WorldWideScience

Sample records for networks conclusion outline

  1. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  2. outline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the publically accessible website for AePW What will be posted here: ## Outline: Rectangular Supercritical Wing Benchmark Supercritical Wing HIRENASD A....

  3. Outline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Outline. Cotton trends in India. The need for Bollgard cotton. Evaluation & approval. Safety; Field evaluation. Key statistics. Input Costs, Pesticide spend, Profit per acre; Area, Production, Productivity, etc. Value generated. 2005; 2006 Estimates. Summary.

  4. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and thus should be protected. 4G networks would be more sensitive as its core network will be TCP/IP based. Accordingly, resource and security management schemes with seamless connectivity would emerge as open research topics. It means we would be entering into a 'secure wireless multimedia society' this century.

  5. Outlining the benefits of Strategic Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Eckenhofer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Social Networks have attracted enormous interest in the scientific community in recent years. The characteristics, components and impacts of social networks have been studied through different kinds of aspects, such as sociological, geographical, ethnological, political and economical. In economics social network studies have been performed on intra- and inter-organizational levels, though rarely simultaneously. Furthermore the strategic aspects of fostering and controlling informal organizational networks as well as the outcomes of these managerial attempts on the network characteristics and the performance of the organization have not been sufficiently studied yet. However, the need to develop, foster and manage networks efficiently is given for preventing negative effects and provoking positive ones. Therefore this study contributes to scientific theory and practical business development by exploring the influence of Strategic Networking in inter- as well as intra-organizational business-fields. For study the author develops and defines Strategic Networking as the strategic and target-oriented analysis, development, fostering and control of (inter- as well as intra-organizational networks on the basis of trust, with the intention to reach certain (organizational goals and tests its applicability and effects in an extensive survey on three levels: intra-, inter-organizational and regional networks (cluster. The survey showed that Strategic Networking goes in line with favourable network characteristics as well as the success of a firm in terms of financial and non-financial performance measures.

  6. Conclusions:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions: Extended objects – “D-branes” – appear naturally in theories of strings. They manifest themselves as new types of physical particles in string models. They provide a powerful handle on the symmetries and dynamics of strings. Branes will play a key role ...

  7. Conclusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Conclusion. Power Quality Definitions are familiarised. Effects of PQ Problems. Causes of PQ problems. Mitigation of PQ Problems by. Power Filters for Retrofit Applications. Multi-pulse AC-DC converters. IPQC for Single Phase and Three Phase, Isolated and Non Isolated ...

  8. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Wallo, Andreas; Toiviainen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    production and knowledge-work offer growing learning opportunities to people throughout their active working life. In contrast to the stable and standardised modes of Fordist production, modern working life is characterised by rapid changes and employees interacting across globally distributed professional...... and spatial production networks. Based on continuous relationships of mutual exchange and knowledge building between customers, suppliers and producers, these kinds of learning environments are essentially different from those offered in a school setting. More research is needed to explore the opportunities......Work in times of globalisation and uncertainty is undergoing considerable changes, which has strengthened the importance of work as a site of learning. New trends in production, such as digitalisation, challenge traditional modes of producing goods and services. Emerging forms of flexible...

  9. Optical packet networks - conclusions from the IST DAVID project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars

    2004-01-01

    This work outlines the result from the European research project DAVID working with optical packet switch solutions for both WAN and MAN. The project started July 2000 and has been completed successfully by the end of 2003.......This work outlines the result from the European research project DAVID working with optical packet switch solutions for both WAN and MAN. The project started July 2000 and has been completed successfully by the end of 2003....

  10. Networks and Water Policy: Conclusions and Implications for Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Johannes T.A.; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1994-01-01

    Network models for analysing public policy have become widely used in recent years. This symposium assesses the network idea by applying a common perspective on network analysis to the constellations involved in water policy formation and implementation in several countries and the European Union.

  11. Outline of a multilevel approach of the network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Social and media networks, the Internet in particular, increasingly link interpersonal, organizational and mass communication. It is argued that this gives a cause for an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach of the network society. This will have to link traditional micro- and meso-level

  12. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in the Heart Electrical Axis Position Conclusion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    The article touches upon building of a heart electrical axis position conclusion model using an artificial neural network. The input signals of the neural network are the values of deflections Q, R and S; and the output signal is the value of the heart electrical axis position. Training of the network is carried out by the error propagation method. The test results allow concluding that the created neural network makes a conclusion with a high degree of accuracy.

  13. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grills Nathan J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of

  14. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grills, Nathan J; Robinson, Priscilla; Phillip, Maneesh

    2012-07-19

    In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India and other developing world countries.

  15. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubiche, Sabrina; Boubiche, Djallel Eddine; Bilami, Azzedine; Toral-Cruz, Homero

    2016-04-12

    Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes' resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach.

  16. An Outline of Data Aggregation Security in Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Boubiche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Data aggregation processes aim to reduce the amount of exchanged data in wireless sensor networks and consequently minimize the packet overhead and optimize energy efficiency. Securing the data aggregation process is a real challenge since the aggregation nodes must access the relayed data to apply the aggregation functions. The data aggregation security problem has been widely addressed in classical homogeneous wireless sensor networks, however, most of the proposed security protocols cannot guarantee a high level of security since the sensor node resources are limited. Heterogeneous wireless sensor networks have recently emerged as a new wireless sensor network category which expands the sensor nodes’ resources and capabilities. These new kinds of WSNs have opened new research opportunities where security represents a most attractive area. Indeed, robust and high security level algorithms can be used to secure the data aggregation at the heterogeneous aggregation nodes which is impossible in classical homogeneous WSNs. Contrary to the homogeneous sensor networks, the data aggregation security problem is still not sufficiently covered and the proposed data aggregation security protocols are numberless. To address this recent research area, this paper describes the data aggregation security problem in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and surveys a few proposed security protocols. A classification and evaluation of the existing protocols is also introduced based on the adopted data aggregation security approach.

  17. Sweet Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  18. Allegheny County Cemetery Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Outlines of public and private cemeteries greater than one acre in size. Areas were delineated following a generalized line along the outside edge of the area....

  19. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, Doug [Gregg Protection Services, Palm Beach Gardens, FL (United States)

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  20. Conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Walraven, van, K.

    1998-01-01

    This volume is the result of an international symposium on early warning and conflict prevention, held in The Hague in 1996. Two chapters deal with Africa. They investigate the role regional organizations - whether intergovernmental, State or non-State - can play in the prevention of conflicts in the post-Cold War era. Gilbert M. Khadiagala discusses some of Africa's leading regional organizations, ECOWAS, SADC, the East African Cooperation (EAC), and the Intergovernmental Authority on Develo...

  1. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... in wavenumber and. group speeds. Gradient elasticity models can provide response that are very close to solutions obtained by atomistic or first principle methods. Models for analysing Coupled nano systems, nano shells and Graphene on elastic substrate can be easily obtained by small extension of these models.

  2. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Le Bart, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Résumons notre démonstration : La découverte des Beatles rend possibles des expériences intimes de plongée en soi. Le passionné a le sentiment de se découvrir au contact de la musique. Cette passion, à ce stade discrète, le singularise par rapport à son environnement immédiat (famille, amis…). On parlera de stratégie de différenciation. Cette stratégie peut conduire au sentiment d’une certaine incompréhension, d’une certaine solitude. La rencontre d’autres passionnés rassure dans un premier t...

  3. Conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Rougier, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Le conflit de la physique scolastique avec la science expérimentale, entre les années 1644 et 1648, se concentra sur la statique des fluides. Or, il est impossible d’en entreprendre l’historique sans rencontrer l’« affaire Pascal », de laquelle M. Brunschvicg n’hésitait pas à rapprocher, dans le second bulletin de L’Union pour la vérité, pour la grandeur des intérêts moraux mis en cause, l’« affaire Dreyfus ». Une étude, qui semblerait tout d’abord vouloir n’être que préalable et accessoire, ...

  4. Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.

    2002-06-01

    Aristotle said that the unexamined life is not worth living. My challenge to you is this: "Examine your life in light of what you have heard today". Leadership is defined as the ability to motivate others towards a common goal - a guiding light. Let each one of us leave this conference being committed that we will be the guiding light to propagate color to teh ends of the Earth and beyond. Remember my challenge to you at the beginning of the conference - "Become involvedmake a difference and have the time of your life".

  5. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    « Le mariage de Rome et d’Athènes s’était accompli ; le passé retrouvait un visage d’avenir (...). Ce fut alors qu’une mélancolie d’un instant me serra le cœur : je songeais que les mots d’achèvement, de perfection, contiennent en eux le mot de fin : peut-être n’avais-je fait qu’offrir une proie de plus au Temps dévorateur. »Marguerite Yourcenar, Mémoires d’Hadrien. Le 21 avril 1960 met un terme au projet de Brasília. Cette date symbolique marque le passage de la ville en projet à la ville ré...

  6. Conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van K.; Walraven, van K.

    1998-01-01

    This volume is the result of an international symposium on early warning and conflict prevention, held in The Hague in 1996. Two chapters deal with Africa. They investigate the role regional organizations - whether intergovernmental, State or non-State - can play in the prevention of conflicts in

  7. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate change is likely to reduce yields of most crops in long-term. In short-term effects may be small. Increased climatic variability could, however, cause significant fluctuations in production even in short-term.

  8. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mallon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Le maintien de l’identité en maison de retraite procède d’un travail actif des personnes âgées, pour prévenir le vieillissement ou s’adapter à ses conséquences. La lutte contre le temps qui passe et qui menace de creuser un écart entre soi et soi-même exige des efforts, un véritable travail du vieillir. Rien n’est moins évident que de continuer à raconter une histoire qui rende cohérentes des dimensions de l’identité remises en cause par l’avancée en âge, qui transforme non seulement la perso...

