WorldWideScience

Sample records for networks electronic commerce

  1. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  2. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  3. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  4. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2000-11-30

    Nov 30, 2000 ... information on physical networks may refer to the book by. Stallings [1]. When two businesses want to .... in e-commerce as they provide immediate brand recognition. Thus there has been a problem known as cyber .... Graphic images to be displayed with the document. • Listing using bullets or sequence ...

  5. Percolation on shopping and cashback electronic commerce networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tao; Chen, Yini; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Liping

    2013-06-01

    Many realistic networks live in the form of multiple networks, including interacting networks and interdependent networks. Here we study percolation properties of a special kind of interacting networks, namely Shopping and Cashback Electronic Commerce Networks (SCECNs). We investigate two actual SCECNs to extract their structural properties, and develop a mathematical framework based on generating functions for analyzing directed interacting networks. Then we derive the necessary and sufficient condition for the absence of the system-wide giant in- and out- component, and propose arithmetic to calculate the corresponding structural measures in the sub-critical and supercritical regimes. We apply our mathematical framework and arithmetic to those two actual SCECNs to observe its accuracy, and give some explanations on the discrepancies. We show those structural measures based on our mathematical framework and arithmetic are useful to appraise the status of SCECNs. We also find that the supercritical regime of the whole network is maintained mainly by hyperlinks between different kinds of websites, while those hyperlinks between the same kinds of websites can only enlarge the sizes of in-components and out-components.

  6. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  7. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this concluding part we describe mobile commerce and peer to peer computing, which are two emerging application areas of e-commerce. We also discuss some legal issues, which have arisen with the spread of e-commerce. Introduction. In the previous parts we described the evolution of e-commerce and some of the ...

  8. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  9. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Payment is an important component in e-commerce. In day-to- day commercial dealings there are many modes of payment, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most common payment, especially for low value purchases, is by cash. Credit cards are preferred by customers for higher value pur-.

  10. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Internet "'I~~--··D'~-~. Filter allows access to an organization's network only to a specified set of IP addresses. Another screening rule may be to allow outsid- ers to access only one IP address in the organization which may be hosting its web page. The other two filters which are used commonly are to filter out junk e-mail ...

  11. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  12. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  13. Dynamic Pricing in Electronic Commerce Using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tapu Kumar; Tran, Thomas T.

    In this paper, we propose an approach where feed-forward neural network is used for dynamically calculating a competitive price of a product in order to maximize sellers’ revenue. In the approach we considered that along with product price other attributes such as product quality, delivery time, after sales service and seller’s reputation contribute in consumers purchase decision. We showed that once the sellers, by using their limited prior knowledge, set an initial price of a product our model adjusts the price automatically with the help of neural network so that sellers’ revenue is maximized.

  14. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin – Stelian Bădescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.. This component informational increasingly involves broader and more complex, with the technological advancement of computer science and globalization of human society, special measures to ensure the security of information. Cyber-crime is an illegal act committed by using a computer network (especially Internet. Cyber-crime is a subset of cybercrime.

  15. Business Relations in Electronic Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjarup, Søren; Henten, Anders

    The analysis addresses the issues of how businesses interact in the light of continuous maturation of business-to-business e-commerce. Development of cheaper and more standardised information and communication technologies enhances the depth and width of electronic networks, which may lead to tig...

  16. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  17. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Stelian Badescu

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.). This component informational ...

  18. Workflow Management in Electronic Commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefen, P.W.P.J.; Spaccapietra, S.; March, S.T.; Kambayashi, Y.

    In electronic commerce scenarios, effectiveness and efficiency of business process execution are of paramount importance for business success. Even more than in traditional commerce scenarios, they determine the chances of survival of organizations in fast moving, highly competitive electronic

  19. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A238 831 " ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND COMPETITIVE PROCUREMENT Report PL006R1 June 1991 DTIC AJUL 2 9 1991"M Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci Prepared...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement C MDA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel J. Drake and... electronic commerce techniques ( electronic Jata interchange (EDI). electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards and facsimile] to competitive

  20. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  1. Evaluation of Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce with SWOT Analysis as an Alternative Network Marketing at Agricultural Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Kızılaslan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Compulsory competition occurring in the world trade has led the enterprises to different marketing system. Marketing problems seems to be a problem in Turkey rather than agricultural production problems. In this aspect, marketing alternatives are sought. E-commerce is a system with more opportunities in agricultural marketing. Increasing the applicability of this system in Turkey will eliminate many problems associated with marketing in agriculture. With an active use of E-commerce in agricultural marketing, it provides convenience at marketing products of agro-related industries agencies and producers and all country will have a potential market position. In this study, possibilities offered by e-commerce to the agricultural sector, opportunities, threats, deficiencies and contributions to agricultural sector have been addressed. Without the limitations of place and time via the internet and computers, establishing national and international supply and demand balance of e-commerce seems to play important roles in maintaining an active and alive marketing. Furthermore, it is an important tool in reducing agricultural marketing problems.

  2. Keamanan Dalam Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Michael Ricky Wajong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to give information and understanding about security threat that could happen in security system in e-commerce. The approach used is how the transaction system is, how the security is applied, and also the possible security threat in e-commerce. The result of this research is that there are still gaps in e-commerce. It is hoped that the business actors will be more realized about the security importance and more aware about the possible threat. 

  3. Electronic Commerce: Themes, Concepts and Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsun Yu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, bibliometric (co-citation analysis and social network analysis techniques are used to investigate the intellectual pillars of the electronic commerce literature as reported in SSCI and SCI journals between 2002 and 2006. By analyzing 22,760 citations of 840 articles, this study maps an invisible network of knowledge of electronic commerce studies. The results of the mapping can help identify the research direction of electronic commerce research and provide a valuable tool for researchers to access the literature in this area.

  4. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  5. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and o...

  6. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  7. Electronic commerce: beyond the euphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J L; DeLuca, J M

    2000-01-01

    As the center of considerable media attention, case study articles, vendor research, and development efforts, electronic commerce technology is entering healthcare and having a profound effect. The simple truth, however, is that after the drama and excitement begins to wear off, completing a successful e-commerce implementation remains good old-fashioned hard, sometimes monotonous work. To be successful, e-commerce technologies must be planned and implemented with rigorous project standards, and incorporated with significant process and workflow reengineering to actually return significant value to the organization. This article briefs readers on the organizational issues they must consider in evaluating e-commerce readiness--cultural, executive and technological factors that either support or inhibit project and technology success. Readers will be left with the tools to conduct an electronic commerce "readiness assessment" to evaluate the immediate, mid- and long-term potential of electronic commerce; practical remediation strategies for better preparing the organization for the changes inherent in moving to an e-commerce-enabled business model; and comments from the field--advice from organizations that have successfully implemented e-commerce technologies into their ongoing operations.

  8. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    researchers and professionals in e-commerce and e-business. So, when Dr. Gangan Prathap and Prof. Vivek Borkar suggested to us in December 2003 that we bring out a special issue of S¯adhan¯a on this topic, we readily agreed. This special issue is targeted at researchers, research students, and industry research pro-.

  9. Web Technology of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinkai

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Internet makes our lives more colorful and convenient by its effectiveness and popularity. An example is electronic commerce (also called E-Commerce). There are a number of platforms belonging to e-commerce, such as taobao.com, ebay.com, amazon.com. The purpose of this thesis was to build a new mode for the secondhand market in Finland. Meanwhile, the business modes, B2C and C2C, were adopted into this research. This is different compared with other platforms, ...

  10. Electronic Commerce on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    electronic commerce , where companies transact business spontaneously over the Internet. In restructuring its procurement processes, The Federal Government has a unique opportunity to exploit this electronic marketplace, and to influence its development in ways that benefit us all. This report describes a vision of the electronic marketplace, the requirements it must satisfy, an architecture for addressing those requirements, and a graceful migration path to the marketplace from current EDI technology and practice. It identifies five key concepts for government

  11. The impact of electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Kaiyin

    1997-01-01

    The development of electronic commerce offers a promising way for business to meet challenges of the ever changing market. The fast advancing information infrastructure makes the connectiviry possible to reach almost everywhere in the world, but it does not ensure a successful business process. The

  12. Electronic Commerce "in the dark"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Senette, Caterina

    The widespread diffusion of electronic commerce offers a great opportunity for blind people. We describe the results of an electronic survey carried out with 22 blind and 22 sighted users in order to understand the difficulties and obstacles they experience shopping on-line, and solicit their expectations and suggestions for making the interaction simpler and more satisfying. Results show that blind users shop on-line much less than their sighted counterparts, since they encounter more difficulties not only when making a purchase, but even in the navigation phase preceding the commercial transaction. Complex layouts and unstructured content can prevent an e-transaction from being successfully completed. Furthermore, security, privacy and trustiness, common concerns for all consumers, also impact on the fear of buying via Internet for the visually impaired. Poor usability leads to a potential loss of revenue for on-line companies and a lost opportunity to increase a blind person's independence. Providing simpler, more understandable UIs would benefit all users and fuel the expansion of electronic commerce.

  13. Protocols in Mobile Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Vivek B. Patil; Mr.Deepak G. Awate

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-commerce, also known by other terms such as M-Commerce or m-Commerce, is the capability to follow commerce with the help of a hand held devise like mobile phone, a Personal digital assistant PDA, a smart phone, or other emerging mobile equipment such as dash top mobile devices. Since decade Mobile-commerce is being expressed as follows: Mobile-commerce is where any transaction, involving the transfer of rights or ownership to use goods and services, which is initialized and/or processe...

  14. Electronic Commerce: A National Performance Review Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Copy 33 of 38 copies i f i I 1 3 IDA DOCUMENT D-1729 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : A NATIONAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW INITIATIVE ID^I ^ BIPs...as reflecting the official position of any Government Agency. IDA DOCUMENT D-1729 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : A NATIONAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW INITIATIVE...implementation of electronic commerce , as part of the Nil, so that IDA will be well prepared to support the work of the Defense Information Systems Agency

  15. NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    THE PRESIDENT’S NATIONAL SECURITY TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADVISORY COMMITTEE NS/EP IMPLICATIONS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE JUNE 1999 Form SF298 Citation Data... Electronic Commerce Procedures Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization...99 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NS/EP Implications of Electronic Commerce 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) President’s

  16. Building the DAML Electronic Commerce Domain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anyiwo, David

    2001-01-01

    The project captured additional functional and technical requirements for collaboration and exchange in the electronics industry's value chain, and refined the eCommerce domain ontology requirements...

  17. VAT IN DIGITAL ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Pozvek, Maruša

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of economic and technological development incur permanent changes in taxation on VAT. Cross-border e-commerce has the potential to reshape and step up the European internal market for consumers through encouraging businesses to sell to consumers abroad and increasing consumer confi dence in cross-border purchases. While e-commerce has the potential to increase EU welfare substantially, it also faces a number of regulatory barriers in VAT system that block the realisation of t...

  18. Trust and Relationship Building in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Panagiota; Andreou, Andreas; Kanellis, Panagiotis; Martakos, Drakoulis

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need for trust in electronic commerce to build customer relationships focuses on a model drawn from established theoretical work on trust and relationship marketing that highlights differences between traditional and electronic commerce. Considers how trust can be built into virtual environments. (Contains 50 references.)…

  19. The Importance of Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingham, Pauline

    1998-01-01

    Introduces the new concept of trust and how it influences the process of managing the security of an organization operating in an electronic commerce environment. Theoretically, the study aims to develop a framework of trust and security to provide a set of guidelines for secure electronic commerce. (Author/LRW)

  20. The Evolution of Electronic Commerce Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Business schools began introducing electronic commerce programs in the late 1990s at unprecedented rates. In this study, the author examined the evolution in electronic commerce programs offered by AACSB-accredited colleges and universities from 2001 to 2005. Although these programs are declining in number, they provide the necessary skills and…

  1. Electronic Commerce - a Modern Form of Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUC Sunhilde

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the Internet has known an impressive evolution, having a major impact on all aspects of life. This paper presents a short review of the literature on e-commerce, the main models, and the status of e-commerce existing in Romania. As conclusion we can affirm that electronic businesses, electronic commerce is developing in Romania, and Romanian organizations must face the challenges ofthe new economy, must search the opportunities offered by the Internet, in order to assure their success and future. The study might serve as a starting point for further research in e-commerce in Romania.

  2. Functional Data Analysis in Electronic Commerce Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jank, Wolfgang; Shmueli, Galit

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes opportunities and challenges of using functional data analysis (FDA) for the exploration and analysis of data originating from electronic commerce (eCommerce). We discuss the special data structures that arise in the online environment and why FDA is a natural approach for representing and analyzing such data. The paper reviews several FDA methods and motivates their usefulness in eCommerce research by providing a glimpse into new domain insights that they allow. We argue...

  3. Review Electronic Commerce Untuk Memperluas Jaringan Pemasaran

    OpenAIRE

    Sidiq, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    To day, For the part of corporation, e-commerce bot merely buy and sell product according to online, on the contrary, e-commerce cover entire process from developments, marketing, sale, delivery, service, and payment to various product and service, buy in base global network customers, with support from network business partners throughout world. in this article be discussed about sisitem e-comerce will base on internet resource and many another information technology to support every step fr...

  4. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  5. Electronic Commerce: A Taxing Dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven John Simon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years, remote selling-led by online organizations - has surged. The resulting growth has created concern among both traditional and remote sellers as they jockey for improved competitive position and governmental entities, in particular US states, over the erosion of their tax revenues as sales are diverted to remote sellers. This paper explores the issues and potential solutions surrounding the e-commerce tax dilemma. It provides a current assessment of the taxation environment for individuals and organizations impacted by the tax debate. Those individuals and organizations might include online business customers, remote sellers both traditional (mail order and online, tax equity organizations, and governmental bodies. Current tax obligations are explored based on landmark legal decisions. Potential short and long -term solutions are assessed.

  6. Mutual authentication in electronic commerce transactions.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a large and ever growing industry. Online transactions are returning ever-growing revenues to electronic merchants. The e-commerce industry is still facing a range of problems concerning the process of completion of online transactions. Such problems are connected to consumer fears dealing with the identity of online merchants, their security pre- cautions and methods for accepting online payments. This thesis develops and presents a Mutual Authentication Model (MAM), w...

  7. A Flexible Electronic Commerce Recommendation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Songjie

    Recommendation systems have become very popular in E-commerce websites. Many of the largest commerce websites are already using recommender technologies to help their customers find products to purchase. An electronic commerce recommendation system learns from a customer and recommends products that the customer will find most valuable from among the available products. But most recommendation methods are hard-wired into the system and they support only fixed recommendations. This paper presented a framework of flexible electronic commerce recommendation system. The framework is composed by user model interface, recommendation engine, recommendation strategy model, recommendation technology group, user interest model and database interface. In the recommender strategy model, the method can be collaborative filtering, content-based filtering, mining associate rules method, knowledge-based filtering method or the mixed method. The system mapped the implementation and demand through strategy model, and the whole system would be design as standard parts to adapt to the change of the recommendation strategy.

  8. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  9. Executives "Plug in" to Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education & Training, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes a programme, developed by FT Knowledge and the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, USA, to guide managers through the opportunities and threats presented by electronic commerce. Focuses on areas such as marketing, electronic retailing, pricing, product design, supply chain management and communication. Highlights how the…

  10. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli t...

  11. Innovation and development of exhibition electronic-commerce based on the properties of electronic-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    There are two roadmaps of accomplishing exhibition electronic-commerce innovation and development. The first roadmap is that the exhibition organizers should seek mutual benefit cooperation with professional electronic-commerce platform of correspondent area with exhibition projects, thus help exhibitors realize their market object. The second roadmap is to promote innovation and development of electronic-commerce (Business-to-Customer) between both exhibitors and purchasers. Exhibition electronic-commerce must focus on innovative development in the following functions: market research and information service; advertising and business negotiation; online trading and online payment. With the aid of electronic-commerce, exhibition enterprise could have distinctive strengths such as transactions with virtualization, transparency, high efficiency and low cost, enhancing market link during enterprise research and development, promoting the efficiency of internal team collaboration and the individuation of external service, and optimizing resource allocation.

  12. Opportunities for E-commerce in Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmitt, David G.; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    There are numerous opportunities to apply e-commerce technologies to networking. These include the assembly, pricing and payments for complementary infrastructure resources, and the selection of and payment for value-added collaboration and information access services. E-commerce can support the separate provision and coordination of these elements, or allow them to be bundled by a customer-care organization. These opportunities and options are discussed.

  13. Electronic Commerce, Digital Information, and the Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the social context of electronic commerce (ecommerce) focuses on information imperatives, or rules that are critical for ecommerce firms. Concludes with a discussion of the organizational changes that can be expected to accompany the incorporation of these imperatives into the mission and core business processes of ecommerce firms.…

  14. Measuring IT core capabilities for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on the theoretical development and empirical validation of a measurement instrument for three information technology (IT) core capabilities in an electronic commerce context. The instrument is based on the work of Feeny and Willcocks (1998) and includes the capabilities

  15. A Business Case for Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Electronic Commerce . This report presents the results of that examination. Based upon an examination of 16 key documents, we estimate that DoD could realize direct and indirect cost savings of almost $1.2 billion over a 10-year period by replacing these manually processed documents with their electronic equivalents. To achieve those savings, DoD would need to make investments totaling approximately $80 million in new systems and procedures. (Author)

  16. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE, PART OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU ANA-MARIA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the role of electronic commerce in the digital economy, where information is the main resource. Internet, information society technology vector, made possible transition to a knowledge society at the beginning of XXI century. New economy involves transition from a traditional economy based on resources, to a knowledge-based economy. The development of information technology leads to major changes in the economic and social fields. In a world of globalization, e-commerce, part of the information society, manages to eliminate geographical barriers between participants at economic transactions. I presented e-commerce history, definitions. I pointed out the importance of this sector at european level by quantification of indicators. I used a theoretical research and qualitative analysis of the data. I presented values indicators at the european level, the lowest and highest value, and recorded values for Romania.

  17. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE: TANTANGAN KOMPETENSI AKUNTAN DALAM MENGHADAPI ISU INTERNAL KONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyarini Santosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of the internet and world wide web as enabler of electronic commerce has resulted in some complexities for accountants in conducting their engagement. In electronic commerce, which trading activities have been facilitated with computer network such as intranet, extranet or internet, internal control structure has become more complicated than those without network. Confidentiality, integrity, authenticity and non-repudiation are some of the major complex issues in the application of electronic commerce these days.Those complexities, which do not occur in non computer-based trading, are based on the fact that electronic commerce not only involves accounting disiplines but also technical comprehension from other diciplines. Accountants find difficulties in facing the internal control issues in computer-based information system environment, especially in a situation that business has already been implementing computer network in conducting its primary and support activities. This article will discuss material related to the current issues of internal control structure, the implication of electronic commerce on internal control structure and opportunities for accountants. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Kemunculan internet dan world wide web sebagai dasar berkembangnya perdagangan elektronik atau electronic commerce telah menimbulkan permasalahan yang cukup pelik bagi seorang akuntan dalam menjalankan penugasannya. Dalam lingkungan perdagangan yang sudah memanfaatkan jaringan komputer, baik dalam kapasitasnya sebagai intranet, extranet, maupun internet, sistem pengendalian internal menjadi semakin rumit. Beberapa isu seperti keamanan dan keaslian transaksi yang dulunya nampak sederhana dalam lingkungan yang tidak berbasis komputer, sekarang menjadi sangat kompleks. Dalam electronic commerce, isu-isu tersebut dikenal dengan istilah confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, non-repudiation dan sebagainya. Kekompleksan ini dikarenakan hal

  18. The electronic-commerce-oriented virtual merchandise model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaocui; Lu, Dongming

    2004-03-01

    Electronic commerce has been the trend of commerce activities. Providing with Virtual Reality interface, electronic commerce has better expressing capacity and interaction means. But most of the applications of virtual reality technology in EC, 3D model is only the appearance description of merchandises. There is almost no information concerned with commerce information and interaction information. This resulted in disjunction of virtual model and commerce information. So we present Electronic Commerce oriented Virtual Merchandise Model (ECVMM), which combined a model with commerce information, interaction information and figure information of virtual merchandise. ECVMM with abundant information provides better support to information obtainment and communication in electronic commerce.

  19. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  20. Secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deyun; Zhang, Junfeng; Pei, Shujun

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce the situation of electronic commercial security, then we analyze the working process and security for SSL protocol. At last, we propose a secure electronic commerce communication system based on CA. The system provide secure services such as encryption, integer, peer authentication and non-repudiation for application layer communication software of browser clients' and web server. The system can implement automatic allocation and united management of key through setting up the CA in the network.

  1. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-01-01

    Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter...

  2. Securing Electronic Transactions to Support E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Almunawar, Mohammad Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Many reports regarding online fraud in varieties media create skepticism for conducting transactions online, especially through an open network such as the Internet, which offers no security whatsoever. Therefore, encryption technology is vitally important to support secure e-commerce on the Internet. Two well-known encryption representing symmetric and asymmetric cryptosystems as well as their applications are discussed in this paper. Encryption is a key technology to secure electronic trans...

  3. STRATEGIES FOR COMPETETIVE ADVANTAGE IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Azadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite rapid and sustained development of electronic commerce, many companies doing e-business are still in the investment and brand-building phase and have yet to show a profit. However, as e-businesses shift their focus from  building a customer base to increasing revenue growth and profitability, they should reevaluate their current business strategies, if any, and develop strategies that provide a clear path to profitability. This study uses McCarthy’s four marketing mix model and Porter’s five competitive forces model to identify strategies for Internet companies that respond to the five competitive forces and thereby achieve a competitive advantage. The study provides significant new insights into the development and implementation of e-business strategies that contribute to increased profit.

  4. Electronic Commerce, the Internet and Travel Cybermediaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Brien

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The purchase of a very expensive, complex holiday requires a great deal of information and reliable expert advice. The risks involved in such a purchase are substantial. Industry opinion leaders believe that consumers will continue to take advice from a human sales consultant before purchasing, with the exception of major corporate bookings and simple point to point bookings. This paper investigates the likely disintermediation effects of electronic commerce on Retail Travel Agents. It provides the basis for the development of a strategic framework for intermediaries that can be used to enhance business performance. The findings of exploratory interviews with travel industry opinion leaders are presented, together with recommended strategic responses for Retail Travel Agents.

  5. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  6. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  7. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuPing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional online shopping platform (OSP, which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers’ experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  8. Provisions on electronic commerce in regional trade agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, José-Antonio; Teh, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the different types of provisions explicitly addressing electronic commerce (e-commerce) in regional trade agreements (RTAs). The analysis covers the 275 RTAs currently in force and notified to the WTO as of May 2017. The analysis shows that e-commerce provisions have become increasingly more detailed but remain highly heterogeneous. The most common types of e-commerce provisions refer to the promotion of e-commerce, cooperation activities and the moratorium on customs duti...

  9. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu,Lirong; Li, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce), such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a...

  10. A Model for Teaching Electronic Commerce Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C. Woodard

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of information technology in an ever-changing world at universities presents a challenge. Are courses taught as concepts, while ignoring hands-on courses, leaving the hands-on classes to the technical colleges or trade schools? Does this produce the best employees for industry or give students the knowledge and skills necessary to function in a high-tech world? At GeorgiaCollege & StateUniversity (GC&SU a model was developed that combines both concepts and practical hands-on skill to meet this challenge. Using this model, a program was developed that consists of classroom lecture of concepts as well as practical hands-on exercises for mastering the knowledge and developing the skills necessary to succeed in the high-tech world of electronic commerce. The students become productive day one of a new job assignment. This solves the problem of students having the "book knowledge" but not knowing how to apply what has been learned.

  11. Electronic Commerce and Collaboration Between Competing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Stickel

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Investments in electronic commerce technology typically require large sums of money and the realisation of possible benefits is often highly uncertain. Possible investors may also be confronted with the so-called free rider-problem. Innovators have to bear all development costs. Once standards are established followers (free riders may easily imitate the investment. Hence, innovators may not be able to build up sustaining competitive advantages that make their investments worthwhile. As a result, available technology may not be used in an efficient way. A typical prisoner's dilemma scenario prevails. Pre-competitive collaboration may be a possible solution to this problem. The term "pre-competitive" refers to the possibility of joint application development and/or sharing of information, knowledge and ability. It should not be confused with collusion which may be legally restricted or even forbidden. The goal of the paper is to analyse whether there are economic incentives for pre-competitive collaboration as sketched above. The analysis is carried out with the help of a microeconomic model and techniques from game theory.

  12. Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce, Defense Personnel Support Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    AD-A274 243 Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center DTIC %!" . FLECTE .: UEC3 0 199 3 -I CUSTOMER SATISFACTION 93 12...220 3 &tiuini nm Best Available Copy Strategic Plan for Electronic Commerce Defense Personnel Support Center NTIS C? ~- j CUSTOMER Avao OrK...Concept of Operations and Projects ........... 6-4 Benefits and Costs of Electronic Commerce in the Medical Directorate

  13. A Framework for Global Electronic Commerce: An Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of the Press Secretary of the White House

    1997-01-01

    An abbreviated version of a longer policy document on electronic commerce released by the Clinton Administration, this article examines principles and recommendations on tariffs, taxes, electronic payment systems, uniform commercial code for electronic commerce, intellectual property protection, privacy, security, telecommunications infrastructure…

  14. An explanatory study on electronic commerce for reverse logistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Kokkinaki; R. Dekker (Rommert); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); C.P. Pappis (Costas)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the role Electronic Commerce plays and can play for Reverse Logistics. After short introductions to electronic commerce and reverse logistics, we give an overview of existing internet sites for reverse logistics. These sites can be classified as electronic

  15. An explanatory study on electronic commerce for reverse logistics.

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinaki, A.I.; Dekker, Rommert; Nunen, Jo; Pappis, Costas

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider the role Electronic Commerce plays and can play for Reverse Logistics. After short introductions to electronic commerce and reverse logistics, we give an overview of existing internet sites for reverse logistics. These sites can be classified as electronic markets, supply of used parts and complete reverse logistic solutions. Finally we draw some lines to the future.

  16. Modeling the customer in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M G; Khalid, H M

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews interface design of web pages for e-commerce. Different tasks in e-commerce are contrasted. A systems model is used to illustrate the information flow between three subsystems in e-commerce: store environment, customer, and web technology. A customer makes several decisions: to enter the store, to navigate, to purchase, to pay, and to keep the merchandize. This artificial environment must be designed so that it can support customer decision-making. To retain customers it must be pleasing and fun, and create a task with natural flow. Customers have different needs, competence and motivation, which affect decision-making. It may therefore be important to customize the design of the e-store environment. Future ergonomics research will have to investigate perceptual aspects, such as presentation of merchandize, and cognitive issues, such as product search and navigation, as well as decision making while considering various economic parameters. Five theories on e-commerce research are presented.

  17. Event-related potentials elicited by social commerce and electronic-commerce reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Yao, Zhong; Cong, Fengyu; Zhang, Linlin

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing interest regarding the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in social commerce and electronic commerce (e-commerce) research. There are several reviews in the field of social commerce or e-commerce; these have great potential value and mining them is fundamental and significant. To our knowledge, EEG is rarely applied to study these. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of social commerce reviews (SCRs) and e-commerce reviews (ECRs) by using them as stimuli to evoke event-related potentials. All SCRs were from friends through a social media platform, whereas ECRs were from strangers through an e-commerce platform. The experimental design was similar to that of a priming paradigm, and included 40 pairs of stimuli consisting of product information (prime stimulus) and reviews (target stimulus). The results showed that the P300 component was successfully evoked by SCR and ECR stimuli. Moreover, the P300 components elicited by SCRs had higher amplitudes than those elicited by ECRs. These findings indicate that participants paid more attention to SCRs than to ECRs. In addition, the associations between neural responses and reviews in social commerce have the potential to assist companies in studying consumer behaviors, thus permitting them to enhance their social commerce strategies.

  18. Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Terrence A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter features innovations in resource management and information technology to support New York State government. The newsletter contains the following six sections: (1) "Electronic Commerce: Government Services in the New Millennium" -- examining the need for government involvement in electronic commerce policy and…

  19. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number ...

  20. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  1. Advances in Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication v.1

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Sally; Second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012)

    2012-01-01

    ECWAC2012 is an integrated conference devoted to Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication. In the this proceedings you can find the carefully reviewed scientific outcome of the second International Conference on Electronic Commerce, Web Application and Communication (ECWAC 2012) held at March 17-18,2012  in Wuhan, China, bringing together researchers from all around the world in the field.

  2. Trade-related Electronic Commerce Issues in the OECD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-In Yoon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade committee of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD has begun the study of the trade related to electronic commerce since 1997. The scale of the study on one hand has avoided the fact of copy and duplication of WTO and its organizational principles, on the other hand it has played a supplementary and supportive function. At present, digital-related product, such as computers, software and travel is the key point to the trade which resorts to electronic commerce. It is predicted that this trend will go on. The study on electronic commerce could be summed up into three main components: First, according to the phase of the trade, it could be divided into advertisement, purchase, delivery and payment. Second, issues on electronic commerce in the international trade; such as the issue that leads to the unfairness and non-neutrality of the searching engine in international service trade. Besides, domain name, trademarks and the issue of middleman which exist at the moment in the electronic commerce are activated and will also be discussed. Third, issues of the trade policy related to the electronic commerce. For instance, the kernel principles which support the multi-trade regulation, including transparency, indiscrimination, anti-dumping, flexible trade, government arrangement, tariff and competition policy and so on. Under this background, we should explore way in formulating hypotheses with preconceived issues, validating the electronic commerce trade on the spot, actualizing the study on the application of electronic commerce coming with the GATS regulation, seeking the countermeasure in the future trade policy, such as benefit policy to the electronic commerce department and electronic commerce strategy approach of certain enterprises, etc.

  3. The Art of Appeal in Electronic Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Albert Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance product appeal and website appeal as focal psychological mechanisms that can be invoked by business-to-consumer e-commerce sites to mitigate problems of information asymmetry via signaling to bolster consumers’ purchase intention under the influenc...

  4. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Achjari, Didi; Quaddus, Mohammed A.

    2004-01-01

    The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment) and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success) eith 24 observed variables. The study t...

  5. Enhanced Stochastic Methodology for Combined Architecture of E-Commerce and Security Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song-Kyoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with network architecture which is a combination of electronic commerce and security systems in the typical Internet ecosystems. The e-commerce model that is typically known as online shopping can be considered as a multichannel queueing system. In the other hand, stochastic security system is designed for improving the reliability and availability of the e-commerce system. The security system in this paper deals with a complex system that consists of main unreliable servers,...

  6. Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. Public Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This document presents the text of Public Law 106-229, the "Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act." The act states that, with respect to any transaction in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce: a signature, contract, or other record relating to such transaction may not be denied legal effect, validity, or…

  7. Customers' Beliefs Behind Business-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Lim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available With the rising importance of electronic commerce, it is important for researchers and company executives to understand customers' beliefs behind online shopping behaviour. This proposed study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM to test the influence of experience, self-efficacy, perceived risk, and social influence on customers' acceptance of the business-to consumer (b2c e-commerce.

  8. Electronic Commerce auf lokalen Märkten

    OpenAIRE

    Schwickert, Axel C.; Lüders, René

    1999-01-01

    eCommerce, versteht man es als Business-to-Consumer-Beziehung, sollte nicht lediglich unter dem Gesichtspunkt des globalen Handels betrachtet werden. Besonders Markttransaktionen von privaten Haushalten bzgl. Konsumgütern bzw. Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs finden vorwiegend auf lokalen und physischen Märkten statt. Die Bundesbürger verwenden z. B. einen großen Teil ihres verfügbaren Einkommens zum Kauf von Lebensmitteln oder Kleidung, die sie in Kaufhäusern, Supermärkten oder im selbständigen ...

  9. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Juan, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China); Liu, Chenlian, E-mail: chenglian.liu@gmail.com [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan University, Longyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com [Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  10. An ANFIS-based on B2C electronic commerce transaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juan; Liu, Chenlian; Guo, Yongning

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to use an adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system to model a fuzzy logic-based system (FIS) for supporting decision-making process in B2C electronic commerce transaction. Firstly we introduce FIS in B2C electronic commerce transaction and ANFIS. Then we use ANFIS to model FIS with different membership functions(MF). Lastly we give a conclusion.

