WorldWideScience

Sample records for neural progenitors nps

  1. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 All antigens Neural Induced neural progeni....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 All antigens Neural Induced neural progeni....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 All antigens Neural Induced neural progeni....biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  4. Seeding neural progenitor cells on silicon-based neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Erdrin; Gobbel, Glenn T; Cui, Xinyan Tracy

    2010-09-01

    Chronically implanted neural electrode arrays have the potential to be used as neural prostheses in patients with various neurological disorders. While these electrodes perform well in acute recordings, they often fail to function reliably in clinically relevant chronic settings because of glial encapsulation and the loss of neurons. Surface modification of these implants may provide a means of improving their biocompatibility and integration within host brain tissue. The authors proposed a method of improving the brain-implant interface by seeding the implant's surface with a layer of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine subependyma. Neural progenitor cells may reduce the foreign body reaction by presenting a tissue-friendly surface and repair implant-induced injury and inflammation by releasing neurotrophic factors. In this study, the authors evaluated the growth and differentiation of NPCs on laminin-immobilized probe surfaces and explored the potential impact on transplant survival of these cells. Laminin protein was successfully immobilized on the silicon surface via covalent binding using silane chemistry. The growth, adhesion, and differentiation of NPCs expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) on laminin-modified silicon surfaces were characterized in vitro by using immunocytochemical techniques. Shear forces were applied to NPC cultures in growth medium to evaluate their shearing properties. In addition, neural probes seeded with GFP-labeled NPCs cultured in growth medium for 14 days were implanted in murine cortex. The authors assessed the adhesion properties of these cells during implantation conditions. Moreover, the tissue response around NPC-seeded implants was observed after 1 and 7 days postimplantation. Significantly improved NPC attachment and growth was found on the laminin-immobilized surface compared with an unmodified control before and after shear force application. The NPCs grown on the laminin-immobilized surface

  5. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  6. Membrane Biophysics Define Neuron and Astrocyte Progenitors in the Neural Lineage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nourse, J.L; Prieto, J.L; Dickson, A.R; Lu, J; Pathak, M.M; Tombola, F; Demetriou, M; Lee, A.P; Flanagan, L.A

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs) are heterogeneous populations of self‐renewing stem cells and more committed progenitors that differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX323573,SRX323564 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  8. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural pro...genitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  10. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural proge...nitors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315278,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238868,SRX238870 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX323564,SRX323573 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 DNase-seq Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX802060,SRX109471 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX109471,SRX802060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315277,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 TFs and others Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX323564,SRX323573 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 TFs and others Neural Neural progenito...r cells SRX109472,SRX315274,SRX109471,SRX802060 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Histone Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX667381,SRX668240 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  16. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 DNase-seq Neural Neural progenitor cel...ls SRX238870,SRX238868 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 All antigens Neural Neural progenitor ...ttp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Neural progenito...r cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Unclassified Neural Neural progenitor ...cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Histone Neural Neural progenitor cells... SRX315278,SRX315277,SRX667383,SRX668241,SRX315276 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Unclassified Neural Induced neural ...progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  6. Cellular therapy after spinal cord injury using neural progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroemen, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities and limitations of cell-based therapies after spinal cord injury are explored. Particularly, the potential of adult derived neural progenitor cell (NPC) grafts to function as a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration was investigated. It was found that syngenic

  7. MANF Promotes Differentiation and Migration of Neural Progenitor Cells with Potential Neural Regenerative Effects in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kuan-Yin; Anttila, Jenni E; Khodosevich, Konstantin

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia activates endogenous reparative processes, such as increased proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) toward the ischemic area. However, this reparative process is limited because most of the NPCs...

  8. Western Zika Virus in Human Fetal Neural Progenitors Persists Long Term with Partial Cytopathic and Limited Immunogenic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanners, Natasha W; Eitson, Jennifer L; Usui, Noriyoshi; Richardson, R Blake; Wexler, Eric M; Konopka, Genevieve; Schoggins, John W

    2016-06-14

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the Western hemisphere is associated with severe pathology in newborns, including microcephaly and brain damage. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are under intense investigation. Here, we show that a 2015 ZIKV isolate replicates in multiple cell types, including primary human fetal neural progenitors (hNPs). In immortalized cells, ZIKV is cytopathic and grossly rearranges endoplasmic reticulum membranes similar to other flaviviruses. In hNPs, ZIKV infection has a partial cytopathic phase characterized by cell rounding, pyknosis, and activation of caspase 3. Despite notable cell death, ZIKV did not activate a cytokine response in hNPs. This lack of cell intrinsic immunity to ZIKV is consistent with our observation that virus replication persists in hNPs for at least 28 days. These findings, supported by published fetal neuropathology, establish a proof-of-concept that neural progenitors in the developing human fetus can be direct targets of detrimental ZIKV-induced pathology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived anterior specified neural progenitors protect the rat crushed optic nerve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Satarian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs is a common occurrence in several eye diseases. This study examined the functional improvement and protection of host RGCs in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors (NPs following intravitreal transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: NPs were produced under defined conditions from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs and transplanted into rats whose optic nerves have been crushed (ONC. hiPSCs were induced to differentiate into anterior specified NPs by the use of Noggin and retinoic acid. The hiPSC-NPs were labeled by green fluorescent protein or a fluorescent tracer 1,1' -dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI and injected two days after induction of ONC in hooded rats. Functional analysis according to visual evoked potential recordings showed significant amplitude recovery in animals transplanted with hiPSC-NPs. Retrograde labeling by an intra-collicular DiI injection showed significantly higher numbers of RGCs and spared axons in ONC rats treated with hiPSC-NPs or their conditioned medium (CM. The analysis of CM of hiPSC-NPs showed the secretion of ciliary neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor. Optic nerve of cell transplanted groups also had increased GAP43 immunoreactivity and myelin staining by FluoroMyelin™ which imply for protection of axons and myelin. At 60 days post-transplantation hiPSC-NPs were integrated into the ganglion cell layer of the retina and expressed neuronal markers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transplantation of anterior specified NPs may improve optic nerve injury through neuroprotection and differentiation into neuronal lineages. These NPs possibly provide a promising new therapeutic approach for traumatic optic nerve injuries and loss of RGCs caused by other diseases.

  10. Concentration-dependent effect of nerve growth factor on cell fate determination of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Hui; Hu, Zhengqing

    2011-10-01

    Stem cell-based spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) replacement therapy has been proposed to be a promising strategy to restore hearing either via replacing degenerated neurons or by improving the efficacy of cochlear implants which rely on functional neurons. However, lack of suitable donor cells and low survival rate of implanted cells are the major obstacles to successful implementation of therapeutic transplantation. The present study investigated the potential of mouse inner ear statoacoustic ganglion (SAG)-derived neural progenitors (NPs) to differentiate toward SGN-like glutamatergic cells and the influence to cell survival and differentiation when nerve growth factor (NGF) was supplied. We found that SAG-NPs could form neurospheres, proliferate, and differentiate into cells expressing neuronal protein neurofilament and β-III tubulin. NGF affected the cell fate of SAG-NP in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. Low concentration of NGF (2-5 ng/mL) promoted cell proliferation. Medium concentration of NGF (20-40 ng/mL) stimulated cells to differentiate into bi-polar SGN-like cells expressing glutamatergic proteins. High concentration of NGF (100 ng/mL) could rescue cells from induced apoptosis. In the in vivo study, NGF (100 ng/mL) dramatically enhanced SAG-NP survival rate after implantation into adult mammalian inner ear. This finding raises the possibility to further induce these NPs to differentiate into SGN-like neurons in future in vivo study. In conclusion, given the capability of proliferation and differentiation into SGN-like cells with the supplement of NGF in vitro, SAG-NPs can serve as donor cells in stem cell-based SGN replacement therapy. NGF improved the survival of SAG-NPs not only in vitro but also in vivo.

  11. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 No description Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal neural p...rogenitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Input control Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX668238,SRX667380,SRX323563,SRX323574 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Input control Neural Induced neural... progenitors SRX667380,SRX668238,SRX323563,SRX323574 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 TFs and others Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells SRX109477 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 No description Neural Induced neural... progenitors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 All antigens Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells SRX109477,SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Histone Neural Fetal neural pro...genitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Unclassified Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Input control Neural Neural progenitor... cells SRX109476,SRX667382,SRX109475,SRX315272,SRX315273,SRX668239 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 No description Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Input control Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Histone Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 All antigens Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109477,SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Unclassified Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Unclassified Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 All antigens Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109477,SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 No description Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Input control Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX323563,SRX323574,SRX667380,SRX668238 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 No description Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 TFs and others Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109477 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 TFs and others Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109477 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Input control Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Input control Neural Neural progenitor... cells SRX109476,SRX315272,SRX315273,SRX109475,SRX667382,SRX668239 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 Input control Neural Induced neural progeni...tors SRX323563,SRX323574,SRX667380,SRX668238 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors mm9 No description Neural Induced neural progeni...tors http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Induced_neural_progenitors.bed ...

  2. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Input control Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 DNase-seq Neural Fetal neural progeni...tor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Input control Neural Neural progenitor... cells SRX109476,SRX315272,SRX315273,SRX109475,SRX668239,SRX667382 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 Input control Neural Neural progenitor... cells SRX109476,SRX315272,SRX315273,SRX109475,SRX668239,SRX667382 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Input control Neural Fetal neural... progenitor cells SRX109478 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells hg19 Histone Neural Fetal neural pro...genitor cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Fetal_neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  8. Impact of Lipid Nutrition on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Sakayori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural system originates from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs. Embryonic NSPCs first proliferate to increase their numbers and then produce neurons and glial cells that compose the complex neural circuits in the brain. New neurons are continually produced even after birth from adult NSPCs in the inner wall of the lateral ventricle and in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. These adult-born neurons are involved in various brain functions, including olfaction-related functions, learning and memory, pattern separation, and mood control. NSPCs are regulated by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Diet is one of such important extrinsic factors. Of dietary nutrients, lipids are important because they constitute the cell membrane, are a source of energy, and function as signaling molecules. Metabolites of some lipids can be strong lipid mediators that also regulate various biological activities. Recent findings have revealed that lipids are important regulators of both embryonic and adult NSPCs. We and other groups have shown that lipid signals including fat, fatty acids, their metabolites and intracellular carriers, cholesterol, and vitamins affect proliferation and differentiation of embryonic and adult NSPCs. A better understanding of the NSPCs regulation by lipids may provide important insight into the neural development and brain function.

  9. Generation of Integration-free and Region-Specific Neural Progenitors from Primate Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Lu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal and adult human and monkey fibroblasts were infected with Sendai virus containing the Yamanaka factors for 24 hr, then they were cultured in a chemically defined medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF, transforming growth factor (TGF-β inhibitor SB431542, and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β inhibitor CHIR99021 at 39°C for inactivation of the virus. Induced neural progenitor (iNP colonies appeared as early as day 13 and can be expanded for >20 passages. Under the same defined condition, no induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC colonies formed at either 37°C or 39°C. The iNPs predominantly express hindbrain genes and differentiate into hindbrain neurons, and when caudalized, they produced an enriched population of spinal motor neurons. Following transplantation into the forebrain, the iNP-derived cells retained the hindbrain identity. The ability to generate defined, integration-free iNPs from adult primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and therapeutic development.

  10. Small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors increase neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christian; Mix, Eilhard; Frahm, Jana; Glass, Anne; Müller, Jana; Schmitt, Oliver; Schmöle, Anne-Caroline; Klemm, Kristin; Ortinau, Stefanie; Hübner, Rayk; Frech, Moritz J; Wree, Andreas; Rolfs, Arndt

    2011-01-13

    Human neural progenitor cells provide a source for cell replacement therapy to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, there is great interest in mechanisms and tools to direct the fate of multipotent progenitor cells during their differentiation to increase the yield of a desired cell type. We tested small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) for their functionality and their influence on neurogenesis using the human neural progenitor cell line ReNcell VM. Here we report the enhancement of neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells by treatment with GSK-3 inhibitors. We tested different small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 i.e. LiCl, sodium-valproate, kenpaullone, indirubin-3-monoxime and SB-216763 for their ability to inhibit GSK-3 in human neural progenitor cells. The highest in situ GSK-3 inhibitory effect of the drugs was found for kenpaullone and SB-216763. Accordingly, kenpaullone and SB-216763 were the only drugs tested in this study to stimulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway that is antagonized by GSK-3. Analysis of human neural progenitor differentiation revealed an augmentation of neurogenesis by SB-216763 and kenpaullone, without changing cell cycle exit or cell survival. Small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3 enhance neurogenesis of human neural progenitor cells and may be used to direct the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells in therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor marimastat promotes neural progenitor cell differentiation into neurons by gelatinase-independent TIMP-2-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Maddalena; Biagioni, Stefano; Ajmone-Cat, Maria Antonietta; Pafumi, Irene; Caramanica, Pasquale; Medda, Virginia; Tonti, Gaetana; Minghetti, Luisa; Mannello, Ferdinando; Cacci, Emanuele

    2013-02-01

    Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), produced in the brain by cells of non-neural and neural origin, including neural progenitors (NPs), are emerging as regulators of nervous system development and adult brain functions. In the present study, we explored whether MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-2, abundantly produced in the brain, modulate NP developmental properties. We found that treatment of NPs, isolated from the murine fetal cerebral cortex or adult subventricular zone, with the clinically tested broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor Marimastat profoundly affected the NP differentiation fate. Marimastat treatment allowed for an enrichment of our cultures in neuronal cells, inducing NPs to generate higher percentage of neurons and a lower percentage of astrocytes, possibly affecting NP commitment. Consistently with its proneurogenic effect, Marimastat early downregulated the expression of Notch target genes, such as Hes1 and Hes5. MMP-2 and MMP-9 profiling on proliferating and differentiating NPs revealed that MMP-9 was not expressed under these conditions, whereas MMP-2 increased in the medium as pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa) during differentiation; its active form (62 kDa) was not detectable by gel zymography. MMP-2 silencing or administration of recombinant active MMP-2 demonstrated that MMP-2 does not affect NP neuronal differentiation, nor it is involved in the Marimastat proneurogenic effect. We also found that TIMP-2 is expressed in NPs and increases during late differentiation, mainly as a consequence of astrocyte generation. Endogenous TIMP-2 did not modulate NP neurogenic potential; however, the proneurogenic action of Marimastat was mediated by TIMP-2, as demonstrated by silencing experiments. In conclusion, our data exclude a major involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the regulation of basal NP differentiation, but highlight the ability of TIMP-2 to act as key effector of the proneurogenic response to an inducing stimulus such as Marimastat.

  12. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  13. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylases induces astrocytic differentiation of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Anirban; Dhara, Sujoy K; Swetenburg, Raymond; Mithani, Miloni; Cao, Kaixiang; Medrzycki, Magdalena; Fan, Yuhong; Stice, Steven L

    2013-07-01

    Understanding how to specify rapid differentiation of human neural progenitor towards enriched non-transformed human astrocyte progenitors will provide a critical cell source to further our understanding of how astrocytes play a pivotal role in neural function and development. Human neural progenitors derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cells and propagated in adherent serum-free cultures provide a fate restricted renewable source for quick production of neural cells; however, such cells are highly refractive to astrocytogenesis and show a strong neurogenic bias, similar to neural progenitors from the early embryonic central nervous system (CNS). We found that several astrocytic genes are hypermethylated in such progenitors potentially preventing generation of astrocytes and leading to the proneuronal fate of these progenitors. However, epigenetic modification by Azacytidine (Aza-C) and Trichostatin A (TSA), with concomitant signaling from BMP2 and LIF in neural progenitor cultures shifts this bias, leading to expression of astrocytic markers as early as 5days of differentiation, with near complete suppression of neuronal differentiation. The resultant cells express major astrocytic markers, are amenable to co-culture with neurons, can be propagated as astrocyte progenitors and are cryopreservable. Although previous reports have generated astrocytes from pluripotent cells, the differentiation required extensive culture or selection based on cell surface antigens. The development of a label free and rapid differentiation process will expedite future derivation of astrocytes from various sources pluripotent cells including, but not limited to, human astrocytes associated with various neurological diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 No description Neural Neural progenito...SRX346675,SRX346817 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 No description Neural Neural progenito...SRX346675,SRX298043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells mm9 No description Neural Neural progenito...SRX346817,SRX346814 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.50.AllAg.Neural_progenitor_cells.bed ...

  17. Raman spectroscopy for discrimination of neural progenitor cells and their lineages (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keren; Ong, William; Chew, Sing Yian; Liu, Quan

    2017-02-01

    Neurological diseases are one of the leading causes of adult disability and they are estimated to cause more deaths than cancer in the elderly population by 2040. Stem cell therapy has shown great potential in treating neurological diseases. However, before cell therapy can be widely adopted in the long term, a number of challenges need to be addressed, including the fundamental research about cellular development of neural progenitor cells. To facilitate the fundamental research of neural progenitor cells, many methods have been developed to identify neural progenitor cells. Although great progress has been made, there is still lack of an effective method to achieve fast, label-free and noninvasive differentiation of neural progenitor cells and their lineages. As a fast, label-free and noninvasive technique, spontaneous Raman spectroscopy has been conducted to characterize many types of stem cells including neural stem cells. However, to our best knowledge, it has not been studied for the discrimination of neural progenitor cells from specific lineages. Here we report the differentiation of neural progenitor cell from their lineages including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, we also evaluate the influence of system parameters during spectral acquisition on the quality of measured Raman spectra and the accuracy of classification using the spectra, which yield a set of optimal system parameters facilitating future studies.

  18. Transplantation of neural progenitor cells in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y; Bouyer, J; Shumsky, J S; Haas, C; Fischer, I

    2016-04-21

    Previous studies demonstrated that neural progenitor cells (NPCs) transplanted into a subacute contusion injury improve motor, sensory, and bladder function. In this study we tested whether transplanted NPCs can also improve functional recovery after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) alone or in combination with the reduction of glial scar and neurotrophic support. Adult rats received a T10 moderate contusion. Thirteen weeks after the injury they were divided into four groups and received either: 1. Medium (control), 2. NPC transplants, 3. NPC+lentivirus vector expressing chondroitinase, or 4. NPC+lentivirus vectors expressing chondroitinase and neurotrophic factors. During the 8 weeks post-transplantation the animals were tested for functional recovery and eventually analyzed by anatomical and immunohistochemical assays. The behavioral tests for motor and sensory function were performed before and after injury, and weekly after transplantation, with some animals also tested for bladder function at the end of the experiment. Transplant survival in the chronic injury model was variable and showed NPCs at the injury site in 60% of the animals in all transplantation groups. The NPC transplants comprised less than 40% of the injury site, without significant anatomical or histological differences among the groups. All groups also showed similar patterns of functional deficits and recovery in the 12 weeks after injury and in the 8 weeks after transplantation using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan rating score, the grid test, and the Von Frey test for mechanical allodynia. A notable exception was group 4 (NPC together with chondroitinase and neurotrophins), which showed a significant improvement in bladder function. This study underscores the therapeutic challenges facing transplantation strategies in a chronic SCI in which even the inclusion of treatments designed to reduce scarring and increase neurotrophic support produce only modest functional improvements. Further

  19. USP9X deubiquitylating enzyme maintains RAPTOR protein levels, mTORC1 signalling and proliferation in neural progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Caitlin R. Bridges; Men-Chee Tan; Susitha Premarathne; Devathri Nanayakkara; Bernadette Bellette; Dusan Zencak; Deepti Domingo; Jozef Gecz; Mariyam Murtaza; Jolly, Lachlan A.; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    USP9X, is highly expressed in neural progenitors and, essential for neural development in mice. In humans, mutations in USP9X are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To understand USP9X?s role in neural progenitors, we studied the effects of altering its expression in both the human neural progenitor cell line, ReNcell VM, as well as neural stem and progenitor cells derived from Nestin-cre conditionally deleted Usp9x mice. Decreasing USP9X resulted in ReNcell VM cells arresting in G...

  20. Neural progenitors, patterning and ecology in neocortical origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco; Zamorano, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The anatomical organization of the mammalian neocortex stands out among vertebrates for its laminar and columnar arrangement, featuring vertically oriented, excitatory pyramidal neurons. The evolutionary origin of this structure is discussed here in relation to the brain organization of other amniotes, i.e., the sauropsids (reptiles and birds). Specifically, we address the developmental modifications that had to take place to generate the neocortex, and to what extent these modifications were shared by other amniote lineages or can be considered unique to mammals. In this article, we propose a hypothesis that combines the control of proliferation in neural progenitor pools with the specification of regional morphogenetic gradients, yielding different anatomical results by virtue of the differential modulation of these processes in each lineage. Thus, there is a highly conserved genetic and developmental battery that becomes modulated in different directions according to specific selective pressures. In the case of early mammals, ecological conditions like nocturnal habits and reproductive strategies are considered to have played a key role in the selection of the particular brain patterning mechanisms that led to the origin of the neocortex. PMID:24273496

  1. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  2. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  3. PLZF regulates fibroblast growth factor responsiveness and maintenance of neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B Gaber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Distinct classes of neurons and glial cells in the developing spinal cord arise at specific times and in specific quantities from spatially discrete neural progenitor domains. Thus, adjacent domains can exhibit marked differences in their proliferative potential and timing of differentiation. However, remarkably little is known about the mechanisms that account for this regional control. Here, we show that the transcription factor Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger (PLZF plays a critical role shaping patterns of neuronal differentiation by gating the expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF Receptor 3 and responsiveness of progenitors to FGFs. PLZF elevation increases FGFR3 expression and STAT3 pathway activity, suppresses neurogenesis, and biases progenitors towards glial cell production. In contrast, PLZF loss reduces FGFR3 levels, leading to premature neuronal differentiation. Together, these findings reveal a novel transcriptional strategy for spatially tuning the responsiveness of distinct neural progenitor groups to broadly distributed mitogenic signals in the embryonic environment.

  4. Viral-mediated gene transfer to mouse primary neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie M; Moussavi-Harami, Farid; Sauter, Sybille L; Davidson, Beverly L

    2002-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells may provide for cell replacement or gene delivery vehicles in neurodegen-erative disease therapies. The expression of therapeutic proteins by neural progenitors would be enhanced by viral-mediated gene transfer, but the effects of several common recombinant viruses on primary progenitor cell populations have not been tested. To address this issue, we cultured cells from embryonic day 16-18 mouse brain in serum-free medium containing epidermal growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor, and investigated how transduction with recombinant viral vectors affected maintenance and differentiation properties of progenitor cells. Neurosphere cultures were incubated with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), adeno-associated virus (AAV) or ade-noviral (Ad) constructs expressing either beta-galactosidase or enhanced green fluorescent protein at low multiplicity of infection. Nestin-positive neurospheres were regenerated after incubation of single progenitor cells with FIV, indicating that FIV-mediated gene transfer did not inhibit progenitor cell self-renewal. In contrast, adenovirus induced differentiation into glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. The AAV serotypes tested did not effectively transduce progenitor cells. FIV-transduced progenitors retained the potential for differentiation into neurons and glia in vitro, and when transplanted into the striatum of normal adult C57BL/6 mice differentiated into glia, or remained undifferentiated. In the presence of tumor cells, FIV-transduced progenitors migrated significantly from the injection site. Our results suggest that FIV-based vectors can transduce progenitor cell populations in vitro, with maintenance of their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types or to respond to injury within the central nervous system. These results hold promise for the use of genetically manipulated stem cells for CNS therapies.

  5. Protection of neurons derived from human neural progenitor cells by veratridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter J; Ortinau, Stefanie; Frahm, Jana; Krüger, Norman; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2009-08-26

    The survival of developing dopaminergic neurons has been shown to be modulated by voltage-dependent mechanisms. Manipulation of these mechanisms in human neural progenitor cell cultures could improve the survival of immature dopaminergic neurons, and therefore aid research into pharmacological and cell replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease. Here, we examined the effect of the Na+ channel agonist veratridine on the human fetal neural progenitor ReNcell VM cell line. Neuronal differentiation was determined by immunocytochemistry, whereas patch clamp recordings showed the expression of functional voltage-gated sodium channels. Our results show that veratridine is neuroprotective in human fetal neural progenitor cells, which may benefit studies investigating neuronal development by reducing premature death amongst developing neurons.

  6. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  7. Electroacupuncture Promotes Proliferation of Amplifying Neural Progenitors and Preserves Quiescent Neural Progenitors from Apoptosis to Alleviate Depressive-Like and Anxiety-Like Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA on depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours and neural progenitors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG in a chronic unpredictable stress (CUS rat model of depression. After being exposed to a CUS procedure for 2 weeks, rats were subjected to EA treatment, which was performed on acupoints Du-20 (Bai-Hui and GB-34 (Yang-Ling-Quan, once every other day for 15 consecutive days (including 8 treatments, with each treatment lasting for 30 min. The behavioural tests (i.e., forced swimming test, elevated plus-maze test, and open-field entries test revealed that EA alleviated the depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviours of the stressed rats. Immunohistochemical results showed that proliferative cells (BrdU-positive in the EA group were significantly larger in number compared with the Model group. Further, the results showed that EA significantly promoted the proliferation of amplifying neural progenitors (ANPs and simultaneously inhibited the apoptosis of quiescent neural progenitors (QNPs. In a word, the mechanism underlying the antidepressant-like effects of EA is associated with enhancement of ANPs proliferation and preserving QNPs from apoptosis.

  8. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  9. Directed differentiation of porcine epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells into neurons and glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Carter, T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases; however, safety concerns must be addressed through transplantation studies in large animal models, such as the pig. The aim of this study was to derive NPCs from porcine blastocysts...

  10. Genome-wide gene amplification during differentiation of neural progenitor cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Fischer

    Full Text Available DNA sequence amplification is a phenomenon that occurs predictably at defined stages during normal development in some organisms. Developmental gene amplification was first described in amphibians during gametogenesis and has not yet been described in humans. To date gene amplification in humans is a hallmark of many tumors. We used array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization to discover gene amplifications during in vitro differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here we report a complex gene amplification pattern two and five days after induction of differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. We identified several amplified genes in neural progenitor cells that are known to be amplified in malignant tumors. There is also a striking overlap of amplified chromosomal regions between differentiating neural progenitor cells and malignant tumor cells derived from astrocytes. Gene amplifications in normal human cells as physiological process has not been reported yet and may bear resemblance to developmental gene amplifications in amphibians and insects.

  11. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  12. Regulation of neural progenitor proliferation and survival by beta1 integrins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Dino P; Relvas, João B; Campos, Lia S

    2005-01-01

    Neural stem cells give rise to undifferentiated nestin-positive progenitors that undergo extensive cell division before differentiating into neuronal and glial cells. The precise control of this process is likely to be, at least in part, controlled by instructive cues originating from...

  13. MRI visualization of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration along the RMS in the adult mouse brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vreys, Ruth; Vande Velde, Greetje; Krylychkina, Olga

    2010-01-01

    The adult rodent brain contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs), generated in the subventricular zone (SVZ), which migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the olfactory bulb (OB) where they differentiate into neurons. The aim of this study was to visualize endogenous NPC migration...

  14. Differentiation-Dependent Motility-Responses of Developing Neural Progenitors to Optogenetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Köhidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During neural tissue genesis, neural stem/progenitor cells are exposed to bioelectric stimuli well before synaptogenesis and neural circuit formation. Fluctuations in the electrochemical potential in the vicinity of developing cells influence the genesis, migration and maturation of neuronal precursors. The complexity of the in vivo environment and the coexistence of various progenitor populations hinder the understanding of the significance of ionic/bioelectric stimuli in the early phases of neuronal differentiation. Using optogenetic stimulation, we investigated the in vitro motility responses of radial glia-like neural stem/progenitor populations to ionic stimuli. Radial glia-like neural stem cells were isolated from CAGloxpStoploxpChR2(H134-eYFP transgenic mouse embryos. After transfection with Cre-recombinase, ChR2(channelrhodopsin-2-expressing and non-expressing cells were separated by eYFP fluorescence. Expression of light-gated ion channels were checked by patch clamp and fluorescence intensity assays. Neurogenesis by ChR2-expressing and non-expressing cells was induced by withdrawal of EGF from the medium. Cells in different (stem cell, migrating progenitor and maturing precursor stages of development were illuminated with laser light (λ = 488 nm; 1.3 mW/mm2; 300 ms in every 5 min for 12 h. The displacement of the cells was analyzed on images taken at the end of each light pulse. Results demonstrated that the migratory activity decreased with the advancement of neuronal differentiation regardless of stimulation. Light-sensitive cells, however, responded on a differentiation-dependent way. In non-differentiated ChR2-expressing stem cell populations, the motility did not change significantly in response to light-stimulation. The displacement activity of migrating progenitors was enhanced, while the motility of differentiating neuronal precursors was markedly reduced by illumination.

  15. Nestin expressing progenitor cells during establishment of the neural retina and its vasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hyo-Suk; Shin, Ji Man; Chun, Myung-Hoon

    2012-01-01

    In order to test if nestin is a useful marker for various types of progenitor cells, we explored nestin expression in the retina during development. Nestin expression was co-evaluated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GSIB4) histochemistry. Nestin immunoreactivity appears in cell soma of dividing neural progenitor cells and their leading processes in retinas from embryonic day (E) 13 to E20, in accordance with a BrdU-labeled pattern. At postnatal day (P) 5, it is restricted to the end feet of Müller cells. BrdU-labeled nuclei were mainly in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer in postnatal neonates. The retinal vessels demarcated with GSIB4-positive endothelial cells were first distributed in the nerve fiber layer from P3. Afterward the vascular branches sprouted and penetrated deeply into the retina. The endothelial cells positive for GSIB4 and the pericytes in the microvessels were additionally immunoreactive for nestin. Interestingly, the presumed migrating microglial cells showing only GSIB4 reactivity preceded the microvessels throughout the neuroblast layer during vascular sprouting and extension. These findings may suggest that nestin expression represents the proliferation and movement potential of the neural progenitor cells as well as the progenitor cells of the endothelial cell and the pericyte during retinal development. Thus, Müller glial cells might be potential neural progenitor cells of the retina, and the retinal microvasculature established by both the endothelial and the pericyte progenitor cells via vasculogenesis along microglia migrating routes sustains its angiogenic potential. PMID:22536550

  16. MyT1 Counteracts the Neural Progenitor Program to Promote Vertebrate Neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca F. Vasconcelos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The generation of neurons from neural stem cells requires large-scale changes in gene expression that are controlled to a large extent by proneural transcription factors, such as Ascl1. While recent studies have characterized the differentiation genes activated by proneural factors, less is known on the mechanisms that suppress progenitor cell identity. Here, we show that Ascl1 induces the transcription factor MyT1 while promoting neuronal differentiation. We combined functional studies of MyT1 during neurogenesis with the characterization of its transcriptional program. MyT1 binding is associated with repression of gene transcription in neural progenitor cells. It promotes neuronal differentiation by counteracting the inhibitory activity of Notch signaling at multiple levels, targeting the Notch1 receptor and many of its downstream targets. These include regulators of the neural progenitor program, such as Hes1, Sox2, Id3, and Olig1. Thus, Ascl1 suppresses Notch signaling cell-autonomously via MyT1, coupling neuronal differentiation with repression of the progenitor fate.

  17. Genome Stability by DNA Polymerase β in Neural Progenitors Contributes to Neuronal Differentiation in Cortical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kohei; Uyeda, Akiko; Shida, Mitsuhiro; Hirayama, Teruyoshi; Yagi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Nobuhiko; Sugo, Noriyuki

    2017-08-30

    DNA repair is crucial for genome stability in the developing cortex, as somatic de novo mutations cause neurological disorders. However, how DNA repair contributes to neuronal development is largely unknown. To address this issue, we studied the spatiotemporal roles of DNA polymerase β (Polβ), a key enzyme in DNA base excision repair pathway, in the developing cortex using distinct forebrain-specific conditional knock-out mice, Emx1-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) and Nex-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) mice. Polβ expression was absent in both neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons in Emx1-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) mice, whereas only postmitotic neurons lacked Polβ expression in Nex-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) mice. We found that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were frequently detected during replication in cortical progenitors of Emx1-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) mice. Increased DSBs remained in postmitotic cells, which resulted in p53-mediated neuronal apoptosis. This neuronal apoptosis caused thinning of the cortical plate, although laminar structure was normal. In addition, accumulated DSBs also affected growth of corticofugal axons but not commissural axons. These phenotypes were not observed in Nex-Cre/Polβ (fl/fl) mice. Moreover, cultured Polβ-deficient neural progenitors exhibited higher sensitivity to the base-damaging agent methylmethanesulfonate, resulting in enhanced DSB formation. Similar damage was found by vitamin C treatment, which induces TET1-mediated DNA demethylation via 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. Together, genome stability mediated by Polβ-dependent base excision repair is crucial for the competence of neural progenitors, thereby contributing to neuronal differentiation in cortical development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT DNA repair is crucial for development of the nervous system. However, how DNA polymerase β (Polβ)-dependent DNA base excision repair pathway contributes to the process is still unknown. We found that loss of Polβ in cortical progenitors rather than postmitotic neurons led to

  18. A mechanism for the inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation by cocaine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ting Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure of the developing brain to cocaine causes morphological and behavioral abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition and/or apoptosis in neural progenitor cells may play a pivotal role in causing these abnormalities. To understand the molecular mechanism through which cocaine inhibits cell proliferation in neural progenitors, we sought to identify the molecules that are responsible for mediating the effect of cocaine on cell cycle regulation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Microarray analysis followed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR was used to screen cocaine-responsive and cell cycle-related genes in a neural progenitor cell line where cocaine exposure caused a robust anti-proliferative effect by interfering with the G1-to-S transition. Cyclin A2, among genes related to the G1-to-S cell cycle transition, was most strongly down-regulated by cocaine. Down-regulation of cyclin A was also found in cocaine-treated human primary neural and A2B5+ progenitor cells, as well as in rat fetal brains exposed to cocaine in utero. Reversing cyclin A down-regulation by gene transfer counteracted the proliferation inhibition caused by cocaine. Further, we found that cocaine-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which involves N-oxidation of cocaine via cytochrome P450, promotes cyclin A down-regulation by causing an endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response, as indicated by increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and expression of ATF4. In the developing rat brain, the P450 inhibitor cimetidine counteracted cocaine-induced inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation as well as down-regulation of cyclin A. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of cyclin A underlies cocaine-induced proliferation inhibition in neural progenitors. The down-regulation of cyclin A is initiated by N-oxidative metabolism of cocaine and consequent ER stress. Inhibition of

  19. Pleiotrophin enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis through increased proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Laaniste, Liisi; Jiang, Yiwen; Alafuzoff, Irina; Uhrbom, Lene; Dimberg, Anna

    2016-12-06

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) augments tumor growth by increasing proliferation of tumor cells and promoting vascular abnormalization, but its role in early gliomagenesis has not been evaluated. Through analysis of publically available datasets, we demonstrate that increased PTN mRNA expression is associated with amplification of chromosome 7, identified as one of the earliest steps in glioblastoma development. To elucidate the role of PTN in tumor initiation we employed the RCAS/tv-a model that allows glioma induction by RCAS-virus mediated expression of oncogenes in neural progenitor cells. Intracranial injection of RCAS-PTN did not induce glioma formation when administrated alone, but significantly enhanced RCAS-platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)B-induced gliomagenesis. PTN co-treatment augmented PDGFB-induced Akt activation in neural progenitor cells in vitro, and enhanced neural sphere size associated with increased proliferation. Our data indicates that PTN expression is associated with chromosome 7 gain, and that PTN enhances PDGFB-induced gliomagenesis by stimulating proliferation of neural progenitor cells.

  20. Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT promote differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Ye, Zhizhong; Zheng, Shuhui; Chen, Luming; Wan, Yong; Deng, Yubin; Yang, Ruirui

    2016-03-01

    Determination of the exogenous factors that regulate differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes is an important step in the clinical therapy of spinal cord injury (SCI). The Notch pathway inhibits the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells and Lingo-1 is a strong negative regulator for myelination and axon growth. While Lingo-1 shRNA and N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-Phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT), a Notch pathway inhibitor, have been used separately to help repair SCI, the results have been unsatisfactory. Here we investigated and elucidated the preliminary mechanism for the effect of Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT on neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation. We found that neural stem/progenitor cells from E14 rat embryos expressed Nestin, Sox-2 and Lingo-1, and we optimized the transduction of neural stem/progenitor cells using lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 shRNA. The addition of DAPT decreased the expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) as well as the downstream genes Hes1 and Hes5. Expression of NeuN, CNPase and GFAP in DAPT treated cells and expression of NeuN in Lingo-1 shRNA treated cells confirmed differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells into neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. These results revealed that while Lingo-1 shRNA and Notch signaling inhibitor DAPT both promoted differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons, only DAPT was capable of driving neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Since we were able to show that both Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT could drive neural stem/progenitor cells differentiation, our data might aid the development of more effective SCI therapies using Lingo-1 shRNA and DAPT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan; Ochalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency...

  2. Developmental potential of defined neural progenitors derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Nicolas; Bibel, Miriam; Tucker, Kerry Lee; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2004-11-01

    The developmental potential of a uniform population of neural progenitors was tested by implanting them into chick embryos. These cells were generated from retinoic acid-treated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and were used to replace a segment of the neural tube. At the time of implantation, the progenitors expressed markers defining them as Pax6-positive radial glial (RG) cells, which have recently been shown to generate most pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. Six days after implantation, the progenitors generated large numbers of neurons in the spinal cord, and differentiated into interneurons and motoneurons at appropriate locations. They also colonized the host dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and differentiated into neurons, but, unlike stem cell-derived motoneurons, they failed to elongate axons out of the DRG. In addition, they neither expressed the DRG marker Brn3a nor the Trk neurotrophin receptors. Control experiments with untreated ES cells indicated that when colonizing the DRG, these cells did elongate axons and expressed Brn3a, as well as Trk receptors. Our results thus indicate that ES cell-derived progenitors with RG characteristics generate neurons in the spinal cord and the DRG. They are able to respond appropriately to local cues in the spinal cord, but not in the DRG, indicating that they are restricted in their developmental potential.

  3. Adipose stromal cells contain phenotypically distinct adipogenic progenitors derived from neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Sowa

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs contain phenotypically and functionally heterogeneous subpopulations of cells, but their developmental origin and their relative differentiation potential remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed at investigating how and to what extent the neural crest contributes to ASCs using Cre-loxP-mediated fate mapping. ASCs harvested from subcutaneous fat depots of either adult P0-Cre/or Wnt1-Cre/Floxed-reporter mice contained a few neural crest-derived ASCs (NCDASCs. This subpopulation of cells was successfully expanded in vitro under standard culture conditions and their growth rate was comparable to non-neural crest derivatives. Although NCDASCs were positive for several mesenchymal stem cell markers as non-neural crest derivatives, they exhibited a unique bipolar or multipolar morphology with higher expression of markers for both neural crest progenitors (p75NTR, Nestin, and Sox2 and preadipocytes (CD24, CD34, S100, Pref-1, GATA2, and C/EBP-delta. NCDASCs were able to differentiate into adipocytes with high efficiency but their osteogenic and chondrogenic potential was markedly attenuated, indicating their commitment to adipogenesis. In vivo, a very small proportion of adipocytes were originated from the neural crest. In addition, p75NTR-positive neural crest-derived cells were identified along the vessels within the subcutaneous adipose tissue, but they were negative for mural and endothelial markers. These results demonstrate that ASCs contain neural crest-derived adipocyte-restricted progenitors whose phenotype is distinct from that of non-neural crest derivatives.

  4. Low immunogenicity of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Go; Ozaki, Masahiro; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kawabata, Soya; Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Sugai, Keiko; Iida, Tsuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Rei; Ookubo, Toshiki; Yastake, Kaori; Matsubayashi, Kohei; Kohyama, Jun; Iwanami, Akio; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-10-11

    Resolving the immunogenicity of cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains an important challenge for cell transplant strategies that use banked allogeneic cells. Thus, we evaluated the immunogenicity of mouse fetal neural stem/progenitor cells (fetus-NSPCs) and iPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (iPSC-NSPCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry revealed the low expression of immunological surface antigens, and these cells survived in all mice when transplanted syngeneically into subcutaneous tissue and the spinal cord. In contrast, an allogeneic transplantation into subcutaneous tissue was rejected in all mice, and allogeneic cells transplanted into intact and injured spinal cords survived for 3 months in approximately 20% of mice. In addition, cell survival was increased after co-treatment with an immunosuppressive agent. Thus, the immunogenicity and post-transplantation immunological dynamics of iPSC-NSPCs resemble those of fetus-NSPCs.

  5. Heparin prevents Zika virus induced-cytopathic effects in human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Silvia; Cooper, Lynsay; Rubio, Alicia; Pagani, Isabel; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pelletier, Julien; Meneghetti, Maria Cecilia Z; Lima, Marcelo A; Skidmore, Mark A; Broccoli, Vania; Yates, Edwin A; Vicenzi, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, which mainly affected Brazil and neighbouring states, demonstrated the paucity of information concerning the epidemiology of several flaviruses, but also highlighted the lack of available agents with which to treat such emerging diseases. Here, we show that heparin, a widely used anticoagulant, while exerting a modest inhibitory effect on Zika Virus replication, fully prevents virus-induced cell death of human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Plxdc2 is a mitogen for neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F C Miller-Delaney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of different brain regions involves the coordinated control of proliferation and cell fate specification along and across the neuraxis. Here, we identify Plxdc2 as a novel regulator of these processes, using in ovo electroporation and in vitro cultures of mammalian cells. Plxdc2 is a type I transmembrane protein with some homology to nidogen and to plexins. It is expressed in a highly discrete and dynamic pattern in the developing nervous system, with prominent expression in various patterning centres. In the chick neural tube, where Plxdc2 expression parallels that seen in the mouse, misexpression of Plxdc2 increases proliferation and alters patterns of neurogenesis, resulting in neural tube thickening at early stages. Expression of the Plxdc2 extracellular domain alone, which can be cleaved and shed in vivo, is sufficient for this activity, demonstrating a cell non-autonomous function. Induction of proliferation is also observed in cultured embryonic neuroepithelial cells (ENCs derived from E9.5 mouse neural tube, which express a Plxdc2-binding activity. These experiments uncover a direct molecular activity of Plxdc2 in the control of proliferation, of relevance in understanding the role of this protein in various cancers, where its expression has been shown to be altered. They also implicate Plxdc2 as a novel component of the network of signalling molecules known to coordinate proliferation and differentiation in the developing nervous system.

  7. Radial glial neural progenitors regulate nascent brain vascular network stabilization via inhibition of Wnt signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Ma

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex performs complex cognitive functions at the expense of tremendous energy consumption. Blood vessels in the brain are known to form stereotypic patterns that facilitate efficient oxygen and nutrient delivery. Yet little is known about how vessel development in the brain is normally regulated. Radial glial neural progenitors are well known for their central role in orchestrating brain neurogenesis. Here we show that, in the late embryonic cortex, radial glial neural progenitors also play a key role in brain angiogenesis, by interacting with nascent blood vessels and regulating vessel stabilization via modulation of canonical Wnt signaling. We find that ablation of radial glia results in vessel regression, concomitant with ectopic activation of Wnt signaling in endothelial cells. Direct activation of Wnt signaling also results in similar vessel regression, while attenuation of Wnt signaling substantially suppresses regression. Radial glial ablation and ectopic Wnt pathway activation leads to elevated endothelial expression of matrix metalloproteinases, while inhibition of metalloproteinase activity significantly suppresses vessel regression. These results thus reveal a previously unrecognized role of radial glial progenitors in stabilizing nascent brain vascular network and provide novel insights into the molecular cascades through which target neural tissues regulate vessel stabilization and patterning during development and throughout life.

  8. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  9. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skardelly, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Skardelly@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Kamprad, Manja [Institute of Clinical Immunology, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Meixensberger, Juergen [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Leipzig (Germany); Milosevic, Javorina [Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  10. Lipidome of midbody released from neural stem and progenitor cells during mammalian cortical neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko eArai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Midbody release from proliferative neural progenitor cells is tightly associated with the neuronal commitment of neural progenitor cells during the progression of neurogenesis in the mammalian cerebral cortex. While the central portion of the midbody, a cytoplasmic bridge between nascent daughter cells, is engulfed by one of the daughter cell by most cells in vitro, it is shown to be released into the extracellular cerebrospinal fluid in vivo in mouse embryos. Several proteins have been involved in midbody release; however, few studies have addressed the participation of the plasma membrane’s lipids in this process. Here, we show by Shotgun Lipidomic analysis that phosphatydylserine (PS, among other lipids, is enriched in the released midbodies compared to lipoparticles and cellular membranes, both collected from the cerebrospinal fluid of the developing mouse embryos. Moreover, the developing mouse embryo neural progenitor cells released two distinct types of midbodies carrying either internalized PS or externalized PS on their membrane. This strongly suggests that phagocytosis and an alternative fate of released midbodies exists. HeLa cells, which are known to mainly engulf the midbody show almost no PS exposure, if any, on the outer leaflet of the midbody membrane. These results point towards that PS exposure might be involved in the selection of recipients of released midbodies, either to be engulfed by daughter cells or phagocytosed by non-daughter cells or another cell type in the developing cerebral cortex.

  11. USP9X deubiquitylating enzyme maintains RAPTOR protein levels, mTORC1 signalling and proliferation in neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Caitlin R; Tan, Men-Chee; Premarathne, Susitha; Nanayakkara, Devathri; Bellette, Bernadette; Zencak, Dusan; Domingo, Deepti; Gecz, Jozef; Murtaza, Mariyam; Jolly, Lachlan A; Wood, Stephen A

    2017-03-24

    USP9X, is highly expressed in neural progenitors and, essential for neural development in mice. In humans, mutations in USP9X are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. To understand USP9X's role in neural progenitors, we studied the effects of altering its expression in both the human neural progenitor cell line, ReNcell VM, as well as neural stem and progenitor cells derived from Nestin-cre conditionally deleted Usp9x mice. Decreasing USP9X resulted in ReNcell VM cells arresting in G0 cell cycle phase, with a concomitant decrease in mTORC1 signalling, a major regulator of G0/G1 cell cycle progression. Decreased mTORC1 signalling was also observed in Usp9x-null neurospheres and embryonic mouse brains. Further analyses revealed, (i) the canonical mTORC1 protein, RAPTOR, physically associates with Usp9x in embryonic brains, (ii) RAPTOR protein level is directly proportional to USP9X, in both loss- and gain-of-function experiments in cultured cells and, (iii) USP9X deubiquitlyating activity opposes the proteasomal degradation of RAPTOR. EdU incorporation assays confirmed Usp9x maintains the proliferation of neural progenitors similar to Raptor-null and rapamycin-treated neurospheres. Interestingly, loss of Usp9x increased the number of sphere-forming cells consistent with enhanced neural stem cell self-renewal. To our knowledge, USP9X is the first deubiquitylating enzyme shown to stabilize RAPTOR.

  12. Stress, Glucocorticoid Hormones and Hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells: Implications to Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoshige eKino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal neural progenitor cells by focusing on the actions of glucocorticoids. Also addressed is a further discussion on the implications of such interactions to the pathophysiology of mood disorders.

  13. Effects of Substrate and Co-Culture on Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Erin Boote [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the study of stem and progenitor cells has moved to the forefront of research. Since the isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells in 1988 and the subsequent discovery of a self renewing population of multipotent cells in many tissues, many researchers have envisioned a better understanding of development and potential clinical usage in intractable diseases. Both these goals, however, depend on a solid understanding of the intracellular and extracellular forces that cause stem cells to differentiate to a specific cell fate. Many diseases of large scale cell loss have been suggested as candidates for stem cell based treatments. It is proposed that replacing the function of the damaged or defective cells by specific differentiation of stem or progenitor cells could treat the disease. Before cells can be directed to specific lineages, the mechanisms of differentiation must be better understood. Differentiation in vivo is an intensively complex system that is difficult to study. The goal of this research is to develop further understanding of the effects of soluble and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on the differentiation of neural progenitor cells with the use of a simplified in vitro culture system. Specific research objectives are to study the differentiation of neural progenitor cells in response to astrocyte conditioned medium and protein substrate composition and concentration. In an effort to reveal the mechanism of the conditioned medium interaction, a test for the presence of a feedback loop between progenitor cells and astrocytes is presented along with an examination of conditioned medium storage temperature, which can reveal enzymatic dependencies. An examination of protein substrate composition and concentration will help to reveal the role of any ECM interactions on differentiation. This thesis is organized into a literature review covering recent advances in use of external modulators of differentiation such as surface coatings, co

  14. Engraftment of enteric neural progenitor cells into the injured adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkind-Gerson, Jaime; Hotta, Ryo; Whalen, Michael; Nayyar, Naema; Nagy, Nandor; Cheng, Lily; Zuckerman, Aaron; Goldstein, Allan M; Dietrich, Jorg

    2016-01-25

    A major area of unmet need is the development of strategies to restore neuronal network systems and to recover brain function in patients with neurological disease. The use of cell-based therapies remains an attractive approach, but its application has been challenging due to the lack of suitable cell sources, ethical concerns, and immune-mediated tissue rejection. We propose an innovative approach that utilizes gut-derived neural tissue for cell-based therapies following focal or diffuse central nervous system injury. Enteric neuronal stem and progenitor cells, able to differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages, were isolated from the postnatal enteric nervous system and propagated in vitro. Gut-derived neural progenitors, genetically engineered to express fluorescent proteins, were transplanted into the injured brain of adult mice. Using different models of brain injury in combination with either local or systemic cell delivery, we show that transplanted enteric neuronal progenitor cells survive, proliferate, and differentiate into neuronal and glial lineages in vivo. Moreover, transplanted cells migrate extensively along neuronal pathways and appear to modulate the local microenvironment to stimulate endogenous neurogenesis. Our findings suggest that enteric nervous system derived cells represent a potential source for tissue regeneration in the central nervous system. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to explore whether autologous gut-derived cell transplantation into the injured brain can result in functional neurologic recovery.

  15. PACAP Promotes Matrix-Driven Adhesion of Cultured Adult Murine Neural Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Waschek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs, which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM. We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion. Gene array and reconstitution assays indicate that this effect can be attributed to the regulation of ECM components and ECM-modifying enzymes in aNPCs by PACAP. Our work suggests that PACAP regulates a bidirectional interaction between the aNPCs and their niche: PACAP modifies ECM production and remodeling, in turn the ECM regulates progenitor cell adherence. We speculate that PACAP may in this manner help restrict adult neural progenitors to the stem cell niche in vivo, with potential significance for aNPC function in physiological and pathological states.

  16. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid in brain development: neural progenitor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Angel; Alonso, M Isabel; Martín, Cristina; Carnicero, Estela; Moro, José Antonio; De la Mano, Aníbal; Fernández, José M F; Lamus, Francisco; Desmond, Mary E

    2014-08-28

    Due to the effort of several research teams across the world, today we have a solid base of knowledge on the liquid contained in the brain cavities, its composition, and biological roles. Although the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is among the most relevant parts of the central nervous system from the physiological point of view, it seems that it is not a permanent and stable entity because its composition and biological properties evolve across life. So, we can talk about different CSFs during the vertebrate life span. In this review, we focus on the CSF in an interesting period, early in vertebrate development before the formation of the choroid plexus. This specific entity is called "embryonic CSF." Based on the structure of the compartment, CSF composition, origin and circulation, and its interaction with neuroepithelial precursor cells (the target cells) we can conclude that embryonic CSF is different from the CSF in later developmental stages and from the adult CSF. This article presents arguments that support the singularity of the embryonic CSF, mainly focusing on its influence on neural precursor behavior during development and in adult life.