  9. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Warming and Fahnøe provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  10. Conclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    This compilation of papers in this book represents approximately half of the works discussed at the MS&T 2010 symposium entitled Tools, Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Developed and Needed to Realize the Vision of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering at Materials Science & Technology wherein five sessions comprised of 33 presentations was organized. The goal of the symposium was two fold To provide a forum in which current state-of-the-art methods for ICME (e.g., information informatics, experimentation, and modeling) could be openly discussed and critiqued by not only materials scientist but also structural engineers/researchers, component designers, industrial leaders and government program managers. To leave the symposium and in particular the panel discussion with a clear idea of the gaps and barriers (both technical, cultural and economical) that must be addressed in order for ICME to fully succeed. The organizers felt that these goals were met, as particularly evident by the standing room only attendance during a lively panel discussion session at the end of the Symposium. However it is the firm belief of the editors of this book that this symposium was merely a start in the right direction, and that subsequent conferences/symposium (e.g., First World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to be held July 10-14, 2011 at Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania) must work hard to ensure that a truly diverse, multidisciplinary, community of researchers and practitioners are present and have ample opportunity for interaction. This will ensure that a proper balance between push and pull disciplines and technologies is maintained so that this emerging focus area, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), has the greatest potential for success and impact on "system-level" payoffs. Similarly, a pro-active approach is required to reform historical modes of operation in industry, government and the academic sectors so as to facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration and to clearly articulate the vision and scope of ICME.

  11. Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems in the United States in the year 2100 will differ from those of today as a result of a changing climate. Those differences will be superimposed on the human imprint of forest management and the legacies of other land use activities, stressors, and disturbances of the 19th and 20th centuries. Future changes in forest ecosystems will occur across both...

  12. Conclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahnøe, Kristian Relsted; Warming, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Fahnøe and Warming provide a cogent overview of how a lived citizenship approach enables critical analyses of social work and social policies by addressing challenges related to rights, recognition, participation, belonging and identity. The sub-concept of intimate citizenship and a spatial analy...... a kind of sociological magnifying glass through which broader social changes can be studied, including dynamics of inclusion and exclusion, new conflicts and modes of resistance, and new social pathologies....

  13. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet-Lafaye, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    L’ensemble de ces analyses a permis de montrer que « le bonheur n’est ni une course effrénée au toujours plus et toujours tournée vers l’avenir, ni l’unique nostalgie du passé » (Proust) pas plus qu’il n’est la simple somme des plaisirs de la vie à laquelle seraient soustraits les maux subis. Le bonheur est bien plutôt un état – c’est-à-dire pas seulement un sentiment – de bien-être dépendant d’une pluralité de facteurs. Selon la perspective à partir de laquelle on l’appréhende (la psychologi...

  14. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Villalpando, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    L’emploi de plus en plus fréquent de l’expression « communauté internationale » dans les discours politiques et juridiques est symptomatique de la transformation d’un certain nombre de relations sociales internationales vers la consécration du principe de solidarité communautaire et la réalisation et protection de biens ou valeurs collectifs universels. La conviction qui anime notre étude est que ces mutations sociales se reflètent dans le domaine juridique à différents niveaux et constituent...

  15. Conclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. First study on fHSC. First study on fHSC. fHSC exhibit embryonic stem cell like properties. fHSC therapy results in myocardial regeneration in rat model of MI. fHSC may be a novel stem cell type for cardiovascular regeneration.

  16. Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pettinaroli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    L’examen détaillé de la politique russe du Saint-Siège de 1905 à 1939 permet de répondre à notre interrogation initiale sur l’attitude romaine face au processus révolutionnaire russe. Malgré l’éloignement géographique et la séparation religieuse d’avec la grande majorité du peuple russe, le Saint-Siège prend la mesure des bouleversements dès 1905 et déploie un effort exceptionnel pour comprendre les mutations de l’entre-deux-guerres. La nouveauté des défis contraint souvent le Saint-Siège à i...

  17. Conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Strubell

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this brief document, the director of the UOC's Humanities degree, Miquel Strubell, concludes the Dossier focusing on the subject that acted as the catalyst for the 1st Conference on "Humanities Professions in the Knowledge Society", highlighting those areas for debate that, from his point of view, are most interesting and attractive in terms of setting limits and facing up to the problems the degree has at this time of the coming together to form a European university space.

  18. Outline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Motivation. Motivation. What is a visco-plastic fluid? Behaviour of particles in viscoplastic fluids. Settling/no settling criterion; Size of the fluid-like (Yielded regions); Drag behaviour of a sphere, Square bar, cylinder, etc. Natural convection. Concluding Remarks.

  19. Biotechnology Outlines for Classroom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Mary Jane

    1991-01-01

    Presents a course outline for the study of biotechnology at the high school or college level. The outline includes definitions, a history, and the vocabulary of biotechnology. Presents a science experiment to analyze the effects of restriction enzymes on DNA. (MDH)

  20. Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean Daphnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermans Martijn JTN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase (COX pathway; the lipoxygenase (LOX pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates. Results Here, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids. Conclusion We have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area.

  1. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Boer, E. J.; Slimani, N.; van 't Veer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1...

  2. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de E.J.; Slimani, N.; Veer, van 't P.; Boeing, H.; Feinberg, M.; Leclerq, C.; Trolle, E.; Amiano, P.; Andersen, L.F.; Freisling, H.; Geelen, A.; Harttig, U.; Huybrechts, I.; Kaic-Rak, A.; Lafay, L.; Lillegaard, I.T.L.; Ruprich, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ocke, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. Subjects/Methods: The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1)

  3. Drywall Finishing Apprenticeship. Course Outline (C-6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Gerald

    This course outline was prepard to help apprentice drywall installers and teachers of drywall finishing courses to learn or teach the skills necessary for the apprenticeship course in British Columbia. The course outline consists of 11 tracks (units) that cover the following topics: estimating, job inspection, safety, applying bead, filling…

  4. Global Advisory Group: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The conclusions and recommendations formulated for the global program by the 8th meeting of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) Global Advisory Group, which took place during November 1985, are summarized. The Global Advisory Group recommends that, in furtherance of the Five-Point Action Program endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1983, 3 general and 4 specific actions be taken by national immunization programs with the support of the World Health Organization (WHO) to accelerate EPI progress. These recommendations reflect optimism that the 1990 goal of reducing morbidity and mortality by providing immunization for all children of the world can be realized but also acknowledge that many fundamental problems of national program management remain to be resolved. The general actions are: to promote the achievement of the 1990 immunization goal at national and international levels through collaboration among ministries, organizations, and individuals in both the public and private sectors; to adopt a mix of complementary strategies for program acceleration; and to ensure that rapid increases in coverage can be sustained through mechanisms which strengthen th delivery of other primary health care interventions. The specific actions are as follows: to provide immunization at every contact point; to reduce dropout rates between 1st and last immunizations; to improve immunization services to the disadvantaged in urban areas; and to increase priority for the control of measles, poliomyelitis, and neonatal tetanus. The WHO and the UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) have collaborated in support of the EPI since the early days of the program. The acceleration of national efforts heightens the importance of this collaboration, particularly at the national level. It may be further facilitated by the provision of policy guidance from global and regional levels, by WHO and UNICEF collaborative agreements at the regional level, and by country agreements

  5. Using Outlines to Improve Student Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2006-01-01

    Assisting students with written work continues to be a challenging task for today's teachers. Outlining represents a relevant instructional technique to help students develop self-regulated writing skills and promote higher order thinking. The author shares writing advice that can be used by teachers working in traditional face-to-face…

  6. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…

  7. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....

  8. Outlining eicosanoid biosynthesis in the crustacean Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Lars-Henrik; Sibly, Richard M; Timmermans, Martijn Jtn; Callaghan, Amanda

    2008-07-14

    Eicosanoids are biologically active, oxygenated metabolites of three C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. They act as signalling molecules within the autocrine or paracrine system in both vertebrates and invertebrates mainly functioning as important mediators in reproduction, the immune system and ion transport. The biosynthesis of eicosanoids has been intensively studied in mammals and it is known that they are synthesised from the fatty acid, arachidonic acid, through either the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway; the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway; or the cytochrome P450 epoxygenase pathway. However, little is still known about the synthesis and structure of the pathway in invertebrates. Here, we show transcriptomic evidence from Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) together with a bioinformatic analysis of the D. pulex genome providing insight on the role of eicosanoids in these crustaceans as well as outlining a putative pathway of eicosanoid biosynthesis. Daphnia appear only to have one copy of the gene encoding the key enzyme COX, and phylogenetic analysis reveals that the predicted protein sequence of Daphnia COX clusters with other invertebrates. There is no current evidence of an epoxygenase pathway in Daphnia; however, LOX products are most certainly synthesised in daphnids. We have outlined the structure of eicosanoid biosynthesis in Daphnia, a key genus in freshwater ecosystems. Improved knowledge of the function and synthesis of eicosanoids in Daphnia and other invertebrates could have important implications for several areas within ecology. This provisional overview of daphnid eicosanoid biosynthesis provides a guide on where to focus future research activities in this area.

  9. Move Analysis of the Conclusion Sections of Research Papers in Persian and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Gerannaz; Ebadi, Saman

    2016-01-01

    The structure of the conclusion sections in Research Papers (RPs) is of significance in academic writing. The conclusion section in spite of providing an outline of the article, states other essential components, such as recommendations, implications and statements of possible lines of future research. This paper analyses the conclusion parts of…

  10. Outlining a typology of sports coaching careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to extend our understanding of sports coaching careers and challenge related stage-based models by outlining and describing a typology of careers in high-performance sports coaching. A constructivist research approach is applied that intends to gain insight into the realities...... of coaches’ careers.Datawere drawn fromin-depth interviews with 10 Danish high-performance sports coaches. Results identified four classifying features that pave the way for the establishment of a typology consisting of three ideal types: (1) the elite-athlete coach; (2) the academic coach; and (3) the early......-starter coach. The findings are theorized throughWenger’s concept of paradigmatic pathways and Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital. The study illuminates paradigmatic trajectories and conversions of cultural capital in high-performance sports coaching careers that may act as models for young athletes...