  11. Contemporary Legal Issues in Electronic Commerce in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TI Akomolede

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has no doubt added a great deal to the quality of human life today. It has knitted the world together as a global village. Many difficulties which hampered international and even national commercial transactions in the past have now been consigned to the dust-bin of history. The emergence of electronic commerce is as a result of the creation of the internet, through which commercial transactions are conducted between parties from different parts of the world and who may never see themselves in their lifetimes. However, the emergence of electronic commerce has also brought with it a number of legal and socio-economic problems, especially in the developing nations such as Nigeria – problems which pose significance challenges to the legal regime of electronic commerce in those countries. This paper examines these legal issues within the context of the current legal and regulatory framework for electronic commerce in Nigeria.

  12. Electronic Commerce Success Model: A Search for Multiple Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Achjari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study attempts to develop and examine framework of e-commerce success. In order to obtain comprehensive and robust measures, the framework accomodates key factors that are identified in the literature concerning the success of electronic commerce. The structural model comprises of four exogenous variables (Internal Driver, Internal Impediment, External Driver and Exgternal Impediment and one endogenous variable (Electornic Commerce Success eith 24 observed variables. The study that was administered within large Australian companies using questionaire survey concluded that benefits for both internal organization and external parties from the use of e-commerce were the main factor tro predict perceived and/or expected success of electronic commerce.

  13. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  14. Innovating the Standard Procurement System through electronic commerce technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mangum, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    The Standard Procurement System (SPS) is the next generation of procurement application software designed to link acquisition reform and common DoD procurement business processes with commercial best practices and advances in electronic commerce. When fully implemented, it will serve more than 1,100 sites worldwide and be employed by over 44,000 professionals. This research examines the SPS and emerging electronic commerce technologies that are revolutionizing the business industry today. Thr...

  15. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  16. Electronic Commerce and Retail Channel Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); R. van der Noll

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze a market where firms compete in a conventional and an electronic retail channel. Consumers easily compare prices online, but some incur purchase uncertainties on the online channel. We investigate the market shares of the two retail channels and the prices that are charged. We

  17. A decision technology system for health care electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A; Gangopadhyay, A; Klein, J A; Eckhardt, R

    1999-08-01

    Mounting costs have escalated the pressure on health care providers and payers to improve decision making and control expenses. Transactions to form the needed decision data will routinely flow, often electronically, between the affected parties. Conventional health care information systems facilitate flow, process transactions, and generate useful decision information. Typically, such support is offered through a series of stand-alone systems that lose much useful decision knowledge and wisdom during health care electronic commerce (e-commerce). Integrating the stand-alone functions can enhance the quality and efficiency of the segmented support, create synergistic effects, and augment decision-making performance and value for both providers and payers. This article presents an information system that can provide complete and integrated support for e-commerce-based health care decision making. The article describes health care e-commerce, presents the system, examines the system's potential use and benefits, and draws implications for health care management and practice.

  18. Logistics, electronic commerce, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Joseph; Meade, Laura; Talluri, Srinivas

    2002-02-01

    Organizations realize that a strong supporting logistics or electronic logistics (e-logistics) function is important from both commercial and consumer perspectives. The implications of e-logistics models and practices cover the forward and reverse logistics functions of organizations. They also have direct and profound impact on the natural environment. This paper will focus on a discussion of forward and reverse e-logistics and their relationship to the natural environment. After discussion of the many pertinent issues in these areas, directions of practice and implications for study and research are then described.

  19. Real Electronic Commerce: Smart Cards on the Superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, David

    1997-01-01

    Technologies of payment rather than technologies of connection are the real trigger for the expansion of electronic commerce on the Internet. This article discusses "smart cards," highlighting Mondex, the electronic purse developed in the United Kingdom. Predicts that cash will be replaced by "e-cash," which is cheaper to make,…

  20. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI): Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AD-A238 559 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to Enhance Defense Logistics Judith E. Payne, Robert H. Anderson N STATEN= A... electronic commerce to enhance defense logistics / Judith L. Payne and Robert H, Anderson. "Prepared for the Assistant Sccretary of Defense (Production and...by RAND 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90407-2138 | ,! R-4030-P&L Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Using Electronic Commerce to

  1. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE LABOR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Dumitru

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The technological revolution of recent years about the spectacular development of the Internet has made its presence felt in the economy. Electronic commerce is already a major component of the economy and thus influences the labor market. In this article, we present electronic commerce as an alternative to increase the number of employees. Given that only 6% of Romanian currently use electronic commerce, its growth potential is huge and in terms of thoughtful strategies it can be achieved their guidance to specific regions. Attracting companies operating on the Internet in a given region can be done by providing incentives and beneficial effects will be felt not only through the number of employees but also through the services used by these companies.

  2. Transaksi Bisnis Dalam Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce): Studi Tentang Permasalahan Hukum Dan Solusinya

    OpenAIRE

    Sanusi, M. Arsyad

    2001-01-01

    The progress of modem technology recently makes the transformation of Information and mode of communication among human beings become easy and direct, especially in the world of trade. In deed, the business facilities which can be obtained easily through e- commerce gives some advantages, but, at the same time, it also gives birth a number of crucial legal problems. First, the substantive problem swhich include problems of data massage authenticity, electronic signature, validity, privacy or ...

  3. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  4. "Emmerce" Immersion: The Emerging World of Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuck, Lysbeth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of Web-based electronic commerce, or "emmerce," on online user. Defines "cookies" and Persistent Client State HTTP Cookies or "magic cookies" on Macintosh computers. Examines underlying technologies that make up "cashless" transactions; growing demand for micropayments; CyberCash,…

  5. Business Students Flock to Courses on Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1999-01-01

    Business schools across the country are specializing in electronic commerce, in which teams of students create online businesses available on the Internet only to participating institutions. The courses offer students an opportunity to see how an online retailing business is conducted, including creating and maintaining Web sites, advertising…

  6. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  7. Agent Mediated Electronic Commerce: Designing Trading Agents and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. La Poutré (Han); N.M. Sadeh; S. Janson

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractThis book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Mediated Electronic Commerce, AMEC VII 2005, held in Utrecht, Netherlands in July 2005, as part of AAMAS 2005, and the third Workshop on Trading Agent Design and Analysis, TADA 2005,

  8. Toward a generic model of trust for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, YH; Thoen, W

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a generic model of trust for electronic commerce consisting of two basic components, party trust and control trust, based on the concept that trust in a transaction with another party combines trust in the other parry and trust in the control mechanisms that ensure the successful

  9. Agent-based services for B2B electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Elizabeth; Ivezic, Nenad; Rhodes, Tom; Peng, Yun

    2000-12-01

    The potential of agent-based systems has not been realized yet, in part, because of the lack of understanding of how the agent technology supports industrial needs and emerging standards. The area of business-to-business electronic commerce (b2b e-commerce) is one of the most rapidly developing sectors of industry with huge impact on manufacturing practices. In this paper, we investigate the current state of agent technology and the feasibility of applying agent-based computing to b2b e-commerce in the circuit board manufacturing sector. We identify critical tasks and opportunities in the b2b e-commerce area where agent-based services can best be deployed. We describe an implemented agent-based prototype system to facilitate the bidding process for printed circuit board manufacturing and assembly. These activities are taking place within the Internet Commerce for Manufacturing (ICM) project, the NIST- sponsored project working with industry to create an environment where small manufacturers of mechanical and electronic components may participate competitively in virtual enterprises that manufacture printed circuit assemblies.

  10. Electronic Commerce – An International Phenomenon, Generating Commercial Litigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Roşu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the e-commerce boom of the past few years has produced plenty of satisfied e-shoppersand successful Web-based companies, many consumers and businesses are left wondering where they can goto resolve their online disputes. The legal system (such as the court system and classical arbitration cannoteffectively respond to the challenges posed by conducting electronic commerce and this paper is proposed toanalyse the types of disputes that can arise from those e-commerce operations. The aim of this approach isrepresented by our attempt to explain why conflict resolution cannot be reasonably accomplished usingtraditional legal system and consequently the measures that have been taken by the international bodies tofacilitate consumers' right to a fair and effective trial services.

  11. Electronic commerce: wiring the coal industry for new data technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    1998-07-01

    Industry pundits predict that coal by wire may some day replace much of the industry`s long-distance shipping requirements and their attendant costs, but data by wire, also known as electronic commerce (EC) can today offer coal producers and customers the means to gather and send large volumes of data cheaply and quickly. EC`s major components - electronic data interchange (EDI), bar-coding, smart codes, radio frequency `D`, and the internet - can reduce costs in equipment-intensive industries such as mining. The US National Mining Association sponsored a forum to discuss these alternatives at its 1998 Electronic Commerce Summit held in Tuscon, Arizona, 18-20 May. A report is given of discussions at the forum and contacts are given for sources of EDI information.

  12. Traditional Commerce Versus Electronic Commerce: A Case Study Under The Logistics Costs Management View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to see how a large Brazilian company of the retail sector makes the measurement and analysis of logistics costs of both its physical operations (traditional trade as their virtual transactions (e-commerce. The research has been conducted in the contributions of strategic cost management for business sustainability. This is an unique descriptive case study, with a qualitative approach, performed in the 2nd half of 2013. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis and in situ observations. Data analyzes occurred by comparative interpretations. The main results showed no significant differences in the analysis and measurement of logistics costs between the two forms of trading. This can be explained partly by the fact that the company does not deal with electronic commerce differently in relation to the management of logistics costs. That is, both the operations of the virtual store as physical stores share the same logistics structure. Additional logistics costs in e-commerce are offset by higher margin practiced in this business model.

  13. GOOD INTENTION ON ELECTRONIC CONTRACT THROUGH E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Purwadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic contract (e-contract is a contract that vulnerable to the emersion of problems because the contract happened between absence persons. This problem can be avoided if businessman who included in the electronic commerce using principle of good intention. According to the Information and Electronic Transactions Act declare that good intention shall be given during the transaction taking place, it must be interpreted both in the pre-transaction stage, transaction stage, and post-transaction phase. Thus, in order to protect consumer, it's good intention should be exist in every phase of consumer transaction.

  14. Electronic Commerce: a battle on regulation, standards transportation media and business integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Andersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The drive towards the electronic commerce organisation is both a troublesome and a strifted path for government, enterprises and consumers worldwide. In this article we analyse the evolution of electronic commerce in Denmark during the period 1995-1998 from four perspectives: regulation, standards, transportation media and business integration. The Danish government is stimulating the use of electronic commerce using direct and indirect policy initiatives on central, governmental regulation and establishment of greens enabling self-regulation. Also, the governments own, organisational management is in Denmark seen as a mean to exalt electronic commerce. Onwards, the fist on proprietary standards and the UN/EDIFACT is an ongoing source of delaying, stimulating or reventing electronic commerce depending on the business sector and the size of market actor addressed. In Denmark, the direct access and value added network supporters have so far been the dominating mean to transport the electronic documents in the business transaction. The Internet and XML technology is at the turn of the century challenging the way of doing business within this field. Some view this as the big blue to speed the diffusion of electronic commerce; others are worried that the incentive to investment and pull the partners in the value chain to use EDI might be lost. Finally, our study conclude that the debate on business integration issues is ambiguous and characterised by substantial uncertainty on for example the role of intermediates, direct sale, hyper-shift in business partners and the pull/push of global enterprises at the local markets.

  15. ADDED VALUE-BASED APROACH TO ANALYZE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND MOBILE COMMERCE BUSINESS MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Weizmann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se propone aplicar la teoría del valor informacional agregado (Theory of Informational Added Values, IAV al Electronic Commerce (EC y al Mobile Commerce (MC. El trabajo presentado es una propuesta para acercarse a modelos de negocio, con el foco de criterios típicos de evaluación para modelos de negocio de Internet y del MC. Es también conveniente para comparar modelos de negocio distintos y para poner el valor añadido para los participantes en un contexto. De esta manera, se establecen criterios objetivos que reducen la subjetividad y permiten hacer ciertas predicciones. El artículo termina con un análisis crítico del estado del arte y un comentario sobre las perspectivas futuras.

  16. E-commerce System Security Assessment based on Bayesian Network Algorithm Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of e-commerce network security is based on assessment method Bayesian networks, and it first defines the vulnerability status of e-commerce system evaluation index and the vulnerability of the state model of e-commerce systems, and after the principle of the Bayesian network reliability of e-commerce system and the criticality of the vulnerabilities were analyzed, experiments show that the change method is a good evaluation of the security of e-commerce systems.

  17. THE ROLE OF TRUST AND PERCEIVED RISK IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULA DANA LAURA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trust and risk are very important in consumers' electronic commerce purchasing decisions. How do trust and risk affect an Internet consumer's purchasing decision? To answer this question I’ve developed a theoretical framework describing the trust-based decision-making process a consumer uses when making a purchase from a given site. Consumer disposition to trust, reputation, privacy concerns, security concerns, the information quality of the Website, and the company's reputation, have strong effects on Internet consumers' trust in the Website.

  18. Diffusion of Electronic Commerce in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Lawson

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the Internet for electronic business has become an area of action for the Australian Government. This paper presents research results from two regional areas which indicate that while most manufacturing SMEs use email, very few are involved in elecronic commerce activities. Major barriers are concern about security and privacy of transactions, cost of consultants, and lack of IT expertise of staff. Employing people with appropriate knowledge has been added to current training methods such as on-the-job training. Results from the two regional areas are found to be consistent. Comparisons between small and medium organisations highlight some differences.

  19. Research on distributed virtual reality system in electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Wang, Jiening; Sun, Jizhou

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, Distributed Virtual Reality (DVR) technology applied in Electronical Commerce (EC) is discussed. DVR has the capability of providing a new means for human being to recognize, analyze and resolve the large scale, complex problems, which makes it develop quickly in EC fields. The technology of CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) and middleware is introduced into the development of EC-DVR system to meet the need of a platform which can provide the necessary cooperation and communication services to avoid developing the basic module repeatedly. Finally, the paper gives a platform structure of EC-DVR system.

  20. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  1. The research on electronic commerce security payment system based on set protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongliang

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of network technology, online transactions have become more and more common. In this paper, we firstly introduce the principle and the basic principal and technical foundation of SET, and then we analyze the progress of designing a system in the foundation of the procedure of the electronic business based on SET. On this basis, we design a system of the Payment System for Electronic Business. It will not only take on crucial realism signification for large-scale, medium-sized and mini-type corporations, but also provide guide meaning with programmer and design-developer to realize Electronic Commerce (EC).

  2. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  3. A Change of Course: The Importance to DoD of International Standards for Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing...business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted...electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce , DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and

  4. A concept of applications in the electronic commerce market

    OpenAIRE

    Oboyanskiy, Andrey; Shuvalova, Mariya

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the potential of mobile applications in the e-commerce. The current state of e-commerce has been considered. The Internet users' involvement in the e-commerce has been analyzed. Analyzed example of the most popular applications for further analysis sphere of e-commerce. The work analyzes the successful e-commerce site on the market. The different concepts for using mobile applications on e-commerce market. Examples of the use of augmented reality applications aimed at p...

  5. An Electronic Commerce Program for the Defence Finance and Accounting Service-Columbus Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    AD-A237 636 JU0 0 u5 11111 IN III III1 m11i AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING SERVICE - COLUMBUS CENTER Report...MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 91-04373 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PROGRAM FOR THE DEFENSE...some Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic data interchange and electronic funds transfer. We believe additional applications of those

  6. Nutzung und Akzeptanz von Electronic Commerce : E-Commerce und die Bürger

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe

    2000-01-01

    Marktprognosen bescheinigen dem elektronischen Handel eine große Zukunft. Business-Transaktionen verändern sich rapide unter dem Einfluss elektronischer Kommunikationstechnologien. Wenngleich auch erwartet wird, dass sich Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce weltweit als erfolgreicher Vertriebs- und Kommunikationskanal etablieren wird, stößt E-Commerce derzeit noch nicht auf die erhoffte Akzeptanz in breiten Konsumentenschichten. Dies hängt nicht zuletzt mit der Verbreitung des Internet zusammen, ...

  7. Research on mobile electronic commerce security technology based on WPKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    Through the in-depth study on the existing mobile e-commerce and WAP protocols, this paper presents a security solution of e-commerce system based on WPKI, and describes its implementation process and specific implementation details. This solution uniformly distributes the key used by the various participating entities , to fully ensure the confidentiality, authentication, fairness and integrity of mobile e-commerce payments, therefore has some pract ical value for improving the security of e-commerce system.

  8. Covering the Monitoring Network: A Unified Framework to Protect E-Commerce Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Qiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia applications in smart electronic commerce (e-commerce, such as online trading and Internet marketing, always face security in storage and transmission of digital images and videos. This study addresses the problem of security in e-commerce and proposes a unified framework to analyze the security data. First, to allocate the definite security resources optimally, we build our e-commerce monitoring model as an undirected network, where a monitored node is a vertex of the graph and a connection between vertices is an undirected edge. Moreover, we aim to find a minimal cover for the monitoring network as the optimal solution of resource allocation, which is defined as the network monitoring minimization problem (NMM. This problem is proved to be NP-hard. Second, by analyzing the latent threats, we design a novel and trusted monitoring system that can integrate incident monitoring, data analysis, risk assessment, and security warnings. This system does not touch users’ privacy data. Third, we propose a sequential model-based risk assessment method, which can predict the risk according to the text semantics. Our experimental results on web scale data demonstrate that our system is flexible enough when monitoring, which also verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our system.

  9. Electronic Commerce: Case Analyses and Tools Utilized in the Accomplishment of Buying Activities Within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    electronic business or e -business processes (how the business is conducted), and electronic commerce ( Ecommerce ...BACKGROUND .........................................3 C. DEFINITIONS ........................................5 1. Electronic Commerce ( Ecommerce ...cases discussed within this thesis: 1. Electronic Commerce ( Ecommerce ) According to the Federal Register, electronic commerce is a means to

  10. Digital contract approach for consistent and predictable multimedia information delivery in electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konana, Prabhudev; Gupta, Alok; Whinston, Andrew B.

    1997-01-01

    A pure 'technological' solution to network quality problems is incomplete since any benefits from new technologies are offset by the demand from exponentially growing electronic commerce ad data-intensive applications. SInce an economic paradigm is implicit in electronic commerce, we propose a 'market-system' approach to improve quality of service. Quality of service for digital products takes on a different meaning since users view quality of service differently and value information differently. We propose a framework for electronic commerce that is based on an economic paradigm and mass-customization, and works as a wide-area distributed management system. In our framework, surrogate-servers act as intermediaries between information provides and end- users, and arrange for consistent and predictable information delivery through 'digital contracts.' These contracts are negotiated and priced based on economic principles. Surrogate servers pre-fetched, through replication, information from many different servers and consolidate based on demand expectations. In order to recognize users' requirements and process requests accordingly, real-time databases are central to our framework. We also propose that multimedia information be separated into slowly changing and rapidly changing data streams to improve response time requirements. Surrogate- servers perform the tasks of integration of these data streams that is transparent to end-users.

  11. LINGUISTIC FEATURES ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH ELECTRONIC COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at identifying linguistic features used in the English electronic commerce websites used in correlation with the field, tenor and mode of discourse as parts of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL approach. Findings have shown that in the field of discourse, the linguistic features are largely appeared in the experiential domain analysis which shows that all terms of registers function as technical terms, of which the two major forms of nouns and verbs were the most frequent categories among other kinds of technical terms. The goal orientation is considered to be as a long term and the social activity is exchange. In the tenor of discourse, the linguistic features are highly appeared in the social distance analysis which shows that the social distance between participants is considered minimal. The agentive role is said to be equal and the social role is considered as non-hierarchic. In the mode of discourse, the linguistic features are excessively occurred in the language role analysis which exists equally of both constitutive and ancillary. The channel is in graphic mode. The medium is in written with a visual contact as its device.

  12. An Investigation into the Feasibility of Tasmanian Stonefruit Growers Employing Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Pedersen

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This research presents an assessment of the feasibility of Tasmanian stonefruit growers adopting electronic commerce. In order to achieve this aim a number of qualitative techniques were employed under an action research methodology. Although not all applications of electronic commerce are suitable within the environment under study, it is suggested that there are ways in which electronic commerce could provide value. However, inhibitors, some common to Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs, do exist. There is a need for these issues to be understood prior to adopting electronic commerce.

  13. Effects of Knowledge Management on Electronic Commerce: An Exploratory Study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jang Kenny Jih; Marilyn M. Helms; Donna Taylor Mayo

    2005-01-01

    The Internet-enabled e-commerce field provides capabilities for firms in all sectors to reach global buyers and suppliers. Knowledge management provides frameworks to manage intellectual capital as a valuable organizational and strategic resource. Current literature on e-commerce and knowledge management primarily emphasizes the benefit of knowledge management for innovative e-commerce operations. Do knowledge management practices significantly benefit electronic commerce? If so, does the rel...

  14. E-commerce, paper and energy use: a case study concerning a Dutch electronic computer retailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoogeveen, M.J.; Reijnders, L. [Open University Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    Impacts of the application of c-commerce on paper and energy use are analysed in a case study concerning a Dutch electronic retailer (e-tailer) of computers. The estimated use of paper associated with the e-tailer concerned was substantially reduced if compared with physical retailing or traditional mail-order retailing. However, the overall effect of e-tailing on paper use strongly depends on customer behaviour. Some characteristics of c-commerce, as practised by the e-tailer concerned, such as diminished floor space requirements, reduced need for personal transport and simplified logistics, improve energy efficiency compared with physical retailing. Substitution of paper information by online information has an energetic effect that is dependent on the time of online information perusal and the extent to which downloaded information is printed. Increasing distances from producers to consumers, outsourcing, and increased use of computers, associated equipment and electronic networks are characteristics of e-commerce that may have an upward effect on energy use. In this case study, the upward effects thereof on energy use were less than the direct energy efficiency gains. However, the indirect effects associated with increased buying power and the rebound effect on transport following from freefalling travel time, greatly exceeded direct energy efficiency gains. (author)

  15. Innovating the Standard Procurement System Through Electronic Commerce Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mangum, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    .... Through a literature review and interview process, an analysis of the SPS along with Ariba Inc., a commercial paperless contracting venture, and leading intelligent agent software applications in e-commerce is presented...

  16. Customer Behavior in Electronic Commerce: A Bayesian Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silvana Dakduk; Enrique ter Horst; Zuleyma Santalla; German Molina; José Malavé

    2017-01-01

    .... However, while it is well established in developed countries, e-commerce is still at an early stage in emerging markets, hence there is a need to unveil which factors contributes to its adoption...

  17. A Mobile Electronic Toll Collection for E-Commerce Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chin E Lin; Ling Yan Bi

    2008-01-01

    ...) communication on microprocessor control with an e-commerce business model. A simple ETC system architecture and protocol for e-transactions from vehicles to toll stations is proposed to complete toll interaction on wireless environment...

  18. Security Implications of Electronic Commerce: A Survey of Consumers and Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, S. M.; Karweni, T.

    1999-01-01

    Examines general requirement for security technologies that provide a basis for trust in the electronic commerce environment. Discusses the results of two surveys that included general Internet users who are potential customers as well as commercial businesses, that considered attitudes to electronic commerce in general and options relating to…

  19. Web 2.0, Social Networks and E-commerce as Marketing Tools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco J Mata; Ariella Quesada

    2014-01-01

    .... In this article, we clarify Web 2.0 and present how it can be used for marketing. In particular, we discuss the role that online social networks may have in e-marketing, and in doing so how such networks might relate to e-commerce. In addition, recommendations for e-commerce researchers are presented based on the evidence obtained. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  20. Electronic Commerce: Canadian Community Colleges and Institutes of Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges.

    This paper reports on the Canadian college system's collaboration with industry and community services in the development and delivery of non-credit e-commerce courses offered through continuing education departments at community colleges and institutes of technology. The paper argues that, in today's changing economy, the accelerated need for…

  1. Ubiquitous and pervasive commerce new frontiers for electronic business

    CERN Document Server

    Roussos, George

    2006-01-01

    The new capabilities of ubiquitous and pervasive computing imply that products, locations, consumers and employees create rich streams of information about themselves, their immediate environment and their use. This book brings together technological and business aspects of conducting commerce using ubiquitous and pervasive computing techniques and also examines its implications for society at large. Individual chapters examine in detail the core technologies that make ubiquitous computing possible, the business standards that must be established to support the envisioned global infrastructure

  2. Real-Time Robust Adaptive Modeling and Scheduling for an Electronic Commerce Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Ruan, Chun

    With the increasing importance and pervasiveness of Internet services, it is becoming a challenge for the proliferation of electronic commerce services to provide performance guarantees under extreme overload. This paper describes a real-time optimization modeling and scheduling approach for performance guarantee of electronic commerce servers. We show that an electronic commerce server may be simulated as a multi-tank system. A robust adaptive server model is subject to unknown additive load disturbances and uncertain model matching. Overload control techniques are based on adaptive admission control to achieve timing guarantees. We evaluate the performance of the model using a complex simulation that is subjected to varying model parameters and massive overload.

  3. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  4. Some Lessons for Higher Education from the Economics of Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenell, Simon

    The arrival of the Internet has been seen to portend the rise of the virtual university, global competition, and the end of campus education. The emerging economics of electronic commerce (eCommerce) allows for a measured understanding of the implications of the new technologies for higher education and even how educational innovation should be…

  5. SMEs and Electronic Commerce: A Departure from the Traditional Prioritisation of Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Helen; Milner, Brigid

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 56 small/medium-sized Irish enterprises showed that 46% were highly proficient in electronic commerce, 42% were at the basic level. Media pressure significantly influenced adoption. In 40% of firms, owner-managers were the driving force. E-commerce was not yet business critical and relevant training was not yet a comprehensive…

  6. Cross-Border Electronic Commerce : Distance Effects and Express Delivery in European Union Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.Y. Kim (Thai Young); R. Dekker (Rommert); C. Heij (Christiaan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis empirical study examines distance effects on cross-border electronic commerce and in particular the importance of express delivery in reducing the time dimension of distance. E-commerce provides suppliers with a range of opportunities to reduce distance as perceived by online

  7. PERANCANGAN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE BERBASIS B2C PADA TOKO ATK SINDORO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade through the internet network is known as electronic commerce has advantages that directly can be useful for Atk Sindoro one that uses the internet to aim to expand the marketing and service through the Internet so as to add value to the Ats Sindoro Shop. In order to customer is done by contacting by phone or go to company, so that takes a long time and hamper customer in doing transaction. Therefore this thesis is made aiming to design a web application program that is used for online ordering activities at Atk Sindoro. This research uses RUP methodology, programming language and database used in making this system is PHP and MySQL. With this system facilitate the process of sale and transaction of consumer ordering.

  8. A Framework for Effective User Interface Design for Web-Based Electronic Commerce Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Burns

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient delivery of relevant product information is increasingly becoming the central basis of competition between firms. The interface design represents the central component for successful information delivery to consumers. However, interface design for web-based information systems is probably more an art than a science at this point in time. Much research is needed to understand properties of an effective interface for electronic commerce. This paper develops a framework identifying the relationship between user factors, the role of the user interface and overall system success for web-based electronic commerce. The paper argues that web-based systems for electronic commerce have some similar properties to decision support systems (DSS and adapts an established DSS framework to the electronic commerce domain. Based on a limited amount of research studying web browser interface design, the framework identifies areas of research needed and outlines possible relationships between consumer characteristics, interface design attributes and measures of overall system success.

  9. Electronic Commerce - Chancen und Herausforderungen für Baden-Württemberg : Projektbericht

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Gerhard; Renz, Christian; Teutsch, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Electronic Commerce“ – elektronischer Handel – ist seit Ende der 90er Jahre im Zuge der Gesamtdiskussion um den Bereich der „New Economy“ Thema von Wirtschaft, Politik und Öffentlichkeit. Verbunden mit Hoffnungen auf hohes Umsatzwachstum, getragen von einem enormen technischen Potenzial, zeichneten eine Reihe von Prognosen das euphorische Bild eines explosionsartigen Anstieges des Volumens von Electronic Commerce. Doch nicht erst seit dem „Platzen der E-Commerce-Blase“ im Jahr 2001 werden kr...

  10. E-commerce within the South African electronic component distribution industry

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. This dissertation looks at E-Commerce in the South African electronic component distribution industry. With this in mind, various questions were defined and these were used to help understand the current situation, determine the future that ECommerce should have in the industry and find a mechanism to go from the current to the future situation, the questions are as follows: Has the traditional electronic component distribution channel been made obsolete by E-Commerce? What does the...

  11. A change of course: The importance to DoD of international standards for electronic commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Judith E.

    1991-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is committed to using electronic commerce in the future with the over 300,000 vendors interested in doing business with DoD. Electronic commerce will move DoD from a paper-based world to one based on electronic transactions enabled by the exchange of formatted, electronic messages referred to as electronic data interchange (EDI). With electronic commerce, DoD plans to reduce costs, increase effectiveness, and make it easier for vendors to deal with DoD. Benefits from electronic commerce are enhanced when many businesses use the same standards for EDI messages themselves and their transmission. The fewer standards used, the less time and resources must be spent translating messages and agreeing on how to use different standards. To enhance benefits and smooth the transition to electronic commerce for itself and its vendors, DoD has chosen to use the widely accepted American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X12 standards for EDI messages, coupled with international standards for delivering messages and organizing addresses. In the past 18 months, EDI standards sponsored by a United Nations body and serving the same purpose as ANSI X12 message standards have begun to gain wider acceptance internationally.

  12. Health care and privacy law in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B

    1994-01-01

    As electronic data interchange (EDI) continues to gain acceptance and use, questions regarding protection of the confidentiality of private healthcare information have arisen. This article explains how a computer-based information system equipped with appropriate safeguards can be far better at ensuring privacy than a paper-based system.

  13. Advantages of Application of Electronic Commerce in Procurement for the Armed Forces of Brazil and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    is paid to legal issues, electronic funds transfer and on-line reverse auctions. An E - Commerce implementation plan is presented, benchmarked on the...and disadvantages of E - Commerce . Particular attention is paid to legal issues, electronic funds transfer and on- line reverse auctions. An E - Commerce ...sans.org/infosecFAQ/ ecommerce /fraud.htm], September 2001. Schneider, Gary P. and James T. Perry, “ Electronic Commerce ”, Course Technology, 2001

  14. ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SIGNATURE RULE IN THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE LAW OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Nurhayati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian legislature has enacted the Information and Electronic Transaction Bill (the Bill in 2003, in which digital signature as a technology specific electronic (e commerce has been promoted. The promotion of digital signature is still problematic, since there is an uncertainty whether Indonesia can develop well a required viable technology of digital signature. Moreover, there is a gap between the actual use of digital signature and the projections of future utilization of digital signature by interested parties on e-commerce. This paper will discuss the reason of the Indonesian legislature promotes digital signature. It will then analyse the gap between the actual use of digital signature and the projections of future utilization of digital signature by interested parties on e-commerce. This paper will finally argue whether the promotion of digital signature of the Bill is useful for the growth of e-commerce in Indonesia.

  15. Perceived Barriers Of E-Commerce Expansion In The Electronic Manufacturing Companies In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah Alam; Ali Khatibi; Chloe Teah Woon Sim; Ahasanul Haque

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the major barriers that prevent manufacturing companies in Malaysia from adopting e-commerce. The major barriers of e-commerce expansion were security of payment and uncertain nature of legal and regulatory frameworks. Also the empirical findings reveal that doing business over Internet involves high start-up cost. In fact it is costly to set-up business electronically, because so many technological appliances are involved. Computers are quite expensive to buy limited main...

  16. The Influence of Power on Trading Partner Trust in Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Pauline

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of power in electronic commerce focuses on the impact of power in the adoption of electronic data interchange. Presents a case study of Ford Motor Company in Australia that shows negative (coercive) power resulted in uncertainty, whereas positive (persuasive) power resulted in open communications, thus building trading partner trust.…

  17. Evaluating the Benefits of Electronic Commerce in Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marshall

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines and analyses the behaviours of small and medium enterprises with respect to the evaluation of electronic commerce investments, and the subsequent realisation of the anticipated benefits from those investments. The responses of executives who participated in the study suggested that on-going involvement in electronic commerce did not come cheaply. Nonetheless, our study suggests that there were generally ad hoc approaches to evaluation of the proposed electronic commerce investments, almost non-existent post-implementation reviews, few measures of success, and generally speaking, there was little evidence of there being proactive management of the realisation of benefits of those investments. Perhaps not surprisingly, the group interviewed seemed somewhat disappointed with the outcomes of their electronic commerce initiatives. The implications of these findings are discussed, particularly for countries where small and medium enterprises contribute a large proportion of total economic activity, and where thus it is vital for small and medium enterprises to successfully engage in electronic commerce if the country is to derive the benefits of the new economy.