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta regulates differentiation-induced apoptosis of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Alexandra; Baake, Jana; Weiss, Dieter G; Kriehuber, Ralf

    2013-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a multifunctional key regulator enzyme in neural developmental processes and a main component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. It is already known that the Wnt-driven differentiation of neural progenitor cells is accompanied by an increase of apoptosis at which the pro-apoptotic function of GSK-3beta is still discussed. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the phosphorylation level of GSK-3beta at serine 9 is the primary regulatory mechanism of differentiation-induced apoptosis. Differentiating human neural ReNcell VM progenitor cells were treated with the specific GSK-3beta inhibitor SB216763 (10 μM) and analyzed in respect to the intrinsic apoptosis pathway regulation using microscopy and protein expression analysis. Differentiation of ReNcell VM cells was accompanied by cell morphological changes, cytoskeleton rearrangement and apoptosis increase. Treatment of differentiating cells with SB216763 induced a significant dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta at serine 9 accompanied by a significant decrease of apoptosis of about 0.7±0.03% and reduced activation of caspase-3 as well as BAX and PARP cleavage during the first 12h of differentiation compared to untreated, differentiating cells. Dephosphorylation of GSK-3beta at serine 9 appears not solely to be responsible for its pro-apoptotic function, because we observed a decrease of intrinsic apoptosis after treatment of the cells with the specific GSK-3beta inhibitor SB216763. We assume that GSK-3beta drives neural progenitor cell apoptosis by direct interaction with pro-apoptotic BAX or by indirect influence on the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin target gene transcription. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells for spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2013-11-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition often resulting in paralysis, yet currently there is no effective treatment. Stem cell transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for promoting tissue repair after SCI. Stem cells offer a renewable source of cells with inherent plasticity for tissue regeneration. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are multipotent cells that self-renew and are committed to the neural lineage, and thus, they are especially suited to SCI repair. NSPCs may differentiate into neural cells after transplantation into the injured spinal cord, replacing lost or damaged cells, providing trophic support, restoring connectivity, and facilitating regeneration. Here, we review experimental studies and considerations for clinical translation of NSPC transplantation for SCI. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differentiation of human neural progenitor cell-derived spiral ganglion-like neurons: a time-lapse video study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Fredrik; Liu, Wei; Boström, Marja; Magnusson, Peetra U; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2014-05-01

    Human neural progenitor cells can differentiate into spiral ganglion-like cells when exposed to inner ear-associated growth factors. The phenotype bears resemblance to human sphere-derived neurons. To establish an in vitro model for the human auditory nerve to replace and complement in vivo animal experiments and ultimately human in vivo transplantation. Human neural progenitors were differentiated under conditions developed for in vitro survival of human primary spiral ganglion culture with media containing growth factors associated with inner ear development. Differentiation was documented using time-lapse video microscopy. Time-dependent marker expression was evaluated using immunocytochemistry with fluorescence and laser confocal microscopy. Within 14 days of differentiation, neural progenitors adopted neural phenotype and expressed spiral ganglion-associated markers.

  20. The in vivo developmental potential of porcine skin-derived progenitors and neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Yang, Xiaoyu; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Teson, Jennifer M; Whitworth, Kristin M; Samuel, Melissa S; Spate, Lee D; Murphy, Clifton N; Prather, Randall S

    2012-09-20

    Multipotent skin-derived progenitors (SKPs) can be traced back to embryonic neural crest cells and are able to differentiate into both neural and mesodermal progeny in vitro. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of self-renewing and can contribute to neuron and glia in the nervous system. Recently, we derived porcine SKPs and NSCs from the same enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) transgenic fetuses and demonstrated that SKPs could contribute to neural and mesodermal lineages in vivo. However, it remains unclear whether porcine SKPs and NSCs can generate ectoderm and mesoderm lineages or other germ layers in vivo. Embryonic chimeras are a well-established tool for investigating cell lineage determination and cell potency through normal embryonic development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in vivo developmental potential of porcine SKPs and fetal brain-derived NSCs by chimera production. Porcine SKPs, NSCs, and fibroblasts were injected into precompact in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF) and then transferred into corresponding surrogates 24 h postinjection. We found that porcine SKPs could incorporate into the early embryos and contribute to various somatic tissues of the 3 germ layers in postnatal chimera, and especially have an endodermal potency. However, this developmental potential is compromised when they differentiate into fibroblasts. In addition, porcine NSCs fail to incorporate into host embryos and contribute to chimeric piglets. Therefore, neural crest-derived SKPs may represent a more primitive state than their counterpart neural stem cells in terms of their contributions to multiple cell lineages.

  1. Dusp16 Deficiency Causes Congenital Obstructive Hydrocephalus and Brain Overgrowth by Expansion of the Neural Progenitor Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Zega

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus can occur in children alone or in combination with other neurodevelopmental disorders that are often associated with brain overgrowth. Despite the severity of these disorders, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these pathologies and their comorbidity are poorly understood. Here, we studied the consequences of genetically inactivating in mice dual-specificity phosphatase 16 (Dusp16, which is known to negatively regulate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and which has never previously been implicated in brain development and disorders. Mouse mutants lacking a functional Dusp16 gene (Dusp16−/− developed fully-penetrant congenital obstructive hydrocephalus together with brain overgrowth. The midbrain aqueduct in Dusp16−/− mutants was obstructed during mid-gestation by an expansion of neural progenitors, and during later gestational stages by neurons resulting in a blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF outflow. In contrast, the roof plate and ependymal cells developed normally. We identified a delayed cell cycle exit of neural progenitors in Dusp16−/− mutants as a cause of progenitor overproliferation during mid-gestation. At later gestational stages, this expanded neural progenitor pool generated an increased number of neurons associated with enlarged brain volume. Taken together, we found that Dusp16 plays a critical role in neurogenesis by balancing neural progenitor cell proliferation and neural differentiation. Moreover our results suggest that a lack of functional Dusp16 could play a central role in the molecular mechanisms linking brain overgrowth and hydrocephalus.

  2. Noncoding RNA in the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eHecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play key roles in cellular processes, particularly in the brain. The present study used RNA sequencing to identify the transcriptional landscape of two human neural progenitor cell lines, SK-N-SH and ReNcell CX, as they differentiate into human cortical projection neurons. Protein coding genes were found to account for 54.8% and 57.0% of expressed genes, respectively, and alignment of RNA sequencing reads revealed that only 25.5-28.1% mapped to exonic regions of the genome. Differential expression analysis in the two cell lines identified altered gene expression in both protein coding and noncoding RNAs as they undergo neural differentiation with 222 differentially expressed genes observed in SK-N-SH cells and 19 differentially expressed genes in ReNcell CX. Interestingly, genes showing differential expression in SK-N-SH cells are enriched in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder, but not in gene sets related to cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was used to detect modules of co-expressed protein coding and noncoding RNAs in SK-N-SH cells and found four modules to be associated with neural differentiation. These modules contain varying levels of noncoding RNAs ranging from 10.7% to 49.7% with gene ontology suggesting roles in numerous cellular processes important for differentiation. These results indicate that noncoding RNAs are highly expressed in human neural progenitor cells and likely hold key regulatory roles in gene networks underlying neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Glioma migration: clues from the biology of neural progenitor cells and embryonic CNS cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, P B

    2001-06-01

    Neural stem cells have recently come to the forefront in neurobiology because of the possibilities for CNS repair by transplantation. Further understanding of the biology of these cells is critical for making their use in CNS repair possible. It is likely that these discoveries will also have spin-offs for neuro-oncology as primary brain tumors may arise from a CNS progenitor cell. An understanding of the normal migratory ability of these cells is also likely to have a very important impact on the knowledge of brain tumor invasion.

  4. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal...... vessels appeared normal without signs of exudation, bleeding, or subretinal elevation. Eyes were harvested at 10-28 days. H&E consistently showed mild retinal vasculitis, depigmentation of the RPE, and marked mononuclear cell infiltrate in the choroid adjacent to the site of transplantation. Human...

  5. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal......-specific antibodies revealed donor cells in the subretinal space at 10-13 days and smaller numbers within the retina on days 12 and 13, with evidence suggesting a limited degree of morphological integration; however, no cells remained at 4 weeks. The strong mononuclear cell reaction and loss of donor cells indicate...

  6. Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP expands neural progenitors and regulates Pax3 expression in the neural plate border zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Gee

    Full Text Available Yes-associated protein 65 (YAP contains multiple protein-protein interaction domains and functions as both a transcriptional co-activator and as a scaffolding protein. Mouse embryos lacking YAP did not survive past embryonic day 8.5 and showed signs of defective yolk sac vasculogenesis, chorioallantoic fusion, and anterior-posterior (A-P axis elongation. Given that the YAP knockout mouse defects might be due in part to nutritional deficiencies, we sought to better characterize a role for YAP during early development using embryos that develop externally. YAP morpholino (MO-mediated loss-of-function in both frog and fish resulted in incomplete epiboly at gastrulation and impaired axis formation, similar to the mouse phenotype. In frog, germ layer specific genes were expressed, but they were temporally delayed. YAP MO-mediated partial knockdown in frog allowed a shortened axis to form. YAP gain-of-function in Xenopus expanded the progenitor populations in the neural plate (sox2(+ and neural plate border zone (pax3(+, while inhibiting the expression of later markers of tissues derived from the neural plate border zone (neural crest, pre-placodal ectoderm, hatching gland, as well as epidermis and somitic muscle. YAP directly regulates pax3 expression via association with TEAD1 (N-TEF at a highly conserved, previously undescribed, TEAD-binding site within the 5' regulatory region of pax3. Structure/function analyses revealed that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP contributes to the inhibition of epidermal and somitic muscle differentiation, but a complete, intact YAP protein is required for expansion of the neural plate and neural plate border zone progenitor pools. These results provide a thorough analysis of YAP mediated gene expression changes in loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Furthermore, this is the first report to use YAP structure-function analyzes to determine which portion of YAP is involved in specific gene expression changes and the

  7. Behaviour of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors on collagen scaffolds varied in freezing temperature and laminin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyatan, Fahimeh; Nemati, Shiva; Kiani, Sahar; Hojjati Emami, Shahriar; Baharvand, Hossein

    2014-02-03

    Biomaterial technology, when combined with emerging human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology, provides a promising strategy for patient-specific tissue engineering. In this study, we have evaluated the physical effects of collagen scaffolds fabricated at various freezing temperatures on the behavior of hiPSC-derived neural progenitors (hiPSC-NPs). In addition, the coating of scaffolds using different concentrations of laminin was examined on the cells. Initially, in this experimental study, the collagen scaffolds fabricated from different collagen concentrations and freezing temperatures were characterized by determining the pore size, porosity, swelling ratio, and mechanical properties. Effects of cross-linking on free amine groups, volume shrinkage and mass retention was also assessed. Then, hiPSC-NPs were seeded onto the most stable three-dimensional collagen scaffolds and we evaluated the effect of pore structure. Additionally, the different concentrations of laminin coating of the scaffolds on hiPSC-NPs behavior were assessed. Scanning electron micrographs of the scaffolds showed a pore diameter in the range of 23-232 μm for the scaffolds prepared with different fabrication parameters. Also porosity of all scaffolds was >98% with more than 94% swelling ratio. hiPSC-NPs were subsequently seeded onto the scaffolds that were made by different freezing temperatures in order to assess for physical effects of the scaffolds. We observed similar proliferation, but more cell infiltration in scaffolds prepared at lower freezing temperatures. The laminin coating of the scaffolds improved NPs proliferation and infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the compatibility of undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSC-NPs on these scaffolds. The results have suggested that the pore structure and laminin coating of collagen scaffolds significantly impact cell behavior. These biocompatible three

  8. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, P.; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per

    2017-01-01

    cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology......Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast...... to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem...

  9. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...... from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month...

  10. A Nestin-cre transgenic mouse is insufficient for recombination in early embryonic neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixuan Liang

    2012-09-01

    Nestin-cre transgenic mice have been widely used to direct recombination to neural stem cells (NSCs and intermediate neural progenitor cells (NPCs. Here we report that a readily utilized, and the only commercially available, Nestin-cre line is insufficient for directing recombination in early embryonic NSCs and NPCs. Analysis of recombination efficiency in multiple cre-dependent reporters and a genetic mosaic line revealed consistent temporal and spatial patterns of recombination in NSCs and NPCs. For comparison we utilized a knock-in Emx1cre line and found robust recombination in NSCs and NPCs in ventricular and subventricular zones of the cerebral cortices as early as embryonic day 12.5. In addition we found that the rate of Nestin-cre driven recombination only reaches sufficiently high levels in NSCs and NPCs during late embryonic and early postnatal periods. These findings are important when commercially available cre lines are considered for directing recombination to embryonic NSCs and NPCs.

  11. Borna disease virus infects human neural progenitor cells and impairs neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brnic, Dragan; Stevanovic, Vladimir; Cochet, Marielle; Agier, Cécilia; Richardson, Jennifer; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Milhavet, Ollivier; Eloit, Marc; Coulpier, Muriel

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the complex mechanisms by which infectious agents can disrupt behavior represents a major challenge. The Borna disease virus (BDV), a potential human pathogen, provides a unique model to study such mechanisms. Because BDV induces neurodegeneration in brain areas that are still undergoing maturation at the time of infection, we tested the hypothesis that BDV interferes with neurogenesis. We showed that human neural stem/progenitor cells are highly permissive to BDV, although infection does not alter their survival or undifferentiated phenotype. In contrast, upon the induction of differentiation, BDV is capable of severely impairing neurogenesis by interfering with the survival of newly generated neurons. Such impairment was specific to neurogenesis, since astrogliogenesis was unaltered. In conclusion, we demonstrate a new mechanism by which BDV might impair neural function and brain plasticity in infected individuals. These results may contribute to a better understanding of behavioral disorders associated with BDV infection.

  12. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kraft

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances.

  13. Possible promotion of neuronal differentiation in fetal rat brain neural progenitor cells after sustained exposure to static magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Noritaka; Ishioka, Yukichi; Hirai, Takao; Ozawa, Shusuke; Tachibana, Masaki; Nakamura, Nobuhiro; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2009-08-15

    We have previously shown significant potentiation of Ca(2+) influx mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, along with decreased microtubules-associated protein-2 (MAP2) expression, in hippocampal neurons cultured under static magnetism without cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of static magnetism on the functionality of neural progenitor cells endowed to proliferate for self-replication and differentiate into neuronal, astroglial, and oligodendroglial lineages. Neural progenitor cells were isolated from embryonic rat neocortex and hippocampus, followed by culture under static magnetism at 100 mT and subsequent determination of the number of cells immunoreactive for a marker protein of particular progeny lineages. Static magnetism not only significantly decreased proliferation of neural progenitor cells without affecting cell viability, but also promoted differentiation into cells immunoreactive for MAP2 with a concomitant decrease in that for an astroglial marker, irrespective of the presence of differentiation inducers. In neural progenitors cultured under static magnetism, a significant increase was seen in mRNA expression of several activator-type proneural genes, such as Mash1, Math1, and Math3, together with decreased mRNA expression of the repressor type Hes5. These results suggest that sustained static magnetism could suppress proliferation for self-renewal and facilitate differentiation into neurons through promoted expression of activator-type proneural genes by progenitor cells in fetal rat brain.

  14. NKCC1-deficiency results in abnormal proliferation of neural progenitor cells of the lateral ganglionic eminence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cathia Magalhães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The proliferative pool of neural progenitor cells is maintained by exquisitely controlled mechanisms for cell cycle regulation. The Na-K-Cl cotransporter NKCC1 is important for regulating cell volume and the proliferation of different cell types in vitro. NKCC1 is expressed in ventral telencephalon of embryonic brains suggesting a potential role in neural development of this region. The ventral telencephalon is a major source for both interneuron and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Whether NKCC1 is involved in the proliferation of these cell populations remains unknown. In order to assess this question, we monitored several markers for neural, neuronal, and proliferating cells in wild-type and NKCC1 knockout mouse brains. We found that NKCC1 was expressed in neural progenitor cells from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE at E12.5. Mice lacking NKCC1 expression displayed reduced PH3-labeled mitotic cells in the ventricular zone and reduced cell cycle reentry. Accordingly, we found a significant reduction of Sp8-labeled immature interneurons migrating from the dorsal LGE in NKCC1-deficient mice at a later developmental stage. Interestingly, at E14.5, NKCC1 regulated also the formation of Olig2-labeled oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, these findings show that NKCC1 serves in vivo as a modulator of the cell cycle decision in the developing ventral telencephalon at the early stage of neurogenesis. These results present a novel mechanistic avenue to be considered in the recent proposed involvement of chloride transporters in a number of developmentally related diseases such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia.

  15. In vivo Importance of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair for Mouse Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Laure; Etienne, Olivier; Roque, Telma; Desmaze, Chantal; Haton, Céline; Mouthon, Marc-André; Bernardino-Sgherri, Jacqueline; Essers, Jeroen; Kanaar, Roland; Boussin, François D.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the in vivo importance of the homologous recombination factor RAD54 for the developing mouse brain cortex in normal conditions or after ionizing radiation exposure. Contrary to numerous homologous recombination genes, Rad54 disruption did not impact the cortical development without exogenous stress, but it dramatically enhanced the radiation sensitivity of neural stem and progenitor cells. This resulted in the death of all cells irradiated during S or G2, whereas the viability of cells irradiated in G1 or G0 was not affected by Rad54 disruption. Apoptosis occurred after long arrests at intra-S and G2/M checkpoints. This concerned every type of neural stem and progenitor cells, showing that the importance of Rad54 for radiation response was linked to the cell cycle phase at the time of irradiation and not to the differentiation state. In the developing brain, RAD54-dependent homologous recombination appeared absolutely required for the repair of damages induced by ionizing radiation during S and G2 phases, but not for the repair of endogenous damages in normal conditions. Altogether our data support the existence of RAD54-dependent and -independent homologous recombination pathways. PMID:22666344

  16. Neural progenitor cell engraftment corrects lysosomal storage throughout the MPS VII mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, E Y; Taylor, R M; Wolfe, J H

    1995-03-23

    Many metabolic diseases affecting the central nervous system are refractory to treatment because the blood-brain barrier restricts entry of therapeutic molecules. It may be possible to deliver therapeutic gene products directly to the brain by transplantation of neural progenitor cells, which can integrate into the murine central nervous system in a cytoarchitecturally appropriate manner. We tested this approach in mucopolysaccharidosis VII (Sly disease), a lysosomal storage disorder of humans, dogs and mice caused by an inherited deficiency of beta-glucuronidase. Lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans occurs in the brain and other tissues, causing a fatal progressive degenerative disorder, including mental retardation. Treatments are designed to provide a source of normal enzyme for uptake by diseased cells. We report here that by transplanting beta-glucuronidase-expressing neural progenitors into the cerebral ventricles of newborn mice, donor cells engrafted throughout the neuraxis. At maturity, donor-derived cells were present as normal constituents of diverse brain regions. beta-Glucuronidase activity was expressed along the entire neuraxis, resulting in widespread correction of lysosomal storage in neurons and glia in affected mice.

  17. Histone chaperone HIRA regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis via β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxin; Jiao, Jianwei

    2017-07-03

    Histone cell cycle regulator (HIRA) is a histone chaperone and has been identified as an epigenetic regulator. Subsequent studies have provided evidence that HIRA plays key roles in embryonic development, but its function during early neurogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that HIRA is enriched in neural progenitor cells, and HIRA knockdown reduces neural progenitor cell proliferation, increases terminal mitosis and cell cycle exit, and ultimately results in premature neuronal differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that HIRA enhances β-catenin expression by recruiting H3K4 trimethyltransferase Setd1A, which increases H3K4me3 levels and heightens the promoter activity of β-catenin. Significantly, overexpression of HIRA, HIRA N-terminal domain, or β-catenin can override neurogenesis abnormities caused by HIRA defects. Collectively, these data implicate that HIRA, cooperating with Setd1A, modulates β-catenin expression and then regulates neurogenesis. This finding represents a novel epigenetic mechanism underlying the histone code and has profound and lasting implications for diseases and neurobiology. © 2017 Li and Jiao.

  18. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    D’Avanzo, Carla; Sliwinski, Christopher; Wagner, Steven L.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon; Kovacs, Dora M.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) selectively decrease toxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides (Aβ42). However, their effect on the physiologic functions of γ-secretase has not been tested in human model systems. γ-Secretase regulates fate determination of neural progenitor cells. Thus, we studied the impact of SGSMs on the neuronal differentiation of ReNcell VM (ReN) human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that treatment of neurosphere-like ReN cell aggregate cultu...

  19. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed mRNA expression of particular nAChR subunits in undifferentiated rat and mouse progenitors prepared before and after the culture with epidermal growth factor under floating conditions. Sustained exposure to nicotine significantly inhibited the formation of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction activity at a concentration range of 1 µM to 1 mM without affecting cell survival. In these rodent progenitors previously exposed to nicotine, marked promotion was invariably seen for subsequent differentiation into cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein following the culture of dispersed cells under adherent conditions. Both effects of nicotine were significantly prevented by the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR subtype antagonists dihydro-β-erythroidine and 4-(5-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl-N-methyl-(3E-3-buten-1-amine, but not by the homomeric α7 nAChR subtype antagonist methyllycaconitine, in murine progenitors. Sustained exposure to nicotine preferentially increased the expression of Math1 among different basic helix-loop-helix proneural genes examined. In undifferentiated progenitors from embryonic mice

  20. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  1. c-Myc Enhances Sonic Hedgehog-Induced Medulloblastoma Formation from Nestin-Expressing Neural Progenitors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Rao

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are malignant brain tumors that arise in the cerebella of children. The presumed cellsof-origin are undifferentiated precursors of granule neurons that occupy the external granule layer (EGL of the developing cerebellum. The overexpression of proteins that normally stimulate proliferation of neural progenitor cells may initiate medulloblastoma formation. Two known mitogens for neural progenitors are the c-Myc oncoprotein and Sonic hedgehog (Shh, a crucial determinant of embryonic pattern formation in the central nervous system. We modeled the ability of c-Myc and Shh to induce medulloblastoma in mice using the RCAS/tv-a system, which allows postnatal gene transfer and expression in a cell type-specific manner. We targeted the expression of Shh and c-Myc to nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells by injecting replication-competent ALV splice acceptor (RCAS vectors into the cerebella of newborn mice. Following injection with RCAS-Shh alone, 3/32 (9% mice developed medulloblastomas and 5/32 showed multifocal hyperproliferation of the EGL, possibly a precursor stage of medulloblastoma. Following injection with RCAS-Shh plus RCAS-Myc, 9/39 (23% mice developed medulloblastomas. We conclude that nestin-expressing neural progenitors, present in the cerebellum at birth, can act as the cells-of-origin for medulloblastoma, and that c-Myc cooperates with Shh to enhance tumorigenicity.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in porcine epiblast, hypoblast, trophectoderm and epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Yu; Jammes, Helene; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Oestrup, Olga; Beaujean, Nathalie; Hall, Vanessa; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    ...) epiblast, hypoblast, and TE as well as in epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs). We found that OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 were highly expressed in the epiblast and hypoblast, while VIMENTIN was only highly expressed in the epiblast...

  3. Abnormalities in neural progenitor cells in a dog model of lysosomal storage disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Raquel M; Wolfe, John H

    2007-08-01

    Lysosomal storage disorders constitute a large group of genetic diseases, many of which are characterized by mental retardation and other neurologic symptoms. The mechanisms of neural dysfunction remain poorly understood. Because neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are fundamentally important to normal brain development and function, we investigated NPC properties in a canine model of mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII). MPS VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by defects in the catabolism of glycosaminoglycans. NPCs were isolated from the olfactory bulb, cerebellum, and striatal subventricular zone of normal and MPS VII (beta-glucuronidase-deficient) postnatal dog brains. Canine NPCs (cNPCs) from normal and MPS VII brains had similar growth curves, but cerebellar-derived cNPCs grew significantly slower than those derived from other regions. In differentiation assays, MPS VII cNPCs from the striatal subventricular zone and cerebellum generated fewer mature neuronal and/or glial cells than normal, and MPS VII olfactory bulb-derived cNPCs retained significantly more phenotypically immature cells. These differences were only present at the earliest time point after isolation; at later passages, there were no differences attributable to genotype. The data suggest that MPS VII cNPCs respond differently to developmental cues in vivo, probably because of the diseased neural microenvironment rather than intrinsic cellular deficits.

  4. Hydrogel formulation determines cell fate of fetal and adult neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Aurand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels provide a unique tool for neural tissue engineering. These materials can be customized for certain functions, i.e. to provide cell/drug delivery or act as a physical scaffold. Unfortunately, hydrogel complexities can negatively impact their biocompatibility, resulting in unintended consequences. These adverse effects may be combated with a better understanding of hydrogel chemical, physical, and mechanical properties, and how these properties affect encapsulated neural cells. We defined the polymerization and degradation rates and compressive moduli of 25 hydrogels formulated from different concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA and poly(ethylene glycol (PEG. Changes in compressive modulus were driven primarily by the HA concentration. The in vitro biocompatibility of fetal-derived (fNPC and adult-derived (aNPC neural progenitor cells was dependent on hydrogel formulation. Acute survival of fNPC benefited from hydrogel encapsulation. NPC differentiation was divergent: fNPC differentiated into mostly glial cells, compared with neuronal differentiation of aNPC. Differentiation was influenced in part by the hydrogel mechanical properties. This study indicates that there can be a wide range of HA and PEG hydrogels compatible with NPC. Additionally, this is the first study comparing hydrogel encapsulation of NPC derived from different aged sources, with data suggesting that fNPC and aNPC respond dissimilarly within the same hydrogel formulation.

  5. Hydrogel formulation determines cell fate of fetal and adult neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer L.; Shandas, Robin; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels provide a unique tool for neural tissue engineering. These materials can be customized for certain functions, i.e. to provide cell/drug delivery or act as a physical scaffold. Unfortunately, hydrogel complexities can negatively impact their biocompatibility, resulting in unintended consequences. These adverse effects may be combated with a better understanding of hydrogel chemical, physical, and mechanical properties, and how these properties affect encapsulated neural cells. We defined the polymerization and degradation rates and compressive moduli of 25 hydrogels formulated from different concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Changes in compressive modulus were driven primarily by the HA concentration. The in vitro biocompatibility of fetal-derived (fNPC) and adult-derived (aNPC) neural progenitor cells was dependent on hydrogel formulation. Acute survival of fNPC benefited from hydrogel encapsulation. NPC differentiation was divergent: fNPC differentiated into mostly glial cells, compared with neuronal differentiation of aNPC. Differentiation was influenced in part by the hydrogel mechanical properties. This study indicates that there can be a wide range of HA and PEG hydrogels compatible with NPC. Additionally, this is the first study comparing hydrogel encapsulation of NPC derived from different aged sources, with data suggesting that fNPC and aNPC respond dissimilarly within the same hydrogel formulation. PMID:24141109

  6. AKT signaling mediates IGF-I survival actions on otic neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R Aburto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Otic neurons and sensory cells derive from common progenitors whose transition into mature cells requires the coordination of cell survival, proliferation and differentiation programmes. Neurotrophic support and survival of post-mitotic otic neurons have been intensively studied, but the bases underlying the regulation of programmed cell death in immature proliferative otic neuroblasts remains poorly understood. The protein kinase AKT acts as a node, playing a critical role in controlling cell survival and cell cycle progression. AKT is activated by trophic factors, including insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, through the generation of the lipidic second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K. Here we have investigated the role of IGF-dependent activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in maintenance of otic neuroblasts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a combination of organotypic cultures of chicken (Gallus gallus otic vesicles and acoustic-vestibular ganglia, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that IGF-I-activation of AKT protects neural progenitors from programmed cell death. IGF-I maintains otic neuroblasts in an undifferentiated and proliferative state, which is characterised by the upregulation of the forkhead box M1 (FoxM1 transcription factor. By contrast, our results indicate that post-mitotic p27(Kip-positive neurons become IGF-I independent as they extend their neuronal processes. Neurons gradually reduce their expression of the Igf1r, while they increase that of the neurotrophin receptor, TrkC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Proliferative otic neuroblasts are dependent on the activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway by IGF-I for survival during the otic neuronal progenitor phase of early inner ear development.

  7. Immunocytochemical characterisation of neural stem-progenitor cells from green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Nan, F H; Wang, C S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein. Nevertheless, astrocytes were polymorphic and were the most dominant cells in the NSPC cultures. By using Matrigel, radial glia exhibiting a long GFAP(+) or DARPP-32(+) fibre and neurons exhibiting a significant acetyl-tubulin(+) process were obtained. The results confirmed that NSPCs obtained from A. rivulatus brains can proliferate and differentiate into neurons in vitro. Clonal culture can be useful for further studying the distinct NSPCs. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Feline Neural Progenitor Cells I: Long-Term Expansion under Defined Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cells (NPCs of feline origin (cNPCs have demonstrated utility in transplantation experiments, yet are difficult to grow in culture beyond the 1 month time frame. Here we use an enriched, serum-free base medium (Ultraculture and report the successful long-term propagation of these cells. Primary cultures were derived from fetal brain tissue and passaged in DMEM/F12-based or Ultraculture-based proliferation media, both in the presence of EGF + bFGF. Cells in standard DMEM/F12-based medium ceased to proliferate by 1-month, whereas the cells in the Ultraculture-based medium continued to grow for at least 5 months (end of study with no evidence of senescence. The Ultraculture-based cultures expressed lower levels of progenitor and lineage-associated markers under proliferation conditions but retained multipotency as evidenced by the ability to differentiate into neurons and glia following growth factor removal in the presence of FBS. Importantly, later passage cNPCs did not develop chromosomal aberrations.

  9. Genome-wide copy number profiling to detect gene amplifications in neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Fischer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA sequence amplification occurs at defined stages during normal development in amphibians and flies and seems to be restricted in humans to drug-resistant and tumor cells only. We used array-CGH to discover copy number changes including gene amplifications and deletions during differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. Here, we describe cell culture features, DNA extraction, and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis tailored towards the identification of genomic copy number changes. Further detailed analysis of amplified chromosome regions associated with this experiment, was published by Fischer and colleagues in PLOS One in 2012 (Fischer et al., 2012. We provide detailed information on deleted chromosome regions during differentiation and give an overview on copy number changes during differentiation induction for two representative chromosome regions.

  10. TRIM28 Represses Transcription of Endogenous Retroviruses in Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fasching

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TRIM28 is a corepressor that mediates transcriptional silencing by establishing local heterochromatin. Here, we show that deletion of TRIM28 in neural progenitor cells (NPCs results in high-level expression of two groups of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs: IAP1 and MMERVK10C. We find that NPCs use TRIM28-mediated histone modifications to dynamically regulate transcription and silencing of ERVs, which is in contrast to other somatic cell types using DNA methylation. We also show that derepression of ERVs influences transcriptional dynamics in NPCs through the activation of nearby genes and the expression of long noncoding RNAs. These findings demonstrate a unique dynamic transcriptional regulation of ERVs in NPCs. Our results warrant future studies on the role of ERVs in the healthy and diseased brain.

  11. Derivation of Neural Progenitors and Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Common Marmoset and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laughing Bear Torrez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs derived from mammalian species are valuable tools for modeling human disease, including retinal degenerative eye diseases that result in visual loss. Restoration of vision has focused on transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE to the retina. Here we used transgenic common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and human pluripotent stem cells carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP reporter as a model system for retinal differentiation. Using suspension and subsequent adherent differentiation cultures, we observed spontaneous in vitro differentiation that included NPCs and cells with pigment granules characteristic of differentiated RPE. Retinal cells derived from human and common marmoset pluripotent stem cells provide potentially unlimited cell sources for testing safety and immune compatibility following autologous or allogeneic transplantation using nonhuman primates in early translational applications.

  12. Topological defect launches 3D mound in the active nematic sheet of neural progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Sano, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remain largely qualitative, even though they are the simplest features observed in everyday experiments. Here we report that neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system, rapidly glide and stochastically reverse its velocity while locally aligning with neighboring cells, thus showing features of an active nematic system. Within the two-dimensional nematic pattern, we find interspaced topological defects with +1/2 and -1/2 charges. Remarkably, we identified rapid cell accumulation leading to three-dimensional mounds at the +1/2 topological defects. Single-cell level imaging around the defects allowed quantification of the evolving cell density, clarifyin...

  13. Integrin-associated protein promotes neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Fujimura

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs proliferate and differentiate depending on their intrinsic properties and local environment. During the development of the mammalian nervous system, NSPCs generate neurons and glia sequentially. However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the timing of switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. In this study, we established a culture system in which the neurogenic potential of NSPCs is decreased in a time-dependent manner, so that short-term-cultured NSPCs differentiate into more neurons compared with long-term-cultured NSPCs. We found that short-term-cultured NSPCs express high levels of integrin-associated protein form 2 (IAP2; so-called CD47 mRNA using differential display analysis. Moreover, IAP2 overexpression in NSPCs induced neuronal differentiation of NSPCs. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which IAP2 induces neuronal differentiation of NSPCs.

  14. Sox-2 Positive Neural Progenitors in the Primate Striatum Undergo Dynamic Changes after Dopamine Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Cristina; Moreno-Murciano, Paz; Hernandez, Maria; Di Caudo, Carla; Mundiñano, Iñaki-Carril; Carril-Mundiñano, Iñaki; Vazquez, Nerea; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez-Pernaute, Rosario; Luquin, Maria-Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The existence of endogenous neural progenitors in the nigrostriatal system could represent a powerful tool for restorative therapies in Parkinson's disease. Sox-2 is a transcription factor expressed in pluripotent and adult stem cells, including neural progenitors. In the adult brain Sox-2 is expressed in the neurogenic niches. There is also widespread expression of Sox-2 in other brain regions, although the neurogenic potential outside the niches is uncertain. Here, we analyzed the presence of Sox-2(+) cells in the adult primate (Macaca fascicularis) brain in naïve animals (N = 3) and in animals exposed to systemic administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine to render them parkinsonian (N = 8). Animals received bromodeoxyuridine (100 mg/kg once a day during five consecutive days) to label proliferating cells and their progeny. Using confocal and electron microscopy we analyzed the Sox-2(+) cell population in the nigrostriatal system and investigated changes in the number, proliferation and neurogenic potential of Sox-2(+) cells, in control conditions and at two time points after MPTP administration. We found Sox-2(+) cells with self-renewal capacity in both the striatum and the substantia nigra. Importantly, only in the striatum Sox-2(+) was expressed in some calretinin(+) neurons. MPTP administration led to an increase in the proliferation of striatal Sox-2(+) cells and to an acute, concomitant decrease in the percentage of Sox-2(+)/calretinin(+) neurons, which recovered by 18 months. Given their potential capacity to differentiate into neurons and their responsiveness to dopamine neurotoxic insults, striatal Sox-2(+) cells represent good candidates to harness endogenous repair mechanisms for regenerative approaches in Parkinson's disease.

  15. Prenatal exposure of ethanol induces increased glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seol-Heui

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal ethanol exposure during pregnancy induces a spectrum of mental and physical disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD. The central nervous system is the main organ influenced by FASD, and neurological symptoms include mental retardation, learning abnormalities, hyperactivity and seizure susceptibility in childhood along with the microcephaly. In this study, we examined whether ethanol exposure adversely affects the proliferation of NPC and de-regulates the normal ratio between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation using primary neural progenitor culture (NPC and in vivo FASD models. Methods Neural progenitor cells were cultured from E14 embryo brain of Sprague-Dawley rat. Pregnant mice and rats were treated with ethanol (2 or 4 g/kg/day diluted with normal saline from E7 to E16 for in vivo FASD animal models. Expression level of proteins was investigated by western blot analysis and immunocytochemical assays. MTT was used for cell viability. Proliferative activity of NPCs was identified by BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. Results Reduced proliferation of NPCs by ethanol was demonstrated using BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. In addition, ethanol induced the imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation via transient increase in the expression of Pax6, Ngn2 and NeuroD with concomitant decrease in the expression of Mash1. Similar pattern of expression of those transcription factors was observed using an in vivo model of FASD as well as the increased expression of PSD-95 and decreased expression of GAD67. Conclusions These results suggest that ethanol induces hyper-differentiation of glutamatergic neuron through Pax6 pathway, which may underlie the hyper-excitability phenotype such as hyperactivity or seizure susceptibility in FASD patients.

  16. T-Type Calcium Channels Are Required to Maintain Viability of Neural Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woon; Oh, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sung Hoon; Kim, Ki Chan; Eun, Pyung Hwa; Ko, Mee Jung; Gonzales, Edson Luck T; Seung, Hana; Kim, Seonmin; Bahn, Geon Ho; Shin, Chan Young

    2018-02-21

    T-type calcium channels are low voltage-activated calcium channels that evoke small and transient calcium currents. Recently, T-type calcium channels have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and neural tube defects. However, their function during embryonic development is largely unknown. Here, we investigated the function and expression of T-type calcium channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). First, we compared the expression of T-type calcium channel subtypes (CaV3.1, 3.2, and 3.3) in NPCs and differentiated neural cells (neurons and astrocytes). We detected all subtypes in neurons but not in astrocytes. In NPCs, CaV3.1 was the dominant subtype, whereas CaV3.2 was weakly expressed, and CaV3.3 was not detected. Next, we determined CaV3.1 expression levels in the cortex during early brain development. Expression levels of CaV3.1 in the embryonic period were transiently decreased during the perinatal period and increased at postnatal day 11. We then pharmacologically blocked T-type calcium channels to determine the effects in neuronal cells. The blockade of T-type calcium channels reduced cell viability, and induced apoptotic cell death in NPCs but not in differentiated astrocytes. Furthermore, blocking T-type calcium channels rapidly reduced AKT-phosphorylation (Ser473) and GSK3β-phosphorylation (Ser9). Our results suggest that T-type calcium channels play essential roles in maintaining NPC viability, and T-type calcium channel blockers are toxic to embryonic neural cells, and may potentially be responsible for neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan; Ochalek, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency......), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4). Electron microscopy demonstrated that both methods resulted in morphologically similar neural rosettes. However, quantification of NPCs derived from 3D neural induction exhibited an increase in the number of PAX6/NESTIN double positive cells...... and the derived neurons exhibited longer neurites. In contrast, 2D neural induction resulted in more SOX1 positive cells. While 2D monolayer induction resulted in slightly less mature neurons, at an early stage of differentiation, the patch clamp analysis failed to reveal any significant differences between...

  18. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Per Henrik; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik

    2017-06-15

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology, as did the nonexpressing cells. Depletion experiments showed that after the complete removal of the subpopulations of NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs, the expression of these genes appeared in other NPCs within a few days. The percentage of NANOG- and REX1-expressing cells returned to that observed before depletion. Our results are best explained by a model in which there is stochastic transient expression of pluripotency-associated genes in proliferating NPCs.

  19. Human-Derived Neurons and Neural Progenitor Cells in High Content Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrill, Joshua A

    2018-01-01

    Due to advances in the fields of stem cell biology and cellular engineering, a variety of commercially available human-derived neurons and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are now available for use in research applications, including small molecule efficacy or toxicity screening. The use of human-derived neural cells is anticipated to address some of the uncertainties associated with the use of nonhuman culture models or transformed cell lines derived from human tissues. Many of the human-derived neurons and NPCs currently available from commercial sources recapitulate critical process of nervous system development including NPC proliferation, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and calcium signaling, each of which can be evaluated using high content image analysis (HCA). Human-derived neurons and NPCs are also amenable to culture in multiwell plate formats and thus may be adapted for use in HCA-based screening applications. This article reviews various types of HCA-based assays that have been used in conjunction with human-derived neurons and NPC cultures. This article also highlights instances where lower throughput analysis of neurodevelopmental processes has been performed and which demonstrate a potential for adaptation to higher-throughout imaging methods. Finally, a generic protocol for evaluating neurite outgrowth in human-derived neurons using a combination of immunocytochemistry and HCA is presented. The information provided in this article is intended to serve as a resource for cell model and assay selection for those interested in evaluating neurodevelopmental processes in human-derived cells.

  20. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Anna; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; von Laer, Ruth; Döring, Claudia; Rocha, Adriana; Grebbin, Moyo; Zenke, Martin; Kettenmann, Helmut; Stroh, Albrecht; Momma, Stefan

    2017-03-14

    Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48 hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather than by diffusible factors or hypoxia. Using a newly established in vitro system we show that calcium waves induced in an astrocytic monolayer spread to neural stem and progenitor cells and increase their self-renewal as well as migratory behavior. These changes are due to an upregulation of the Notch signaling pathway. This introduces the concept of propagating astrocytic calcium waves transmitting brain injury signals over long distances. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Survivin Improves Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Neural Progenitors by Single Molecule OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells have been generated from human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four Yamanaka factors. Here, we report that Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor, can enhance iPS cells generation from human neural progenitor cells (NPCs together with one factor OCT4 (1F-OCT4-Survivin. Compared with 1F-OCT4, Survivin accelerates the process of reprogramming from human NPCs. The neurocyte-originated induced pluripotent stem (NiPS cells generated from 1F-OCT4-Survivin resemble human embryonic stem (hES cells in morphology, surface markers, global gene expression profiling, and epigenetic status. Survivin keeps high expression in both iPS and ES cells. During the process of NiPS cell to neural cell differentiation, the expression of Survivin is rapidly decreased in protein level. The mechanism of Survivin promotion of reprogramming efficiency from NPCs may be associated with stabilization of β-catenin in WNT signaling pathway. This hypothesis is supported by experiments of RT-PCR, chromatin immune-precipitation, and Western blot in human ES cells. Our results showed overexpression of Survivin could improve the efficiency of reprogramming from NPCs to iPS cells by one factor OCT4 through stabilization of the key molecule, β-catenin.

  2. Generation of neural progenitors from induced Bama miniature pig pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Shan, Zhi-Yan; Wu, Yan-Shuang; Shen, Xing-Hui; Liu, Chun-Jia; Shen, Jing-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Lei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Pig pluripotent cells may represent an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic application in the human biomedical field. However, it has previously been proven to be difficult to establish from the early embryo and its pluripotency has not been distinctly documented. In recent years, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology provides a new method of reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state. The generation of iPS cells together with or without certain small molecules has become a routine technique. However, the generation of iPS cells from pig embryonic tissues using viral infections together with small molecules has not been reported. Here, we reported the generation of induced pig pluripotent cells (iPPCs) using the iPS technology in combination with valproic acid (VPA). VPA treatment significantly increased the expression of pluripotent genes and played an important role in early reprogramming. We showed that iPPCs resembled pig epiblast cells in their morphology and pluripotent markers, such as OCT4, NANOG, and SSEA1. It had a normal karyotype and could form embryoid bodies, which express three germ layer markers in vitro. In addition, the iPPCs might directly differentiate into neural progenitors after being induced with the retinoic acid and extracellular matrix. Our study established a reasonable method to generate pig pluripotent cells, which might be a new donor cell source for human neural disease therapy.

  3. Inducible expression of noggin selectively expands neural progenitors in the adult SVZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multipotent, self-renewing stem cells are present throughout the developing nervous system remaining in discrete regions of the adult brain. In the subventricular zone (SVZ signaling molecules, including the bone morphogenetic proteins and their secreted inhibitor, noggin appear to play a critical role in controlling neural stem cell (NSC behavior. To examine the function of this signaling pathway in the intact nervous system, we developed a transgenic mouse model in which noggin expression can be induced specifically in NSC via a nestin-driven reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator (rtTA. In adult animals, the induction of noggin expression promotes the proliferation of neural progenitors in the SVZ, and shifts the differentiation of B cells (NSC from mature astrocytes to transit amplifying C cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells without depleting the NSC population. Noggin expression significantly increases neuronal and oligodendrocyte differentiation both in vivo and in vitro when NSCs are grown as neurospheres. These results demonstrate that noggin/BMP interactions tightly control cell fate in the SVZ.

  4. The Use of Endothelial Progenitor Cells for the Regeneration of Musculoskeletal and Neural Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naosuke Kamei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs derived from bone marrow and blood can differentiate into endothelial cells and promote neovascularization. In addition, EPCs are a promising cell source for the repair of various types of vascularized tissues and have been used in animal experiments and clinical trials for tissue repair. In this review, we focused on the kinetics of endogenous EPCs during tissue repair and the application of EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs for tissue regeneration in musculoskeletal and neural tissues including the bone, skeletal muscle, ligaments, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. EPCs can be mobilized from bone marrow and recruited to injured tissue to contribute to neovascularization and tissue repair. In addition, EPCs or stem cell populations containing EPCs promote neovascularization and tissue repair through their differentiation to endothelial cells or tissue-specific cells, the upregulation of growth factors, and the induction and activation of endogenous stem cells. Human peripheral blood CD34(+ cells containing EPCs have been used in clinical trials of bone repair. Thus, EPCs are a promising cell source for the treatment of musculoskeletal and neural tissue injury.

  5. Human neural progenitors derived from integration-free iPSCs for SCI therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome. In this study, we developed a safe and cost-effective pipeline to generate clinically relevant NPCs. We first isolated cells from patients' urine and reprogrammed them into iPSCs by non-integrating Sendai viral vectors, and carried out experiments on neural differentiation. NPCs were purified by A2B5, an antibody specifically recognizing a glycoganglioside on the cell surface of neural lineage cells, via fluorescence activated cell sorting. Upon further in vitro induction, NPCs were able to give rise to neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. To test the functionality of the A2B5+ NPCs, we grafted them into the contused mouse thoracic spinal cord. Eight weeks after transplantation, the grafted cells survived, integrated into the injured spinal cord, and differentiated into neurons and glia. Our specific focus on cell source, reprogramming, differentiation and purification method purposely addresses timing and safety issues of transplantation to SCI models. It is our belief that this work takes one step closer on using human iPSC derivatives to SCI clinical settings.

  6. Integration of Signals along Orthogonal Axes of the Vertebrate Neural Tube Controls Progenitor Competence and Increases Cell Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

    2014-01-01

    A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence—temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal—contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling. PMID:25026549

  7. Neurogenin-2-transduced human neural progenitor cells attenuate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Shin; Koo, Kyo Yeon; Jung, Kwangsoo; Kim, Miri; Kim, Il-Sun; Hwang, Kyujin; Yun, Seokhwan; Lee, Haejin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Kook In

    2017-05-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury leads to high mortality and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewing capacity have the potential to reduce neuronal loss and improve the compromised environment in the HI brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of neuronal-committed progenitor cells and the underlying mechanisms of recovery are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the regenerative ability and action mechanisms of neuronally committed human NPCs (hNPCs) transduced with neurogenin-2 (NEUROG2) in neonatal HI brain injury. NEUROG2- or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding adenoviral vector-transduced hNPCs (NEUROG2- or GFP-NPCs) were transplanted into neonatal mouse brains with HI injury. Grafted NEUROG2-NPCs showed robust dispersion and engraftment, prolonged survival, and neuronal differentiation in HI brain injury. NEUROG2-NPCs significantly improved neurological behaviors, decreased cellular apoptosis, and increased the neurite outgrowth and axonal sprouting in HI brain injury. In contrast, GFP-NPC grafts moderately enhanced axonal extension with limited behavioral recovery. Notably, NEUROG2-NPCs showed increased secretion of multiple factors, such as nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-3 (NTF3), fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), and thrombospondins 1 and 2 (THBS 1/2), which promoted SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell survival and neurite outgrowth. Thus, we postulate that NEUROG2-expressing human NPCs facilitate functional recovery after neonatal HI brain injury via their ability to secrete multiple factors that enhance neuronal survival and neuroplasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorescent protein-expressing neural progenitor cells as a tool for transplantation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Skardelly

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to generate quadruple fluorescent protein (QFP transgenic mice as a source for QFP-expressing neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs that could be utilized as a tool for transplantation research. When undifferentiated, these NSCs only express cyan fluorescent protein (CFP; however, upon neuronal differentiation, the cells express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. During astrocytic differentiation, the cells express green fluorescent protein (GFP, and during oligodendrocytic differentiation, the cells express red fluorescent protein (DsRed. Using immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, flow cytometry and electrophysiology, quadruple transgenic NPCs (Q-NPCs and GFP-sorted NPCs were comprehensively characterized in vitro. Overall, the various transgenes did not significantly affect proliferation and differentiation of transgenic NPCs in comparison to wild-type NPCs. In contrast to a strong CFP and GFP expression in vitro, NPCs did not express YFP and dsRed either during proliferation or after differentiation in vitro. GFP-positive sorted NPCs, expressing GFP under the control of the human GFAP promoter, demonstrated a significant improvement in astroglial differentiation in comparison to GFP-negative sorted NPCs. In contrast to non-sorted and GFP-positive sorted NPCs, GFP-negative sorted NPCs demonstrated a high proportion of neuronal differentiation and proved to be functional in vitro. At 6 weeks after the intracerebroventricular transplantation of Q-NPCs into neonatal wild-type mice, CFP/DCX (doublecortin double-positive transplanted cells were observed. The Q-NPCs did not express any other fluorescent proteins and did not mature into neuronal or glial cells. Although this model failed to visualize NPC differentiation in vivo, we determined that activation of the NPC glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP promoter, as indicated by GFP expression, can be used to separate neuronal and glial progenitors as a valuable

  9. The Rho-GTPase cdc42 regulates neural progenitor fate at the apical surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappello, Silvia; Attardo, Alessio; Wu, Xunwei

    2006-01-01

    the fundamental difference between these progenitors. Here we show that the conditional deletion of the small Rho-GTPase cdc42 at different stages of neurogenesis in mouse telencephalon results in an immediate increase in basal mitoses. Whereas cdc42-deficient progenitors have normal cell cycle length...... progenitors. Thus, cdc42 has a crucial role at the apical pole of progenitors, thereby regulating the position of mitoses and cell fate....

  10. Optimizing culture medium composition to improve oligodendrocyte progenitor cell yields in vitro from subventricular zone-derived neural progenitor cell neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Paula G; Pasquini, Juana M; Silvestroff, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells (NSC/NPC) are gathering tangible recognition for their uses in cell therapy and cell replacement therapies for human disease, as well as a model system to continue research on overall neural developmental processes in vitro. The Subventricular Zone is one of the largest NSC/NPC niches in the developing mammalian Central Nervous System, and persists through to adulthood. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) enriched cultures are usefull tools for in vitro studies as well as for cell replacement therapies for treating demyelination diseases. We used Subventricular Zone-derived NSC/NPC primary cultures from newborn mice and compared the effects of different growth factor combinations on cell proliferation and OPC yield. The Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA and BB homodimers had a positive and significant impact on OPC generation. Furthermore, heparin addition to the culture media contributed to further increase overall culture yields. The OPC generated by this protocol were able to mature into Myelin Basic Protein-expressing cells and to interact with neurons in an in vitro co-culture system. As a whole, we describe an optimized in vitro method for increasing OPC.