  11. Outlining a Serious Moral Games in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Christen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our contribution discusses the possibilities and limits of using video games for apprehending and reflecting on the moral actions of their players. We briefly present the results of an extended study that introduces the conceptual idea of a Serious Moral Game (SMG. Then, we outline its possible application in the domain of bioethics for training medical professionals such that they can deal better with moral problems in medical practice. We briefly sketch major components of a SMG Bioethics. The contribution should demonstrate how such an instrument may improve psychological competences that are needed for dealing with various ethical questions within healthcare. The contribution is an intermediate step of a project that aims at actually creating a SMG for training in moral competences that are needed for putting bioethics in practice.

  12. Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    than ever before. The book demonstrates the embeddedness of education in its cultural context and should, therefore, be of great interest to academics, researchers and postgraduate students who are involved with comparative education, the sociology and history of education, education policy...... in Europe. Elaborating on the Castoriadian ontology, the book delves into the magma of social imaginary significations that characterise and associate pivotal epochs of the continent’s history, Classical Greece and Modernity, and exemplifies their incarnation in educational systems and in the formation......'Society and Education: An Outline of Comparison' explores the relation of society to education in Europe, as well as its comparative perspective towards overseas societies and their institutions. It is an enquiry into the social-historical institution of education and cross-cultural studies...

  13. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of

  14. Results and conclusion; Resultados e conclusoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter shows the results and conclusions of the ordered studies by the Science and Technology Ministry from Brazil to the Center of Management and Strategic Studies (CGEE), executed by a multidisciplinary team, most of UNICAMP - State University of Campinas, SP - for evaluation of Brazilian capacity and potential in the production of fuel bioethanol.

  15. Power and Democracy in Denmark. Conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Goul; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    In 1997, the Danish Parliament decided to launch a power study, officially An Analysis of Democracy and Power in Denmark. A steering committee consisting of five independent researchers was assigned responsibility for the project. The Steering Committee has gathered the overall conclusions from...... the numerous projects under the Power Study, and this book is a short presentation of these conclusions.The main focus of the book is the state of democracy in Denmark at the dawn of the 21st century. How has democracy fared, has the development made things better or worse, and to which extent does......, and the political institutions show considerable democratic robustness. However, not everything has gone or is going well. There are still pronounced social divisions in Danish society, although their nature has changed somewhat. The ideal of an informed public debate does not always enjoy the best conditions...

  16. Premature conclusions about psychotherapy for dysthymia

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Dr Cuijpers and Colleagues Reply To the Editor: We thank Dr Gaudiano and colleagues for their contribution to the discussion about psychotherapy for dysthymia. We agree very much with Gaudiano et al that we should be careful about drawing definite conclusions about the comparative efficacy of psychotherapy on the basis of 5 trials. Therefore, we have been careful in our meta-analysis of comparative studies to describe this as an important limitation of our study, and we have repeatedly indica...

  17. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  18. Electronic Outlining Promotes Thinking and Writing across the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Mark; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Illustrates how electronic outlining is an easy way to empower students through the use of technology. Discusses how electronic outliners provide students with a dynamic medium for recording and organizing their ideas prior to writing. (MG)

  19. Conclusiones y recomendaciones Conclusions and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Saquero Martínez

    2006-12-01

    following technical conclusions and recommendations.This document, which is intended to be practical and operational, has been reviewed and agreed by all speakers and by the Scientific Committee of the Conference, and is written in the key of pending tasks to be addressed by both public authorities and companies in the sector and holders hazard installations.

  20. Kanto Asperity Project -Background and Outline-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Curewitz, D.

    2009-12-01

    that amplitudes of reflections are different between in the asperity and non-asperity regions, suggesting the different characteristics on the plate boundaries in these regions. The Kanto Asperity Project (KAP) have been submitted to IODP to know the geometry, physical properties, and tectonics along the Sagami trough, which are considered to control the occurrence of the great earthquakes and slow slips. The KAP consists of three research components. The first component is shallow drilling, coring, and logging at several sites distributed in wide area for the combined purposes of geological characterization (sediments, basements, and faults), tectonic reconstruction (collision, accretion, and rotation), earthquake history inferred from sediments, and in situ stress measurements. The second is long-term geophysical monitoring with wide area network, focusing on understanding the geometrical and geophysical situation of the system of asperities and non-asperities. The third one is coring and logging plate boundaries in asperity and slow slip regions to measure physical properties. Information obtained in this plan may be effective to modify simulations of earthquake cycles, strong motion, and tsunamis for seismic hazard assessment.

  1. 9 CFR 114.8 - Outline of Production required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.8 Outline of Production required. An Outline of Production shall be on file with Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service for each licensed biological product or for each biological...

  2. Proof Outlines as Proof Certificates: A System Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Blanco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We apply the foundational proof certificate (FPC framework to the problem of designing high-level outlines of proofs. The FPC framework provides a means to formally define and check a wide range of proof evidence. A focused proof system is central to this framework and such a proof system provides an interesting approach to proof reconstruction during the process of proof checking (relying on an underlying logic programming implementation. Here, we illustrate how the FPC framework can be used to design proof outlines and then to exploit proof checkers as a means for expanding outlines into fully detailed proofs. In order to validate this approach to proof outlines, we have built the ACheck system that allows us to take a sequence of theorems and apply the proof outline "do the obvious induction and close the proof using previously proved lemmas".

  3. Alaska NAD 83 Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI shapefile format. At lower latitudes (0-48 degrees) OPDs are 1 degree in latitude by 2...

  4. Network cities and externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Boix Domènech

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of «agglomeration economies» explains the existence of advantages derived from the concentration of population and activity. However, it does not explain the existence of spatially dynamic external economies. Network economies generated in networks of cities correspond to this last type, since they are generated from the interaction between urban units, linked by a network relationship. The objective of this research is to advance in the study of the relationship between the networks of cities and the generation of external economies. The research is divided in four parts: first we expose the link between networks of cities and external economies. The second part outlines a model for the combined measuring of the concentration and network economies. The third part explains the results of applying the model to a case of study: the network of cities of Catalonia. The results suggest that there is a causal relationship between the organization of the urban units forming networks of cities and the generation of external economies that affect growth and economic development. Finally, conclusions and policy implications are drawn up.

  5. The body of knowledge in thanatology: An outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Helen Stanton; Bouton, Barbara L; Chow, Amy Yin Man; Gilbert, Kathleen R; Kosminsky, Phyllis; Moore, Jane; Whiting, Peggy P

    2017-02-01

    The Association for Death Education and Counseling has updated its articulation of the body of knowledge in the field of thanatology. In doing so it has relinquished the use of a matrix format in favor of a more serviceable outline containing three major sections: Arenas of Thanatology, Practice Considerations for Professionals in the Field, and Contextual and Theoretical Considerations. Accompanying the outline is a new commentary on the state of the field itself, along with an annotated bibliography of recent relevant publications.

  6. Lip outline: A new paradigm in forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloth, Aruna Kumari; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Pasupula, Ajay Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Personal identification is becoming increasingly important not only in legal medicine but also in crime/criminal investigation and identification. Sometimes establishing a person's identity can be a very difficult process. Dental, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common technique used. However, there are many well-known implanted methods of human identification, one of the most interesting emerging methods of human identification which originates from the criminal and forensic practice, is human lips recognition. Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with the identification based on lip traces. The lip outline of every person is unique and can be used to fix the personal identity. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of lip outline patterns among males and females, and to evaluate the uniqueness of lip outline pattern. The study group comprised of 200 individuals from Kamineni Institute of Dental Sciences. Lip outline patterns were obtained and were transferred to the proforma sheet for analysis. The results of the study revealed that the lip outline patterns for each individual were unique. This study showed that lip outline patterns are unique to each individual and can be used for personal identification.

  7. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  8. The European Food Consumption Validation Project: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, E J; Slimani, N; van 't Veer, P; Boeing, H; Feinberg, M; Leclercq, C; Trolle, E; Amiano, P; Andersen, L F; Freisling, H; Geelen, A; Harttig, U; Huybrechts, I; Kaic-Rak, A; Lafay, L; Lillegaard, I T; Ruprich, J; de Vries, J H; Ocké, M C

    2011-07-01

    To outline and discuss the main results and conclusions of the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Project. The EFCOVAL Project was carried out within the EU Sixth Framework Program by researchers in 11 EU countries. The activities focused on (1) the further development of the EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) and the validation of the 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDR method using EPIC-Soft, (2) defining and investigating the applicability of the most appropriate dietary assessment method to younger age groups and expanding the applicability of the software for use in exposure assessment of some potentially hazardous chemicals and (3) to improve the methodology and statistical methods that estimate usual intake distributions from short-term dietary intake information and develop a methodology to quantify uncertainty in usual intake distributions. The preexisting EPIC-Soft application was reprogrammed into a Windows environment and more than 60 new specifications were implemented in the software. A validation study showed that two non-consecutive EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs are suitable to estimate the usual intake distributions of protein and potassium of European adult populations. The 2-day non-consecutive 24-HDRs in combination with a food propensity questionnaire also appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals according to their fish and fruit and vegetable intake in a comparable way in five European centers. Dietary intake of (young) children can be assessed by the combination of EPIC-Soft 24-HDRs and food recording booklets. The EPIC-Soft-standardized method of describing foods is useful to estimate dietary exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals such as specific flavoring substances. With the developed Multiple Source Method, repeated non-consecutive 24-HDR data in combination with food propensity data can be used to

  9. Schaum’s outline of fluid mechanics and hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Ranald V; Liu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately, there's Schaum's. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills. This Schaum's Outline gives you: 622 fully solved problems; extra practice on topics such as buoyancy and flotation, complex pipeline systems, fluid machinery, flow in open channels, and more; and support for all the major textbooks for fluidmechanics and hydraulics courses. Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time - and get your best test scores! Schaum's Outlines - Problem Solved.