  18. Research on e-commerce transaction networks using multi-agent modelling and open application programming interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Chunhui; Han, Xufang; Wu, Harris

    2010-08-01

    We provide a formal definition of an e-commerce transaction network. Agent-based modelling is used to simulate e-commerce transaction networks. For real-world analysis, we studied the open application programming interfaces (APIs) from eBay and Taobao e-commerce websites and captured real transaction data. Pajek is used to visualise the agent relationships in the transaction network. We derived one-mode networks from the transaction network and analysed them using degree and betweenness centrality. Integrating multi-agent modelling, open APIs and social network analysis, we propose a new way to study large-scale e-commerce systems.

  19. The Long Term Effects of Electronic Commerce and Data Interchange on Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bergeron

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to identify the determinants of electronic commerce effectiveness, as well as the variation over time of their effect. A two-phased study was undertaken for this purpose, using EDI as a specific form of electronic commerce. Sixty-five organisations were surveyed twice over a three-year period. In Phase 1, determining factors were found to be the level of organisational support, the rigour of the implementation process, the presence of control procedures, and the level of internal integration, external integration and imposition of EDI. Imposition also has a negative effect on the organisational context of EDI. In Phase 2, the implementation process, internal integration and imposition lost their importance, whereas the effect of imposition on the organisational context became positive. In the future, we expect the security and external integration to be the most important success factors of electronic commerce.

  20. DOD Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in contracting report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Use of Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) to support Department of Defense (DoD) procurement processes has been under consideration for some time. A 1988 Deputy Secretary of Defense memo calls for maximum use of EDI, based on 10 years of DoD EDI investigation and experiments. In 1990, Defense Management Review Decision 941 stated, 'The strategic goal of DoD's current efforts is to provide the department with the capability to initiate, conduct, and maintain its external business related transactions and internal logistics, contracting, and financial activities without requiring the use of hard copy media.' The EC in Contracting PAT membership reflected a broad cross section of Military Services and Defense Agencies working on a full-time basis for 60 days. The diversity of the EC in Contracting PAT ensured that the needs and concerns of all DoD components were addressed during the creation of the report. The resultant plan, therefore, represents a comprehensive approach for implementing EC throughout the DoD.

  1. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scupola, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the publishing industry and its use of information and communication technologies focuses on the way in which electronic-commerce technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business complementarity model of electronic publishing to maximize profitability and improve the competitive position.…

  2. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using Internet and Extranet for EDI transactions. The major advantage of using the internet is its universal avail- ability. All businesses are now connected to the internet. The cost of exchanging .... it is very difficult to isolate and access data from a HTML page and use it in an application. XML, on the other hand, is a logical.

  3. Electronic Commerce

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The currency system as we know it today evolved over centuries and is time- tested (see Box 1). The major advantages of cash are: •. It is guaranteed by the government and does not nor- mally lose its value in the short range (except when there is hyper-inflation!). •. It is universally recognised as having value and accepted.

  4. Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce.

  5. The Navy Supply Corps Newsletter. Contracting Innovations: Navy Electronic Commerce Online Navy Afloat Purchase Card Program. Volume 62, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    tf • lovy Electronic Commerce Online m Afloat Purchase Card Program4 % y5.ll ’ ’"’#K5&. ifekj 1IÜN AB iräri.1 . ■■-■ 11...Contracting Innovations NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners 8 The Afloat Purchase Card Program: Decentralizing Purchasing for...there. J- May/June NAVSUP Electronic Commerce in Contracting for Beginners By Matt Nielsen, NECO Project Manager, Naval Supply Systems Command M he

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.60 - To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To what extent must my agency use electronic commerce? 102-118.60 Section 102-118.60 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT...

  7. The First World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce: Review and Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, Nick; De Castro, Akemi

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes some key findings of academic papers presented at the First World Congress on the Management of Electronic Commerce (January, 2000, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada). Outlines two meta-management issues that surfaced: taking a strategic approach to Internet ventures and considering infrastructure design during implementation. Highlights…

  8. Megastore: Advanced Internet-based Electronic Commerce Service for Music Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benabdelkader, A.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Hertzberger, L.O.; Ibrahim, M.; Küng, J.; Revell, N.

    2000-01-01

    To support necessary requirements and flexibility to the buyers of different goods; advanced and efficient internet-based Electronic Commerce services must be designed and developed. In addition to the traditional user requirements, the developed system must properly address efficiency issues, among

  9. ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL SIGNATURE RULE IN THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE LAW OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Irna Nurhayati

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian legislature has enacted the Information and Electronic Transaction Bill (the Bill) in 2003, in which digital signature as a technology specific electronic (e) commerce has been promoted. The promotion of digital signature is still problematic, since there is an uncertainty whether Indonesia can develop well a required viable technology of digital signature. Moreover, there is a gap between the actual use of digital signature and the projections of future utilization of digital ...

  10. The essence and development of electronic commerce in Ukraine: an accounting aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.P. Kvach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence and features of electronic commerce in the world and in Ukraine under modern conditions have been observed in the article. The advantages and disadvantages of electronic commerce, development prospects and favorable factors of impact have been determined. The essence, the main tasks, Internet marketing tools as corporate website, context advertising, media advertising, advertising on vidmets, product placement in online games etc., and the benefits of its use for modern Ukrainian enterprises, namely obtaining competitive advantages due to the possibility of saving time and minimizing costs, have been identified. The problem issues of accounting display of electronic commerce, in particular the basic requirements for document processing, have been determined. An important issues for accounting have been determined: the way delivery to the consumer and modeling optimal logistics chain for minimizing road costs; identifying websites as an asset (an intangible asset; settlements with customers; returning goods for various reasons. The rapid development of Internet commerce impacts the method of accounting and economic analysis, creating new job modeling the behavior of an enterprises to obtain competitive advantage.

  11. Architecture for networked electronic patient record systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Matsumura, Y; Kuwata, S; Nakano, H; Sakamoto, N; Yamamoto, R

    2000-11-01

    There have been two major approaches to the development of networked electronic patient record (EPR) architecture. One uses object-oriented methodologies for constructing the model, which include the GEHR project, Synapses, HL7 RIM and so on. The second approach uses document-oriented methodologies, as applied in examples of HL7 PRA. It is practically beneficial to take the advantages of both approaches and to add solution technologies for network security such as PKI. In recognition of the similarity with electronic commerce, a certificate authority as a trusted third party will be organised for establishing networked EPR system. This paper describes a Japanese functional model that has been developed, and proposes a document-object-oriented architecture, which is-compared with other existing models.

  12. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  13. Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  14. U.S. Marine Corps strategic campaign plan for implementation of Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, Frank E.

    1996-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The focus of this research is to examine the Electronic Commerce/Electronic Data Interchange (EC/EDI) implementation plans within the Marine Corps and its various procurement offices. The primary intent is to evaluate the plan and determine if the Marine Corps can meet the Presidential Mandate that agencies adopt EC/EDI by 1997. This research analyzes, compares, and contrasts the plan to commercial EC/EDI implementation practies. Addit...

  15. Towards successful electronic commerce strategies : a hierarchy of three management models

    OpenAIRE

    Huizingh, Eelko K.R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Although only few managers deny the potential of the Internet, many are struggling with the question how their company can best exploit electronic commerce. Managers need tools that guide them in their quest for effective Web applications. In this paper, we present three models that provide structure to this search process. Model development was guided by two requirements: the models should correspond to models managers are familiar with (e.g., process oriented) and the focus of each model sh...

  16. A Framework for Effective User Interface Design for Web-Based Electronic Commerce Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Burns; Madey, Gregory R.

    2001-01-01

    Efficient delivery of relevant product information is increasingly becoming the central basis of competition between firms. The interface design represents the central component for successful information delivery to consumers. However, interface design for web-based information systems is probably more an art than a science at this point in time. Much research is needed to understand properties of an effective interface for electronic commerce. This paper develops a framework identifying the...

  17. Electronic Commerce in Tourism in China: B2B or B2C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxiu; Suomi, Reima

    E-commerce has significantly changed the distribution channels of travel products in the world including China. Online channels are growing important in travel service distribution. In China tourism industry has been developed rapidly with the economic development, more and more international travel service providers are trying to expand their Chinese market through the Internet. This paper sheds lights on the e-commerce development models in China for international travel service providers. It explores the current e-tourism in China from the three different participants in the value chain in tourism industry - consumer, travel agent and travel service provider. The paper also identifies the barriers in B2C arena in international outbound travel market, and discusses the possible approaches for international travel service providers to develop their e-commerce in the huge Chinese market. The results in this study reveal that international travel service providers should focus on B2B model to expand their electronic market in China. B2C development in tourism largely depends on the change of Chinese customers' behavior and the change of international tourism regulations. The findings of the study are expected to assist international travel service providers to understand current e-tourism in China and to support their planning for future e-commerce development in China.

  18. Electronic Commerce publications and research in Australia: Implications of the Research Quality Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helana Scheepers

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian universities and academics will soon see a major change in the way research is reported and funded. It is expected that by 2008, according to the most recent timetable (Bishop 2006, the Research Quality Framework (RQF will be implemented. The result of the announcement has been an increased activity within universities focusing on the proposed criteria. The proposed RQF will seek to have research assessed according to quality and impact. Part of both quality and impact relates to where research is published. For academics it will be increasingly important to target high quality journals if the research is to be rated as high quality. The question this raises for Information Systems academics is where do we publish for maximum impact? The Information Systems (IS field is diverse with researchers working in many areas and a publication outlet for one area may not be relevant for another. One area where many Australian IS researchers have focused their research interest is the field of electronic commerce (e-commerce. The research reported in this paper identified the publication outlets that would be regarded as amongst the highest quality for researchers wishing to publish e-commerce research. The authors analysed e-commerce research papers by Australian researchers published in the period 2000 to 2005. The results describe where Australian researchers are publishing in this field. The paper also provides guidance to those working in the e-commerce field on which journals and conferences to target to ensure their work rates highly in terms of the RQF.

  19. Rancang Bangun E-commerce Template Untuk Aplikasi Content and Management Electronic Mall (Came-mall)

    OpenAIRE

    Maulana, Kamal; Sugiharto, Aris; Wibawa, Helmie Arif

    2012-01-01

    Kebanyakan e-commerce di Indonesia masih berorientasi ke pasar regional. Sehingga e-commerce tersebut masih menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Adanya e-commerce template memudahkan pembuatan sebuah e-commerce. Namun, kebanyakan e-commerce template menggunakan bahasa Inggris sebagai default. Dibutuhkan aplikasi pembuat e-commerce yang menggunakan bahasa Indonesia dan memiliki fungsi-fungsi yang hanya dibutuhkan oleh pengguna pemula. Came-mall adalah salah satu aplikasi e-commerce template yang meng...

  20. Business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services. Smart EC solution; Kigyoka nrenkei system solution system. Smart EC solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setoguchi, T.; Manchu, Y.; Katsumata, M. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    Toshiba provides a range of information technology (IT) solutions called SmartEC Solution, which includes business-to-business electronic commerce systems and services based on international standards and industrial know-how, especially our electronic data interchange (EDI) know-how as a manufacturer. These IT solutions are supplied as services covering strategy planning, system integration, and application service provider based on five types of business-to-business electronic commerce. (author)

  1. CULTURAL ISSUES IN WEBSITE DESIGN. A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE ON ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Asimionoaei

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Commerce and electronic business have gained momentum in recent years. Attracted by the mirage of global markets, most companies enter the virtual environment without taking into account thecultural implications of such a step. The major question that arises at this stage of development of global trade on the Internet is if companies understand the importance of cultural factors in their actions on the global market and if we have tools, theories and models with which to carry out cultural analysis for understanding cultural environments online.

  2. A Vulnerability Assessment of the U.S. Small Business B2C E-Commerce Network Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Truell, Allen D.; Alexander, Melody W.; Woosley, Sherry A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the security vulnerability of the U.S. small companies' business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce network systems. Background: As the Internet technologies have been changing the way business is conducted, the U.S. small businesses are investing in such technologies and taking advantage of e-commerce to access global…

  3. Spreading dynamics of an e-commerce preferential information model on scale-free networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen; Li, Tao; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei; Liu, Xiongding

    2017-02-01

    In order to study the influence of the preferential degree and the heterogeneity of underlying networks on the spread of preferential e-commerce information, we propose a novel susceptible-infected-beneficial model based on scale-free networks. The spreading dynamics of the preferential information are analyzed in detail using the mean-field theory. We determine the basic reproductive number and equilibria. The theoretical analysis indicates that the basic reproductive number depends mainly on the preferential degree and the topology of the underlying networks. We prove the global stability of the information-elimination equilibrium. The permanence of preferential information and the global attractivity of the information-prevailing equilibrium are also studied in detail. Some numerical simulations are presented to verify the theoretical results.

  4. The aplication of electronic commerce in the distribution of insurance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljan Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the importance of information and communication technology for the development of the insurance companies, with special emphasis on the current development and potential for further development of marketing, and the distribution of insurance products in particular, which relies on information and communication technologies, especially the Internet. A special place here is reserved for the internet marketing as the most common of Internet uses among insurance companies. Transforming business processes so that they comply with the principles of electronic commerce will in the neaar future become common even in smaller businesses, formerly conservative financial institutions, e.g. insurance companies, are increasingly turning to e-insurance which, despite high costs of its introduction and initial problems in the operation, are to be relied upon in the near future. Therefore, in many countries, it is becoming accepted, to a greater or lesser extent. Mobile communication brings the biggest changes in electronic commerce. Even today, its prevalence among consumers offers great opportunities for service providers. Insurance companies in our country at this moment do not offer their services through this specific communication channel, but in the very near future changes can be expected in this field, due to the fact that the prerequisites for that exist in Serbia. This is supported by information that some insurance companies in the neighboring countries have already activated their first applications for smart phones and similar applications in the Serbian banking industry already exist.

  5. Evaluation of Value Added Tax Application Problems in Terms of Taxation of Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güneş ÇETİN GERGER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays electronic taxation is being one of the important issues for revenue administrations. Tax administrations try to organize their tax system fairly and give attention on equity. Value added tax is most preferable taxes among the consumption taxes. Because it’s application is easy and taxpayers don’t show resistance to the value added tax. On electronic commerce value added taxes are using commonly. To provide equity in taxation, some taxation principles are adapted for value added taxes too. In this paper, we are trying to analyze the development of e-commerce in the world and e-taxation regulations and problems in the European Union (EU and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD countries. The EU and OECD countries are making regulations in this issue. The last regulation is Base Erosion and Profit Shifting 15 point action plan in 2014. Taxation of the digital economy is the first action plan. In addition this, some regulations about taxation of digital economy are being done in Turkey in the case of Base Erosion and Profit Shifting action plan.

  6. A Novel C2C E-Commerce Recommender System Based on Link Prediction: Applying Social Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bahabadi, Mohammad Dehghan; Golpayegani, Alireza Hashemi; Esmaeili, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Social network analysis emerged as an important research topic in sociology decades ago, and it has also attracted scientists from various fields of study like psychology, anthropology, geography and economics. In recent years, a significant number of researches has been conducted on using social network analysis to design e-commerce recommender systems. Most of the current recommender systems are designed for B2C e-commerce websites. This paper focuses on building a recommendation algorithm ...

  7. A study of the role of e-commerce implementation on electronic banking development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nehzat

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the role of e-commerce implementation of development of electronic banking. The study determines the effects of four factors, management knowledge, technological issues, financial and socio-economic factors on development of e-banking in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 96 randomly selected managers who work for Bank Saderat Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.89, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. Using Pearson correlation as well as stepwise regression technique, the study has determined that management, social and economic factors influence the most on electronic banking development.

  8. Business Students' Perceptions of Electronic Commerce - Will They Join the Revolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Fink

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic impact of Electronic Commerce (EC is attracting much attention, most of which is directed towards emerging Internet technology. However, it is generally acknowledged that it will take a few more years before EC becomes mainstream. The perceptions of business students, the future business leaders, on the promises and perils of EC are therefore vital. Our research indicated that they believe that the capabilities of the Internet for marketing and distribution are achieved to a greater extent than those for accounting and finance. The use of digital money appears to be still unrealistic in their opinion. Their main concern is for the insecurity of EC in such areas as computer viruses, theft of information, and unauthorised access to data by intruders. As a consequence, the trust the students currently have in EC is relatively low. However, they are optimistic about future prospects of EC, which they perceive will significantly improve over the next few years.

  9. The regional structures and socioeconomics of the consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce in the capital region of Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Djupsjö, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the regional structures of the C2C e-commerce (consumer-to-consumer electronic commerce) in the capital region of Helsinki. The demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds of the users of C2C platforms is also in the focus in this study, to investigate whether the polarisation and differentiation trends of the city can be seen in the activity, pricing or participation in the C2C e-commerce. Interestingly, studies show that there are several reasons for partic...

  10. Draft Policy of the U.S. Department of Commerce on the Dissemination of Information in Electronic Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Government Information Quarterly, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reprints part of the draft guidelines on electronic data dissemination issued by the Department of Commerce. Issues addressed in the guidelines include the decision to disseminate; the use of electronic technology; private sector involvement; user fees; and the development of performance standards. (CLB)

  11. A framework for investigating mobile web success in the context of e-commerce:an analytic network process (ANP) approach

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Mona; Keramati, Abbas; Didehkhani, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a framework to investigate the factors of mobile web success in the context of e-commerce, and the relative importance of these success factors in selecting the most preferred mobile web. First, the Updated Delone and Mclean IS success model (2003) is chosen to extract significant mobile web success factors in the context of e-commerce. Second, it is extended through applying an Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach for investigating therelative importance of each factor...

  12. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  13. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  14. An Application of Artificial Intelligence to the Implementation of Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anoop Kumar

    In this paper, we present an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to the implementation of Electronic Commerce. We provide a multi autonomous agent based framework. Our agent based architecture leads to flexible design of a spectrum of multiagent system (MAS) by distributing computation and by providing a unified interface to data and programs. Autonomous agents are intelligent enough and provide autonomy, simplicity of communication, computation, and a well developed semantics. The steps of design and implementation are discussed in depth, structure of Electronic Marketplace, an ontology, the agent model, and interaction pattern between agents is given. We have developed mechanisms for coordination between agents using a language, which is called Virtual Enterprise Modeling Language (VEML). VEML is a integration of Java and Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML). VEML provides application programmers with potential to globally develop different kinds of MAS based on their requirements and applications. We have implemented a multi autonomous agent based system called VE System. We demonstrate efficacy of our system by discussing experimental results and its salient features.

  15. M&E-NetPay: A Micropayment System for Mobile and Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodi Huang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As an increasing number of people purchase goods and services online, micropayment systems are becoming particularly important for mobile and electronic commerce. We have designed and developed such a system called M&E-NetPay (Mobile and Electronic NetPay. With open interoperability and mobility, M&E-NetPay uses web services to connect brokers and vendors, providing secure, flexible and reliable credit services over the Internet. In particular, M&E-NetPay makes use of a secure, inexpensive and debit-based off-line protocol that allows vendors to interact only with customers, after validating coins. The design of the architecture and protocol of M&E-NetPay are presented, together with the implementation of its prototype in ringtone and wallpaper sites. To validate our system, we have conducted its evaluations on performance, usability and heuristics. Furthermore, we compare our system to the CORBA-based (Common Object Request Broker Architecture off-line micro-payment systems. The results have demonstrated that M&E-NetPay outperforms the .NET-based M&E-NetPay system in terms of performance and user satisfaction.

  16. Agent fabrication and its implementation for agent-based electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, SU; Zhu, F

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, agent-based e-commerce has emerged as a potential role for the next generation of e-commerce. How to create agents for e-commerce applications has become a serious consideration in this field. This paper proposes a new scheme named agent fabrication and elaborates its implementation in multi-agent systems based on the SAFER (Secure Agent Fabrication, Evolution & Roaming) architecture. First, a conceptual structure is proposed for software agents carrying out e-commerce act...

  17. Electronic Commerce and Market Focus: some findings from a study of Swedish small to medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Vrazalic

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as return on investment (ROI to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC, these decisions are becoming less reliant on ROI measures. Instead different driving forces are taking precedence in the decision making process. This paper presents the findings of a study of 118 Swedish small to medium enterprises (SMEs that have adopted EC. The results of the study suggest that improvements to customer service, internal efficiency and organisational competitiveness have become equally important when making EC investment decisions. The study also examined whether major market focus (local, regional, national or international had an influence on the organisation’s decision to adopt EC. Findings indicate no associations between the market focus and the driving forces, however the existence of a fully developed plan for EC adoption and the size of the business were found to be highly associated with the development of new markets as an EC adoption criteria.

  18. Planning and Designing Web- Based Electronic Commerce: a case study in the insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teubner

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Commerce (EC comprises new ways of doing business with customers, suppliers and other business partners. EC is enabled by information and communication technology, in particular the World Wide Web (in short, the Web. While numerous organisations have started to use the Web as an interface to clients and business partners, many have been disappointed by lower than expected response rates and higher than expected costs. One reason for non profitable Web based EC applications is that they do not reflect the strategic preconditions of EC. This lack may be due to deficits in the process of developing an EC-strategy for their Web application. Furthermore, there is a void of instruments and tools to support this process. In order to fill this void, this paper proposes two basic frameworks for planning a Web based EC application. The application of these frameworks is illustrated by the example of a medium seized insurance company. Based on experiences drawn from the case study, the proposed frameworks will be evaluated.

  19. Key-Insulated Undetachable Digital Signature Scheme and Solution for Secure Mobile Agents in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the security of both the customers’ hosts and the eShops’ servers, we introduce the idea of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature, enabling mobile agents to generate undetachable digital signatures on remote hosts with the key-insulated property of the original signer’s signing key. From the theoretical perspective, we provide the formal definition and security notion of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature. From the practical perspective, we propose a concrete scheme to secure mobile agents in electronic commerce. The scheme is mainly focused on protecting the signing key from leakage and preventing the misuse of the signature algorithm on malicious servers. Agents do not carry the signing key when they generate digital signatures on behalf of the original signer, so the key is protected on remote servers. Furthermore, if a hacker gains the signing key of the original signer, the hacker is still unable to forge a signature for any time period other than the key being accessed. In addition, the encrypted function is combined with the original signer’s requirement to prevent the misuse of signing algorithm. The scheme is constructed on gap Diffie–Hellman groups with provable security, and the performance testing indicates that the scheme is efficient.

  20. The Significance of Electronic Commerce to Firms' Operations in Relation to Business Location: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Eze

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.

  1. Factors Affecting Business-to-Business Electronic Commerce Success: An Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-I Philip

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that Business to Business (B2B) e-commerce has a great impact on business performance improvement. Considerable research also shows that another dependent variable, B2B e-commerce success, can be a good overall measure of B2B systems. This paper investigated and examined the impact of several factors, which are either…

  2. Developing Online Trust in Electronic Commerce: A Generational Cohort Study in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Rivera, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Developing online trust is crucial for e-commerce vendors in order to attract consumers and develop long-term relationships with existing ones. We intended to investigate if consumers from different generational cohorts differ on how they develop online trust when utilizing e-commerce websites. Through the analysis of empirical data collected from…

  3. Enabling Integrated Decision Making for Electronic-Commerce by Modelling an Enterprise's Sharable Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    An enterprise model, a computational model of knowledge about an enterprise, is a useful tool for integrated decision-making by e-commerce suppliers and customers. Sharable knowledge, once represented in an enterprise model, can be integrated by the modeled enterprise's e-commerce partners. Presents background on enterprise modeling, followed by…

  4. What Constitutes Adoption of the Web: A Methodological Problem in Assessing Adoption of the World Wide Web for Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas; Abels, Eileen G.; Gordon-Murnane, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Reports on methodological developments in a project to assess the adoption of the Web by publishers of business information for electronic commerce. Describes the approach used on a sample of 20 business publishers to identify five clusters of publishers ranging from traditionalist to innovator. Distinguishes between adopters and nonadopters of…

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is responsible for keeping my agency's electronic commerce transportation billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118...

  6. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  7. THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN THE TRAVEL AGENCIES’ ACTIVITIES IN BULGARIA AND TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ITS ELABORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velina Kazandzhieva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The data used in the paper and the sources of information studied, show regaining of the positions and the role of travel agencies in the distribution system of tourism. The main trends and special features of the European on-line tourist market have been analyzed, as well as the state of the electronic commerce in travel agencies in Bulgaria. Alternatives and values-generating strategies for the intermediary business through efficient use of the advantages of е-commerce have been pointed out.

  8. ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN PORTUGAL: BUSINESS PRACTICE OR COMMERCIAL FICTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Filipe Cerqueira Quaresma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the performance of midsize and large Portuguese enterprises on the internet. Special attention is given to the e-commerce oriented to the end-user. An assessment tool was specially developed for this evaluation. This assessment tool is based on legal regulations, codes of conduct and/or seals of quality, as well as a variety of other information sources related with the Internet, web sites and e-commerce. The company’s web sites, were selected for this assessment through a random sampling technique, and were evaluated on 119 items.

  9. Electronic Commerce: Erwartungsdynamiken, Leitbilder, Szenarien : zwei Fallstudien zu Entwicklung und Einsatz von Anwendungen im Business-to-Business-Bereich

    OpenAIRE

    Konrad, Kornelia

    2001-01-01

    Electronic Commerce wird seit einigen Jahren ein bedeutendes ökonomisches Potenzial zugesprochen. In den letzten zwei bis drei Jahren richteten sich die größten Hoffnungen und ein Großteil der Aufmerksamkeit insbesondere auf die Möglichkeiten des elektronischen Handels zwischen Unternehmen. Von einer Realisierung des Potenzials im Sinne gewinnbringender Geschäftsbereiche kann bislang in vielen Unternehmen jedoch nicht die Rede sein. Die Motivationskraft der Erwartungen ist jedoch erheblich. I...

  10. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective – A Case Study on Romania’s Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper entitled “The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Development of Nowadays Society: an Economic and a Managerial Perspective – A Case Study on Romania’s Experience” presents the electronic commerce with its definitions, historical evolution and importance, it’s the main forms, the advantages and disadvantages of e-commerce, the electronic commerce versus traditional commerce as well as the electronic commerce in Romania. In this research we have emphasised the role and the importance of the e-commerce in comparison with the traditional commerce, stressing the fact that it has many advantages that underpin the on-going development and success of this trade: time; the availability of virtual stores: program almost non-stop, every day of the year; the possibility of free decision; the possibility of purchasing products even outside the borders of the country the buyer; communication, particularly internationally, low cost, the relations with suppliers and customers and its importance for small businesses using e-commerce which can compete with large companies

  11. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  12. The building blocks of trust in electronic commerce purchases: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This short dissertation concerns the Internet and the role that this medium is playing in the purchasing of goods and services. More specifically, it focuses on the importance of trust in business-to-consumer E-Commerce in South Africa. It identifies the factors that produce a sense of trustworthiness, investigates their interactions and relative importance to the consumer. Understanding the roles of these different factors would allow online retailers to ease consumers' concerns and could ha...

  13. Incidental memory and navigation in panoramic virtual reality for electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, A; Miles, G E; Payne, S J; Mitchell, C D; Davies, A J

    2001-01-01

    Recently much effort has been dedicated to designing and implementing World Wide Web sites for virtual shopping and e-commerce. Despite this effort, relatively little empirical work has been done to determine the effectiveness with which different site designs sell products. We report three experiments in which participants were asked to search for products in various experimental e-commerce sites. Across the experiments participants were asked to search in either QTVR (QuickTime Virtual Reality), hypertext, or pictorially rich hypertext environments; they were then tested for their ability to recall the products seen and to recognize product locations. The experiments demonstrated that when using QTVR (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) or pictorial environments (Experiment 2), participants retained more information about products that were incidental to their goals. In two of the experiments it was shown that participants navigated more efficiently when using a QTVR environment. The costs and benefits of using 3D virtual environments for on-line shops are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include support for the development of e-commerce design guidelines.

  14. 12 CFR 609.910 - Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (Public Law 106-229) (E-SIGN). 609.910 Section 609.910 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE General Rules § 609.910 Compliance with the Electronic Signatures in Global and...

  15. Electronic Commerce in Vertrieb und Beschaffung : Fallstudien zum Einsatz von internet-basierten Technologien für Vertrieb und Beschaffung

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Thomas; Schwengels, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce), der Handel mit Produkten und Dienstleistungen über das Internet, kommt seit 1996 in Deutschland im privaten, industriellen und öffentlichen Bereich zunehmenden zum Einsatz. Es stellt sich heute nicht mehr die Frage, ob und wann sich E-Commerce durchsetzen wird, sondern nur noch in wie weit und in welchen Bereichen er sich durchsetzen wird. Betrachtet man jedoch den heutigen Stand von E-Commerce, so fällt auf, dass zwischen den angekündigten Potenzialen und de...

  16. eHealth services and Directive on Electronic Commerce 2000/31/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gyseghem, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    We often restrict the analysis of eHealth services to a concept of privacy. In this article, we'll demonstrate that other legislation can apply to those services as Directive 2000/31/EC on Ecommerce. By creating telematic networks or infrastructure, eHealth services are offering information services. But what are the consequences with such concept? What are the duties and rights for the actors of the network(s)? We'll try to answer to some questions, even if it won't be exhaustive.

  17. Interorganizational health care systems implementations: an exploratory study of early electronic commerce initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, F C; Ginzberg, M J

    2001-01-01

    Changing business practices, customers needs, and market dynamics have driven many organizations to implement interorganizational systems (IOSs). IOSs have been successfully implemented in the banking, cotton, airline, and consumer-goods industries, and recently attention has turned to the health care industry. This article describes an exploratory study of health care IOS implementations based on the voluntary community health information network (CHIN) model.

  18. An Electronic Service Quality Reference Model for Designing E-Commerce Websites Which Maximizes Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Amer N.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated Electronic Service Quality (E-SQ) features that contribute to customer satisfaction in an online environment. The aim was to develop an approach which improves E-CRM processes and enhances online customer satisfaction. The research design adopted mixed methods involving qualitative and quantitative methods to…

  19. The Self-Regulation of Electronic Commerce: An Appraisal in Accordance to the Chilean Law of Unfair Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López Jiménez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Electronic commerce or e-commerce constitutes a commercial activity on the rise. Although it has many advantages, there are several lingering factors that prevent its consolidation, such as the lack of trust of the potential consumer/user. In order to overcome that obstacle, instruments of self-regulation were created in the field of advertising. Firms that wish to distinguish themselves favorably against their competitors have the option of adopting those instruments, which play a praiseworthy role regarding the target audience and constitutes a considerable improvement of consumer rights. However, on occasions, problems arise in the market when those systems of self-regulation bind third parties that did not voluntarily enter into a contract. This paper tackles the question of if self-regulation of advertising in the net can be put in place should it affects the honor of the third party not committed with the fair-practices document. Methodology/approach/design – In this article, we will refer to the particularities that arise from a case concerning the Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007, on unfair competition and self-regulation of advertising in the Internet pertaining WOM, Movistar, Entel, Claro and Virgin. Findings – The Chilean Law no. 20,168, of 2007 contributes to the goal of discouraging conduct contrary to good faith or good practices in advertising in conjunction with codes of conduct that have been approved in the field related to the systems of self-regulation.

  20. The Social Commerce System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovyk Tetiana V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The social commerce is a relatively new phenomenon, found in the little researched direction of trade. Research results by the authors have provided to systematize the views on the concept of «social commerce», characterize the social commerce system, propose measures to develop a social commerce strategy. The authors have defined the social commerce as expansion of e-commerce in the social networks on the Internet, in which social factors are significant, and consumers use the right to create content through the media via forums, ratings, reviews, and recommendations on different platforms. Enterprises are advised to use social tools to perform social interaction with consumers in social networks, create a social climate in view of the social support on the Web. The authors have proposed the concept of «social commerce system», structure of which contains the following elements: individuality of consumer, social communications, social communities, e-commerce; defined the multidimensional attributes that are naturally associated with all four elements of the social commerce. They cover the quality of information, system quality, quality of service, convenience and ease-of-use, payment mechanism.

  1. E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Moraru

    2008-01-01

    E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.

  2. E-COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai MORARU

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce (Electronic Commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice, this term and a newer term, e-business is often used interchangeably. For online retail selling, the term e-tailing sometimes used.

  3. Electronic Social Networks, Teaching, and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidduck, Anne Banks

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between electronic social networks, teaching, and learning. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between student engagement and learning. By extending this work to engage instructors and add an electronic component, our study shows possible teaching improvement as well. In particular,…

  4. Advancing E-Commerce Beyond Readiness in a Developing Country: Experiences of Ghanaian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Boateng; Richard Heeks; Alemayehu Molla; Robert Hinson

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies factors affecting the assimilation of electronic commerce in Ghana and the solutions that Ghanaian firms have developed. Drawing from the elements of two electronic commerce readiness frameworks, the study analyzes the readiness of Ghana to support the conduct of electronic commerce at the firm-level. The study covers the government, technology, market and culture readiness factors. Findings suggest that social networks, managerial capabilities and government commitment ...