  11. Neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation for spinal cord injury treatment; A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefifard, M; Rahimi-Movaghar, V; Nasirinezhad, F; Baikpour, M; Safari, S; Saadat, S; Moghadas Jafari, A; Asady, H; Razavi Tousi, S M T; Hosseini, M

    2016-05-13

    Despite the vast improvements of cell therapy in spinal cord injury treatment, no optimum protocol has been developed for application of neural stem/progenitor cells. In this regard, the present meta-analysis showed that the efficacy of the neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation depends mainly on injury model, intervention phase, transplanted cell count, immunosuppressive use, and probably stem cell source. Improved functional recovery post NSPC transplantation was found to be higher in transection and contusion models. Moreover, NSPC transplantation in acute phase of spinal injury was found to have better functional recovery. Higher doses (>3×10(6)cell/kg) were also shown to be optimum for transplantation, but immunosuppressive agent administration negatively affected the motor function recovery. Scaffold use in NSPC transplantation could also effectively raise functional recovery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. MHC class I protein is expressed by neurons and neural progenitors in mid-gestation mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon, Marcelo A; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Proteins of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) are known for their role in the vertebrate adaptive immune response, and are required for normal postnatal brain development and plasticity. However, it remains unknown if MHCI proteins are present in the mammalian brain before birth. Here, we show that MHCI proteins are widely expressed in the developing mouse central nervous system at mid-gestation (E9.5-10.5). MHCI is strongly expressed in several regions of the prenatal brain, including the neuroepithelium and olfactory placode. MHCI is expressed by neural progenitors at these ages, as identified by co-expression in cells positive for neuron-specific class III β-tubulin (Tuj1) or for Pax6, a marker of neural progenitors in the dorsal neuroepithelium. MHCI is also co-expressed with nestin, a marker of neural stem/progenitor cells, in olfactory placode, but the co-localization is less extensive in other regions. MHCI is detected in the small population of post-mitotic neurons that are present at this early stage of brain development, as identified by co-expression in cells positive for neuronal microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2). Thus MHCI protein is expressed during the earliest stages of neuronal differentiation in the mammalian brain. MHCI expression in neurons and neural progenitors at mid-gestation, prior to the maturation of the adaptive immune system, is consistent with MHCI performing non-immune functions in prenatal brain development. These results raise the possibility that disruption of the levels and/or patterns of MHCI expression in the prenatal brain could contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  14. Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis Is Maintained by Neil3-Dependent Repair of Oxidative DNA Lesions in Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Elisabeth Regnell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of oxidative DNA damage has been proposed as a potential cause of age-related cognitive decline. The major pathway for removal of oxidative DNA base lesions is base excision repair, which is initiated by DNA glycosylases. In mice, Neil3 is the main DNA glycosylase for repair of hydantoin lesions in single-stranded DNA of neural stem/progenitor cells, promoting neurogenesis. Adult neurogenesis is crucial for maintenance of hippocampus-dependent functions involved in behavior. Herein, behavioral studies reveal learning and memory deficits and reduced anxiety-like behavior in Neil3−/− mice. Neural stem/progenitor cells from aged Neil3−/− mice show impaired proliferative capacity and reduced DNA repair activity. Furthermore, hippocampal neurons in Neil3−/− mice display synaptic irregularities. It appears that Neil3-dependent repair of oxidative DNA damage in neural stem/progenitor cells is required for maintenance of adult neurogenesis to counteract the age-associated deterioration of cognitive performance.

  15. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  16. Characterization of Apoptosis Signaling Cascades During the Differentiation Process of Human Neural ReNcell VM Progenitor Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Alexandra; Fröhlich, Michael; Klum, Susanne; Lantow, Margareta; Viergutz, Torsten; Weiss, Dieter G; Kriehuber, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Apoptosis is an essential physiological process accompanying the development of the central nervous system and human neurogenesis. However, the time scale and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Due to this fact, we investigated the functionality and general inducibility of apoptosis in the human neural ReNcell VM progenitor cell line during differentiation and also after exposure to staurosporine (STS) and ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Transmission light microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western-/Immunoblot analysis were performed to compare proliferating and differentiating, in addition to STS- and UVB-treated cells. In particular, from 24 to 72 h post-initiation of differentiation, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, increased loss of apoptotic cells, activation of pro-apoptotic BAX, Caspase-3, and cleavage of its substrate PARP were observed during cell differentiation and, to a higher extent, after treatment with STS and UVB. We conclude that redundant or defective cells are eliminated by apoptosis, while otherwise fully differentiated cells were less responsive to apoptosis induction by STS than proliferating cells, likely as a result of reduced APAF-1 expression, and increased levels of BCL-2. These data provide the evidence that apoptotic mechanisms in the neural ReNcell VM progenitor cell line are not only functional, but also inducible by external stimuli like growth factor withdrawal or treatment with STS and UVB, which marks this cell line as a suitable model to investigate apoptosis signaling pathways in respect to the differentiation processes of human neural progenitor cells in vitro.

  17. Quantitative and kinetic profile of Wnt/β-catenin signaling components during human neural progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazemondet, Orianne; Hubner, Rayk; Frahm, Jana; Koczan, Dirk; Bader, Benjamin M; Weiss, Dieter G; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M; Frech, Moritz J; Rolfs, Arndt; Luo, Jiankai

    2011-12-01

    ReNcell VM is an immortalized human neural progenitor cell line with the ability to differentiate in vitro into astrocytes and neurons, in which the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is known to be involved. However, little is known about kinetic changes of this pathway in human neural progenitor cell differentiation. In the present study, we provide a quantitative profile of Wnt/β-catenin pathway dynamics showing its spatio-temporal regulation during ReNcell VM cell differentiation. We show first that T-cell factor dependent transcription can be activated by stabilized β-catenin. Furthermore, endogenous Wnt ligands, pathway receptors and signaling molecules are temporally controlled, demonstrating changes related to differentiation stages. During the first three hours of differentiation the signaling molecules LRP6, Dvl2 and β-catenin are spatio-temporally regulated between distinct cellular compartments. From 24 h onward, components of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are strongly activated and regulated as shown by mRNA up-regulation of Wnt ligands (Wnt5a and Wnt7a), receptors including Frizzled-2, -3, -6, -7, and -9, and co-receptors, and target genes including Axin2. This detailed temporal profile of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a first step to understand, control and to orientate, in vitro, human neural progenitor cell differentiation.

  18. Geminin loss causes neural tube defects through disrupted progenitor specification and neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ES, Patterson; LE, Waller; KL, Kroll

    2014-01-01

    Geminin is a nucleoprotein that can directly bind chromatin regulatory complexes to modulate gene expression during development. Geminin knockout mouse embryos are preimplantation lethal by the 32-cell stage, precluding in vivo study of Geminin's role in neural development. Therefore, here we used a conditional Geminin allele in combination with several Cre-driver lines to define an essential role for Geminin during mammalian neural tube (NT) formation and patterning. Geminin was required in the NT within a critical developmental time window (embryonic day 8.5–10.5), when NT patterning and closure occurs. Geminin excision at these stages resulted in strongly diminished expression of genes that mark and promote dorsal NT identities and decreased differentiation of ventral motor neurons, resulting in completely penetrant NT defects, while excision after embryonic day 10.5 did not result in NT defects. When Geminin was deleted specifically in the spinal NT, both NT defects and axial skeleton defects were observed, but neither defect occurred when Geminin was excised in paraxial mesenchyme, indicating a tissue autonomous requirement for Geminin in developing neuroectoderm. Despite a potential role for Geminin in cell cycle control, we found no evidence of proliferation defects or altered apoptosis. Comparisons of gene expression in the NT of Geminin mutant versus wild-type siblings at embryonic day 10.5 revealed decreased expression of key regulators of neurogenesis, including neurogenic bHLH transcription factors and dorsal interneuron progenitor markers. Together, these data demonstrate a requirement for Geminin for NT patterning and neuronal differentiation during mammalian neurulation in vivo. PMID:24995796

  19. Cultivation of human neural progenitor cells in a 3-dimensional self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedmann, Andrea; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2012-01-11

    The influence of 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds on growth, proliferation and finally neuronal differentiation is of great interest in order to find new methods for cell-based and standardised therapies in neurological disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. 3D structures are expected to provide an environment much closer to the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. In the context of regenerative medicine, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds with neural stem and progenitor cells holds great promise as a therapeutic tool. Culture systems emulating a three dimensional environment have been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem and progenitor cells. Herein, the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment is important to determine the survival and fate of the embedded cells. Here we used PuraMatrix (RADA16, PM), a peptide based hydrogel scaffold, which is well described and used to study the influence of a 3D-environment on different cell types. PuraMatrix can be customised easily and the synthetic fabrication of the nano-fibers provides a 3D-culture system of high reliability, which is in addition xeno-free. Recently we have studied the influence of the PM-concentration on the formation of the scaffold. In this study the used concentrations of PM had a direct impact on the formation of the 3D-structure, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. A subsequent analysis of the survival and differentiation of the hNPCs revealed an influence of the used concentrations of PM on the fate of the embedded cells. However, the analysis of survival or neuronal differentiation by means of immunofluorescence techniques posses some hurdles. To gain reliable data, one has to determine the total number of cells within a matrix to obtain the relative number of e.g. neuronal cells marked by βIII-tubulin. This prerequisites a technique to analyse the scaffolds in all 3-dimensions by a confocal microscope or a comparable

  20. BET bromodomain inhibition promotes neurogenesis while inhibiting gliogenesis in neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjun Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells and progenitor cells (NPCs are increasingly appreciated to hold great promise for regenerative medicine to treat CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. However, evidence for effective stimulation of neuronal production from endogenous or transplanted NPCs for neuron replacement with small molecules remains limited. To identify novel chemical entities/targets for neurogenesis, we had established a NPC phenotypic screen assay and validated it using known small-molecule neurogenesis inducers. Through screening small molecule libraries with annotated targets, we identified BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel mechanism for enhancing neurogenesis. BET bromodomain proteins, Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4 were found to be downregulated in NPCs upon differentiation, while their levels remain unaltered in proliferating NPCs. Consistent with the pharmacological study using bromodomain selective inhibitor (+-JQ-1, knockdown of each BET protein resulted in an increase in the number of neurons with simultaneous reduction in both astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Gene expression profiling analysis demonstrated that BET bromodomain inhibition induced a broad but specific transcription program enhancing directed differentiation of NPCs into neurons while suppressing cell cycle progression and gliogenesis. Together, these results highlight a crucial role of BET proteins as epigenetic regulators in NPC development and suggest a therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in treating brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Rat Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Ni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, has been used as a tonic to enhance bodily functions against various ailments for hundreds of years in Far Eastern countries without apparent adverse effects. Ginsenoside Rb1, one of the most active ingredients of ginseng, has been shown to possess various pharmacological activities. Here we report that Rb1 exhibits potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative injury induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay demonstrated that incubation with 300 µm t-BHP for 2.5 h led to a significant cell loss of cultured rat embryonic cortex-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs and the cell viability was pronouncedly increased by 24 h pretreatment of 10 µm Rb1. TUNEL staining further confirmed that pretreatment of Rb1 significantly reduced the cell apoptosis in t-BHP-induced oxidative injury. Real time PCR revealed that pretreatment with Rb1 activated Nrf2 pathway in cultured NPCs and led to an elevated expression of HO-1. The results of the present study demonstrate that Rb1 shows a potent anti-oxidative effect on cultured NPCs by activating Nrf2 pathway.

  2. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Luo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs. We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  3. Nrf2/ARE Pathway Involved in Oxidative Stress Induced by Paraquat in Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Dou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidences have shown that diverse environmental insults arising during early life can either directly lead to a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons or cause an increased susceptibility to neurons degeneration with subsequent environmental insults or with aging alone. Oxidative stress is considered the main effect of neurotoxins exposure. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress effect of Paraquat (PQ on immortalized human embryonic neural progenitor cells by treating them with various concentrations of PQ. We show that PQ can decrease the activity of SOD and CAT but increase MDA and LDH level. Furthermore, the activities of Cyc and caspase-9 were found increased significantly at 10 μM of PQ treatment. The cytoplasmic Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated at 10 μM but fell back at 100 μM. The nuclear Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated as well as the downstream mRNA expressions of HO-1 and NQO1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the proteins expression of PKC and CKII was also increased significantly even at 1 μM. The results suggested that Nrf2/ARE pathway is involved in mild to moderate PQ-induced oxidative stress which is evident from dampened Nrf2 activity and low expression of antioxidant genes in PQ induced oxidative damage.

  4. SPOT14-Positive Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in the Hippocampus Respond Dynamically to Neurogenic Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Knobloch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs in the adult brain is tightly controlled to prevent exhaustion and to ensure proper neurogenesis. Several extrinsic stimuli affect NSPC regulation. However, the lack of unique markers led to controversial results regarding the in vivo behavior of NSPCs to different stimuli. We recently identified SPOT14, which controls NSPC proliferation through regulation of de novo lipogenesis, selectively in low-proliferating NSPCs. Whether SPOT14-expressing (SPOT14+ NSPCs react in vivo to neurogenic regulators is not known. We show that aging is accompanied by a marked disappearance of SPOT14+ NSPCs, whereas running, a positive neurogenic stimulus, increases proliferation of SPOT14+ NSPCs. Furthermore, transient depletion of highly proliferative cells recruits SPOT14+ NSPCs into the proliferative pool. Additionally, we have established endogenous SPOT14 protein staining, reflecting transgenic SPOT14-GFP expression. Thus, our data identify SPOT14 as a potent marker for adult NSPCs that react dynamically to positive and negative neurogenic regulators.

  5. Elimination of the geomagnetic field stimulates the proliferation of mouse neural progenitor and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Peng Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living organisms are exposed to the geomagnetic field (GMF throughout their lifespan. Elimination of the GMF, resulting in a hypogeomagnetic field (HMF, leads to central nervous system dysfunction and abnormal development in animals. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been identified so far. Here, we show that exposure to an HMF (<200 nT, produced by a magnetic field shielding chamber, promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs/NSCs from C57BL/6 mice. Following seven-day HMF-exposure, the primary neurospheres (NSs were significantly larger in size, and twice more NPCs/NSCs were harvested from neonatal NSs, when compared to the GMF controls. The self-renewal capacity and multipotency of the NSs were maintained, as HMF-exposed NSs were positive for NSC markers (Nestin and Sox2, and could differentiate into neurons and astrocyte/glial cells and be passaged continuously. In addition, adult mice exposed to the HMF for one month were observed to have a greater number of proliferative cells in the subventricular zone. These findings indicate that continuous HMF-exposure increases the proliferation of NPCs/NSCs, in vitro and in vivo. HMF-disturbed NPCs/NSCs production probably affects brain development and function, which provides a novel clue for elucidating the cellular mechanisms of the bio-HMF response.

  6. 3D Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model of Persistent VZV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection, establishes latency in multiple ganglionic neurons, and can reactivate to cause zoster. Live attenuated VZV vaccines are available; however, they can also establish latent infections and reactivate. Studies of VZV latency have been limited to the analyses of human ganglia removed at autopsy, as the virus is strictly a human pathogen. Recently, terminally differentiated human neurons have received much attention as a means to study the interaction between VZV and human neurons; however, the short life-span of these cells in culture has limited their application. Herein, we describe the construction of a model of normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNP) in tissue-like assemblies (TLAs), which can be successfully maintained for at least 180 days in three-dimensional (3D) culture, and exhibit an expression profile similar to that of human trigeminal ganglia. Infection of NHNP TLAs with cell-free VZV resulted in a persistent infection that was maintained for three months, during which the virus genome remained stable. Immediate-early, early and late VZV genes were transcribed, and low-levels of infectious VZV were recurrently detected in the culture supernatant. Our data suggest that NHNP TLAs are an effective system to investigate long-term interactions of VZV with complex assemblies of human neuronal cells.

  7. The effect of interferon-{beta} on mouse neural progenitor cell survival and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Marek [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Knight, Julia [Neuroscience Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Tobita, Mari; Soltys, John; Panitch, Hillel [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States); Mao-Draayer, Yang, E-mail: yang.mao-draayer@vtmednet.org [Neurology Department, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2009-10-16

    Interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) is a mainstay therapy for relapse-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the direct effects of IFN-{beta} on the central nervous system (CNS) are not well understood. To determine whether IFN-{beta} has direct neuroprotective effects on CNS cells, we treated adult mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro with IFN-{beta} and examined the effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. We found that mouse NPCs express high levels of IFN{alpha}/{beta} receptor (IFNAR). In response to IFN-{beta} treatment, no effect was observed on differentiation or proliferation. However, IFN-{beta} treated mouse NPCs demonstrated decreased apoptosis upon growth factor withdrawal. Pathway-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays demonstrated that IFN-{beta} treatment upregulated the STAT 1 and 2 signaling pathway, as well as GFRA2, NOD1, Caspases 1 and 12, and TNFSF10. These results suggest that IFN-{beta} can directly affect NPC survival, possibly playing a neuroprotective role in the CNS by modulating neurotrophic factors.

  8. Differentiation of human neural progenitor cells regulated by Wnt-3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Rayk; Schmöle, Anne-Caroline; Liedmann, Andrea; Frech, Moritz J; Rolfs, Arndt; Luo, Jiankai

    2010-09-24

    Wnt ligands play pivotal roles in the control of cell growth and differentiation during central nervous system development via the Wnt signaling pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt-3a and β-catenin on the differentiation of ReNcell VM human neural progenitor cells. After overexpression of Wnt-3a or mutant-stabilized β-catenin in ReNcell VM cells, their effects on TCF-mediated transcription, Wnt target gene expression and differentiation into neuronal and glial cells were investigated. Our results show that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases TCF-mediated transcription and the expression of the Wnt target genes Axin2, LEF1 and CyclinD1 in ReNcell VM cells. In contrast to mutant-stabilized β-catenin, Wnt-3a increases neurogenesis during the differentiation of ReNcell VM cells. Thus, our data suggest that neurogenesis induced by Wnt-3a is independent of the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in ReNcell VM cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic mass redistribution assay decodes differentiation of a neural progenitor stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sadashiva; Verrier, Florence; Sun, Haiyan; Hu, Haibei; Ferrie, Ann M; Eshraghi, Azita; Fang, Ye

    2012-10-01

    Stem cells hold great potential in drug discovery and development. However, challenges remain to quantitatively measure the functions of stem cells and their differentiated products. Here, we applied fluorescent imaging, quantitative real-time PCR, and label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays to characterize the differentiation process of the ReNcell VM human neural progenitor stem cell. Immunofluorescence imaging showed that after growth factor withdrawal, the neuroprogenitor stem cell was differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, thus creating a neuronal cell system. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the differentiated cell system released dopamine upon depolarization with KCl. In conjunction with quantitative real-time PCR, DMR assays using a G-protein-coupled receptor agonist library revealed that a subset of receptors, including dopamine D(1) and D(4) receptors, underwent marked alterations in both receptor expression and signaling pathway during the differentiation process. These findings suggest that DMR assays can decode the differentiation process of stem cells at the cell system level.

  10. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Javorina; Schwarz, Sigrid C; Ogunlade, Vera; Meyer, Anne K; Storch, Alexander; Schwarz, Johannes

    2009-06-15

    Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD)-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains enigmatic. Based on its structural features and kinase properties, LRRK2 may interact with other proteins involved in signalling pathways. Here, we show a widespread LRRK2 mRNA and/or protein expression in expanded or differentiated human mesencephalic neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs) and in post-mortem substantia nigra PD patients. Using small interfering RNA duplexes targeting LRRK2 in hmNPCs following their differentiation into glia and neurons, we observed a reduced number of dopaminergic neurons due to apoptosis in LRRK2 knockdown samples. LRRK2-deficient hmNPCs exhibited elevated cell cycle- and cell death-related markers. In conclusion, a reduction of LRRK2 expression in hmNPCs severely impaired dopaminergic differentiation and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons most likely via preserving or reactivating the cell cycle.

  11. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anne K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains enigmatic. Based on its structural features and kinase properties, LRRK2 may interact with other proteins involved in signalling pathways. Here, we show a widespread LRRK2 mRNA and/or protein expression in expanded or differentiated human mesencephalic neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs and in post-mortem substantia nigra PD patients. Using small interfering RNA duplexes targeting LRRK2 in hmNPCs following their differentiation into glia and neurons, we observed a reduced number of dopaminergic neurons due to apoptosis in LRRK2 knockdown samples. LRRK2-deficient hmNPCs exhibited elevated cell cycle- and cell death-related markers. In conclusion, a reduction of LRRK2 expression in hmNPCs severely impaired dopaminergic differentiation and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons most likely via preserving or reactivating the cell cycle.

  12. Maintenance of neural progenitor cell stemness in 3D hydrogels requires matrix remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Christopher M.; Lesavage, Bauer L.; Dewi, Ruby E.; Dinh, Cong B.; Stowers, Ryan S.; Khariton, Margarita; Lampe, Kyle J.; Nguyen, Duong; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Enejder, Annika; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cell (NPC) culture within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels is an attractive strategy for expanding a therapeutically relevant number of stem cells. However, relatively little is known about how 3D material properties such as stiffness and degradability affect the maintenance of NPC stemness in the absence of differentiation factors. Over a physiologically relevant range of stiffness from ~0.5 to 50 kPa, stemness maintenance did not correlate with initial hydrogel stiffness. In contrast, hydrogel degradation was both correlated with, and necessary for, maintenance of NPC stemness. This requirement for degradation was independent of cytoskeletal tension generation and presentation of engineered adhesive ligands, instead relying on matrix remodelling to facilitate cadherin-mediated cell-cell contact and promote β-catenin signalling. In two additional hydrogel systems, permitting NPC-mediated matrix remodelling proved to be a generalizable strategy for stemness maintenance in 3D. Our findings have identified matrix remodelling, in the absence of cytoskeletal tension generation, as a previously unknown strategy to maintain stemness in 3D.

  13. The lysine acetyltransferase activator Brpf1 governs dentate gyrus development through neural stem cells and progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linya You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation has recently emerged as an important post-translational modification in diverse organisms, but relatively little is known about its roles in mammalian development and stem cells. Bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1 (BRPF1 is a multidomain histone binder and a master activator of three lysine acetyltransferases, MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as KAT6A, KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. While the MOZ and MORF genes are rearranged in leukemia, the MORF gene is also mutated in prostate and other cancers and in four genetic disorders with intellectual disability. Here we show that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. We trace the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. We further demonstrate that Brpf1 loss deregulates neuronal migration, cell cycle progression and transcriptional control, thereby causing abnormal morphogenesis of the hippocampus. These results link histone binding and acetylation control to hippocampus development and identify an important epigenetic regulator for patterning the dentate gyrus, a brain structure critical for learning, memory and adult neurogenesis.

  14. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Protect Neural Progenitor Cells against Oxidative Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, derived mainly from fish oil, play important roles in brain development and neuroplasticity. Here, we reported that application of ω-3 PUFAs significantly protected mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs against H2O2-induced oxidative injury. We also isolated NPCs from transgenic mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene. The fat-1 gene, which is absent in mammals, can add a double bond into an unsaturated fatty acid hydrocarbon chain and convert ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acids. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining showed that a marked decrease in apoptotic cells was found in fat-1 NPCs after oxidative injury with H2O2 as compared with wild-type NPCs. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated a much higher expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master transcriptional factor for antioxidant genes, in fat-1 NPCs. The results of the study provide evidence that ω-3 PUFAs resist oxidative injury to NPCs.

  15. Directed differentiation of porcine epiblast-derived neural progenitor cells into neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M A; Hall, V J; Carter, T F; Hyttel, P

    2011-09-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are promising candidates for cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases; however, safety concerns must be addressed through transplantation studies in large animal models, such as the pig. The aim of this study was to derive NPCs from porcine blastocysts and evaluate their in-vitro differentiation potential. Epiblasts were manually isolated from expanded hatched blastocysts and cultured on MEF feeder cells. Outgrowth colonies were passaged to MS5 cells and rosettes were further passaged to Matrigel-coated dishes containing bFGF and EGF. Three NPC lines were established which showed expression of SOX2, NESTIN and VIMENTIN. One line was characterised in more detail, retaining a normal karyotype and proliferating for more than three months in culture. Following differentiation, TUJI was significantly up-regulated in protocol 2 (RA and SHH; 58% positive cells) as were NF and TH. In contrast, MBP was significantly up-regulated in protocol 3 (FGF8 and SHH; 63% positive cells), whereas, GFAP was significantly up-regulated in protocols 1-4 (33%, 25%, 43% and 22%). The present study provides the first report of a porcine blastocyst-derived NPC line capable of differentiating into both neurons and glia, which may be of paramount importance for future transplantation studies in large animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and molecular profiling of PSEN1 familial Alzheimer's disease iPSC-derived neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Sproul

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PSEN1 encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD. In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, we characterized neural progenitor cells (NPCs derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. Thus, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from affected and unaffected individuals from two families carrying PSEN1 mutations. PSEN1 mutant fibroblasts, and NPCs produced greater ratios of Aβ42 to Aβ40 relative to their control counterparts, with the elevated ratio even more apparent in PSEN1 NPCs than in fibroblasts. Molecular profiling identified 14 genes differentially-regulated in PSEN1 NPCs relative to control NPCs. Five of these targets showed differential expression in late onset AD/Intermediate AD pathology brains. Therefore, in our PSEN1 iPSC model, we have reconstituted an essential feature in the molecular pathogenesis of FAD, increased generation of Aβ42/40, and have characterized novel expression changes.

  17. Multipotent neural stem cells generate glial cells of the central complex through transit amplifying intermediate progenitors in Drosophila brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorin, Gudrun; Riebli, Nadia; Popkova, Anna; Giangrande, Angela; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-08-15

    The neural stem cells that give rise to the neural lineages of the brain can generate their progeny directly or through transit amplifying intermediate neural progenitor cells (INPs). The INP-producing neural stem cells in Drosophila are called type II neuroblasts, and their neural progeny innervate the central complex, a prominent integrative brain center. Here we use genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis to show that the INPs of these type II neuroblast lineages give rise to glial cells as well as neurons during postembryonic brain development. Our data indicate that two main types of INP lineages are generated, namely mixed neuronal/glial lineages and neuronal lineages. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments show that the gcm gene is necessary and sufficient for gliogenesis in these lineages. The INP-derived glial cells, like the INP-derived neuronal cells, make major contributions to the central complex. In postembryonic development, these INP-derived glial cells surround the entire developing central complex neuropile, and once the major compartments of the central complex are formed, they also delimit each of these compartments. During this process, the number of these glial cells in the central complex is increased markedly through local proliferation based on glial cell mitosis. Taken together, these findings uncover a novel and complex form of neurogliogenesis in Drosophila involving transit amplifying intermediate progenitors. Moreover, they indicate that type II neuroblasts are remarkably multipotent neural stem cells that can generate both the neuronal and the glial progeny that make major contributions to one and the same complex brain structure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural Progenitor Cells Rptor Ablation Impairs Development but Benefits to Seizure-Induced Behavioral Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling-Lin; Wu, Mei-Ling; Zhu, Feng; Kai, Jie-Jing; Dong, Jing-Yin; Wu, Xi-Mei; Zeng, Ling-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Previous study suggests that mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in epileptogenesis. The present work was designed to explore the contribution of raptor protein to the development of epilepsy and comorbidities. Mice with conditional knockout of raptor protein were generated by cross-bred Rptor flox/flox mice with nestin-CRE mice. The expression of raptor protein was analyzed by Western blotting in brain tissue samples. Neuronal death and mossy fiber sprouting were detected by FJB staining and Timm staining, respectively. Spontaneous seizures were recorded by EEG-video system. Morris water maze, open field test, and excitability test were used to study the behaviors of Rptor CKO mice. As the consequence of deleting Rptor, downstream proteins of raptor in mTORC1 signaling were partly blocked. Rptor CKO mice exhibited decrease in body and brain weight under 7 weeks old and accordingly, cortical layer thickness. After kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus, overactivation of mTORC1 signaling was markedly reversed in Rptor CKO mice. Although low frequency of spontaneous seizure and seldom neuronal cell death were observed in both Rptor CKO and control littermates, KA seizure-induced mossy fiber spouting were attenuated in Rptor CKO mice. Additionally, cognitive-deficit and anxiety-like behavior after KA-induced seizures were partly reversed in Rptor CKO mice. Loss of the Rptor gene in mice neural progenitor cells affects normal development in young age and may contribute to alleviate KA seizure-induced behavioral abnormalities, suggesting that raptor protein plays an important role in seizure comorbidities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk assessment for the combinational effects of food color additives: neural progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mikyung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, So Jung; Kim, Min-Sun; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Kim, Hyun Soo; Gong, Ein Ji; Kim, Mi Eun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung Mu; Lee, Jaewon

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the Korea Food and Drug Administration reported that combinations of dietary colors such as allura red AC (R40), tartrazine (Y4), sunset yellow FCF (Y5), amaranth (R2), and brilliant blue FCF (B1) are widely used in food manufacturing. Although individual tar food colors are controlled based on acceptable daily intake (ADI), there is no apparent information available for how combinations of these additives affect food safety. In the current study, the potencies of single and combination use of R40, Y4, Y5, R2, and B1 were examined on neural progenitor cell (NPC) toxicity, a biomarker for developmental stage, and neurogenesis, indicative of adult central nervous system (CNS) functions. R40 and R2 reduced NPC proliferation and viability in mouse multipotent NPC, in the developing CNS model. Among several combinations tested in mouse model, combination of Y4 and B1 at 1000-fold higher than average daily intake in Korea significantly decreased numbers of newly generated cells in adult mouse hippocampus, indicating potent adverse actions on hippocampal neurogenesis. However, other combinations including R40 and R2 did not affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Evidence indicates that single and combination use of most tar food colors may be safe with respect to risk using developmental NPC and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the response to excessively high dose combination of Y4 and B1 is suggestive of synergistic effects to suppress proliferation of NPC in adult hippocampus. Data indicated that combinations of tar colors may adversely affect both developmental and adult hippocampal neurogenesis; thus, further extensive studies are required to assess the safety of these additive combinations.

  20. Effects of Polyamidoamine Dendrimers on a 3-D Neurosphere System Using Human Neural Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Zeng, Qin; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Nansai, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhenya; Sone, Hideko

    2016-07-01

    The practical application of engineered nanomaterials or nanoparticles like polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers has been promoted in medical devices or industrial uses. The safety of PAMAM dendrimers needs to be assessed when used as a drug carrier to treat brain disease. However, the effects of PAMAM on the human nervous system remain unknown. In this study, human neural progenitor cells cultured as a 3D neurosphere model were used to study the effects of PAMAM dendrimers on the nervous system. Neurospheres were exposed to different G4-PAMAM dendrimers for 72 h at concentrations of 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 μg/ml. The biodistribution was investigated using fluorescence-labeled PAMAM dendrimers, and gene expression was evaluated using microarray analysis followed by pathway and network analysis. Results showed that PAMAM dendrimer nanoparticles can penetrate into neurospheres via superficial cells on them. PAMAM-NH2 but not PAMAM-SC can inhibit neurosphere growth. A reduced number of MAP2-positive cells in flare regions were inhibited after 10 days of differentiation, indicating an inhibitory effect of PAMAM-NH2 on cell proliferation and neuronal migration. A microarray assay showed 32 dendrimer toxicity-related genes, with network analysis showing 3 independent networks of the selected gene targets. Inducible immediate early gene early growth response gene 1 (Egr1), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI2), and adrenomedullin (ADM) were the key genes in each network, and the expression of these genes was significantly down regulated. These findings suggest that exposure of neurospheres to PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers affects cell proliferation and migration through pathways regulated by Egr1, IGFBP3, TFPI2, and ADM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Estrogen Stimulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells through Different Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Okada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study indicated that both 17β-estradiol (E2, known to be an endogenous estrogen, and bisphenol A (BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, could positively influence the proliferation or differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs. The aim of the present study was to identify the signal transduction pathways for estrogenic activities promoting proliferation and differentiation of NS/PCs via well known nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs or putative membrane-associated ERs. NS/PCs were cultured from the telencephalon of 15-day-old rat embryos. In order to confirm the involvement of nuclear ERs for estrogenic activities, their specific antagonist, ICI-182,780, was used. The presence of putative membrane-associated ER was functionally examined as to whether E2 can activate rapid intracellular signaling mechanism. In order to confirm the involvement of membrane-associated ERs for estrogenic activities, a cell-impermeable E2, bovine serum albumin-conjugated E2 (E2-BSA was used. We showed that E2 could rapidly activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2, which was not inhibited by ICI-182,780. ICI-182,780 abrogated the stimulatory effect of these estrogens (E2 and BPA on the proliferation of NS/PCs, but not their effect on the differentiation of the NS/PCs into oligodendroglia. Furthermore, E2-BSA mimicked the activity of differentiation from NS/PCs into oligodendroglia, but not the activity of proliferation. Our study suggests that (1 the estrogen induced proliferation of NS/PCs is mediated via nuclear ERs; (2 the oligodendroglial generation from NS/PCs is likely to be stimulated via putative membrane‑associated ERs.

  2. Resveratrol Inhibits the Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells and Hippocampal Neurogenesis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Ra; Kong, Kyoung Hye; Yu, Byung Pal; Mattson, Mark P.; Lee, Jaewon

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin and natural phenol that is present at relatively high concentrations in peanuts and red grapes and wine. Based upon studies of yeast and invertebrate models, it has been proposed that ingestion of resveratrol may also have anti-aging actions in mammals including humans. It has been suggested that resveratrol exerts its beneficial effects on health by activating the same cellular signaling pathways that are activated by dietary energy restriction (DR). Some studies have reported therapeutic actions of resveratrol in animal models of metabolic and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the effects of resveratrol on cell, tissue and organ function in healthy subjects are largely unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the potential effects of resveratrol on the proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of healthy young adult mice. Resveratrol reduced the proliferation of cultured mouse multi-potent NPCs, and activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in a concentration-dependent manner. Administration of resveratrol to mice (1–10 mg/kg) resulted in activation of AMPK, and reduced the proliferation and survival of NPCs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Resveratrol down-regulated the levels of the phosphorylated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Finally, resveratrol-treated mice exhibited deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory. Our findings suggest that resveratrol, unlike DR, adversely affects hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function by a mechanism involving activation of AMPK and suppression of CREB and BDNF signaling. PMID:23105098

  3. The Effects of Low-Dose Bisphenol A and Bisphenol F on Neural Differentiation of a Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Progenitor Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujiwara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental chemicals are known to disrupt the endocrine system in humans and to have adverse effects on several organs including the developing brain. Recent studies indicate that exposure to environmental chemicals during gestation can interfere with neuronal differentiation, subsequently affecting normal brain development in newborns. Xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA, which is widely used in plastic products, is one such chemical. Adverse effects of exposure to BPA during pre- and postnatal periods include the disruption of brain function. However, the effect of BPA on neural differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effects of BPA or bisphenol F (BPF, an alternative compound for BPA, on neural differentiation using ReNcell, a human fetus-derived neural progenitor cell line. Maintenance in growth factor-free medium initiated the differentiation of ReNcell to neuronal cells including neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. We exposed the cells to BPA or BPF for 3 days from the period of initiation and performed real-time PCR for neural markers such as β III-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and Olig2. The β III-tubulin mRNA level decreased in response to BPA, but not BPF, exposure. We also observed that the number of β III-tubulin-positive cells in the BPA-exposed group was less than that of the control group. On the other hand, there were no changes in the MAP2 mRNA level. These results indicate that BPA disrupts neural differentiation in human-derived neural progenitor cells, potentially disrupting brain development.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells from human cerebrospinal fluid in fetal cystic myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Mario; Fernández-Martín, Alejandra; Oria, Marc; Fontecha, Cesar G; Giné, Carles; Martínez-Ibáñez, Vicente; Carreras, Elena; Belfort, Michael A; Pelizzo, Gloria; Peiró, Jose L

    2017-07-01

    Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26weeks of gestation). In primary cultured CSF-derived cells, neurogenic properties were confirmed by in vitro differentiation into various neural lineage cell types, and NPC markers expression (TBR2, CD15, SOX2) were detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Differentiation into three neural lineages was corroborated by arbitrary differentiation (depletion of growths factors) or explicit differentiation as neuronal, astrocyte, or oligodendrocyte cell types using specific induction mediums. Differentiated cells showed the specific expression of neural differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin, GFAP, CNPase, oligo-O1). In myelomeningocele patients, CSF-derived cells could become a potential source of NPCs with neurogenic capacity. Our findings support the development of innovative stem-cell-based therapeutics by autologous transplantation of CSF-derived NPCs in damaged spinal cords, such as myelomeningocele, thus promoting neural tissue regeneration in fetuses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation, characterization, and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells from human cerebrospinal fluid in fetal cystic myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marotta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite benefits of prenatal in utero repair of myelomeningocele, a severe type of spina bifida aperta, many of these patients will still suffer mild to severe impairment. One potential source of stem cells for new regenerative medicine-based therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury repair is neural progenitor cells (NPCs in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. To this aim, we extracted CSF from the cyst surrounding the exposed neural placode during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele in 6 fetuses (20 to 26 weeks of gestation. In primary cultured CSF-derived cells, neurogenic properties were confirmed by in vitro differentiation into various neural lineage cell types, and NPC markers expression (TBR2, CD15, SOX2 were detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR analysis. Differentiation into three neural lineages was corroborated by arbitrary differentiation (depletion of growths factors or explicit differentiation as neuronal, astrocyte, or oligodendrocyte cell types using specific induction mediums. Differentiated cells showed the specific expression of neural differentiation markers (βIII-tubulin, GFAP, CNPase, oligo-O1. In myelomeningocele patients, CSF-derived cells could become a potential source of NPCs with neurogenic capacity. Our findings support the development of innovative stem-cell-based therapeutics by autologous transplantation of CSF-derived NPCs in damaged spinal cords, such as myelomeningocele, thus promoting neural tissue regeneration in fetuses.

  6. Comparison of 2D and 3D neural induction methods for the generation of neural progenitor cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Abinaya; Avci, Hasan X; Ochalek, Anna; Rösingh, Lone N; Molnár, Kinga; László, Lajos; Bellák, Tamás; Téglási, Annamária; Pesti, Krisztina; Mike, Arpad; Phanthong, Phetcharat; Bíró, Orsolya; Hall, Vanessa; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Kobolák, Julianna; Dinnyés, András

    2017-12-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are frequently induced using 3D culture methodologies however, it is unknown whether spheroid-based (3D) neural induction is actually superior to monolayer (2D) neural induction. Our aim was to compare the efficiency of 2D induction with 3D induction method in their ability to generate NPCs, and subsequently neurons and astrocytes. Neural differentiation was analysed at the protein level qualitatively by immunocytochemistry and quantitatively by flow cytometry for NPC (SOX1, PAX6, NESTIN), neuronal (MAP2, TUBB3), cortical layer (TBR1, CUX1) and glial markers (SOX9, GFAP, AQP4). Electron microscopy demonstrated that both methods resulted in morphologically similar neural rosettes. However, quantification of NPCs derived from 3D neural induction exhibited an increase in the number of PAX6/NESTIN double positive cells and the derived neurons exhibited longer neurites. In contrast, 2D neural induction resulted in more SOX1 positive cells. While 2D monolayer induction resulted in slightly less mature neurons, at an early stage of differentiation, the patch clamp analysis failed to reveal any significant differences between the electrophysiological properties between the two induction methods. In conclusion, 3D neural induction increases the yield of PAX6+/NESTIN+ cells and gives rise to neurons with longer neurites, which might be an advantage for the production of forebrain cortical neurons, highlighting the potential of 3D neural induction, independent of iPSCs' genetic background. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Running rescues defective adult neurogenesis by shortening the length of the cell cycle of neural stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Mattera, Andrea; Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Leonardi, Luca; Saraulli, Daniele; Costanzi, Marco; Cestari, Vincenzo; Rouault, Jean-Pierre; Tirone, Felice

    2014-07-01

    Physical exercise increases the generation of new neurons in adult neurogenesis. However, only few studies have investigated the beneficial effects of physical exercise in paradigms of impaired neurogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that running fully reverses the deficient adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus and subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, observed in mice lacking the antiproliferative gene Btg1. We also evaluated for the first time how running influences the cell cycle kinetics of stem and precursor subpopulations of wild-type and Btg1-null mice, using a new method to determine the cell cycle length. Our data show that in wild-type mice running leads to a cell cycle shortening only of NeuroD1-positive progenitor cells. In contrast, in Btg1-null mice, physical exercise fully reactivates the defective hippocampal neurogenesis, by shortening the S-phase length and the overall cell cycle duration of both neural stem (glial fibrillary acidic protein(+) and Sox2(+)) and progenitor (NeuroD1(+)) cells. These events are sufficient and necessary to reactivate the hyperproliferation observed in Btg1-null early-postnatal mice and to expand the pool of adult neural stem and progenitor cells. Such a sustained increase of cell proliferation in Btg1-null mice after running provides a long-lasting increment of proliferation, differentiation, and production of newborn neurons, which rescues the impaired pattern separation previously identified in Btg1-null mice. This study shows that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Distribution and localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 in rat brain and nerve cells during neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Li, Dongsheng; Lu, Kehuan

    2012-07-05

    The present study explored the distribution and localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 and its potential receptor, fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, in adult rat brain in vivo and in nerve cells during differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the distribution of fibroblast growth factor-8 in adult rat brain in vivo. Localization of fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in cells during neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation in vitro was detected by immunofluorescence. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate the effect of an anti-fibroblast growth factor-8 antibody on neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and expansion in vitro. Results from this study confirmed that fibroblast growth factor-8 was mainly distributed in adult midbrain, namely the substantia nigra, compact part, dorsal tier, substantia nigra and reticular part, but was not detected in the forebrain comprising the caudate putamen and striatum. Unusual results were obtained in retrosplenial locations of adult rat brain. We found that fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 were distributed on the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm of nerve cells using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. We considered that the distribution of fibroblast growth factor-8 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in neural cells corresponded to the characteristics of fibroblast growth factor-8, a secretory factor. Addition of an anti-fibroblast growth factor-8 antibody to cultures significantly affected the rate of expansion and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells. In contrast, addition of recombinant fibroblast growth factor-8 to differentiation medium promoted neural stem/progenitor cell differentiation and increased the final yields of dopaminergic neurons and total neurons. Our study may help delineate the important roles of fibroblast growth

  9. Positron Emission Tomography with [18F]FLT Revealed Sevoflurane-induced Inhibition of Neural Progenitor Cell Expansion in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuliang eLiu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural progenitor cell expansion is critical for normal brain development and an appropriate response to injury. During the brain growth spurt, exposures to general anesthetics which either block the N-methyl D-aspartate receptor or enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A can disturb neuronal transduction. This effect can be detrimental to brain development. Until now, the effects of anesthetic exposure on neural progenitor cell expansion in vivo had seldom been reported. Here, minimally invasive micro positron emission tomography (microPET coupled with 3'-deoxy-3' [18F] fluoro-L-thymidine ([18F]FLT was utilized to assess the effects of sevoflurane exposure on neural progenitor cell proliferation. FLT, a thymidine analogue, is taken up by proliferating cells and phosphorylated in the cytoplasm, leading to its intracellular trapping. Intracellular retention of [18F]FLT, thus, represents an observable in vivo marker of cell proliferation. Here, postnatal day (PND 7 rats (n = 11/ group were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane or room air for 9 hr. For up to two weeks following the exposure, standard uptake values (SUVs for [18F]-FLT in the hippocampal formation were significantly attenuated in the sevoflurane-exposed rats (p <0.0001, suggesting decreased uptake and retention of [18F]FLT (decreased proliferation in these regions. Four weeks following exposure, SUVs for [18F]FLT were comparable in the sevoflurane-exposed rats and in controls. Co-administration of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 30 mg/kg, n = 5, a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, significantly attenuated the SUVs for [18F]FLT in both the air-exposed (p = 0.00006 and sevoflurane-exposed rats (p = 0.0427 in the first week following the exposure. These findings suggested that microPET in couple with [18F]FLT as cell proliferation marker could be used as a non-invasive modality to monitor the sevoflurane-induced inhibition of neural progenitor cell proliferation in vivo.

  10. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro, E-mail: r502um@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Tokuda, Nobuko [Faculty of Health Sciences, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie [Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuyuki [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  11. Prolonged Mitosis of Neural Progenitors Alters Cell Fate in the Developing Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; McMahon, John J; Miller, Emily E; Lennox, Ashley L; Suzuki, Aussie; Salmon, Edward; Silver, Debra L

    2016-01-06

    Embryonic neocortical development depends on balanced production of progenitors and neurons. Genetic mutations disrupting progenitor mitosis frequently impair neurogenesis; however, the link between altered mitosis and cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that prolonged mitosis of radial glial progenitors directly alters neuronal fate specification and progeny viability. Live imaging of progenitors from a neurogenesis mutant, Magoh(+/-), reveals that mitotic delay significantly correlates with preferential production of neurons instead of progenitors, as well as apoptotic progeny. Independently, two pharmacological approaches reveal a causal relationship between mitotic delay and progeny fate. As mitotic duration increases, progenitors produce substantially more apoptotic progeny or neurons. We show that apoptosis, but not differentiation, is p53 dependent, demonstrating that these are distinct outcomes of mitotic delay. Together our findings reveal that prolonged mitosis is sufficient to alter fates of radial glia progeny and define a new paradigm to understand how mitosis perturbations underlie brain size disorders such as microcephaly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromosome 7 and 19 trisomy in cultured human neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruv Sareen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stem cell expansion and differentiation is the foundation of emerging cell therapy technologies. The potential applications of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs are wide ranging, but a normal cytogenetic profile is important to avoid the risk of tumor formation in clinical trials. FDA approved clinical trials are being planned and conducted for hNPC transplantation into the brain or spinal cord for various neurodegenerative disorders. Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are known to show recurrent chromosomal abnormalities involving 12 and 17, no studies have revealed chromosomal abnormalities in cultured hNPCs. Therefore, we investigated frequently occurring chromosomal abnormalities in 21 independent fetal-derived hNPC lines and the possible mechanisms triggering such aberrations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: While most hNPC lines were karyotypically normal, G-band karyotyping and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH analyses revealed the emergence of trisomy 7 (hNPC(+7 and trisomy 19 (hNPC(+19, in 24% and 5% of the lines, respectively. Once detected, subsequent passaging revealed emerging dominance of trisomy hNPCs. DNA microarray and immunoblotting analyses demonstrate epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression in hNPC(+7 and hNPC(+19 cells. We observed greater levels of telomerase (hTERT, increased proliferation (Ki67, survival (TUNEL, and neurogenesis (beta(III-tubulin in hNPC(+7 and hNPC(+19, using respective immunocytochemical markers. However, the trisomy lines underwent replicative senescence after 50-60 population doublings and never showed neoplastic changes. Although hNPC(+7 and hNPC(+19 survived better after xenotransplantation into the rat striatum, they did not form malignant tumors. Finally, EGF deprivation triggered a selection of trisomy 7 cells in a diploid hNPC line. CONCLUSIONS: We report that hNPCs are susceptible to accumulation of chromosome 7 and 19 trisomy in long-term cell culture. These

  13. Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells at different locations in mice with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Hiroki; Nori, Satoshi; Nishimura, Soraya; Yasuda, Akimasa; Takano, Morito; Tsuji, Osahiko; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI); however, few studies have examined the optimal site of NS/PC transplantation in the spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal transplantation site of NS/PCs for the treatment of SCI. Wild-type mice were generated with contusive SCI at the T10 level, and NS/PCs were derived from fetal transgenic mice. These NS/PCs ubiquitously expressed ffLuc-cp156 protein (Venus and luciferase fusion protein) and so could be detected by in vivo bioluminescence imaging 9 days postinjury. NS/PCs (low: 250,000 cells per mouse; high: 1 million cells per mouse) were grafted into the spinal cord at the lesion epicenter (E) or at rostral and caudal (RC) sites. Phosphate-buffered saline was injected into E as a control. Motor functional recovery was better in each of the transplantation groups (E-Low, E-High, RC-Low, and RC-High) than in the control group. The photon counts of the grafted NS/PCs were similar in each of the four transplantation groups, suggesting that the survival of NS/PCs was fairly uniform when more than a certain threshold number of cells were transplanted. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that brain-derived neurotropic factor expression was higher in the RC segment than in the E segment, and this may underlie why NS/PCs more readily differentiated into neurons than into astrocytes in the RC group. The location of the transplantation site did not affect the area of spared fibers, angiogenesis, or the expression of any other mediators. These findings indicated that the microenvironments of the E and RC sites are able to support NS/PCs transplanted during the subacute phase of SCI similarly. Optimally, a certain threshold number of NS/PCs should be grafted into the E segment to avoid damaging sites adjacent to the lesion during the injection procedure.

  14. Effect of enzymatic and mechanical methods of dissociation on neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Lindsey D; Canda, Claire-Marie A; Hall, Crystal A; Heilingoetter, Cassandra L; Huynh, Joann; Kwok, Susanna S; Kwon, Jin H; Richie, Jacob R; Jensen, Matthew B

    2016-03-01

    To determine the most effective method of dissociating neural stem and progenitor cells into a single-cell suspension. Induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated toward the neural fate for 4 weeks before clusters were subjected to enzymatic (Accutase, trypsin, TrypLE, dispase, or DNase I) or mechanical (trituration with pipettes of varying size) or combined dissociation. Images of cells were analyzed for cluster size using ImageJ. Cells treated with the enzymes Accutase, TrypLE, or trypsin/EDTA, these enzymes followed by trituration, or a combination one of these enzymes followed by incubation with another enzyme, including DNase I, were more likely to be dissociated into a single-cell suspension. Cells treated with enzymes or combinations of methods were more likely to be dissociated into a single-cell suspension. Copyright © 2015 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  16. MicroRNA-130b targets Fmr1 and regulates embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Zhang, Kunshan [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yanlu; Wang, Junbang; Cui, Yaru [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Li, Siguang, E-mail: siguangli@163.com [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Luo, Yuping, E-mail: luoyuping@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •We found that the 3′ UTR of the Fmr1 mRNA is a target of miR-130b. •MiR-130b suppresses the expression of Fmr1 in mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters fate specification of mouse embryonic stem cell. -- Abstract: Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of the CGG repeat in the 5′-untranslated region of the X-linked Fmr1 gene, which results in transcriptional silencing and loss of expression of its encoded protein FMRP. The loss of FMRP increases proliferation and alters fate specification in adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs). However, little is known about Fmr1 mRNA regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In the present study, we report that miR-130b regulated Fmr1 expression by directly targeting its 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR). Up-regulation of miR-130b in mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) decreased Fmr1 expression, markedly increased eNPC proliferation and altered the differentiation tendency of eNPCs, suggesting that antagonizing miR-130b may be a new therapeutic entry point for treating Fragile X syndrome.

  17. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avanzo, Carla; Sliwinski, Christopher; Wagner, Steven L; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Kim, Doo Yeon; Kovacs, Dora M

    2015-08-01

    Soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) selectively decrease toxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides (Aβ42). However, their effect on the physiologic functions of γ-secretase has not been tested in human model systems. γ-Secretase regulates fate determination of neural progenitor cells. Thus, we studied the impact of SGSMs on the neuronal differentiation of ReNcell VM (ReN) human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that treatment of neurosphere-like ReN cell aggregate cultures with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), but not SGSMs, induced a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of the neuronal markers Tuj1 and doublecortin. GSI treatment also induced neuronal marker protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis. In the same conditions, SGSM treatment selectively reduced endogenous Aβ42 levels by ∼80%. Mechanistically, we found that Notch target gene expressions were selectively inhibited by a GSI, not by SGSM treatment. We can assert, for the first time, that SGSMs do not affect the neuronal differentiation of hNPCs while selectively decreasing endogenous Aβ42 levels in the same conditions. Our results suggest that our hNPC differentiation system can serve as a useful model to test the impact of GSIs and SGSMs on both endogenous Aβ levels and γ-secretase physiologic functions including endogenous Notch signaling. © FASEB.