  10. The roots of ancient medicine: an historical outline

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 26; Issue 2. The roots of ancient medicine: an historical outline. B V Subbarayappa. Perspectives Volume 26 Issue 2 June 2001 pp 135-143. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/026/02/0135-0143. Author Affiliations.

  11. How to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, L.J. de; Zoomers, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines how to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods in the present era of globalisation. After an analysis of the historical and theoretical context in which the modern livelihood approach developed, two trends in modern livelihood studies are discussed, i.e. its

  12. How to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods in the present era of globalisation. After an analysis of the historical and theoretical context in which the modern livelihood approach developed, two trends in modern livelihood studies are discussed, i.e. its

  13. How to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines how to research the changing outlines of African livelihoods in the present era of globalisation. After an analysis of the historical and theoretical context in which the modern livelihood approach developed, two trends in modern livelihood studies are discussed, i.e.

  14. The Teaching Artist Field: A Multidimensional History in Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Teaching artists work in a field with a long, rich history, and many roots and strands of development. One of TAJ's roles is to try to make this history more accessible and useful to working teaching artists. In this article, the author outlines the evolution of teaching artistry in the United States.

  15. Outlines of a Multiple Trace Theory of Temporal Preparation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, S.A.; Kruijne, W.; Meeter, M.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP), which accounts for behavior in reaction time (RT) tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1) followed by a target stimulus (S2) that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the

  16. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides & Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Telemarketing Specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing specialist contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources related; and (7) communications and minimum skill tasks. Each section…

  17. Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Broekkamp, Hein; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Broekkamp, H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Effects of electronic outlining on students’ argumentative writing performance. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(6), 557-574. doi: 0.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00418.x

  18. Assistant Chef Program. Curriculum Outline, Orientation, Safety and Sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Augustine Coll., Chicago, IL.

    Instructor materials are provided for an assistant chef program intended for English as a second language (ESL) or bilingual (Spanish speaking) students. A curriculum outline includes a listing of the tasks to be mastered in the program. Other contents include key terms from the production and service area of food service in the areas of…

  19. AUTOMATIC BUILDING OUTLINING FROM MULTI-VIEW OBLIQUE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Automatic building detection plays an important role in many applications. Multiple overlapped airborne images as well as lidar point clouds are among the most popular data sources used for this purpose. Multi-view overlapped oblique images bear both height and colour information, and additionally we explicitly have access to the vertical extent of objects, therefore we explore the usability of this data source solely to detect and outline buildings in this paper. The outline can then be used for further 3D modelling. In the previous work, building hypotheses are generated using a box model based on detected façades from four directions. In each viewing direction, façade edges extracted from images and height information by stereo matching from an image pair is used for the façade detection. Given that many façades were missing due to occlusion or lack of texture whilst building roofs can be viewed in most images, this work mainly focuses on improve the building box outline by adding roof information. Stereo matched point cloud generated from oblique images are combined with the features from images. Initial roof patches are located in the point cloud. Then AdaBoost is used to integrate geometric and radiometric attributes extracted from oblique image on grid pixel level with the aim to refine the roof area. Generalized contours of the roof pixels are taken as building outlines. The preliminary test has been done by training with five buildings and testing around sixty building clusters. The proposed method performs well concerning covering the irregular roofs as well as improve the sides location of slope roof buildings. Outline result comparing with cadastral map shows almost all above 70% completeness and correctness in an area-based assessment, as well as 20% to 40% improvement in correctness with respect to our previous work.

  20. Obama administration outlines new strategy for wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    As the wildfire season approaches, the Obama administration has released its new National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy, developed by federal, state, tribal, and community partners. The strategy outlines new approaches to maintain healthy `landscapes, prepare communities for the fire season, and better address the nation's fire threats. "Through more strategic coordination with local communities the National Cohesive Strategy will help us better protect 46 million homes in 70,000 communities from catastrophic wildfires," U.S. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said.

  1. An Outline of the New Norwegian Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørn Jacobsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the new criminal code, its background and content. It maps out the code’s background, the legislative process and central ideas. Furthermore, the article gives an outline of the general criteria for criminal responsibility according to the code, the offences and forms of punishment and other reactions. The article emphasises the most important changes from the previous code of 1902. To some degree, strengths and weaknesses of the new code are addressed.

  2. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lipschutz, Seymour

    2001-01-01

    This third edition of the successful outline in linear algebra--which sold more than 400,000 copies in its past two editions--has been thoroughly updated to increase its applicability to the fields in which linear algebra is now essential: computer science, engineering, mathematics, physics, and quantitative analysis. Revised coverage includes new problems relevant to computer science and a revised chapter on linear equations.

  3. Outlining the parameters for a linguistic nativist position | Vos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I will outline the so-called “nativist position” as it relates to language.1 While this debate has a long history, the data on which we can now draw is much richer and more varied than that available when the issues were first articulated and debated in the ‟60s and ‟70s. Similarly, the research context is radically different: ...

  4. Shape detection of Gaborized outline versions of everyday objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Michaël; Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We previously tested the identifiability of six versions of Gaborized outlines of everyday objects, differing in the orientations assigned to elements inside and outside the outline. We found significant differences in identifiability between the versions, and related a number of stimulus metrics to identifiability [Sassi, M., Vancleef, K., Machilsen, B., Panis, S., & Wagemans, J. (2010). Identification of everyday objects on the basis of Gaborized outline versions. i-Perception, 1(3), 121-142]. In this study, after retesting the identifiability of new variants of three of the stimulus versions, we tested their robustness to local orientation jitter in a detection experiment. In general, our results replicated the key findings from the previous study, and allowed us to substantiate our earlier interpretations of the effects of our stimulus metrics and of the performance differences between the different stimulus versions. The results of the detection task revealed a different ranking order of stimulus versions than the identification task. By examining the parallels and differences between the effects of our stimulus metrics in the two tasks, we found evidence for a trade-off between shape detectability and identifiability. The generally simple and smooth shapes that yield the strongest contour integration and most robust detectability tend to lack the distinguishing features necessary for clear-cut identification. Conversely, contours that do contain such identifying features tend to be inherently more complex and, therefore, yield weaker integration and less robust detectability.

  5. Schaum's outline of theory and problems of differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bronson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    If you want top grades and thorough understanding of differential equations, this powerful study tool is the best tutor you can have! It takes you step-by-step through the subject and gives you 563 accompanying problems with fully worked solutions. You also get plenty of practice problems to do on your own, working at your own speed. (Answers at the back show you how you're doing.) Famous for their clarity, wealth of illustrations and examples, and lack of dreary minutiae, Schaum’s Outlines have sold more than 30 million copies worldwide—and this guide will show you why!

  6. Fr Luigi Giussani’s Concept of Education - an Outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Rynio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This outline focuses on the multifarious academic, pedagogical and social activities of Fr Luigi Giussani, Professor of Theology, Italian thinker and scholar renowned for his numerous accomplishments. Due to his exceptional attentiveness, inquisitiveness and courage he has been certainly well-known and highly-regarded not only in university and ecclesiastical but also in the cultural and political spheres of life. The author of this study describes Fr Giussani as an exceptional scholar and educator emphasising the pedagogical aspect of his activities. The study explains his understanding of pedagogy and education. Selected achievements from his biography con fi rm Fr Giussani to be an exceptional human being, educator and scholar. As an educator, Fr Giussani holds a sober and realistic view of man and his formation: the true value of man, he claims, lies in being rational and free. Complete trust in God and great love for a human person de fi ne the most fundamental elements of his approach. The outline also includes a short biographical note and describes popular ways of education, formative events, the educators and educatee’s personality constituents, and the relationship between freedom, conscience, tradition and education.

  7. Move Sequences in Graduate Research Paper Introductions and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrunio, Marilu Rañosa

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students submit academic papers at the end of the term as part of their coursework. Such papers contain introduction moves which may be troublesome and conclusion moves which may contain sub-moves not really required. This paper is aimed at assessing what particular moves are employed in the introduction and conclusion sections of 21…

  8. STELLA and SPINE data transmission experiments preliminary results and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholome, P; Scanlan, J O

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the CERN-based proposal for a single experiment, Satellite Transmission Experiment Linking Laboratories (STELLA) and the ESA experimental programme SPINE (Space Informatics Network Experiments). Both projects are examples of experiments to explore the capability and utility of high speed data transmission by satellite, and used the European OTS. (2 refs).

  9. Outline of a taxonomy of approaches to aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O'Connor

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What limits on what can be done to individuals in pursuit of some “greater good” are morally permissible, and under what sorts of circumstances? This depends largely on one’s approach to interpersonal aggregation — that is, summing different goods (or harms affecting different persons and weighing them against other similarly attained aggregates. I outline four approaches: non-aggregationism (e.g. John Taurek, 1977; asymmetric aggregationism (e.g. Peter Singer in many specialist writings, Alistair Norcross; symmetric aggregationism (e.g. Singer in popular writings; and weak aggregationism (e.g. T.M Scanlon. I conclude by briefly suggesting that the weak approach is the “least worst” one.

  10. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea......An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...

  11. Thermoelastic stresses in non-uniform geological environments difficult outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.І. Бахова

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stresses concern not renewed type of stresses, that is once having liberated, they cannot accumulate more. The estimation of purely thermoelastic contribution to a lithosphere stress state gives the additional information, allowing to predict the danger connected with such natural factors, as seismic and volcanic activity. Some theoretical thermoelastic problems for the geological environment of a difficult outline with non-uniform thermophysical characteristics are considered. The decision is received on the basis of a numerical finite elements method. Influence of the model fixation, the geometrical factor and boundary conditions on distribution of thermal stresses and dislocation is investigated. Computing experiments have shown, that the size of the maximum thermal stresses reaches 500 bar. The maximum values of vertical dislocation are reached by 90 m, and horizontal — 50 m. Neutral plane position are precisely defined.