  5. Electronic commerce, automation and online banking in Nigeria: challenges and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sc., M. Sc. Stephen A. Ojeka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking has been around for some time in the form of automatic teller machines and telephone transactions. More recently, it has been metamorphosed by the Internet; a new look and delivery channel for banking services that benefits both customers and banks. The objective of this paper is to find out the correlation between the anticipated benefits/challenges and encountered benefits/challenges. This paper therefore empirically, adopted the use of survey research to explore in quantitative terms the various challenges and benefits e-business poses to Nigeria businesses, with particular reference to Banking and Finance Industry. It was found out that there is statistically significant difference between the anticipated and encountered benefits and major challenge is the security breach faced the customers. We therefore recommend that workshops should be organized for customers periodically on how to keep their data secret especially on how to combine numbers to form password and Constant training of employees both local and international on new development in online trading should be encouraged.

  6. M-Commerce Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2008-01-01

    into this emerging market may well depend on development of new business models that emphasize the socio-technical intricacies of these networks. The objective of this paper is to examine the development of these networks as a central part of new M-commerce business models in SME's and report on initial findings...

  7. Electronic commerce for development

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Lagging information technology infrastructure can handicap emerging countries subjecting them to de facto trade discrimination in the world marketplace - but closing the gap will not be easy. In this collection of essays, renowned authors from various disciplines have drawn on supply chain analysis and industry studies to elucidate how NICT - new information and communications technologies - like mobile telephony and the Internet have been affecting low-income communities and small entreprene...

  8. Electronic device aspects of neural network memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, J.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    The basic issues related to the electronic implementation of the neural network model (NNM) for content addressable memories are examined. A brief introduction to the principles of the NNM is followed by an analysis of the information storage of the neural network in the form of a binary connection matrix and the recall capability of such matrix memories based on a hardware simulation study. In addition, materials and device architecture issues involved in the future realization of such networks in VLSI-compatible ultrahigh-density memories are considered. A possible space application of such devices would be in the area of large-scale information storage without mechanical devices.

  9. The Application of Dynamic Capabilities in E-commerce Innovation Context : The Implications for Chinese E-commerce companies

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YongJia; Liang, WeiMin

    2007-01-01

    This study mainly investigated how Chinese E-commerce companies should cope with E-commerce innovation with specific dynamic capabilities. E-commerce (Electronic Commerce) innovation includes three phases of innovation based on technology and time. They are web-based commerce, mobile commerce (M-commerce) and ubiquitous commerce (U-commerce). They caused not only technological changes but also organizational changes. To cope with E-commerce innovation, a prerequisite is to understand the impa...

  10. E-commerce trend and E-customer analyzing : Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Tracing to the history of e-commerce, in the beginning it only shared documents or electronic files through electronic networks, but in the later years it emerged large amount of individuals sharing electronic documents with other people. When e-commerce appeared, many people would like to select and purchase products through typical websites or other e-commerce monitors. China is one of the largest e-commerce markets in the world, it has from the small retailors developed to the biggest ...

  11. INTERNET COMMERCE IN MARITIME INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Szyda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet commerce in Poland is growing rapidly, entering into new industries and of-fering a wider and wider range of goods and services. For electronic commerce is open maritime industry, as evidenced by the maritime e-commerce. This aspect of e-commerce is not a popular topic of publications and research. In this article the author presents the genesis of electronic commerce in the maritime industry taking into account the particular business relationship business-to-business (B2B. Then attempt to characterize maritime e-commerce in business-to-customer (B2C relationship. The purpose of this article is to identify the attributes of internet commerce in the maritime industry, having particular re-gard to Polish online market, especially retail.

  12. AN APPROACH TO SELF- AND CO-REGULATION OF ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN BUILDING TRUST OVER THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Serbu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to highlights some thoughts about regulation and self-regulation for e-commerce, to present cases and the importance of co- and self-regulation in e-commerce. There are a couple of question that rise in this area and we will try to answer with this paper: What are the benefits and disadvantages of self- and co-regulation, how can online industry be a cause and effect for self and co-regulation, should our web portal and search engines be a subject to any kind of regulation, what is the impact of the Internet and self and co-regulation on the e-commerce.

  13. Kobilerde Elektronik Ticaretin Kullanımı : İstanbul Örneği = The Use of Electronic Commerce in the Small and Medium Scale Organisations : Istanbul Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ENGİN

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The speed of electronic commerce's spread is being hindered due not only to insufficiency of required infrastructure and investment but also high cost and lack of qualified personnel. Looking from the trade perspective, the volume of B2B electronic commerce is much more important than that of B2C electronic commerce. The aim of this study is to find out the usage frequency and level of electronic commerce, its reason of existence, expected benefits and encountered difficulties from these kinds of commercial activities between SMEs operating in Istanbul, which is a big industrial city. In accordance with this aim, at the first section of the study there exists literature review, and in the second section the results of the questionnaire which has been applied to the SMEs in Istanbul in order to investigate the usage of electronic commerce in SMEs are presented.

  14. Networking Carbon Nanotubes for Integrated Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Herrera, J. M.; Terrones, M.; Terrones, H.; Meunier, V.

    2006-03-01

    The unique electronic and mechanical properties of individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much interest as candidates for molecular electronic devices and reinforced materials. However, their integration in organized architectures remains a major challenge. Recent breakthroughs reported on the Self-Assembly of 1D Nanostructures[1], and on the coalescence mechanism for interconnecting CNTs[2], point to the possibility of designing and obtaining Ordered Networks based on CNTs (ON- CNTs). We propose a set with different complex architectures of ON- CNTs based on --but not limited to-- armchair and zigzag nanotubes. In addition to the study of the energetics of the structures, we have systematically investigated their electronic transport properties in the framework of the Landauer-Buttiker formalism and equilibrium Green functions. To take curvature into account, we employed a semi-empirical Hamiltonian based on 4 orbitals (s,px,py,pz) per carbon atom. Further insight is obtained analyzing the electron pathways from a scattering point of view, which allows a real-space analysis of the wave function from the transmitted electrons across the structure. [1]Whang D etal. Nanoletters,3 (2003). Tao A etal. Nanoletters,3 (2003). [2]Terrones M etal. PRL,89 (2002). Endo M etal. Nanoletters,5 (2005).

  15. An Analysis of Electronic Commerce Acquisition Systems: Comparison of a New Pure Electronic Purchasing and Exchange System (Electronic Storefront) and Other Legacy On-line Purchasing Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    ... as they relate to contracting and purchasing of supplies and services, The issues and concerns with legacy on-line procurement systems will be compared to a newly developed Pure Electronic Ordering System...

  16. Programmable synaptic chip for electronic neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moopenn, A.; Langenbacher, H.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A binary synaptic matrix chip has been developed for electronic neural networks. The matrix chip contains a programmable 32X32 array of 'long channel' NMOSFET binary connection elements implemented in a 3-micron bulk CMOS process. Since the neurons are kept off-chip, the synaptic chip serves as a 'cascadable' building block for a multi-chip synaptic network as large as 512X512 in size. As an alternative to the programmable NMOSFET (long channel) connection elements, tailored thin film resistors are deposited, in series with FET switches, on some CMOS test chips, to obtain the weak synaptic connections. Although deposition and patterning of the resistors require additional processing steps, they promise substantial savings in silicon area. The performance of synaptic chip in a 32-neuron breadboard system in an associative memory test application is discussed.

  17. Electronic Power Transformer for Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuraсhi Iu.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing losses in electricity distribution networks is a current technical problem. This issue also has social and environmental aspects. As a promising solution one can examine the direct distribution from the medium voltage power network using new equipment based on the use of power electronics. The aim of the paper is to propose and argue an innovative technical solution for the realization of the Solid State Transformer (SST in order to decrease the number of energy transformation stages compared to the known solutions, simplifying the topology of the functional scheme with the reduction of production costs and the loss of energy in transformers used in electrical distribution networks. It is proposed the solution of simplifying the topology of the AC/AC electronic transformer by reducing the number of passive electronic components (resistors, inductors, capacitors and active (transistors. The inverter of the SST transformer ensures the switching mode of the transistors, using for this purpose the inductance of the magnetic leakage flux of the high frequency transformer. The robustness of the laboratory sample of the SST 10 / 0.22 kV transformer with the power of 20 kW was manufactured and tested. Testing of the laboratory sample confirmed the functionality of the proposed scheme and the possibility of switching of the transistors to at zero current (ZCS mode with the reduction of the energy losses. In the proposed converter a single high-frequency transformer with a simplified construction with two windings is used, which reduces its mass and the cost of making the transformer. The reduction in the manufacturing cost of the converter is also due to the decrease in the number of links between the functional elements.

  18. Conceptualizing the foundations of a regional e-commerce strategy: Open networks or closed regimes? The case of CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson A. Broome

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been much to boast about in advanced countries regarding e-commerce as a viable business strategy, many doubt its application to developing countries. Several papers examine individual case studies from advanced developing countries but few have presented a systemic focus on the ecosystem of an e-commerce sector, and even fewer on small island developing states (SIDS such as the Caribbean, and those often lack a comprehensive awareness of the sector, and/or are dated. The central aim of this conceptual paper therefore is to address this lacuna by discussing the importance of understanding the broader political, social, cognitive, and economic issues and their implications and applications inherent in the development of an e-commerce sector. From this, the main objective will be to conceptualize an e-commerce strategy for their development. To realize this main aim, the article leverages a historical comparative perspective that critically examines causal analysis, experiences, and iterative processes gleaned over time from a structured analytical comparison of several national and regional case studies to conceptualize the factors and conditions under which e-commerce may contribute to, and can be adopted for development. As its main objective, the paper then presents a policy framework of recommendations guided by mutually reinforcing macro processes of change that converge at the intersection of business, policy, and information technology to inform development advocates, policy planners, and citizens within the region of what such a strategy should entail.

  19. B2C E-COMMERCE WEBSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savulea Dorel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web represents a new frontier towards a global industry, leading the way for new businesses. Commerce now deals with a whole different concept: electronic commerce (e-commerce. This kind of commerce provides new means for a large variety o

  20. Logistics of E-commerce in the Chinese Market : Case company: Alibaba

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jingxuan

    2015-01-01

    As we are ushered into an information-based era, electronic commerce has become the most eye-catching outcome of the Age of Internet which directly points out the future direction of the network technique application. With the explosive development of the internet, electronic business has arisen and growing rapidly worldwide. The steady growth of China's economy and China's accession into WTO creates a healthy domestic environment for the vigorous development of electronic commerce in the Chi...

  1. Control E-commerce security

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yucheng

    2010-01-01

    Electronic commerce has been very popular in the recent years. However, security is one of the barriers, which affects the development of E-commerce. How should merchants of E-commerce solve this problem and maintain a secure environment for their customers? How do customers protect their confidential data when they are shopping on-line? This thesis discusses various common attacks, and presents the protection solutions according to those attacks. Because attacks may take place on the custome...

  2. Diffusion of Innovation - The Adoption of Electronic Commerce by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMES- A Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Pease

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues that influence the diffusion of innovation as it relates to the adoption of e-commerce by Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs. It seeks to identify factors facilitating and inhibiting such adoption across contexts – regional, small city and large city. This analysis is cross cultural so the impact of differing economic and cultural issues also will be identified in this research. Whilst it is generally accepted that the strategic use of information technology (IT is vital in the marketplace, the rate of such uptake between small and large businesses varies. This research seeks to identify the reasons for this variation. It is critical to understand such factors so that steps can be taken to redress inequity of uptake that might be identified. The paper endeavours to explore factors that are needed to facilitate and encourage IT adoption and so positively influence user acceptance and use of IT innovations in SMEs. Reasons for such uptake as well as strategic approach to the adoption of e-commerce, and variations regarding same also will be considered. The paper examines existing theory as it pertains to the diffusion of innovation acknowledging the perspective of regional and urban SMEs in various cultural contexts. Empirical investigation exploring this diffusion, the rate of and approach to the uptake by SMEs is planned using a case study methodology

  3. An incremental approach to a secure e-commerce environment

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Computer Science) The terms "Electronic Commerce" and "Internet Commerce" are often used interchangeably to mean similar processes. By definition, electronic commerce (e-commerce) means any exchange of information that occurs electronically. There are various types of electronic commerce transactions to name a few; electronic data interchange (EDI), fax, electronic funds transfer, interorganisational systems, technical data and document exchange, customer credit approval systems, in...

  4. E-Commerce and Mobile Commerce in South Africa: Regulatory Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    JOBODWANA, Z NTOZINTLE

    2009-01-01

    E-commerce refers to all forms of commercial transactions that involve individuals and organizations based on the electronic processing of data. Mobile commerce (M-commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services using mobile telephones or personal digital assistants (PDA). M-commerce is emerging in Africa and South Africa especially as either a complement or an alternative to e-commerce as originally conceived, though there are arguments that mobile telephone technology “m-commerc...

  5. The Impact of Business Size and Business Type on Small Business Investment in Electronic Commerce: a study of Swedish small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert MacGregor

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, organisations relied on traditional quantitative metrics, such as Return on Investment (ROI to make decisions when investing in technology. With the advent of electronic commerce (EC, organisations have had to rethink their investment and acquisition decisions due to the strategic nature of electronic commerce. Where ROI measures have failed, they have been replaced with a plethora of organisational driving forces. This paper focuses on the driving forces behind EC adoption by small and medium enterprises (SME's and aims to determine the impact of organisational factors such as size and type of business on EC acquisition criteria. The results of a research study carried out in Sweden are presented and suggest that there exist high levels of significance between the size of the business and customer demand, reduced costs, developing new markets and improvement to marketing as driving forces, and the type of business and customer demand, pressure from competition, increased sales and improvement of relationship with business partners as driving forces for EC adoption.

  6. A Novel Method to Investigate the Effect of Social Network “Hook” Images on Purchasing Prospects in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Smaoui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social network visual shopping trends are growing e-commerce at unprecedented levels. Images are used as product marketing material; however, image posts are triggering very low consumer behavior and low sales conversion. Objective. To explore how online stores can increase the purchasing prospects of their products using images on social networks. Methods. We introduce a theoretical probabilistic model to estimate consumer behavioral intention and purchasing prospect on social networks, outline parameters that can be exploited to increase click-rate and conversion, and motivate a new strategy to market products online. The model explores increasing online stores’ sales conversion by utilizing a product collection landing page that is marketed to consumers through a single “Hook” image. To implement the model, we developed a novel technological method that enabled online stores to post different “Hook” images on social networks and hyperlink them to the product collection landing pages they created. Results. Stores and marketers developed four types of “Hook” images: themed-collaged product images, single product images, lifestyle images, and model images. Themed-collaged product images accounted for 60% of consumer traffic from social network sites. Moreover, consumer purchasing click rate increased at least twofold (4.94% with the use of product collection landing pages.

  7. Reducing e-commerce risks using digital certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piščević Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce means buying and selling goods and services across the Internet. Secured communication in e-commerce, across unsecured medium, such as the Internet, represents one of the major components in a domain of providing necessary security- critical demands, so the flow of information could go in a secure way. The Internet, as a global computer network must provide five major security services: confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, availability, and non-repudiation of information. Without guaranteeing aformentioned security goals, risks may be very high in e-commerce systems. A possible way to reduce these risks is to use digital certificates. Digital certificates provide a means of proving identity in electronic transactions, and from the point of view of computer communication they are irreplacable, but nevertheless they provide a good mechanism for implementing the major part of this security goal, and therefore, their usage in e-commerce is the major topic of this paper.

  8. ANew Framework for Secure M-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mirarab; Abdol-Reza Rasouli Kenari

    2014-01-01

    By combining the wireless network and E-commerce, suppliers can provide a more convenient and quicker service on a human scale for their customers. The main advantages of such services are their high availability, independence of physical location and time. Mobile commerce raises a number of security and privacy challenges. However, security has always been the key issue for the development of mobile E-commerce, which is more vulnerable than the traditional E-commerce mode. . In o...

  9. Socio-Psychological Factors in Electronic Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshier, Roger

    1990-01-01

    This paper analyzes electronic mail and its role in adult education, identifies research on the educational implications of electronic mail, and discusses theoretical issues from an economic, psychological, and sociological perspective. (SK)

  10. Electronic document delivery: directing interlibrary loan traffic through multiple electronic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C G

    1984-04-01

    The University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) uses five different electronic networks for interlibrary loan (ILL) request transmission. The advantages and problems of using electronic networks for ILL request transmission are discussed. Advantages include speed of request transmission, improved capabilities for locating documents, lower labor costs, improved turnaround time, and production of user reports and statistics. Disadvantages include increased work load, additional staff training, coordination of non-standard networks, determining access protocols, and establishing priorities for handling requests.

  11. WooCommerce cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    If you have ever built or managed a WordPress site and want to add e-commerce functionality into your site, WooCommerce and this book are perfect for you. Learning how to use WooCommerce through this series of recipes will give you a solid platform to add any future e-commerce needs.

  12. 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book comprises peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 5th International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Networks (CECNet 2015), held in Shanghai, China, 12-15 December, 2015. It includes new multi-disciplinary topics spanning a unique depth and breadth of cutting-edge research areas in Electronic Engineering, Communications and Networks, and Computer Technology. More generally, it is of interest to academics, students and professionals involved in Consumer Electronics Technology, Communication Engineering and Technology, Wireless Communication Systems and Technology, and Computer Engineering and Technology.

  13. E-Commerce: easy access, easy business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappel, A. [Union Gas Ltd., Chatham, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this workshop presentation which dealt with the increased use of E-Commerce in the energy industries. E-Commerce refers to the use of any kind of electronic communication, including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce offers real-time access and real-time solutions to energy marketers. This paper discussed growth trends and the driving force behind E-Commerce. Market and regulatory changes such as unbundling and business transformation are some of the factors responsible for the increased used of E-Commerce. This workshop also described some of the intricacies of the Union Gas web site.

  14. Security of M-Commerce transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this material electronic market are defined. How they are structured. Security in E-Commerce applications is very important both at the administrative level and from the user perspective. The new trend in the field is the M-commerce that involves making purchases through mobile devices. And for M-commerce transactions the security is a very important thing. Here's how to analyze the security of M-commerce transactions and ways to increase security for these transactions taking into account the organization of M-Commerce applications, software used, hardware used and other important issues in the development of these applications.

  15. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar, A.; Ögüt, H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore online hotel booking behaviors of domestic and international customers. We examine the impact of review rating (location rating and service rating), review volume and hotel characteristics on the proportion of online domestic bookings. Using data from London and Paris hotels, we evaluate a variety of models to explain fractional dependent variables. 225-240

  16. Electronic Properties of Quantum Wire Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmenko, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Quantum wire networks (``quantum crossbars'', QCB) represent a 2D grid formed by superimposed crossing arrays of parallel conducting quantum wires, molecular chains or metallic single-wall carbon nanotubes. QCB coupled only by capacitive interaction in the crosses have similar low-energy, long-wave properties characterized as a crossed sliding Luttinger liquid (CSLL) phase. In this Thesis we develop a theory of interacting Bose excitations (plasmons) in QCB. We analyze spectrum of boson field...

  17. Electronic Circuit Analog of Synthetic Genetic Networks: Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Hellen, Edward H

    2016-01-01

    Electronic circuits are useful tools for studying potential dynamical behaviors of synthetic genetic networks. The circuit models are complementary to numerical simulations of the networks, especially providing a framework for verification of dynamical behaviors in the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic noise of the electrical systems. Here we present an improved version of our previous design of an electronic analog of genetic networks that includes the 3-gene Repressilator and we show conversions between model parameters and real circuit component values to mimic the numerical results in experiments. Important features of the circuit design include the incorporation of chemical kinetics representing Hill function inhibition, quorum sensing coupling, and additive noise. Especially, we make a circuit design for a systematic change of initial conditions in experiment, which is critically important for studies of dynamical systems' behavior, particularly, when it shows multistability. This improved electronic ...

  18. Predicting Internet/E-Commerce Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Randall S.; Johnson, Richard A.; Hignite, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed variables in order to identify accurate predictors of individuals' use of the Internet and e-commerce. Results of survey research and a neural network identifies gender, overall computer use, job-related use, and home access as important characteristics that should influence use of the Internet and e-commerce.…

  19. Automotive mechatronics automotive networking, driving stability systems, electronics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of automotive vehicles increases this book presents operational and practical issues of automotive mechatronics. It is a comprehensive introduction to controlled automotive systems and provides detailed information of sensors for travel, angle, engine speed, vehicle speed, acceleration, pressure, temperature, flow, gas concentration etc. The measurement principles of the different sensor groups are explained and examples to show the measurement principles applied in different types. Contents Basics of mechatronics.- Architecture.- Electronic control unit.- Software development.- Basic principles of networking.- Automotive networking.- Bus systems.- Automotive sensors.- Sensor measuring principles.- Sensor types.- Electric actuators.- Electrohydraulic actuators.- Electronic transmission control.- Electronic transmission control unit.- Modules for transmission control.- Antilock braking system.- Traction control system.- Electronic stability program.- Automatic brake functions.- Hydraulic modu...

  20. Mechanically Reinforced Skin-Electronics with Networked Nanocomposite Elastomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungyong; Kim, Min Ku; Wang, Bo; Wie, Dae Seung; Wang, Shuodao; Lee, Chi Hwan

    2016-12-01

    Mechanically reinforced skin-electronics are presented by exploiting networked nanocomposite elastomers where high quality metal nanowires serve as conducting paths. Theoretical and experimental studies show that the established skin-electronics exhibit superior mechanical enhancements against crack and delamination phenomena. Device applications include a class of biomedical devices that offers the ability of thermotherapeutic stimulation and electrophysiological monitoring, all via the skin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The use of electronic communication (social network) by open and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    social network) by open and distance learners, henceforth referred to as ODL in the work. The case of National Open University of Nigeria, Benin study centre. The study is to explore the electronic device mostly used by open and distance ...

  2. 1. What is E-Commerce?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Electronic Commerce - What is E-Commerce? V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 13-23. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/10/0013-0023 ...

  3. Electronic collaboration in dermatology resident training through social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Natalie M; McGuire, April L; Carroll, Bryan T

    2017-04-01

    The use of online educational resources and professional social networking sites is increasing. The field of dermatology is currently under-utilizing online social networking as a means of professional collaboration and sharing of training materials. In this study, we sought to assess the current structure of and satisfaction with dermatology resident education and gauge interest for a professional social networking site for educational collaboration. Two surveys-one for residents and one for faculty-were electronically distributed via the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery and Association of Professors of Dermatology (APD) listserves. The surveys confirmed that there is interest among dermatology residents and faculty in a dermatology professional networking site with the goal to enhance educational collaboration.

  4. E Commerce : Pasar Maya Di Dunia Nyata

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Lydia Mutiara

    2008-01-01

    Internet has been a maior tool of communication in this globalized world since these two decades. This tool can be used for many purposes so that one can fulfill interests and necessities. One purpose that arises within this virtual world is E-Commerce. lf this one implements worldwide virtual commerce correctly, E-Commerce will provide benefits for its users, E-Merchant and E-Customer. Thus, one should understand how this electronic commerce works so that one does not suffer a financial loss...

  5. Analysis of Chinese e-commerce development

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Mengti

    2010-01-01

    Electronic commerce as a new field of application of internet technology was started in North America 1994. The developing speed of e-commerce has proved to be successful in the commercial world. Moreover, Chinese e-commerce as late comer also has shown its great potential in all the IT related-industries. This thesis focuses on the development of the Chinese e-commerce over recent years. The data for conducting the thesis are collected from the primary sources like company reports, newsp...

  6. E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Vancauteren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    International e-commerce, which involves cross-border transactions over the internet, shows every sign of continuing to expand rapidly. The potential savings of transaction costs from e-commerce are substantial. The most important cost-saving aspect of e-commerce is the reduction in travel, administration, communication and search costs. One consequence of such cost advantages is that many small cross-border transactions have now become economic. In addi...

  7. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana B. Petrevska; Miroslava B. Petrevska

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, wo...

  8. Развој на Електронската трговија - Development of Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Kambovski, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Technological, economic and general progress of civilization changed the basic rules of life and work in recent decades. A new socio-economicterms have been created- "Information Society" (IS) and “Electronic commerce” (E-commerce). The term information society is used to denote the growing use and impact of information and communication technologies (ICT) in all spheres of social life. Technological advances have transformed modes of communication, opportunities for collecting, storing...

  9. Critical Success Factors influencing E-Commerce in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Salah Al-Fadhli

    2011-01-01

    Electronic Commerce which enables business transactions to be conducted electronically has demonstrated significant operational and strategic benefits. Developed countries have actively adopted e-Commerce and have made it an integral part of business activities. Despite its ability to bridge economic and digital gap between developing and developed countries, developing countries are still slow in e-Commerce adoption. Currently, there is still a lack of e-Commerce readines...

  10. Electronic periscope for underground networks; Periscopio electronico para redes subterraneas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Filho, Edival Demetrio de [Companhia Energetica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: demetrio@ceb.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper aims at the perfection of the operational procedures adopted by the technician of Project and Underground Work Management of the Brasilia Energetic Company, Brazil, during the survey of the system duct bank characteristics (Organized formation of electro duct) . The execution of projects, reviews and budgets depend upon the verification of duct availability in the analysed network. The introduction of the device named Electronic Periscope proposed in this work aims at the efficiency of the field surveys.

  11. Traffic Rules in Electronic Financial Transactions (EFT Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Batoš

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the traffic rules in the EFT (ElectronicFinancial Transactions networks, based on the implementationof the solution called Gold-Net developed and implementedby Euronet Worldwide Inc. Following the traffic rulesin EFT networks, out of its worldwide experience, Gold-Netevolved a comprehensive and expandable EFT network solutiondesigned to meet an institution's needs today and in the future.It is an ITM (Integrated Transaction Management solution,modular and expandable, and consists of a comprehensiveEFT software modules with ATM and POS driving capabilities.The combination of ATM management and the onlineconnection form the intercept processing control module. Asthe marketplace grows, this solution ensures that an ente1prisemay position itself for future growth and expanded service offerings.

  12. Grocery E-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Bjerre, Mogens

    This book attempts to shed light on why it is so difficult to develop and maintain successful businesses in the grocery e-commerce arena. Within the last five years, "Grocery e-commerce" has experienced both consistent successes such as Tesco.com and irrevocable failures such as Webvan.com. Niels...... Kornum and Mogens Bjerre bring key researchers together to investigate the factors contributing to the success of "Grocery e-commerce", particularly in countries that had the earliest and most extensive experiences in this field: the USA, the UK and Scandinavia. The authors argue that "Grocery e-commerce...... country comparisons and new empirical evidence in order to address the long-term prospects for the survival of "Grocery e-commerce". Recommendations as to how managers should respond to its challenges are also made. Academics, students and researchers focussing on marketing, consumer behaviour, logistics...

  13. Impacts of E-commerce on the Development of the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and its Adoption of Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yongqing; Wang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    With the trend of globalization and the continuous development of electronic information technology, E-commerce is applied by enterprises to develop enterprises integrating with the world market. It has become the next potent growth point of international trade development. As E-commerce is based on electronic information technology and computer network, it is accelerating the process of market integration, creating a new measure of international trade, transforming the flow of international ...

  14. E-COMMERCE: A TOOL TO FORM ALLIANCES AND ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORKS OR TO MOTIVE COMPETITIVENESS? A STUDY OF CASE WITH THE SECONDHAND BOOKSTORES IN NATAL (RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Célio Souza Rocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we face a new revolution, marked basically by information technology. With this, organizations have sought an increasingly intense and broad use of Information Technology, using it as a business tool, which modifies the basis of strategic and operational competitiveness of companies. The use of open and public infrastructure, as the internet, has allowed to provide products and services in an easier and cheaper way for customers, and to carry out the processes at a more suitable cost, besides creating competitive alliances that will help as market differential. This article seeks to analyze if the electronic commercialization of second-hand books by small bookstores, the ‘sebos’, in the city of Natal / RN through an internet portal, here called “Portal dos Sebos”, appears as an alliance formation and organizational network among the participants of this activity, or on the contrary, serves to foster competition. With the result obtained by the interpretation of the interviews carried out with the owners of those stores, we come to the conclusion that the relationship between them is not configured as an organizational network. However, the relationship between the “sebos” and the “Portal dos Sebos” appears as a strategic business alliance for the storekeepers

  15. Klasifikasi Bisnis E-commerce Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradana, Mahir

    2015-01-01

    Today, Indonesian people in urban areas has strong engagement to internet. Almost every activities are necessarily involves the internet and information technology. So, no wonder if the internet now are very demanding to society. This phenomena also arising the enablement of business that using internet as main platform or known as e-commerce. E-commerce is defined as the process of purchasing, sales, transfer or exchange products, services or information via computer network over the interne...

  16. Brief notations on the electronic commerce Breves anotações sobre o comércio eletrônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbon Lewis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study verifies the aspects of the business concentration in the electronic commerce. For that, primarily, an analysis of these companies’ role in the global context is made, starting from technological advances as well as from the new world situation that both presented to them. The instantaneous flow of information made possible by the Internet as well as the high level of competitiveness introduced by the world-wide order, both led the economy agents to seek inside the online business for a new perspective of both expanding to a new market and international business. After this first step, we move to identifying the formation, sprouting, development, and legal definition of the online business in order to understand its characteristics e modalities; to observe the structure of the online market and discuss the transition of a conventional economy model to a new electronic or digital model; to question the existence of an online or virtual company starting from the development of the Teoria da Empresa as well as its way the way of work of the company in the web. After this initial contingencies are covered, the aim of the present work was to focus on the business concentration which foments the corporation development, but also represents a problem of great economic repercussions. Being so, search was made throughout the legal literature, for the existent types of corporation concentration, and throughout Brazilian Antitrust Law, for the regulation on this concentration, especially, in the Article 54 of the 8,884/94 act which predicts the regulation on acts and contracts that may lead to a corporation concentration. After the presentation of the online transaction models made by the corporations, it was observed, in pratical cases, the potential business concentration as well as the difficulties of relating and applying the Brazilian Antitrust Law in these cases. Thus, before the endless resources made possible by the Internet and the

  17. Research on current e-commerce of tourism in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce in China has been accompanied by a similar development in tourism-based e-commerce. Taking the network as the medium, e-commerce has already become the new model for tourism transactions in the information age: By building one convenient bridge between tourism-based enterprises and tourists, can directly influence the profitability of enterprises. The paper will introduce the current development of tourism-based e-commerce websites, by firstly examining...

  18. E-commerce strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Zheng; Li, Shundong; Li, Fengxiang

    2014-01-01

    This book helps deepen understanding of key e-commerce strategies. It brings together theoretical perspectives based on academic research, integrated use of technologies and a large amount of cases, especially those of China.

  19. An eCommerce Development Case: Your Company's eCommerce Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This case provides a real-world semester long project-oriented case study for students enrolled in an electronic commerce course that has a significant development component. The case provides the technical framework in the form of functional requirements for students to design and build a fully functional transaction processing e-commerce Web…

  20. Getting real about virtual commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P; Wurster, T S

    1999-01-01

    In its first generation, electronic commerce has been a landgrab. Space on the Internet was claimed by whoever got there first with enough resources to create a credible business. It took speed, a willingness to experiment, and a lot of cybersavvy. Companies that had performed brilliantly in traditional settings seemed hopelessly flat-footed on the Web. And despite their astronomical valuations, the new e-commerce stars have appeared to be just as confused. Many have yet to make a profit, and no one has any idea when they will. Now, the authors contend, we are entering the second generation of e-commerce, and it will be shaped more by strategy than by experimentation. The key players--branded-goods suppliers, physical retailers, electronic retailers, and pure navigators--will shift their attention from claiming territory to defending or capturing it. They will be forced to focus on strategies to achieve competitive advantage. Success will go to the businesses that get closest to consumers, the ones that help customers navigate their way through the Web. Indeed, the authors argue, navigation is the battlefield on which competitive advantage will be won or lost. There are three dimensions of navigation: Reach is about access and connection. Affiliation is about whose interests the business represents. And richness is the depth of the information that a business gives to or collects about its customers. Navigators and e-retailers have the natural advantage in reach and affiliation, while traditional product suppliers and retailers have the edge in richness. The authors offer practical advice to each player on competing in the second generation of e-commerce.

