation and chemoreceptor feedback dependent on gas composition in blood and tissues. This paper reviews a variety of computational models designed to reproduce experimental findings related to the neural control of breathing and generate predictions for future experimental testing. The review starts from the description of the core respiratory network in the brainstem, representing the central pattern generator (CPG) responsible for producing rhythmic respiratory activity, and progresses to encompass additional complexities needed to simulate different metabolic challenges, closed-loop feedback control including the lungs, and interactions between the respiratory and autonomic nervous systems. The integrated models considered in this review share a common framework including a distributed CPG core network responsible for generating the baseline three-phase pattern of rhythmic neural activity underlying normal breathing. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1371. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1371 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Integrating multiple vegetation indices via an artificial neural network model for estimating the leaf chlorophyll content of Spartina alterniflora under interspecies competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Yuyan; Wang, Jiapeng; Tao, Zhu; Gao, Wei

    2017-10-31

    The invasive species Spartina alterniflora and native species Phragmites australis display a significant co-occurrence zonation pattern and this co-exist region exerts most competitive situations between these two species, competing for the limited space, directly influencing the co-exist distribution in the future. However, these two species have different growth ratios in this area, which increase the difficulty to detect the distribution situation directly by remote sensing. As chlorophyll content is a key indicator of plant growth and physiological status, the objective of this study was to reduce the effect of interspecies competition when estimating Cab content; we evaluated 79 published representative indices to determine the optimal indices for estimating the chlorophyll a and b (Cab) content. After performing a sensitivity analysis for all 79 spectral indices, five spectral indices were selected and integrated using an artificial neural network (ANN) to estimate the Cab content of different competition ratios: the Gitelson ratio green index, the transformed chlorophyll absorption ratio index/optimized soil-adjusted vegetation index, the modified normalized difference vegetation index, the chlorophyll fluorescence index, and the Vogelmann chlorophyll index. The ANN method yielded better results (R 2 = 0.7110 and RMSE = 8.3829 μg cm-2) on average than the best single spectral index (R 2 = 0.6319 and RMSE = 9.3535 μg cm-2), representing an increase of 10.78% in R 2 and a decrease of 10.38% in RMSE. Our results indicated that integrating multiple vegetation indices with an ANN can alleviate the impact of interspecies competition and achieve higher estimation accuracy than the traditional approach using a single index.

  17. Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    : Although isolation of oral mucosal stromal stem cells has been previously reported, complex isolation methods are not suitable for clinical application. The neurosphere culture technique is a convenient method for the isolation of neural stem cells and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs); neurosphere generation is a phenotype of NCSCs. However, the molecular details underlying the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) by neurosphere culture are not understood. The purpose of the present study was to isolate NCSCs from oral mucosa using the neurosphere technique and to establish effective in vivo bone tissue regeneration methods. Human OMSCs were isolated from excised human oral mucosa; these cells formed spheres in neurosphere culture conditions. Oral mucosa sphere-forming cells (OMSFCs) were characterized by biological analyses of stem cells. Additionally, composites of OMSFCs and multiporous polylactic acid scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. OMSFCs had the capacity for self-renewal and expressed neural crest-related markers (e.g., nestin, CD44, slug, snail, and MSX1). Furthermore, upregulated expression of neural crest-related genes (EDNRA, Hes1, and Sox9) was observed in OMSFCs, which are thought to contain an enriched population of neural crest-derived cells. The expression pattern of α2-integrin (CD49b) in OMSFCs also differed from that in OMSCs. Finally, OMSFCs were capable of differentiating into neural crest lineages in vitro and generating ectopic bone tissues even in the subcutaneous region. The results of the present study suggest that OMSFCs are an ideal source of cells for the neural crest lineage and hard tissue regeneration. The sphere culture technique is a convenient method for isolating stem cells. However, the isolation and characterization of human oral mucosa stromal cells (OMSCs) using the sphere culture system are not fully understood. The present study describes the

  18. Neural plasticity of development and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Adriana

    2010-06-01

    Development and learning are powerful agents of change across the lifespan that induce robust structural and functional plasticity in neural systems. An unresolved question in developmental cognitive neuroscience is whether development and learning share the same neural mechanisms associated with experience-related neural plasticity. In this article, I outline the conceptual and practical challenges of this question, review insights gleaned from adult studies, and describe recent strides toward examining this topic across development using neuroimaging methods. I suggest that development and learning are not two completely separate constructs and instead, that they exist on a continuum. While progressive and regressive changes are central to both, the behavioral consequences associated with these changes are closely tied to the existing neural architecture of maturity of the system. Eventually, a deeper, more mechanistic understanding of neural plasticity will shed light on behavioral changes across development and, more broadly, about the underlying neural basis of cognition. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. High frequency of methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in childre