  12. Outlines of a multiple trace theory of temporal preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Sander A; Kruijne, Wouter; Meeter, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP), which accounts for behavior in reaction time (RT) tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1) followed by a target stimulus (S2) that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the foreperiod (FP; the S1-S2 interval) inhibition is applied to prevent premature response, while a wave of activation occurs upon the presentation of S2. On each trial, these actions are stored in a separate memory trace, which, jointly with earlier formed memory traces, starts contributing to preparation on subsequent trials. We show that MTP accounts for classic effects in temporal preparation, including mean RT-FP functions observed under a variety of FP distributions and asymmetric sequential effects. We discuss the advantages of MTP over other accounts of these effects (trace-conditioning and hazard-based explanations) and suggest a critical experiment to empirically distinguish among them.

  13. Towards a Classification of Architecture Initiatives: Outlining the External Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduced a set of external factors capturing the contextual differences that set the stage for architecture initiatives. These are derived from a systems theoretical approach recognizing the fact that architecture initiatives should respond the challenges posed by the external...... environment in which the company and the future product program is operating. The outlining of the factors are based on the conviction that no one-fits-all exists, when it comes to architecture initiatives, and the notion that it is impossible to truly evaluate whether an architecture initiative is good...... or bad, without including the contextual differences. The purpose of the external factors is to improve scoping and goal setting of architecture initiatives, and improve comparability between- and transferability of knowledge from architecture initiatives. The external factors are a first step towards...

  14. An outline of ethics on the work of Michel Foucault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Gerd

    An outline of ethics on the work of Michel Foucault The French philosopher Michel Foucault is well known for his critical thinking and for his genealogies of the human subject. In these analyzes power and knowledge (power-knowledge) plays a decisive role. For Foucault power-knowledge is the very...... foundation of the establishment of the norms and thus for normalization and subjectification. While Foucault’s project was to examine the foundation of the norms, he himself tried to avoid being explicitly normative. This stance has led to criticism among others from the Germen philosopher Jürgen Habermas...... (Kelly (edt.) 1994). Nevertheless, Foucault ended his academic career discussing ethics in the form of ethos (Foucault 1994). In this form his ethical project approaches an aesthetic project in the form of the individual’s self-creation. In my presentation I will introduce Foucault’s concept of ethos...

  15. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  16. Metabolic networks of longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Williams, Robert W.; Auwerx, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Molecular and cellular networks implicated in aging depend on a multitude of proteins that collectively mount adaptive and contingent metabolic responses to environmental challenges. Here, we discuss the intimate links between metabolic regulation and longevity and outline new approaches for

  17. Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

  18. Prospective Activities outlined for Regulatory Approval in Ghana Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrefah, R.G.; Odoi, H.C.; Mo, S.C.; Morman, J.A.; Liaw, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) is one of Chinese’s Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) which was purchased under a tripartite agreement between Ghana, China and the IAEA. The reactor was installed in 1994 and has since been in operation without any incident. It has been used chiefly for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Training of students in the field of Nuclear Engineering. The GHARR-1 has been earmarked for the Conversion of Core from HEU to LEU which is in accordance with the GTRI program and other related and/or associated programs. Over the past few years the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI), the Operating Organization of the Research Reactor for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), has undertaken various tasks in order to implement the replacement of the reactor core. After completion, of the neutronic calculations, results showed that that an LEU fuel of 12.5% enrichment was desirable. However, recent developments have shown that an LEU fuel with 13% enrichment will be fabricated by the manufacturers, which is captured in a fuel specification document sent to NNRI by the CIAE. It is therefore imperative that all neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculation be done again to help acquire regulatory approval. Furthermore, the radiation exposure to personnel involved in the conversion must be estimated to help convince our regulators. This paper outlines the processes and activities that will enable us meet regulatory requirements.

  19. The Fukushima Event: The Outline and the Technological Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco D'Auria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP accident in Units 1 to 4: an attempt is made to discuss the scenario within a technological framework, considering precursory documented regulations and predictable system performance. An outline is given at first of the NPP layout and of the sequence of major events. Then, plausible time evolutions of relevant quantities in the different Units, is inferred based on results from the application of numerical codes. Scenarios happening in the primary circuit and containment (three Units involved are distinguished from scenarios in spent fuel pool (four Units involved. Radiological releases to the environment and doses are approximately estimated. The event is originated by a natural catastrophe with almost simultaneous occurrence of earthquake and tsunami. These caused heavy destruction in a region in Japan much wider than the land around the NPP which was affected by the nuclear contamination. Key outcome from the work is the demonstration of strength for nuclear technology; looking at the past, misleading Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA data and inadequacy in licensing processes have been found. Looking into the future keywords are Emergency Rescue Team (ERT, Enhanced Human Performance (EHP, and Robotics in Nuclear Safety and Security (RNSS.

  20. OUTLINES OF JUDICIALIZATION: REFLECTIONS ON REMARRIED FAMILIES AND EMOTIONAL ABANDONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cristina eiras coelho Soares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to articulate two studies in the overview of Legal Psychology and taking as objects of study issues relating to the family in the sphere of justice. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the outlines that characterize the movement of judicialization on the demands of remarried families and emotional abandonment. In general, judicialization can be understood as the movement of expansion of judicial powers to matters that used to be resolved in other spaces. With respect to remarried families, this study identified how jurisprudence can provide a way to resolve demands that are not covered by the legislation. However, respondents’ reports indicated that they look for solutions without resorting to court, which differs from the proposal found on the theoretical reference to formulate specific legislation to address this family configuration. In regards to emotional abandonment, the analysis of aspects related to the production and validation of this demand by the legal system highlights the difficulty to measure damage and its relationship with absence of affection, in addition to the important gender approach, that assigns different positions and specific roles for each parental figure. Therefore, we conclude that the judicialization trend reflects and at the same time forges demands, denoting a social change in the way society deals with family impasses.

  1. Outlines of a Multiple Trace Theory of Temporal Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. Los

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline a new multiple trace theory of temporal preparation (MTP, which accounts for behavior in reaction time tasks in which the participant is presented with a warning stimulus (S1 followed by a target stimulus (S2 that requires a speeded response. The theory assumes that during the foreperiod (the S1 – S2 interval inhibition is applied to prevent premature response, while a wave of activation occurs upon the presentation of S2. On each trial, these actions are stored in a separate memory trace, which, jointly with earlier formed memory traces, starts contributing to preparation on subsequent trials. We show that MTP accounts for classic effects in temporal preparation, including mean reaction time – foreperiod functions observed under a variety of foreperiod distributions and asymmetric sequential effects. We discuss the advantages of MTP over other accounts of these effects (trace-conditioning and hazard-based explanations and suggest a critical experiment to empirically distinguish among them.

  2. Networks and Networking: The Public Administrative Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Published in 1997, the article “Treating Networks Seriously: Practical and Research-Based Agendas in Public Administration” outlined the importance of networks for the field of public administration and suggested a series of research agendas that should be pursued. That argument has received

  3. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prabhu, R. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta 801103, Bihar (India); Sen, Aditi, E-mail: aditi@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Sen, Ujjwal [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhaba National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-10-23

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties. - Highlights: • Monogamy score monotonically decays with noise for generalized GHZ state as input. • Non-monotonically decaying monogamy score with noise for generalized W state as input. • Characterizing the dynamics of monogamy score. • Dynamics terminal quantifying robustness of monogamy score against noise. • Conclusively identifying the type of noise using monogamy score.

  4. Review conclusions by Ernst and Canter regarding spinal manipulation refuted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Roni

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the April 2006 issue of the Journal of Royal Society of Medicine, Ernst and Canter authored a review of the most recent systematic reviews on the effectiveness of spinal manipulation for any condition. The authors concluded that, except for back pain, spinal manipulation is not an effective intervention for any condition and, because of potential side effects, cannot be recommended for use at all in clinical practice. Based on a critical appraisal of their review, the authors of this commentary seriously challenge the conclusions by Ernst and Canter, who did not adhere to standard systematic review methodology, thus threatening the validity of their conclusions. There was no systematic assessment of the literature pertaining to the hazards of manipulation, including comparison to other therapies. Hence, their claim that the risks of manipulation outweigh the benefits, and thus spinal manipulation cannot be recommended as treatment for any condition, was not supported by the data analyzed. Their conclusions are misleading and not based on evidence that allow discrediting of a large body of professionals using spinal manipulation.

  5. The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO): Supporting GO Annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Siegele, Deborah A; Hu, James C; Giglio, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The Evidence and Conclusion Ontology (ECO) is a community resource for describing the various types of evidence that are generated during the course of a scientific study and which are typically used to support assertions made by researchers. ECO describes multiple evidence types, including evidence resulting from experimental (i.e., wet lab) techniques, evidence arising from computational methods, statements made by authors (whether or not supported by evidence), and inferences drawn by researchers curating the literature. In addition to summarizing the evidence that supports a particular assertion, ECO also offers a means to document whether a computer or a human performed the process of making the annotation. Incorporating ECO into an annotation system makes it possible to leverage the structure of the ontology such that associated data can be grouped hierarchically, users can select data associated with particular evidence types, and quality control pipelines can be optimized. Today, over 30 resources, including the Gene Ontology, use the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology to represent both evidence and how annotations are made.