  1. Electron percolation in realistic models of carbon nanotube networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Louis-Philippe; Villeneuve, Jérémie; Rochefort, Alain

    2015-09-01

    The influence of penetrable and curved carbon nanotubes (CNT) on the charge percolation in three-dimensional disordered CNT networks have been studied with Monte-Carlo simulations. By considering carbon nanotubes as solid objects but where the overlap between their electron cloud can be controlled, we observed that the structural characteristics of networks containing lower aspect ratio CNT are highly sensitive to the degree of penetration between crossed nanotubes. Following our efficient strategy to displace CNT to different positions to create more realistic statistical models, we conclude that the connectivity between objects increases with the hard-core/soft-shell radii ratio. In contrast, the presence of curved CNT in the random networks leads to an increasing percolation threshold and to a decreasing electrical conductivity at saturation. The waviness of CNT decreases the effective distance between the nanotube extremities, hence reducing their connectivity and degrading their electrical properties. We present the results of our simulation in terms of thickness of the CNT network from which simple structural parameters such as the volume fraction or the carbon nanotube density can be accurately evaluated with our more realistic models.

  2. EXTENDIENDO EL MODELO e-SCARF DE DETECCIÓN DE FRAUDE EN SISTEMAS DE COMERCIO ELECTRÓNICO EXTENDING THE e-SCARF MODEL FOR FRAUD DETECTION ON ELECTRONIC COMMERCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se extiende un modelo existente de detección de fraude, denominado SCARF, el cual está basado en una técnica de auditoría concurrente que consiste en la inserción de rutinas de auditoría dentro de un programa de aplicación, en este caso un sistema de comercio electrónico. Estas rutinas capturan datos de las transacciones electrónicas y son comparados con reglas que un usuario auditor ha definido previamente para detectar posibles transacciones fraudulentas. Para extender el modelo se incorporan como requerimientos la evaluación y sugerencias que un conjunto de 15 auditores realizaron a una segunda versión del modelo, denominada e-SCARF, así como también se incluyen mejoras propuestas por los autores de este trabajo. Para validar el modelo extendido, éste se ha implementado para que funcione en conjunto con una plataforma de comercio electrónico de pruebas y un conjunto de usuarios de distintos países han realizado la simulación de compras en dicha tienda. El producto principal de este trabajo es un modelo extendido, más robusto en sus funcionalidades que sus antecesores, con cambios en la estructura de datos, y nuevos operadores de reglas. Otro producto es el prototipo que lo implementa para una plataforma de comercio electrónico actual.In this work we extend a fraud detection model, called SCARF, which is based on a concurrent auditing technique that consists of inserting auditing procedures within an application program; in this case, an electronic commerce system. These procedures undertake the capture of electronic transactions data, which is compared with rules that are previously defined by an auditor with the purpose of detecting fraudulent transactions. To extend this model, we have a set of some requirements: 1 suggestions from a group of 15 auditors that evaluated the second version of this model, called e-SCARF; 2 improvements proposed by the authors of this work. To evaluate the extended model, we

  3. THE USE OF ELECTRONIC SOCIAL NETWORKS IN SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL WORK WITH PUPILS

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia V. Oleksiuk; Lesya V. Lebedenko

    2015-01-01

    Electronic social networks are powerful means of communication for million registered users, because some social groups are gaining considerable popularity among pupils of secondary schools. The author believes that the use of electronic social networks is actual not just for training purposes, but also to implement the social and educational work in the school environment. In publication there have been reviewed electronic social networks, including business networks, comparison of their pro...

  4. Business ethics in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Khanh

    2016-01-01

    The thesis studies about business ethics generally and business ethics implementation in E-commerce particularly. The main objective of the thesis is to explore how ethics is implemented in electronic business, hence research problems are those following: which kinds of ethical issues organizations have to deal with when doing online commerce; what are opportunities and challenges regards to ethics they have and how they manage them. The thesis is inclined to exploit aspects from organization...

  5. M-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Jørgensen, Frances

    2009-01-01

    Når små og mellemstore virksomheder (SMVer [F1] ) vover sig ud i nye forretningsmuligheder, som baserer sig på mobile devices via trådløs kommunikation med et forretningsmæssigt formål for øje eller 'Mobile Commerce' (M-commerce), skal de være meget dygtige til både at udnytte forkantsteknologier...... af disse netværk som en central del af nye M-commerce forretningsmodeller for SMVer og at redegøre for de foreløbige resultater fra projektets indledende fase. Projektets formål er at udforske, beskrive og facilitere udviklingen af nye forretningsmodeller for M-commerce i danske SMVer. Data er blevet...... indsamlet gennem dybdeinterview. Artiklen bidrager til teori om M-commerce forretningsmodeller, og i særdeleshed, modeller der karakteriseres af intenst netværkssamarbejde.   [F1] Jeg er ikke overbevist, at vi ikke skulle bruge SMEs, da det er meget mere kendt, også herhjemme....

  6. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Holt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle central et l’article observe l’équilibre entre les composants historiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits locaux/localisés. A partir de ces terrains de recherche et de ces expériences il s’est avéré possible de déterminer différentes compréhensions de « produits locaux » en relation avec le concept de « distance alimentaire/ food miles ». En se référant à six cas donnés, cet article souligne l’importance des systèmes localisés en matière de durabilité alimentaire, et met en valeur le poids des qualités humaines et sociales dans la balance commerciale.After giving an overview of the market for local food in the UK, as well as a definition of the concept in relation to short supply chains, organic agriculture and fair trade, the article draws on cases encountered through EC-funded research and networking to identify different types of network concerned with the concept of sustaining local food. Historical uses of shopping habits play here a central role and the article observes the balance between historical, social and environmental components of local food. From these researches and experiences, it has been possible to demonstrate a range of understandings in relation to the concept of ‘food miles’. With reference to six cases, the article underlines the importance of local food systems within food sustainability, and highlights the weight of human and social qualities in the market balance.

  7. E-commerce in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Menlo Energy Economics (MEE), Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-09-18

    E-commerce and e-business are now part of the lexicon of modern business everywhere. The energy industry is no exception, although it is somewhat of a latecomer to the field, trailing a number of others. This article, which is based on a multi-client study titled 'E-commerce in the Energy Sector', is focused on the business applications of e-commerce in the energy sector, broadly defined to include oil, electricity, and natural gas industries. The study was conducted by Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) in collaboration with Global Business Network (GBN). (orig.) [German] E-commerce und E-business gehoeren heute im Geschaeftsleben zum guten Ton. Obwohl ein Nachzuegler auf diesem Gebiet, macht die Energiewirtschaft hier keine Ausnahme. Der Artikel, der auf einer von Menlo Energy Economics (MEE) und Global Business Network (GBN) durchgefuehrten Studie zum Thema 'E-commerce im Energie-Sektor' beruht, beschreibt die Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten fuer E-commerce im Energie-Sektor worunter hier Oel-, Elektrizitaets- und Erdgaswirtschaft zu verstehen sind. (orig.)

  8. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Garfinkel, Simson

    2011-01-01

    Since the first edition of this classic reference was published, World Wide Web use has exploded and e-commerce has become a daily part of business and personal life. As Web use has grown, so have the threats to our security and privacy--from credit card fraud to routine invasions of privacy by marketers to web site defacements to attacks that shut down popular web sites. Web Security, Privacy & Commerce goes behind the headlines, examines the major security risks facing us today, and explains how we can minimize them. It describes risks for Windows and Unix, Microsoft Internet Exp

  9. Electron tomography reveals unbranched networks of actin filaments in lamellipodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edit; Jacob, Sonja; Nemethova, Maria; Resch, Guenter P; Small, J Victor

    2010-05-01

    Eukaryotic cells can initiate movement using the forces exerted by polymerizing actin filaments to extend lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions. In the current model, actin filaments in lamellipodia are organized in a branched, dendritic network. We applied electron tomography to vitreously frozen 'live' cells, fixed cells and cytoskeletons, embedded in vitreous ice or in deep-negative stain. In lamellipodia from four cell types, including rapidly migrating fish keratocytes, we found that actin filaments are almost exclusively unbranched. The vast majority of apparent filament junctions proved to be overlapping filaments, rather than branched end-to-side junctions. Analysis of the tomograms revealed that actin filaments terminate at the membrane interface within a zone several hundred nanometres wide at the lamellipodium front, and yielded the first direct measurements of filament densities. Actin filament pairs were also identified as lamellipodium components and bundle precursors. These data provide a new structural basis for understanding actin-driven protrusion during cell migration.

  10. Manganese oxide microswitch for electronic memory based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, R.; Daud, T.; Moopenn, A.; Thakoor, A. P.; Khanna, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    A solid-state, resistance tailorable, programmable-once, binary, nonvolatile memory switch based on manganese oxide thin films is reported. MnO(x) exhibits irreversible memory switching from conducting (on) to insulating (off) state, with the off and on resistance ratio of greater than 10,000. The switching mechanism is current-triggered chemical transformation of a conductive MnO(2-Delta) to an insulating Mn2O3 state. The energy required for switching is of the order of 4-20 nJ/sq micron. The low switching energy, stability of the on and off states, and tailorability of the on state resistance make these microswitches well suited as programmable binary synapses in electronic associative memories based on neural network models.

  11. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network: past, present, and future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gottesman, Omri; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Faucett, W Andrew; Li, Rongling; Manolio, Teri A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Kannry, Joseph; Zinberg, Randi; Basford, Melissa A; Brilliant, Murray; Carey, David J; Chisholm, Rex L; Chute, Christopher G; Connolly, John J; Crosslin, David; Denny, Joshua C; Gallego, Carlos J; Haines, Jonathan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Harley, John; Jarvik, Gail P; Kohane, Isaac; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Larson, Eric B; McCarty, Catherine; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Smith, Maureen E; Böttinger, Erwin P; Williams, Marc S

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network is a National Human Genome Research Institute-funded consortium engaged in the development of methods and best practices for using the electronic...

  12. K-shell Analysis Reveals Distinct Functional Parts in an Electron Transfer Network and Its Implications for Extracellular Electron Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewu eDing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is capable of extracellular electron transfer (EET and hence has attracted considerable attention. The EET pathways mainly consist of c-type cytochromes, along with some other proteins involved in electron transfer processes. By whole genome study and protein interactions inquisition, we constructed a large-scale electron transfer network containing 2276 interactions among 454 electron transfer related proteins in S. oneidensis MR-1. Using the k-shell decomposition method, we identified and analyzed distinct parts of the electron transfer network. We found that there was a negative correlation between the ks (k-shell values and the average DR_100 (disordered regions per 100 amino acids in every shell, which suggested that disordered regions of proteins played an important role during the formation and extension of the electron transfer network. Furthermore, proteins in the top three shells of the network are mainly located in the cytoplasm and inner membrane; these proteins can be responsible for transfer of electrons into the quinone pool in a wide variety of environmental conditions. In most of the other shells, proteins are broadly located throughout the five cellular compartments (cytoplasm, inner membrane, periplasm, outer membrane and extracellular, which ensures the important EET ability of S. oneidensis MR-1. Specifically, the fourth shell was responsible for EET and the c-type cytochromes in the remaining shells of the electron transfer network were involved in aiding EET. Taken together, these results show that there are distinct functional parts in the electron transfer network of S. oneidensis MR-1, and the EET processes could achieve high efficiency through cooperation through such an electron transfer network.

  13. Continuous use of social commerce: Its conceptual relation with E-WOM, commitment and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Atyaf; Hashim, Kamarul Faizal; Yusof, Shafiz Affendi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    The popularity of social media has changed the way of doing business and introduces a new type of commerce known later as social commerce (s-commerce). Within s-commerce, consumer's loyalty and returning to use have reduced mainly because it is a high competitive environment, which is simply presented by products that proposed and announced rapidly to the market. S-commerce has a magic power called Electronic Word-of-Mouth (E-WOM). E-WOM enables consumers to make a collaboration decision as well as it enable business to reach up their consumers and their network in low cost and short time. Yet, to date, there is limited research that conducted the effect of E-WOM on consumer's continuous use behavior. Therefore, this study is an attempt to propose a value conceptual model that explains the relationship between e-WOM and continuous use behavior. This study serves not only to clarify the relationship between e-WOM and continuous use, but also to explain the mediating role of trust and commitment in this relationship; a theory known as Commitment-Trust theory is adopted. Additionally, drawing upon flow theory, this study examines flow experience determinants as predictors for promoting e-WOM among s-commerce consumers.

  14. Regulasi Hukum Dalam Transaksi E-Commerce: Menuju Optimalisasi Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi

    OpenAIRE

    Riswandi, Budi Agus

    2002-01-01

    The development of informational technology have appeared new transaction pattern that is called electronic commerce (e-commerce). E-commerce is a transaction pattern which uses technology of information. Through e-commerce transaction, it gained much of things economically. But if it is viewed from jurisdical side, the e-commerce transaction model still have problem in law. Regulation of law support for optimalisation of utility thetechonology of information, especially in the e-commerce the...

  15. Model Kepercayaan Konsumen pada Situs E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Purbasari, Wika

    2017-01-01

    The world trading system has now grown to online commerce (electronic commerce) because a lot of people who buy goods through e-commerce. This can be evidenced by a study Consumer Web Watch reported that 86% of Internet users have switched make purchases traditional to online purchases, because that's important to know what factors are forming a model of consumer confidence in e-commerce, then it is necessary a prediction to determine any factors that shape consumer confidence in e-commerce. ...

  16. Building eCommerce sites with Drupal commerce cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Building eCommerce Sites with Drupal Commerce Cookbook is written in a helpful, practical style with numerous hands-on recipes to help you build attractive eCommerce sites.This book is primarily for store owners and web designers with little or no experience of Drupal and Drupal Commerce who want to build and customise a store in Drupal Commerce. You will have a basic knowledge of websites, but you don't need to be familiar with Drupal or PHP. However, this book would also suit experienced Drupal and Ubercart users who want to migrate to or build a Drupal Commerce store

  17. E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    KUBIČKA, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Diploma thesis "E-commerce" aimed to create a suitable solution for marketing mix of the e-shop Levneelektro.cz. Based on performed analyzes I concluded that improvement of a communication with customers is very important for company ELEKTRA PV. I found that a crucial step for maintenance of competitiveness is the foundation of a loyalty program which is responsible for keeping customer loyalty. I have designed two different solutions of the loyalty program that are appropriate for the company.

  18. Perencanaan Search Engine E-commerce dengan Metode Latent Semantic Indexing Berbasis Multiplatform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ari Lestari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce is a sale and purchase transactions that occur through electronic systems such as the Internet, WWW, or other computer networks. E-commerce involves electronic data interchange and automated data collection systems. In all e-commerce search engine provided a column for the search items desired by the user. In e-commerce such as Tokopedia, Lazada, MatahariMall, Amazon, and other search engines that provided just use a regular search engine technology. In the usual search engines getting longer sentences from the input or output of goods search results will be more extensive and more. However, by utilizing the semantic indexing technology, the longer and clear input desired goods, the number of searches will be few and accurately in accordance with the input that helps the user in decision making. In this study discussed how to build a search engine on the web e-commerce by using Latent Semantic Indexing. The first starts from the use of Text Mining methods for word processing, and the method Levenshtein Distance to repair automatic word and the last Latent Semantic Indexing for information processing and input expenditure.

  19. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  20. Perception of Communication Network Fraud Dynamics by Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The massive growth of electronic commerce represent a new set of vulnerabilities aimed at the distortion, disruption, and destruction of the global and national information infrastructures, and are indeed significant threats to the integrity of networked systems. This paper investigates the perception of communication network ...

  1. Training as an E-Commerce Enabler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darch, Helen; Lucas, Trevor

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into lack of skills and awareness as barriers to the use of electronic commerce by 20 small- to medium enterprises within the food industry in Queensland, Australia, found that lack of knowledge and technical skills and structural issues are barriers. A range of training and development strategies are needed. (Contains 20…

  2. ANÁLISIS DE LA INCIDENCIA DEL GÉNERO EN LA ACTITUD HACIA EL USO DEL T-COMMERCE MEDIANTE LA COMPARACIÓN DE MODELOS ESTRUCTURALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arroyo-Cañada, Francisco-Javier

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital television development and its convergence with computer systems and communication networks have improved the chances of user interaction, facilitating electronic commerce through television. The study of technology acceptance indicates that the attitude towards technology is the main precursor of the behavioral intention to use. This study aims to determine the effect of gender on the precedents of the attitude towards use of t-commerce. From information gathered with a self-administered questionnaire we have estimated a Structural Equation Modeling, for two groups, to determine significant differences between the attitude precedents towards the use of t-commerce between men and women.

  3. E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação tem como objetivo identificar as principais características do e-commerce que influenciam no processo de decisão de compra via internet, tendo o consumidor on-line como centro deste estudo. Evidenciou-se o processo de decisão de compra por este possibilitar uma análise de cada etapa "percorrida" pelo consumidor ao realizar s...

  4. Online commerce: advantages and disadvantages

    OpenAIRE

    SNOPOK E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article analyses the online commerce. Presents the advantages and disadvantages purchases on the Internet, considered the purpose and object of. online trading. Conclusions are made about possible directions of further improvement and development of this type of commerce.

  5. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2017-06-01

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors.

  6. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors. PMID:28635956

  7. Self-assembled three dimensional network designs for soft electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Li, Kan; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Jung, Han Na; Yang, Yiyuan; Kwak, Jean Won; Jung, Han Hee; Song, Juwon; Yang, Ce; Wang, Ao; Liu, Zhuangjian; Lee, Jong Yoon; Kim, Bong Hoon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jungyup; Yu, Yongjoon; Kim, Bum Jun; Jang, Hokyung; Yu, Ki Jun; Kim, Jeonghyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Song, Young Min; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A

    2017-06-21

    Low modulus, compliant systems of sensors, circuits and radios designed to intimately interface with the soft tissues of the human body are of growing interest, due to their emerging applications in continuous, clinical-quality health monitors and advanced, bioelectronic therapeutics. Although recent research establishes various materials and mechanics concepts for such technologies, all existing approaches involve simple, two-dimensional (2D) layouts in the constituent micro-components and interconnects. Here we introduce concepts in three-dimensional (3D) architectures that bypass important engineering constraints and performance limitations set by traditional, 2D designs. Specifically, open-mesh, 3D interconnect networks of helical microcoils formed by deterministic compressive buckling establish the basis for systems that can offer exceptional low modulus, elastic mechanics, in compact geometries, with active components and sophisticated levels of functionality. Coupled mechanical and electrical design approaches enable layout optimization, assembly processes and encapsulation schemes to yield 3D configurations that satisfy requirements in demanding, complex systems, such as wireless, skin-compatible electronic sensors.

  8. Residual Deconvolutional Networks for Brain Electron Microscopy Image Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhry, Ahmed; Zeng, Tao; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-02-01

    Accurate reconstruction of anatomical connections between neurons in the brain using electron microscopy (EM) images is considered to be the gold standard for circuit mapping. A key step in obtaining the reconstruction is the ability to automatically segment neurons with a precision close to human-level performance. Despite the recent technical advances in EM image segmentation, most of them rely on hand-crafted features to some extent that are specific to the data, limiting their ability to generalize. Here, we propose a simple yet powerful technique for EM image segmentation that is trained end-to-end and does not rely on prior knowledge of the data. Our proposed residual deconvolutional network consists of two information pathways that capture full-resolution features and contextual information, respectively. We showed that the proposed model is very effective in achieving the conflicting goals in dense output prediction; namely preserving full-resolution predictions and including sufficient contextual information. We applied our method to the ongoing open challenge of 3D neurite segmentation in EM images. Our method achieved one of the top results on this open challenge. We demonstrated the generality of our technique by evaluating it on the 2D neurite segmentation challenge dataset where consistently high performance was obtained. We thus expect our method to generalize well to other dense output prediction problems.

  9. An Exploratory Investigation of Requisite Skills Needed by Developers of E-Commerce Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladwani, Adel M.

    The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the skills needed by developers of Electronic Commerce (e-Commerce) systems. The paper proposes a framework pertaining to three categories of e-Commerce development knowledge: technical, human, and organizational. The initial findings reveal that there are some 16 possible e-Commerce skills tapping…

  10. E-commerce in small and medium companies in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Bezić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast progress of information-communication technology, distribution of computer networks and wider usage of Internet are basis for the new industrial revolution. Therefore, e-commerce presents new possibility of gathering competitive advantages on the world market, especially for small and medium companies. In order to determine the current stage of electronic readiness and electronic intensity of using the e-commerce in small and medium companies in Croatia, there was a research carried through micro, small and medium companies on national level. Although the acceptance of Internet technologies and implementation of e-commerce ensures to small and medium companies to compete on the world market with large companies and to have efective infuence on their growth and development, the research showed that Croatian micro, small and medium companies, despite of their high level of electronic readiness and implementation of modern information-communication technologies, are not favorable in their usage in everyday business. It is necessary to figure out the universal model to remove barriers for implementation and acceptance of e-commerce.

  11. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  12. "Does e-Commerce Always Increase Social Welfare in the Long Run?"

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We examine the effect of electronic commerce ("e-commerce") on social welfare, in the framework of conventional spatial competition models. We consider the case where both conventional and electronic retailers coexist in equilibrium. We show that e-commerce does not necessarily increase social welfare in the long run. In particular, when electronic retailers have clear cost advantage over conventional retailers, then the advent of e-commerce is shown to reduce social welfare.

  13. E-commerce Review System to Detect False Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Manjur

    2017-08-15

    E-commerce sites have been doing profitable business since their induction in high-speed and secured networks. Moreover, they continue to influence consumers through various methods. One of the most effective methods is the e-commerce review rating system, in which consumers provide review ratings for the products used. However, almost all e-commerce review rating systems are unable to provide cumulative review ratings. Furthermore, review ratings are influenced by positive and negative malicious feedback ratings, collectively called false reviews. In this paper, we proposed an e-commerce review system framework developed using the cumulative sum method to detect and remove malicious review ratings.

  14. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  15. Neural Network for Nanoscience Scanning Electron Microscope Image Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres, Mohammad Hadi; Aversa, Rossella; Cozzini, Stefano; Ciancio, Regina; Leto, Angelo; Brandino, Giuseppe Piero

    2017-10-16

    In this paper we applied transfer learning techniques for image recognition, automatic categorization, and labeling of nanoscience images obtained by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Roughly 20,000 SEM images were manually classified into 10 categories to form a labeled training set, which can be used as a reference set for future applications of deep learning enhanced algorithms in the nanoscience domain. The categories chosen spanned the range of 0-Dimensional (0D) objects such as particles, 1D nanowires and fibres, 2D films and coated surfaces, and 3D patterned surfaces such as pillars. The training set was used to retrain on the SEM dataset and to compare many convolutional neural network models (Inception-v3, Inception-v4, ResNet). We obtained compatible results by performing a feature extraction of the different models on the same dataset. We performed additional analysis of the classifier on a second test set to further investigate the results both on particular cases and from a statistical point of view. Our algorithm was able to successfully classify around 90% of a test dataset consisting of SEM images, while reduced accuracy was found in the case of images at the boundary between two categories or containing elements of multiple categories. In these cases, the image classification did not identify a predominant category with a high score. We used the statistical outcomes from testing to deploy a semi-automatic workflow able to classify and label images generated by the SEM. Finally, a separate training was performed to determine the volume fraction of coherently aligned nanowires in SEM images. The results were compared with what was obtained using the Local Gradient Orientation method. This example demonstrates the versatility and the potential of transfer learning to address specific tasks of interest in nanoscience applications.

  16. Local food in European supply chains: reconnection and electronic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Georgina

    2007-01-01

    Après une présentation du marché des produits locaux/localisés en Grande Bretagne, ainsi qu’une définition du concept en fonction des circuits de distribution courts, de l’agriculture biologique et du commerce équitable, cet article se fonde sur des études de cas, issus de projets de recherche européens, pour identifier des différents types de réseaux concernés par les concept de produit locaux durables. Les habitudes historiques concernant l’achat des produits alimentaires jouent ici un rôle...

  17. How Standard Are the Standard Barriers to E-commerce Adoption? Empirical Evidence from Australia, Sweden and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macflregor, Robert; Vrazalic, Lejla; Carlsson, Sten; Pratt, Jean; Harris, Matthew

    Despite their size, small to medium enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly turning to global markets. This development has been enabled by the advent of electronic commerce technology. There are numerous definitions of e-comrnerce in the literature, however, fundamentally e-commerce can best be described as "the buying and selling of information, products, and services via computer networks" (Kalakota & Whinston, 997, p.3). Ecommerce has the potential to become a source of competitive advantage to the SME sector because it is a cost effective way of accessing customers and being 'wired to the global marketplace'.

  18. Investigating the Identity Theft Prevention Strategies in M-Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mahmood Hussain; Ahmed, Javed; Soomro, Zahoor Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Mobile commerce has provided extended business opportunities for online organisations and made it easier for customers to purchase products on-line from anywhere at any time. However, there are several risks associated with it, especially the identity theft. Online organisations commonly use electronic commerce approaches; however, these have some…

  19. The Influence of Information Ecology on E-Commerce Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlor, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the influence of an organization's information ecology, or internal information environment, on a firm's electronic commerce initiatives and plans. Reports results from a case study investigation on the adoption and use of an e-commerce initiative, a corporate portal, by participants at a large Canadian company. (Author/LRW)

  20. E-Commerce and Privacy: Conflict and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Badie N.; Higby, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic commerce has intensified conflict between businesses' need to collect data and customers' desire to protect privacy. Web-based privacy tools and legislation could add to the costs of e-commerce and reduce profitability. Business models not based on profiling customers may be needed. (SK)

  1. Ferment in Business Education: E-Commerce Master's Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlabhji, Subhash; Fusilier, Marcelline R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of curriculum and course descriptions of 67 Web-based electronic commerce master's programs showed that the number of programs grew 76% over 8 months. More nontechnical than technology-centered courses are offered. Business schools are apparently viewing e-commerce as a completely new discipline. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  2. No Small Change: E-Commerce in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Evan T.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how electronic commerce (e-commerce) principles can be useful for distance education in higher education. Topics include business-to-business and business-to-consumer models; entering the marketplace; understanding the institution's capabilities; knowing the competition; and sound financial models. (LRW)

  3. A Service-Oriented E-Commerce Reference Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aulkemeier, Fabian; Schramm, Milan; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is getting more and more important in people's every day shopping routines. Vendors who want to establish an online channel besides their traditional retail practice have to integrate the two supply chains. The underlying information technology systems should be able

  4. New Rage on Campus: E-Commerce Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    As electronic commerce expands, higher education attempts to keep up with the demand for instruction. Some universities have added a concentration in e-commerce to their master of business administration program and others are adding majors, certifications, or degrees. (JOW)

  5. Linking the customer purchase process to website development and e-commerce performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Adriana Cecylia

    2008-01-01

    Electronic commerce is fundamentally changing the way consumers search and buy goods and services. E-commerce is informing, promoting, buying and/or selling of products or services over electronic media such as the Internet. E-commerce has become a critical factor for competitiveness and

  6. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  7. E-commerce Sidewalk Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias Ariffiana; Taufiq Abidin

    2016-01-01

    E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli ta...

  8. Secure E-Commerce Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Haseeb, Muhammad Arshad, Shoukat Ali, Shazia Yasin

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce has presented a new way of doing business all over the world using internet.Organizations have changed their way of doing business from a traditional approach to embrace ecommerceprocesses. As individuals and businesses increase information sharing, a concernregarding the exchange of money securely and conveniently over the internet increases. Therefore,security is a necessity in an e-commerce transaction. The purpose of this paper is to present atoken based Secure E-commerce Proto...

  9. Distributed interoperable workflow support for electronic commerce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papazoglou, M.; Jeusfeld, M.A.; Weigand, H.; Jarke, M.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract. This paper describes a flexible distributed transactional workflow environment based on an extensible object-oriented framework built around class libraries, application programming interfaces, and shared services. The purpose of this environment is to support a range of EC-like business

  10. E-Commerce Content in Business School Curriculum: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krovi, Ravindra; Vijayaraman, B. S.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the opportunities and challenges of introducing e-commerce concepts in business school curriculums. Examines the knowledge components of electronic commerce, including Web-based technology skills; and discusses the need for faculty training and development. (Author/LRW)

  11. E-Commerce May Help Colleges Cut Costs and Paperwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Describes the increasing trend of incorporating electronic commerce methods to purchasing systems at colleges and universities. Provides examples from the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University (Massachusetts), California State University at Fullerton, and the University of California at Los Angeles. (DB)

  12. Peran Mediasi Citra Merek dan Persepsi Risiko pada Hubungan antara Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM dan Minat Beli (Studi pada Konsumen Kosmetik E-Commerce di Solo Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Noor Eriza

    2017-06-01

    Electronic word of mouth (E-WOM banyak dimanfaatkan konsumen untuk menggali informasi mengenai suatu produk. Informasi yang diperoleh dari berbagai sumber di internet akan mempengaruhi persepsi konsumen terhadap citra merek, risiko dan mendorong minat beli konsumen. Penelitian ini menganalisis peran mediasi citra merek dan persepsi risiko pada hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 149 konsumen di Solo Raya yang telah melakukan pembelian kosmetik melalui e-commerce. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa E-WOM berpengaruh positif terhadap minat beli dan citra merek. Pengujian regresi mediasi menyimpulkan bahwa citra merek memediasi secara parsial hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli. Hasil tersebut mengartikan bahwa aktivitas membaca ulasan produk di internet akan memberikan informasi mengenai manfaat dan keunggulan produk sehingga konsumen akan merasa yakin bahwa mereka memilih produk yang tepat dan mendorong minat beli konsumen. Sedangkan E-WOM berpengaruh negatif terhadap persepsi risiko namun tidak memediasi hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli.   Kata kunci : E-WOM, Minat Beli, Citra Merek, Persepsi Risiko.

  13. Revenue Management and E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    E. Andrew Boyd; Ioana C. Bilegan

    2003-01-01

    We trace the history of revenue management in an effort to illustrate a successful e--commerce model of dynamic, automated sales. Our discourse begins with a brief overview of electronic distribution as practiced in the airline industry, emphasizing the fundamental role of central reservation and revenue management systems. Methods for controlling the sale of inventory are then introduced along with related techniques for optimization and forecasting. Research contributions and areas of signi...

  14. 15 CFR 19.14 - How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities report Commerce debts to credit bureaus? 19.14 Section 19.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.14 How will Commerce entities...

  15. 15 CFR 19.7 - When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities compromise a Commerce debt? 19.7 Section 19.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.7 When will Commerce entities compromise...

  16. Customers repurchase intention formation in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nader S. Safa; Rossouw von Solms

    2016-01-01

    Background: Electronic loyalty (e-loyalty) has become important in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce) in recent years. Loyal customers bring long-term revenue to companies and are known to be a valuable asset to them. However, firms lose their customers in a competitive environment on the Internet because of a lack of trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Objectives: This study explains how e-loyalty, e-trust and e-satisfaction form in e-commerce with a focus on customer purchase ...

  17. After the hype: e-commerce payments grow up

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2003-01-01

    On June 18, 2003, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia and the Electronic Commerce Payments Council (eCPC) of the Electronic Funds Transfer Association co-hosted a workshop forum to explore areas of mutual interest related to the proliferation of e-commerce payments. This was the second event jointly sponsored by the groups. ; The first forum, “The Future of e-Commerce Payments,” which was held in June 2002, focused on the possibilities ahead, as various electr...

  18. eIFL (Electronic Information for Libraries): A Global Initiative of the Soros Foundations Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, Blazej; Kay, Michael

    This paper presents the history, current status, and future development of eIFL (Electronic Information for Libraries Direct)--a large-scale project run by the Soros Foundations Network and the Open Society Institute. The project aims to provide libraries in developing countries with access to a menu of electronic information resources. In 1999,…

  19. Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) Adhesives for Electron Beam Cure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2000-01-01

    Electron beam (e-beam)-processed polymer adhesives have historically performed poorly compared to traditional adhesive technologies due to a lack of toughness engineered into these new types of adhesive materials...

  20. Wintelism and Production Networks in the Electronics Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gevel, A.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with two interrelated elements of globalization: Wintelism and cross national production networks which have been underexposed in discussions about globalization.Wintelism refers to the shift in competition away from final assembly and vertical control of markets by final assemblers

  1. The Kinetic Energy of Hydrocarbons as a Function of Electron Density and Convolutional Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Kun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a convolutional neural network trained to reproduce the Kohn-Sham kinetic energy of hydrocarbons from electron density. The output of the network is used as a non-local correction to the conventional local and semi-local kinetic functionals. We show that this approximation qualitatively reproduces Kohn-Sham potential energy surfaces when used with conventional exchange correlation functionals. Numerical noise inherited from the non-linearity of the neural network is identified as the major challenge for the model. Finally we examine the features in the density learned by the neural network to anticipate the prospects of generalizing these models.