  18. Lack of aspartoacylase activity disrupts survival and differentiation of neural progenitors and oligodendrocytes in a mouse model of Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shalini; Biancotti, Juan Carlos; Matalon, Reuben; de Vellis, Jean

    2009-11-15

    Loss of the oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA) from gene mutation results in the sponginess and loss of white matter (WM) in Canavan disease (CD). This study addresses the fate of OLs during the pathophysiology of CD in an adult ASPA knockout (KO) mouse strain. Massive arrays of neural stem/progenitor cells, immunopositive for PSA-NCAM, nestin, vimentin, and NG2, were observed within the severely affected spongy WM of the KO mouse brain. In these mice, G1-->S cell cycle progression was confirmed by an increase in cdk2-kinase activity, a reduction in mitotic inhibitors p21(Cip1) and p27(Kip1), and an increase in bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. Highly acetylated nuclear histones H2B and H3 were detected in adult KO mouse WM, suggesting the existence of noncompact chromatin as seen during early development. Costaining for BrdU- or Ki67-positive cells with markers for neural progenitors confirmed a continuous generation of OL lineage cells in KO WM. We observed a severe reduction in 21.5- and 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein and PLP/DM20 proteolipid proteins combined with a decrease in myelinated fibers and a perinuclear retention of myelin protein staining, indicating impairment in protein trafficking. Death of OLs, neurons, and astrocytes was identified in every region of the KO brain. Immature OLs constituted the largest population of dying cells, particularly in WM. We also report an early expression of full-length ASPA mRNA in normal mouse brain at embryonic day 12.5, when OL progenitors first appear during development. These findings support involvement of ASPA in CNS development and function.

  19. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, M P; Covio, M; Lee, K S

    2011-03-10

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6(+) and Tbr2(+) progenitors are mislocalized in tish(+/-) and tish(-/-)- neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish(-/-) progenitors possess a longer cell cycle than wild type or normally-positioned tish(-/-) progenitors, owing to a lengthened G(2)+M+G(1) time. This mislocalization is not associated with adherens junction breakdown or loss of radial glial polarity in the ventricular zone (VZ), as assessed by immunohistochemistry against phalloidin (to identify F-actin), aPKC-λ and Par3. However, vimentin immunohistochemistry indicates that the radial glial scaffold is disrupted in the region of the tish(-/-) heterotopia. Moreover, lineage tracing experiments using in utero electroporation in tish(-/-) neocortex demonstrate that mislocalized progenitors do not retain contact with the ventricular surface and that ventricular/subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors produce neurons that migrate into both the heterotopia and cortical plate (CP). Taken together, these findings define a series of developmental errors contributing to SBH formation that differs fundamentally from a primary error in neuronal migration. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sphere-Derived Multipotent Progenitor Cells Obtained From Human Oral Mucosa Are Enriched in Neural Crest Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Sato, Yutaka; Harada, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    isolation of neural crest progenitor cells from oral mucosa using this system. Human OMSCs form spheres that exhibit self-renewal capabilities and multipotency, and are enriched with neural crest-derived cells. These oral mucosa sphere-forming cells can generate ectopic bone tissue in vivo. Therefore, the results of the present study show that the sphere culture system can be applied, without the need for complex isolation techniques, to produce multipotent spheres with the properties of neural crest stem cells. Furthermore, a convenient strategy is demonstrated for the isolation and culture of human OMSCs that could have clinical applications. ©AlphaMed Press.

  1. Fat1 interacts with Fat4 to regulate neural tube closure, neural progenitor proliferation and apical constriction during mouse brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badouel, Caroline; Zander, Mark A; Liscio, Nicole; Bagherie-Lachidan, Mazdak; Sopko, Richelle; Coyaud, Etienne; Raught, Brian; Miller, Freda D; McNeill, Helen

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian brain development requires coordination between neural precursor proliferation, differentiation and cellular organization to create the intricate neuronal networks of the adult brain. Here, we examined the role of the atypical cadherins Fat1 and Fat4 in this process. We show that mutation of Fat1 in mouse embryos causes defects in cranial neural tube closure, accompanied by an increase in the proliferation of cortical precursors and altered apical junctions, with perturbations in apical constriction and actin accumulation. Similarly, knockdown of Fat1 in cortical precursors by in utero electroporation leads to overproliferation of radial glial precursors. Fat1 interacts genetically with the related cadherin Fat4 to regulate these processes. Proteomic analysis reveals that Fat1 and Fat4 bind different sets of actin-regulating and junctional proteins. In vitro data suggest that Fat1 and Fat4 form cis-heterodimers, providing a mechanism for bringing together their diverse interactors. We propose a model in which Fat1 and Fat4 binding coordinates distinct pathways at apical junctions to regulate neural progenitor proliferation, neural tube closure and apical constriction. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Epigenetic marks define the lineage and differentiation potential of two distinct neural crest-derived intermediate odontogenic progenitor populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2013-06-15

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as histone modifications, play an active role in the differentiation and lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study, epigenetic states and differentiation profiles of two odontogenic neural crest-derived intermediate progenitor populations were compared: dental pulp (DP) and dental follicle (DF). ChIP on chip assays revealed substantial H3K27me3-mediated repression of odontoblast lineage genes DSPP and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) in DF cells, but not in DP cells. Mineralization inductive conditions caused steep increases of mineralization and patterning gene expression levels in DP cells when compared to DF cells. In contrast, mineralization induction resulted in a highly dynamic histone modification response in DF cells, while there was only a subdued effect in DP cells. Both DF and DP progenitors featured H3K4me3-active marks on the promoters of early mineralization genes RUNX2, MSX2, and DLX5, while OSX, IBSP, and BGLAP promoters were enriched for H3K9me3 or H3K27me3. Compared to DF cells, DP cells expressed higher levels of three pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2. Finally, gene ontology comparison of bivalent marks unique for DP and DF cells highlighted cell-cell attachment genes in DP cells and neurogenesis genes in DF cells. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the DF intermediate odontogenic neural crest lineage is distinguished from its DP counterpart by epigenetic repression of DSPP and DMP1 genes and through dynamic histone enrichment responses to mineralization induction. Findings presented here highlight the crucial role of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in the terminal differentiation of odontogenic neural crest lineages.

  3. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  4. Methylmercury exposure during early Xenopus laevis development affects cell proliferation and death but not neural progenitor specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Ryan W; Nagarkar, Maitreyi; Olsen, Nina; Clamons, Samuel E; Saha, Margaret S

    2015-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a widespread environmental toxin that preferentially and adversely affects developing organisms. To investigate the impact of MeHg toxicity on the formation of the vertebrate nervous system at physiologically relevant concentrations, we designed a graded phenotype scale for evaluating Xenopus laevis embryos exposed to MeHg in solution. Embryos displayed a range of abnormalities in response to MeHg, particularly in brain development, which is influenced by both MeHg concentration and the number of embryos per ml of exposure solution. A TC50 of ~50μg/l and LC50 of ~100μg/l were found when maintaining embryos at a density of one per ml, and both increased with increasing embryo density. In situ hybridization and microarray analysis showed no significant change in expression of early neural patterning genes including sox2, en2, or delta; however a noticeable decrease was observed in the terminal neural differentiation genes GAD and xGAT, but not xVGlut. PCNA, a marker for proliferating cells, was negatively correlated with MeHg dose, with a significant reduction in cell number in the forebrain and spinal cord of exposed embryos by tadpole stages. Conversely, the number of apoptotic cells in neural regions detected by a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay was significantly increased. These results provide evidence that disruption of embryonic neural development by MeHg may not be directly due to a loss of neural progenitor specification and gene transcription, but to a more general decrease in cell proliferation and increase in cell death throughout the developing nervous system. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Neural stem/progenitor cell-laden microfibers promote transplant survival in a mouse transected spinal cord injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kato-Negishi, Midori; Onoe, Hiroaki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Takeuchi, Shoji; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) into the lesioned spinal cord can promote functional recovery following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. However, this strategy is insufficient following complete SCI because of the gap at the lesion epicenter. To obtain functional recovery in a mouse model of complete SCI, this study uses a novel collagen-based microfiber as a scaffold for engrafted NS/PCs. We hypothesized that the NS/PC-microfiber combination would facilitate lesion closure as well as transplant survival in the transected spinal cord. NS/PCs were seeded inside the novel microfibers, where they maintained their capacity to differentiate and proliferate. After transplantation, the stumps of the transected spinal cord were successfully bridged by the NS/PC-laden microfibers. Moreover, the transplanted cells migrated into the host spinal cord and differentiated into three neural lineages (astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes). However, the NS/PC-laden scaffold could not achieve a neural connection between the rostral end of the injury and the intact caudal area of the spinal cord, nor could it achieve recovery of motor function. To obtain optimal functional recovery, a microfiber design with a modified composition may be useful. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy with rehabilitation and/or medications should also be considered for practical success of biomaterial/cell transplantation-based approaches to regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  7. Exposure to GDNF Enhances the Ability of Enteric Neural Progenitors to Generate an Enteric Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja J. McKeown

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapy is a promising approach to generate an enteric nervous system (ENS and treat enteric neuropathies. However, for translation to the clinic, it is highly likely that enteric neural progenitors will require manipulation prior to transplantation to enhance their ability to migrate and generate an ENS. In this study, we examine the effects of exposure to several factors on the ability of ENS progenitors, grown as enteric neurospheres, to migrate and generate an ENS. Exposure to glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF resulted in a 14-fold increase in neurosphere volume and a 12-fold increase in cell number. Following co-culture with embryonic gut or transplantation into the colon of postnatal mice in vivo, cells derived from GDNF-treated neurospheres showed a 2-fold increase in the distance migrated compared with controls. Our data show that the ability of enteric neurospheres to generate an ENS can be enhanced by exposure to appropriate factors.

  8. Engrafted Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Promote Functional Recovery through Synapse Reorganization with Spared Host Neurons after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI. However, the efficacy of NSPC transplantation on severe SCI is poorly understood. We herein show that NSPC transplantation promotes functional recovery after mild and moderate SCI, but not after severe SCI. In severe SCI mice, there were few remaining host neurons within the range of NSPC engraftment; thus, we examined whether the co-distribution of transplant and host is a contributory factor for functional improvement. A cellular selective analysis using laser microdissection revealed that drug-induced host neuronal ablation considerably decreased the synaptogenic potential of the engrafted NSPCs. Furthermore, following host neuronal ablation, neuronal retrograde tracing showed less propriospinal relay connections bridging the lesion after NSPC transplantation. Our findings suggest that the interactive synaptic reorganization between engrafted NSPCs and spared host neurons is crucial for functional recovery, providing significant insight for establishing therapeutic strategies for severe SCI.

  9. Disturbances in the positioning, proliferation, and apoptosis of neural progenitors contribute to subcortical band heterotopia formation

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, MP; Covio, M; Lee, KS

    2010-01-01

    Cortical malformations are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and other developmental disorders. Our studies utilize the tish rat, a spontaneously occurring genetic model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) associated with epilepsy, to evaluate the developmental events underlying SBH formation in the neocortex. Our results demonstrate that Pax6+ and Tbr2+ progenitors are mislocalized in tish+/− and tish−/− neocortex throughout neurogenesis. In addition, mislocalized tish−/− proge...

  10. Human neural progenitor cells decrease photoreceptor degeneration, normalize opsin distribution and support synapse structure in cultured porcine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Tanzina; Mohlin, Camilla; Johansson, Kjell

    2016-09-01

    Retinal neurodegenerative disorders like retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment decrease retinal functionality leading to visual impairment. The pathological events are characterized by photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic disassembly, remodeling of postsynaptic neurons and activation of glial cells. Despite intense research, no effective treatment has been found for these disorders. The current study explores the potential of human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) derived factors to slow the degenerative processes in adult porcine retinal explants. Retinas were cultured for 3 days with or without hNPCs as a feeder layer and investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemical, western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. TUNEL showed that hNPCs had the capacity to limit photoreceptor cell death. Among cone photoreceptors, hNPC coculture resulted in better maintenance of cone outer segments and reduced opsin mislocalization. Additionally, maintained synaptic structural integrity and preservation of second order calbindin positive horizontal cells was also observed. However, Müller cell gliosis only seemed to be alleviated in terms of reduced Müller cell density. Our observations indicate that at 3 days of coculture, hNPC derived factors had the capacity to protect photoreceptors, maintain synaptic integrity and support horizontal cell survival. Human neural progenitor cell applied treatment modalities may be an effective strategy to help maintain retinal functionality in neurodegenerative pathologies. Whether hNPCs can independently hinder Müller cell gliosis by utilizing higher concentrations or by combination with other pharmacological agents still needs to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the differentiation of dopaminergic traits in human neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Donaldson, Angela E; Marshall, Cheryl E; Shen, James; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    The development of cell replacement therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) may depend upon the successful differentiation of human neural stem/progenitor cells into dopamine (DA) neurons. We show here that primary human neural progenitors (HNPs) can be expanded and maintained in culture both as neurospheres (NSPs) and attached monolayers where they develop into neurons and glia. When transplanted into the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat striatum, undifferentiated NSPs survive longer (60% graft survival at 8-16 weeks vs. 30% graft survival at 8-13 weeks) and migrate farther than their attached counterparts. While both NSP and attached cells continue to express neuronal traits after transplantation, the spontaneous expression of differentiated transmitter-related traits is not observed in either cell type. However, following predifferentiation in culture using a previously described cocktail of reagents, approximately 25% of HNPs can permanently express the DA enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), even following replating and removal of the DA differentiation cocktail. When these predifferentiated HNPs are transplanted into the brain, however, TH staining is not observed, either because expression is lost or TH-expressing cells preferentially die. Consistent with the latter view is a decrease in total cell survival and migration, and an enhanced glial response in these grafts. In contrast, we found that the overall survival of HNPs is improved when cells engraft near blood vessels or CSF compartments or when they are placed into an intact unlesioned brain, suggesting that there are factors, as yet unidentified, that can better support the development of engrafted HNPs.

  12. Mammalian neurogenesis requires Treacle-Plk1 for precise control of spindle orientation, mitotic progression, and maintenance of neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sakai

    Full Text Available The cerebral cortex is a specialized region of the brain that processes cognitive, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual functions. Its characteristic architecture and size is dependent upon the number of neurons generated during embryogenesis and has been postulated to be governed by symmetric versus asymmetric cell divisions, which mediate the balance between progenitor cell maintenance and neuron differentiation, respectively. The mechanistic importance of spindle orientation remains controversial, hence there is considerable interest in understanding how neural progenitor cell mitosis is controlled during neurogenesis. We discovered that Treacle, which is encoded by the Tcof1 gene, is a novel centrosome- and kinetochore-associated protein that is critical for spindle fidelity and mitotic progression. Tcof1/Treacle loss-of-function disrupts spindle orientation and cell cycle progression, which perturbs the maintenance, proliferation, and localization of neural progenitors during cortical neurogenesis. Consistent with this, Tcof1(+/- mice exhibit reduced brain size as a consequence of defects in neural progenitor maintenance. We determined that Treacle elicits its effect via a direct interaction with Polo-like kinase1 (Plk1, and furthermore we discovered novel in vivo roles for Plk1 in governing mitotic progression and spindle orientation in the developing mammalian cortex. Increased asymmetric cell division, however, did not promote increased neuronal differentiation. Collectively our research has therefore identified Treacle and Plk1 as novel in vivo regulators of spindle fidelity, mitotic progression, and proliferation in the maintenance and localization of neural progenitor cells. Together, Treacle and Plk1 are critically required for proper cortical neurogenesis, which has important implications in the regulation of mammalian brain size and the pathogenesis of congenital neurodevelopmental disorders such as microcephaly.

  13. Neural stem/progenitor cells as a promising candidate for regenerative therapy of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eBonnamain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Neural transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases and other affections of the central nervous system (CNS like Parkinson and Huntington diseases, multiple sclerosis or stroke. If cell replacement therapy already went through clinical trials for some of these diseases using fetal human neuroblasts, several important limitations led to the search for alternative cell sources that would be more suitable for intracerebral transplantation. Taking into account logistical and ethical issues linked to the use of tissue derived from human fetuses, and the immunologically special status of the CNS allowing the occurrence of deleterious immune reactions, Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells (NSPCs appear as an interesting cell source candidate. In addition to their ability for replacing cell populations lost during the pathological events, NSPCs also display surprising therapeutic effects of neuroprotection and immunomodulation. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in these specific characteristics will hopefully lead in the future to a successful use of NSPCs in regenerative medicine for CNS affections.

  14. Xeya3 regulates survival and proliferation of neural progenitor cells within the anterior neural plate of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, Martin; Müller, Frank; Hollemann, Thomas

    2007-06-01

    The transcriptional coactivater and tyrosine phosphatase eyes absent (eya) is vital for eye development in Drosophila. We identified a vertebrate member of the Eya family, Xeya3, which is expressed in the anterior neural plate, including the eye field. Overexpression of wild-type Xeya3 or of a phosphatase-negative version of Xeya3 creates massive enlargements of brain and retinal tissues, mainly caused by overproliferation of neural precursor cells. On the other hand, suppression of Xeya3 function induces local apoptosis within the sensorial layer of the anterior neuroectoderm. Thus, Xeya3 is key factor for the formation and size control of brain and eyes in vertebrates. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Analysis of neural progenitors from embryogenesis to juvenile adult in Xenopus laevis reveals biphasic neurogenesis and continuous lengthening of the cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Thuret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis is a prominent model system for studying neural development, but our understanding of the long-term temporal dynamics of neurogenesis remains incomplete. Here, we present the first continuous description of neurogenesis in X. laevis, covering the entire period of development from the specification of neural ectoderm during gastrulation to juvenile frog. We have used molecular markers to identify progenitors and neurons, short-term bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation to map the generation of newborn neurons and dual pulse S-phase labelling to characterise changes in their cell cycle length. Our study revealed the persistence of Sox3-positive progenitor cells from the earliest stages of neural development through to the juvenile adult. Two periods of intense neuronal generation were observed, confirming the existence of primary and secondary waves of neurogenesis, punctuated by a period of quiescence before metamorphosis and culminating in another period of quiescence in the young adult. Analysis of multiple parameters indicates that neural progenitors alternate between global phases of differentiation and amplification and that, regardless of their behaviour, their cell cycle lengthens monotonically during development, at least at the population level.

  16. Interactions of HIV and drugs of abuse: the importance of glia, neural progenitors, and host genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2014-01-01

    Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain "connectome." Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life, and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Centriole Amplification in Zebrafish Affects Proliferation and Survival but Not Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Dzafic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In animal cells, supernumerary centrosomes, resulting from centriole amplification, cause mitotic aberrations and have been associated with diseases, including microcephaly and cancer. To evaluate how centriole amplification impacts organismal development at the cellular and tissue levels, we used the in vivo imaging potential of the zebrafish. We demonstrate that centriole amplification can induce multipolar anaphase, resulting in binucleated cells. Such binucleation causes substantial apoptosis in the neuroepithelium. Interestingly, not all epithelia are similarly sensitive to binucleation, as skin cells tolerate it without entering apoptosis. In the neuroepithelium, however, binucleation leads to tissue degeneration and subsequent organismal death. Notably, this tissue degeneration can be efficiently counterbalanced by compensatory proliferation of wild-type cells. Because the risk for generating a binucleated daughter recurs at every cell division, centriole amplification in the neuroepithelium is especially deleterious during progenitor proliferation. Once cells reach the differentiation phase, however, centriole amplification does not impair neuronal differentiation.

  18. Astrocytes derived from fetal neural progenitor cells as a novel source for therapeutic adenosine delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dycke, A.; Raedt, R.; Verstraete, A.; Theofilas, P.; Wadman, W.; Vonck, K.; Boison, D.; Boon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intracerebral delivery of anti-epileptic compounds represents a novel strategy for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. Adenosine is a possible candidate for local delivery based on its proven anti-epileptic effects. Neural stem cells constitute an ideal cell source for intracerebral

  19. Organic cation transporter-mediated ergothioneine uptake in mouse neural progenitor cells suppresses proliferation and promotes differentiation into neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to clarify the functional expression and physiological role in neural progenitor cells (NPCs of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which accepts the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO as a substrate in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of OCTN1 was much higher than that of other organic cation transporters in mouse cultured cortical NPCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed colocalization of OCTN1 with the NPC marker nestin in cultured NPCs and mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells differentiated into neural progenitor-like cells (P19-NPCs. These cells exhibited time-dependent [(3H]ERGO uptake. These results demonstrate that OCTN1 is functionally expressed in murine NPCs. Cultured NPCs and P19-NPCs formed neurospheres from clusters of proliferating cells in a culture time-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO or other antioxidants (edaravone and ascorbic acid led to a significant decrease in the area of neurospheres with concomitant elimination of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Transfection of P19-NPCs with small interfering RNA for OCTN1 markedly promoted formation of neurospheres with a concomitant decrease of [(3H]ERGO uptake. On the other hand, exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO markedly increased the number of cells immunoreactive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin, but decreased the number immunoreactive for the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with concomitant up-regulation of neuronal differentiation activator gene Math1. Interestingly, edaravone and ascorbic acid did not affect such differentiation of NPCs, in contrast to the case of proliferation. Knockdown of OCTN1 increased the number of cells immunoreactive for GFAP, but decreased the number immunoreactive for βIII-tubulin, with concomitant down-regulation of Math1 in P19-NPCs. Thus, OCTN1-mediated uptake of ERGO in NPCs inhibits

  20. Long-term potentiation promotes proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesup Cho

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity, promotes neurogenesis by facilitating proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We found that the induction of hippocampal LTP significantly facilitates proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of both endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the hippocampus in rats. These effects were eliminated by preventing LTP induction by pharmacological blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR via systemic application of the receptor antagonist, 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Moreover, using a NPC-neuron co-culture system, we were able to demonstrate that the LTP-promoted NPC neurogenesis is at least in part mediated by a LTP-increased neuronal release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its consequent activation of tropomysosin receptor kinase B (TrkB receptors on NSCs. Our results indicate that LTP promotes the neurogenesis of both endogenous and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the brain. The study suggests that pre-conditioning of the host brain receiving area with a LTP-inducing deep brain stimulation protocol prior to NSC transplantation may increase the likelihood of success of using NSC transplantation as an effective cell therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Efficient derivation of multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells from non-human primate embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimada

    Full Text Available The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus is a small New World primate that has been used as a non-human primate model for various biomedical studies. We previously demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs derived from mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs promote functional locomotor recovery of mouse spinal cord injury models. However, for the clinical application of such a therapeutic approach, we need to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pluripotent stem cell-derived NS/PCs not only by xenotransplantation, but also allotransplantation using non-human primate models to assess immunological rejection and tumorigenicity. In the present study, we established a culture method to efficiently derive NS/PCs as neurospheres from common marmoset ESCs. Marmoset ESC-derived neurospheres could be passaged repeatedly and showed sequential generation of neurons and astrocytes, similar to that of mouse ESC-derived NS/PCs, and gave rise to functional neurons as indicated by calcium imaging. Although marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs could not differentiate into oligodendrocytes under default culture conditions, these cells could abundantly generate oligodendrocytes by incorporating additional signals that recapitulate in vivo neural development. Moreover, principal component analysis of microarray data demonstrated that marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs acquired similar gene expression profiles to those of fetal brain-derived NS/PCs by repeated passaging. Therefore, marmoset ESC-derived NS/PCs may be useful not only for accurate evaluation by allotransplantation of NS/PCs into non-human primate models, but are also applicable to analysis of iPSCs established from transgenic disease model marmosets.

  2. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mei, E-mail: limeihit@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Xu, Tie-Jun, E-mail: xztjxu@163.com [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Department of Pharmacology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus IE1 downregulates Hes1 in neural progenitor cells as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Juan Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is the leading cause of neurological disabilities in children worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying these disorders are far from well-defined. HCMV infection has been shown to dysregulate the Notch signaling pathway in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs. As an important downstream effector of Notch signaling, the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1 is essential for governing NPC fate and fetal brain development. In the present study, we report that HCMV infection downregulates Hes1 protein levels in infected NPCs. The HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 protein (IE1 is involved in Hes1 degradation by assembling a ubiquitination complex and promoting Hes1 ubiquitination as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase, followed by proteasomal degradation of Hes1. Sp100A, an important component of PML nuclear bodies, is identified to be another target of IE1-mediated ubiquitination. A C-terminal acidic region in IE1, spanning amino acids 451 to 475, is required for IE1/Hes1 physical interaction and IE1-mediated Hes1 ubiquitination, but is dispensable for IE1/Sp100A interaction and ubiquitination. Our study suggests a novel mechanism linking downregulation of Hes1 protein to neurodevelopmental disorders caused by HCMV infection. Our findings also complement the current knowledge of herpesviruses by identifying IE1 as the first potential HCMV-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  4. Differentiated human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells express excitatory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors containing α2β subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wegner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs may deliver a tissue source for drug screening and regenerative cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease. While glutamate and GABA(A receptors play an important role in neurogenesis, the involvement of glycine receptors during human neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation as well as their molecular and functional characteristics in NPCs are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigated NPCs in respect to their glycine receptor function and subunit expression using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate the ability of NPCs to express functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro. Pharmacological and molecular analyses indicate a predominance of glycine receptor heteromers containing α2β subunits. Intracellular calcium measurements of differentiated NPCs suggest that glycine evokes depolarisations mediated by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and not by D-serine-sensitive excitatory glycine receptors. Culturing NPCs with additional glycine, the glycine-receptor antagonist strychnine, or the Na(+-K(+-Cl(- co-transporter 1 (NKCC1-inhibitor bumetanide did not significantly influence cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that NPCs derived from human fetal midbrain tissue acquire essential glycine receptor properties during neuronal maturation. However, glycine receptors seem to have a limited functional impact on neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of NPCs in vitro.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus IE1 downregulates Hes1 in neural progenitor cells as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi-Juan; Yang, Bo; Huang, Sheng-Nan; Wu, Cong-Cong; Li, Xiao-Jun; Cheng, Shuang; Jiang, Xuan; Hu, Fei; Ming, Ying-Zi; Nevels, Michael; Britt, William J; Rayner, Simon; Tang, Qiyi; Zeng, Wen-Bo; Zhao, Fei; Luo, Min-Hua

    2017-07-01

    Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the leading cause of neurological disabilities in children worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying these disorders are far from well-defined. HCMV infection has been shown to dysregulate the Notch signaling pathway in human neural progenitor cells (NPCs). As an important downstream effector of Notch signaling, the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (Hes1) is essential for governing NPC fate and fetal brain development. In the present study, we report that HCMV infection downregulates Hes1 protein levels in infected NPCs. The HCMV 72-kDa immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is involved in Hes1 degradation by assembling a ubiquitination complex and promoting Hes1 ubiquitination as a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase, followed by proteasomal degradation of Hes1. Sp100A, an important component of PML nuclear bodies, is identified to be another target of IE1-mediated ubiquitination. A C-terminal acidic region in IE1, spanning amino acids 451 to 475, is required for IE1/Hes1 physical interaction and IE1-mediated Hes1 ubiquitination, but is dispensable for IE1/Sp100A interaction and ubiquitination. Our study suggests a novel mechanism linking downregulation of Hes1 protein to neurodevelopmental disorders caused by HCMV infection. Our findings also complement the current knowledge of herpesviruses by identifying IE1 as the first potential HCMV-encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  6. Multiparametric Phenotypic Screening System for Profiling Bioactive Compounds Using Human Fetal Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yoshikuni; Murai, Norio; Sasaki, Takeo; Taniguchi, Sachie; Suzuki, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Kazuto; Ito, Masashi

    2015-10-01

    Stem cell research has been progressing rapidly, contributing to regenerative biology and regenerative medicine. In this field, small-molecule compounds affecting stem cell proliferation/differentiation have been explored to understand stem cell biology and support regenerative medicine. In this study, we established a multiparametric screening system to detect bioactive compounds affecting the cell fate of human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs), using human fetal hippocampal NSCs/NPCs, HIP-009 cells. We examined effects of 410 compounds, which were collected based on mechanisms of action (MOAs) and chemotypes, on HIP-009's cell fate (self-renewal, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation) and morphology by automated multiparametric assays and profiled induced cellular phenotypes. We found that this screening classified compounds with the same MOAs into subgroups according to additional pharmacological effects (e.g., mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 [mTORC1] inhibitors and mTORC1/mTORC2 dual inhibitors among mTOR inhibitors). Moreover, it identified compounds that have off-target effects under matrix analyses of MOAs and structure similarities (e.g., neurotropic effects of amitriptyline among tri- and tetracyclic compounds). Therefore, this automated, medium-throughput and multiparametric screening system is useful for finding compounds that affect the cell fate of human NSCs/NPCs for supporting regenerative medicine and to fingerprint compounds based on human stem cells' multipotency, leading to understanding of stem cell biology. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Isogenic enteric neural progenitor cells can replace missing neurons and glia in mice with Hirschsprung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, R; Cheng, L S; Graham, H K; Pan, W; Nagy, N; Belkind-Gerson, J; Goldstein, A M

    2016-04-01

    Transplanting autologous patient-derived enteric neuronal stem/progenitor cells (ENSCs) is an innovative approach to replacing missing enteric neurons in patients with Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). Using autologous cells eliminates immunologic and ethical concerns raised by other cell sources. However, whether postnatal aganglionic bowel is permissive for transplanted ENSCs and whether ENSCs from HSCR patients can be successfully isolated, cultured, and transplanted in vivo remains unknown. ENSCs isolated from the ganglionic intestine of Ednrb(-/-) mice (HSCR-ENSCs) were characterized immunohistochemically and evaluated for their capacity to proliferate and differentiate in vitro. Fluorescently labeled ENSCs were co-cultured ex vivo with aganglionic Ednrb(-/-) colon. For in vivo transplantation, HSCR-ENSCs were labeled with lentivirus expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and implanted into aganglionic embryonic chick gut in ovo and postnatal aganglionic Ednrb(-/-) rectum in vivo. HSCR-ENSCs maintain normal capacity self-renewal and neuronal differentiation. Moreover, the Ednrb(-/-) aganglionic environment is permissive to engraftment by wild-type ENSCs ex vivo and supports migratrion and neuroglial differentiation of these cells following transplantation in vivo. Lentiviral GFP-labeled HSCR-ENSCs populated embryonic chick hindgut and postnatal colon of Ednrb(-/-) HSCR, with cells populating the intermuscular layer and forming enteric neurons and glia. ENSCs can be isolated and cultured from mice with HSCR, and transplanted into the aganglionic bowel of HSCR littermates to generate enteric neuronal networks. These results in an isogenic model establish the potential of using autologous-derived stem cells to treat HSCR and other intestinal neuropathies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Identification of a novel intronic enhancer responsible for the transcriptional regulation of musashi1 in neural stem/progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawase Satoshi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1 protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-binding proteins, is a marker for neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs in the embryonic and post-natal central nervous system (CNS. Msi1 regulates the translation of its downstream targets, including m-Numb and p21 mRNAs. In vitro experiments using knockout mice have shown that Msi1 and its isoform Musashi2 (Msi2 keep NS/PCs in an undifferentiated and proliferative state. Msi1 is expressed not only in NS/PCs, but also in other somatic stem cells and in tumours. Based on previous findings, Msi1 is likely to be a key regulator for maintaining the characteristics of self-renewing stem cells. However, the mechanisms regulating Msi1 expression are not yet clear. Results To identify the DNA region affecting Msi1 transcription, we inserted the fusion gene ffLuc, comprised of the fluorescent Venus protein and firefly Luciferase, at the translation initiation site of the mouse Msi1 gene locus contained in a 184-kb bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC. Fluorescence and Luciferase activity, reflecting the Msi1 transcriptional activity, were observed in a stable BAC-carrying embryonic stem cell line when it was induced toward neural lineage differentiation by retinoic acid treatment. When neuronal differentiation was induced in embryoid body (EB-derived neurosphere cells, reporter signals were detected in Msi1-positive NSCs and GFAP-positive astrocytes, but not in MAP2-positive neurons. By introducing deletions into the BAC reporter gene and conducting further reporter experiments using a minimized enhancer region, we identified a region, "D5E2," that is responsible for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs. Conclusions A regulatory element for Msi1 transcription in NS/PCs is located in the sixth intron of the Msi1 gene. The 595-bp D5E2 intronic

  9. The CSF-1 receptor ligands IL-34 and CSF-1 exhibit distinct developmental brain expression patterns and regulate neural progenitor cell maintenance and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sayan; Gokhan, Solen; Dai, Xu-Ming; Wei, Suwen; Enikolopov, Grigori; Lin, Haishan; Mehler, Mark F.; Stanley, E. Richard

    2012-01-01

    The CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) regulates CNS microglial development. However, the localization and developmental roles of this receptor and its ligands, IL-34 and CSF-1, in the brain are poorly understood. Here we show that compared to wild type mice, CSF-1R-deficient (Csf1r−/−) mice have smaller brains of greater mass. They further exhibit an expansion of lateral ventricle size, an atrophy of the olfactory bulb and a failure of midline crossing of callosal axons. In brain, IL-34 exhibited a broader regional expression than CSF-1, mostly without overlap. Expression of IL-34, CSF-1 and the CSF-1R were maximal during early postnatal development. However, in contrast to the expression of its ligands, CSF-1R expression was very low in adult brain. Postnatal neocortical expression showed that CSF-1 was expressed in layer VI, whereas IL-34 was expressed in the meninges and layers II–V. The broader expression of IL-34 is consistent with its previously implicated role in microglial development. The differential expression of CSF-1R ligands, with respect to CSF-1R expression, could reflect their CSF-1R-independent signaling. Csf1r−/− mice displayed increased proliferation and apoptosis of neocortical progenitors and reduced differentiation of specific excitatory neuronal subtypes. Indeed, addition of CSF-1 or IL-34 to microglia-free, CSF-1R-expressing dorsal forebrain clonal cultures, suppressed progenitor self-renewal and enhanced neuronal differentiation. Consistent with a neural developmental role for the CSF-1R, ablation of the Csf1r gene in Nestin-positive neural progenitors led to a smaller brain size, an expanded neural progenitor pool and elevated cellular apoptosis in cortical forebrain. Thus our results also indicate novel roles for the CSF-1R in the regulation of corticogenesis. PMID:22542597

  10. The homeobox gene Gsx2 regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of neural stem cells and the cell fate of postnatal progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor R Méndez-Gómez

    Full Text Available The Genetic screened homeobox 2 (Gsx2 transcription factor is required for the development of olfactory bulb (OB and striatal neurons, and for the regional specification of the embryonic telencephalon. Although Gsx2 is expressed abundantly by progenitor cells in the ventral telencephalon, its precise function in the generation of neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs is not clear. Similarly, the role of Gsx2 in regulating the self-renewal and multipotentiality of NSCs has been little explored. Using retroviral vectors to express Gsx2, we have studied the effect of Gsx2 on the growth of NSCs isolated from the OB and ganglionic eminences (GE, as well as its influence on the proliferation and cell fate of progenitors in the postnatal mouse OB. Expression of Gsx2 reduces proliferation and the self-renewal capacity of NSCs, without significantly affecting cell death. Furthermore, Gsx2 overexpression decreases the differentiation of NSCs into neurons and glia, and it maintains the cells that do not differentiate as cycling progenitors. These effects were stronger in GESCs than in OBSCs, indicating that the actions of Gsx2 are cell-dependent. In vivo, Gsx2 produces a decrease in the number of Pax6+ cells and doublecortin+ neuroblasts, and an increase in Olig2+ cells. In summary, our findings show that Gsx2 inhibits the ability of NSCs to proliferate and self-renew, as well as the capacity of NSC-derived progenitors to differentiate, suggesting that this transcription factor regulates the quiescent and undifferentiated state of NSCs and progenitors. Furthermore, our data indicate that Gsx2 negatively regulates neurogenesis from postnatal progenitor cells.

  11. Differentiation and Cell-Cell Interactions of Neural Progenitor Cells Transplanted into Intact Adult Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinich, K K; Kosykh, A V; Aleksandrova, M A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the behavior and cell-cell interactions of embryonic brain cell from GFP-reporter mice after their transplantation into the intact adult brain. Fragments or cell suspensions of fetal neocortical cells at different stages of development were transplanted into the neocortex and striatum of adult recipients. Even in intact brain, the processes of transplanted neurons formed extensive networks in the striatum and neocortical layers I and V-VI. Processes of transplanted cells at different stages of development attained the rostral areas of the frontal cortex and some of them reached the internal capsule. However, the cells transplanted in suspension had lower process growth potency than cells from tissue fragments. Tyrosine hydroxylase fibers penetrated from the recipient brain into grafts at both early and late stages of development. Our experiments demonstrated the formation of extensive reciprocal networks between the transplanted fetal neural cells and recipient brain neurons even in intact brain.

  12. Homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, via cyclic AMP-mediated activation, induces p27Kip1 transcription, coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Maryline; Wang, Wen-Horng; Shin, Min-Hwa; Franklin, David S; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2006-12-01

    Mechanisms coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation are incompletely understood. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) is transcriptionally induced, switching specific neural progenitors from proliferation to differentiation. However, neuronal differentiation-specific transcription factors mediating p27(Kip1) transcription have not been identified. We demonstrate the homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a, required for central nervous system (CNS)- and neural crest (NC)-derived noradrenergic neuron differentiation, coordinates cell cycle exit and differentiation by inducing p27(Kip1) transcription. Phox2a transcription and activation in the CNS-derived CAD cell line and primary NC cells is mediated by combined cyclic AMP (cAMP) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling. In the CAD cellular model, cAMP and BMP2 signaling initially induces proliferation of the undifferentiated precursors, followed by p27(Kip1) transcription, G(1) arrest, and neuronal differentiation. Small interfering RNA silencing of either Phox2a or p27(Kip1) suppresses p27(Kip1) transcription and neuronal differentiation, suggesting a causal link between p27(Kip1) expression and differentiation. Conversely, ectopic Phox2a expression via the Tet-off expression system promotes accelerated CAD cell neuronal differentiation and p27(Kip1) transcription only in the presence of cAMP signaling. Importantly, endogenous or ectopically expressed Phox2a activated by cAMP signaling binds homeodomain cis-acting elements of the p27(Kip1) promoter in vivo and mediates p27(Kip1)-luciferase expression in CAD and NC cells. We conclude that developmental cues of cAMP signaling causally link Phox2a activation with p27(Kip1) transcription, thereby coordinating neural progenitor cell cycle exit and differentiation.

  13. High MRI performance fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for tracking neural progenitor cells in an ischemic mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Yao; Tang, Yaohui; Jiao, Zheng; Xie, Chengying; Zhang, Haijiao; Gu, Ping; Wei, Xunbin; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Gu, Hongchen; Zhang, Chunfu

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional probes with high MRI sensitivity and high efficiency for cell labeling are desirable for MR cell imaging. Herein, we have fabricated fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) for neural progenitor cell (C17.2) MR imaging. FmSiO4@SPIONs were discrete and uniform in size, and had a clear core-shell structure. The magnetic core size was about 10 nm and the fluorescent mesoporous silica coating layer was around 20 nm. Compared with fluorescent dense silica-coated SPIONs (fdSiO4@SPIONs) with a similar size, fmSiO4@SPIONs demonstrated higher MR sensitivity and cell labeling efficiency. When implanted into the right hemisphere of stroke mice, contralateral to the ischemic territory, a small amount of labeled cells were able to be tracked migrating to the lesion sites using a clinical MRI scanner (3 T). More impressively, even when administered intravenously, the labeled cells could also be monitored homing to the ischemic area. MRI observations were corroborated by histological studies of the brain tissues. Our study demonstrated that fmSiO4@SPIONs are highly effective for cell imaging and hold great promise for MRI cell tracking in future.Multifunctional probes with high MRI sensitivity and high efficiency for cell labeling are desirable for MR cell imaging. Herein, we have fabricated fluorescent mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (fmSiO4@SPIONs) for neural progenitor cell (C17.2) MR imaging. FmSiO4@SPIONs were discrete and uniform in size, and had a clear core-shell structure. The magnetic core size was about 10 nm and the fluorescent mesoporous silica coating layer was around 20 nm. Compared with fluorescent dense silica-coated SPIONs (fdSiO4@SPIONs) with a similar size, fmSiO4@SPIONs demonstrated higher MR sensitivity and cell labeling efficiency. When implanted into the right hemisphere of stroke mice, contralateral to the ischemic territory, a small amount of

  14. Ascorbic acid alters cell fate commitment of human neural progenitors in a WNT/β-catenin/ROS signaling dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rharass, Tareck; Lantow, Margareta; Gbankoto, Adam; Weiss, Dieter G; Panáková, Daniela; Lucas, Stéphanie

    2017-10-16

    Improving the neuronal yield from in vitro cultivated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is an essential challenge in transplantation therapy in neurological disorders. In this regard, Ascorbic acid (AA) is widely used to expand neurogenesis from NPCs in cultures although the mechanisms of its action remain unclear. Neurogenesis from NPCs is regulated by the redox-sensitive WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. We therefore aimed to investigate how AA interacts with this pathway and potentiates neurogenesis. Effects of 200 μM AA were compared with the pro-neurogenic reagent and WNT/β-catenin signaling agonist lithium chloride (LiCl), and molecules with antioxidant activities i.e. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and ruthenium red (RuR), in differentiating neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells. Cells were supplemented with reagents for two periods of treatment: a full period encompassing the whole differentiation process versus an early short period that is restricted to the cell fate commitment stage. Intracellular redox balance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism were examined by flow cytometry using redox and ROS sensors. Confocal microscopy was performed to assess cell viability, neuronal yield, and levels of two proteins: Nucleoredoxin (NXN) and the WNT/β-catenin signaling component Dishevelled 2 (DVL2). TUBB3 and MYC gene responses were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. DVL2-NXN complex dissociation was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In contrast to NAC which predictably exhibited an antioxidant effect, AA treatment enhanced ROS metabolism with no cytotoxic induction. Both drugs altered ROS levels only at the early stage of the differentiation as no changes were held beyond the neuronal fate commitment stage. FRET studies showed that AA treatment accelerated the redox-dependent release of the initial pool of DVL2 from its sequestration by NXN, while RuR treatment hampered the dissociation of the two proteins. Accordingly, AA

  15. Inhibition of Sirt1 promotes neural progenitors toward motoneuron differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yun; Wang, Jing [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Guian [Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Reproductive Medical Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Fan, Dongsheng, E-mail: dsfan@yahoo.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Deng, Min, E-mail: dengmin1706@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Clinical Stem Cell Center, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 North Garden Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Nicotinamide inhibit Sirt1. {yields} MASH1 and Ngn2 activation. {yields} Increase the expression of HB9. {yields} Motoneurons formation increases significantly. -- Abstract: Several protocols direct human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) toward differentiation into functional motoneurons, but the efficiency of motoneuron generation varies based on the human ESC line used. We aimed to develop a novel protocol to increase the formation of motoneurons from human ESCs. In this study, we tested a nuclear histone deacetylase protein, Sirt1, to promote neural precursor cell (NPC) development during differentiation of human ESCs into motoneurons. A specific inhibitor of Sirt1, nicotinamide, dramatically increased motoneuron formation. We found that about 60% of the cells from the total NPCs expressed HB9 and {beta}III-tubulin, commonly used motoneuronal markers found in neurons derived from ESCs following nicotinamide treatment. Motoneurons derived from ESC expressed choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a positive marker of mature motoneuron. Moreover, we also examined the transcript levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA in the differentiated NPCs treated with the Sirt1 activator resveratrol (50 {mu}M) or inhibitor nicotinamide (100 {mu}M). The levels of Mash1, Ngn2, and HB9 mRNA were significantly increased after nicotinamide treatment compared with control groups, which used the traditional protocol. These results suggested that increasing Mash1 and Ngn2 levels by inhibiting Sirt1 could elevate HB9 expression, which promotes motoneuron differentiation. This study provides an alternative method for the production of transplantable motoneurons, a key requirement in the development of hESC-based cell therapy in motoneuron disease.

  16. Beneficial Effects of Melatonin Combined with Exercise on Endogenous Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation after Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjeon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI. We have previously shown that melatonin (MT plus exercise (Ex had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.

  17. S phase entry of neural progenitor cells correlates with increased blood flow in the young subventricular zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lacar

    Full Text Available The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ contains proliferating neural progenitor cells in close proximity to blood vessels. Insults and drug treatments acutely stimulate cell proliferation in the SVZ, which was assessed by labeling cells entering S phase. Although G1-to-S progression is metabolically demanding on a minute-to-hour time scale, it remains unknown whether increased SVZ cell proliferation is accompanied by a local hemodynamic response. This neurovascular coupling provides energy substrates to active neuronal assemblies. Transcardial dye perfusion revealed the presence of capillaries throughout the SVZ that constrict upon applications of the thromboxane A(2 receptor agonist U-46119 in acute brain slice preparations. We then monitored in vivo blood flow using laser Doppler flowmetry via a microprobe located either in the SVZ or a mature network. U-46119 injections into the lateral ventricle decreased blood flow in the SVZ and the striatum, which are near the ventricle. A 1-hour ventricular injection of epidermal and basic fibroblast growth factor (EGF and bFGF significantly increased the percentage of Sox2 transcription factor-positive cells in S phase 1.5 hours post-injection. This increase was accompanied by a sustained rise in blood flow in the SVZ but not in the striatum. Direct growth factor injections into the cortex did not alter local blood flow, ruling out direct effects on capillaries. These findings suggest that an acute increase in the number of G1-to-S cycling SVZ cells is accompanied by neurometabolic-vascular coupling, which may provide energy and nutrient for cell cycle progression.

  18. Adult human brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and fibroblast-like cells have similar properties in vitro but only NPCs differentiate into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas In-Hyeup; Monzo, Hector; Mee, Edward W; Bergin, Peter S; Teoh, Hoon H; Montgomery, Johanna M; Faull, Richard L M; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC) culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP) of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia), and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs). These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5-6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting AhNPC-based experiments.

  19. Adult Human Brain Neural Progenitor Cells (NPCs) and Fibroblast-Like Cells Have Similar Properties In Vitro but Only NPCs Differentiate into Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas In-Hyeup; Monzo, Hector; Mee, Edward W.; Bergin, Peter S.; Teoh, Hoon H.; Montgomery, Johanna M.; Faull, Richard L. M.; Curtis, Maurice A.; Dragunow, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC) culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP) of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia), and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs). These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5–6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting AhNPC-based experiments. PMID

  20. Adult human brain neural progenitor cells (NPCs and fibroblast-like cells have similar properties in vitro but only NPCs differentiate into neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas In-Hyeup Park

    Full Text Available The ability to culture neural progenitor cells from the adult human brain has provided an exciting opportunity to develop and test potential therapies on adult human brain cells. To achieve a reliable and reproducible adult human neural progenitor cell (AhNPC culture system for this purpose, this study fully characterized the cellular composition of the AhNPC cultures, as well as the possible changes to this in vitro system over prolonged culture periods. We isolated cells from the neurogenic subventricular zone/hippocampus (SVZ/HP of the adult human brain and found a heterogeneous culture population comprised of several types of post-mitotic brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, and more importantly, two distinct mitotic cell populations; the AhNPCs, and the fibroblast-like cells (FbCs. These two populations can easily be mistaken for a single population of AhNPCs, as they both proliferate under AhNPC culture conditions, form spheres and express neural progenitor cell and early neuronal markers, all of which are characteristics of AhNPCs in vitro. However, despite these similarities under proliferating conditions, under neuronal differentiation conditions, only the AhNPCs differentiated into functional neurons and glia. Furthermore, AhNPCs showed limited proliferative capacity that resulted in their depletion from culture by 5-6 passages, while the FbCs, which appear to be from a neurovascular origin, displayed a greater proliferative capacity and dominated the long-term cultures. This gradual change in cellular composition resulted in a progressive decline in neurogenic potential without the apparent loss of self-renewal in our cultures. These results demonstrate that while AhNPCs and FbCs behave similarly under proliferative conditions, they are two different cell populations. This information is vital for the interpretation and reproducibility of AhNPC experiments and suggests an ideal time frame for conducting Ah

  1. NPS and Online WOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raassens, Néomie

    2017-01-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers’ promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers’ promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers’ promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action. PMID:29046609

  2. A novel culture method reveals unique neural stem/progenitors in mature porcine iris tissues that differentiate into neuronal and rod photoreceptor-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, Lars N; Lea, Daniel; Matsushita, Tamami; Takeda, Taka-Aki; Taketani, Shigeru; Araki, Masasuke

    2017-11-15

    Iris neural stem/progenitor cells from mature porcine eyes were investigated using a new protocol for tissue culture, which consists of dispase treatment and Matrigel embedding. We used a number of culture conditions and found an intense differentiation of neuronal cells from both the iris pigmented epithelial (IPE) cells and the stroma tissue cells. Rod photoreceptor-like cells were also observed but mostly in a later stage of culture. Neuronal differentiation does not require any additives such as fetal bovine serum or FGF2, although FGF2 and IGF2 appeared to promote neural differentiation in the IPE cultures. Furthermore, the stroma-derived cells were able to be maintained in vitro indefinitely. The evolutionary similarity between humans and domestic pigs highlight the potential for this methodology in the modeling of human diseases and characterizing human ocular stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional Recovery Secondary to Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Transplantation Combined with Treadmill Training in Mice with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tashiro, Syoichi; Nishimura, Soraya; Iwai, Hiroki

    Rapid progress in stem cell medicine is being realized in neural regeneration also in spinal cord injury (SCI). Researchers have reported remarkable functional recovery with various cell sources including induced Pluripotent Stem cell derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs), especially...... are chiefly developed to improve the effect of regenerative therapy for this refractory state, physical training also have attracted the attention as a desirable candidate to combine with cell transplantation. Recently, we have reported that the addition of treadmill training enhances the effect of NS....../PC transplantation for chronic SCI for the first time. In this study, we used thoracic SCI mouse models to compare manifestations secondary to both transplantation and training, and the two therapies combined, with a control group. Significant locomotor recovery in comparison with the control group was only achieved...

  4. Transplantation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells Reveals Structural and Functional Improvements in the Spastic Han-Wistar Rat Model of Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryyev, Ruslan L.; Uhlendorf, Toni L.; Tierney, Wesley; Zatikyan, Suren; Kopyov, Oleg; Kopyov, Alex; Ochoa, Jessica; Trigt, William Van; Malone, Cindy S.