  6. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  7. Real Estate Course Outlines--Principles, Appraisal, Finance, Law, Math, Property Management, Investments, Marketing, Brokerage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert

    This series of course outlines was developed by the Texas Real Estate Research Center to help instructors in developing courses in compliance with the Texas Real Estate License Act Section 7(a). The outlines are general in nature and designed to serve as the basis for the development of a comprehensive course outline based on the texts and…

  8. Differences between evolution of Titan's and Earth's rivers - further conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Titan is the only celestial body, beside the Earth, where liquid is present on the surface. Liquid forms a number of lakes and rivers. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine differences of evolution of rivers on the Earth and on Titan. We have found that transport of sediments on Titan is more effective than on Earth for the same river geometry and discharge. We have found also the theoretical explanations for this conclusion. 2.Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This paper is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. 3. Basic equations of our model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. 4. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few kinds of liquid found on Titan. The liquid that falls as a rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen) has different properties than the fluid forming lakes (74% ethane, 10% methane, 7% propane, 8.5% butane, 0.5% nitrogen). Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. 5. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the flow and of sedimentation on Titan and on the Earth. Our preliminary results indicate that transport of material by Titan's rivers is more efficient than by terrestrial rivers of the same geometry parameters

  9. Bionics in Engineering Education Considerations, Experiences and Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Neurohr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During recent years bionics, a new discipline which is in charge with the transfer of the principles of construction, regulation, interaction and organisation of biology into innovative technical solutions, has attracted significant interest from various industries. Based on this request for bionic expertise in engineering, the faculty for teaching engineering in foreign languages (FILS at ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest started a course in bionics in SS 2007, which was supported by the expertise of the German ‘Bionik-Kompetenz-Netz’, one of the leading organizations in bionics. This is the report on the considerations involved in the course concept, the first experiences with the students' acceptance, some conclusions and future perspectives for extending bionics activities at ‘Politehnica’. Finally, within the last section, the evaluation of a questionnaire, filled in by the students at the end of the course, will be presented. In order to avoid any confusion, considering overlapping or mixing up with other bio-disciplines related to technology, the paper starts with a short introduction, explaining the principles of bionics and providing a clear definition of the field.

  10. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  11. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  12. Conclusions of the presidency. European council of Barcelona, March 15 and 16 2002; Conclusions de la presidence. Conseil europeen de Barcelone 15 et 16 mars 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document summarizes the conclusions of the European Council held in Barcelona (Spain) on March 15 and 16, 2002. Among the priority actions listed by the council figure the integration of energy, transportation and communication networks at the European scale. In particular, the council commits the Parliament and itself to start the final phase of opening of gas and electricity markets: free choice of a supplier, obligation of public utility, security of supplies, separation between transmission and distribution and between production and supply, non-discriminatory access of consumers and suppliers to networks with transparent tariffs, establishment of a regulatory agency in each member state, agreement for a tariffing system for the international electricity trades etc.. Concerning the sustainable development strategy of the European union, the council is pressing the member states for the completion of the national procedures of ratification of the Kyoto protocol. However, new measures need to be taken to develop technologies respectful for the environment, in particular in the domain of energy and transports. (J.S.)

  13. Outlines of the theory of urban agglomerations' self-development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses new trends in urban centers in Russia. It is noted that the interest of scientists to the problem has increased as urban agglomerations were declared regional areas of priority development. The author gives different interpretations of the content of the concept of «urban agglomeration», which are formulated in the context of different scientific approaches and scientific schools. It is emphasized that the city agglomeration as a special form of reality can be studied in the coordinates of a systemic paradigm. The basic axiomatic features that allow identifying the metropolitan area as a complex system are presented and disclosed. The conclusion was made that a self-developing urban agglomeration is a special type of actively operating territorial unit in which the actors of the local community are able to mobilize local resources by themselves (and, in particular, the human capital to change the living environment. The paper emphasizes the need to regulate the development of urban agglomerations and gives examples of two basic models of urban agglomerations management.

  14. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  15. French peritoneal dialysis registry (RDPLF): outline and main results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, C; Ryckelynck, J-P; Duman, M; Veniez, G; Lobbedez, T; Boulanger, E; Moranne, O

    2006-11-01

    The Registre de Dialyse Péritonéale de Langue Française (RDPLF Registry) is a non-profit association that has been set up to assist physicians and nurses in evaluating their practical experience and results regarding peritoneal dialysis (PD). Five French-speaking and two Spanish-speaking countries have participated in this initiative (which includes 21 000 patients). In France, 82% of all PD patients are included in the registry and the main results for the period from 1995 to January 2006 form the basis of this report: of 11 744 incident patients with a median age of 71 years, 21.5% were over 80 years of age and 56% were not able to perform PD treatment at home without assistance. Eighty-six percent of the latter group received external assistance from a private nurse and 14% were aided by their family. The overall average rate of peritonitis was one episode every 29 months. The probability of being peritonitis-free appeared to be better for patients on automated PD (59.4% at 2 year) than for those on continuous ambulatory PD (55.3%), but this finding requires further validation. The average waiting time before transplantation was about 2 years. In patients who had undergone transplantation, the peritonitis rate was one episode per 42 months before transplantation compared to one episode per 29 months for patients who had not received a transplant. Eighty-three percent of patients had a hemoglobin level greater than 11 g%. Catheter survival was 92% at 2 years post-insertion and 85% at 5 years, with 94% being implanted by experienced surgeons. In conclusion, the RDPLF results demonstrate that PD may be successfully prescribed for older patients who receive assistance either from their family or from a nurse. Further, a larger number of younger patients should also be prescribed this technique in France. Patients eligible for transplantation and on short-term PD have the lowest risk of developing peritonitis; PD before transplantation may help prolong residual

  16. Social Networks and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Videras

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses empirical research on social networks and the environment; it summarizes findings from representative studies and the conceptual frameworks social scientists use to examine the role of social networks. The article presents basic concepts in social network analysis, summarizes common challenges of empirical research on social networks, and outlines areas for future research. Finally, the article discusses the normative and positive meanings of social networks.

  17. Salient Features and Outline of the Joint Japanese Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Kiyoko; Hirai, Kazue; Iino, Keiko; Nomura, Hisanaga; Yasui, Hisateru; Kano, Taro; Ichikawa, Chisato; Hiura, Sumiko; Morita, Tomoko; Mitsuma, Ayako; Komatsu, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the outline and describe the salient features of the "Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs" (hereinafter, "Guideline"), which were published in July 2015. The purpose of this Guideline is to provide guidance to protect against occupational exposure to hazardous drugs (HDs) to all medical personnel involved in cancer chemotherapy, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses and home health-care providers. The Guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service guidance for developing clinical practice guidelines, with reference to five authoritative guidelines used worldwide. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ichushi-Web, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used for a systematic search of the literature. Eight clinical questions (CQs) were eventually established, and the strength of recommendation for each CQ is presented based on 867 references. The salient features of the Guideline are that it was jointly developed by three societies (Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing, Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, and Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Oncology), contains descriptions including the definition of HDs and the concept of hierarchy of controls, and addresses exposure control measures during handling of chemotherapy drugs. Our future task is to collect additional evidence for the recommended exposure control measures and to assess whether publication of the Guideline has led to adherence of measures to prevent occupational exposure.

  18. Salient features and outline of the joint Japanese guidelines for safe handling of cancer chemotherapy drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoko Kanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce the outline and describe the salient features of the “Joint Guidelines for Safe Handling of Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs” (hereinafter, “Guideline”, which were published in July 2015. The purpose of this Guideline is to provide guidance to protect against occupational exposure to hazardous drugs (HDs to all medical personnel involved in cancer chemotherapy, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses and home health-care providers. The Guideline was developed according to the Medical Information Network Distribution Service guidance for developing clinical practice guidelines, with reference to five authoritative guidelines used worldwide. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ichushi-Web, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used for a systematic search of the literature. Eight clinical questions (CQs were eventually established, and the strength of recommendation for each CQ is presented based on 867 references. The salient features of the Guideline are that it was jointly developed by three societies (Japanese Society of Cancer Nursing, Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, and Japanese Society of Pharmaceutical Oncology, contains descriptions including the definition of HDs and the concept of hierarchy of controls, and addresses exposure control measures during handling of chemotherapy drugs. Our future task is to collect additional evidence for the recommended exposure control measures and to assess whether publication of the Guideline has led to adherence of measures to prevent occupational exposure.

  19. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    local waves. Better earthquake-hazard maps, based on improved knowledge of regional geology, fault behavior, and earthquake mechanisms, are needed for the entire country. Their preparation will require the close collaboration of engineers, seismologists, and geologists. Geologic maps of all inhabited places in earthquake-prone parts of the country are also needed by city planners and others, because the direct relationship between local geology and potential earthquake damage is now well understood. Improved and enlarged nets of earthquake-sensing instruments, sited in relation to known geology, are needed, as are many more geodetic and hydrographic measurements. Every large earthquake, wherever located, should be regarded as a full-scale laboratory experiment whose study can give scientific and engineering information unobtainable from any other source. Plans must be made before the event to insure staffing, funding, and coordination of effort for the scientific and engineering study of future earthquakes. Advice of earth scientists and engineers should be used in the decision-making processes involved in reconstruction after any future disastrous earthquake, as was done after the Alaska earthquake. The volume closes with a selected bibliography and a comprehensive index to the entire series of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 541-546. This is the last in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 546, in 1 part, describes Lessons and Conclusions.

  20. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  1. Using auditory steady state responses to outline the functional connectivity in the tinnitus brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Schlee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is an auditory phantom perception that is most likely generated in the central nervous system. Most of the tinnitus research has concentrated on the auditory system. However, it was suggested recently that also non-auditory structures are involved in a global network that encodes subjective tinnitus. We tested this assumption using auditory steady state responses to entrain the tinnitus network and investigated long-range functional connectivity across various non-auditory brain regions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using whole-head magnetoencephalography we investigated cortical connectivity by means of phase synchronization in tinnitus subjects and healthy controls. We found evidence for a deviating pattern of long-range functional connectivity in tinnitus that was strongly correlated with individual ratings of the tinnitus percept. Phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right frontal lobe and phase couplings between the anterior cingulum and the right parietal lobe showed significant condition x group interactions and were correlated with the individual tinnitus distress ratings only in the tinnitus condition and not in the control conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first study that demonstrates existence of a global tinnitus network of long-range cortical connections outside the central auditory system. This result extends the current knowledge of how tinnitus is generated in the brain. We propose that this global extend of the tinnitus network is crucial for the continuos perception of the tinnitus tone and a therapeutical intervention that is able to change this network should result in relief of tinnitus.