  2. E-COMMERCE MARKET AND PERSPECTIVES FOR THE REVERSE COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Laskowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been evolving from being a purely niche phenomenon to owning a vital share in economies of developed countries. Growth of such distribution and sales channel has been highly correlated with technological improvements penetrating modern societies. Today we stand in front of new ideas, adoption barriers and profit opportunities. There are a few trends ready to take off in the near future, one of them is the idea of reverse e-commerce, which is engaging the consumer even more into a highly personalized buying process. Nevertheless, every new idea needs the suitable time and place to launch. The purpose of this analysis is to verify prospects for the reverse e-commerce, which has a huge market potential. Reverse e-Commerce has every chance of becoming a new, still undiscovered now, marketing channel.

  3. The impact of e-commerce on warehouse operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Żuchowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We often encounter opinions concerning the unusual nature of warehouses used for the purposes of e-commerce, most often spread by providers of modern technological equipment and designers of such solutions. Of course, in the case of newly built facilities, it is advisable to consider innovative technologies, especially in terms of order picking. However, in many cases, the differences between "standard" warehouses, serving, for example, the vehicle spare parts market, and warehouses that are ready to handle retail orders placed electronically (defined as e-commerce are negligible. The scale of the differences between the existing "standard" warehouses and those adapted to handle e-commerce is dependent on the industry and supported of customers' structure. Methods: On the basis of experiences and on examples of enterprises two cases of the impact of a hypothetical e-commerce implementation for the warehouse organization and technology have been analysed. Results: The introduction of e-commerce into warehouses entails respective changes to previously handled orders. Warehouses serving the retail market are in principle prepared to process electronic orders. In this case, the introduction of (direct electronic sales is justified and feasible with relatively little effort. Conclusions: It cannot be said with certainty that the introduction of e-commerce in the warehouse is a revolution for its employees and managers. It depends on the markets in which the company operates, and on customers served by the warehouse prior to the introduction of e-commerce.

  4. Beginning Django E-Commerce

    CERN Document Server

    McGaw, James

    2009-01-01

    Beginning Django E-Commerce guides you through producing an e-commerce site using Django, the most popular Python web development framework. Topics covered include how to make a shopping cart, a checkout, and a payment processor; how to make the most of Ajax; and search engine optimization best practices. Throughout the book, you'll take each topic and apply it to build a single example site, and all the while you'll learn the theory behind what you're architecting. * Build a fully functional e-commerce site. * Learn to architect your site properly to survive in an increasingly competitive onl

  5. 15 CFR 19.15 - How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How will...

  6. Priorities of institutional regulation of e-commerce: Russia and world trends

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    E-commerce is gradually transformed from a version of trading activity to independent branch of global network economy which cannot be ignored. The Russian Federation is in the lead in the CIS on development of e-commerce, but lags behind world leaders in institutionalization of e-commerce. Problems of state regulation of e-commerce in Russia are analyzed in article, ways of their decision are offered.

  7. Getting started with Drupal commerce

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A simple yet concise step-by-step tutorial that starts from scratch and builds up your knowledge with focused examples that will enable you to set up and run an e-commerce website.This book is for beginners and will take you through the installation and configuration of Drupal Commerce from scratch, but some familiarity with Drupal 7 will be an advantage. All examples are based on development on a local computer - you do not need a hosted Drupal environment.

  8. 29 CFR 779.12 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 779.12 Section 779.12 Labor Regulations Relating... OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.12 Commerce. Commerce as used in the Act includes interstate and foreign commerce. It is defined in section 3(b) of the Act to mean “trade, commerce...

  9. The BIOSCI electronic newsgroup network for the biological sciences. Final report, October 1, 1992--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, D.; Mack, D.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report for a DOE funded project on BIOSCI Electronic Newsgroup Network for the biological sciences. A usable network for scientific discussion, major announcements, problem solving, etc. has been created.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of fibrin networks after thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etheresia Pretorius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury due to burning is known to impact on coagulation and haemostasis by disturbing the coagulation cascade and is also associated with impaired fibrinolysis. Also, venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and hypercoagulability are common during thermal injury. Using a Wistar albino rat model, we investigated in this study whether burn injury affects the ultrastructure of the fibrin networks. A typical fibrin network will contain mostly major, thick fibres with minor, thin fibres distributed amongst them. We found that the clot architecture changes after burn injury, showing more prominent minor, thin fibres in a netted appearance. Also, the clot showed areas of matted fibrin. We suggest that the thrombotic events associated with burn injury are due to the thickened and netlike areas formed when thrombin activates the coagulation cascade. This is due to impaired fibrinolysis activities, causing the resulting fibrin clots not to be successfully disseminated. Small fragments of these netted, clumped areas may therefore break loose and lead to thrombotic events after burn injuries. The current study therefore provided morphological evidence for thrombotic events associated with burn injury.

  11. THE IMPACT OF E-COMMERCE ON THE ECONOMICS ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT GABRIEL DRAGOMIR

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes to speak about the impact the e-commerce has within the economics environment. At first, we described the development of the digital technologies and the role of the browsers in the electronic commerce. Secondly, we aim at presenting, in brief, the history and the evolution of e-commerce. As concern the applicative part of the paper, several graphs comment on the up-to-date pieces of information connected to the issue. At last, the new concept of bit coin is referred to. In the end we draw up the conclusions.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Insurance Mechanisms for E-commerce Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Xie,Hong; Lui, John C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic commerce (a.k.a. E-commerce) systems such as eBay and Taobao of Alibaba are becoming increasingly popular. Having an effective reputation system is critical to this type of internet service because it can assist buyers to evaluate the trustworthiness of sellers, and it can also improve the revenue for reputable sellers and E-commerce operators. We formulate a stochastic model to analyze an eBay-like reputation system and propose four measures to quantify its effectiveness: (1) new ...

  13. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  14. High time resolution reconstruction of electron temperature profiles with a neural network in C-2U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Gabriel; Magee, Richard; Trask, Erik; Korepanov, Sergey; Clary, Ryan; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important parameters governing fast ion dynamics in a plasma is the electron temperature, as the fast ion-electron collision rate goes as νei Te3 / 2 . Unfortunately, the electron temperature is difficult to directly measure-methods relying on high-powered laser pulses or fragile probes lead to limited time resolution or measurements restricted to the edge. In order to rectify the lack of time resolution on the Thomson scattering data in the core, a type of learning algorithm, specifically a neural network, was implemented. This network uses 3 hidden layers to correlate information from nearly 250 signals, including magnetics, interferometers, and several arrays of bolometers, with Thomson scattering data over the entire C-2U database, totalling nearly 20,000 samples. The network uses the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm with Bayesian regularization to learn from the large number of samples and inputs how to accurately reconstruct the entire electron temperature time history at a resolution of 500 kHz, a huge improvement over the 2 time points per shot provided by Thomson scattering. These results can be used in many different types of analysis and plasma characterization-in this work, we use the network to quantify electron heating.

  15. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  16. INTERNET ADOPTION AND USE OF E-COMMERCE STRATEGIES BY AGRIBUSINESS FIRMS IN ALABAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Befecadu, Joseph; Chembezi, Duncan M.; McFarlane, Dionne

    2003-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is relatively new to the agricultural industry, and affects such aspects of the organization as its strategy, processes, customer relationships, information technology, and business culture. This paper analyzes the factors influencing agribusiness firms' desire or need to adopt the Internet and employ e-commerce strategies. The relationship between the factors driving the choice of distribution channel and Internet usage for e-commerce will empirically be esti...

  17. Strategiske udfordringer for e-commerce og m-commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    For at være forretningsmæssigt levedygtige, må m-portaler tiltrække og fastholde kunderne. Kernebudskabet i dette afsnit er at muligheden for at være succesfuld med dette vil afhænge af dynamiske strategier, der blander elementer af personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold. Vi gennemgå...... her kerneforskelle mellem traditionel e-handel (e-commerce) og m-commerce og hvordan de to handelsformer adskiller sig med hensyn til personalisering, adgang og specifikation af indhold....

  18. The eMERGE Network: a consortium of biorepositories linked to electronic medical records data for conducting genomic studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarty, Catherine A; Chisholm, Rex L; Chute, Christopher G; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Jarvik, Gail P; Larson, Eric B; Li, Rongling; Masys, Daniel R; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Struewing, Jeffery P; Wolf, Wendy A

    2011-01-01

    The eMERGE (electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics) Network is an NHGRI-supported consortium of five institutions to explore the utility of DNA repositories coupled to Electronic Medical Record (EMR...

  19. e-Commerce security – A life cycle approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    for promotion of e-commerce and e-governance. It is applicable to the whole of India. Some of the major provisions contained in the IT Act 2000 are as follows: • Electronic contracts will be legally valid. • Legal recognition of digital signatures. • Security procedure for electronic records and digital signature. • Appointment of ...

  20. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  1. SMEs' E-commerce Adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - Proposes providing an insight about factors affecting business-to-business e-commerce adoption and implementation in small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting similarities and differences between Danish and Australian SMEs.    Design/methodology/approach - The research...... is based on a wide literature review, focused on proposing a theoretical model of technological, environmental and organizational factors influencing e-commerce adoption and implementation. Subsequently, a questionnaire based on the research model has been developed and face-to-face interviews were...... conducted in Danish and Australian companies. Findings - The findings both corroborate previous results about significant factors affecting SMEs' b-to-b e-commerce adoption and implementation and provide new, interesting insights. The study also finds many similarities and differences between Denmark...

  2. Speculations on the Impact of Global Electronic Networks on Human Cognition and Human Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilan, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the relationship between a society's communication technology and Marshall McLuhan's concerns for human cognition, and between the technology and the ways that humans organize their societies. It is suggested that appropriate development of global electronic networks could have a positive effect on individual and organizational abilities…

  3. Employees’ participation in electronic networks of practice within a corporate group: perceived benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.T.; Hamedi, M.; van Beers, C.

    This paper explores benefits and costs of knowledge exchange perceived by individuals in connected electronic networks of practice (ENoP) in a corporate setting. The results of 25 semi-structured interviews show 9 perceived benefits and 5 perceived costs to be of importance for knowledge exchange.

  4. Employees’ participation in electronic networks of practice within a corporate group: perceived benefits and costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi, M.; Lukosch, S.G.; van Splunter, S.; Brazier, F.M.; Hamedi, Mohsen; van Beers, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores benefits and costs of knowledge exchange perceived by individuals in connected electronic networks of practice (ENoP) in a corporate setting. The results of 25 semi-structured interviews show 9 perceived benefits and 5 perceived costs to be of importance for knowledge exchange.

  5. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  6. Electron transfer between a quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase and an electrode via a redox polymer network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stigter, E.C.A.; Jong, G.A.H. de; Jongejan, J.A.; Duine, J.A.; Lugt, J.P. van der; Somers, W.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    A quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (QH-EDH) from Comamonas testosteroni was immobilized on an electrode in a redox polymer network consisting of a polyvinylpyridine partially N-complexed with osmiumbis-(bipyridine)chloride. The enzyme effectively transfers electrons to the electrode via the

  7. mitigating mitigating free riding in peer-to-peer networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    9. R. Krishnan, M. Smith, and Z. Tang, “The impact of free-riding. On peer-to-peer networks," in the 37th Annual Hawaii. International Conference on System Sciences, 2004, pp. 1-. 10. 10. P. Golle, K. Leyton-brown, I. Mironov, and M. Lillibridge,. “Incentives for Sharing in Peer-to-Peer Networks,". Electronic Commerce,, 2001.

  8. Does E-Commerce Provide a Sustained Competitive Advantage? An Investigation of Survival and Sustainability in Growth-Oriented Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises should find a new business model for their development, so as to make better use of their own advantages. At the same time, with rapid development of the economy and of science technology, the competition between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs and large enterprises is inevitable, so it is very important for small and medium-sized enterprises to find better ways to improve their ability to compete. E-commerce is a new medium of commerce in this 21st century, so as to promote the quantity development of SMEs and enhance the risk management ability of enterprises. However, at present, many of China’s small and medium enterprises face many challenges in the process of electronic commerce’s development, such as, which factors hinder the performance of electronic commerce, and what aspect of enterprises should be improved? This paper is based on the above problems, using theoretical analysis and empirical research methods to explore the root of these problems and find the solutions. In the empirical section, we explore how e-commerce influences sales growth in the short- and long-term. Through analysis of e-commerce performance, we further explore the causality relationship and influence degree. The results show that: first, IT Investment is the most important factor to achieve success, what competitive advantage can be achieved largely depends on whether enterprises will effectively use the network technology; second, the expansion of the enterprise size can promote transaction volume increase of SMEs in the short term; third, internet availability has a positive effect on the trade volume of e-commerce, but the intensity is not obvious, and the effect is relatively stable.

  9. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sande Marianne AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs. Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of electronic medical records for monitoring the incidence of chlamydia cases diagnosed in primary care in the Netherlands. Methods In the electronic records of two regional and two national networks, we identified chlamydia diagnoses by means of ICPC codes (International Classification of Primary Care, laboratory results in free text and the prescription of antibiotics. The year of study was 2007 for the two regional networks and one national network, for the other national network the year of study was 2005. We calculated the incidence of diagnosed chlamydia cases per sex, age group and degree of urbanization. Results A large diversity was observed in the way chlamydia episodes were coded in the four different GP networks and how easily information concerning chlamydia diagnoses could be extracted. The overall incidence ranged from 103.2/100,000 to 590.2/100,000. Differences were partly related to differences between patient populations. Nevertheless, we observed similar trends in the incidence of chlamydia diagnoses in all networks and findings were in line with earlier reports. Conclusions Electronic patient records, originally intended for individual patient care in general practice, can be an additional source of data for monitoring chlamydia incidence in primary care and can be of use in assessing the future impact of population-based chlamydia screening programs. To increase the usefulness of data we recommend more efforts to standardize registration by (specific ICPC code and laboratory results across the existing GP networks.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF E-COMMERCE ON SUPPLY CHAIN IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Gülsüm; BAYAR ÇAĞLAK, Sibel; Alkan, Güler

    2011-01-01

    Electronic commerce (e-commerce) and the internet are fundamentally changing the nature of supply chains, and redefining consumer reaction in supply chain era. In addition to standard forms for business-to-business transactions, ecommerce encompasses much wider activity. A new form of cooperation known as a virtual company, performing some of the processes needed to manufacture a product or deliver a service, has flourished. Nowadays, promoting the development of electronic commerce is one of...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.103 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1220.103 Section 1220.103 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.103 Commerce. The term commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.4 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1215.4 Section 1215.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Commerce. Commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.2 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce. 1209.2 Section 1209.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....2 Commerce. Commerce means interstate, foreign, or intrastate commerce. ...

  14. 29 CFR 401.1 - Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commerce. 401.1 Section 401.1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.1 Commerce. Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation...

  15. Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part IV Department of Commerce Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (DOC) DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of the Secretary 13 CFR Ch. III 15 CFR Subtitle A; Subtitle B, Chs. I, II, III..., and VI Spring 2010 Semiannual Agenda of Regulations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Commerce. ACTION...

  16. Predictive models for pressure ulcers from intensive care unit electronic health records using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewprag, Pacharmon; Newton, Cheryl; Vermillion, Brenda; Hyun, Sookyung; Huang, Kun; Machiraju, Raghu

    2017-07-05

    We develop predictive models enabling clinicians to better understand and explore patient clinical data along with risk factors for pressure ulcers in intensive care unit patients from electronic health record data. Identifying accurate risk factors of pressure ulcers is essential to determining appropriate prevention strategies; in this work we examine medication, diagnosis, and traditional Braden pressure ulcer assessment scale measurements as patient features. In order to predict pressure ulcer incidence and better understand the structure of related risk factors, we construct Bayesian networks from patient features. Bayesian network nodes (features) and edges (conditional dependencies) are simplified with statistical network techniques. Upon reviewing a network visualization of our model, our clinician collaborators were able to identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. We present a three-stage framework for predictive analysis of patient clinical data: 1) Developing electronic health record feature extraction functions with assistance of clinicians, 2) simplifying features, and 3) building Bayesian network predictive models. We evaluate all combinations of Bayesian network models from different search algorithms, scoring functions, prior structure initializations, and sets of features. From the EHRs of 7,717 ICU patients, we construct Bayesian network predictive models from 86 medication, diagnosis, and Braden scale features. Our model not only identifies known and suspected high PU risk factors, but also substantially increases sensitivity of the prediction - nearly three times higher comparing to logistical regression models - without sacrificing the overall accuracy. We visualize a representative model with which our clinician collaborators identify strong relationships between risk factors widely recognized as associated with pressure ulcers. Given the strong adverse effect of pressure ulcers

  17. Designing a Virtual Center for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina ROSCA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the actual context of developing digital services, the promotion of a system that manages multiple e-commerce sites can be extremely valuable in increasing the economic effects for the companies. This paper presents the current stage of the experimental system design and implementation, an open system website-based (called Single Way for E-Commerce - SWEC having the goal to collaborate with many database servers of the companies that offer e-commerce sevices and also to interract with electronic payment and e-administration systems. This new approach allows the clients, after them authentication, to navigate on e-commerce websites and search different products, grouping on domains, companies and geographic areas. SWEC System will offer to the customer the opportunity to visualize and compare similar products, to order and receive a single invoice for all the products he wants to buy.

  18. Legal issues in E-commerce and E-contract in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uarda Roshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce has become a key aspect for many businesses all around the world. This new form of commerce has reshaped the ways of trading, revolutionizing the way of doing business and has brought competitive advantages for both consumer and business. Over the last few years Albania is witnessing a digital revolution too, however although internet access has grown significantly only a few enterprises and a small number of companies have engaged in e-commerce activities. The development of e-commerce is an important element of national economy. Being a new important sector, e-commerce can only flourish where there is a good infrastructure, both legal and technological, which is attractive to consumers and business. So the need for rules and principles facilitating e-commerce has become increasingly evident, too. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the regulatory framework, legal issues and the challenges in the development of electronic commerce in Albania.

  19. E-commerce and Business Case of a US E-commerce firm

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Sanchez, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    What do we know as E-commerce and E-Business? Unique features of E-commerce. Types of E-commerce. History and feature of E-commerce. Why does E-commerce develop better in some places than in others? What make a current E-commerce success? Introduction of the US E-commerce firm studied. Bussiness case (customer, product, company and competition). Conclusions.

  20. E-commerce and the energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; Biedenharn, J. [Global Energy Assets, Inc. (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The impact of e-commerce on the future of the energy industry is examined, and the size and scope of business-to-business e-commerce activities are explored. Identification of e-commerce needs in relation to sales and purchasing requirements, and the selection of the e-commerce course and considerations to be taken into account in introducing e-commerce into a business are discussed.

  1. The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Omri; Kuivaniemi, Helena; Tromp, Gerard; Faucett, W Andrew; Li, Rongling; Manolio, Teri A; Sanderson, Saskia C; Kannry, Joseph; Zinberg, Randi; Basford, Melissa A; Brilliant, Murray; Carey, David J; Chisholm, Rex L; Chute, Christopher G; Connolly, John J; Crosslin, David; Denny, Joshua C; Gallego, Carlos J; Haines, Jonathan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Harley, John; Jarvik, Gail P; Kohane, Isaac; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Larson, Eric B; McCarty, Catherine; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Roden, Dan M; Smith, Maureen E; Böttinger, Erwin P; Williams, Marc S

    2013-10-01

    The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics Network is a National Human Genome Research Institute-funded consortium engaged in the development of methods and best practices for using the electronic medical record as a tool for genomic research. Now in its sixth year and second funding cycle, and comprising nine research groups and a coordinating center, the network has played a major role in validating the concept that clinical data derived from electronic medical records can be used successfully for genomic research. Current work is advancing knowledge in multiple disciplines at the intersection of genomics and health-care informatics, particularly for electronic phenotyping, genome-wide association studies, genomic medicine implementation, and the ethical and regulatory issues associated with genomics research and returning results to study participants. Here, we describe the evolution, accomplishments, opportunities, and challenges of the network from its inception as a five-group consortium focused on genotype-phenotype associations for genomic discovery to its current form as a nine-group consortium pivoting toward the implementation of genomic medicine.

  2. Retail E-Commerce Security Status among Fortune 500 Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jensen J.; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the "Fortune 500" corporations' retail e-commerce security to identify their strengths and weaknesses for improvement. They used online content analysis, information security auditing, and network security mapping for data collection and analysis. The findings indicate that most sites posted security policies; however, only…

  3. Teaching strategies applied to teaching computer networks in Engineering in Telecommunications and Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Manuel Castañeda-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large impact that today computer networks, their study in related fields such as Telecommunications Engineering and Electronics is presented to the student with great appeal. However, by digging in content, lacking a strong practical component, you can make this interest decreases considerably. This paper proposes the use of teaching strategies and analogies, media and interactive applications that enhance the teaching of discipline networks and encourage their study. It is part of an analysis of how the teaching of the discipline process is performed and then a description of each of these strategies is done with their respective contribution to student learning.

  4. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... components into the torque reference to compensate the ripples in the actual output torque. The effectiveness and resulting improvement in the performance of both the proposed speed controller and torque minimization technique are demonstrated by simulation results. The modern power electronic interfaces...

  5. Adoption of e-Commerce in micro tourism firms located in Umeå

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    A new and an effective Internet business model such as electronic commerce (e-Commerce) has obtained great importance in the tourism industry (Li & Suomi, 2008). e-Commerce has great importance also for small firms. Despite this, the majority of  literature concerning  tourism and e-Commerce does not tend to discuss the adoption of e-Commerce within small and medium sized firms (SMEs), whereas most studies have focused on the information that can be found on broader aspects of the Interne...

  6. Social Engineering hits Social Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Werner; Wiele, Johannes

    Looking at social commerce, a bunch of bewildering phenomena attracts the attention of social psychologists. The way customers participate today shows attitudes and ethical behavior which cannot be explained from the inherent conditions of Web 2.0 environments alone. Fraud often succeeds, when you do not expect it, and honesty can be found under circumstances that do not support honesty at all. The current situation seems to result from customers assigning experience and ethics from real world business to virtual business environments. But there are indications that this situation may change. Social commerce could suffer as soon as customers would use its inherent weaknesses to their own advantage. The following article outlines first approaches to research into this topic.

  7. E-commerce in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Karina Esparza Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, companies have been forced to create new media with their customers that allow them to obtain the sales volume necessary to make a profit, which is why e-commerce is an invaluable tool for the sales department of the Business. Over the years e-commerce has evolved facing major challenges, especially those related to information security and the little Ecuadorian culture of buying online. However, thanks to the fact that in the last decade the number of Internet users has increased, this has allowed online sales to start increasing their amounts annually, however, compared with the rest of South American countries to Ecuador still It lacks much way to go not only in the implementation of secure web portals for Internet purchases, but also in computer culture and security rules in Internet users.

  8. E-commerce in Europa

    OpenAIRE

    DEJAEGHER, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Hoewel het Internet en e-commerce al troebele waters hebben doorzwommen, is duidelijk gebleken dat deze twee concepten niet meer weg te denken zijn uit onze samenleving. Een deel van de wereldeconomie wordt uitgemaakt door online retailing en bedrijven kunnen een beduidend concurrentieel voordeel behalen door aanwezig te zijn op het Web waar barrières zoals tijd en afstand minder spelen. Bovendien biedt het Internet de unieke mogelijkheid om producten en diensten aan te passen aan individuele...

  9. Relational Ethics in Global Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Creed; Ambika Zutshi; Jane Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies the fragility of relationships and ethical practices in the context of global commercial relationships and reflects upon the centrality of human relationships in commerce. The connections between people in global business are underpinned by ethical actions and outcomes and influenced by the degree that information and communication technology are part of the commercial relationship. Issues of trust, privacy, sharing, communication, security, anonymity, and learning eme...

  10. PROBLEM OF INTERNET COMMUNICATION OF UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN ELECTRONIC SOCIAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga E. Konevshchynska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of Internet communication of upper secondary school pupils during interpersonal communication in electronic social networks. The actuality is proved, the system analysis of the psychological and pedagogical, educational-methodical literature of the researched problem is carried out. External written Internet speaking is considered as an important factor in the communication culture of the individual. It has been determined that high level of Internet communication of both students and teachers in the process of interpersonal communication in electronic social networks are important aspects of raising the level of media culture, media information competence of the individual. Also, these ones are necessary requirements of the information society to fulfill project-oriented, educational-cognitive and effective innovative activity in educational practice.

  11. Investigation of Strategic Changes Using Patent Co-Inventor Network Analysis: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a method to investigate a firm’s strategic changes. Technologies or technological capabilities are a major resource for achieving competitive advantages, so a firm’s R&D effort to improve capabilities on specific technologies is aligned with strategic direction. Therefore, this research analyzes changes in R&D efforts by identifying key R&D personnel using patent co-inventor network and social network analysis. Based on characteristics of application and granted patents, the method analyzes current and future R&D efforts and so identifies strategic changes of a firm. We conducted an empirical analysis using the patents of Samsung Electronics. Our method analyzed the current and future strategies of Samsung Electronics and the result shows clear strategic changes in their focal technologies and business.

  12. Competitive Remix Practice and Networks of Support in Electronic Dance Music Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Karpetz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development and dissemination of social media fueled competition platforms has led to immediate shifts in the practices of creative workers in fields related to contest offerings.  In Electronic Dance Music (EDM, crowdsourced competitive remix platforms have reoriented certain practices into networks of competition, where winning distinction is often only part of a larger process of further enmeshing DJs, music producers and their supporters in the social media fueled ecosystems that these websites have created. In order to begin to analyze the impact of remix competitions on producers and their personal and professional networks, I intend to trace a line of recent history and debate to reveal the connections linking EDM websites, labels, marketers, DJs, producers and supporters and their engagement with remix competition platforms. I will examine the call for support that is involved in so much of socially networked EDM communication between contestants and their peers surrounding these remix contests.

  13. Training a Network of Electronic Neurons for Control of a Mobile Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T. G. M.; Steur, E.; Nijmeijer, H.

    An adaptive training procedure is developed for a network of electronic neurons, which controls a mobile robot driving around in an unknown environment while avoiding obstacles. The neuronal network controls the angular velocity of the wheels of the robot based on the sensor readings. The nodes in the neuronal network controller are clusters of neurons rather than single neurons. The adaptive training procedure ensures that the input-output behavior of the clusters is identical, even though the constituting neurons are nonidentical and have, in isolation, nonidentical responses to the same input. In particular, we let the neurons interact via a diffusive coupling, and the proposed training procedure modifies the diffusion interaction weights such that the neurons behave synchronously with a predefined response. The working principle of the training procedure is experimentally validated and results of an experiment with a mobile robot that is completely autonomously driving in an unknown environment with obstacles are presented.

  14. Stretchable Electronic Sensors of Nanocomposite Network Films for Ultrasensitive Chemical Vapor Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Zhong, Mengjuan; Lv, Ze; Wan, Pengbo

    2017-11-01

    A stretchable, transparent, and body-attachable chemical sensor is assembled from the stretchable nanocomposite network film for ultrasensitive chemical vapor sensing. The stretchable nanocomposite network film is fabricated by in situ preparation of polyaniline/MoS2 (PANI/MoS2 ) nanocomposite in MoS2 suspension and simultaneously nanocomposite deposition onto prestrain elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The assembled stretchable electronic sensor demonstrates ultrasensitive sensing performance as low as 50 ppb, robust sensing stability, and reliable stretchability for high-performance chemical vapor sensing. The ultrasensitive sensing performance of the stretchable electronic sensors could be ascribed to the synergistic sensing advantages of MoS2 and PANI, higher specific surface area, the reliable sensing channels of interconnected network, and the effectively exposed sensing materials. It is expected to hold great promise for assembling various flexible stretchable chemical vapor sensors with ultrasensitive sensing performance, superior sensing stability, reliable stretchability, and robust portability to be potentially integrated into wearable electronics for real-time monitoring of environment safety and human healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Investigating Social Commerce as an Alternate Model for Online Commerce in Developing Countries: a case of Pakistani Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Talat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study is an empirical quantitative research. In light of intense literature review it proposes a new model for effectiveness of social commerce in Pakistan. It has three objectives. It firstly investigates the relationship between perceived risk, social networking focus, and perceived value effect trust. It secondly investigates the relationship between affective influence, word of mouth, affective influence, advertising influence, purchasing experience and viral reach on social commerce. Lastly it investigates how consumer value (adoption and purchase intention is affected by social commerce focus and trust. The software used is SPSS 15.0. Multiple regression equation has been employed to verify the hypotheses. Results show and validate the literature that positive or favorable views of users trigger positive attitude. However, there are two variables and dimensions that do not affect the attitude of users on social networks from the perspective of shopping i.e. social commerce; these are viral reach and previous purchasing experience on different websites. The results show that Pakistani users will welcome social commerce even if they have no previous experience for purchasing goods and services online.

  16. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Leitch

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Commerce can be used to create and deliver effective, ethical E-Commerce systems.

  17. GHX, Broadlane form latest e-commerce linkup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Broadlane agreed in June to connect its electronic commerce system to the supplier-owned site run by GHX. As a result, contract compliance could either improve or be more easily evaded, depending on hospitals' response to the wider choice of suppliers.

  18. Designing for E-commerce, appealing to consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    In order to make electronic commerce more successful, we need to look more closely at the design of web sites. The purpose of such design is to entice consumers to make regular visits, tempting them in buying goods. Thus more attention should be paid to make information more effective, presenting...

  19. Construction of negotiation protocols for E-commerce applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.V. Zlatev; N.K. Diakov (Nikolay); S. Pokraev

    2004-01-01

    textabstractA company doing e-business needs capabilities to negotiate electronically the parameters of its deals in order to fully utilize the potential of the Information and Communication technology (ICT). This paper focuses on construction of negotiation protocols for e-commerce with the

  20. e-Commerce and supply chains: Modelling of dynamics through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dynamics associated with two production planning and control policies are modelled, viz. make-to-stock and assemble-to-order in vague and ambiguous situations in electronic commerce environment. A fuzzy set and fuzzy truth-values are attached to an uncertain fuzzy token to model imprecision and uncertainty.

  1. Customers repurchase intention formation in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader S. Safa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic loyalty (e-loyalty has become important in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce in recent years. Loyal customers bring long-term revenue to companies and are known to be a valuable asset to them. However, firms lose their customers in a competitive environment on the Internet because of a lack of trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Objectives: This study explains how e-loyalty, e-trust and e-satisfaction form in e-commerce with a focus on customer purchase intention formation. Method: A conceptual framework was formed based upon the literature review. Data were collected from e-customers of online firms in South Africa. After data clarification, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The structural equation modelling was applied to test the hypotheses. IBM SPSS AMOS 20 was used for this purpose. Results: Firstly, convenience, customer benefit and enjoyment affect customer satisfaction in e-commerce. In other words, when customers do business activities easily with enjoyment and take benefit, they are satisfied and they will purchase again in future. Secondly, our study demonstrated that customer perception of security, clear shopping process and reliable payment system have a positive relationship with e-trust. Finally, e-satisfaction and e-trust have a positive and strong relationship with e-loyalty formation in e-commerce. Conclusion: The results of the study shed light on important issues relating to e-loyalty formation from a new perspective. Online companies are interested in launching e-loyalty programmes because of the long-term benefits that come from loyal customers. To remain competitive, e-commerce companies should constantly work at enhancing customer trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Keywords: E-commerce; customer satisfaction; trust; loyalty

  2. Customers repurchase intention formation in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader S. Safa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic loyalty (e-loyalty has become important in the context of electronic commerce (e-commerce in recent years. Loyal customers bring long-term revenue to companies and are known to be a valuable asset to them. However, firms lose their customers in a competitive environment on the Internet because of a lack of trust, satisfaction and loyalty.Objectives: This study explains how e-loyalty, e-trust and e-satisfaction form in e-commerce with a focus on customer purchase intention formation.Method: A conceptual framework was formed based upon the literature review. Data were collected from e-customers of online firms in South Africa. After data clarification, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. The structural equation modelling was applied to test the hypotheses. IBM SPSS AMOS 20 was used for this purpose.Results: Firstly, convenience, customer benefit and enjoyment affect customer satisfaction in e-commerce. In other words, when customers do business activities easily with enjoyment and take benefit, they are satisfied and they will purchase again in future. Secondly, our study demonstrated that customer perception of security, clear shopping process and reliable payment system have a positive relationship with e-trust. Finally, e-satisfaction and e-trust have a positive and strong relationship with e-loyalty formation in e-commerce.Conclusion: The results of the study shed light on important issues relating to e-loyalty formation from a new perspective. Online companies are interested in launching e-loyalty programmes because of the long-term benefits that come from loyal customers. To remain competitive, e-commerce companies should constantly work at enhancing customer trust, satisfaction and loyalty.Keywords: E-commerce; customer satisfaction; trust; loyalty

  3. E-commerce: compras coletivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pasqualini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A tecnologia da informação está atualmente inserida diretamente no comércio de maneira geral; entretanto, é no comércio eletrônico, e-commerce, que sua aplicação ocorre de forma mais direta. Contudo, essa modalidade de comércio ainda é pouco difundida e, por apresentar problemas de segurança e disparidade de informações, faz com que os consumidores comprem produtos e serviços com parcimônia. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo mapear a utilização da tecnologia de e-commerce na região do município de Blumenau (SC, por meio do estudo do funcionamento de ambientes web de compra coletiva. Para isso, foi realizada uma pesquisa “censo” qualitativo, durante os meses de outubro e novembro de 2012 nos sites de compra coletiva que oferecem produtos na região de Blumenau. Os resultados apresentados demonstram o perfil dos compradores e comerciantes, os principais produtos ofertados, comercializados e procurados, as formas de pagamentos, as garantias e seguranças oferecidas pelos sites, entre outros. Os resultados demonstraram que produtos de alimentação, estética e beleza, e viagens estão entre os mais ofertados e comercializados na região, o que evidencia os principais tipos de consumidores. Diante dos dados encontrados, notou-se que os produtos e serviços oferecidos ainda são restritos, o que torna tal modalidade de comércio pouco utilizada na região. Contudo, o aumento da variedade de ofertas bem como segurança e confiabilidade nessa modalidade de comércio podem fazer com que o e-commerce torne-se mais atrativo e consolidado nos próximos anos.