    2018-01-01

    The use of regenerative medicine to treat nervous system disorders like ataxia has been proposed to either replace or support degenerating neurons. In this study, we assessed the ability of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to repair and restore the function of dying neurons within the spastic Han-Wistar rat (sHW), a model of ataxia. The sHW rat suffers from neurodegeneration of specific neurons, including cerebellar Purkinje cells and hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells leading to the observed symptoms of forelimb tremor, hind-leg rigidity, gait abnormality, motor incoordination, and a shortened life span. To alleviate the symptoms of neurodegeneration and to replace or augment dying neurons, neuronal human progenitor cells were implanted into the sHW rats. At 30 d of age, male sHW mutant rats underwent subcutaneous implantation of an Alzet osmotic pump that infused cyclosporine (15 mg/kg/d) used to suppress the rat’s immune system. At 40 d, sHW rats received bilateral injections (500,000 cells in 5 µL media) of live hNPCs, dead hNPCs, live human embryonic kidney cells, or growth media either into the cerebellar cortex or into the hippocampus. To monitor results, motor activity scores (open-field testing) and weights of the animals were recorded weekly. The sHW rats that received hNPC transplantation into the cerebellum, at 60 d of age, displayed significantly higher motor activity scores and sustained greater weights and longevities than control-treated sHW rats or any hippocampal treatment group. In addition, cerebellar histology revealed that the transplanted hNPCs displayed signs of migration and signs of neuronal development in the degenerated Purkinje cell layer. This study revealed that implanted human progenitor cells reduced the ataxic symptoms in the sHW rat, identifying a future clinical use of these progenitor cells against ataxia and associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29338380

  5. A cGMP-applicable expansion method for aggregates of human neural stem and progenitor cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Brandon C; Gowing, Geneviève; Svendsen, Clive N

    2014-06-15

    A cell expansion technique to amass large numbers of cells from a single specimen for research experiments and clinical trials would greatly benefit the stem cell community. Many current expansion methods are laborious and costly, and those involving complete dissociation may cause several stem and progenitor cell types to undergo differentiation or early senescence. To overcome these problems, we have developed an automated mechanical passaging method referred to as "chopping" that is simple and inexpensive. This technique avoids chemical or enzymatic dissociation into single cells and instead allows for the large-scale expansion of suspended, spheroid cultures that maintain constant cell/cell contact. The chopping method has primarily been used for fetal brain-derived neural progenitor cells or neurospheres, and has recently been published for use with neural stem cells derived from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. The procedure involves seeding neurospheres onto a tissue culture Petri dish and subsequently passing a sharp, sterile blade through the cells effectively automating the tedious process of manually mechanically dissociating each sphere. Suspending cells in culture provides a favorable surface area-to-volume ratio; as over 500,000 cells can be grown within a single neurosphere of less than 0.5 mm in diameter. In one T175 flask, over 50 million cells can grow in suspension cultures compared to only 15 million in adherent cultures. Importantly, the chopping procedure has been used under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), permitting mass quantity production of clinical-grade cell products.

  6. Attenuation of mouse melanoma by A/C magnetic field after delivery of bi-magnetic nanoparticles by neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachakatla, Raja Shekar; Balivada, Sivasai; Seo, Gwi-Moon; Myers, Carl B; Wang, Hongwang; Samarakoon, Thilani N; Dani, Raj; Pyle, Marla; Kroh, Franklin O; Walker, Brandon; Leaym, Xiaoxuan; Koper, Olga B; Chikan, Viktor; Bossmann, Stefan H; Tamura, Masaaki; Troyer, Deryl L

    2010-12-28

    Localized magnetic hyperthermia as a treatment modality for cancer has generated renewed interest, particularly if it can be targeted to the tumor site. We examined whether tumor-tropic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) could be utilized as cell delivery vehicles for achieving preferential accumulation of core/shell iron/iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) within a mouse model of melanoma. We developed aminosiloxane-porphyrin functionalized MNPs, evaluated cell viability and loading efficiency, and transplanted neural progenitor cells loaded with this cargo into mice with melanoma. NPCs were efficiently loaded with core/shell Fe/Fe(3)O(4) MNPs with minimal cytotoxicity; the MNPs accumulated as aggregates in the cytosol. The NPCs loaded with MNPs could travel to subcutaneous melanomas, and after A/C (alternating current) magnetic field (AMF) exposure, the targeted delivery of MNPs by the cells resulted in a measurable regression of the tumors. The tumor attenuation was significant (p < 0.05) a short time (24 h) after the last of three AMF exposures.

  7. Possible activation by the green tea amino acid theanine of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in undifferentiated neural progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have shown marked promotion of both proliferation and neuronal differentiation in pluripotent P19 cells exposed to the green tea amino acid theanine, which is a good substrate for SLC38A1 responsible for glutamine transport. In this study, we evaluated the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR kinase pathway, which participates in protein translation, cell growth and autophagy in a manner relevant to intracellular glutamine levels, in murine neural progenitor cells exposed to theanine. Exposure to theanine promoted the phosphorylation of mTOR and downstream proteins in neurospheres from embryonic mouse neocortex. Although stable overexpression of SLC38A1 similarly facilitated phosphorylation of mTOR-relevant proteins in undifferentiated P19 cells, theanine failed to additionally accelerate the increased phosphorylation in these stable transfectants. Theanine accelerated the formation of neurospheres from murine embryonic neocortex and adult hippocampus, along with facilitation of both 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine incorporation and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction in embryonic neurospheres. In embryonic neurospheres previously exposed to theanine, a significant increase was seen in the number of cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein after spontaneous differentiation. These results suggest that theanine activates the mTOR signaling pathway for proliferation together with accelerated neurogenesis in murine undifferentiated neural progenitor cells.

  8. MicroRNA Cluster miR-17-92 Regulates Neural Stem Cell Expansion and Transition to Intermediate Progenitors in the Developing Mouse Neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Bian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available During development of the embryonic neocortex, tightly regulated expansion of neural stem cells (NSCs and their transition to intermediate progenitors (IPs are critical for normal cortical formation and function. Molecular mechanisms that regulate NSC expansion and transition remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the microRNA (miRNA miR-17-92 cluster is required for maintaining proper populations of cortical radial glial cells (RGCs and IPs through repression of Pten and Tbr2 protein. Knockout of miR-17-92 and its paralogs specifically in the developing neocortex restricts NSC proliferation, suppresses RGC expansion, and promotes transition of RGCs to IPs. Moreover, Pten and Tbr2 protectors specifically block silencing activities of endogenous miR-17-92 and control proper numbers of RGCs and IPs in vivo. Our results demonstrate a critical role for miRNAs in promoting NSC proliferation and modulating the cell-fate decision of generating distinct neural progenitors in the developing neocortex.

  9. Progenitor cells from the porcine neural retina express photoreceptor markers after transplantation to the subretinal space of allorecipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klassen, Henry; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Zahir, Tasneem

    2007-01-01

    and rhodopsin. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed expression of the transcription factors Dach1, Hes1, Lhx2, Pax6, Six3, and Six6. Progenitor cells prelabeled with vital dyes survived as allografts in the subretinal space for up to 5 weeks (11 of 12 recipients) without exogenous...

  10. Neural progenitors generated from the mesenchymal stem cells of first-trimester human placenta matured in the hypoxic-ischemic rat brain and mediated restoration of locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Koh, S-E; Maeng, S; Lee, W-D; Lim, J; Lee, Y-J

    2011-03-01

    Term placenta is a great reservoir of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), however, the potential of the earlier placenta is largely unknown. In this report, we established 17 MSC lines from 19 first-trimester human placenta (fPMSC). fPMSC proliferated for 90-150 days in vitro and by enhanced cellular interaction, fPMSC differentiated into nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells (fPMSC-NP), accompanied by inductions of immature neuron-specific genes. Therapeutic effect of the fPMSC-NP was tested in the animal model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) which was devastating to dopaminergic neurons and to locomotor activity. Improvement of motor activity was evident as early as 2 weeks after transplantation of the fPMSC-NP into bilateral striatum and became indistinguishable from that of the age-matched normal animals by 8 weeks but no spontaneous recovery was observed in the control-grafted animals. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the implanted fPMSC-NP matured into ectodermal cells including the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing neurons in the recipient striatum. So, the improved motor behavior was likely due to the dopaminergic differentiation of the implanted fPMSC-NP in the dopaminergic-denervated host brain. Based on this result, we propose that progenitors may be more advantageous than the terminally differentiated cells for the purpose of cell replacement therapies since the progenitors are easily obtainable and are expected to be more pliable to the new environment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. NPS transportation innovative finance options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides a summary of innovative transportation finance techniques and discusses their applicability to the National Park Service (NPS). The primary finding of this analysis is that while NPS is engaging in innovative finance techniques su...

  12. NPS national transit inventory, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    This document summarizes key highlights from the National Park Service (NPS) 2013 National Transit Inventory, and presents data for NPS transit systems system-wide. The document discusses statistics related to ridership, business models, fleet charac...

  13. NPS National Transit Inventory, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Working in coordination with the NPS regions and the U.S. Department of Transportations Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, the Alternative transportation program (ATP) developed a definition of National Park Service (NPS) transit system...

  14. Neural progenitor cell proliferation in the hypothalamus is involved in acquired heat tolerance in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Hara, Toshiko; Hashimoto, Michio; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Constant exposure to moderate heat facilitates progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the hypothalamus of heat-acclimated (HA) rats. In this study, we investigated neural phenotype and responsiveness to heat in HA rats' hypothalamic newborn cells. Additionally, the effect of hypothalamic neurogenesis on heat acclimation in rats was evaluated. Male Wistar rats (5 weeks old) were housed at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 32°C for 6 days (STHA) or 40 days (LTHA), while control (CN) rats were kept at a Ta of 24°C for 6 days (STCN) or 40 days (LTCN). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was intraperitoneally injected daily for five consecutive days (50 mg/kg/day) after commencing heat exposure. The number of hypothalamic BrdU-immunopositive (BrdU+) cells in STHA and LTHA rats was determined immunohistochemically in brain samples and found to be significantly greater than those in respective CN groups. In LTHA rats, approximately 32.6% of BrdU+ cells in the preoptic area (POA) of the anterior hypothalamus were stained by GAD67, a GABAergic neuron marker, and 15.2% of BrdU+ cells were stained by the glutamate transporter, a glutamatergic neuron marker. In addition, 63.2% of BrdU+ cells in the POA were immunolabeled with c-Fos. Intracerebral administration of the mitosis inhibitor, cytosine arabinoside (AraC), interfered with the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and acquired heat tolerance in LTHA rats, whereas the selected ambient temperature was not changed. These results demonstrate that heat exposure generates heat responsive neurons in the POA, suggesting a pivotal role in autonomic thermoregulation in long-term heat-acclimated rats.

  15. Comparative performance analysis of human iPSC-derived and primary neural progenitor cells (NPC grown as neurospheres in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Hofrichter

    2017-12-01

    hiPSC-NPCs-derived neurospheres seem to be useful for DNT evaluation representing early neural development in vitro. More system characterization by compound testing is needed to gain higher confidence in this method.

  16. Protease-activated receptor-1 negatively regulates proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells derived from the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the adult mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tanaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thrombin-activated protease-activated receptor (PAR-1 regulates the proliferation of neural cells following brain injury. To elucidate the involvement of PAR-1 in the neurogenesis that occurs in the adult hippocampus, we examined whether PAR-1 regulated the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs derived from the murine hippocampal dentate gyrus. NPC cultures expressed PAR-1 protein and mRNA encoding all subtypes of PAR. Direct exposure of the cells to thrombin dramatically attenuated the cell proliferation without causing cell damage. This thrombin-induced attenuation was almost completely abolished by the PAR antagonist RWJ 56110, as well as by dabigatran and 4-(2-aminoethylbenzenesulfonyl fluoride (AEBSF, which are selective and non-selective thrombin inhibitors, respectively. Expectedly, the PAR-1 agonist peptide (AP SFLLR-NH2 also attenuated the cell proliferation. The cell proliferation was not affected by the PAR-1 negative control peptide RLLFT-NH2, which is an inactive peptide for PAR-1. Independently, we determined the effect of in vivo treatment with AEBSF or AP on hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult mouse. The administration of AEBSF, but not that of AP, significantly increased the number of newly-generated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone. These data suggest that PAR-1 negatively regulated adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus by inhibiting the proliferative activity of the NPCs.

  17. Effects of neonatal neural progenitor cell implantation on adult neuroanatomy and cognition in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L Rachubinski

    Full Text Available As much of the aberrant neural development in Down syndrome (DS occurs postnatally, an early opportunity exists to intervene and influence life-long cognitive development. Recent success using neural progenitor cells (NPC in models of adult neurodegeneration indicate such therapy may be a viable option in diseases such as DS. Murine NPC (mNPC, C17.2 cell line or saline were implanted bilaterally into the dorsal hippocampus of postnatal day 2 (PND 2 Ts65Dn pups to explore the feasibility of early postnatal treatment in this mouse model of DS. Disomic littermates provided karyotype controls for trisomic pups. Pups were monitored for developmental milestone achievement, and then underwent adult behavior testing at 14 weeks of age. We found that implanted mNPC survived into adulthood and migrated beyond the implant site in both karyotypes. The implantation of mNPC resulted in a significant increase in the density of dentate granule cells. However, mNPC implantation did not elicit cognitive changes in trisomic mice either neonatally or in adulthood. To the best of our knowledge, these results constitute the first assessment of mNPC as an early intervention on cognitive ability in a DS model.

  18. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  19. Safe and efficient method for cryopreservation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem and progenitor cells by a programmed freezer with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yuichiro; Iwanami, Akio; Kohyama, Jun; Itakura, Go; Kawabata, Soya; Sugai, Keiko; Nishimura, Soraya; Kashiwagi, Rei; Yasutake, Kaori; Isoda, Miho; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    Stem cells represent a potential cellular resource in the development of regenerative medicine approaches to the treatment of pathologies in which specific cells are degenerated or damaged by genetic abnormality, disease, or injury. Securing sufficient supplies of cells suited to the demands of cell transplantation, however, remains challenging, and the establishment of safe and efficient cell banking procedures is an important goal. Cryopreservation allows the storage of stem cells for prolonged time periods while maintaining them in adequate condition for use in clinical settings. Conventional cryopreservation systems include slow-freezing and vitrification both have advantages and disadvantages in terms of cell viability and/or scalability. In the present study, we developed an advanced slow-freezing technique using a programmed freezer with a magnetic field called Cells Alive System (CAS) and examined its effectiveness on human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs). This system significantly increased cell viability after thawing and had less impact on cellular proliferation and differentiation. We further found that frozen-thawed hiPSC-NS/PCs were comparable with non-frozen ones at the transcriptome level. Given these findings, we suggest that the CAS is useful for hiPSC-NS/PCs banking for clinical uses involving neural disorders and may open new avenues for future regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Direct conversion of fibroblasts into neural progenitor-like cells by forced growth into 3D spheres on low attachment surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guannan; Zhao, Yannan; Wei, Jianshu; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Han, Jin; Chen, Lei; Guan, Jian; Wang, Renzhi; Dong, Qun; Dai, Jianwu

    2013-08-01

    Many stem cells grow into three-dimensional (3D) spheres or colonies, such as neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Sphere morphology helps maintaining the stemness of stem cells. Our previous study demonstrated that forced growth of RT4 and HEK293 cells into 3D sphere on low attachment surface could induce stem cell properties. The close relationship between 3D sphere morphology and stem cell stemness drives us to hypothesize that 3D sphere formation induces fibroblasts reprogramming. The key gene Sox2 for reprogramming fibroblasts into NPCs was found to be overexpressed in 3D sphere cultured mouse fibroblasts. These cells exhibited similar morphological and molecular features to NPCs in vitro, were capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and could generate long-term expandable neurospheres while maintaining differentiation capability. When engrafted into hippocampus of adult rat brain, the 3D sphere cells differentiated into neural cells. Thus, NPCs can be generated from fibroblasts directly through a physical approach without introducing exogenous reprogramming factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclin D2 in the basal process of neural progenitors is linked to non-equivalent cell fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, Yuji; Britto, Joanne M; Takahashi, Masanori; Polleux, Franck; Tan, Seong-Seng; Osumi, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division plays an indispensable role during corticogenesis for producing new neurons while maintaining a self-renewing pool of apical progenitors. The cellular and molecular determinants favouring asymmetric division are not completely understood. Here, we identify a novel mechanism for generating cellular asymmetry through the active transportation and local translation of Cyclin D2 mRNA in the basal process. This process is regulated by a unique cis-regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the mRNA. Unequal inheritance of Cyclin D2 protein to the basally positioned daughter cell with the basal process confers renewal of the apical progenitor after asymmetric division. Conversely, depletion of Cyclin D2 in the apically positioned daughter cell results in terminal neuronal differentiation. We demonstrate that Cyclin D2 is also expressed in the developing human cortex within similar domains, thus indicating that its role as a fate determinant is ancient and conserved. PMID:22395070

  2. Lithium Suppresses Astrogliogenesis by Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells by Inhibiting STAT3 Pathway Independently of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenzhong; Kremer, Penny; Tadmori, Iman; Ren, Yi; Sun, Dongming; He, Xijing; Young, Wise

    2011-01-01

    Transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) produce mostly astrocytes in injured spinal cords. Lithium stimulates neurogenesis by inhibiting GSK3b (glycogen synthetase kinase 3-beta) and increasing WNT/beta catenin. Lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis but the mechanisms were unclear. We cultured NSCs from subventricular zone of neonatal rats and showed that lithium reduced NSC production of astrocytes as well as proliferation of glia restricted progenitor (GRP) cells. Lithium strongly inhibited STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation, a messenger system known to promote astrogliogenesis and cancer. Lithium abolished STAT3 activation and astrogliogenesis induced by a STAT3 agonist AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside), suggesting that lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis by inhibiting STAT3. GSK3β inhibition either by a specific GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 or overexpression of GID5-6 (GSK3β Interaction Domain aa380 to 404) did not suppress astrogliogenesis and GRP proliferation. GSK3β inhibition also did not suppress STAT3 activation. Together, these results indicate that lithium inhibits astrogliogenesis through non-GSK3β-mediated inhibition of STAT. Lithium may increase efficacy of NSC transplants by increasing neurogenesis and reducing astrogliogenesis. Our results also may explain the strong safety record of lithium treatment of manic depression. Millions of people take high-dose (>1 gram/day) lithium carbonate for a lifetime. GSK3b inhibition increases WNT/beta catenin, associated with colon and other cancers. STAT3 inhibition may reduce risk for cancer. PMID:21931595

  3. Levels of Neural Progenitors in the Hippocampus Predict Memory Impairment and Relapse to Drug Seeking as a Function of Excessive Methamphetamine Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recinto, Patrick; Samant, Anjali Rose H; Chavez, Gustavo; Kim, Airee; Yuan, Clara J; Soleiman, Matthew; Grant, Yanabel; Edwards, Scott; Wee, Sunmee; Koob, George F; George, Olivier; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamine affects the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for learning and memory, as well as relapse to drug seeking. Rats self-administered methamphetamine for 1 h twice weekly (intermittent-short-I-ShA), 1 h daily (limited-short-ShA), or 6 h daily (extended-long-LgA) for 22 sessions. After 22 sessions, rats from each access group were withdrawn from self-administration and underwent spatial memory (Y-maze) and working memory (T-maze) tests followed by extinction and reinstatement to methamphetamine seeking or received one intraperitoneal injection of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label progenitors in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) during the synthesis phase. Two-hour-old and 28-day-old surviving BrdU-immunoreactive cells were quantified. I-ShA rats performed better on the Y-maze and had a greater number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug controls. LgA rats, but not ShA rats, performed worse on the Y- and T-maze and had a fewer number of 2-h-old SGZ BrdU cells than nondrug and I-ShA rats, suggesting that new hippocampal progenitors, decreased by methamphetamine, were correlated with impairment in the acquisition of new spatial cues. Analyses of addiction-related behaviors after withdrawal and extinction training revealed methamphetamine-primed reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in all three groups (I-ShA, ShA, and LgA), and this effect was enhanced in LgA rats compared with I-ShA and ShA rats. Protracted withdrawal from self-administration enhanced the survival of SGZ BrdU cells, and methamphetamine seeking during protracted withdrawal enhanced Fos expression in the dentate gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex in LgA rats to a greater extent than in ShA and I-ShA rats. These results indicate that changes in the levels of the proliferation and survival of hippocampal neural progenitors and neuronal activation of hippocampal granule cells predict the effects of methamphetamine self-administration (limited vs extended

  4. TRF2-mediated stabilization of hREST4 is critical for the differentiation and maintenance of neural progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovando-Roche, Patrick; Yu, Jason S L; Testori, Sarah; Ho, Chloe; Cui, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) is a component of the shelterin complex that is known to bind and protect telomeric DNA, yet the detection of TRF2 in extra-telomeric regions of chromosomes suggests other roles for TRF2 besides telomere protection. Here, we demonstrate that TRF2 plays a critical role in antagonizing the repressive function of neuron-restrictive silencer factor, also known as repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), during the neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by enhancing the expression of a truncated REST splice isoform we term human REST4 (hREST4) due to its similarity to rodent REST4. We show that TRF2 is specifically upregulated during hESC neural differentiation concordantly with an increase in the expression of hREST4 and that both proteins are highly expressed in NPCs. Overexpression of TRF2 in hESCs increases hREST4 levels and induces their neural differentiation, whereas TRF2 knockdown in hESCs and NPCs reduces hREST4 expression, hindering their ability to differentiate to the neural lineage. Concurrently, we show that TRF2 directly interacts with the C-terminal of hREST4 through its TRF2 core binding motif [F/Y]xL, protecting hREST4 from ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation and consequently furthering neural induction. Thus, the TRF2-mediated counterbalance between hREST4 and REST is vital for both the generation and maintenance of NPCs, suggesting an important role for TRF2 in both neurogenesis and function of the central nervous system. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Valproic acid inhibits neural progenitor cell death by activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulation of Bcl-XL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the beginning of neurogenesis, massive brain cell death occurs and more than 50% of cells are eliminated by apoptosis along with neuronal differentiation. However, few studies were conducted so far regarding the regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs death during development. Because of the physiological role of cell death during development, aberration of normal apoptotic cell death is detrimental to normal organogenesis. Apoptosis occurs in not only neuron but also in NPCs and neuroblast. When growth and survival signals such as EGF or LIF are removed, apoptosis is activated as well as the induction of differentiation. To investigate the regulation of cell death during developmental stage, it is essential to investigate the regulation of apoptosis of NPCs. Methods Neural progenitor cells were cultured from E14 embryonic brains of Sprague-Dawley rats. For in vivo VPA animal model, pregnant rats were treated with VPA (400 mg/kg S.C. diluted with normal saline at E12. To analyze the cell death, we performed PI staining and PARP and caspase-3 cleavage assay. Expression level of proteins was investigated by Western blot and immunocytochemical assays. The level of mRNA expression was investigated by RT-PCR. Interaction of Bcl-XL gene promoter and NF-κB p65 was investigated by ChIP assay. Results In this study, FACS analysis, PI staining and PARP and caspase-3 cleavage assay showed that VPA protects cultured NPCs from cell death after growth factor withdrawal both in basal and staurosporine- or hydrogen peroxide-stimulated conditions. The protective effect of prenatally injected VPA was also observed in E16 embryonic brain. Treatment of VPA decreased the level of IκBα and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which subsequently enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate the reduced death of NPCs by VPA at developmentally

  6. Effects of PAMAM dendrimers with various surface functional groups and multiple generations on cytotoxicity and neuronal differentiation using human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yang; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Zeng, Qin; Hirano, Seishiro; Zhang, Zhenya; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have potential for biological applications as delivery systems for genes, drugs, and imaging agents into the brain, but their developmental neurotoxicity remains unknown. We investigated the effects of PAMAM dendrimers with various surface functional groups and multiple generations on neuronal differentiation using human neural progenitor cells at an equal mass concentration. Only PAMAM dendrimers containing amine (NH2) surface groups at concentrations of 10 μg/mL significantly reduced cell viability and neuronal differentiation, compared with non-amine-terminated dendrimers. PAMAM-NH2 with generation (G)3, G4, G5 G6, and G7 significantly decreased cell viability and inhibited neuronal differentiation from a concentration of 5 μg/mL, but G0, G1, and G2 dendrimers did not have any effect at this concentration. Cytotoxicity indices of PAMAM-NH2 dendrimers at 10 μg/mL correlated well with the zeta potentials of the particles. Surface group density and particle number in unit volume is more important characteristic than particle size to influence cytotoxicity for positive changed dendrimers. PAMAM-50% C12 at 1 μg/mL altered the expression level of the oxidative stress-related genes, ROR1, CYP26A1, and TGFB1, which is a DNA damage response gene. Our results indicate that PAMAM dendrimer exposure may have a surface charge-dependent adverse effect on neuronal differentiation, and that the effect may be associated with oxidative stress and DNA damage during development of neural cells.

  7. The effect of pulsed electric fields on the electrotactic migration of human neural progenitor cells through the involvement of intracellular calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Edin, Fredrik; Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are required for the physiological control of the central nervous system development. Application of the direct current EFs to neural stem cells has been studied for the possibility of stem cell transplantation as one of the therapies for brain injury. EFs generated within the nervous system are often associated with action potentials and synaptic activity, apparently resulting in a pulsed current in nature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed EF, which can reduce the cytotoxicity, on the migration of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). We applied the mono-directional pulsed EF with a strength of 250mV/mm to hNPCs for 6h. The migration distance of the hNPCs exposed to pulsed EF was significantly greater compared with the control not exposed to the EF. Pulsed EFs, however, had less of an effect on the migration of the differentiated hNPCs. There was no significant change in the survival of hNPCs after exposure to the pulsed EF. To investigate the role of Ca 2+ signaling in electrotactic migration of hNPCs, pharmacological inhibition of Ca 2+ channels in the EF-exposed cells revealed that the electrotactic migration of hNPCs exposed to Ca 2+ channel blockers was significantly lower compared to the control group. The findings suggest that the pulsed EF induced migration of hNPCs is partly influenced by intracellular Ca 2+ signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liting; Ng, Lindsay; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Stella, Nephi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mouse primary GBM cells in cultures. This activity was also studied in mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture to assess for potential central nervous system toxicity. We found that CBD induced a dose-dependent reduction of both proliferation and viability of all cells with similar potencies, suggesting no preferential activity for cancer cells. Hill plot analysis indicates an allosteric mechanism of action triggered by CBD in all cells. Cotreatment regimens combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents produced synergistic antiproliferating and cell-killing responses over a limited range of concentrations in all human GBM cell lines and mouse GBM cells as well as in mouse NPCs. Remarkably, antagonistic responses occurred at low concentrations in select human GBM cell lines and in mouse GBM cells. Our study suggests limited synergistic activity when combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents in treating GBM cells, along with little to no therapeutic window when considering NPCs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Neural Stem Cell or Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived GABA-ergic Progenitor Cell Grafting in an Animal Model of Chronic Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Dinesh; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Geetha A.; Zanirati, Gabriele; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Grafting of neural stem cells (NSCs) or GABA-ergic progenitor cells (GPCs) into the hippocampus could offer an alternative therapy to hippocampal resection in patients with drug-resistant chronic epilepsy, which afflicts >30% of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) cases. Multipotent, self-renewing NSCs could be expanded from multiple regions of the developing and adult brain, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). On the other hand, GPCs could be generated from the medial and lateral ganglionic eminences of the embryonic brain and from hESCs and hiPSCs. To provide comprehensive methodologies involved in testing the efficacy of transplantation of NSCs and GPCs in a rat model of chronic TLE, NSCs derived from the rat medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and MGE-like GPCs derived from hiPSCs are taken as examples in this unit. The topics comprise description of the required materials, reagents and equipment, methods for obtaining rat MGE-NSCs and hiPSC-derived MGE-like GPCs in culture, generation of chronically epileptic rats, intrahippocampal grafting procedure, post-grafting evaluation of the effects of grafts on spontaneous recurrent seizures and cognitive and mood impairments, analyses of the yield and the fate of graft-derived cells, and the effects of grafts on the host hippocampus. PMID:27532817

  10. Migration, integration, survival, and differentiation of stem cell-derived neural progenitors in the retina in a pharmacological model of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gustavo; Navajas, Eduardo; Farah, Michel Eid; Maia, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Eduardo Buchele

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the retinal integration and differentiation of neurospheres formed by stem cells and mouse neural progenitor cells injected intravitreally in mice eyes with retinal injury. Methods. Eight male C57BL mice, 8 weeks old, were submitted to intraperitoneal injection of sodium iodate (2% NaIO3, 50 mg/kg). After 72 hours, 2  μ L of solution with mNPC were injected intravitreally (100.000 cells/ μ L). After 7 days, their eyes were dissected and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose in PB for at least 24 hours at 4°C. The material was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and the following primary antibodies evaluation. Results. The results showed that the grafted cells integrated and survived in the adult mice within the sinner retinal tissue for at least 7 days. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed mature neuronal pattern in some regions. The mNPC population in the transplants was tightly surrounded by neuroretinal cells, suggesting their active role in neuron survival. Notably, the appearance of GFP-positive mNPC was not the result of fusion between donor cells and endogenous neuroretinal cells. Conclusions. Migration, survival, and differentiation of mNPCs were observed after 7 days following a single application with neurosphere method. The results may be clinically relevant for future stem cell therapy to restore retinal degeneration.

  11. Newborn dopaminergic neurons are associated with the migration and differentiation of SVZ-derived neural progenitors in a 6-hydroxydopamin-injected mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M Q; Chen, Z C; Zhang, P; Huang, H J; Wang, T T; Ding, Y-Q; Qi, S S; Zhang, C; Chen, S X; Zhou, P; Shao, C C; Liao, M; Sun, C Y

    2017-06-03

    The use of the existing endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the brains of adult mammalian animals is challenging for cell therapy in treating Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies have indicated that there is a low level of neurogenesis in the substantia nigra (SN) of adult mice. To assess the regenerative/neurogenic capacity of NPCs following an intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), the proliferation and differentiation of subventricular zone (SVZ)- and midbrain-derived NPCs were investigated, and the origin of SN newborn dopaminergic neurons was traced by using Nestin-CreER(TM)::ROSA26-LacZ mice and constructing a plasmid CD133-Promoter2-Cre. Our results showed that an intranigral injection of 6-OHDA-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons produced a significant increase in the SVZ-derived NPCs of the third ventricle (3V), cerebral aqueduct (Aq), and their surrounding regions. The SN newly generated dopaminergic neurons might contribute a little to an incomplete recovery of the nigrostriatal system. In addition, we found that SN newborn dopaminergic neurons were mainly derived from the migration and differentiation of the NPCs in the 3V- and Aq-SVZ and their adjacent regions. Thus, it will become an ideal strategy to treat PD by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NPCs. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel insights into the role of NF-κB p50 in astrocyte-mediated fate specification of adult neural progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bortolotto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the CNS nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB transcription factors are involved in a wide range of functions both in homeostasis and in pathology. Over the years, our and other groups produced a vast array of information on the complex involvement of NF-κB proteins in different aspects of postnatal neurogenesis. In particular, several extracellular signals and membrane receptors have been identified as being able to affect neural progenitor cells (NPC and their progeny via NF-κB activation. A crucial role in the regulation of neuronal fate specification in adult hippocampal NPC is played by the NF-κB p50 subunit. NF-κB p50KO mice display a remarkable reduction in adult hippocampal neurogenesis which correlates with a selective defect in hippocampal-dependent short-term memory. Moreover absence of NF-κB p50 can profoundly affect the in vitro proneurogenic response of adult hippocampal NPC (ahNPC to several endogenous signals and drugs. Herein we briefly review the current knowledge on the pivotal role of NF-κB p50 in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In addition we discuss more recent data that further extend the relevance of NF-κB p50 to novel astroglia-derived signals which can influence neuronal specification of ahNPC and to astrocyte-NPC cross-talk.

  13. Acrylamide affects proliferation and differentiation of the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attoff, K; Kertika, D; Lundqvist, J; Oredsson, S; Forsby, A

    2016-09-01

    Acrylamide is a well-known neurotoxic compound and people get exposed to the compound by food consumption and environmental pollutants. Since acrylamide crosses the placenta barrier, the fetus is also being exposed resulting in a risk for developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the neural progenitor cell line C17.2 and the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y were used to study proliferation and differentiation as alerting indicators for developmental neurotoxicity. For both cell lines, acrylamide reduced the number of viable cells by reducing proliferation and inducing cell death in undifferentiated cells. Acrylamide concentrations starting at 10fM attenuated the differentiation process in SH-SY5Y cells by sustaining cell proliferation and neurite outgrowth was reduced at concentrations from 10pM. Acrylamide significantly reduced the number of neurons starting at 1μM and altered the ratio between the different phenotypes in differentiating C17.2 cell cultures. Ten micromolar of acrylamide also reduced the expression of the neuronal and astrocyte biomarkers. Although the neurotoxic concentrations in the femtomolar range seem to be specific for the SH-SY5Y cell line, the fact that micromolar concentrations of acrylamide seem to attenuate the differentiation process in both cell lines raises the interest to further investigations on the possible developmental neurotoxicity of acrylamide. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Trial of Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation in Patients with Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji Cheol; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoo, Jeehyun; Kim, Il-Sun; Yun, Seokhwan; Lee, Hyejin; Jung, Kwangsoo; Hwang, Kyujin; Kim, Miri; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Kook In

    2015-01-01

    In a phase I/IIa open-label and nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, we sought to assess the safety and neurological effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) transplanted into the injured cord after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Of 19 treated subjects, 17 were sensorimotor complete and 2 were motor complete and sensory incomplete. hNSPCs derived from the fetal telencephalon were grown as neurospheres and transplanted into the cord. In the control group, who did not receive cell implantation but were otherwise closely matched with the transplantation group, 15 patients with traumatic cervical SCI were included. At 1 year after cell transplantation, there was no evidence of cord damage, syrinx or tumor formation, neurological deterioration, and exacerbating neuropathic pain or spasticity. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade improved in 5 of 19 transplanted patients, 2 (A → C), 1 (A → B), and 2 (B → D), whereas only one patient in the control group showed improvement (A → B). Improvements included increased motor scores, recovery of motor levels, and responses to electrophysiological studies in the transplantation group. Therefore, the transplantation of hNSPCs into cervical SCI is safe and well-tolerated and is of modest neurological benefit up to 1 year after transplants. This trial is registered with Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), Registration Number: KCT0000879.

  15. Clinical Trial of Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation in Patients with Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheol Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a phase I/IIa open-label and nonrandomized controlled clinical trial, we sought to assess the safety and neurological effects of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs transplanted into the injured cord after traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Of 19 treated subjects, 17 were sensorimotor complete and 2 were motor complete and sensory incomplete. hNSPCs derived from the fetal telencephalon were grown as neurospheres and transplanted into the cord. In the control group, who did not receive cell implantation but were otherwise closely matched with the transplantation group, 15 patients with traumatic cervical SCI were included. At 1 year after cell transplantation, there was no evidence of cord damage, syrinx or tumor formation, neurological deterioration, and exacerbating neuropathic pain or spasticity. The American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS grade improved in 5 of 19 transplanted patients, 2 (A → C, 1 (A → B, and 2 (B → D, whereas only one patient in the control group showed improvement (A → B. Improvements included increased motor scores, recovery of motor levels, and responses to electrophysiological studies in the transplantation group. Therefore, the transplantation of hNSPCs into cervical SCI is safe and well-tolerated and is of modest neurological benefit up to 1 year after transplants. This trial is registered with Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS, Registration Number: KCT0000879.

  16. Neural stem/progenitor cells from the adult human spinal cord are multipotent and self-renewing and differentiate after transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Mothe

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI. However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances GFAP expression in hypoxia. In differentiating conditions in the presence of serum, these NSPC show multipotentiality, expressing markers of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP significantly enhances neuronal differentiation. We transplanted the multipotent NSPC into SCI rats and show that the xenografts survive, are post-mitotic, and retain the capacity to differentiate into neurons and glia.Together, these findings reveal that multipotent self-renewing NSPC cultured and passaged from adult human spinal cords of organ transplant donors, respond to exogenous factors that promote selective differentiation, and survive and differentiate after transplantation into the injured spinal cord.

  17. Decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is associated with neural progenitor phenotype in normal brain and shorter survival in malignant glioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A Orr

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modification of DNA by cytosine methylation to produce 5-methylcytosine (5mC has become well-recognized as an important epigenetic process in human health and disease. Recently, further modification of 5mC by the ten eleven translocated (TET family of enzymes to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC has been described. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the distribution of 5hmC in human brain during different periods of development and in a large series of gliomas (n=225. We found that during development, 5hmC levels are high in more differentiated compartments like the fetal cortex, but low in the periventricular progenitor cell regions. In adults, we found 5hmC levels to be highest in the cortex, but present in all intrinsic cell types in the brain including stromal elements. In brain tumors, 5hmC levels were high in low grade tumors and reduced in malignant glioma, but did not exhibit any correlation with IDH1 mutation status. Additionally, we identified a significant relationship between low levels of 5hmC and reduced survival in malignant glioma. This observation was further supported by in silico analysis showing differential expression of genes involved in 5hmC homeostasis in aggressive subsets of glioblastoma. Finally, we show that several genes involved in regulating the levels of 5hmC are also prognostic in malignant glioma. These findings suggest that 5hmC regulation in malignant glioma may represent an important determinant of tumor differentiation and aggressive behavior, as well as a potential therapeutic target.

  18. Nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. Results In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1 this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2 anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal

  19. Revocation of European patent for neural progenitors highlights patent challenges for inventions relating to human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Cells derived from human embryonic stem cells have great therapeutic potential. Patents are key to allowing companies that develop methods of generating such cells to recuperate their investment. However, in Europe, inventions relating to the use of human embryos for commercial purposes are excluded from patentability on moral grounds. The scope of this morality exclusion was recently tested before Germany's highest court and before the European Patent Office (EPO), with diverging results. The decision by the EPO's Opposition Division to revoke EP1040185 relating to neural precursors and methods for their generation has received a mixed reception. The decision has very recently been appealed, and the outcome of this Appeal should provide more definitive guidance on the scope of the morality exclusion.

  20. Rotary orbital suspension culture of embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem/progenitor cells: impact of hydrodynamic culture on aggregate yield, morphology and cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundos, Tiago L; Silva, Joana; Assunção, Marisa; Quelhas, Pedro; Monteiro, Cátia; Oliveira, Carla; Oliveira, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P; Amaral, Isabel F

    2017-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (ES-NSPCs) constitute a promising cell source for application in cell therapies for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. In this study, a rotary orbital hydrodynamic culture system was applied to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, to obtain homogeneously-sized ES-NSPC cellular aggregates (neurospheres). Hydrodynamic culture allowed the formation of ES-NSPC neurospheres with a narrower size distribution than statically cultured neurospheres, increasing orbital speeds leading to smaller-sized neurospheres and higher neurosphere yield. Neurospheres formed under hydrodynamic conditions (72 h at 55 rpm) showed higher cell compaction and comparable percentages of viable, dead, apoptotic and proliferative cells. Further characterization of cellular aggregates provided new insights into the effect of hydrodynamic shear on ES-NSPC behaviour. Rotary neurospheres exhibited reduced protein levels of N-cadherin and β-catenin, and higher deposition of laminin (without impacting fibronectin deposition), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity and percentage of neuronal cells. In line with the increased MMP-2 activity levels found, hydrodynamically-cultured neurospheres showed higher outward migration on laminin. Moreover, when cultured in a 3D fibrin hydrogel, rotary neurospheres generated an increased percentage of neuronal cells. In conclusion, the application of a constant orbital speed to single-cell suspensions of ES-NSPCs, besides allowing the formation of homogeneously-sized neurospheres, promoted ES-NSPC differentiation and outward migration, possibly by influencing the expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules and the secretion of proteases/extracellular matrix proteins. These findings are important when establishing the culture conditions needed to obtain uniformly-sized ES-NSPC aggregates, either for use in regenerative therapies or in in vitro platforms for biomaterial development or

  1. Equivalent neurogenic potential of wild-type and GFP-labeled fetal-derived neural progenitor cells before and after transplantation into the rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepski, Guilherme; Jannes, Cinthia E; Wessolleck, Johanna; Kobayashi, Eiji; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-02-27

    The hippocampal formation is a specific structure in the brain where neurogenesis occurs throughout adulthood and in which the neuronal cell loss causes various demential states. The main goal of this study was to verify whether fetal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) retain the ability to differentiate into neuronal cells and to integrate into the hippocampal circuitry after transplantation. NPCs were isolated from E14 (gestational age: 14 days postconception) transgenic-Lewis and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat embryos. Wild-type and transgenic cells were expanded and induced to differentiate into a neuronal lineage in vitro. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological analysis were performed in both groups. GFP-expressing cells were implanted into the hippocampus and recorded electrophysiologically 3 months thereafter. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed neuronal differentiation, and the yield of neuronal cells was determined stereologically. NPCs derived from wild-type and transgenic animals are similar regarding their ability to generate neuronal cells in vitro. Neuronal maturity was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and electrophysiology, with demonstration of voltage-gated ionic currents, firing activity, and spontaneous synaptic currents. GFP-NPCs were also able to differentiate into mature neurons after implantation into the hippocampus, where they formed functional synaptic contacts. GFP-transgenic cells represent an important tool in transplantation studies. Herein, we demonstrate their ability to generate functional neurons both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Neurons derived from fetal NPCs were able to integrate into the normal hippocampal circuitry. The high yield of mature neurons generated render these cells important candidates for restorative approaches based on cell therapy.

  2. Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells and Neurons from Oxidative Damage through Nrf2-ERK1/2 MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common multifocal inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Due to the progressive neurodegenerative nature of MS, developing treatments that exhibit direct neuroprotective effects are needed. Tecfidera™ (BG-12 is an oral formulation of the fumaric acid esters (FAE, containing the active metabolite dimethyl fumarate (DMF. Although BG-12 showed remarkable efficacy in lowering relapse rates in clinical trials, its mechanism of action in MS is not yet well understood. In this study, we reported the potential neuroprotective effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF on mouse and rat neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons. We found that DMF increased the frequency of the multipotent neurospheres and the survival of NPCs following oxidative stress with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment. In addition, utilizing the reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, we showed that DMF reduced ROS production induced by H2O2. DMF also decreased oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Using motor neuron survival assay, DMF significantly promoted survival of motor neurons under oxidative stress. We further analyzed the expression of oxidative stress-induced genes in the NPC cultures and showed that DMF increased the expression of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 at both levels of RNA and protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated the involvement of Nrf2-ERK1/2 MAPK pathway in DMF-mediated neuroprotection. Finally, we utilized SuperArray gene screen technology to identify additional anti-oxidative stress genes (Gstp1, Sod2, Nqo1, Srxn1, Fth1. Our data suggests that analysis of anti-oxidative stress mechanisms may yield further insights into new targets for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS.

  3. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Genes Regulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis via miR-25 in Immortalized Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjin Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are essential organelles and important targets for environmental pollutants. The detection of mitochondrial biogenesis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and p53 levels following low-dose methylmercury (MeHg exposure could expand our understanding of underlying mechanisms. Here, the sensitivity of immortalized human neural progenitor cells (ihNPCs upon exposure to MeHg was investigated. We found that MeHg altered cell viability and the number of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU-positive cells. We also observed that low-dose MeHg exposure increased the mRNA expression of cell cycle regulators. We observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, mRNA levels of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gammacoactivator-1α (PGC-1α, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM and p53-controlled ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2 were significantly elevated, which were correlated with the increase of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number at a concentration as low as 10 nM. Moreover, we examined the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs known as regulatory miRNAs of p53 (i.e., miR-30d, miR-1285, miR-25. We found that the expression of these miRNAs was significantly downregulated upon MeHg treatment. Furthermore, the overexpression of miR-25 resulted in significantly reducted p53 protein levels and decreased mRNA expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MeHg could induce developmental neurotoxicity in ihNPCs through altering mitochondrial functions and the expression of miRNA.

  4. DISC1 Regulates the Proliferation and Migration of Mouse Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells through Pax5, Sox2, Dll1 and Neurog2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1 regulates neurogenesis and is a genetic risk factor for major psychiatric disorders. However, how DISC1 dysfunction affects neurogenesis and cell cycle progression at the molecular level is still unknown. Here, we investigated the role of DISC1 in regulating proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (MNSPCs in vitro.Methods: MNSPCs were isolated and cultured from mouse fetal hippocampi. Retroviral vectors or siRNAs were used to manipulate DISC1 expression in MNSPCs. Proliferation, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis of altered MNSPCs were analyzed in cell proliferation assays (MTS, transwell system and flow cytometry. A neurogenesis specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR array was used to identify genes downstream of DISC1, and functional analysis was performed through transfection of expression plasmids and siRNAs.Results: Loss of DISC1 reduced proliferation and migration of MNSPCs, while an increase in DISC1 led to increased proliferation and migration. Meanwhile, an increase in the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase was concomitant with reduced levels of DISC1, but significant changes were not observed in the number MNSPCs undergoing apoptosis. Paired box gene 5 (Pax5, sex determining region Y-box 2 (Sox2, delta-like1 (Dll1 and Neurogenin2 (Neurog2 emerged as candidate molecules downstream of DISC1, and rescue experiments demonstrated that increased or decreased expression of either molecule regulated proliferation and migration in DISC1-altered MNSPCs.Conclusion: These results suggest that Pax5, Sox2, Dll1 and Neurog2 mediate DISC1 activity in MNSPC proliferation and migration.