  2. Cervical and crown outline analysis of worn Neanderthal and modern human lower second deciduous molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Stefano; Fornai, Cinzia; Buti, Laura; Toussaint, Michel; Mallegni, Francesco; Ricci, Stefano; Gruppioni, Giorgio; Weber, Gerhard W; Condemi, Silvana; Ronchitelli, Annamaria

    2012-12-01

    Despite the general increase in digital techniques for dental morphometric analyses, only a few methods are available to study worn teeth. Moreover, permanent dentitions are studied much more frequently than deciduous teeth. In this study, we address both issues by providing a taxonomic classification of Neanderthal and modern human (MH) lower second deciduous molars (dm(2) s) through the analysis of crown and cervical outlines. Crown and cervical outlines were obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) digital sample of uniformly oriented dm(2) s. Both outlines were centered on the centroid of their area and represented by 16 pseudolandmarks obtained by equiangularly spaced radial vectors out of the centroid. We removed size information from the oriented and centered outlines with a uniform scaling of the pseudolandmark configurations to unit Centroid Size. Group shape variation was evaluated separately for the dm(2) crown and cervical outlines through a shape-space principal component (PC) analysis. Finally, quadratic discriminant analysis of a subset of PCs was used to classify the specimens. Our results demonstrate that both outlines successfully separate the two groups. Neanderthals showed a buccodistal expansion and convex lingual outline shape, whilst MHs have buccodistal reduction and straight lingual outline shape. Therefore, we confirmed that the cervical outline represents an effective parameter for distinguishing between the two taxa when dealing with worn or damaged dm(2) s. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  4. [Contingent valuation for health care services. Review of domestic studies and outline of foreign investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Ide, Hiroo; Imamura, Tomoaki; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2006-11-01

    Contingent valuation method (CVM) can be applied to measure benefits of healthcare services. It is a technique for estimating subjects' willingness to pay (WTP) for a service under the scenario describing a virtual market with a questionnaire. In the present research, we outlined foreign studies and reviewed domestic studies on healthcare contingent valuation. A total of 14 papers from domestic literature (five English and nine Japanese articles) identified with mechanical search engines were verified for the following eight items: the method of the questionnaire; the information included in the virtual scenario; the question form for the willingness to pay; bias problems specific to CVM; validity/reliability, ex post/ex ante valuation, altruistic WTP, and non-health value. The following conclusions were drawn from the domestic studies: (1) several studies were short of sufficient information regarding the virtual scenario; (2) no research proved the existence of bias and the ways of coping with it; (3) tests for reliability were not carried out, although some kind of validity was verified; (4) all involved ex post user based evaluation; (5) neither altruistic WTP nor non-health value was examined. Taken the advantages of CVM into consideration, it should become a useful tool, complementing other economic evaluation techniques. Since its application has just begun in Japan, more emphasis needs to be given to practical issues so that healthcare workers will utilize CVM in a way that domestic studies in health economics will be activated.

  5. Outline of the experiment - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ach round. Data file File name: red_experiment_outline.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/red/LATEST/red_experiment_out...db.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/red_experiment_outline#en Data acquisition method - Data analysis method - N...line.zip File size: 7.8 KB Simple search URL http://togo

  6. Het effect van een elektronische outline-tool op het schrijfproduct en schrijfproces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, June). Het effect van een elektronische outline-tool op het schrijfproduct en schrijfproces [The effect of an electronic outline tool on the writing product and writing process]. In R. Brouwer (Chair), Omgaan met ICT:

  7. New Dutch Mineral Planning Act in a structural outline plan: from zoning to import

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, P.; Woltjer, J.

    According to the proposed Mineral Planning Act the state draws up a Structural Outline Plan on Surface Minerals (1994). In this article the state policy described in the plan will be focused on. The Dutch surface minerals and the context of the structural outline plan will briefly be dealt with.

  8. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presentation at ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  9. Habitat Management Outline for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines management strategies, goals and objectives for wetland and upland habitats at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in the fiscal year 2005.

  10. Digital Offshore Cadastre (DOC) - Pacific83 - Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Official Protraction Diagram (OPD) outlines in ESRI Arc/Info export and Arc/View shape file formats for the BOEM Pacific Region. The use of...

  11. Outlining a Framework for the Use of ICT in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited OUTLINING A...FRAMEWORK FOR THE USE OF ICT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT by Alexander Koch September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Mark E. Nissen Second Reader: Ulrike...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OUTLINING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE USE OF ICT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR

  12. High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images

    OpenAIRE

    Ambühl, Mark; Brepsant, C.; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander; Sbalzarini, I. F.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate extraction of cell outlines from microscopy images is essential for analysing the dynamics of migrating cells. Phase-contrast microscopy is one of the most common and convenient imaging modalities for observing cell motility because it does not require exogenous labelling and uses only moderate light levels with generally negligible phototoxicity effects. Automatic extraction and tracking of high-resolution cell outlines from phase-contrast images, however, is difficult due to comple...

  13. Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban Population in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia

  14. The extraction of information and knowledge from trained neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, David J; Browne, Antony; Crichton, Raymond; Hudson, Brian D; Whitley, David C; Ford, Martyn G

    2008-01-01

    In the past, neural networks were viewed as classification and regression systems whose internal representations were incomprehensible. It is now becoming apparent that algorithms can be designed that extract comprehensible representations from trained neural networks, enabling them to be used for data mining and knowledge discovery, that is, the discovery and explanation of previously unknown relationships present in data. This chapter reviews existing algorithms for extracting comprehensible representations from neural networks and outlines research to generalize and extend the capabilities of one of these algorithms, TREPAN. This algorithm has been generalized for application to bioinformatics data sets, including the prediction of splice junctions in human DNA sequences, and cheminformatics. The results generated on these data sets are compared with those generated by a conventional data mining technique (C5) and appropriate conclusions are drawn.

  15. A Review of Energy Efficiency in Telecommunication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Koutitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of green telecommunication networks and provides information about the power consumption within fixed line and wireless communication networks. It outlines the significance of energy efficiency in modern and future telecommunication networks and suggests directions for optimizing network performance in terms of energy demands. Numerous examples and reviews are also discussed. The aim is to introduce the reader to current green technologies and outline the necessity for energy efficiency in information and communication technology.

  16. May 2003 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T Y; Arcas, D; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Roy, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Ross, J; Satran, D; Walker, S; Heineck, J T; Englar, R; Pointer, D; Sofu, T

    2003-05-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on May 29-30, 2003. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss suggested guidance and direction for the design of drag reduction devices determined from experimental and computational studies. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Clarkson University, and PACCAR participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, provides some highlighted items, and outlines the future action items.

  17. April 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salari, K; Dunn, T; Ortega, J; Yen-Nakafuji, D; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Jammache, M; Leoard, A; Chatelain, P; Rubel, M; Rutledge, W; McWherter-Payne, M; Roy, Ca; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Storms, B; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Weber, D; Chu, E; Hancock, P; Bundy, B; Englar, B

    2002-08-22

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on April 3 and 4, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center, University of Southern California (USC), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Volvo Trucks, and Freightliner Trucks presented and participated in discussions. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  18. March 2001 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenman, R; Dunn, T; Owens, J; Laskowski, G; Flowers, D; Browand, F; Knight, A; Hammache, M; Leoard, A; Rubel, M; Salari, K; Rutledge, W; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Driver, D; Storms, B

    2001-05-14

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on March 28 and 29, 2001. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Due to the large participation from industry and other research organizations, a large portion of the meeting (all of the first day and part of the second day) was devoted to the presentation and discussion of industry's perspective and work being done by other organizations on the demonstration of commercial software and the demonstration of a drag reduction device. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items.

  19. Personalized Network-Based Treatments in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robin, Xavier; Creixell, Pau; Radetskaya, Oxana

    2013-01-01

    Network medicine aims at unraveling cell signaling networks to propose personalized treatments for patients suffering from complex diseases. In this short review, we show the relevance of network medicine to cancer treatment by outlining the potential convergence points of the most recent technol...

  20. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  1. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  2. Towards the Establishment of Criteria for Discussing Music in Terms of Symmetry and Asymmetry (an Outline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapó, Gyula

    Symmetry and asymmetry are universally present in music: our subject matter is vast, systematic applications abound. One cannot hope to do justice to this subject in an essay (only perhaps in a multi-volume book), let alone in a comprehensive manner that would include even the most important examples. The theoretical problems alone, concerning even the seemingly obvious cases, are considerable. Many of these arise from the complex, often interactive, simultaneous and temporal, i.e. multidimensional manner in which musical parameters1 behave. Thus, a rigorously systematic approach is necessary. This essay will attempt no more than to create scaffolding to facilitate future access to this subject. The bibliographical source references following the article will guide the readers to the editions of the musical examples. The terms symmetry and asymmetry (S/A for a while from here on) will be used to describe ephemeral and transitory, definitive, referential and background phenomena alike; and everything in-between. Further, S and A will be treated as a matter of degree, not as absolutes. In many instances, S/A will be thought of metaphorically or symbolically. With this caveat, many of the theoretical problems will no longer appear insurmountable. As stated before, examples of (systematic, conscious uses of) S and A in Western Art Music are universally present, all the way from Gregorian Chant to the music of Ockeghem; all the way from J.S. Bach through the Classical and Romantic eras to the increasingly conscious and mathematically ambitious applications from the Twentieth and Twenty-first Centuries (e.g. in the music of Bartók, Stravinsky, Schönberg, Webern, Boulez, Stockhausen or Xenakis). Therefore, I attempt to treat the subject by outlining the different models of how the question maybe thought of in musical terms. Specific examples will be provided to each section after the article. Although I consider these examples instructive, they by no means represent