  4. Possible Roles of Neural Electron Spin Networks in Memory and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, H P

    2004-01-01

    Spin is the origin of quantum effects in both Bohm and Hestenes quantum formulism and a fundamental quantum process associated with the structure of space-time. Thus, we have recently theorized that spin is the mind-pixel and developed a qualitative model of consciousness based on nuclear spins inside neural membranes and proteins. In this paper, we explore the possibility of unpaired electron spins being the mind-pixels. Besides free O2 and NO, the main sources of unpaired electron spins in neural membranes and proteins are transition metal ions and O2 and NO bound/absorbed to large molecules, free radicals produced through biochemical reactions and excited molecular triplet states induced by fluctuating internal magnetic fields. We show that unpaired electron spin networks inside neural membranes and proteins are modulated by action potentials through exchange and dipolar coupling tensors and spin-orbital coupling and g-factor tensors and perturbed by microscopically strong and fluctuating internal magnetic...

  5. Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Malik, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    We present the first complex network theory-based analysis of high-latitude total electron content (TEC) data, including dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle and hemisphere. We examine several network measures to quantify the spatiotemporal correlation patterns in the TEC data for winter and summer months in 2016. We find that significant structure exists in the correlation patterns, distinguishing the dayside and nightside ionosphere, and specific features in the high latitudes such as the polar cap and auroral oval, including the cusp and ionospheric foot points of magnetospheric boundary layers. These features vary with the IMF, exhibiting a strong dependence on the north-south direction and generally larger variations during the winter months in both hemispheres. Our exploratory results suggest that network analysis of TEC data can be used to study characteristic ionospheric spatial scales at high latitudes, thereby extending the utility of these data. We explore mesoscale and large scale (greater than tens of kilometers and greater than hundreds of kilometers, respectively) as a function of winter/summer season, hemisphere, and IMF direction and conclude that the relative importance of different ionospheric scales is not a constant relationship. Together with an identification of important areas of future work, our findings provide a foundation for the application of network analysis techniques to ionospheric TEC. Our results suggest that network analysis can reveal new physical connections in the ionospheric system.

  6. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  7. Comprehensive plan for activating E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    With the development of Information Technology and Internet, the world economy is facing an era of E-commerce. Internet E-commerce becomes valid over whole economic activities and internet-oriented economic paradigm is emerging. The advanced countries, such as USA and UK, are providing a vision for E-commerce development competitively and concentrating a national-wide capacity. Although the level of Korean E-commerce has a little gap with that of advanced countries, the fundamental foundation for activating E-commerce is established. To improve a reliability of cyber market, the plan for establishing foundation of cyber trade should be provided by revising E-commerce legislation system, expanding infrastructure, promoting E-commerce in public sector, and extending E-commerce between industry sectors.

  8. The Internet as cannibal. Energy companies and E-commerce; Het Internet als kannibaal. Energiebedrijven en E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gelder, J.W. (ed.)

    2000-11-01

    It appears that Dutch energy companies are behind two years with respect to the use of electronic commercial services through the Internet. It is advised to study the different business models for E-commerce and to make a choice quick.

  9. Getting started with nopCommerce

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    A friendly, tutorial style book, which will help you learn your way through creating a live storefront with nopCommerce in a step-by-step manner.Getting Started with nopCommerce is for anyone who wants to sell products online using nopCommerce. If you are a non-technical person and are discouraged by the complexity of this powerful e-commerce application, then this book is for you.

  10. Networking automation of ECI’s G-204 electronic engineering laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Paz Penagos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased use (by students and teachers of the “Escuela Colombiana de Ingeniería Julio Garavito” Electronic Engineering laboratories during the last year has congested access to these laboratories; the School’s Electronic Engineering (Ecitronica programme’s applied Electronic studies’ centre research group thus proposed, designed and developed a research prolect taking advantage of G building’s electrical distribution to offer access facilities, laboratory equipment control, energy saving and improved service quality. The G-204 laboratory’s network sys- tem will have an access control subsystem with client–main computer architecture. The latter consists of a user, schedule, group and work-bank database; the user is connected from any computer (client to the main computer through Internet to reserve his/her turn at laboratory practice by selecting the schedule, group, work-bank, network type required (1Ф or 3Ф and registering co-workers. Access to the G-204 laboratory on the day and time of practice is made by means of an intelligent card reader. Information of public interest produced and controlled by the main computer is displayed on three LCD screens located on one of G building’s second floor walls, as is an electronic clock. The G-204 laboratory temperature and time are continually updated. Work-banks are enabled or disabled by the main computer; the work banks are provided with power (beginning of practice or disconnected (end of practice or due to eventualities to protect the equipment, save energy, facilitate monitors and supervise the logistics of the state of the equipment at the end of each practice. The research group was organised into Transmission Line and Applications sub-groups. Power Line Communications PLC technology was used for to exploring digital modulation alternatives, coding and detecting errors, coupling, data transmission protocols and new applications, all based on channel estimation (networking

  11. Paradigm of E-commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jae Hoon [Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The world economy is in the era of a big revolution. With the development of information and telecommunication technology and the expansion of Internet and E-commerce, a new type of company is emerging such as Carboy mall or Portal and the existing manufacturers, like automobiles or heavy industry, are changing by joining with Information Technology and Internet. With an expansion of E-commerce, the speed of change is accelerated. The petroleum industry has achieved a considerable level of process automation. Moreover, companies like SK or LG-Caltex are going to reorganize suitable to a digital environment. However, there is a limit on establishing an efficient B2B model due to the lack of cooperation among the same kind industries with the excessive supply. Now the change to Information Technology in oil refinery industry is not a problem of choice but is directly connected to a survival. To survive in this global competitive era, it should improve its efficiency through making on-line on the whole company activities in addition to enabling Information Technology in production process.

  12. Features of formation of a distributive infrastructure of e-commerce in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaluzhsky, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Article about objective laws of formation of a distributive infrastructure of e-commerce. The distributive infrastructure of e-commerce, according to the author, plays an important role in formation of network economy. The author opens strategic value of institutional regulation of distributive logistics for the decision problems of modernization of Russian economy.

  13. Next to the Customer's Heart and Wallet: Frameworks for Exploring the Emerging M-commerce Arena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Dholakia, Nikhilesh

    2001-01-01

    M-commerce is any monetary transaction conducted via a mobile telecommunications network using a communication, information, and payment (CIP) device. We foresee three main areas of impact of m-commerce on marketing and competition. First, there will be greater levels of customization via m-porta...

  14. E-COMMERCE IN THE ASIAN CONTEXT

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    E-commerce started as an over-hyped fad. The assumption was that households would be doing major proportions of their domestic purchasing over the Internet. Yet, e-commerce sales account for less than 1 per cent of GDP and 2 per cent of all sales in the United States, which transacts three-quarters of all e-commerce ...

  15. A language for information commerce processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aberer, Karl; Wombacher, Andreas

    Automatizing information commerce requires languages to represent the typical information commerce processes. Existing languages and standards cover either only very specific types of business models or are too general to capture in a concise way the specific properties of information commerce

  16. An Architecture for Information Commerce Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauswirth, Manfred; Jazayeri, Mehdi; Miklós, Zoltan; Podnar, Ivana; Di Nitto, Elisabetta; Wombacher, Andreas

    The increasing use of the Internet in business and commerce has created a number of new business opportunities and the need for supporting models and platforms. One of these opportunities is information commerce (i-commerce), a special case of ecommerce focused on the purchase and sale of

  17. E-Commerce Marketing State Competency Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Tech Prep Curriculum Services.

    This profile provides the curricular framework for Ohio Tech Prep programs in e-commerce marketing beginning in high school and continuing through the end of the associate degree. It includes a comprehensive set of e-commerce marketing competencies that reflect job opportunities and skills required for e-commerce marketing professionals today and…

  18. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...

  19. E-Competent Australia: Report on the Impact of E-Commerce on the National Training Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John

    The impact of electronic commerce (e-commerce) on Australia's National Training Framework (NTF) was studied for the purpose of forecasting future demand for training in areas related to e-commerce and identifying appropriate responses by the NTF committee. The following were among the study's main data collection activities: reviews of the…

  20. Reconstruction of chalk pore networks from 2D backscatter electron micrographs using a simulated annealing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, M.S.; Torsaeter, O. [Department of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    We report the stochastic reconstruction of chalk pore networks from limited morphological information that may be readily extracted from 2D backscatter electron (BSE) images of the pore space. The reconstruction technique employs a simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, which can be constrained by an arbitrary number of morphological descriptors. Backscatter electron images of a high-porosity North Sea chalk sample are analyzed and the morphological descriptors of the pore space are determined. The morphological descriptors considered are the void-phase two-point probability function and lineal path function computed with or without the application of periodic boundary conditions (PBC). 2D and 3D samples have been reconstructed with different combinations of the descriptors and the reconstructed pore networks have been analyzed quantitatively to evaluate the quality of reconstructions. The results demonstrate that simulated annealing technique may be used to reconstruct chalk pore networks with reasonable accuracy using the void-phase two-point probability function and/or void-phase lineal path function. Void-phase two-point probability function produces slightly better reconstruction than the void-phase lineal path function. Imposing void-phase lineal path function results in slight improvement over what is achieved by using the void-phase two-point probability function as the only constraint. Application of periodic boundary conditions appears to be not critically important when reasonably large samples are reconstructed.

  1. Implementation of e-commerce in developing countries: impact and its limitations-Albanian Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Genti Çela

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of Electronic Commerce (hereinafter referred to as "e-Commerce") in developed countries has been proven as an indisputable potential to ameliorate the efficiency and productivity in different areas, therefore, its implementation is attracting significant attention in developing countries. Despite its opportunities established in developed countries, there were many doubts about the e-commerce implementation in developing countries. That reluctance is heightened by the limit...

  2. Control and Assurance in E-Commerce: Privacy, Integrity and Security at eBay

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-Ruey Duh; Karim Jamal; Shyam NMI Sunder

    2001-01-01

    Growth of online auctions and other forms of e-commerce has been hampered by concerns about the privacy, integrity, and security of online transactions. To earn the trust of their participants, new e-commerce organizations, like traditional organizations, have to reach the state of expectations equilibrium or control - a state where the actual behavior of participants corresponds to what others expect them to do. Since e-commerce companies provide electronic platforms where buyers and sellers...

  3. A Modern Approach to Integrate Database Queries for Searching E-Commerce Product

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Ahmad Tasnim; Muntjir, Mohd.

    2017-01-01

    E commerce refers to the utilization of electronic data transmission for enhancing business processes and implementing business strategies. Explicit components of e commerce include providing after sales services, promoting services or products to services, processing payment, engaging in transaction processes, identifying customer needs, processing payment and creating services or products. In recent times, the use of e commerce has become too common among the people. However, the growing de...

  4. E-COMMERCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE INFORMATION ECONOMY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Melnychuk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines theoretical and practical aspects of emerging information economy in Ukraine. The study elucidates the essence of concepts of "information society", "information economy", "information and communication technologies", "e-commerce". Main trends are highlighted in establishment of the e-commerce market in Ukraine. A package of measures is suggested to improve the situation and processes in the market of electronic commerce.

  5. A hybrid method for protection against threats to a network infrastructure for an electronic warfare management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byłak, Michał; RóŻański, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The article presents the concept of ensuring the security of network information infrastructure for the management of Electronic Warfare (EW) systems. The concept takes into account the reactive and proactive tools against threats. An overview of the methods used to support the safety of IT networks and information sources about threats is presented. Integration of mechanisms that allow for effective intrusion detection and rapid response to threats in a network has been proposed. The architecture of the research environment is also presented.

  6. Middle and small manufacture enterprise e-commerce application systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingqiang

    2017-04-01

    With the extensive application of electronic commerce in manufacturing enterprises, e-commerce the influence of operation is increasingly becoming the focus of academic and business circles on the basis, this paper probes into the influence of e-commerce on the operation of the enterprise for the manufacturing enterprises to correctly understand the performance of e-commerce to provide a little help. The article first analyses e-commerce new environment on medium manufacturing enterprise requires, current medium manufacturing enterprise achieved e-commerce has many difficult, should e-commerce correctly awareness, and full planning, and points step implementation, and e-commerce and enterprise integration, and construction features of e-commerce platform, and procurement and supply chain of collaborative management, and attention customer management, and variety e-commerce of mode mixed, and flexible effective operations, and logistics socialization, views, focus on small and medium manufacturing enterprises in e-commerce applications to be innovative in design, production and management of agile and flexible production strategies.

  7. Noise-aided Logic in an Electronic Analog of Synthetic Genetic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hellen, Edward H; Kurths, Jurgen; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2012-01-01

    We report the experimental verification of noise-enhanced logic behaviour in an electronic analog of a synthetic genetic network, composed of two repressors and two constructive promoters. We observe good agreement between circuit measurements and numerical prediction, with the circuit allowing for robust logic operations in an optimal window of noise. Namely, the input-output characteristics of a logic gate is reproduced faithfully under moderate noise, which is a manifestation of the phenomenon known as Logical Stochastic Resonance. Interestingly, the two dynamical variables in the system yield complementary logic behaviour simultaneously, indicating strong potential for parallel processing.

  8. Noise-aided logic in an electronic analog of synthetic genetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Edward H; Dana, Syamal K; Kurths, Jürgen; Kehler, Elizabeth; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental verification of noise-enhanced logic behaviour in an electronic analog of a synthetic genetic network, composed of two repressors and two constitutive promoters. We observe good agreement between circuit measurements and numerical prediction, with the circuit allowing for robust logic operations in an optimal window of noise. Namely, the input-output characteristics of a logic gate is reproduced faithfully under moderate noise, which is a manifestation of the phenomenon known as Logical Stochastic Resonance. The two dynamical variables in the system yield complementary logic behaviour simultaneously. The system is easily morphed from AND/NAND to OR/NOR logic.

  9. Exploring the human mesenchymal stem cell tubule communication network through electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sabrina; Rossi, Roberta; Resta, Leonardo; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2015-04-01

    Cells use several mechanisms to transfer information to other cells. In this study, we describe micro/nanotubular connections and exosome-like tubule fragments in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human arteries. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed characterization of sinusoidal microtubular projections (700 nm average size, 200 µm average length, with bulging mitochondria and actin microfilaments); short, uniform, variously shaped nanotubular projections (100 nm, bidirectional communication); and tubule fragments (50 nm). This is the first study demonstrating that MSCs from human arteries constitutively interact through an articulate and dynamic tubule network allowing long-range cell to cell communication.

  10. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  11. Native American Business Participation in E-Commerce: An Assessment of Technical Assistance and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregendahl, Corry; Flora, Cornelia

    A combined outreach and research initiative addressed the participation of Native American business owners in electronic commerce. E-commerce can provide many benefits to producers and consumers but does not ensure unmitigated economic success. It is only one part of a development process leading to achievement of tribes' broader social goals,…

  12. The importance of information goods abstraction levels for information commerce process models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A process model, in the context of e-commerce, is an organized set of activities for the creation, (re-)production, trade and delivery of goods. Electronic commerce studies have created important process models for the trade of physical goods via Internet. These models are not easily suitable for

  13. Revolusi Dunia Bisnis Indonesia Melalui E-Commerce Dan E-Business: Bagaimana Solusi Hukumnya

    OpenAIRE

    Pramono, Nindyo

    2001-01-01

    The activities of electronic trade have brought about revolution in the business world, suchas the emergence of e-commerce and e-business. Yet, the impact of such activities have resulted in various legal problems. This writing tries to explore some growingproblems and solutions being of fered from the impact of e-commerce and e-business development.

  14. The Development of B2C E-Commerce in Greece: Current Situation and Future Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaras, Dimitris; Papathanassiou, Eleutherios

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey of 120 companies in Greece that evaluated the potential of business to customer (B2C) Internet applications and investigated how the Internet and e-commerce can offer new opportunities for businesses to improve their customers' satisfaction. Discusses electronic commerce problems and future technology. (Contains…

  15. An Analytical Framework for Evaluating E-Commerce Business Models and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Shing

    2001-01-01

    Considers electronic commerce as a paradigm shift, or a disruptive innovation, and presents an analytical framework based on the theories of transaction costs and switching costs. Topics include business transformation process; scale effect; scope effect; new sources of revenue; and e-commerce value creation model and strategy. (LRW)

  16. EMERGING TRENDS IN TRADING OF GOODS AND SERVICES- E COMMERCE: TECHNICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shamsuddin

    2016-01-01

    E-commerce is business communication through electronic resources, including the internet, televisions, telephones, and computers. By the rapid growth of e-commerce we can assume that it may be the fast growing way to complete business transactions. In e-commerce any person can perches goods from any place without keeping the time constraint i.e. business hours. It is a win-win situation for the consumer and the product/service provider. The various advantages E-Commerce offers to customers a...

  17. 15 CFR 19.5 - How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities add interest, penalty charges, and administrative costs to a Commerce debt? 19.5 Section 19.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce...

  18. 15 CFR 19.16 - When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to the Department of Justice? 19.16 Section 19.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.16 When will...

  19. 15 CFR 19.19 - Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will Commerce entities issue a refund if money is erroneously collected on a Commerce debt? 19.19 Section 19.19 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.19...

  20. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When will...

  1. 15 CFR 19.11 - How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use tax refund offset to collect a Commerce debt? 19.11 Section 19.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.11 How will...

  2. 15 CFR 19.12 - How will Commerce entities offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities offset a Federal employee's salary to collect a Commerce debt? 19.12 Section 19.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.12...

  3. Monitoring the Freshness of Moroccan Sardines with a Neural-Network Based Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benachir Bouchikhi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose was developed and used as a rapid technique to classify thefreshness of sardine samples according to the number of days spent under cold storage (4 ±1°C, in air. The volatile compounds present in the headspace of weighted sardine sampleswere introduced into a sensor chamber and the response signals of the sensors wererecorded as a function of time. Commercially available gas sensors based on metal oxidesemiconductors were used and both static and dynamic features from the sensorconductance response were input to the pattern recognition engine. Data analysis wasperformed by three different pattern recognition methods such as probabilistic neuralnetworks (PNN, fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks (FANN and support vector machines(SVM. The objective of this study was to find, among these three pattern recognitionmethods, the most suitable one for accurately identifying the days of cold storage undergoneby sardine samples. The results show that the electronic nose can monitor the freshness ofsardine samples stored at 4°C, and that the best classification and prediction are obtainedwith SVM neural network. The SVM approach shows improved classificationperformances, reducing the amount of misclassified samples down to 3.75 %.

  4. Large Pulsed Electron Beam Welded Percolation Networks of Silver Nanowires for Transparent and Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisoo; Nam, Yun Seok; Song, Myoung Hoon; Park, Hyung Wook

    2016-08-17

    Mechanical properties of transparent electrodes, including flexibility, are important in flexible electronics for sustaining electrical conductivity under bending with small radius of curvature. Low contact resistance of junctions in metal nanowire percolation networks is the most important factor to produce electrodes with excellent optical, electrical and mechanical performance. Here, we report the fabrication of welded silver nanowire percolation networks using large pulsed electron beam (LPEB) irradiation as a welding process of silver nanowires (AgNWs). It results in modification of electrical and mechanical properties because of the low contact resistance at welded junctions. Consequently, the flexible and transparent AgNW electrodes fabricated by LPEB irradiation showed lower sheet resistance of 12.63 Ω sq(-1) at high transmittance of 93% (at 550 nm), and superb mechanical flexibility, compared with other AgNW electrodes prepared by thermal treatement and without any treatment. Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) using AgNWs by LPEB irradiation were fabricated to confirm that the AgNW electrode by LPEB irradiation was able to become alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) and they showed good device performance as a maximum luminous efficiency of 7.37 cd A(-1), and excellent mechanical flexibility under bending with small radius of curvature.

  5. Design of Polymer Networks Involving a Photoinduced Electronic Transmission Circuit toward Artificial Photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeyoshi, Kosuke; Kawamura, Ryuzo; Yoshida, Ryo; Osada, Yoshihito

    2016-01-19

    Many strategies have been explored to achieve artificial photosynthesis utilizing mediums such as liposomes and supramolecules. Because the photochemical reaction is composed of multiple functional molecules, the surrounding microenvironment is expected to be rationally integrated as observed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts. In this study, photoinduced electronic transmission surrounding the microenvironment of Ru(bpy)3(2+) in a polymer network was investigated using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-Ru(bpy)3), poly(acrylamide-co-Ru(bpy)3), and Ru(bpy)3-conjugated microtubules. Photoinduced energy conversion was evaluated by investigating the effects of (i) Ru(bpy)3(2+) immobilization, (ii) polymer type, (iii) thermal energy, and (iv) cross-linking. The microenvironment surrounding copolymerized Ru(bpy)3(2+) in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) suppressed quenching and had a higher radiative process energy than others. This finding is related to the nonradiative process, i.e., photoinduced H2 generation with significantly higher overall quantum efficiency (13%) than for the bulk solution. We envision that useful molecules will be generated by photoinduced electronic transmission in polymer networks, resulting in the development of a wide range of biomimetic functions with applications for a sustainable society.

  6. [E-commerce of pharmaceuticals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Segev

    2003-05-01

    The emergence of the Internet as a new communications and information technology caused major social and cultural changes. The dramatic increase in accessibility and availability of information empowered the consumer by closing the information gap between the consumer and different suppliers. The objective of this article is to review many new internet-supported applications related to the pharmaceutical market. E-commerce is divided into two major components: Business to Consumer (B to C), and Business to Business (B to B). The main applications in B to C are dissemination of medical and drug information, and the sale of drugs through the Internet. Medical information on the Internet is vast and very helpful for patients, however, its reliability is not guaranteed. Online pharmacies increase the accessibility and availability of drugs. Nevertheless, several obstacles such as security of the data provided (both financial and clinical) prevent the widespread use of online pharmacies. Another risk is the health authorities' inability to regulate Internet sites effectively. Therefore, unregulated sale of prescription drugs, fake or substandard, often occurs on the Internet. B to B relates to physicians, clinics, hospitals, HMO's and pharmaceutical companies. There is a vast number of applications ranging from clinical research, marketing and sales promotion, to drug distribution and logistics. In conclusion, the Internet is dynamic and has contributed to the development of numerous new applications in the field of pharmaceuticals. Regulatory authorities should be active in developing new policies that will deal with those new Internet-based applications.

  7. Consumer perspective of omnichannel commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorowska-Spychalska Dominika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of hypermedia space and growing saturation of the market with mobile devices, an increasing role of Big Data, which allow for multidimensional analysis of data from offline and online markets, growing popularization of solutions of Market Intelligence supported by Cloud Computing technology as well as development of potential and opportunities of adapting the Artificial Intelligence (AI and Internet of Things (IoT in commerce cause that customers and their experience become a major point of activity of companies/brands. Shopping experience of a buyer is an effect of multiple and multidimensional contacts, often conducted simultaneously in many channels and in the real time. It forces an increasingly growing number of challenges that companies/brands are presented with if they want to optimize a space of customer journey and have to ensure continuity, coherence and complexity of experiences for their customers. Searching or creating these benefits that customers expect and their constant development becomes a prerequisite in this situation so that variety of positive experiences resulting in customer satisfaction and happiness could be guaranteed.

  8. Customer Retention in E-commerce business

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Feihua

    2011-01-01

    E-commerce is growing fast with the fast development of internet and communication technology. Now E-commerce brings the businesses a world wide market and a huge population of protential csutomer. For customers the price information is more transparent and there are much more buying choices than before. Online businesses are competeing for customers on a word wide market like never before. The customer retention gained increased value among the E-commerc businesses. But the research of cust...

  9. Problem and Prospects of E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Alka Raghunath; Murli Dhar Panga

    2013-01-01

    E-commerce as anything that involves an online transaction. E-commerce provides multiple benefits to the consumers in form of availability of goods at lower cost, wider choice and saves time. The general category of ecommerce can be broken down into two parts: Emerchandise: E-finance. E commerce involves conducting business using modern communication instruments: telephone, fax, e-payment, money transfer systems, e-data interchange and the Internet. Online businesses like financial services, ...

  10. Electrical conductivity of a silicone network upon electron irradiation: influence of formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, A.; Dantras, E.; Paulmier, T.; Tonon, C.; Lewandowski, S.; Dagras, S.; Payan, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the electrical conductivity of a silicone elastomer filled with inorganic fillers was investigated upon electron irradiation. Neat samples consisting of the isolated polysiloxane matrix (with no fillers) were studied in parallel to identify the filler contribution to this evolution. It was shown that exposure to 400 keV electron doses induced a decrease in electrical conductivity for both the filled and neat materials. This decrease was much more pronounced with the filled samples than with the neat ones. Moreover, the activation energy of electrical conductivity (Arrhenius behaviour) doubled in the filled case, while it varied only weakly for the neat case. In light of these results, structure-property relationships were proposed on the basis of the radiation-induced crosslink processes to which this material is subject. In the framework of electronic percolation theory, it is suggested that the radiation-induced formation of SiO3 crosslinks in the polysiloxane network and SiO4 crosslinks at filler-matrix interfaces affects the percolation path of the material, which can be simply modelled by a network of resistors in series. On one hand, their densification increases the overall resistance of the percolation path, which results in the observed decrease of effective electrical conductivity. On the other hand, the steep increase in activation energy in the filled material attributes to the SiO4 crosslinks becoming the most restrictive barrier along the percolation path. In spite of the misleading likeness of electrical conductivities in the pristine state, this study presented evidence that silicone formulation can affect the evolution of electrical properties in radiative environments. To illustrate this conclusion, the use of this material in space applications, especially when directly exposed to the radiative space environment, was discussed. The decrease in electrical conductivity was associated with a progressively increasing risk for the

  11. The research of development dynamics of electronic social networks for the effective advertisement of online shops in the segment of Ukrainian network business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Grabar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research results of development dynamics of the Ukrainian segment of different social networks in the global network. The general methods of creation and development of online shop are described. The methods of creation and development of marketing communications for online shops and their influence on the development of electronic business in Ukraine are presented. The article gives the detailed analysis of statistical data on age & gender related distribution of the Ukrainian segment of the biggest world social networks. The author also introduces new instruments for marketing communications worked out by every social network. The basic principles of advertisement campaign realization for online shops with the use of target audience of certain groups in social networks are generalized.

  12. Logistics support for e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Stumm, M; Kidd, J.; Bollo, D.

    2002-01-01

    E-commerce businesses have been undergoing rapid development for the last five years in the united-states and for the past two years in Europe: it e-business illustrates the existence of a pent-up demand to be instantly ace. This paper will concentrate mostly on e-commerce that delivers physical goods. Analysis of the e-commerce issue is complex and delicate, given the haziness of the activity's perimeter. E-commerce start-ups offer services similar to traditional mail-order, while traditiona...

  13. Configuring Mobile Commerce Portals for Business Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikhilesh; Rask, Morten

    2004-01-01

    -portals must attract and retain customers. Success in mobile portal markets will depend on dynamic strategies that blend elements of personalization, permission, and specification of content. This chapter reviews the key differences between traditional e-commerce and the emergent m-commerce. It reviews...... the core concepts of personalization, permission, and content specification as they apply to e-commerce and m-commerce. The chapter presents a framework for developing effective business strategies for developing and managing mobile portals. http://www.morten-rask.dk/2003c.htm...

  14. Designing Systems for E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Shona Leitch; Matthew Warren

    2003-01-01

    Ethics is an important element in all aspects of computing, but proves to be a real problem in the development and delivery of E-Commerce systems. There are many aspects of ethics that can affect E-Commerce systems, but often research is focused on the ethics after the E-Commerce system has been implemented, focusing on issues such as trust, privacy and disclosure. This paper will discuss how ethical matters can affect the design of E-Commerce systems and how a framework designed for E-Com...

  15. The effect of electronic networking on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching self-efficacy and attitude towards science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Nishi Mary

    Preservice elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy and attitude towards science teaching are important determinants of whether and how they will teach science in their classrooms. Preservice teachers' understanding of science and science teaching experiences have an impact on their beliefs about their ability to teach science. This study had a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design (N = 60). Preservice elementary teachers in this study were networked through the Internet (using e-mail, newsgroups, listserv, world wide web access and electronic mentoring) during their science methods class and student practicum. Electronic networking provides a social context in which to learn collaboratively, share and reflect upon science teaching experiences and practices, conduct tele-research effectively, and to meet the demands of student teaching through peer support. It was hoped that the activities over the electronic networks would provide them with positive and helpful science learning and teaching experiences. Self-efficacy was measured using a 23-item Likert scale instrument, the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument, Form-B (STEBI-B). Attitude towards science teaching was measured using the Revised Science Attitude Scale (RSAS). Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data, with pretest scores as the covariate. Findings of this study revealed that prospective elementary teachers in the electronically networked group had better science teaching efficacy and personal science teaching efficacy as compared to the non-networked group of preservice elementary teachers. The science teaching outcome expectancy of prospective elementary teachers in the networked group was not greater than that of the prospective teachers in the non-networked group (at p peers, science mentors, and science methods instructors during student teaching. Students who did not have access to computers noted that time was a constraint in the use of the electronic

  16. E-Commerce in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Twrdy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EDI (Electronic Data Interchange and electronic businessshould be looked upon as a natural evolution in the internationaltrade and transport cycle. One of the principal reasonsfor starting to use EDI are the heaps of documents written,shifted, handled, conected, transcribed and copied for normalbusiness and administrative transactions. EDJ and in generalelectronic business would have none of the disadvantages ofpaper documents and have already brought substantial benefitsand savings to companies that implement it.Most port community systems today still do not provide forelectronic transfer of funds or for electronic interchange of invoicesand other trade documents, for instance bills of lading.Such services are specific toe-business and they are the necessarytransport-related documents.

  17. Wholesale And Retail E-Commerce In Mauritius: Views Of Customers And Employees

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiruvenee Sawmy; Adjnu Damar-Ladkoo

    2015-01-01

    .... In Mauritius, many retail and wholesale shops have decided to embark in the online experience and are contemplating to launch e-commerce websites, more specifically electronic ordering (e-ordering...

  18. E-Commerce Infusion into Business Education--Encompassing the Realities of an Emerging Business Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James L.; Oladunjoye, Ganiyu Titi

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 287 business faculty found that few were infusing electronic commerce topics into existing curricula despite its growing use in business. Responses were similar regardless of faculty gender, region, and program size or level. (SK)

  19. Building a webshop using Drupal Commerce with Commerce Kickstart as a Template

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklund, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om implementering av en webbshop med Drupal Commerce i Drupal. Syftet med arbetet är att beskriva hur man implementerar Drupal Commerce genom att använda Commerce Kickstart som modell. Beskrivningen är baserad på praktiskt erfarenhet från utveckling av en webbsida för ett träningsföretag, kallat Fitspire. Drupal Commerce är ett e handelsramverk för Drupal. Commerce Kickstart är en installationsprofil för Drupal Commerce, som innehåller de moduler och inställningar ...