  5. Ischemia, immunosuppression, and SSEA-1-negative cells all contribute to tumors resulting from mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Haiqiang; Chen, Xiaocong; Zhao, Chunsong; Wang, Jiayin; Cai, Yanning; Chan, Piu; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Y Alex

    2014-01-01

    Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells can lead to tumors after transplantation. The cellular source of such tumors remains under debate. We investigated the tumor formation resulting from mES cell-derived NPCs in a rat stroke model and in nude mice. After 2 hr of ischemia and 48 hr of reperfusion, the NPCs were transplanted into the ischemic core of the xenogeneic rats. Four weeks after transplantation, the grafted cells were found to be viable at the border of the necrosis and had differentiated into neurons. Transplanted rats did not exhibit any behavioral improvement, because tumor formed in 90% of the animals. Immunosuppression facilitated tumor formation. Tumors were observed in 40% of normal rats after NPC transplantation when cyclosporin A was administered. Meanwhile, no tumor formation was observed without cyclosporin A. Ischemic damage also facilitated tumor formation, because NPCs gave rise to tumors in 90% of ischemic rats, a percentage significantly higher than that in intact rats, which was 40%. The SSEA-1-positive cells isolated from stage 4 are not exactly undifferentiated ES cells. They exhibited a marker gene transcription profile different from that of ES cells and did not form tumors in transplanted nude mice. The undifferentiated ES cells remaining after differentiation did not contribute to tumors either. First, the tumor formation rate resulting from undifferentiated ES cells in the brains of normal rats is 0%, significantly lower than that of NPCs. Second, transplanted NPCs that led to 100% tumors in nude mice contained approximately 1.5 × 10(3) Oct-4-positive cells; however, even 5 × 10(5) undifferentiated ES cells formed neoplasm only in 40% nude mice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effects of dibutyryl cyclic-AMP on survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells transplanted into spinal cord injured rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Kim

    Full Text Available Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs have great potential as a cell replacement therapy for spinal cord injury. However, poor control over transplant cell differentiation and survival remain major obstacles. In this study, we asked whether dibutyryl cyclic-AMP (dbcAMP, which was shown to induce up to 85% in vitro differentiation of NSPCs into neurons would enhance survival of transplanted NSPCs through prolonged exposure either in vitro or in vivo through the controlled release of dbcAMP encapsulated within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres and embedded within chitosan guidance channels. NSPCs, seeded in fibrin scaffolds within the channels, differentiated in vitro to betaIII-tubulin positive neurons by immunostaining and mRNA expression, in response to dbcAMP released from PLGA microspheres. After transplantation in spinal cord injured rats, the survival and differentiation of NSPCs was evaluated. Untreated NSPCs, NSPCs transplanted with dbcAMP-releasing microspheres, and NSPCs pre-differentiated with dbcAMP for 4 days in vitro were transplanted after rat spinal cord transection and assessed 2 and 6 weeks later. Interestingly, NSPC survival was highest in the dbcAMP pre-treated group, having approximately 80% survival at both time points, which is remarkable given that stem cell transplantation often results in less than 1% survival at similar times. Importantly, dbcAMP pre-treatment also resulted in the greatest number of in vivo NSPCs differentiated into neurons (37±4%, followed by dbcAMP-microsphere treated NSPCs (27±14% and untreated NSPCs (15±7%. The reverse trend was observed for NSPC-derived oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with these populations being highest in untreated NSPCs. This combination strategy of stem cell-loaded chitosan channels implanted in a fully transected spinal cord resulted in extensive axonal regeneration into the injury site, with improved functional recovery after 6 weeks in animals implanted with

  7. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haejin; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Lee, Il-Shin; Shin, Jeong Eun; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Won-Joo; Park, Kook In

    2014-01-01

    Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%), APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%), and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%). Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest that human fetal

  8. Human fetal brain-derived neural stem/progenitor cells grafted into the adult epileptic brain restrain seizures in rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haejin Lee

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation has been suggested as an alternative therapy for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE because this can suppress spontaneous recurrent seizures in animal models. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs for treating TLE, we transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. In vitro, huNSPCs not only produced all three central nervous system neural cell types, but also differentiated into ganglionic eminences-derived γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-ergic interneurons and released GABA in response to the depolarization induced by a high K+ medium. NSPC grafting reduced behavioral seizure duration, afterdischarge duration on electroencephalograms, and seizure stage in the kindling model, as well as the frequency and the duration of spontaneous recurrent motor seizures in pilocarpine-induced animals. However, NSPC grafting neither improved spatial learning or memory function in pilocarpine-treated animals. Following transplantation, grafted cells showed extensive migration around the injection site, robust engraftment, and long-term survival, along with differentiation into β-tubulin III+ neurons (∼34%, APC-CC1+ oligodendrocytes (∼28%, and GFAP+ astrocytes (∼8%. Furthermore, among donor-derived cells, ∼24% produced GABA. Additionally, to explain the effect of seizure suppression after NSPC grafting, we examined the anticonvulsant glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF levels in host hippocampal astrocytes and mossy fiber sprouting into the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus in the epileptic brain. Grafted cells restored the expression of GDNF in host astrocytes but did not reverse the mossy fiber sprouting, eliminating the latter as potential mechanism. These results suggest

  9. Integrative analysis of genes and miRNA alterations in human embryonic stem cells-derived neural cells after exposure to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jung-Hwa; Son, Mi-Young; Choi, Mi-Sun; Kim, Soojin; Choi, A-Young; Lee, Hyang-Ae; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Janghwan; Song, Chang Woo; Yoon, Seokjoo

    2016-05-15

    Given the rapid growth of engineered and customer products made of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), understanding their biological and toxicological effects on humans is critically important. The molecular developmental neurotoxic effects associated with exposure to Ag NPs were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels, using an alternative cell model: human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs (10-200μg/ml) were examined in these hESC-derived NPCs, which have a capacity for neurogenesis in vitro, at 6 and 24h. The results showed that Ag NPs evoked significant toxicity in hESC-derived NPCs at 24h in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, Ag NPs induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis following a significant increase in oxidative stress in these cells. To further clarify the molecular mechanisms of the toxicological effects of Ag NPs at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, the global expression profiles of genes and miRNAs were analyzed in hESC-derived NPCs after Ag NP exposure. The results showed that Ag NPs induced oxidative stress and dysfunctional neurogenesis at the molecular level in hESC-derived NPCs. Based on this hESC-derived neural cell model, these findings have increased our understanding of the molecular events underlying developmental neurotoxicity induced by Ag NPs in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended access methamphetamine decreases immature neurons in the hippocampus which results from loss and altered development of neural progenitors without altered dynamics of the S-phase of the cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Clara J.; Quiocho, Jovy Marie D.; Kim, Airee; Wee, Sunmee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine addicts demonstrate impaired hippocampal-dependent cognitive function that could result from methamphetamine-induced maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. Reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in a rodent model of compulsive methamphetamine self-administration partially contributes to the maladaptive plasticity in the hippocampus. The potential mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis were identified in the present study. Key aspects of the cell cycle dynamics of hippocampal progenitors, including proliferation and neuronal development, were studied in rats that intravenously self-administered methamphetamine in a limited access (1 h/day: short access (ShA)-4 days and ShA-13 days) or extended access (6 h/day: long access (LgA)-4 days and LgA-13 days) paradigm. Immunohistochemical analysis of Ki-67 cells with 5-chloro-2’-deoxyuridine (CldU) demonstrated that LgA methamphetamine inhibited hippocampal proliferation by decreasing the proliferating pool of progenitors that are in the synthesis (S)-phase of the cell cycle. Double S-phase labeling with CldU and 5-iodo-2’-deoxyuridine (IdU) revealed that reduced S-phase cells were not due to alterations in the length of the S-phase. Further systematic analysis of Ki-67 cells with GFAP, Sox2, and DCX revealed that LgA methamphetamine-induced inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis was attributable to impairment in the development of neuronal progenitors from preneuronal progenitors to immature neurons. Methamphetamine concomitantly increased hippocampal apoptosis, changes that were evident during the earlier days of self-administration. These findings demonstrate that methamphetamine self-administration initiates allostatic changes in adult neuroplasticity maintained by the hippocampus, including increased apoptosis, and altered dynamics of hippocampal neural progenitors. These data suggest that altered hippocampal plasticity by methamphetamine

  11. HIV-1-infected and immune-activated macrophages induce astrocytic differentiation of human cortical neural progenitor cells via the STAT3 pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    Full Text Available Diminished adult neurogenesis is considered a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD. In HAD, HIV-1-infected and immune-activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia drive central nervous system (CNS inflammation and may alter normal neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated HIV-1-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM inhibit human neural progenitor cell (NPC neurogenesis, while enhancing astrogliogenesis through the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, in vitro and in vivo. Here we further test the hypothesis that HIV-1-infected/activated MDM promote NPC astrogliogenesis via activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, a critical factor for astrogliogenesis. Our results show that LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS-MCM and HIV-infected/LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS+HIV-MCM induced Janus kinase 1 (Jak1 and STAT3 activation. Induction of the Jak-STAT3 activation correlated with increased glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, demonstrating an induction of astrogliogenesis. Moreover, STAT3-targeting siRNA (siSTAT3 decreased MCM-induced STAT3 activation and NPC astrogliogenesis. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α produced by LPS-activated and/or HIV-1-infected MDM may contribute to MCM-induced STAT3 activation and astrocytic differentiation. These observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE. In HIVE mice, siRNA control (without target sequence, sicon pre-transfected NPCs injected with HIV-1-infected MDM showed more astrocytic differentiation and less neuronal differentiation of NPCs as compared to NPC injection alone. siSTAT3 abrogated HIV-1-infected MDM-induced astrogliogenesis of injected NPCs. Collectively, these

  12. Whole-Genome DNA Methylation Analyses Revealed Epigenetic Instability in Tumorigenic Human iPS Cell-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tsuyoshi; Iwanami, Akio; Sanosaka, Tsukasa; Kohyama, Jun; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nagoshi, Narihito; Kashiwagi, Rei; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okano, Hideyuki

    2017-05-01

    Although human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives are considered promising cellular resources for regenerative medicine, their tumorigenicity potentially limits their clinical application in hiPSC technologies. We previously demonstrated that oncogenic hiPSC-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (hiPSC-NS/PCs) produced tumor-like tissues that were distinct from teratomas. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of tumorigenicity in hiPSC-NS/PCs, we performed an integrated analysis using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array and the HumanHT-12 v4.0 Expression BeadChip array to compare the comprehensive DNA methylation and gene expression profiles of tumorigenic hiPSC-NS/PCs (253G1-NS/PCs) and non-tumorigenic cells (201B7-NS/PCs). Although the DNA methylation profiles of 253G1-hiPSCs and 201B7-hiPSCs were similar regardless of passage number, the methylation status of the global DNA methylation profiles of 253G1-NS/PCs and 201B7-NS/PCs differed; the genomic regions surrounding the transcriptional start site of the CAT and PSMD5 genes were hypermethylated in 253G1-NS/PCs but not in 201B7-NS/PCs. Interestingly, the aberrant DNA methylation profile was more pronounced in 253G1-NS/PCs that had been passaged more than 15 times. In addition, we identified aberrations in DNA methylation at the RBP1 gene locus; the DNA methylation frequency in RBP1 changed as 253G1-NS/PCs were sequentially passaged. These results indicate that different NS/PC clones have different DNA methylomes and that DNA methylation patterns are unstable as cells are passaged. Therefore, DNA methylation profiles should be included in the criteria used to evaluate the tumorigenicity of hiPSC-NS/PCs in the clinical setting. Stem Cells 2017;35:1316-1327. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Caveolin-1 plays a crucial role in inhibiting neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells via VEGF signaling-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available In the present study, we aim to elucidate the roles of caveolin-1(Cav-1, a 22 kDa protein in plasma membrane invaginations, in modulating neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs. In the hippocampal dentate gyrus, we found that Cav-1 knockout mice revealed remarkably higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the more abundant formation of newborn neurons than wild type mice. We then studied the potential mechanisms of Cav-1 in modulating VEGF signaling and neuronal differentiation in isolated cultured NPCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic embryonic rat NPCs were exposed to 1% O₂ for 24 h and then switched to 21% O₂ for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days whereas normoxic NPCs were continuously cultured with 21% O₂. Compared with normoxic NPCs, hypoxic NPCs had down-regulated expression of Cav-1 and up-regulated VEGF expression and p44/42MAPK phosphorylation, and enhanced neuronal differentiation. We further studied the roles of Cav-1 in inhibiting neuronal differentiation by using Cav-1 scaffolding domain peptide and Cav-1-specific small interfering RNA. In both normoxic and hypoxic NPCs, Cav-1 peptide markedly down-regulated the expressions of VEGF and flk1, decreased the phosphorylations of p44/42MAPK, Akt and Stat3, and inhibited neuronal differentiation, whereas the knockdown of Cav-1 promoted the expression of VEGF, phosphorylations of p44/42MAPK, Akt and Stat3, and stimulated neuronal differentiation. Moreover, the enhanced phosphorylations of p44/42MAPK, Akt and Stat3, and neuronal differentiation were abolished by co-treatment of VEGF inhibitor V1. These results provide strong evidence to prove that Cav-1 can inhibit neuronal differentiation via down-regulations of VEGF, p44/42MAPK, Akt and Stat3 signaling pathways, and that VEGF signaling is a crucial target of Cav-1. The hypoxia-induced down-regulation of Cav-1 contributes to enhanced neuronal differentiation in NPCs.

  14. Modulating cognitive deficits and tau accumulation in a mouse model of aging Down syndrome through neonatal implantation of neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachubinski, Angela L; Maclean, Kenneth N; Evans, Jeffrey R; Bjugstad, Kimberly B

    2012-09-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) is primarily considered as a pediatric disorder, all DS patients incur Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like pathology and about 60% develop an additional AD-like dementia by 30-40 years of age. Cognitive and neuroanatomical changes in DS are least compromised perinatally, indicating there may be an opportunity to modulate their cognitive and neuroanatomical development during aging, preventing or postponing the onset of AD. To this end, neural progenitor cells (NPC) or saline were implanted into the hippocampus of neonatal DS-modeling (trisomic Ts65Dn) mice and non-DS (disomic Ts65Dn) age-matched mice. Twelve months later, implanted and unimplanted mice were assessed for long-term survival of NPC, for cognitive function, hippocampal cell density, and the presence of extracellular tau accumulation. Implantation of NPC in trisomic mice improved learning and memory as assessed by conditioned taste aversion testing, but not on the novel object recognition task. Trisomic mice given saline control injections improved performance on both cognitive tasks compared to unimplanted trisomic mice. In contrast, disomic mice, implanted with either saline or NPC, were impaired in both tasks. Long-term surviving NPC were found in 7 out of 11 disomic brains and 4 out of 5 trisomic brains, with an average survival rate of 3.1% and 5.9% respectively. Extracellular tau aggregations were elevated in trisomic mice, but implantation with NPC was associated with significantly fewer aggregations. This was also seen in disomic mice. Saline injections significantly elevated tau presence in both karyotypes. Based on these results, we conclude that the modest effects of a few surviving NPC cannot be distinguished from those induced by the implant procedure. However, the changes prompted by neonatal treatment were detectable in aged animals. Collectively, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that neonatal therapeutic intervention in DS has the potential to exert

  15. Embryonic Heart Progenitors and Cardiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Thomas; Pane, Luna S.; Moretti, Alessandra; Chien, Kenneth R.; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian heart is a highly specialized organ, comprised of many different cell types arising from distinct embryonic progenitor populations during cardiogenesis. Three precursor populations have been identified to contribute to different myocytic and nonmyocytic cell lineages of the heart: cardiogenic mesoderm cells (CMC), the proepicardium (PE), and cardiac neural crest cells (CNCCs). This review will focus on molecular cues necessary for proper induction, expansion, and lineage-specific differentiation of these progenitor populations during cardiac development in vivo. Moreover, we will briefly discuss how the knowledge gained on embryonic heart progenitor biology can be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies for the management of congenital heart disease as well as for improvement of cardiac function in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24086063

  16. Cux2 activity defines a subpopulation of perinatal neurogenic progenitors in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Clark, Jessica; McClelland, Christine; Capaldo, Emily; Ray, Ayush; Iulianella, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    The hippocampus arises from the medial region of the subventricular (SVZ) within the telencephalon. It is one of two regions in the postnatal brain that harbors neural progenitors (NPs) capable of giving rise to new neurons. Neurogenesis in the hippocampus is restricted to the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) where it contributes to the generation of granule cell layer (gcl) neurons. It is thought that SGZ progenitors are heterogeneous, differing in their morphology, expression profiles, and developmental potential, however it is currently unknown whether they display differences in their developmental origins and cell fate-restriction in the DG. Here we demonstrate that Cux2 is a marker for SGZ progenitors and nascent granule cell neurons in the perinatal brain. Cux2 was expressed in the presumptive hippocampal forming region of the embryonic forebrain from E14.5 onwards. At fetal stages, Cux2 was expressed in early-forming Prox1(+) granule cell neurons as well as the SVZ of the DG germinal matrix. In the postnatal brain, Cux2 was expressed in several types of progenitors in the SGZ of the DG, including Nestin/Sox2 double-positive radial glia, Sox2(+) cells that lacked a radial glial process, DCX(+) neuroblasts, and Calretinin-expressing nascent neurons. Another domain characterized by a low level of Cux2 expression emerged in Calbindin(+) neurons of the developing DG blades. We used Cux2-Cre mice in genetic fate-mapping studies and showed almost exclusive labeling of Calbindin-positive gcl neurons, but not in any progenitor cell types or astroglia. This suggests that Cux2(+) progenitors directly differentiate into gcl neurons and do not self-renew. Interestingly, developmental profiling of cell fate revealed an outside-in formation of gcl neurons in the DG, likely reflecting the activity of Cux2 in the germinative matrices during DG formation and maturation. However, DG morphogenesis proceeded largely normally in hypomorphic Cux2 mutants lacking

  17. Analysis of NPS Contracting Service Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Development (R&D)” (Lyons et al., 2014). Next, a brief description of the NPS Contracting Office organization is provided. C. ORGANIZATION...was altered slightly to tailor to the NPS Contracting Office organization and dynamic. As Young and Varble point out in their study, modifications to

  18. Hierarchically Structured Recommender System for Improving NPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Jieyan

    2016-01-01

    Net Promoter System (NPS) is well known as an evaluation measure of the growth engine of big companies in the business area. The ultimate goal of my research is to build an action rules and meta-actions based recommender system for improving NPS scores of 34 companies (clients) dealing with similar businesses in the US and Canada. With the given…

  19. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffley, Lara A., E-mail: muffley@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Pan, Shin-Chen, E-mail: pansc@mail.ncku.edu.tw [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Smith, Andria N., E-mail: gnaunderwater@gmail.com [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Ga, Maricar, E-mail: marga16@uw.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Hocking, Anne M., E-mail: ahocking@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Gibran, Nicole S., E-mail: nicoleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  20. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  1. Upregulated expression of Nogo-A and NgR in an experimental model of focal microgyria regulates the migration, proliferation and self-renewal of subventricular zone neural progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sixun; Shu, Haifeng; Yang, Tao; Huang, Haidong [Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610083 (China); Li, Song [Department of Neurosurgery, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Zhao, Ziyi [Central Laboratory, Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 610075 (China); Kuang, Yongqin, E-mail: kuangyongqin@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, General Hospital of the People' s Liberation Army Chengdu Military Region, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610083 (China)

    2016-04-29

    Nogo-A and its receptor (NgR) were first described as myelin-associated inhibitors of neuronal regeneration in response to injury. In recent years, knowledge about the important role of the Nogo-A protein in several neuronal pathologies has grown considerably. Here, we employed a neonatal cortex freeze-lesion (NFL) model in neonatal rats and measured the expression of Nogo-A and NgR in the resulting cerebrocortical microdysgenesis 5–75 days after freezing injury. We observed marked upregulation of Nogo-A and NgR in protein levels. Furthermore, the migration of neural precursor cells (NPCs) derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ) toward the sits of injury was perturbed by treatment of NgR antagonist peptide NEP1-40. In vitro analysis showed that the knockdown of NgR by lentivirus-delivered siRNA promoted in axonal regeneration and SVZ-derived neural stem cell/progenitor cell (SVZ-NPCs) adhesion and migration, findings which were similar to the effects of NEP1-40. Taken together, our results indicate an important role for NgR in regulating the physiological processes of SVZ-NPCs. The observation of upregulated Nogo-A/NgR in lesion sites in the NFL model suggest that the effects of the perturbed Nogo-A are a key feature during the development and/or the progression of cortical malformation. - Highlights: • NFL model is an accurate experimental reproduction of focal microgyria of FCD. • The increase of the Nogo-A Levels occurs in response to freeze-induced focal lesioning. • Nogo-A/NgR may play a critical role for in the pathologic progression of FCD. • Nogo-A is associated with the migration, proliferation and self-renewal of SVZ-NPCs.

  2. Directed migration of human neural progenitor cells to interleukin-1β is promoted by chemokines stromal cell-derived factor-1 and monocyte chemotactic factor-1 in mouse brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yumei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis, including the proliferation, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs, is impaired in HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD. We previously demonstrated HIV-1-infected macrophages (HIV-MDM regulate stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 production in astrocytes through Interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Chemokines are known to induce NPC migration; however, it remains unclear how chemokines produced in inflammation regulate NPC migration. Methods The secretion of SDF-1 and Monocyte chemotactic preotein-1 (MCP-1 in astrocytes upon IL-1β stimulation was measured by ELISA assay. Human NPCs were injected parallel along with IL-1β, SDF-1 or MCP-1 intracranially into basal ganglion 1 mm apart in SCID mice, and immunofluorescent staining was used to study the survival and migration of injected human NPCs. Results SDF-1 and MCP-1 are secreted by astrocytes upon IL-1β stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Injected human NPCs survived in SCID mice and migrated towards sites of IL-1β, SDF-1 and MCP-1 injection. Conclusions In conclusion, chemokines SDF-1 or MCP-1 secreted by astrocytes in the presence of IL-1β injection are attractive to NPCs injected into SCID mouse brains, suggesting that SDF-1 and MCP-1 play important roles in NPC migration during neuroinflammation.

  3. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/20l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  4. Monitoring ferumoxide-labelled neural progenitor cells and lesion evolution by magnetic resonance imaging in a model of cell transplantation in cerebral ischaemia [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Panizzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC therapies after cerebral ischaemia could be better evaluated by monitoring in vivo migration and distribution of cells post-engraftment in parallel with analysis of lesion volume and functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is ideally placed to achieve this, but still poses several challenges. We show that combining the ferumoxide MRI contrast agent Endorem with protamine sulphate (FePro improves iron oxide uptake in cells compared to Endorem alone and is non-toxic. Hence FePro complex is a better contrast agent than Endorem for monitoring NPCs. FePro complex-labelled NPCs proliferated and differentiated normally in vitro, and upon grafting into the brain 48 hours post-ischaemia they were detected in vivo by MRI. Imaging over four weeks showed the development of a confounding endogenous hypointense contrast evolution at later timepoints within the lesioned tissue. This was at least partly due to accumulation within the lesion of macrophages and endogenous iron. Neither significant NPC migration, assessed by MRI and histologically, nor a reduction in the ischaemic lesion volume was observed in NPC-grafted brains.  Crucially, while MRI provides reliable information on engrafted cell location early after an ischaemic insult, pathophysiological changes to ischaemic lesions can interfere with cellular imaging at later timepoints.

  5. A robust vitronectin-derived peptide for the scalable long-term expansion and neuronal differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, Divya; Srinivasan, Gayathri Rajaram; Tsai, Yi-Huan; Kim, Hyun-Je; Cutts, Joshua; Petty, Francis; Merkley, Ryan; Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Dolezalova, Dasa; Marsala, Martin; Brafman, David A

    2017-01-15

    Despite therapeutic advances, neurodegenerative diseases and disorders remain some of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Therefore, cell-based therapies to replace lost or damaged neurons and supporting cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are of great therapeutic interest. To that end, human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) derived neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and their neuronal derivatives could provide the cellular 'raw material' needed for regenerative medicine therapies for a variety of CNS disorders. In addition, hNPCs derived from patient-specific hPSCs could be used to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and identify potential drug candidates. However, the scientific and clinical application of hNPCs requires the development of robust, defined, and scalable substrates for their long-term expansion and neuronal differentiation. In this study, we rationally designed a vitronectin-derived peptide (VDP) that served as an adhesive growth substrate for the long-term expansion of several hNPC lines. Moreover, VDP-coated surfaces allowed for the directed neuronal differentiation of hNPC at levels similar to cells differentiated on traditional extracellular matrix protein-based substrates. Overall, the ability of VDP to support the long-term expansion and directed neuronal differentiation of hNPCs will significantly advance the future translational application of these cells in treating injuries, disorders, and diseases of the CNS. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells from the Adult Brain and Live Imaging of Their Cell Cycle with the FUCCI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicheportiche, Alexandra; Ruat, Martial; Boussin, François D; Daynac, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) enter quiescence in early embryonic stages to create a reservoir of dormant NSCs able to enter proliferation and produce neuronal precursors in the adult mammalian brain. Various approaches of fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) have emerged to allow the distinction between quiescent NSCs (qNSCs), their activated counterpart (aNSCs), and the resulting progeny. In this article, we review two FACS techniques that can be used alternatively. We also show that their association with transgenic Fluorescence Ubiquitination Cell Cycle Indicator (FUCCI) mice allows an unprecedented overlook on the cell cycle dynamics of adult NSCs.

  7. Ectopic expression of the immune adaptor protein CD3zeta in neural stem/progenitor cells disrupts cell-fate specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angibaud, Julie; Baudouin, Stéphane J; Louveau, Antoine; Nerrière-Daguin, Véronique; Bonnamain, Virginie; Csaba, Zsolt; Dournaud, Pascal; Naveilhan, Philippe; Noraz, Nelly; Pellier-Monnin, Véronique; Boudin, Hélène

    2012-02-01

    Immune signaling and neuroinflammatory mediators have recently emerged as influential variables that regulate neural precursor/stem cell (NPC) behavior and function. In this study, we investigated whether the signaling adaptor protein CD3ζ, a transmembrane protein involved in T cell differentiation and function and recently shown to regulate neuronal development in the central nervous system (CNS), may have a role in NPC differentiation. We analyzed the expression profile of CD3ζ in embryonic rat brain during neurogenic periods and in neurosphere-derived neural cells, and we investigated the action of CD3ζ on cell differentiation. We found that CD3ζ expression coincided with neuronal commitment, but its forced expression in NPCs prevented the production of neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not astroglial cells. This blockade of neuronal differentiation was operated through an ITAM-independent mechanism, but required the Asp36 of the CD3ζ transmembrane domain involved in membrane receptor interaction. Together, our findings show that ectopic CD3ζ expression in NPCs impaired their normal cell-fate specification and suggest that variations of CD3ζ expression in the developing CNS might result in neurodevelopmental anomalies.

  8. Pigment Cell Progenitors in Zebrafish Remain Multipotent through Metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajeet Pratap; Dinwiddie, April; Mahalwar, Prateek; Schach, Ursula; Linker, Claudia; Irion, Uwe; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2016-08-08

    The neural crest is a transient, multipotent embryonic cell population in vertebrates giving rise to diverse cell types in adults via intermediate progenitors. The in vivo cell-fate potential and lineage segregation of these postembryonic progenitors is poorly understood, and it is unknown if and when the progenitors become fate restricted. We investigate the fate restriction in the neural crest-derived stem cells and intermediate progenitors in zebrafish, which give rise to three distinct adult pigment cell types: melanophores, iridophores, and xanthophores. By inducing clones in sox10-expressing cells, we trace and quantitatively compare the pigment cell progenitors at four stages, from embryogenesis to metamorphosis. At all stages, a large fraction of the progenitors are multipotent. These multipotent progenitors have a high proliferation ability, which diminishes with fate restriction. We suggest that multipotency of the nerve-associated progenitors lasting into metamorphosis may have facilitated the evolution of adult-specific traits in vertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ruta graveolens L. induces death of glioblastoma cells and neural progenitors, but not of neurons, via ERK 1/2 and AKT activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Gentile

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly aggressive brain tumor whose prognosis is very poor. Due to early invasion of brain parenchyma, its complete surgical removal is nearly impossible, and even after aggressive combined treatment (association of surgery and chemo- and radio-therapy five-year survival is only about 10%. Natural products are sources of novel compounds endowed with therapeutic properties in many human diseases, including cancer. Here, we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens L., commonly known as rue, induces death in different glioblastoma cell lines (U87MG, C6 and U138 widely used to test novel drugs in preclinical studies. Ruta graveolens' effect was mediated by ERK1/2 and AKT activation, and the inhibition of these pathways, via PD98058 and wortmannin, reverted its antiproliferative activity. Rue extract also affects survival of neural precursor cells (A1 obtained from embryonic mouse CNS. As in the case of glioma cells, rue stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT in A1 cells, whereas their blockade by pharmacological inhibitors prevents cell death. Interestingly, upon induction of differentiation and cell cycle exit, A1 cells become resistant to rue's noxious effects but not to those of temozolomide and cisplatin, two alkylating agents widely used in glioblastoma therapy. Finally, rutin, a major component of the Ruta graveolens water extract, failed to cause cell death, suggesting that rutin by itself is not responsible for the observed effects. In conclusion, we report that rue extracts induce glioma cell death, discriminating between proliferating/undifferentiated and non-proliferating/differentiated neurons. Thus, it can be a promising tool to isolate novel drugs and also to discover targets for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Glutamate Increases In Vitro Survival and Proliferation and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death in Adult Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Non-NMDA Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Laureen D; Mothe, Andrea J; Tator, Charles H

    2016-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a cascade of secondary chemical insults, including oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, which damage host neurons and glia. Transplantation of exogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) has shown promise in enhancing regeneration after SCI, although survival of transplanted cells remains poor. Understanding the response of NSPCs to the chemical mediators of secondary injury is essential in finding therapies to enhance survival. We examined the in vitro effects of glutamate and glutamate receptor agonists on adult rat spinal cord-derived NSPCs. NSPCs isolated from the periventricular region of the adult rat spinal cord were exposed to various concentrations of glutamate for 96 h. We found that glutamate treatment (500 μM) for 96 h significantly increased live cell numbers, reduced cell death, and increased proliferation, but did not significantly alter cell phenotype. Concurrent glutamate treatment (500 μM) in the setting of H2O2 exposure (500 μM) for 10 h increased NSPC survival compared to H2O2 exposure alone. The effects of glutamate on NSPCs were blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptor antagonist GYKI-52466, but not by the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor antagonist MK-801 or DL-AP5, or the mGluR3 antagonist LY-341495. Furthermore, treatment of NSPCs with AMPA, kainic acid, or the kainate receptor-specific agonist (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid mimicked the responses seen with glutamate both alone and in the setting of oxidative stress. These findings offer important insights into potential mechanisms to enhance NSPC survival and implicate a potential role for glutamate in promoting NSPC survival and proliferation after traumatic SCI.

  11. In vitro neurogenesis from neural progenitor cells isolated from the hippocampus region of the brain of adult rats exposed to ethanol during early development through their alcohol-drinking mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok K; Gupta, Shveta; Jiang, Yin; Younus, Mohammed; Ramzan, Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine whether ethanol exposure during early development altered neurogenesis in the brain of adult rats. Pregnant rats were given either ethanol-mixed or mannose-mixed (for control) rodent liquid diet ad libitum. Ethanol drinking continued during pregnancy and nursing. After weaning, the pups (AC(o): pups from control mothers, AE(o): pups from ethanol exposed mothers) received normal diet and water ad libitum for 11 weeks. Then the rats were anesthetized, their brains were collected and the hippocampal samples were processed for isolation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). AC(o) NPCs and AE(o) NPCs were sequentially grown in media containing different growth factors that induced proliferation and differentiation. Neuronal maturation was significantly delayed in ethanol-exposed rats. AC(o) NPCs, up to day 7 of culture, exhibited high beta-catenin-probe binding, an increase in Ca(2+) when exposed to gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) and lack of response to glutamate (Glu) exposure. beta-Catenin-probe binding and the stimulatory effects of GABA declined thereafter. AC(o) NPCs, at culture day 29, exhibited high beta-catenin-probe binding, lack of response to GABA and elevated Glu-induced increase in Ca(2+i). Cultures of AE(o) NPCs showed an amplified stimulatory effects of GABA, attenuated stimulatory effects of Glu and attenuated the delayed (culture day 29) increase in the expression of Wnt proteins and beta-catenin-probe binding. This suggests a significant alteration in neurogenesis and synapse formation in adult rats exposed to ethanol at early development through their alcohol-drinking mothers.

  12. NPS Panel Discusses ISIS Expansion, Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School’s (NPS) Department of Defense Analysis, the Naval War College (NWC) Monterey, and the Global Education Community Collaboration Online (GlobalECCO) counter terrorism program recently hosted a panel discussion titled, “The Islamic State: Remaining and Expanding?” in Ingersoll Hall.

  13. Analysis of NPS contracting service quality

    OpenAIRE

    Baza, Joseph A.; Cabana, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The purpose of this project is to identify and analyze customer expectations and customer perceptions of service quality provided by the local contracting office supporting the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Our goal is to identify performance gaps using the SERVQUAL instrument for measuring customers’ expectations and perceptions along five quality dimensions (tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy). The results ...

  14. New psychoactive substances (NPS) on cryptomarket fora: An exploratory study of characteristics of forum activity between NPS buyers and vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2017-02-01

    The continual diversification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) circumventing legislation creates a public health and law enforcement challenge, and one particularly challenged by availability on Hidden Web cryptomarkets. This is the first study of its kind which aimed to explore and characterise cryptomarket forum members' views and perspectives on NPS vendors and products within the context of Hidden Web community dynamics. An internal site search was conducted on two cryptomarkets popular with NPS vendors and hosting fora; Alphabay and Valhalla, using the search terms of 40 popular NPS in the seven categories of stimulant/cathinone; GABA activating; hallucinogen, dissociative, cannabinoid, opioid and other/unspecified/uncategorised NPS. 852 identified threads relating to the discussion of these NPS were generated. Following exclusion of duplicates, 138 threads remained. The Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method of data analysis was applied. Four themes and 32 categories emerged. 120 vendors selling NPS were visible on Alphabay, and 21 on Valhalla. Themes were 'NPS Cryptomarkets and Crypto-community interest in NPS'; 'Motives for NPS use'; 'Indigenous Crypto Community Harm Reduction'; and 'Cryptomarket Characteristics underpinning NPS trafficking', with two higher levels of abstraction centring on 'NPS vendor reputation' and 'NPS transactioning for personal use'. NPS cryptomarket characteristics centred on generation of trust, honesty and excellent service. Users appeared well informed, with harm reduction and vendor information exchange central to NPS market dynamics. GABA activating substances appeared most popular in terms of buyer interest on cryptomarkets. Interest in sourcing 'old favorite' stimulant and dissociative NPS was evident, alongside the sequential and concurrent poly use of NPS, and use of NPS with illicit drugs such as MDMA. Continued monitoring of new trends in NPS within Surface Web and cryptomarkets are warranted. A particular

  15. Individual and Co Transport Study of Titanium Dioxide NPs and Zinc Oxide NPs in Porous Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kumari

    Full Text Available The impact of pH and ionic strength on the mobility (individual and co-transport and deposition kinetics of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in porous media was systematically investigated in this study. Packed column experiments were performed over a series of environmentally relevant ionic strengths with both NaCl (0.1-10 mM and CaCl2 (0.01-0.1mM solutions and at pH 5, 7, and 9. The transport of TiO2 NPs at pH 5 was not significantly affected by ZnO NPs in solution. At pH 7, a decrease in TiO2 NP transport was noted with co-existence of ZnO NPs, while at pH 9 an increase in the transport was observed. At pH 5 and 7, the transport of ZnO NPs was decreased when TiO2 NPs was present in the solution, and at pH 9, an increase was noted. The breakthrough curves (BTC were noted to be sensitive to the solution chemistries; the decrease in the breakthrough plateau with increasing ionic strength was observed under all examined pH (5, 7, and 9. The retention profiles were the inverse of the plateaus of BTCs, as expected from mass balance considerations. Overall, the results from this study suggest that solution chemistries (ionic strength and pH are likely the key factors that govern the individual and co-transport behavior of TiO2 and ZnO NPs in sand.

  16. Methylprednisolone inhibits the proliferation and affects the differentiation of rat spinal cord-derived neural progenitor cells cultured in low oxygen conditions by inhibiting HIF-1α and Hes1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Wang, Peng; Li, Shiyuan; Yang, Jiewen; Liang, Xinjun; Tang, Yong; Li, Yuxi; Yang, Rui; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-09-01

    Although there is much controversy over the use of methylprednisolone (MP), it is one of the main drugs used in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury (SCI). The induction of the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is considered a promising mode of treatment for SCI. However, the effects of MP on spinal cord-derived endogenous NPCs in a low oxygen enviroment remain to be delineated. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential effects of MP on NPCs cultured under low oxygen conditions in vitro and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Fetal rat spinal cord-derived NPCs were harvested and divided into 4 groups: 2 groups of cells cultured under normal oxygen conditions and treated with or without MP, and 2 groups incubated in 3% O2 (low oxygen) treated in a similar manner. We found that MP induced suppressive effects on NPC proliferation even under low oxygen conditions (3% O2). The proportion of nestin-positive NPCs decreased from 51.8±2.46% to 36.17±3.55% following the addition of MP and decreased more significantly to 27.20±2.68% in the cells cultured in 3% O2. In addition, a smaller number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and a greater number of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-positive cells was observed following the addition of MP under both normal (normoxic) and low oxygen (hypoxic) conditions. In response to MP treatment, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and the Notch signaling pathway downstream protein, Hes1, but not the upstream Notch-1 intracelluar domain (NICD), were inhibited. After blocking NICD with a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) MP still inhibited the expression of Hes1. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms responsible for the MP-induced inhibition of proliferation and its effects on differentiation and suggest that HIF-1α and Hes1 play an important role in this effect.

  17. Cross-species analyses unravel the complexity of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the context of neural stem progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Rhodes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural stem progenitor cells (NSPCs in the human subventricular zone (SVZ potentially contribute to lifelong neurogenesis, yet subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM contain NSPC signatures that highlight the importance of cell fate regulation. Among numerous regulatory mechanisms, the posttranslational methylations onto histone tails are crucial regulator of cell fate. The work presented here focuses on the role of 2 repressive chromatin marks trimethylations on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 and histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me3 in the adult NSPC within the SVZ. To best model healthy human NSPCs as they exist in vivo for epigenetic profiling of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, we used NSPCs isolated from the adult SVZ of baboon brain (Papio anubis with brain structure and genomic level similar to human. The putative role of H3K27me3 in normal NSPCs predominantly falls into the regulation of gene expression, cell cycle, and differentiation, whereas H4K20me3 is involved in DNA replication/repair, metabolism, and cell cycle. Using conditional knockout mouse models to diminish Ezh2 and Suv4-20h responsible for H3K27me3 and H4K20me3, respectively, we found that both repressive marks have irrefutable function for cell cycle regulation in the NSPC population. Although both EZH2/H3K27me3 and Suv4-20h/H4K20me3 have implication in cancers, our comparative genomics approach between healthy NSPCs and human GBM specimens revealed that substantial sets of genes enriched with H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in the NSPCs are altered in the human GBM. In sum, our integrated analyses across species highlight important roles of H3K27me3 and H4K20me3 in normal and disease conditions in the context of NSPC.

  18. NPS National Transit Inventory and Performance Report, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This document summarizes key highlights and performance measures relating to the National Park Service (NPS) 2016 National Transit Inventory, by presenting data for NPS transit systems and vehicles nationwide. These highlights and performance measure...

  19. NPS national transit inventory and performance report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This document summarizes key highlights and performance measures relating to the National Park Service (NPS) 2015 National Transit Inventory, by presenting data for NPS transit systems and vehicles nationwide. These highlights and performance measure...

  20. Functional properties of different collagen scaffolds to create a biomimetic niche for neurally committed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pietrucha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomimetic, standardized conditions for in vitro cultures of human neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-NPs should meet the requirements to serve as the template and protective environment for therapeutically competent cell population. In this study, two different collagen scaffolds: bi-component consisting of collagen and chondroitin sulphate (Col-CS, and collagen modified by crosslinking agent 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose (Col-DAC have been used for the first time to encapsulate hiPSC-NPs and compared for the ability to create permissive microenvironment enabling cell survival, growth and differentiation. In our previous report, physicochemical comparison of the scaffolds revealed different elasticity, and diverse size and distribution of the pores within the 3D structure. Binary systems of Col-CS and Col-DAC tested in the current study have the correct balance of properties to serve as a biomimetic niche: they accommodate hiPSC-NPs sustaining their ability to proliferate and differentiate into neural lineages. However, a dense, network structure and rounded in shape pores of the Col-DAC microenvironment resulted in differential cell distributions within the scaffolds, with a tendency for augmented formation of highly proliferating cell aggregates as compared to Col-CS scaffolds. In contrast, Col-CS, which exhibited formation of the network of ellipsoidal and inner interconnected parallel pore channels, promoted enhanced cell viability and neuronal differentiation.

  1. Human Neural Cell-Based Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    Orlando R, Stice SL. Membrane proteomic signatures of karyotypically normal and abnormal human embryonic stem cell lines and derivatives. Proteomics. 2011...format (96-,384-well) assays, 2) grow as adherent monolayers, and 3) possess a stable karyotype for multiple (>10) passages with a doubling time of ~36...derived neural progenitor cell line working stock has been amplified, characterized for karyotype and evaluated for the expression of neural progenitor

  2. NPS Solar Cell Array Tester Cubesat Flight Testing and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    option for education purposes because of the simplicity of the technology and the ease of availability. They are rapidly becoming useful for real...NPS-SCAT as a pathfinder for the educational use of CubeSats at NPS. NPSAT1 (shown in Figure 1) is currently scheduled for a launch in 2016. 2...front face of NPS-SCAT. The antenna comprises two pieces of piano wire cut to the proper length, stowed using fishing line. Once in orbit, a piece of

  3. Navy-wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2005: Tabulated Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whittam, Kimberly P

    2007-01-01

    .... The NPS focused on work-life topics, such as job satisfaction, leadership satisfaction, morale, career intentions, career development, advancement and promotion, detailing, TEMPO, gender integration...

  4. The positional identity of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells along the anterior-posterior axis is controlled in a dosage-dependent manner by bFGF and EGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shuling; Ochalek, Anna; Szczesna, Karolina

    2016-01-01

    Neural rosettes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been claimed to be a highly robust in vitro cellular model for biomedical application. They are able to propagate in vitro in the presence of mitogens, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth...... factor (EGF). However, these two mitogens are also involved in anterior-posterior patterning in a gradient dependent manner along the neural tube axis. Here, we compared the regional identity of neural rosette cells and specific neural subtypes of their progeny propagated with low and high concentrations...... of bFGF and EGF. We observed that low concentrations of bFGF and EGF in the culturing system were able to induce forebrain identity of the neural rosettes and promote subsequent cortical neuronal differentiation. On the contrary, high concentrations of these mitogens stimulate a mid-hindbrain fate...

  5. Environmental cues from CNS, PNS, and ENS cells regulate CNS progenitor differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännvall, Karin; Corell, Mikael; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Cellular origin and environmental cues regulate stem cell fate determination. Neuroepithelial stem cells form the central nervous system (CNS), whereas neural crest stem cells generate the peripheral (PNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS). CNS neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) fate determination...

  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor controls progenitor migration during remyelination in the adult rodent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Julien; Macchi, Magali; Magalon, Karine; Cayre, Myriam; Durbec, Pascale

    2013-02-13

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to be expressed after brain lesions and in particular after demyelination. Here, we addressed the role of this cytokine in the regulation of neural progenitor migration in the adult rodent brain. Using an acute model of demyelination, we show that CNTF is strongly re-expressed after lesion and is involved in the postlesional mobilization of endogenous progenitors that participate in the myelin regenerative process. We show that CNTF controls the migration of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural progenitors toward the demyelinated corpus callosum. Furthermore, an ectopic source of CNTF in adult healthy brains changes SVZ-derived neural progenitors' migratory behavior that migrate toward the source by activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway. Using various in vitro assays (Boyden chambers, explants, and video time-lapse imaging), we demonstrate that CNTF controls the directed migration of SVZ-derived progenitors and oligodendrocyte precursors. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in addition to its neuroprotective activity and its role in progenitor survival and maturation, CNTF acts as a chemoattractant and participates in the recruitment of endogenous progenitors during myelin repair.

  7. Modelling the Semantics of Object Prepositions Inside Spanish NPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg Müller, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive semantic framework for understanding the principles that govern the use of object prepositions inside NPs with event nominalizations (Grimshaw 1990) as heads......This paper presents a cognitive semantic framework for understanding the principles that govern the use of object prepositions inside NPs with event nominalizations (Grimshaw 1990) as heads...

  8. University Students Add Professional Certifications to Their NPS Degrees [video

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Select students in NPS' Graduate School of Business and Public Policy (GSBPP) take the necessary extra steps to complete professional certifications while earning their NPS degrees, demonstrating a level of competency above and beyond what is required for their graduate degree.

  9. Fate Specification of Neural Plate Border by Canonical Wnt Signaling and Grhl3 is Crucial for Neural Tube Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Mochida, Kyoko; Ellwanger, Kristina; Niehrs, Christof; Matsuo, Isao

    2015-06-01

    During primary neurulation, the separation of a single-layered ectodermal sheet into the surface ectoderm (SE) and neural tube specifies SE and neural ectoderm (NE) cell fates. The mechanisms underlying fate specification in conjunction with neural tube closure are poorly understood. Here, by comparing expression profiles between SE and NE lineages, we observed that uncommitted progenitor cells, expressing stem cell markers, are present in the neural plate border/neural fold prior to neural tube closure. Our results also demonstrated that canonical Wnt and its antagonists, DKK1/KREMEN1, progressively specify these progenitors into SE or NE fates in accord with the progress of neural tube closure. Additionally, SE specification of the neural plate border via canonical Wnt signaling is directed by the grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) transcription factor. Thus, we propose that the fate specification of uncommitted progenitors in the neural plate border by canonical Wnt signaling and its downstream effector Grhl3 is crucial for neural tube closure. This study implicates that failure in critical genetic factors controlling fate specification of progenitor cells in the neural plate border/neural fold coordinated with neural tube closure may be potential causes of human neural tube defects.

  10. Mechanisms of temporal identity regulation in mouse retinal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Pierre; Cayouette, Michel

    2015-01-01

    While much progress has been made in recent years toward elucidating the transcription factor codes controlling how neural progenitor cells generate the various glial and neuronal cell types in a particular spatial domain, much less is known about how these progenitors alter their output over time. In the past years, work in the developing mouse retina has provided evidence that a transcriptional cascade similar to the one used in Drosophila neuroblasts might control progenitor temporal identity in vertebrates. The zinc finger transcription factor Ikzf1 (Ikaros), an ortholog of Drosophila hunchback, was reported to confer early temporal identity in retinal progenitors and, more recently, the ortholog of Drosophila castor, Casz1, was found to function as a mid/late temporal identity factor that is negatively regulated by Ikzf1. The molecular mechanisms by which these temporal identity factors function in retinal progenitors, however, remain unknown. Here we briefly review previous work on the vertebrate temporal identity factors in the retina, and propose a model by which they might operate.

  11. NPS Executive Education and Professional Development Programs Annual Report 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) has strong executive education and professional development (EE/PD) programs that extend the reach of its graduate programs to mid- or senior-grade professionals who are unable to take the time out of their careers to attend degree programs, or who need targeted information at their locations on their time schedules. In addition to degree and certificate courses offered for credit, Schools, Centers, Departments, Institutes and other organizations of NPS pro...

  12. A chemical screen in zebrafish embryonic cells establishes that Akt activation is required for neural crest development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciarlo, Christie; Kaufman, Charles K.; Kinikoglu, Beste; Michael, Jonathan; Yang, Song; D’Amato, Christopher; Blokzijl-Franke, Sasja; den Hertog, Jeroen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/096717696; Schlaeger, Thorsten M.; Zhou, Yi; Liao, Eric C; Zon, Leonard I.

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a dynamic progenitor cell population that arises at the border of neural and non-neural ectoderm. The inductive roles of FGF, Wnt, and BMP at the neural plate border are well established, but the signals required for subsequent neural crest development remain poorly

  13. Functional Blood Progenitor Markers in Developing Human Liver Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Goldman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the early fetal liver, hematopoietic progenitors expand and mature together with hepatoblasts, the liver progenitors of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Previous analyses of human fetal livers indicated that both progenitors support each other's lineage maturation and curiously share some cell surface markers including CD34 and CD133. Using the human embryonic stem cell (hESC system, we demonstrate that virtually all hESC-derived hepatoblast-like cells (Hep cells transition through a progenitor stage expressing CD34 and CD133 as well as GATA2, an additional hematopoietic marker that has not previously been associated with human hepatoblast development. Dynamic expression patterns for CD34, CD133, and GATA2 in hepatoblasts were validated in human fetal livers collected from the first and second trimesters of gestation. Knockdown experiments demonstrate that each gene also functions to regulate hepatic fate mostly in a cell-autonomous fashion, revealing unprecedented roles of fetal hematopoietic progenitor markers in human liver progenitors.

  14. Naval Postgraduate School Scheduling Support System (NPS4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    and an IBM-compatible with an Intel 80386 processor or better. The program chosen for the prototype presented in this thesis, HyperCard 6 , runs on the...1000 4500 time ( CPU seconds) Figure 4.14 NPSSPerformance NPSS could serve as the problem modelling component of NPS4 to assist the Class Scheduler in...the other to execute the final exam scheduling program. Its run time was 90-120 CPU -seconds on the NPS mainframe (IBM 3033). 159 This set of programs

  15. USGS-NPS Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Christopher S.; Nayagandhi, Amar; Brock, John; Beavers, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program recently allocated funds to initiate a benthic mapping program in ocean and Great Lakes parks in alignment with the NPS Ocean Park Stewardship 2007-2008 Action Plan. Seventy-four (ocean and Great Lakes) parks, spanning more than 5,000 miles of coastline, many affected by increasing coastal storms and other natural and anthropogenic processes, make the development of a Servicewide Benthic Mapping Program (SBMP) timely. The resulting maps and associated reports will be provided to NPS managers in a consistent servicewide format to help park managers protect and manage the 3 million acres of submerged National Park System natural and cultural resources. Of the 74 ocean and Great Lakes park units, the 40 parks with submerged acreage will be the focus in the early years of the SBMP. The NPS and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) convened a workshop (June 3-5, 2008) in Lakewood, CO. The assembly of experts from the NPS and other Federal and non-Federal agencies clarified the needs and goals of the NPS SBMP and was one of the key first steps in designing the benthic mapping program. The central needs for individual parks, park networks, and regions identified by workshop participants were maps including bathymetry, bottom type, geology, and biology. This workshop, although not an exhaustive survey of data-acquisition technologies, highlighted the more promising technologies being used, existing sources of data, and the need for partnerships to leverage resources. Workshop products include recommended classification schemes and management approaches for consistent application and products similar to other long-term NPS benthic mapping efforts. As part of the SBMP, recommendations from this workshop, including application of an improved version of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS), will be tested in several pilot parks. In 2008, in conjunction with the findings of this workshop

  16. The poster as modernist progenitor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katherine Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Ruth E. Iskin’s The Poster: Art, Advertising. Design, and Collecting, 1860s-1900s positions the late-nineteenth-century advertising poster as the progenitor of valued modernist practices typically attached solely to photography and film...

  17. Role of SDF1/CXCR4 Interaction in Experimental Hemiplegic Models with Neural Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Suzuki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Much attention has been focused on neural cell transplantation because of its promising clinical applications. We have reported that embryonic stem (ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation significantly improved motor functions in a hemiplegic mouse model. It is important to understand the molecular mechanisms governing neural regeneration of the damaged motor cortex after the transplantation. Recent investigations disclosed that chemokines participated in the regulation of migration and maturation of neural cell grafts. In this review, we summarize the involvement of inflammatory chemokines including stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF1 in neural regeneration after ES cell derived neural stem/progenitor cell transplantation in mouse stroke models.

  18. Adult spinal cord radial glia display a unique progenitor phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Petit

    Full Text Available Radial glia (RG are primarily embryonic neuroglial progenitors that express Brain Lipid Binding Protein (Blbp a.k.a. Fabp7 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (Gfap. We used these transcripts to demarcate the distribution of spinal cord radial glia (SCRG and screen for SCRG gene expression in the Allen Spinal Cord Atlas (ASCA. We reveal that neonatal and adult SCRG are anchored in a non-ventricular niche at the spinal cord (SC pial boundary, and express a "signature" subset of 122 genes, many of which are shared with "classic" neural stem cells (NSCs of the subventricular zone (SVZ and SC central canal (CC. A core expressed gene set shared between SCRG and progenitors of the SVZ and CC is particularly enriched in genes associated with human disease. Visualizing SCRG in a Fabp7-EGFP reporter mouse reveals an extensive population of SCRG that extend processes around the SC boundary and inwardly (through the SC white matter (WM, whose abundance increases in a gradient from cervical to lumbar SC. Confocal analysis of multiple NSC-enriched proteins reveals that postnatal SCRG are a discrete and heterogeneous potential progenitor population that become activated by multiple SC lesions, and that CC progenitors are also more heterogeneous than previously appreciated. Gene ontology analysis highlights potentially unique regulatory pathways that may be further manipulated in SCRG to enhance repair in the context of injury and SC disease.

  19. Noble silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis and characterization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology is rapidly growing with nanoparticles produced and utilized in a wide range of pharmaceutical and commercial products throughout the world. In this study, fig (Ficus carica) leaf extracts were used for ecofriendly extracellular synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by treating an aqueous silver ...

  20. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  1. The presence of oleate stabilized ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and reduced the toxicity of aged NPs to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Jiang, Leying; Gong, Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Liangliang; Cao, Yi

    2017-12-25

    The presence of food components may alter the colloidal aspects and toxicity of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, the toxicity of ZnO NPs to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells was assessed, with the emphasis on the interactions between ZnO NPs and oleate (OA). The presence of OA increased UV-Vis spectra and hydrodynamic sizes, decreased Zeta potential, and markedly reduced the release of Zn ions from the dissolution of ZnO NPs, which combined indicated that OA could coat ZnO NPs and stabilize ZnO NPs. Exposure to ZnO NPs significantly induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, associated with increased intracellular Zn ions but not superoxide. When OA was added to the freshly prepared ZnO NP suspensions, the cytotoxicity, intracellular Zn ions and superoxide induced by ZnO NPs were not significantly affected. However, when ZnO NPs were aged for 24 h with the presence of OA, the cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells was significantly reduced, associated with a reduction of intracellular Zn ions. The results from this study suggested that the presence of OA could increase colloidal stability of ZnO NPs and consequently reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs after aging associated with reduced accumulation of intracellular Zn ions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Three-Dimensional Normal Human Neural Progenitor Tissue-Like Assemblies: A Model for Persistent Varicell-Zoster Virus Infection and Platform to Study Viral Infectivity and Oxidative Stress and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Osterrieder, N.; Cohrs, R. J.; Kaufer, B. B.

    2014-01-01

    The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent(s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1], [2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3], [4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles. Our laboratory has developed a complex threedimensional (3D) normal human neural tissue model that emulates several characteristics of the human trigeminal ganglia (TG) and allows the study of combinatorial experimentation which addresses, simultaneously, OSaD associated with Spaceflight adaptation and habitation [6].

  3. Flexibility of neural stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumorphia eRemboutsika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic cortical neural stem cells are self-renewing progenitors that can differentiate into neurons and glia. We generated neurospheres from the developing cerebral cortex using a mouse genetic model that allows for lineage selection and found that the self-renewing neural stem cells are restricted to Sox2 expressing cells. Under normal conditions, embryonic cortical neurospheres are heterogeneous with regard to Sox2 expression and contain astrocytes, neural stem cells and neural progenitor cells sufficiently plastic to give rise to neural crest cells when transplanted into the hindbrain of E1.5 chick and E8 mouse embryos. However, when neurospheres are maintained under lineage selection, such that all cells express Sox2, neural stem cells maintain their Pax6+ cortical radial glia identity and exhibit a more restricted fate in vitro and after transplantation. These data demonstrate that Sox2 preserves the cortical identity and regulates the plasticity of self-renewing Pax6+ radial glia cells.

  4. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  5. Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Vascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, O.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have altered levels and function of (bone marrow-derived) vascular progenitor cells (endothelial progenitor cells-EPC, smooth muscle progenitor cells-SPC) which may contribute to their accelerated atherosclerosis. The results from clinical and experimental studies in this

  6. Glial progenitor cell-based treatment of the childhood leukodystrophies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osório, M. Joana; Goldman, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    stem cell-derived human neural or glial progenitor cells may comprise a promising strategy for both structural remyelination and metabolic rescue. A broad variety of pediatric white matter disorders, including the primary hypomyelinating disorders, the lysosomal storage disorders, and the broader group...... has ensued; understanding the natural history of the targeted disease; defining the optimal cell phenotype for each disorder; achieving safe and scalable cellular compositions; designing age-appropriate controlled clinical trials; and for autologous therapy of genetic disorders, achieving the safe...