  20. 電子商務企業組織成員資訊使用行為之研究 | An Investigation into the Information Use Behavior of the Electronic-Commerce Company's Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    洪曉珊 Hsiao-Shan Hung

    2002-10-01

    business competition already changes to pay attention to the management of knowledge and other intellectual properties to reduce cost. Responding to the coming of global economy and the reforms of knowledge nature, knowledge and other intellectual proper-ties have already become the main factor for an organization to keep its competition advantage. In recent years, the information-intensive and knowledge-intensive industry, E-Commerce, is getting more and more prosperous; this kind of industry own various, numerous but scatted electronic information resources, therefore, its employees’ information use behavior are very worthwhile to study.

    This study employed case study techniques to investigate a famous and representative EC company employees’ information use behavior through multiple methods in order to propose some suggestions for those who plan providing information service in an EC company. Open-question questionnaire, document analysis, and in-depth interview followed by a semi-structured interview guide, were employed respectively. The period of data collection was from October 2001 to May 2002, and the main research topics are: 1.the types and characteristics of information resources that the EC company employees collect; 2.the model how the EC company employees make use of in-formation; 3.the types of problems that the EC company employees confront when they gather information; 4.the evaluation criteria the EC company employees use to evaluate information.

  1. 75 FR 21602 - Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Telecommunications and Information Administration Commerce... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (Committee). The Committee provides...

  2. E-Commerce Strategic Business Environment Analysis in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dwitya

    2016-01-01

    This research is aim to identified important factors in external business environment that tend to influence company capabilities to achieve objective. It conducts to several e-commerce in Indonesia. Those companies operate several industries, such as grocery and household retail, fashion retail, electronic and gadget retail and travel agency booking provider. We conduct thematic analysis with quad helix stakeholders approach. It found that the firm faces several external environment factors ...

  3. The DARTNet Institute: Seeking a Sustainable Support Mechanism for Electronic Data Enabled Research Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Wilson D; Fox, Chester H; White, Turner; Graham, Deborah; Schilling, Lisa M; West, David R

    2014-01-01

    Clinical data research networks require large investments in infrastructure support to maintain their abilities to extract, transform, and load data from varied data sources, expand electronic data sources and develop learning communities. This paper outlines a sustainable business model of ongoing infrastructure support for clinical data research activities. The DARTNet Institute is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3) organization that serves as a support entity for multiple practice-based research networks. Several clinical data research networks working closely with a professional society began collaborating to support shared goals in 2008. This loose affiliation called itself the "DARTNet Collaborative." In 2011, the DARTNet Institute incorporated as an independent, not-for-profit entity. The business structure allows DARTNet to advocate for all partners without operating its own practice-based research network, serve as a legal voice for activities that overlap multiple partners, share personnel resources through service contracts between partners, and purchase low-cost (nonprofit rate) software. DARTNet's business model relies upon four diverse sources of revenue: (1) DARTNet licenses and provides access to a propriety software system that extracts, transforms, and loads data from all major electronic health records (EHRs) utilized in the United States, and which also provides clinical decision support for research studies; (2) DARTNet operates a recognized, national professional-society-quality improvement registry that enables organizations to fulfill Meaningful Use 2 criteria; (3) DARTNet provides access to data for research activities that are funded by direct research dollars, provided at prices that generate excess revenue; and (4) DARTNet provides access to large primary care datasets for observational studies and pregrant analyses such as for sample size development. The ability of the system to support pragmatic trials will be described. The DARTNet model

  4. 15 CFR 738.3 - Commerce Country Chart structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commerce Country Chart structure. 738.3 Section 738.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... COMMERCE CONTROL LIST OVERVIEW AND THE COUNTRY CHART § 738.3 Commerce Country Chart structure. (a) Scope...

  5. THE GLOBAL MARKET OF SMALL BUSINESSES BY E-COMMERCE PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico CONSOLI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we live in a global market era. For small businesses (SBs, that do not have financial and human resources, to sell in a big market by an e-commerce platform can be a competitive strategy. The electronic platform can reinforce the weaknesses of an absence of a commercial network to interact with end customers, especially if they live in another country. The platform allows small businesses to operate on the long tail. In fact they can sell also few specific products /services to a large number of people in a global context. Obviously, in economic terms, Small Businesses cannot compete with the big ones that can have most advanced technology and software for information processing. However, for SBs the reduced availability of resources is not an impediment to sell in a global market. Owners of SBs can directley spend and devote part of their free time to support the online sale. Being lean and flexible enterprises they can execute more quickly orders, collected by the website, and therefore the distribution process is more fast. In the paper we describe a research on e-commerce in a small companies sample and in particular an analisys of websites and interviews, in dept, to entrepreneurs.

  6. Universities Improve Services with E-Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gina Adams

    2001-01-01

    This follow-up to a December 2000 article provides more details on Stanford University's venture into the "sell-side" of e-commerce, then describes another "sell-side" success story at the University of Wisconsin. Madison. Discusses experiences on the "buy-side" of e-commerce at the Massachusetts Institute of…

  7. EU ACQUIS ON E-COMMERCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Antonia CAPISIZU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a new form of communication between people, the Internet, was a premise of commerce development. The emergence of a new form of economic relation manifestation, e-commerce, led to important changes in the sphere of legal regulation. The need for these changes derives from the global and complex nature of the Internet.

  8. 76 FR 79054 - The Commerce Control List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction 0 In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as of January 1, 2011, on page 704, in...

  9. 77 FR 43711 - The Commerce Control List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 774 The Commerce Control List CFR Correction In Title 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 300 to 799, revised as of January 1, 2012, in supplement no. 1...

  10. A Bayesian network model for predicting type 2 diabetes risk based on electronic health records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Liu, Yan; Zeng, Xu; Zhang, Wu; Mei, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    An extensive, in-depth study of diabetes risk factors (DBRF) is of crucial importance to prevent (or reduce) the chance of suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Accumulation of electronic health records (EHRs) makes it possible to build nonlinear relationships between risk factors and diabetes. However, the current DBRF researches mainly focus on qualitative analyses, and the inconformity of physical examination items makes the risk factors likely to be lost, which drives us to study the novel machine learning approach for risk model development. In this paper, we use Bayesian networks (BNs) to analyze the relationship between physical examination information and T2D, and to quantify the link between risk factors and T2D. Furthermore, with the quantitative analyses of DBRF, we adopt EHR and propose a machine learning approach based on BNs to predict the risk of T2D. The experiments demonstrate that our approach can lead to better predictive performance than the classical risk model.

  11. Detection of neuron membranes in electron microscopy images using a serial neural network architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurrus, Elizabeth; Paiva, Antonio R C; Watanabe, Shigeki; Anderson, James R; Jones, Bryan W; Whitaker, Ross T; Jorgensen, Erik M; Marc, Robert E; Tasdizen, Tolga

    2010-12-01

    Study of nervous systems via the connectome, the map of connectivities of all neurons in that system, is a challenging problem in neuroscience. Towards this goal, neurobiologists are acquiring large electron microscopy datasets. However, the shear volume of these datasets renders manual analysis infeasible. Hence, automated image analysis methods are required for reconstructing the connectome from these very large image collections. Segmentation of neurons in these images, an essential step of the reconstruction pipeline, is challenging because of noise, anisotropic shapes and brightness, and the presence of confounding structures. The method described in this paper uses a series of artificial neural networks (ANNs) in a framework combined with a feature vector that is composed of image intensities sampled over a stencil neighborhood. Several ANNs are applied in series allowing each ANN to use the classification context provided by the previous network to improve detection accuracy. We develop the method of serial ANNs and show that the learned context does improve detection over traditional ANNs. We also demonstrate advantages over previous membrane detection methods. The results are a significant step towards an automated system for the reconstruction of the connectome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. NAFFS: network attached flash file system for cloud storage on portable consumer electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng

    Cloud storage technology has become a research hotspot in recent years, while the existing cloud storage services are mainly designed for data storage needs with stable high speed Internet connection. Mobile Internet connections are often unstable and the speed is relatively low. These native features of mobile Internet limit the use of cloud storage in portable consumer electronics. The Network Attached Flash File System (NAFFS) presented the idea of taking the portable device built-in NAND flash memory as the front-end cache of virtualized cloud storage device. Modern portable devices with Internet connection have built-in more than 1GB NAND Flash, which is quite enough for daily data storage. The data transfer rate of NAND flash device is much higher than mobile Internet connections[1], and its non-volatile feature makes it very suitable as the cache device of Internet cloud storage on portable device, which often have unstable power supply and intermittent Internet connection. In the present work, NAFFS is evaluated with several benchmarks, and its performance is compared with traditional network attached file systems, such as NFS. Our evaluation results indicate that the NAFFS achieves an average accessing speed of 3.38MB/s, which is about 3 times faster than directly accessing cloud storage by mobile Internet connection, and offers a more stable interface than that of directly using cloud storage API. Unstable Internet connection and sudden power off condition are tolerable, and no data in cache will be lost in such situation.

  13. Flat electronic bands in fractal-kagomé network and the effect of perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Atanu, E-mail: atanunandy1989@gmail.com; Chakrabarti, Arunava, E-mail: arunava-chakrabarti@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani, West Bengal - 741235 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We demonstrate an analytical prescription of demonstrating the flat band [FB] states in a fractal incorporated kagomé type network that can give rise to a countable infinity of flat non-dispersive eigenstates with a multitude of localization area. The onset of localization can, in principle, be delayed in space by an appropriate choice of energy regime. The length scale, at which the onset of localization for each mode occurs, can be tuned at will following the formalism developed within the framework of real space renormalization group. This scheme leads to an exact determination of energy eigenvalue for which one can have dispersionless flat electronic bands. Furthermore, we have shown the effect ofuniform magnetic field for the same non-translationally invariant network model that has ultimately led to an‘apparent invisibility’ of such staggered localized states and to generate absolutely continuous sub-bands in the energy spectrum and again an interesting re-entrant behavior of those FB states.

  14. 15 CFR 19.13 - How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities use administrative wage garnishment to collect a Commerce debt from a debtor's wages? 19.13 Section 19.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect...

  15. What makes one spread the word online - A study on electronic word of mouth motivations on social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, Santhya

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management The main focus of the study is to understand what motivates a person to give electronic word of mouth (eWOM) on social networking sites. With the increasing popularity of social networking sites, lots of consumers check these sites for reviews of products and services. Based on the literature review, a scale of motives that lead to giving eWOM by means of writing comments on social networking sites was developed. The study used ...

  16. An optimized electronic device for solar power harvesting dedicated to wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Cam, Vincent; Le Maulf, Regis; Lemarchand, Laurent; Martin, William; Le Pen, Mathieu [LUNAM Univ., Bouguenais (France). IFSTTAR, MACS Dept.

    2012-07-01

    For economics as for practical reasons, this last decade, the use and dissemination of wireless sensor networks (WSN) became obvious; particularly in structural heath monitoring (SHM) use-cases where distances between sensors could be long and access to the structure quite difficult. Even if efforts are leaded to design small components and RF modules that ask for low-power, the need of an external source is often necessary. After have acquired knowledge in solar cells as in batteries technologies and methods to control charge/discharge phases as in optimizing algorithms, IFSTTAR laboratory has designed an electronic device that integrates those progress. This electronic device has a quite generic mission: for a panel of batteries chemistry (Lithium, NiMh) and a panel of solar cells sources (frome mW to some W), the system acts as an improved battery charger whatever the load ask for power. The system applies control algorithms based on battery capacity and chemistry profile. It also applies the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm. At any time, battery State Of Charge (SOC) can be requested via I2C bus as well as a warning signal is output when SOC becomes critical. Through standard pin connectors and a simple I2C interface, the system can be used by many wireless devices (sensors) that have to run autonomously. After the presentation of this system, a focus on its application on a real use-case will be given. (orig.)

  17. E-commerce: Buying and Selling through Internet in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Qarkaxhija

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before internet was invented, there were invented numerous networks that helped American businesses in multiple savings. First of, they didn’t spend money on buying printers or scanners for the computers they possessed, meaning that the money spent before on buying hundreds of them, now was saved and used to buy a few of printers and scanners. How was this done? This worked by binding the entire computers of a floor to a single network. Second, the factor mostly taken into account is the energy saving and various abuses. Imagine the enormous amount of electricity that hundreds of printers and scanners would spend  and how much energy tens of them would spend, moreover  just think about how much these devices would be used in offices, where nobody is looking, for personal interests. American business, as the most creative one and the strongest was bothered by only one thing . This was the misuse of secret corporation information. These abuses occurred when the data had to be printed and transferred to corporate subsidiaries around the world. During the transfer the data could also be lost or damaged (intentionally or unintentionally and then the corporation would suffer losses (the data were transferred via floppy discs, or they were printed in hard copies. The solution for these problems came from the US military that had invented the internet earlier and after having consumed it for its own needs, decided to put it up for American businesses. The internet has developed its own services such as : www, ftp, e-mail, and buying and selling though internet (e-commerce. Nowadays, information exchanges with corporate branches are not made roughly, but electronically in real time. Additionally, this made it possible for a new category of web designers to be created and they created a powerful web-site through which some businesses created virtual shops and they started earning more money than they used to, in their physical stores. This American

  18. E-Commerce and Education. Graduate Paper Series on Electronic Commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giantomasso, Tania

    Broad assumptions about the impact of the Internet have created a "cult of hype" where the latest technological advancement is seen as the next best thing, and educators have been swept up in the promise of an educational utopia. The hype tells us that the world is joined by the infrastructure of this new technology and that…

  19. ELECTRONIC PAYMENT SYSTEM AND ITS PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available All developed countries are in transition from the IT economy to a web economy - the biggest technological innovation that will have a long-term positive effect on the formation of the economic growth rate, the major structural changes and on the differentiated effects on the economic areas that are, at a faster or a slower rate, being included in this technological change. The electronic commerce or e-commerce has a huge potential for development. The electronic commerce between the companies (B-2-B is significantly greater compared to retail electronic commerce (B-2-C. In both spheres of trade, the Internet is used as a platform for the transfer of information and for concluding business deals. Market economy requires Accelerated Payment Processing which is achieved by introducing and improving the electronic payment procedures. There is an emphasized dichotomy between the two spheres of the payment system: large-value and small-value payments. The large value payment systems can be described as the arteries of the payment system, and the small-value transfer systems as a complex network of veins that bind the entire economy.

  20. Analisis Faktor Kredibilitas Website E-Commerce Indonesia Studi pada Online Purchasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cordiaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the number of Internet users in Indonesia continues to increase. Internet increasingly being used for purchasing online. There are many e-commerce websites that offer goods and services online. Internet users should be able to distinguish which websites are credible before engaging in electronic commerce activities. Be an interesting question, what factors are rated by visitors of a website as an e-commerce website that is credible or reliable. Using a web-based survey methods, respondents were asked what factors support the credibility of the website in electronic commerce purchasing transactions. The respondents were Internet users. Proposed survey questions are grouped into four factors, namely, kerpercayaan factors, factors expertise, sponsorship factors and specific factors. The survey results were tested with descriptive statistic. Based on the data obtained, the Trust Factor respondents prefer e-commerce website that is trusted by his close associates, while the respondents assess the Skill Factor of websites that apply when payments online transactions through banks Indonesia is considered more reliable. In the Sponsorship Factor and Specific Factor, respondents believe the e-commerce website that does television ads in the media and managed by official institutions. Keywords : credibility, trustworthiness, expertise, electronic commerce, online purchasing

  1. E-COMMERCE UNTUK MENDUKUNG BUSINESS TO BUSINESS MENGGUNAKAN DYNAMIC DBMSS: STUDI KASUS PADA PERUSAHAAN DAGANG CROSS TECH

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mohammad Subekti; Anthoni Tandiono; Fenky Tania; Hendro Wibowo A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an e-commerce that can distribute any information about the products of PD Cross Tech. The e-commerce is supported by dynamic DBMS and can be connected via database reseller server so that it can do information sharing. The distribution is performed using the DistributedRelational Database Management System (DRDBMS), supported by the File Transfer Protocol and Virtual Private Network. In other words the e-Commerce supports multiplatform database. Resear...

  2. Privacy and security in e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the most common online crimes are analyzed and practical guidelines to achieving trust in the online environment are provided.

  3. Privacy and security in e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mandić

    2009-01-01

    Consumer distrust and concerns, mainly in regards to the protection of their private information and risk of being exposed to online frauds, have been the main obstacles in online commerce. This paper analyzes some of the most significant aspects of trust in e-commerce, with a focus on online security and privacy issues. With all the potential that e-commerce provides to both companies and consumers, it is in the interest of the company to increase trust among its online users. Some of the mo...

  4. E-commerce Dalam Perspektif Perlindungan Konsumen

    OpenAIRE

    Wariati, Ambar; Irma Susanti, Nani

    2015-01-01

    Thisstudy is to findout how legal protection forconsumers ine-commerce is. When consumers harm-ed in e-commerce remedy what can be done by consumers and how should the model of consumerprotection in e-commerce.This research is a normative-empirical, the research by reviewing legislation related to the problem and empirical research to gather information in the field with observations, distribute question-naires and interviews to the competent authorities to the problems examined.H Results of ...

  5. Patpong, entre sexe et commerce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Roux

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Le tourisme dit « sexuel » est aujourd’hui décrié comme une forme de tourisme international immoral, un dysfonctionnement grave de la mondialisation appelant une réaction politique contre « l’exploitation sexuelle » dont seraient victimes des millions de femmes et d’enfants. Pourtant, derrière l’apparente évidence du « tourisme sexuel » comme expression de sens commun, rares sont les enquêtes qui explicitent la réalité concrète des échanges prostitutionnels. En adoptant une démarche ethnographique, l’article décrit le fonctionnement de Patpong, un quartier rouge de Bangkok dédié à une clientèle internationale. Par la description des offres disponibles, des revenus générés, des codes et des pratiques, la complexité de l’espace réapparaît. Il s’agit de donner à voir la réalité des échanges pour interroger l’articulation entre commerce et sexualité. L’analyse ethnographique du tourisme sexuel permet ainsi de souligner la diversité des pratiques et de rappeler que les formes les plus visibles — et les plus commentées — d’échanges prostitutionnels éclipsent trop souvent une pluralité d’expériences qui participe pourtant au succès de ces ruelles mondialement connues. So-called sex tourism is condemned as an immoral form of international tourism, a serious failure of globalization requiring political action against the “sexual exploitation” suffered by millions of women and children. Yet behind the common and seemingly evident understanding of “sexual tourism,” few studies have focused on the actual reality of such relations. Based on an ethnographic study, this article presents the structure of Patpong, a red-light district of Bangkok dedicated to international tourism. First, the article aims to briefly present the historical development of Patpong. This peculiar space is intrinsically linked to sex tourism, as these world-renowned streets expanded since the mid-60s to

  6. Ethical Issues in E-Commerce on the Basis of Online Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Nardal; Ayse Sahin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The rapid spread of e-commerce has created tremendous opportunities for economic efficiency and customer choice. Use of the global Internet computer network for ecommerce activities provides some advantages to the consumers on their daily life. On the other hand Internet represents a new environment for unethical behavior. While e-commerce has witnessed extensive growth in last decade, consumers concerns regarding ethical issues also continue to increase. Even many consumer...

  7. Minimum Constructive Back Propagation Neural Network Based on Fuzzy Logic for Pattern Recognition of Electronic Nose System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radi Radi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Constructive Back Propagation Neural Network (CBPNN is a kind of back propagation neural network trained with constructive algorithm. Training of CBPNN is mainly conducted by developing the network’s architecture which commonly done by adding a number of new neuron units on learning process. Training of the network usually implements fixed method to develop its structure gradually by adding new units constantly. Although this method is simple and able to create an adaptive network for data pattern complexity, but it is wasteful and inefficient for computing. New unit addition affects directly to the computational load of training, speed of convergence, and structure of the final neural network. While increases training load significantly, excessive addition of units also tends to generate a large size of final network. Moreover, addition pattern with small unit number tends to drop off the adaptability of the network and extends time of training. Therefore, there is important to design an adaptive structure development pattern for CBPNN in order to minimize computing load of training. This study proposes Fuzzy Logic (FL algorithm to manage and develop structure of CBPNN. FL method was implemented on two models of CBPNN, i.e. designed with one and two hidden layers, used to recognize aroma patterns on an electronic nose system. The results showed that this method is effective to be applied due to its capability to minimize time of training, to reduce load of computational learning, and generate small size of network.

  8. Have SMEs Benefited from E-Commerce?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson Poon

    2002-01-01

    .... The outcomes have presented a mixed message. While there are anecdotal success stories, SMEs found their E-Commerce/E-Business endeavours successful to a point but face difficulties in achieving many speculations portrayed by the media and visionaries...

  9. Mining e-commerce goes mainstream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R.A.

    2002-11-01

    E-activity is growing as coal industry producers and suppliers map out the most useful routes to the digital marketplace. The paper analyses the development of E-commerce in mining and coal industry. 2 figs.

  10. Neural-network-based depth-resolved multiscale structural optimization using density functional theory and electron diffraction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert S.; Coll, Catalina; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca; Koch, Christoph T.

    2018-01-01

    Iterative neural-network-based three-dimensional structural optimization of atomic positions over tens of nanometers is performed using transmission electron microscope (TEM) diffraction data simulated from density functional theory (DFT) all-electron densities, thus retrieving parameter variations along the beam direction. We first use experimental data to show that the GPAW DFT code's all-electron densities are considerably more accurate for electron diffraction calculations compared to conventional isolated-atom scattering factors, and they also compare well to Wien2K DFT simulations. This DFT-TEM combination is then integrated into an iterative neural-network-optimization-based algorithm (PRIMES, parameter retrieval and inversion from multiple electron scattering) to retrieve nanometer-scale ferroelectric polarization domains and strain in theoretical bulklike specimens from TEM data. DFT and isolated-atom methods produce substantially different diffraction patterns and retrieved polarization domain parameters, and DFT is sufficient to retrieve strain properties from a silicon specimen simulated using experimentally derived structure factors. Thus, we show that the improved accuracy, fast computation, and intuitive integration make the GPAW DFT code well suited for three-dimensional materials characterization and demonstrate this using an iterative neural-network algorithm that is verifiable on the mesoscale and, with DFT integration, self-consistent on the nanoscale.

  11. Application of new type of distributed multimedia databases to networked electronic museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuhide; Komatsu, Naohisa; Komiya, Kazumi; Ikeda, Hiroaki

    1999-01-01

    Recently, various kinds of multimedia application systems have actively been developed based on the achievement of advanced high sped communication networks, computer processing technologies, and digital contents-handling technologies. Under this background, this paper proposed a new distributed multimedia database system which can effectively perform a new function of cooperative retrieval among distributed databases. The proposed system introduces a new concept of 'Retrieval manager' which functions as an intelligent controller so that the user can recognize a set of distributed databases as one logical database. The logical database dynamically generates and performs a preferred combination of retrieving parameters on the basis of both directory data and the system environment. Moreover, a concept of 'domain' is defined in the system as a managing unit of retrieval. The retrieval can effectively be performed by cooperation of processing among multiple domains. Communication language and protocols are also defined in the system. These are used in every action for communications in the system. A language interpreter in each machine translates a communication language into an internal language used in each machine. Using the language interpreter, internal processing, such internal modules as DBMS and user interface modules can freely be selected. A concept of 'content-set' is also introduced. A content-set is defined as a package of contents. Contents in the content-set are related to each other. The system handles a content-set as one object. The user terminal can effectively control the displaying of retrieved contents, referring to data indicating the relation of the contents in the content- set. In order to verify the function of the proposed system, a networked electronic museum was experimentally built. The results of this experiment indicate that the proposed system can effectively retrieve the objective contents under the control to a number of distributed

  12. Nutzung und Akzeptanz von E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Michael; Wolf, Malthe

    2001-01-01

    Marktprognosen bescheinigen, auch nach dem weltweiten Einbruch der Neuen Märkte und der daraufhin einsetzenden Ernüchterung, dem elektronischen Handel eine große Zukunft. Business-Transaktionen verändern sich rapide unter dem Einfluss elektronischer Kommunikationstechnologien. Wenngleich auch erwartet wird, dass sich Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce weltweit als erfolgreicher Vertriebs- und Kommunikationskanal etablieren wird, stößt E-Commerce derzeit noch nicht auf die erhoffte Akzeptanz in b...

  13. Intelligent Agents in E-Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin LITOIU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the importance of intelligent agents in e-commerce, with a particular focus on the B2C and B2B context. From the consumer buying behaviour perspective, agents can be used to assist the following stages: need identification, product brokering, buyer coalition formation, merchant brokering and negotiation. Related to B2B commerce, intelligent agents are involved in partnership formation, brokering and negotiation.

  14. The PluriNetWork: an electronic representation of the network underlying pluripotency in mouse, and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Anup; Harder, Clemens; Greber, Boris; Siatkowski, Marcin; Paudel, Yogesh; Warsow, Gregor; Cap, Clemens; Schöler, Hans; Fuellen, Georg

    2010-12-10

    Analysis of the mechanisms underlying pluripotency and reprogramming would benefit substantially from easy access to an electronic network of genes, proteins and mechanisms. Moreover, interpreting gene expression data needs to move beyond just the identification of the up-/downregulation of key genes and of overrepresented processes and pathways, towards clarifying the essential effects of the experiment in molecular terms. We have assembled a network of 574 molecular interactions, stimulations and inhibitions, based on a collection of research data from 177 publications until June 2010, involving 274 mouse genes/proteins, all in a standard electronic format, enabling analyses by readily available software such as Cytoscape and its plugins. The network includes the core circuit of Oct4 (Pou5f1), Sox2 and Nanog, its periphery (such as Stat3, Klf4, Esrrb, and c-Myc), connections to upstream signaling pathways (such as Activin, WNT, FGF, BMP, Insulin, Notch and LIF), and epigenetic regulators as well as some other relevant genes/proteins, such as proteins involved in nuclear import/export. We describe the general properties of the network, as well as a Gene Ontology analysis of the genes included. We use several expression data sets to condense the network to a set of network links that are affected in the course of an experiment, yielding hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms. We have initiated an electronic data repository that will be useful to understand pluripotency and to facilitate the interpretation of high-throughput data. To keep up with the growth of knowledge on the fundamental processes of pluripotency and reprogramming, we suggest to combine Wiki and social networking software towards a community curation system that is easy to use and flexible, and tailored to provide a benefit for the scientist, and to improve communication and exchange of research results. A PluriNetWork tutorial is available at http://www.ibima.med.uni-rostock.de/IBIMA/PluriNetWork/.

  15. Photonic and opto-electronic applications of polydiacetylene films photodeposited from solution and polydiacetylene copolymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Wolfe, Daniel B.

    1998-08-01

    Polydiacetylenes (PDAs) are attractive materials for both electronic and photonic applications because of their highly conjugated electronic structures. They have been investigated for applications as both 1D conductors and nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. One of the chief limitations to the use of PDAs has been the inability to readily process them into useful forms such as films and fibers. In our laboratory we have developed a novel process for obtaining amorphous films of a PDA derived from 2- methyl-4-nitroaniline using photodeposition with UV light from monomer solutions onto transparent substrates. Photodeposition from solution provides a simple technique for obtaining PDA films in any desired pattern with good optical quality. This technique has been used to produce PDA films that show potential for optical applications such as holographic memory storage and optical limiting, as well as third-order NLO applications such as all-optical refractive index modulation, phase modulation and switching. Additionally, copolymerization of diacetylenes with other monomers such as methacrylates provides a means to obtain materials with good processibility. Such copolymers can be spin cast to form films, or drawn by either melt or solution extrusion into fibers. These films or fibers can then be irradiated with UV to photopolymerize the diacetylene units to form a highly stable cross-linked PDA-copolymer network. If such films are electrically poled while being irradiated, they can achieve the asymmetry necessary for second-order NLO applications such as electro-optic switching. On Earth, formation of PDAs by the above mentioned techniques suffers from defects and inhomogeneities caused by convective flows that can arise during processing. By studying the formation of these materials in the reduced-convection, diffusion- controlled environment of space we hope to better understand the factors that affect their processing, and thereby, their nature and properties

  16. 15 CFR 16.10 - The Department of Commerce Mark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Department of Commerce Mark. 16.10 Section 16.10 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.10 The Department of Commerce Mark. The Department of...

  17. FELIX: a High-Throughput Network Approach for Interfacing to Front End Electronics for ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John Thomas; The ATLAS collaboration; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Kai; Drake, Gary; Francis, David; Gorini, Benedetto; Lanni, Francesco; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Levinson, Lorne; Narevicius, Julia; Plessl, Christian; Roich, Alexander; Ryu, Soo; Schreuder, Frans Philip; Schumacher, Jorn; Vandelli, Wainer; Vermeulen, Jos; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN is planning full deployment of a new unified optical link technology for connecting detector front end electronics on the timescale of the LHC Run 4 (2025). It is estimated that roughly 8000 GBT (GigaBit Transceiver) links, with transfer rates up to 10.24~Gbps, will replace existing links used for readout, detector control and distribution of timing and trigger information. A new class of devices will be needed to interface many GBT links to the rest of the trigger, data-acquisition and detector control systems. In this paper FELIX (Front End LInk eXchange) is presented, a PC-based device to route data from and to multiple GBT links via a high-performance general purpose network capable of a total throughput up to O(20 Tbps). FELIX implies architectural changes to the ATLAS data acquisition system, such as the use of industry standard COTS components early in the DAQ chain. Additionally the design and implementation of a FELIX demonstration platform is presented, and hardware and ...

  18. The network and properties of the NR/SBR vulcanizate modified by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Wen, Shipeng; Du, Yishi; Li, Ning; Zhang, Liqun; Yang, Yusheng; Liu, Li

    2013-11-01

    A natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) vulcanizate filled with carbon black was modified by high-energy electron beam (EB) irradiation in this work. The crosslinked structure was studied by a special chemical probe method. The influence of EB irradiation on mechanical properties, filler network, and dynamic properties including abrasion resistance, rolling resistance, and wet skid resistance was also investigated. The results revealed that the crosslink structure significantly changed after EB treatment, indicating that the amount of poly- and di-sulfide crosslinked bonds decreased and that of mono-sulfide bonds increased. The polymer-filler interaction was enhanced after EB irradiation. An EB dose of 600 kGy reduced the abrasion loss of the NR/SBR vulcanizate, and one of 300 kGy reduced the rolling resistance by 11.4%. Meanwhile, EB doses below 200 kGy had no obvious effect on the wet skid resistance. This EB-modified NR/SBR vulcanizate can be used to prepare high-performance tires with good abrasion resistance and low rolling resistance.

  19. Engineering highly organized and aligned single walled carbon nanotube networks for electronic device applications: Interconnects, chemical sensor, and optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Lae

    For 20 years, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been studied actively due to their unique one-dimensional nanostructure and superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. For these reasons, they offer the potential to serve as building blocks for future electronic devices such as field effect transistors (FETs), electromechanical devices, and various sensors. In order to realize these applications, it is crucial to develop a simple, scalable, and reliable nanomanufacturing process that controllably places aligned SWNTs in desired locations, orientations, and dimensions. Also electronic properties (semiconducting/metallic) of SWNTs and their organized networks must be controlled for the desired performance of devices and systems. These fundamental challenges are significantly limiting the use of SWNTs for future electronic device applications. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to fabricate highly controlled micro/nanoscale SWNT network structures and present the related assembly mechanism to engineer the SWNT network topology and its electrical transport properties. A method designed to evaluate the electrical reliability of such nano- and microscale SWNT networks is also presented. Moreover, we develop and investigate a robust SWNT based multifunctional selective chemical sensor and a range of multifunctional optoelectronic switches, photo-transistors, optoelectronic logic gates and complex optoelectronic digital circuits.

  20. E-commerce Adoption in China’s Service SMEs: a Study from Web Usability Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxuan Wu; Li Zhang; Qiudan Xing; Li Dai; Hongmei Du

    2014-01-01

    Although China’s economy continues to grow rapidly over the last decade, some researchers have been aware that China has had to develop its service sector if China wants to sustain this growth. However, researches on the electronic commerce (e-commerce) adoption in China’s service industries are still lacking and are limited so far. In literature review, few works discuss e-commerce adoption by measuring web site usability / web usability.This paper reviews the research on China’s small and m...