  7. Stem/progenitor cells from inflamed human dental pulp retain tissue regeneration potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Dominick J; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Song, Yingjie; Fouad, Ashraf F; Romberg, Elaine E; Shi, Songtao; Tuan, Rocky S; Huang, George T-J

    2011-01-01

    Background Potent stem/progenitor cells have been isolated from normal human dental pulps termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). However, it is unknown whether these cells exist in inflamed pulps (IPs). Aims To determine whether DPSCs can be identified and isolated from IPs; and if they can be successfully cultured, whether they retain tissue regeneration potential in vivo. Materials & methods DPSCs from freshly collected normal pulps (NPs) and IPs were characterized in vitro and their tissue regeneration potential tested using an in vivo study model. Results The immunohistochemical analysis showed that IPs expressed higher levels of mesenchymal stem cell markers STRO-1, CD90, CD105 and CD146 compared with NPs (p < 0.05). Flow cytometry analysis showed that DPSCs from both NPs and IPs expressed moderate to high levels of CD146, stage-specific embryonic antigen-4, CD73 and CD166. Total population doubling of DPSCs-IPs (44.6 ± 2.9) was lower than that of DPSCs-NPs (58.9 ± 2.5) (p < 0.05), and DPSCs-IPs appeared to have a decreased osteo/dentinogenic potential compared with DPSCs-NPs based on the mineral deposition in cultures. Nonetheless, DPSCs-IPs formed pulp/dentin complexes similar to DPSCs-NPs when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Conclusion DPSCs-IPs can be isolated and their mesenchymal stem cell marker profiles are similar to those from NPs. Although some stem cell properties of DPSCs-IPs were altered, cells from some samples remained potent in tissue regeneration in vivo. PMID:20465527

  8. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Wilkinson

    Full Text Available Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung's disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung's disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung's patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis.

  9. NPS and the methadone queue: Spillages of space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrescu, Liviu

    2017-02-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, powder-stimulants sold by 'head shops' as novel psychoactive substances (NPS) or 'legal highs' have displaced heroin among groups of injecting substance users in Bucharest, Romania. Rising HIV-infection rates and other medical or social harms have been reported to follow this trend. The study builds on two sets of original (N=30) and existing (N=20) interview data and on observations collected mainly at the site of a methadone substitution treatment facility. By disentangling the space-time continuum of the methadone queue, this paper argues that injecting drug users' (IDUs) passage from opiates to amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) can be understood as 'spillages' of space and time. IDUs thus 'spill' out of the disciplinary flows of methadone treatment in two ways. The first is that of space and materiality. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), ATS/NPS appear embedded in reconfigured practices and rituals of injecting use. Such spillages see the pleasure-seeking self being fluidised in forming connections with, or spilling into, nonhuman actants such as substances, settings or objects. The second dimension of spilling is that of time. In this sense, heroin use is a 'cryogenic strategy' of inhabiting history and facing the transition to the market society that Romanian opiate injectors spill out of, not able to appropriate choice and legitimate consumption. The phenomenological qualities of stimulants that seem to accelerate lived time and generalise desire thus present them with an opportunity to alleviate a form of what a post-communist moral imaginary of transition frames as debilitating nostalgia. ATS/NPS are revealed as fluid entities that do not only shape risk conditions but also alter shared meanings and contextual configurations of bodies, substances and disciplinary regimes in unpredictable ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The poster as modernist progenitor

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Hauser

    2015-01-01

    Ruth E. Iskin’s The Poster: Art, Advertising. Design, and Collecting, 1860s-1900s positions the late-nineteenth-century advertising poster as the progenitor of valued modernist practices typically attached solely to photography and film. Modernist biases separating high art from mass culture account for scholars ignoring posters, however the poster ushered in an innovative reductive graphic style as well as pioneered the notion of multiple originals.

  11. The poster as modernist progenitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hauser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruth E. Iskin’s The Poster: Art, Advertising. Design, and Collecting, 1860s-1900s positions the late-nineteenth-century advertising poster as the progenitor of valued modernist practices typically attached solely to photography and film. Modernist biases separating high art from mass culture account for scholars ignoring posters, however the poster ushered in an innovative reductive graphic style as well as pioneered the notion of multiple originals.

  12. Synthesis of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Gloria, E.; Ederley, Vélez; Gladis, Morales; César, Hincapié; Jaime, Osorio; Oscar, Arnache; Uribe José, Ignacio; Franklin, Jaramillo

    2017-06-01

    The synthesis of nanomaterials is currently one of the most active in nanoscience branches; especially those help improve the human quality life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an example of this as it is known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects. In this work, we report the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by chemical reduction method of silver nitrate (AgNO3) from aqueous solution, using a mix of polivinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) - Aloe Vera as reducing agent and for stabilization and control of particle size. Silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy and measurements using Zetasizer Nano ZS were applied to size estimation. The existence of surface plasmon resonance peak at λmax ~ 420 nm is evidence of silver nanoparticles formation. It was possible to standardize an appropriate protocol for the evaluation of bactericidal activity of the nanoparticles, for mesophilic microorganisms. Bactericidal activity above 90% against these kinds of bacteria was demonstrated.

  13. The preparation and antibacterial effects of dopa-cotton/AgNPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Hong, E-mail: hxu@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shi Xue; Ma Hui; Lv Yihang; Zhang Linping [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Mao Zhiping, E-mail: zhpmao@dhu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Science and Technology of Eco-textile, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been known to have powerful antibacterial activity. In this paper, in situ generation of AgNPs on the surface of dopamine modified cotton fabrics (dopa-cotton/AgNPs) in aqueous solution under room temperature is presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) were used to analyze the surface chemical composition and the morphology of the modified cotton fabrics, respectively. The results indicated that the surface of cotton fabrics was successfully coated with polydopamine and AgNPs. The cotton fabrics with AgNPs showed durable antibacterial activity.

  14. Dynamically constrained pipeline for tracking neural progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Dahl, Anders; Holm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . A mitosis detector constructed from empirical observations of cells in a pre-mitotic state interacts with the graph formulation to dynamically allow for cell mitosis when appropriate. Track consistency is ensured by introducing pragmatic constraints and the notion of blob states. We validate the proposed...

  15. Mimicking the neurotrophic factor profile of embryonic spinal cord controls the differentiation potential of spinal progenitors into neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Nakamura

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the choice of lineage of neural progenitor cells is determined, at least in part, by environmental factors, such as neurotrophic factors. Despite extensive studies using exogenous neurotrophic factors, the effect of endogenous neurotrophic factors on the differentiation of progenitor cells remains obscure. Here we show that embryonic spinal cord derived-progenitor cells express both ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mRNA before differentiation. BDNF gene expression significantly decreases with their differentiation into the specific lineage, whereas CNTF gene expression significantly increases. The temporal pattern of neurotrophic factor gene expression in progenitor cells is similar to that of the spinal cord during postnatal development. Approximately 50% of spinal progenitor cells differentiated into astrocytes. To determine the effect of endogenous CNTF on their differentiation, we neutralized endogenous CNTF by administration of its polyclonal antibody. Neutralization of endogenous CNTF inhibited the differentiation of progenitor cells into astrocytes, but did not affect the numbers of neurons or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, to mimic the profile of neurotrophic factors in the spinal cord during embryonic development, we applied BDNF or neurotrophin (NT-3 exogenously in combination with the anti-CNTF antibody. The exogenous application of BDNF or NT-3 promoted the differentiation of these cells into neurons or oligodendrocytes, respectively. These findings suggest that endogenous CNTF and exogenous BDNF and NT-3 play roles in the differentiation of embryonic spinal cord derived progenitor cells into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes, respectively.

  16. Sox5 controls dorsal progenitor and interneuron specification in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Alejandra C; Stolt, C Claus; Diez del Corral, Ruth; Dimitrov, Spas; Pérez-Alcalá, Siro; Sock, Elisabeth; Barbas, Julio A; Wegner, Michael; Morales, Aixa V

    2015-05-01

    The basic organization of somatosensory circuits in the spinal cord is already setup during the initial patterning of the dorsal neural tube. Extrinsic signals, such as Wnt and TGF-β pathways, activate combinatorial codes of transcription factors that are responsible for generating a pattern of discrete domains of dorsal progenitors (dp). These progenitors will give rise to distinct dorsal interneurons (dI). The Wnt/ βcatenin signaling pathway controls specification of dp/dI1-3 progenitors and interneurons. According to the current model in the field, Wnt/βcatenin activity seems to act in a graded fashion in the spinal cord, as different relative levels determine the identity of adjacent progenitors. However, it is not clear how this activity gradient is controlled and how the identities of dI1-3 are differentially regulated by Wnt signalling. We have determined that two SoxD transcription factors, Sox5 and Sox6, are expressed in restricted domains of dorsal progenitors in the neural tube. Using gain- and loss-of function approaches in chicken embryos, we have established that Sox5 controls cell fate specification of dp2 and dp3 progenitors and, as a result, controls the correct number of the corresponding dorsal interneurons (dI2 and dI3). Furthermore, Sox5 exerts its function by restricting dorsally Wnt signaling activity via direct transcriptional induction of the negative Wnt pathway regulator Axin2. By that way, Sox5 acts as a Wnt pathway modulator that contributes to sharpen the dorsal gradient of Wnt/βcatenin activity to control the distinction of two functionally distinct types of interneurons, dI2 and dI3 involved in the somatosensory relay. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effects of baicalein or baicalin on the colloidal stability of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and toxicity of NPs to Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yining; Zhang, Cao; Liu, Liangliang; Gong, Yu; Xie, Yixi; Cao, Yi

    2017-11-22

    Recent study suggested that the presence of phytochemicals in food could interact with nanoparticles (NPs) and consequently reduce the toxicity of NPs, which has been attributed to the antioxidant properties of phytochemicals. In this study, we investigated the interactions between ZnO NPs and two flavonoids baicalein (Ba) or baicalin (Bn) as well as the influence of the interactions on the toxicity of ZnO NPs to Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant properties of Ba and Bn were confirmed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays, with Ba being stronger. However, the presence of Ba or Bn did not significantly affect cytotoxicity, intracellular superoxide or release of inflammatory cytokines of Caco-2 cells after ZnO NP exposure. When Ba was present, the cellular viability of Caco-2 cells after exposure to ZnO NPs was slightly increased, associated with a modest decrease of intracellular Zn ions, but these effects were not statistically different. Ba was more effective than Bn at changing the hydrodynamic sizes, Zeta potential and UV-Vis spectra of ZnO NPs, which indicated that Ba might increase the colloidal stability of NPs. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that the anti-oxidative phytochemical Ba might only modestly protected Caco-2 cells from the exposure to ZnO NPs associated with an insignificant reduction of the accumulation of intracellular Zn ions. These results also indicated that when assessing the combined effects of NPs and phytochemicals to cells lining gastrointestinal tract, it might be necessary to evaluate the changes of colloidal stability of NPs altered by phytochemicals.

  18. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Jeerage, Kavita M.

    2015-07-01

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum ( 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate- or

  19. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Materials Measurement Science Division (United States); Jeerage, Kavita M., E-mail: jeerage@boulder.nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  20. Transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitors into the adult CNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, R.J.M.; Blakemore, W.F. [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (United Kingdom)]|[Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Veterinary Medicine

    1997-01-01

    This review covers a number of aspects of the behaviour of oligodendrocyte progenitors following transplantation into the adult CNS. First, an account is given of the ability of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors, grown in tissue culture in the presence of PDGF and bFGF, to extensively remyelinate focal areas of persistent demyelination. Secondly, we describe how transplanted clonal cell lines of oligodendrocyte progenitors will differentiate in to astrocytes as will oligodendrocytes following transplantation into pathological environments in which both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes are absent, thereby manifesting the bipotentially demonstrable in vitro but not during development. Finally, a series of studies examining the migratory behaviour of transplanted oligodendrocyte progenitors (modelled using the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell line CG4) are described. (author).

  1. The NPS CISR Graduate Program in INFOSEC: Six Years of Experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irvine, Cynthia E; Warren, Daniel F; Clark, Paul C

    1997-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security "INFOSEC" Studies and Research "NPS CISR" is developing a comprehensive program in INFOSEC education and research that can become...

  2. Isolation of Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells from the Aganglionic Gut of Patients with Hirschsprung’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David J.; Bethell, George S.; Shukla, Rajeev; Kenny, Simon E.; Edgar, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric nervous system progenitor cells isolated from postnatal human gut and cultured as neurospheres can then be transplanted into aganglionic gut to restore normal patterns of contractility. These progenitor cells may be of future use to treat patients with Hirschprung’s disease, a congenital condition characterized by hindgut dysmotility due to the lack of enteric nervous system ganglia. Here we demonstrate that progenitor cells can also be isolated from aganglionic gut removed during corrective surgery for Hirschsprung’s disease. Although the enteric nervous system marker calretinin is not expressed in the aganglionic gut region, de novo expression is initiated in cultured neurosphere cells isolated from aganglionic Hirschsprung bowel. Furthermore, expression of the neural markers NOS, VIP and GFAP also increased during culture of aganglionic gut neurospheres which we show can be transplantation into cultured embryonic mouse gut explants to restore a normal frequency of contractility. To determine the origin of the progenitor cells in aganglionic region, we used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to demonstrate that only p75-positive neural crest-derived cells present in the thickened nerve trunks characteristic of the aganglionic region of Hirschsprung gut gave rise to neurons in culture. The derivation of enteric nervous system progenitors in the aganglionic gut region of Hirschprung’s patients not only means that this tissue is a potential source of cells for future autologous transplantation, but it also raises the possibility of inducing the differentiation of these endogenous cells in situ to compensate for the aganglionosis. PMID:25992739

  3. Identification and characterization of secondary neural tube-derived embryonic neural stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohammed R; Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Hyun; Sun, Woong

    2015-05-15

    Secondary neurulation is an embryonic progress that gives rise to the secondary neural tube, the precursor of the lower spinal cord region. The secondary neural tube is derived from aggregated Sox2-expressing neural cells at the dorsal region of the tail bud, which eventually forms rosette or tube-like structures to give rise to neural tissues in the tail bud. We addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs (sNSCs), with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. Furthermore, we identified that sNSC-generated neurospheres were significantly smaller in size compared with cortical neurospheres. Interestingly, various cell cycle analyses revealed that this difference was not due to a reduction in the proliferation rate of NSCs, but rather the neuronal commitment of sNSCs, as sNSC-derived neurospheres contain more committed neuronal progenitor cells, even in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). These results suggest that the higher tendency for sNSCs to spontaneously differentiate into progenitor cells may explain the limited expansion of the secondary neural tube during embryonic development.

  4. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  5. Red supergiants as supernova progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben

    2017-09-01

    It is now well-established from pre-explosion imaging that red supergiants (RSGs) are the direct progenitors of Type-IIP supernovae. These images have been used to infer the physical properties of the exploding stars, yielding some surprising results. In particular, the differences between the observed and predicted mass spectrum has provided a challenge to our view of stellar evolutionary theory. However, turning what is typically a small number of pre-explosion photometric points into the physical quantities of stellar luminosity and mass requires a number of assumptions about the spectral appearance of RSGs, as well as their evolution in the last few years of life. Here I will review what we know about RSGs, with a few recent updates on how they look and how their appearance changes as they approach supernova. This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'.

  6. Differentiation of neurons from neural precursors generated in floating spheres from embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester Jeff

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neural differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells is usually achieved by induction of ectoderm in embryoid bodies followed by the enrichment of neuronal progenitors using a variety of factors. Obtaining reproducible percentages of neural cells is difficult and the methods are time consuming. Results Neural progenitors were produced from murine ES cells by a combination of nonadherent conditions and serum starvation. Conversion to neural progenitors was accompanied by downregulation of Oct4 and NANOG and increased expression of nestin. ES cells containing a GFP gene under the control of the Sox1 regulatory regions became fluorescent upon differentiation to neural progenitors, and ES cells with a tau-GFP fusion protein became fluorescent upon further differentiation to neurons. Neurons produced from these cells upregulated mature neuronal markers, or differentiated to glial and oligodendrocyte fates. The neurons gave rise to action potentials that could be recorded after application of fixed currents. Conclusion Neural progenitors were produced from murine ES cells by a novel method that induced neuroectoderm cells by a combination of nonadherent conditions and serum starvation, in contrast to the embryoid body method in which neuroectoderm cells must be selected after formation of all three germ layers.

  7. Reversible neural stem cell niche dysfunction in a model of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine; Imitola, Jaime; Ayuso-Sacido, Angel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the brain constitutes a niche for neural stem and progenitor cells that can initiate repair after central nervous system (CNS) injury. In a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the neural stem cells (NSCs) become...

  8. Effects of TiO2 NPs on Silkworm Growth and Feed Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YangYang; Ni, Min; Li, FanChi; Zhang, Hua; Xu, KaiZun; Zhao, XiaoMing; Tian, JiangHai; Hu, JingSheng; Wang, BinBin; Shen, WeiDe; Li, Bing

    2016-02-01

    Silkworm (Bombyx mori) (B. mori) is an economically important insect and a model species for Lepidoptera. It has been reported that feeding of low concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) can improve feed efficiency and increase cocoon mass, cocoon shell mass, and the ratio of cocoon shell. However, high concentrations of TiO2 NPs are toxic. In this study, we fed B. mori with different concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/L) and investigated B. mori growth, feed efficiency, and cocoon quality. We found that low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (5 and 10 mg/L) were more effective for weight gains, with significant weight gain being obtained at 72 h (P feed efficiency was significantly improved at low concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L for 14.6 and 13.1 %, respectively (P feed efficiency, and increased cocoon production, while high concentrations (20 mg/L or higher) of TiO2 NPs showed inhibitory effect to the B. mori. Consecutive feeding of high concentrations of TiO2 NPs led to some degrees of adaptability. This study provides a reference for the research on TiO2 NPs toxicity and the basis for the development of TiO2 NPs as a feed additive for B. mori.

  9. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  10. Poly(amidehydroxyurethane template magnetite NPs electrosynthesis. II. Core and shell characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ursu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Core and layer polymer characterization of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs surface-functionalized with poly(amidehydroxyurethane (PAmHU, obtained by a new electrochemical synthesis route is presented. The core magnetic properties were investigated by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM, showing that the obtained NPs have superparamagnetic to ferromagnetic behaviour (very low coercivity and remanence. The magnetite–PAmHU NPs morphology and size were studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS; both methods showed the existence of PAmHU out-flaked layer on NPs. Structural analysis by Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Thermogravimetry (TG confirm the out-flaking of magnetic NPs with PAmHU.

  11. Aging, progenitor cell exhaustion, and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frederick M; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J; Davis, Bryce H; Wang, Tao; Gregg, David; Ramaswami, Priya; Pippen, Anne M; Annex, Brian H; Dong, Chunming; Taylor, Doris A

    2003-07-29

    Atherosclerosis is largely attributed to chronic vascular injury, as occurs with excess cholesterol; however, the effect of concomitant vascular aging remains unexplained. We hypothesize that the effect of time in atherosclerosis progression is related to obsolescence of endogenous progenitor cells that normally repair and rejuvenate the arteries. Here we show that chronic treatment with bone marrow-derived progenitor cells from young nonatherosclerotic ApoE-/- mice prevents atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- recipients despite persistent hypercholesterolemia. In contrast, treatment with bone marrow cells from older ApoE-/- mice with atherosclerosis is much less effective. Cells with vascular progenitor potential are decreased in the bone marrow of aging ApoE-/- mice, but cells injected from donor mice engraft on recipient arteries in areas at risk for atherosclerotic injury. Our data indicate that progressive progenitor cell deficits may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.

  12. Nodal and FGF coordinate ascidian neural tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ignacio A; Levine, Michael

    2016-12-15

    Formation of the vertebrate neural tube represents one of the premier examples of morphogenesis in animal development. Here, we investigate this process in the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis Previous studies have implicated Nodal and FGF signals in the specification of lateral and ventral neural progenitors. We show that these signals also control the detailed cellular behaviors underlying morphogenesis of the neural tube. Live-imaging experiments show that FGF controls the intercalary movements of ventral neural progenitors, whereas Nodal is essential for the characteristic stacking behavior of lateral cells. Ectopic activation of FGF signaling is sufficient to induce intercalary behaviors in cells that have not received Nodal. In the absence of FGF and Nodal, neural progenitors exhibit a default behavior of sequential cell divisions, and fail to undergo the intercalary and stacking behaviors essential for normal morphogenesis. Thus, cell specification events occurring prior to completion of gastrulation coordinate the morphogenetic movements underlying the organization of the neural tube. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The Masses of Supernova Remnant Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    2012-10-01

    One of the key constraints on the production of supernovae {SNe} is the initial mass of the stars that eventually end in these cataclysmic events. Historically it has been very difficult to obtain estimates of the masses of SN progenitors because there have only been a few dozen nearby events, only a handful of which have high-quality precursor imaging.We propose dramatically increasing the number of SNe with progenitor mass estimates by applying an exciting new technique to HST archival data in M31 and M33. Through detailed modeling of the stellar populations surrounding the location of any known SNe, we can constrain the progenitor mass. Since supernova remnants {SNRs} mark the locations of SNe for the past 20,000 years and M31 and M33 contain hundreds of these objects, detailed studies of the stellar populations at these locations will constrain the progenitor masses of potentially hundreds of events. After correlating archival HST imaging with the SNR positions, there is useful data for 137 SNRs. We have already measured the progenitor masses for 65 SNRs in M31 and plan to apply our method to 72 SNRs in M33. This proposal will fund the publication of our M31 measurements, analysis of the M33 SNRs, and public release of our photometry. Ultimately, our work will increase the existing sample of SN progenitor masses in the literature by a factor of 20.

  14. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Siguero, Maria; Madrid, Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs) and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs)). Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600) were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs. PMID:28783048

  15. Exploring the Behavior and Metabolic Transformations of SeNPs in Exposed Lactic Acid Bacteria. Effect of Nanoparticles Coating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Palomo-Siguero

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior and transformation of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs in living systems such as microorganisms is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the effect of three types of SeNP suspensions toward Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB-12 using a variety of techniques. SeNPs were synthesized using three types of coating agents (chitosan (CS-SeNPs, hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC-SeNPs and a non-ionic surfactant, surfynol (ethoxylated-SeNPs. Morphologies of SeNPs were all spherical. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was used to locate SeNPs in the bacteria. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC on line coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS was applied to evaluate SeNP transformation by bacteria. Finally, flow cytometry employing the live/dead test and optical density measurements at 600 nm (OD600 were used for evaluating the percentages of bacteria viability when supplementing with SeNPs. Negligible damage was detected by flow cytometry when bacteria were exposed to HEC-SeNPs or CS-SeNPs at a level of 10 μg Se mL−1. In contrast, ethoxylated-SeNPs were found to be the most harmful nanoparticles toward bacteria. CS-SeNPs passed through the membrane without causing damage. Once inside, SeNPs were metabolically transformed to organic selenium compounds. Results evidenced the importance of capping agents when establishing the true behavior of NPs.

  16. Cockayne syndrome b maintains neural precursor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Raffaele; Tamblyn, Laura; Rajakulendran, Nishani; Bralha, Fernando N; Tropepe, Vincent; Laposa, Rebecca R

    2013-02-01

    Neurodevelopmental defects are observed in the hereditary disorder Cockayne syndrome (CS). The gene most frequently mutated in CS, Cockayne Syndrome B (CSB), is required for the repair of bulky DNA adducts in transcribed genes during transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. CSB also plays a role in chromatin remodeling and mitochondrial function. The role of CSB in neural development is poorly understood. Here we report that the abundance of neural progenitors is normal in Csb(-/-) mice and the frequency of apoptotic cells in the neurogenic niche of the adult subependymal zone is similar in Csb(-/-) and wild type mice. Both embryonic and adult Csb(-/-) neural precursors exhibited defective self-renewal in the neurosphere assay. In Csb(-/-) neural precursors, self-renewal progressively decreased in serially passaged neurospheres. The data also indicate that Csb and the nucleotide excision repair protein Xpa preserve embryonic neural stem cell self-renewal after UV DNA damage. Although Csb(-/-) neural precursors do not exhibit altered neuronal lineage commitment after low-dose UV (1J/m(2)) in vitro, neurons differentiated in vitro from Csb(-/-) neural precursors that had been irradiated with 1J/m(2) UV exhibited defective neurite outgrowth. These findings identify a function for Csb in neural precursors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on Synthesis and Antibacterial Properties of Ag NPs/GO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using graphene oxide as substrate and stabilizer for the silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles-graphene oxide (Ag NPs/GO composites with different Ag loading were synthesized through a facile solution-phase method. During the synthesis process, AgNO3 on GO matrix was directly reduced by NaBH4. The structure characterization was studied through X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, and selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results show that Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs with the sizes ranging from 5 to 20 nm are highly dispersed on the surfaces of GO sheets. The shape and size of the Ag NPs are decided by the volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO. The antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites were investigated and the result shows that all the produced composites exhibit good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative (G− bacterial strain Escherichia coli (E. coli and Gram-positive (G+ strain Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites gradually increased with the increasing of volume of initial AgNO3 solution added in the GO and this improvement of the antibacterial activities results from the combined action of size effect and concentration effect of Ag NPs in Ag NPs/GO nanocomposites.

  18. Generation of a defined and uniform population of CNS progenitors and neurons from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibel, Miriam; Richter, Jens; Lacroix, Emmanuel; Barde, Yves-Alain

    2007-01-01

    A detailed protocol is described allowing the generation of essentially pure populations of glutamatergic neurons from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. It is based on the culture of ES cells that are kept undifferentiated by repeated splitting and subsequently amplified as non-adherent cell aggregates. Treatment with retinoic acid causes these ES cells to essentially become neural progenitors with the characteristics of Pax6-positive radial glial cells. As they do in vivo, these progenitors differentiate in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons that form functional synaptic contacts and can be kept in culture for long periods of time. This protocol does not require the use of ES lines expressing resistance or fluorescent markers and can thus be applied in principle to any wild-type or mutant ES line of interest. At least 2 weeks are required from starting ES cell culture until plating progenitors and differentiating neurons establish synaptic transmission within about 10 days.

  19. Periodontal Bioengineering: A Discourse in Surface Topographies, Progenitor Cells and Molecular Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit J.

    2011-12-01

    Stem/progenitor cells are a population of cells capable of providing replacement cells for a given differentiated cell type. We have applied progenitor cell-based technologies to generate novel tissue-engineered implants that use biomimetic strategies with the ultimate goal of achieving full regeneration of lost periodontal tissues. Mesenchymal periodontal tissues such as cementum, alveolar bone (AB), and periodontal ligament (PDL) are neural crest-derived entities that emerge from the dental follicle (DF) at the onset of tooth root formation. Using a systems biology approach we have identified key differences between these periodontal progenitors on the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, in addition to differences in cellular morphologies. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Secondly, we have tested the influence of natural extracellular hydroxyapatite matrices on periodontal progenitor differentiation. Dimension and structure of extracellular matrix surfaces have powerful influences on cell shape, adhesion, and gene expression. Here we show that natural tooth root topographies induce integrin-mediated extracellular matrix signaling cascades in tandem with cell elongation and polarization to generate physiological periodontium-like tissues. In this study we replanted surface topography instructed periodontal ligament progenitors (PDLPs) into rat alveolar bone sockets for 8 and 16 weeks, resulting in complete attachment of tooth roots to the surrounding alveolar bone with a periodontal ligament fiber apparatus closely matching physiological controls along the entire root surface. Displacement studies and biochemical analyses confirmed that progenitor-based engineered periodontal tissues were similar to control teeth and

  20. Maintenance of motor neuron progenitors in Xenopus requires a novel localized cyclin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-An; Chu, Sin-Tak; Amaya, Enrique

    2007-03-01

    The ventral spinal cord contains a pool of motor neuron progenitors (pMNs), which sequentially generate motor neurons and oligodendrocytes in the embryo. The mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of pMNs are not clearly understood. We have identified a novel cyclin, cyclin Dx (ccndx), which is specifically expressed in pMNs in Xenopus. Here, we show that inhibition of ccndx causes paralysis in embryos. Furthermore, we show that maintenance of pMNs requires ccndx function. In addition, inhibition of ccndx results in the specific loss of differentiated motor neurons. However, the expression of interneuron or sensory neuron markers is unaffected in these embryos, suggesting that the role of ccndx is specifically to maintain pMNs. Thus, we have identified, for the first time, a tissue-specific cell-cycle regulator that is essential for the maintenance of a pool of neural progenitors in the vertebrate spinal cord.

  1. Biphasic influence of Miz1 on neural crest development by regulating cell survival and apical adhesion complex formation in the developing neural tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerosuo, Laura; Bronner, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Myc interacting zinc finger protein-1 (Miz1) is a transcription factor known to regulate cell cycle– and cell adhesion–related genes in cancer. Here we show that Miz1 also plays a critical role in neural crest development. In the chick, Miz1 is expressed throughout the neural plate and closing neural tube. Its morpholino-mediated knockdown affects neural crest precursor survival, leading to reduction of neural plate border and neural crest specifier genes Msx-1, Pax7, FoxD3, and Sox10. Of interest, Miz1 loss also causes marked reduction of adhesion molecules (N-cadherin, cadherin6B, and α1-catenin) with a concomitant increase of E-cadherin in the neural folds, likely leading to delayed and decreased neural crest emigration. Conversely, Miz1 overexpression results in up-regulation of cadherin6B and FoxD3 expression in the neural folds/neural tube, leading to premature neural crest emigration and increased number of migratory crest cells. Although Miz1 loss effects cell survival and proliferation throughout the neural plate, the neural progenitor marker Sox2 was unaffected, suggesting a neural crest–selective effect. The results suggest that Miz1 is important not only for survival of neural crest precursors, but also for maintenance of integrity of the neural folds and tube, via correct formation of the apical adhesion complex therein. PMID:24307680

  2. Structural Analysis of Three-dimensional Human Neural Tissue derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terrence Brooks, Patrick; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at establishing a method for production of a three-dimensional (3D) human neural tissue derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and analyzing the outcome by a combination of tissue ultrastructure and expression of neural markers. Methods: A two......-step cell culture procedure was implemented by subjecting human iPSCs to a 3D scaffoldbased neural differentiation protocol. First, neural fate-inducing small molecules were used to create a neuroepithelial monolayer. Second, the monolayer was trypsinized into single cells and seeded into a porous...... polystyrene scaffold and further cultured to produce a 3D neural tissue. The neural tissue was characterized by a combination of immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: iPSCs developed into a 3D neural tissue expressing markers for neural progenitor cells, early neural...

  3. Mast cell progenitor trafficking and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Jenny; Gurish, Michael F

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are derived from the hematopoietic progenitors found in bone marrow and spleen. Committed mast cell progenitors are rare in bone marrow suggesting they are rapidly released into the blood where they circulate and move out into the peripheral tissues. This migration is controlled in a tissue specific manner. Basal trafficking to the intestine requires expression of α4β7 integrin and the chemokine receptor CXCR2 by the mast cell progenitors and expression of MAdCAM-1 and VCAM-1 in the intestinal endothelium; and is also controlled by dendritic cells expressing the transcriptional regulatory protein T-bet. None of these play a role in basal trafficking to the lung. With the induction of allergic inflammation in the lung, there is marked recruitment of committed mast cell progenitors to lung and these cells must express α4β7 and α4β1 integrins. Within the lung there is a requirement for expression of VCAM-1 on the endothelium that is regulated by CXCR2, also expressed on the endothelium. There is a further requirement for expression of the CCR2/CCL2 pathways for full recruitment of the mast cell progenitors to the antigen-inflamed lung.

  4. Synthesis and optical properties study of nanocomposites based on AuNPs and AgNPs obtained by laser ablation in liquid monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulina, Natalia A.; Pavlovetc, Ilia M.; Baranov, Mikhail A.; Kaliabin, Viacheslav O.; Denisyuk, Igor Yu.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, Ag and Au nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs) stable colloid solution were prepared by laser ablation of chemically pure silver rod and gold film in liquid monomer isodecyl acrylate (IDA). Sizes of obtained nanoparticles were determined by scanning electron microscope and vary from 30 to 130 nm. Nanocomposites films were prepared from obtained stable colloid solution by photocuring. To prepare solid film based on aliphatic polymer IDA long molecules cross-linking, 1,6-Hexandiol diacrylate was used. Obtained films were transparent, homogenous and colored in brown for AgNPs and purple for AuNPs-filled nanocomposites. Prepared nanomaterials exhibit strong third-order nonlinear optical responses under CW laser irradiation at 532 nm, which was estimated by using z-scan technique performed with open and close aperture. The real and imaginary parts of third-order nonlinear optical coefficients of the studied nanocomposites were found to be up to Reχ (3) = 1.31 × 10-5 (esu) and Imχ (3) = 7.64 × 10-5 (esu), for samples negative nonlinear refractive index was obtained, which corresponds to self-defocusing effect.

  5. Navy-Wide Personnel Survey (NPS) 2000: Summary of Survey Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olmsted, Murrey

    2003-01-01

    .... Completed questionnaires were accepted through December 31, 2000. The NPS focuses on such topics as Sailor demographics, gender integration, training/education needs, leadership satisfaction, financial status, detailing, assignment, PERSTEMPO (i.e...

  6. Nanoemulsions and nonwoven fabrics carrying AgNPs: antibacterial but may be cytotoxic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtader, Farzaneh; Salouti, Mojtaba; Türk, Mustafa; Pişkin, Erhan

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to prepare nonwoven fabrics carrying silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and to investigate their antibacterial activities and cytotoxicities in parallel. AgNPs were impregnated from their nanoemulsions onto two commercially available nonwoven fabrics: pure-cotton fabrics (PCF) and polyester/viscous fabrics (PVF), by a simple adsorption (dipping) and were then heat stabilized. PCF exhibited stronger antibacterial effects on both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In-vitro cell culture studies demonstrated that AgNPs nanoemulsions and also fabrics carrying them were cytotoxic on L929-fibroblasts in all concentrations used here (6.25-400 ppm) in different extends. Only the fabrics loaded with AgNPs using nanoemulsion with the lowest concentration of 6.25 ppm exhibited low cytotoxicity but were still antibacterial.

  7. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodselahi, T., E-mail: t_ghodselahi@yahoo.com [Nano Mabna Iranian Inc., PO Box 1676664116, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neishaboorynejad, T. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arsalani, S. [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences, PO Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Medicine, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor of silver nanoparticles on hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film were synthetized by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD. • Samples were characterized by XRD, XPS, AFM, and UV visible. • DNA primer at fM concentration was detected based on breaking of inter-particles coupling. • Dipolar plasmon of isolated Ag NPs, coupled Ag NPs plasmons, in-plane and out-plane coupling, and quadrupole plasmon modes were considered to explain biosensor properties. • The initial response, wavelength shift sensitivity, and response time of LSPR sensors were compared by morphology. - Abstract: We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  8. Ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qingjun; Chen, Peng; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Yao; Qi, Xia; Duan, Haoyun; Xie, Lixin

    2015-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a well-known neuroprotective cytokine, has been found to play an important role in neurogenesis and functional regulations of neural stem cells. As one of the most innervated tissue, however, the role of CNTF in cornea epithelium remains unclear. This study was to explore the roles and mechanisms of CNTF in the activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and wound healing of both normal and diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. In mice subjecting to mechanical removal of corneal epithelium, the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing were promoted by exogenous CNTF application, while delayed by CNTF neutralizing antibody. In cultured corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells, CNTF enhanced the colony-forming efficiency, stimulated the mitogenic proliferation, and upregulated the expression levels of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell-associated transcription factors. Furthermore, the promotion of CNTF on the corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cell activation and wound healing was mediated by the activation of STAT3. Moreover, in diabetic mice, the content of CNTF in corneal epithelium decreased significantly when compared with that of normal mice, and the supplement of CNTF promoted the diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing, accompanied with the advanced activation of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers. Thus, the capability of expanding corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and promoting corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration indicates the potential application of CNTF in ameliorating limbal stem cell deficiency and treating diabetic keratopathy. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  9. Identification of Radial Glia Progenitors in the Developing and Adult Retina of Sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Farías, Nuria; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells give rise to transient progenitors termed neuroepithelial cells (NECs) and radial glial cells (RGCs). RGCs represent the major source of neurons, glia and adult stem cells in several regions of the central nervous system (CNS). RGCs are mostly transient in mammals, but they are widely maintained in the adult CNS of fishes, where they continue to be morphologically similar to RGCs in the mammalian brain and fulfill similar roles as progenitors and guide for migrating neurons. The retina of fishes offers an exceptional model to approach the study of adult neurogenesis because of the presence of constitutive proliferation from the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), containing NECs, and from adult glial cells with radial morphology (the Müller glia). However, the cellular hierarchies and precise contribution of different types of progenitors to adult neurogenesis remain unsolved. We have analyzed the transition from NECs to RGCs and RGC differentiation in the retina of the cartilaginous fish Scyliorhinus canicula, which offers a particularly good spatial and temporal frame to investigate this process. We have characterized progenitor and adult RGCs by immunohistochemical detection of glial markers as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase (GS). We have compared the emergence and localization of glial markers with that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, a proliferation maker) and Doublecortin (DCX, which increases at early stages of neuronal differentiation). During retinal development, GFAP-immunoreactive NECs located in the most peripheral CMZ (CMZp) codistribute with DCX-immunonegative cells. GFAP-immunoreactive RGCs and Müller cells are located in successive more central parts of the retina and codistribute with DCX- and DCX/GS-immunoreactive cells, respectively. The same types of progenitors are found in juveniles, suggesting that the contribution of the CMZ to adult neurogenesis implies a transition through the

  10. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Hugo Martins; Fagundes, Gabriela Elibio; Venâncio, Mireli; Ronconi, João Vitor Vieira; Merlini, Aline; Streck, Emílio L.; da Silva Paula, Marcos Marques; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2012-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro , in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  11. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-Nps) in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Priscila; Balbinot, Fernanda; Martins de Oliveira, Hugo; Elibio Fagundes, Gabriela [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil); Venancio, Mireli; Vieira Ronconi, Joao Vitor; Merlini, Aline [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Streck, Emilio L. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Unidade Academica de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Fisiopatologia Experimental (Brazil); Marques da Silva, Paula [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais (Brazil); Moraes de Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [PPGCS, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Laboratorio de Biologia Celular e Molecular (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are the most prominent nanoproducts. Due to their antimicrobial activity, they have been incorporated in different materials, such as catheters, clothes, electric home appliance, and many others. The genotoxicity of Ag-NPs (5-45 nm), in different concentrations and times of exposure, was evaluated by the comet assay in in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively, using human peripheral blood and Swiss mice. The results showed the genotoxic effect of Ag-NPs in vitro, in all the doses tested in the initial hour of exposure, possibly through the reactive oxygen species generation. Nevertheless, the values for this damage decrease with time, indicating that the DNA may have been restored by the repair system. In the in vivo conditions, we found no genotoxicity of Ag-NPs in any hour of exposure and any dose investigated, which can be attributed to the activation of a cellular antioxidant network and the hydrophobic nature of Ag-NPs. Now, it is absolutely necessary to investigate the role of Ag-NPs in different cell lines in vivo.

  12. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: PAs and NPs in outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A; Mahboubi, Hossein; Patel, Madhukar S; Kuan, Edward C; Malinoski, Darren J; Vagefi, Parsia A; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and occupational characteristics of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in outpatient surgical subspecialty clinics. The 2007 and 2008 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) databases were queried for the number and characteristics of office visits seen by different provider types (PAs or NPs, physicians, or both) in various surgical subspecialties. More than 250 million weighted sample visits were analyzed. PAs or NPs were involved in 5.9% of visits, though the percentage of patients seen by them alone (1.1%) was significantly lower (PPAs and NPs were more likely to be involved in pre- or postoperative visits, and often saw the same diagnoses alone as physicians only. The most common procedures performed by PAs and NPs varied according to subspecialty. PAs and NPs have a minor prevalence in the ambulatory surgical workforce during the time period studied. Further integration of these providers into the outpatient setting may help optimize efficiency in ambulatory surgical care.

  13. Fabrication LSPR sensor chip of Ag NPs and their biosensor application based on interparticle coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodselahi, T.; Neishaboorynejad, T.; Arsalani, S.

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a simple method to synthesize localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chip of Ag NPs on the hydrogenated amorphous carbon by co-deposition of RF-Sputtering and RF-PECVD. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the content of Ag and C atoms. X-ray diffraction profile and atomic force microscopy indicate that the Ag NPs have fcc crystal structure and spherical shape and by increasing deposition time, particle sizes do not vary and only Ag NPs aggregation occurs, resulting in LSPR wavelength shift. Firstly, by increasing Ag NPs content, in-plan interparticles coupling is dominant and causes redshift in LSPR. At the early stage of agglomeration, out-plane coupling occurs and in-plane coupling is reduced, resulting a blueshift in the LSPR. By further increasing of Ag NPs content, agglomeration is completed on the substrate and in-plan coupling rises, resulting significant redshift in the LSPR. Results were used to implement biosensor application of chips. Detection of DNA primer at fM concentration was achieved based on breaking interparticles coupling of Ag NPs. A significant wavelength shift sensitivity of 30 nm and a short response time of 30 min were obtained, where both of these are prerequisite for biosensor applications.

  14. Effect of AgCl NPs: Physical, thermal, absorption and luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhafizah, H.; Rohani, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgCl NPs) are embedded in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped lithium niobate tellurite glasses of the form (68-x)TeO2-15Li2CO3-15Nb2O5-1Er2O3-1Nd2O3-(x)AgCl with x = 1,2 and 3 mol% via conventional melt-quenching technique. The physical properties such as density, ionic packing density, refractive index and electronic polarizability are computed utilizing the usual method. The existence of AgCl NPs with an average size of 3.7 nm is confirmed using TEM analysis. Moreover, the thermal stability and Hruby criterion of the glass decreases as the AgCl NPs content increases. The direct optical band gap are found decrease as the AgCl NPs content increase, but both indirect optical band gap and Urbach energy are found increases as AgCl NPs content increases. The luminescence spectra shows two strong emission which is the purple emission at 436 nm and red emission at 724 nm which also been observed has strong quenching due to the AgCl NPs, Er3+/Nd3+ dopant and modifier, lithium niobate which possessed magnetic penetration. These glass compositions may be potential for various applications such as solid state devices including laser.

  15. AuNPs-Based Colorimetric Assay for Identification of Chicken Tissues in Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejing Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple colorimetric assay was developed to identify chicken tissues in meat and meat products by utilizing thiol-labeled primers and unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Primers were designed based on the chicken-specific mitochondrial D-loop gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is applied to amplify the target gene, and the PCR products labeled with thiol at one end were obtained. Following the mixing of AuNPs with the PCR products, the thiol binds to the surface of AuNPs, resulting in the formation of GNP-PCR products. The resultant PCR products had abundant negative charges, which made AuNPs maintain dispersion under the role of electrostatic repulsion. As a result, in the presence of PCR products, AuNPs remained red in the presence of salt. In the absence of PCR products, the color of AuNPs changed from red to blue; therefore, the method described here could be exploited for the verification of chicken tissues with high accuracy.

  16. Size control of Au NPs supported by pH operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiji, Masumi; Akiba, Hiroko; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2017-07-01

    Au NPs are expected to become useful functional particles, as particle gun used for plant gene transfer and also catalysts. We have studied PSD (particle size distribution) control of Au NPs by reduction crystallization. Previous study found out importance of seeds policy and also feeding profile. In this paper, effect of pH in the reduction crystallization was investigated to clarify the possibility of Au NPs PSD control by pH operation and also their growth process. Au NPs of size range 10-600 nm were obtained in single-jet system using ascorbic acid (AsA) as a reducing agent with adjusting pH of AsA. Au NPs are found to grow in the process of nucleation, agglomeration, agglomeration growth and surface growth. Au NPs tend to grow by agglomeration and become larger size in lower pH regions, and to grow only by surface growth and become smaller size in higher pH regions.

  17. Methyl Orange removal by a novel PEI-AuNPs-hemin nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiwen; Yu, Xuehua; Hu, Qiong; Kong, Jinming; Li, Lianzhi; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-03-01

    A novel poly(ethyleneimine)/Au nanoparticles/hemin nanocomposite (PEI-AuNPs-Hemin) acting for Methyl Orange (MO) removal has been synthesized. PEI-AuNPs was prepared firstly and it was then linked to hemin through the coupling between carboxyl groups in hemin and amino groups in PEI without the activation of carboxyl groups. The high reactivity and stability of AuNPs contributed greatly in the formation of the amido bonds in the nanocomposite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to characterize the PEI-AuNPs-Hemin. Results show that PEI-AuNPs-Hemin has strong adsorption for MO. Adsorption and degradation experiments were carried out at different pHs, nanocomposite concentrations and UV irradiation times. Removal of MO in acidic solutions was more effective than in basic solutions. The real-time study showed that the MO degradation with the nanocomposite under UV irradiation was a fast process. In addition, the photocatalytic degradation mechanism was proposed. The study suggests that the PEI-AuNPs-Hemin may have promising applications in environmental monitoring and protection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multipotent progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Benjamin P J; Ferre, François C; Couty, Ludovic; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Gourven, Murielle; Naveau, Adrien; Coulomb, Bernard; Lafont, Antoine; Gogly, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    The gum has an exceptional capacity for healing. To examine the basis for this property and explore the potential of conferring it to organs with inferior healing capacity, we sought the presence of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue. Colony-forming units of fibroblast-enriched cells from gingival fibroblast cultures were assessed for expression of membrane markers of mesenchymal stem cells; capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocytes; and engraftment efficiency after in vivo transfer. On the basis of their ability to differentiate into several lineages, proliferate from single cells, induce calcium deposits, and secrete collagen in vivo after transfer on hydroxyapatite carriers, we suggest that this population represents gingival multipotent progenitor cells. The discovery of progenitor cells in gingival connective tissue may help improve our understanding of how the wounded gum is capable of almost perfect healing and opens the prospect of cellular therapy for wound healing using readily available cells at limited risk to the patient.

  19. The development of zebrafish tendon and ligament progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jessica W.; Galloway, Jenna L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of tendons and ligaments for transmitting movement and providing stability to the musculoskeletal system, their development is considerably less well understood than that of the tissues they serve to connect. Zebrafish have been widely used to address questions in muscle and skeletal development, yet few studies describe their tendon and ligament tissues. We have analyzed in zebrafish the expression of several genes known to be enriched in mammalian tendons and ligaments, including scleraxis (scx), collagen 1a2 (col1a2) and tenomodulin (tnmd), or in the tendon-like myosepta of the zebrafish (xirp2a). Co-expression studies with muscle and cartilage markers demonstrate the presence of scxa, col1a2 and tnmd at sites between the developing muscle and cartilage, and xirp2a at the myotendinous junctions. We determined that the zebrafish craniofacial tendon and ligament progenitors are neural crest derived, as in mammals. Cranial and fin tendon progenitors can be induced in the absence of differentiated muscle or cartilage, although neighboring muscle and cartilage are required for tendon cell maintenance and organization, respectively. By contrast, myoseptal scxa expression requires muscle for its initiation. Together, these data suggest a conserved role for muscle in tendon development. Based on the similarities in gene expression, morphology, collagen ultrastructural arrangement and developmental regulation with that of mammalian tendons, we conclude that the zebrafish tendon populations are homologous to their force-transmitting counterparts in higher vertebrates. Within this context, the zebrafish model can be used to provide new avenues for studying tendon biology in a vertebrate genetic system. PMID:24803652

  20. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  1. Highly Efficient Neural Conversion of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Adherent and Animal-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Dunja; Diez Lloret, Andrea; Stojkovic, Petra; Rodríguez-Martínez, Daniel; Perez Arago, Maria Amparo; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Francisco Javier; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; López-Barneo, José; Sykova, Eva; Jendelova, Pavla; Kostic, Jelena; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Stojkovic, Miodrag; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Erceg, Slaven

    2017-04-01

    Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can produce a valuable and robust source of human neural cell subtypes, holding great promise for the study of neurogenesis and development, and for treating neurological diseases. However, current hESCs and hiPSCs neural differentiation protocols require either animal factors or embryoid body formation, which decreases efficiency and yield, and strongly limits medical applications. Here we develop a simple, animal-free protocol for neural conversion of both hESCs and hiPSCs in adherent culture conditions. A simple medium formula including insulin induces the direct conversion of >98% of hESCs and hiPSCs into expandable, transplantable, and functional neural progenitors with neural rosette characteristics. Further differentiation of neural progenitors into dopaminergic and spinal motoneurons as well as astrocytes and oligodendrocytes indicates that these neural progenitors retain responsiveness to instructive cues revealing the robust applicability of the protocol in the treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases. The fact that this protocol includes animal-free medium and human extracellular matrix components avoiding embryoid bodies makes this protocol suitable for the use in clinic. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1217-1226. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  2. Molecular properties of adult mouse gastric and intestinal epithelial progenitors in their niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannakis, Marios; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S; Mills, Jason C

    2006-01-01

    adult stomach and small intestine. Genes in GO categories enriched in progenitors were filtered against genes in GO categories represented in hematopoietic, neural, and embryonic stem cell transcriptomes and mapped onto transcription factor networks, plus canonical signal transduction and metabolic...... pathways. Wnt/beta-catenin, phosphoinositide-3/Akt kinase, insulin-like growth factor-1, vascular endothelial growth factor, integrin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor signaling cascades, plus glycerolipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolic pathways are among those prominently represented in adult...

  3. Endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Cindy Johanna Maria

    2007-01-01

    Postnatally, Endothelial Progenitor Cells are needed to maintain the integrity of the endothelium (re-endothelialization) and to augment wound healing or vascularize hypoxic areas (neovascularization). Complex networks of different signals and regulators have been identified to be involved in these

  4. Binary progenitor models of type IIb supernovae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claeys, J.S.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326158707; de Mink, S.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833231; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155; Eldridge, J.J.; Baes, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824739

    2011-01-01

    Massive stars that lose their hydrogen-rich envelope down to a few tenths of a solar mass explode as extended type IIb supernovae, an intriguing subtype that links the hydrogen-rich type II supernovae with the hydrogen-poor type Ib and Ic. The progenitors may be very massive single stars that lose

  5. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    exploring alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for cell based therapy in diabetes. Since in vitro culture of islet β-cells demonstrates loss in insulin (Beattie et al. 1999), several attempts have been made to identify stem / progenitor cells capable of differentiation into insulin-producing cells. Embryonic stem cells, which ...

  6. Cataclysmic Variables as Supernova Ia Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Kafka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification of the progenitors of type Ia supernovae (SNeIa remains controversial, it is generally accepted that they originate from binary star systems in which at least one component is a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD; those systems are grouped under the wide umbrella of cataclysmic variables. Current theories for SNeIa progenitors hold that, either via Roche lobe overflow of the companion or via a wind, the WD accumulates hydrogen or helium rich material which is then burned to C and O onto the WD’s surface. However, the specifics of this scenario are far from being understood or defined, allowing for a wealth of theories fighting for attention and a dearth of observations to support them. I discuss the latest attempts to identify and study those controversial SNeIa progenitors. I also introduce the most promising progenitor in hand and I present observational diagnostics that can reveal more members of the category.

  7. Direct Conversion of Fibroblasts to Megakaryocyte Progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Pulecio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Current sources of platelets for transfusion are insufficient and associated with risk of alloimmunization and blood-borne infection. These limitations could be addressed by the generation of autologous megakaryocytes (MKs derived in vitro from somatic cells with the ability to engraft and differentiate in vivo. Here, we show that overexpression of a defined set of six transcription factors efficiently converts mouse and human fibroblasts into MK-like progenitors. The transdifferentiated cells are CD41+, display polylobulated nuclei, have ploidies higher than 4N, form MK colonies, and give rise to platelets in vitro. Moreover, transplantation of MK-like murine progenitor cells into NSG mice results in successful engraftment and further maturation in vivo. Similar results are obtained using disease-corrected fibroblasts from Fanconi anemia patients. Our results combined demonstrate that functional MK progenitors with clinical potential can be obtained in vitro, circumventing the use of hematopoietic progenitors or pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-24

    Apr 24, 2009 ... Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in ...

  9. Fabrication of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Based on PtNPs/Cysteamine/AgNPs as an Efficient Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Akram Valipour; Mahmoud Roushani

    2017-01-01

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was developed with a limit of detection as low as 2 pg mL-1 in phosphate buffer. The Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were electrodeposited to modify the gold surface and to increase enlarging the electrochemically active sites, resulting in the facilitation of electron exchange. Cysteamine (Cys) self-assembled monolayer was chemisorbed spontaneously on Pt substrates via the Pt-S ...

  10. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a

  11. Green synthesis of Pd NPs from Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant extract and their application in photocatalytic activity dye degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaiah, Palajonna; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sarada, N. C.

    2017-11-01

    The present report the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles through the green method route offers few advantages over the common chemical and physical procedures, as it is an easy and fast, eco-friendly and does not involve any costly chemicals as well as hazardous chemicals. In this study, we reported synthesis of Pd NPs by using the Pimpinella tirupatiensis plant Extract (PTPE). The synthesized Pd NPs was characterization using different technique such as UV-Visible for the formation of Pd NPs. FT-IR spectroscopy was performed to detect the bio-active molecules liable for reduction and capping of biogenic Pd NPs. Crystallinity of Pd NPs conformed by powder – XRD. In the present study performed photo catalytic activity of synthesized Pd NPs using organic dye such as Congo red (CR). Hence, this study concludes the PTPE aqueous extract produced Pd NPs can be act as promising material for the degradation of organic pollutants.

  12. Fabrication of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Determination of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Based on PtNPs/Cysteamine/AgNPs as an Efficient Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Valipour

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of tumor marker human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG was developed with a limit of detection as low as 2 pg mL-1 in phosphate buffer. The Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs were electrodeposited to modify the gold surface and to increase enlarging the electrochemically active sites, resulting in the facilitation of electron exchange. Cysteamine (Cys self-assembled monolayer was chemisorbed spontaneously on Pt substrates via the Pt-S bond and the amine groups array exposed on the electrode surface was used to anchor AgNPs through electrostatic interaction. AgNPs increased the immobilized amount of antibodies on the electrode to enhance the sensitivity of the sensor. Under optimal experimental parameters, Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV signal changes of the [Fe(CN6]3-/4- are used to detect hCG with two broad linear ranges: 0.007 to 1.11 and 1.11 to 68 ng mL-1. The reported strategy has provided a promising platform for highly sensitive and selective detection of hCG. Finally, the proposed immunosensor is successfully used in detecting hCG in a human serum samples.

  13. Dynamic dependence on ATR and ATM for double-strand break repair in human embryonic stem cells and neural descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bret R Adams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA double-strand break (DSB is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR, showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ] in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.

  14. Effects of x-ray spectrum on the NPS of a computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of various incident x-ray beam spectra on the measured noise power spectrum (NPS) of a computed radiography (CR) image acquisition device. A CR phosphor was uniformly exposed to 1 mR with x-ray beams whose peak tube potentials were 70, 95, and 120 kVp that were filtered by various thicknesses of a 'patient equivalent phantom' (PEP; 2% aluminum, 98% acrylic by thickness), aluminum, and copper. From the uniform exposure images, NPS curves were calculated and their integral values were computed. The integral noise values were found to vary substantially as a function of x-ray beam spectral content. A simple x-ray beam and filter model that accounted for the shape of the filtered x-ray spectra and the mass energy absorption coefficient of the storage phosphor verified the qualitative behavior of the integral NPS values corresponding to changes in the incident x-ray beam used. The x-ray beam and filter combinations of 70 kVp and 10.1 cm of PEP filtration and 120 kVp and 20.2 cm of PEP filtration were chosen as standard techniques for evaluating clinical imaging systems. These two combinations represent a relatively low, clinically relevant CR noise (integral NPS equals 2.6 X 10-6 mm) technique and a relatively high, clinically relevant CR noise (integral NPS equals 3.3 X 10-6 mm) technique.

  15. Green technology for durable finishing of viscose fibers via self-formation of AuNPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Hossam E; El-Hawary, Nancy S; Ahmed, Hanan B

    2017-03-01

    Sensitivity of dyes' colors to the surrounding environment causes lower durability and stability of color, which reflects the importance of durable finishing treatment. Current technique offered antimicrobial/durable finishing of viscose fibers through direct formation of AuNPs inside fibers macromolecules without using any external agents. By using the reducing properties of cellulose in viscose, Au+3 was reduced to AuNPs and CHO/OH of cellulose subsequently were oxidized to COOH. For comparison, two different media were used; aqueous and alkaline. Increasing the reactivity and accessibility of cellulose macromolecules in alkali leaded to enlargement of the reduction process and more incorporation of AuNPs. Size of AuNPs inside fiber was recorded to be in range of 22-112nm and 14-100nm, in case of using aqueous and alkaline medium, respectively. Structure and properties of fibers were not changed by treatment according to XRD and ATR-FTIR data. The treated fibers were acquired durable violet color by the action of LSPR for AuNPs and darker color obtained using higher Au+3 concentration. The treated fibers exhibited good inhibition against different pathogenic microbes including bacteria and fungi. One-pot, quite simple, inexpensive, green and industrial viable are the significant advantages of the current technique for viscose finishing (pigmentation and antimicrobial action). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. NPS and Online WOM: Investigating the Relationship Between Customers' Promoter Scores and eWOM Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raassens, Néomie; Haans, Hans

    2017-08-01

    The Net Promoter Score (NPS) is, according to Reichheld, the single most reliable indicator of company growth, and many companies use this recommendation-based technique for measuring customer loyalty. Despite its widespread adoption by many companies across multiple industries, the debate about NPS goes on. A major concern is that managers treat NPS as being equivalent across customers, which is often very misleading. By using a unique data set that combines customers' promoter scores and online word-of-mouth (eWOM) behavior, this research studies how individual customers' promoter scores are related to eWOM, including its relationship with the three categories of customers that are identified by the NPS paradigm (i.e., promoters, passives, and detractors). Based on a sample of 189 customers, their promoter scores and corresponding eWOM, the results show that there is a positive relationship between customers' promoter scores and the valence of online messages. Further, while detractors and promoters are homogeneous with respect to the valence of the eWOM messages they spread, passives show message valence heterogeneity. Thus, although passives, the largest group of customers, have no weight in calculating the NPS, our results reveal that companies should flag passives for further attention and action.

  17. Histopathological effects of nanosilver (Ag-NPs in liver after dermal exposure during wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeed Heydarnejad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: With the advent of nanotechnology, significant progress has been made in the area of nanoscale materials such as nanosilver (Ag-Nps. These nanoparticles have a wide range of applications and been used for antimicrobial purposes for more than a century. However, little attention has been paid to the toxicity of nanosilver wound dressing. This study was designed to investigate the possible histopathological toxicity of Ag-NPs in liver of mice during wound healing.     Materials and Methods:   A group of 50 female BALB/c mice of about 8 weeks were randomly divided into two groups: Ag-NPs and control groups (n=25. After creating similar wound on the backs of all animals, the wound bed was treated in Ag-NPs group, with a volume of 50 microliters of the nanosilver solution (10ppm ,and in control group, with the same amount of distilled water. The experiment lasted for 14 days. Histopathaological samplings of liver were conducted on days 2, 7 and 14 of the experiment.   Results: Histopathological studies demonstrated time-dependent changes in mice liver treated with Ag-NPs compared to control group. Some changes include dilation in central venous, hyperemia, cell swelling, increase of Kupffer and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of nanosilver for wound healing may cause a mild toxicity, as indicated by time-dependent toxic responses in liver tissue. However, this issue will have to be considered more extensively in further studies.

  18. Finding the Progenitors to Today's Fossil Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas Edward; Irwin, Jimmy; White, Raymond; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, Walter Peter; Dupke, Renato; Miller, Eric; Carrasco, Eleazar

    2018-01-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group and cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil progenitors are expected to be systems with imminent or ongoing major merging near the brightest group galaxy (BGG) that, when concluded, will meet the fossil criteria within the look back time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong lensing events with the goal of determining if lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We present an analysis of 53 systems from the CASSOWARY catalog of strong lenses with redshifts ranging from 0.1 fossils while only 3% of non-lensing control groups are. We also find that 23% of the lensing groups are traditional fossil progenitors compared to 17% for the control sample. This suggests that searching for groups that exhibit strong gravitational lensing may be a more efficient way of finding fossil and pre-fossil systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and non-lensing groups also indicate there may be, on average, a fundamental difference between the initial conditions of strong lensing and non-lensing systems for fossils, fossil progenitors, and even normal galaxy systems. This could point to not fossils but lensing systems as possibly having different initial group conditions than non-lensing systems. Future work will involve studying recently obtained Chandra and HST snapshots of eight previously unobserved fossil progenitors in the CASSOWARY catalog to see how the hot gas evolves as a function of time until fossil BGG formation.

  19. Characterization of Hemagglutinin Negative Botulinum Progenitor Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Kalb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a disease involving intoxication with botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, toxic proteins produced by Clostridium botulinum and other clostridia. The 150 kDa neurotoxin is produced in conjunction with other proteins to form the botulinum progenitor toxin complex (PTC, alternating in size from 300 kDa to 500 kDa. These progenitor complexes can be classified into hemagglutinin positive or hemagglutinin negative, depending on the ability of some of the neurotoxin-associated proteins (NAPs to cause hemagglutination. The hemagglutinin positive progenitor toxin complex consists of BoNT, nontoxic non-hemagglutinin (NTNH, and three hemagglutinin proteins; HA-70, HA-33, and HA-17. Hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes contain BoNT and NTNH as the minimally functional PTC (M-PTC, but not the three hemagglutinin proteins. Interestingly, the genome of hemagglutinin negative progenitor toxin complexes comprises open reading frames (orfs which encode for three proteins, but the existence of these proteins has not yet been extensively demonstrated. In this work, we demonstrate that these three proteins exist and form part of the PTC for hemagglutinin negative complexes. Several hemagglutinin negative strains producing BoNT/A, /E, and /F were found to contain the three open reading frame proteins. Additionally, several BoNT/A-containing bivalent strains were examined, and NAPs from both genes, including the open reading frame proteins, were associated with BoNT/A. The open reading frame encoded proteins are more easily removed from the botulinum complex than the hemagglutinin proteins, but are present in several BoNT/A and /F toxin preparations. These are not easily removed from the BoNT/E complex, however, and are present even in commercially-available purified BoNT/E complex.

  20. NiS(NPs)-PEDOT-PSS composite counter electrode for a high efficiency dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiaugree, Wasan [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimparue, Pachara; Jarernboon, Wirat [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Pimanpang, Samuk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Swatsitang, Ekaphan, E-mail: ekaphan@kku.ac.th [Integrated Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Center for Alternative Energy Research and Development, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2017-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Figure(a) and (b) represent models depict PEDOT-PSS counter electrodes of DSSC without and with NiS NPs modification, respectively. The active surface area of PEDOT-PSS polymer can be improved by combining with NiS(NPs). The I-V curves in figure (c) show the superior photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% for NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS DSSC. - Highlights: • Active surface area of PEDOT-PSS CE can be improved by mixing with NiS(NPs). • Electrocatalytic activity of mixed NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS polymer is also improved. • NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS CE shows a very low charge transfer resistance of 0.46 Ω. • In this work, the high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 8.18% is achieved. - Abstract: Nickel sulfide (NiS) nanoparticles (NPs) (NiS(NPs)) were prepared by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate the hexagonal structure of NiS(NPs). SEM micrographs reveal the agglomeration of irregular hexagonal – shaped NiS(NPs) with estimated particle size in the range of 50–150 nm. Counter electrodes (CEs) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by coating the composite slurry of different NiS(NPs) loadings and Poly (3, 4-Ethylendioxythiophene) – Poly (Styrene Sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS) on fluoride-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using a doctor blading technique. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) results indicate that the composites of NiS(NPs) and PEDOT-PSS (NiS(NPs)/PEDOT-PSS) films could function as a catalyst for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction with a maximum cell efficiency of 8.18% for a cell of 0.3 g NiS(NPs) loading.

  1. The Interactions between ZnO Nanoparticles (NPs and α-Linolenic Acid (LNA Complexed to BSA Did Not Influence the Toxicity of ZnO NPs on HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanoparticles (NPs entering the biological environment could interact with biomolecules, but little is known about the interaction between unsaturated fatty acids (UFA and NPs. Methods: This study used α-linolenic acid (LNA complexed to bovine serum albumin (BSA for UFA and HepG2 cells for hepatocytes. The interactions between BSA or LNA and ZnO NPs were studied. Results: The presence of BSA or LNA affected the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, UV-Vis, fluorescence, and synchronous fluorescence spectra of ZnO NPs, which indicated an interaction between BSA or LNA and NPs. Exposure to ZnO NPs with the presence of BSA significantly induced the damage to mitochondria and lysosomes in HepG2 cells, associated with an increase of intracellular Zn ions, but not intracellular superoxide. Paradoxically, the release of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 was decreased, which indicated the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnO NPs when BSA was present. The presence of LNA did not significantly affect all of these endpoints in HepG2 cells exposed to ZnO NPs and BSA. Conclusions: the results from the present study indicated that BSA-complexed LNA might modestly interact with ZnO NPs, but did not significantly affect ZnO NPs and BSA-induced biological effects in HepG2 cells.

  2. A quantitative study of exocytosis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles from neural stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Wu, Qiuxia; Sui, Keke; Chen, Xin-Xin; Fang, Jie; Hu, Xuefeng; Wu, Minghong; Liu, Yuanfang

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the first 24 h after removing TiO2NPs, from the culture medium, about 35.0%, 34.6% and 41.7% of NP1 (50 nm), NP2 (30 nm) and NTs (nanotubes, 100 nm × 4-6 nm) were released (exocytosed) from cells, respectively. The release decreased over time, and became negligible at 72 h. Exocytosis did not happen during cell division. In addition, our results suggested that both endocytosis and exocytosis of TiO2NPs were energy-dependent processes, and NPs uptake by cells was influenced by serum proteins. Furthermore, we achieved primary dynamic confocal imaging of the exocytosis, allowing tracking of TiO2 NPs from NSCs. These findings may benefit studies on nanotoxicology and nanomedicine of TiO2 NPs.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely studied and applied in biomedicine and other fields. It is important to know the basic process of interaction between NPs and cells in terms of cellular endocytosis and exocytosis. However, little attention has been paid to the cellular exocytosis of NPs. Herein, using a multi-step cellular subculture method, we ascertain quantitatively the endocytosis and exocytosis of widely used TiO2 NPs using the neural stem cells (NSC) as a cellular model and ICP-AES as an analytic measure. Irrespective of the type and dose of TiO2 NPs, approximately 30% of the total TiO2 NPs entered NSCs after 48 h incubation. In the

  3. Room temperature CO2 gas sensors of AuNPs/mesoPSi hybrid structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Alwan M.; Dheyab, Amer B.

    2017-10-01

    Mesoporous silicon (mesoPSi) layer prepared by a laser-assisted etching process in HF acid has been employed as CO2 gas sensors. The surface morphology of mesoPSi was modified by embedding gold nanoparticles AuNPs by simple and quick dipping process in different gold salts concentrations to form mesoPSi/AuNPs hybrid structures. Morphology of hybrid structures was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical characteristics of the prepared gas sensor were carried out at room temperature. It was found that the nanoparticles size, shape and the specific surface area of the nanoparticle strongly influence the current-voltage characteristics. Considerable improvement was noticed in sensitivity, response and recovery times of gas sensor with decreasing incorporated AuNPs into the mesoPSi matrix.

  4. Enzyme Functionalized AuNPs and Glucometer-based Protein Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Fang, Jie; Yu, Wen; Xie, Guoming

    2017-12-01

    We here developed a novel method for protein detection by using protein aptamer-functionalized magnetic beads for protein recognition and invertase-functionalized AuNPs catalyze sucrose generate glucose that can be detected by a glucometer. First, the invertase and DNA probe P2 are immobilized onto the gold nanoparticles (I.P2@AuNPs). Next protein aptamer P1 are immobilized onto the streptavidin-coated Magnetic beads (P1@MB). P1 and P2 can complementary to form double-stranded DNA. When target protein presence, P1 combine with target and release I/P2@AuNPs. Then magnetic separation, take supernatant fluid and add sucrose after a period of reaction, detection of glucose concentration by glucometer, thus achieve the sensitive and selective detection of the target protein.

  5. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  6. Sonic hedgehog signaling regulates mode of cell division of early cerebral cortex progenitors and increases astrogliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geissy LL Araújo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH plays a critical role in the development of different tissues. In the central nervous system, SHH is well known to contribute to the patterning of the spinal cord and separation of the brain hemispheres. In addition, it has recently been shown that SHH signaling also contributes to the patterning of the telencephalon and establishment of adult neurogenic niches. In this work, we investigated whether SHH signaling influences the behavior of neural progenitors isolated from the dorsal telencephalon, which generate excitatory neurons and macroglial cells in vitro. We observed that SHH increases proliferation of cortical progenitors and generation of astrocytes, whereas blocking SHH signaling with cyclopamine has opposite effects. In both cases, generation of neurons did not seem to be affected. However, cell survival was broadly affected by blockade of SHH signaling. SHH effects were related to three different cell phenomena: mode of cell division, cell cycle length and cell growth. Together, our data in vitro demonstrate that SHH signaling controls cell behaviors that are important for proliferation of cerebral cortex progenitors, as well as differentiation and survival of neurons and astroglial cells.

  7. Reelin-dependent ApoER2 downregulation uncouples newborn neurons from progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Pérez-Martínez

    2012-10-01

    Reelin and its receptor machinery are well known to be required for the migration and positioning of neocortical projection neurons. More recently, reelin has been shown both necessary and sufficient to determine the rate of neocortical neurogenesis. The molecular links underlying its seemingly distinct proliferative and post-proliferative functions remain unknown. Here we reveal an enriched expression of functional reelin receptors, largely of Apolipoprotein E Receptor 2 (ApoER2, in radial glia basal processes and intermediate progenitor cells during mid/late cortical development. In vivo, ApoER2 overexpression inhibits neuronal migration. In contrast, precluding excessive levels of ApoER2 in reelin-deficient cortices, by either ApoER2 knock-down or the transgenic expression of reelin in neural progenitor cells, improves neuronal migration and positioning. Our study provides groundwork for the highly orchestrated clearance of neocortical neurons from their birth site, suggesting that a reelin-dependent ApoER2 downregulation mechanism uncouples newborn neurons from progenitor cells, thereby enabling neurons to migrate.

  8. Green Synthesis of AgNPs Stabilized with biowaste and their antimicrobial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rapid reduction and stabilization of Ag+ ions with different NaOH molar concentration (0.5 mM, 1.0 mM and 1.5 mM has been carried out in the aqueous solution of silver nitrate by the bio waste peel extract of P.granatum. Generally, chemical methods used for the synthesis of AgNPs are quite toxic, flammable and have adverse effect in medical application but green synthesis is a better option due to eco-friendliness, non-toxicity and safe for human. Stable AgNPs were synthesized by treating 90 mL aqueous solution of 2 mM AgNO3 with the 5 mL plant peels extract (0.4% w/v at different NaOH concentration (5 mL. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM and SEM. Further, antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were performed on Gram positive i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Gram negative i.e. E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. The AgNPs synthesized at 1.5 mM NaOH concentration had shown maximum zone of inhibition (ZOI i.e. 49 ± 0.64 in E. coli, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilius had shown 40 ± 0.29 mm, 28 ± 0.13 and 42 ± 0.49 mm ZOI respectively. The MIC value of 30 g/mL observed for E. coli Whereas, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had shown 45 µg/mL, 38 µg/mL, 35 µg/mL respectively. The study revealed that AgNPs had shown significant antimicrobial activity as compared to Streptomycin.

  9. Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, M; Nagano, N; Furuya, Y; Chin, J; Nemeth, E F; Fox, J

    2000-01-01

    Calcimimetic NPS R-568 prevents parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (secondary HPT) in chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is characterized by multiglandular hyperplasia. In this study, we investigated the effects of the calcimimetic NPS R-568 on the parathyroid gland in rats with CRI induced by ligation of the renal arteries and severe secondary HPT induced by dietary phosphorus loading. Six days after surgery, high-phosphorus diet feeding was started, and NPS R-568 was administered to the rats for 56 days either by daily gavage (30 or 100 micromol/kg) or by continuous subcutaneous infusion (20 micromol/kg. day). After 54 days, serum PTH levels in vehicle-treated CRI rats were 1019 vs. 104 pg/mL in sham-operated controls. Infusion of NPS R-568 maintained serum PTH at levels comparable with those of sham-operated controls, whereas daily gavage also prevented much of the increase in CRI controls and decreased PTH levels intermittently in a dose-dependent fashion. Parathyroid gland enlargement was caused predominantly by hyperplasia. Total cell number per kg body wt was 3.5-fold higher in vehicle-treated CRI rats than in sham-operated controls. Both infusion and high-dose gavage of NPS R-568 completely prevented the increase in parathyroid cell number. These results demonstrate that the calcimimetic compound NPS R-568 can prevent both the increase in serum PTH levels and parathyroid hyperplasia in rats with CRI and severe secondary HPT. Moreover, these changes occurred despite decreases in serum 1, 25(OH)2D3 and increases in serum phosphate, suggesting a dominant role for the calcium receptor in regulating parathyroid cell proliferation.

  10. Neurotoxicity and biochemical responses in the earthworm Pheretima hawayana exposed to TiO2NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Abdelmonem M

    2015-12-01

    Serious concerns have been expressed about potential risks of manufactured TiO2NPs. In this research, toxicity of nanoparticulate and bulk TiO2 were examined to the earthworm Pheretima hawayana. The 24-h median lethal concentration (LC50) and sublethal endpoints were assessed. Both NPs and their bulk counterparts were toxic. The 24-h LC50 for TiO2NPs (145.36 mg kg(-1)) was highly toxic than that of bulk TiO2 (357.77 mg kg(-1)). The aim of the present work is to evaluate the suitability of P. hawayana and its biochemical responses to be used as a bioindicator organism and biomarkers of TiO2 toxicity. Earthworms were exposed to three sublethal concentrations of TiO2NPs (1, 10 and 100 µg kg(-1)) for 28 days to test acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase: SOD and catalase: CAT) activities and MDA content. The response of the antioxidant enzymes combined with AChE inhibition and MDA accumulation indicated that TiO2NPs could induce significant impairments to the earthworms at the actual environment tested concentrations. The results pointed out the high sensitivity of the antioxidant and oxidative stress related responses to TiO2NPs exposure, demonstrating their usefulness in environmental monitoring and risk assessment. The study highlights also the usefulness of earthworm P. hawayana as potential bioindicator species for assessing the risk of nanoparticles environmental contamination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  12. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  13. Proliferation and recapitulation of developmental patterning associated with regulative regeneration of the spinal cord neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasi, Gabor; Søviknes, Anne Mette; Sigurjonsson, Olafur; Glover, Joel C

    2012-05-01

    Developmental patterning during regulative regeneration of the chicken embryo spinal neural tube was characterized by assessing proliferation and the expression of transcription factors specific to neural progenitor and postmitotic neuron populations. One to several segments of the thoracolumbar neural tube were selectively excised unilaterally to initiate regeneration. The capacity for regeneration depended on the stage when ablation was performed and the extent of tissue removed. 20% of surviving embryos exhibited complete regulative regeneration, wherein the missing hemi-neural tube was reconstituted to normal size and morphology. Fate-mapping of proliferative adjacent tissue indicated contributions from the opposite side of the neural tube and potentially from the ipsilateral neural tube rostral and caudal to the lesion. Application of the thymidine analog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine) demonstrated a moderate increase in cell proliferation in lesioned relative to control embryos, and quantitative PCR demonstrated a parallel moderate increase in transcription of proliferation-related genes. Mathematical calculation showed that such modest increases are sufficient to account for the amount of regenerated tissue. Within the regenerated neural tube the expression pattern of progenitor-specific transcription factors was recapitulated in the separate advancing ventral and dorsal fronts of regeneration, with no evidence of abnormal mixing of progenitor subpopulations, indicating that graded patterning mechanisms do not require continuity of neural tube tissue along the dorsoventral axis and do not involve a sorting out of committed progenitors. Upon completion of the regeneration process, the pattern of neuron-specific transcription factor expression was essentially normal. Modest deficits in the numbers of transcription factor-defined neuron types were evident in the regenerated tissue, increasing particularly in dorsal neuron types with later lesions. These

  14. Gold- and silver nanoparticles affect the growth characteristics of human embryonic neural precursor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Söderstjerna

    Full Text Available Rapid development of nanotechnologies and their applications in clinical research have raised concerns about the adverse effects of nanoparticles (NPs on human health and environment. NPs can be directly taken up by organs exposed, but also translocated to secondary organs, such as the central nervous system (CNS after systemic- or subcutaneous administration, or via the olfactory system. The CNS is particularly vulnerable during development and recent reports describe transport of NPs across the placenta and even into brain tissue using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems. Here, we investigated whether well-characterized commercial 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs have an effect on human embryonic neural precursor cell (HNPC growth. After two weeks of NP exposure, uptake of NPs, morphological features and the amount of viable and dead cells, proliferative cells (Ki67 immunostaining and apoptotic cells (TUNEL assay, respectively, were studied. We demonstrate uptake of both 20 and 80 nm Au- and AgNPs respectively, by HNPCs during proliferation. A significant effect on the sphere size- and morphology was found for all cultures exposed to Au- and AgNPs. AgNPs of both sizes caused a significant increase in numbers of proliferating and apoptotic HNPCs. In contrast, only the highest dose of 20 nm AuNPs significantly affected proliferation, whereas no effect was seen on apoptotic cell death. Our data demonstrates that both Au- and AgNPs interfere with the growth profile of HNPCs, indicating the need of further detailed studies on the adverse effects of NPs on the developing CNS.

  15. Interneuron progenitor transplantation to treat CNS dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad O Chohan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the inadequacy of endogenous repair mechanisms diseases of the nervous system remain a major challenge to scientists and clinicians. Stem cell based therapy is an exciting and viable strategy that has been shown to ameliorate or even reverse symptoms of CNS dysfunction in preclinical animal models. Of particular importance has been the use of GABAergic interneuron progenitors as a therapeutic strategy. Born in the neurogenic niches of the ventral telencephalon, interneuron progenitors retain their unique capacity to disperse, integrate and induce plasticity in adult host circuitries following transplantation. Here we discuss the potential of interneuron based transplantation strategies as it relates to CNS disease therapeutics. We also discuss mechanisms underlying their therapeutic efficacy and some of the challenges that face the field.

  16. Noninvasive Imaging of Administered Progenitor Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R Bergmann, M.D., Ph.D.

    2012-12-03

    The objective of this research grant was to develop an approach for labeling progenitor cells, specifically those that we had identified as being able to replace ischemic heart cells, so that the distribution could be followed non-invasively. In addition, the research was aimed at determining whether administration of progenitor cells resulted in improved myocardial perfusion and function. The efficiency and toxicity of radiolabeling of progenitor cells was to be evaluated. For the proposed clinical protocol, subjects with end-stage ischemic coronary artery disease were to undergo a screening cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) scan using N-13 ammonia to delineate myocardial perfusion and function. If they qualified based on their PET scan, they would undergo an in-hospital protocol whereby CD34+ cells were stimulated by the administration of granulocytes-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). CD34+ cells would then be isolated by apharesis, and labeled with indium-111 oxine. Cells were to be re-infused and subjects were to undergo single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning to evaluate uptake and distribution of labeled progenitor cells. Three months after administration of progenitor cells, a cardiac PET scan was to be repeated to evaluate changes in myocardial perfusion and/or function. Indium oxine is a radiopharmaceutical for labeling of autologous lymphocytes. Indium-111 (In-111) decays by electron capture with a t{sub ½} of 67.2 hours (2.8 days). Indium forms a saturated complex that is neutral, lipid soluble, and permeates the cell membrane. Within the cell, the indium-oxyquinolone complex labels via indium intracellular chelation. Following leukocyte labeling, ~77% of the In-111 is incorporated in the cell pellet. The presence of red cells and /or plasma reduces the labeling efficacy. Therefore, the product needed to be washed to eliminate plasma proteins. This repeated washing can damage cells. The CD34 selected product was a 90

  17. POPULATION SYNTHESIS AND GAMMA RAY BURST PROGENITORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. FREYER

    2000-12-11

    Population synthesis studies of binaries are always limited by a myriad of uncertainties from the poorly understood effects of binary mass transfer and common envelope evolution to the many uncertainties that still remain in stellar evolution. But the importance of these uncertainties depends both upon the objects being studied and the questions asked about these objects. Here I review the most critical uncertainties in the population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors. With a better understanding of these uncertainties, binary population synthesis can become a powerful tool in understanding, and constraining, gamma-ray burst models. In turn, as gamma-ray bursts become more important as cosmological probes, binary population synthesis of gamma-ray burst progenitors becomes an important tool in cosmology.

  18. Direct lineage reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to functional midbrain dopaminergic neuronal progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seop Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct lineage reprogramming of somatic cells to other lineages by defined factors has led to innovative cell-fate-change approaches for providing patient-specific cells. Recent reports have demonstrated that four pluripotency factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc are sufficient to directly reprogram fibroblasts to other specific cells, including induced neural stem cells (iNSCs. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts can be directly reprogrammed into midbrain dopaminergic neuronal progenitors (DPs by temporal expression of the pluripotency factors and environment containing sonic hedgehog and fibroblast growth factor 8. Within thirteen days, self-renewing and functional induced DPs (iDPs were generated. Interestingly, the inhibition of both Jak and Gsk3β notably enhanced the iDP reprogramming efficiency. We confirmed the functionality of the iDPs by showing that the dopaminergic neurons generated from iDPs express midbrain markers, release dopamine, and show typical electrophysiological profiles. Our results demonstrate that the pluripotency factors-mediated direct reprogramming is an invaluable strategy for supplying functional and proliferating iDPs and may be useful for other neural progenitors required for disease modeling and cell therapies for neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Pre-supernova properties of progenitors detected by HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jim

    2017-08-01

    HST has provided essential data on the connection between core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and their massive star progenitors, both through precise post-explosion localization of nearby SNe, and by identification of progenitor stars in pre-explosion HST images. However, mounting evidence suggests that many SN progenitors exhibit outbursts and/or enhanced mass loss in the years preceding the SN, potentially affecting the progenitor properties measured by HST. Inferring progenitor characteristics such as stellar mass thus requires a better theoretical understanding of the pre-SN stellar evolution. A compelling mechanism for pre-SN outbursts is energy transport via gravity/acoustic waves within massive star SN progenitors. We propose to quantify the observable effects of wave-driven outbursts and mass loss in the final years of massive star lives using stellar evolution calculations incorporating wave energy transport. Our models will make predictions for progenitor luminosity in HST bands as a function of stellar mass and time before SN explosion. We will also model the SN light curves and spectra of stars with wave energy transport, which we can compare with SN observations to assert whether wave heating operated in the progenitors detected by HST. We will then revisit the interpretation of HST progenitor data and make predictions for future SN progenitor detections by HST.

  20. Could Cancer Initiate From Bone Marrow Progenitors?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Nasr, Hmed; Hammami, Serria Turky; Zeghal, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Background Defining cancer stem cells and their origins is of much controversy,and constitutes a challenged knockout for cell targeting- anticancer drugs. Herein,we put forward a hypothetic model for cancer stem cells initiation from bone marrow stem cells. These later, will differentiate into an ancestral progenitor that activates a memorial program - the black box cassette- that is responsible of abnormal neo-organogenesis in the form of tumors and metastases. To approve this model, we assu...

  1. Endothelial progenitor cell biology in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Inderjeet; Syngle, Ashit; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to healthy controls (CD34(+) /CD133(+) : 0.027 ± 0.010% vs. 0.044 ± 0.011%, P < 0.001). EPC depletions were significantly associated with disease duration (r = -0.52, P = 0.01), BASDAI (r = -0.45, P = 0.04) and C-reactive protein (r = -0.5, P = 0.01). This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cell depletion in AS patients. EPC depletions inversely correlate with disease duration, disease activity and inflammation, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. A Brief History of the NPS Field Experimentation Program: Spanning STAN, TNT, and JIFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    funded by the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics & Technology ASA(ALT), and executed by the UMC. ART/TSOA stil l...and flew the Dakota UAV regularly. Additionally, the NPS Frog and UCLA’s Mule RPV Flight programs utilized McMillan around the same time frame . In

  3. Green synthesis of AuNPs for eco-friendly functionalization of cellulosic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabil A.; Eid, Basma M.; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S.

    2016-12-01

    In this research work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using marine bacterial isolates (Streptomyces sp.) as a reducing/capping/stabilizing bio-agent and chlolauric acid (HAuCl4) as a precursor has been investigated. Surface modification of cotton and viscose knitted fabrics using O2-plasma followed by subsequent treatment with bio-synthesized AuNPs alone and in combination with TiO2NPs or ZnONPs to impart new functional properties namely antibacterial and UV-blocking were studied. The results show that loading of nominated nanomaterials onto the activated fabric samples results in a significant improvement in antibacterial activity against both G+ve (S. aureus) and G-ve (E. coli) along with a remarkable enhancement in the UV-protection functionality of the treated fabrics. The highest antibacterial and anti-UV values were obtained when O2-plasma treated fabrics were loaded with AuNPs/ZnONPs combination, irrespective of the used substrate. The imparted functional properties demonstrated remarkable retention even after 15 washings.

  4. Switching from CFC to HFA Inhalers: What NPs and Their Patients Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Militello, Lisa Kinsella; Zinn, Kelly K; DeWolff, Darla K

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this article is to provide nurse practitioners with a better understanding of the transition from chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) to hydrofluoralkane (HFA) metered-dose inhalers (MDIs). The authors discuss the differences in these products' propellants; the proper use, cost, and efficacy of the HFA inhalers; and the implications of the switch for NPs and for their patients with asthma.

  5. Solid-State synthesis of POPD@AgNPs nanocomposites for electrochemical sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paulraj, P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD) stabilized silver nanoparticles (POPD@AgNPs) nanocomposites was synthesized by solid state oxidative polymerization method using o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (oPD-HCl) as monomer and silver...

  6. NPS Promotion and Tenure Ceremony Casts Light on Relevant Education, Research

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Faculty Showcase News Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) President retired Vice Adm. Ronald A. Route and Provost Dr. Douglas Hensler, honored a diverse crowd of academics during NPS’ annual promotion and tenure ceremony in the university’s Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering Auditorium, May 8.

  7. Multiplexed Activity of perAuxidase: DNA-Capped AuNPs Act as Adjustable Peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizir, Mustafa Salih; Top, Meryem; Balcioglu, Mustafa; Rana, Muhit; Robertson, Neil M; Shen, Fusheng; Sheng, Jia; Yigit, Mehmet V

    2016-01-05

    In this study, we have investigated the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of citrate-capped AuNPs (perAuxidase) and demonstrated that the nanozyme function can be multiplexed and tuned by integrating oligonucleotides on a nanoparticle surface. Systematic studies revealed that by controlling the reaction parameters, the mutiplexing effect can be delayed or advanced and further used for aptasensor applications.

  8. 77 FR 75169 - Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs); Information and Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... being used in workplaces where potential exposures to AgNPs occur. DATES: Electronic or written comments... Eileen Kuempel, telephone (513) 533-8363. Background Nanotechnology is generally defined as the... 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology involves a wide range of chemistries and almost unlimited types of...

  9. SMAD7 deficiency stimulates Müller progenitor cell proliferation during the development of the mammalian retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Martina; Schlecht, Anja; Fuchshofer, Rudolf; Schmitt, Sabrina I; Kleiter, Ingo; Aigner, Ludwig; Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M

    2017-07-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway contributes to maintain the quiescence of adult neural stem and progenitor cells in the brain. In the retina, Müller cells are discussed to represent a glial cell population with progenitor-like characteristics. Here, we aimed to investigate if elevated TGF-β signaling modulates the proliferation of Müller cells during retinal development. We generated mutant mice with a systemic, heterozygous up-regulation of TGF-β signaling by deleting its inhibitor SMAD7. We investigated apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of Müller cells in the developing retina. We show that a heterozygous deletion of SMAD7 results in an increased proliferation of Müller cell progenitors in the central retina at postnatal day 4, the time window when Müller cells differentiate in the mouse retina. This in turn results in a thickened retina and inner nuclear layer and a higher number of differentiated Müller cells in the more developed retina. Müller cells in mutant mice contain higher amounts of nestin than those of control animals which indicates that the increase in TGF-β signaling activity during retinal development contribute to maintain some progenitor-like characteristics in Müller cells even after their differentiation period. We conclude that TGF-β signaling influences Müller cell proliferation and differentiation during retinal development.

  10. Sall1 regulates cortical neurogenesis and laminar fate specification in mice: implications for neural abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan J; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Jones, Kevin R; Monaghan, A Paula

    2012-05-01

    Progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex undergo dynamic cellular and molecular changes during development. Sall1 is a putative transcription factor that is highly expressed in progenitor cells during development. In humans, the autosomal dominant developmental disorder Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is associated with mutations of the SALL1 gene. TBS is characterized by renal, anal, limb and auditory abnormalities. Although neural deficits have not been recognized as a diagnostic characteristic of the disease, ~10% of patients exhibit neural or behavioral abnormalities. We demonstrate that, in addition to being expressed in peripheral organs, Sall1 is robustly expressed in progenitor cells of the central nervous system in mice. Both classical- and conditional-knockout mouse studies indicate that the cerebral cortex is particularly sensitive to loss of Sall1. In the absence of Sall1, both the surface area and depth of the cerebral cortex were decreased at embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5). These deficiencies are associated with changes in progenitor cell properties during development. In early cortical progenitor cells, Sall1 promotes proliferative over neurogenic division, whereas, at later developmental stages, Sall1 regulates the production and differentiation of intermediate progenitor cells. Furthermore, Sall1 influences the temporal specification of cortical laminae. These findings present novel insights into the function of Sall1 in the developing mouse cortex and provide avenues for future research into potential neural deficits in individuals with TBS.

  11. Pax7 lineage contributions to the mammalian neural crest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Murdoch

    Full Text Available Neural crest cells are vertebrate-specific multipotent cells that contribute to a variety of tissues including the peripheral nervous system, melanocytes, and craniofacial bones and cartilage. Abnormal development of the neural crest is associated with several human maladies including cleft/lip palate, aggressive cancers such as melanoma and neuroblastoma, and rare syndromes, like Waardenburg syndrome, a complex disorder involving hearing loss and pigment defects. We previously identified the transcription factor Pax7 as an early marker, and required component for neural crest development in chick embryos. In mammals, Pax7 is also thought to play a role in neural crest development, yet the precise contribution of Pax7 progenitors to the neural crest lineage has not been determined.Here we use Cre/loxP technology in double transgenic mice to fate map the Pax7 lineage in neural crest derivates. We find that Pax7 descendants contribute to multiple tissues including the cranial, cardiac and trunk neural crest, which in the cranial cartilage form a distinct regional pattern. The Pax7 lineage, like the Pax3 lineage, is additionally detected in some non-neural crest tissues, including a subset of the epithelial cells in specific organs.These results demonstrate a previously unappreciated widespread distribution of Pax7 descendants within and beyond the neural crest. They shed light regarding the regionally distinct phenotypes observed in Pax3 and Pax7 mutants, and provide a unique perspective into the potential roles of Pax7 during disease and development.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Induced Genotoxicity Short Running Title: Genotoxicity of ZnO NPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzad, Agmal; Meyer, Till; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Hackenberg, Stephan

    2017-12-14

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most frequently applied nanomaterials in consumer products. Evidence exists regarding the cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in mammalian cells; however, knowledge about the potential genotoxicity of ZnO NPs is rare, and results presented in the current literature are inconsistent. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data regarding the DNA damage that ZnO NPs induce, and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms underlying genotoxic events. Electronic literature databases were systematically searched for studies that report on the genotoxicity of ZnO NPs. Several methods and different endpoints demonstrate the genotoxic potential of ZnO NPs. Most publications describe in vitro assessments of the oxidative DNA damage triggered by dissoluted Zn2+ ions. Most genotoxicological investigations of ZnO NPs address acute exposure situations. Existing evidence indicates that ZnO NPs possibly have the potential to damage DNA. However, there is a lack of long-term exposure experiments that clarify the intracellular bioaccumulation of ZnO NPs and the possible mechanisms of DNA repair and cell survival.

  13. Maternal Inflammation Contributes to Brain Overgrowth and Autism-Associated Behaviors through Altered Redox Signaling in Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janel E. Le Belle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A period of mild brain overgrowth with an unknown etiology has been identified as one of the most common phenotypes in autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal inflammation during critical periods of embryonic development can cause brain overgrowth and autism-associated behaviors as a result of altered neural stem cell function. Pregnant mice treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide at embryonic day 9 had offspring with brain overgrowth, with a more pronounced effect in PTEN heterozygotes. Exposure to maternal inflammation also enhanced NADPH oxidase (NOX-PI3K pathway signaling, stimulated the hyperproliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells, increased forebrain microglia, and produced abnormal autism-associated behaviors in affected pups. Our evidence supports the idea that a prenatal neuroinflammatory dysregulation in neural stem cell redox signaling can act in concert with underlying genetic susceptibilities to affect cellular responses to environmentally altered cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

  14. Dynorphin-dependent reduction of excitability and attenuation of inhibitory afferents of NPS neurons in the pericoerulear region of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay eJuengling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neuropeptide S system, consisting of the 20-amino acid peptide neuropeptide S (NPS and its G-protein coupled receptor (NPSR, modulates arousal, wakefulness, anxiety, and fear-extinction in mice. In addition, recent evidence indicates that the NPS system attenuates stress-dependent impairment of fear extinction, and that NPS-expressing neurons in close proximity to the locus coeruleus (pericoerulear, periLC region are activated by stress. Furthermore, periLC NPS neurons receive afferents from neurons of the centrolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CeL, of which a substantial population expresses the kappa opioid receptor (KOR ligand precursor prodynorphin. This study aims to identify the effect of the dynorphinergic system on NPS neurons in the periLC via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. Using electrophysiological recordings in mouse brain slices, we provide evidence that NPS neurons in the periLC region are directly inhibited by dynorphin A via activation of κ-opioid receptor 1 (KOR1 and a subsequent increase of potassium conductances. Thus, the dynorphinergic system is suited to inactivate NPS neurons in the periLC. In addition to this direct, somatic effect, dynorphin A reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses on NPS neurons via KOR1 and KOR2. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence for the interaction of the NPS and the kappa opioid system in the periLC. Therefore, the endogenous opioid dynorphin is suited to inhibit NPS neurons with a subsequent decrease in NPS release in putative target regions leading to a variety of physiological consequences such as increased anxiety or vulnerability to stress exposure.

  15. MO-FG-204-04: How Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms Affect the NPS of CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G; Liu, X; Dodge, C; Jensen, C; Rong, J [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate how the third generation model based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compares with filtered back-projection (FBP), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR), and the second generation MBIR based on noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis over a wide range of clinically applicable dose levels. Methods: The Catphan 600 CTP515 module, surrounded by an oval, fat-equivalent ring to mimic patient size/shape, was scanned on a GE HD750 CT scanner at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 19mGy CTDIvol levels with typical patient scan parameters: 120kVp, 0.8s, 40mm beam width, large SFOV, 0.984 pitch and reconstructed thickness 2.5mm (VEO3.0: Abd/Pelvis with Texture and NR05). At each CTDIvol level, 10 repeated scans were acquired for achieving sufficient data sampling. The images were reconstructed using Standard kernel with FBP; 20%, 40% and 70% ASiR; and two versions of MBIR (VEO2.0 and 3.0). For evaluating the effect of the ROI spatial location to the Result of NPS, 4 ROI groups were categorized based on their distances from the center of the phantom. Results: VEO3.0 performed inferiorly comparing to VEO2.0 over all dose levels. On the other hand, at low dose levels (less than 3 mGy), it clearly outperformed ASiR and FBP, in NPS values. Therefore, the lower the dose level, the relative performance of MBIR improves. However, the shapes of the NPS show substantial differences in horizontal and vertical sampling dimensions. These differences may determine the characteristics of the noise/texture features in images, and hence, play an important role in image interpretation. Conclusion: The third generation MBIR did not improve over the second generation MBIR in term of NPS analysis. The overall performance of both versions of MBIR improved as compared to other reconstruction algorithms when dose was reduced. The shapes of the NPS curves provided additional value for future characterization of the image noise/texture features.

  16. Pulsed DC Electric Field-Induced Differentiation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fang Chang

    Full Text Available We report the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells solely induced by direct current (DC pulses stimulation. Neural stem and progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic neuroregeneration strategies. The differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells depends on various in vivo environmental factors, such as nerve growth factor and endogenous EF. In this study, we demonstrated that the morphologic and phenotypic changes of mouse neural stem and progenitor cells (mNPCs could be induced solely by exposure to square-wave DC pulses (magnitude 300 mV/mm at frequency of 100-Hz. The DC pulse stimulation was conducted for 48 h, and the morphologic changes of mNPCs were monitored continuously. The length of primary processes and the amount of branching significantly increased after stimulation by DC pulses for 48 h. After DC pulse treatment, the mNPCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes simultaneously in stem cell maintenance medium. Our results suggest that simple DC pulse treatment could control the fate of NPCs. With further studies, DC pulses may be applied to manipulate NPC differentiation and may be used for the development of therapeutic strategies that employ NPCs to treat nervous system disorders.

  17. Pulsed DC Electric Field-Induced Differentiation of Cortical Neural Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Fang; Lee, Ying-Shan; Tang, Tang K; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2016-01-01

    We report the differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells solely induced by direct current (DC) pulses stimulation. Neural stem and progenitor cells in the adult mammalian brain are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic neuroregeneration strategies. The differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells depends on various in vivo environmental factors, such as nerve growth factor and endogenous EF. In this study, we demonstrated that the morphologic and phenotypic changes of mouse neural stem and progenitor cells (mNPCs) could be induced solely by exposure to square-wave DC pulses (magnitude 300 mV/mm at frequency of 100-Hz). The DC pulse stimulation was conducted for 48 h, and the morphologic changes of mNPCs were monitored continuously. The length of primary processes and the amount of branching significantly increased after stimulation by DC pulses for 48 h. After DC pulse treatment, the mNPCs differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes simultaneously in stem cell maintenance medium. Our results suggest that simple DC pulse treatment could control the fate of NPCs. With further studies, DC pulses may be applied to manipulate NPC differentiation and may be used for the development of therapeutic strategies that employ NPCs to treat nervous system disorders.

  18. Terminal Differentiation of Adult Hippocampal Progenitor Cells Is a Step Functionally Dissociable from Proliferation and Is Controlled by Tis21, Id3 and NeuroD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Laura; Ceccarelli, Manuela; Gioia, Roberta; D'Andrea, Giorgio; Farioli-Vecchioli, Stefano; Costanzi, Marco; Saraulli, Daniele; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are interdependent processes. Here, we have asked to what extent the two processes of neural progenitor cell amplification and differentiation are functionally separated. Thus, we analyzed whether it is possible to rescue a defect of terminal differentiation in progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus, where new neurons are generated throughout life, by inducing their proliferation and/or their differentiation with different stimuli appropriately timed. As a model we used the Tis21 knockout mouse, whose dentate gyrus neurons, as demonstrated by us and others, have an intrinsic defect of terminal differentiation. We first tested the effect of two proliferative as well as differentiative neurogenic stimuli, one pharmacological (fluoxetine), the other cognitive (the Morris water maze (MWM) training). Both effectively enhanced the number of new dentate gyrus neurons produced, and fluoxetine also reduced the S-phase length of Tis21 knockout dentate gyrus progenitor cells and increased the rate of differentiation of control cells, but neither factor enhanced the defective rate of differentiation. In contrast, the defect of terminal differentiation was fully rescued by in vivo infection of proliferating dentate gyrus progenitor cells with retroviruses either silencing Id3, an inhibitor of neural differentiation, or expressing NeuroD2, a proneural gene expressed in terminally differentiated dentate gyrus neurons. This is the first demonstration that NeuroD2 or the silencing of Id3 can activate the differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons, complementing a defect of differentiation. It also highlights how the rate of differentiation of dentate gyrus neurons is regulated genetically at several levels and that a neurogenic stimulus for amplification of neural stem/progenitor cells may not be sufficient in itself to modify this rate.

  19. Cyclosporine decreases vascular progenitor cell numbers after cardiac transplantation and attenuates progenitor cell growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William R; Wang, Shaohua; Oi, Keiji; Bailey, Kent R; Tazelaar, Henry D; Caplice, Noel M; McGregor, Christopher G A

    2005-11-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that the neointimal proliferation seen in cardiac allograft vasculopathy may in part derive from recipient progenitor cells. The effect of cyclosporine on these circulating progenitors in the setting of cardiac transplantation is currently unknown. Three surgical series were performed: sham operation alone, sham operation with immunosuppression, and heterotopic porcine cardiac transplantation with immunosuppression. The sham operation involved laparotomy and consecutive clamping of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. Post-operative immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine at therapeutic levels (100-300 ng/ml) and 0.5 mg/kg methylprednisolone. Endothelial outgrowth colony numbers (EOC(CFU)) and smooth muscle outgrowth colony numbers (SOC(CFU)) were quantified weekly for 4 weeks post-operatively. A series of in vitro experiments were performed to determine the effect of cyclosporine on the differentiation, migration, and proliferation of EOCs and SOCs. In the sham alone series there were no changes to either EOC(CFU) or SOC(CFU). In the sham with immunosuppression and the transplant series, both EOC(CFU) and SOC(CFU) fell in the first 2 weeks (p Cyclosporine, even at a low dose, prevented differentiation, inhibited proliferation, and attenuated migration of both EOCs and SOCs. Immunosuppression in the setting of cardiac transplantation causes a profound reduction in circulating progenitor cells capable of differentiating into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This effect can in part be explained by the inhibitory effects of cyclosporine on progenitor growth and differentiation seen in this study.

  20. Combined effects of ZnO NPs and seawater acidification on the haemocyte parameters of thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangli; Cui, Shuaikang; Sun, Meng; Xie, Zhe; Huang, Wei; Huang, Xizhi; Liu, Liping; Hu, Menghong; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2017-12-20

    Flow cytometry was used to investigate the immune parameters of haemocytes in thick-shell mussel Mytilus coruscus exposed to different concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (0, 2.5, and 10mgl-1) at two pH levels (7.3 and 8.1) for 14days following a recovery period of 7days. ZnO NPs significantly affected all of the immune parameters throughout the experiment. At high ZnO NPs concentrations, total haemocyte counting, phagocytosis, esterase, and lysosomal content were significantly decreased whereas haemocyte mortality and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased. Although low pH also significantly influenced all of the immune parameters of the mussels, its effect was not as strong as that of ZnO NPs. Interactive effects were observed between pH and ZnO NPs in most haemocyte parameters during the exposure period. Although a slight recovery from the stress of ZnO NPs and pH was observed for all immune parameters, significant carry-over effects of low pH and ZnO NPs were still detected. This study revealed that high concentration of ZnO NPs and low pH exert negative and synergistic effects on mussels, and these effects remain even after the mussels are no longer exposed to such stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.