  3. Outline of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Lessons Learned and Safety Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    Abstract. On March 11, 2011, an earthquake and subsequent tsunamis off the Pacific coastline of Japan's Tohoku region caused widespread devastation in Japan. As of June 10, 2016, it is reported that a total of 15,894 people lost their lives and 2,558 people are still unaccounted for. In Fukushima Prefecture, approximately 100,000 people are still obliged to live away from their homes due to the earthquake and tsunami as well as the Fukushima Daiichi accident. On the day, the earthquake and tsunami caused severe damages to the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO)'s Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS). All the units in operation, namely Units 1 to 3, were automatically shut down on seismic reactor protection system trips but the earthquake led to the loss of all off-site electrical power supplies to that site. The subsequent tsunami inundated the site up to 4 to 5 m above its ground level and caused, in the end, the loss of core cooling function in Units 1 to 3, resulting in severe core damages and containment vessel failures in these three units. Hydrogen was released from the containment vessels, leading to explosions in the reactor buildings of Units 1, 3 and 4. Radioactive materials were released to the atmosphere and were deposited on the land and in the ocean. One of the most important lessons learned is an importance to prevent such large scale common cause failures due to extreme natural events. This leads to a conclusion that application of the defense-in-depth philosophy be enhanced because the defense-in-depth philosophy has been and continues to be an effective way to account for uncertainties associated with risks. From the human and organizational viewpoints, the final report from the Investigation Committee of the Government pointed out so-called "safety myth" that existed among nuclear operators including TEPCO as well as the government, that serious severe accidents could never occur in nuclear power plants in Japan. After the accident, the

  4. Information ethics on social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Harňaková, Soňa

    2014-01-01

    This thesis highlights the benefits and risks arising from using of social networks and assess if social networks are following ethical principles. The first part of the thesis deals with information, ethics and information ethics, which arises from the needs to apply ethical principles in the field of information processing. The second chapter of this thesis outlines the basic aspects of social networks and their impact on society, describes the key advantages and disadvantages associated wi...

  5. Multi-scale Gaussian representation and outline-learning based cell image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhan, Muhammad; Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Emmenlauer, Mario; Rämö, Pauli; Dehio, Christoph; Yli-Harja, Olli

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput genome-wide screening to study gene-specific functions, e.g. for drug discovery, demands fast automated image analysis methods to assist in unraveling the full potential of such studies. Image segmentation is typically at the forefront of such analysis as the performance of the subsequent steps, for example, cell classification, cell tracking etc., often relies on the results of segmentation. We present a cell cytoplasm segmentation framework which first separates cell cytoplasm from image background using novel approach of image enhancement and coefficient of variation of multi-scale Gaussian scale-space representation. A novel outline-learning based classification method is developed using regularized logistic regression with embedded feature selection which classifies image pixels as outline/non-outline to give cytoplasm outlines. Refinement of the detected outlines to separate cells from each other is performed in a post-processing step where the nuclei segmentation is used as contextual information. We evaluate the proposed segmentation methodology using two challenging test cases, presenting images with completely different characteristics, with cells of varying size, shape, texture and degrees of overlap. The feature selection and classification framework for outline detection produces very simple sparse models which use only a small subset of the large, generic feature set, that is, only 7 and 5 features for the two cases. Quantitative comparison of the results for the two test cases against state-of-the-art methods show that our methodology outperforms them with an increase of 4-9% in segmentation accuracy with maximum accuracy of 93%. Finally, the results obtained for diverse datasets demonstrate that our framework not only produces accurate segmentation but also generalizes well to different segmentation tasks.

  6. Managing Interorganizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jeppe

    bold enough to predict that networks will become the dominant organisation form in future. Several authors maintain that the shift from traditional hierarchical structures to networks involves dramatic changes for managers and employees (Champy 2002, Rohlin 1994, Kanter 2002). This article seeks...... to isolate some of the forthcoming changes and outlines a map for network management. We will try to avoid summarising the increasingly extensive literature about organisations which are characterised by networks and restrict our focus to management in inter-organisational networks. Inter......Management literature’s many descriptions of the current and future challenges and new trends within organisation and management forms depict a motley and kaleidoscopic picture of the future. However, one idea reoccurs throughout most of the literature – the organisational network. Some are even...

  7. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  8. COURSE OUTLINE FOR FIRST SIX WEEKS FOR SCIENCE-LEVEL II, TALENT PRESERVATION CLASSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, TX.

    THE FIRST 6-WEEK UNIT CONCERNS ANIMAL LIFE, AND TOPICS INCLUDE PROTOZOA, INVERTEBRATES, AND VERTEBRATES. UNIT II, "THE HUMAN BODY", INCLUDES BODY SYSTEMS, HEALTH, AND SAFETY. TEXTBOOK REFERENCES, CONTENT OUTLINE, TEACHING SUGGESTIONS, REFERENCE READINGS, AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS ARE GIVEN UNDER EACH TOPIC. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT FIRST…

  9. Auto Body Welding 2 (Course Outline), Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing 1: 9033.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The 90-hour course is a foundation quinmester course in welding for the auto body repairman. The outline consists of seven blocks of instruction (orientation, 6 hours; auto body oxyacetylene welding, 10 hours; electric arc welding equipment, 6 hours; auto body electric arc welding, 8 hours; position welding, 40 hours; electric spot welders, 16…

  10. Electronic outlining as a writing strategy: Effects on students' writing products, mental effort and writing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    This study addresses to what extent and how electronic outlining enhances students' writing performance. To this end, the focus of this study is not only on students' final writing products but also on the organisation of the writing process (i.e., planning, translating, and reviewing) and perceived

  11. Assessing the Effectiveness of Student Oriented Learning Outlines (SOLOs) in an Equine Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogan, Kathleen S.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined if the use of the student oriented learning outline (SOLO) in a University of Arkansas equine production classroom had a positive influence in three areas: mastery of material taught, retention of material taught and voluntary positive student behaviors related to the use of course material. Thirty-one students who were…

  12. 14 CFR Appendix B of Part 415 - Safety Review Document Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety Review Document Outline B Appendix B of Part 415 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION....3.4Trajectory and Debris Dispersion Data 4.3.5Flight Hazard Areas and Safety Clear Zones 4.3...

  13. 26 CFR 1.860A-0 - Outline of REMIC provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-0 Outline of REMIC provisions. This section.... (3) Qualified entity defined. (d) Election to be treated as a real estate mortgage investment conduit... documents. (ii) A REMIC and one or more investment trusts formed pursuant to a single set of documents. (b...

  14. Effective Source-to-Source Outlining to Support Whole Program Empirical Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R; Panas, T

    2009-07-17

    Although automated empirical performance optimization and tuning is well-studied for kernels and domain-specific libraries, a current research grand challenge is how to extend these methodologies and tools to significantly larger sequential and parallel applications. In this context, we present the ROSE source-to-source outliner, which addresses the problem of extracting tunable kernels out of whole programs, thereby helping to convert the challenging whole-program tuning problem into a set of more manageable kernel tuning tasks. Our outliner aims to handle large scale C/C++, Fortran and OpenMP applications. A set of program analysis and transformation techniques are utilized to enhance the portability, scalability, and interoperability of source-to-source outlining. More importantly, the generated kernels preserve performance characteristics of tuning targets and can be easily handled by other tools. Preliminary evaluations have shown that the ROSE outliner serves as a key component within an end-to-end empirical optimization system and enables a wide range of sequential and parallel optimization opportunities.

  15. Write between the lines: Electronic outlining and the organization of text ideas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smet, M.R.J.; Brand-Gruwel, S.; Broekkamp, H.; Kirschner, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Writing is an important, complex skill which could be enhanced through the effective use of writing tools that are incorporated in word processors. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of (repeated) electronic outlining on the quality of students’ writing products and perceived

  16. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  17. An outline of military technological dynamics as restraints for acquisition, international cooperation and domestic technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Renato Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The expectation that technological returns from defense expenditure through acquisition, international cooperation and domestic research would further national development underappreciates the different technological dynamic of the armed services. This paper outlines the technological dynamic the stems from fighting in the air, at sea and on land, exemplifying consequences for the case of acquisition.

  18. Unit Record Equipment-Basic (Course Outline), Data Processing Technology: 8025.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This outline provides a guide for the instructor of unit record equipment at the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade levels. The first week is spent reviewing punched card principles, and the remaining hours are devoted to learning the purpose, operation, and principles of control panel wiring for the interpreter, reproducing punch, accounting…

  19. Outline of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident. Lessons Learned and Safety Enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirano Masashi

    2017-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the outline of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and summarizes the major lessons learned having been drawn and safety enhancements having been done in Japan for the purpose of giving inputs to the discussions to be taken place in the Special Invited Session “Fukushima, 5 years after”.

  20. Natural Gas Compression Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5311.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…

  1. A brief outline of temporalities of the web online and in web archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2018-01-01

    By using the idea of “differred time“ from the 1985 exhibition Les Immatériaux as a common thread this chapter sets out to identify some of the temporalities of the web. The first section briefly outlines three general ways of explaining “temporality”, the second section presents a five-leveled a...

  2. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides and Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Entry-Level Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing entry-level position contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources-related tasks; and (7) communications and minimum skill…

  3. Curriculum Outline for a General Oceanography Field Laboratory (Review Cycle-Annual).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    A curriculum guide, in outline form, for oceanography field laboratories is presented. Designed to complement and expand upon an oceanography lecture course, it provides a list of objectives related to student experiences in three areas: (1) operating oceanographic equipment; (2) gathering, manipulating, and evaluating data; and (3) writing formal…

  4. Curriculum Outline for Introduction to Engineering Chemistry. First Edition. Review Cycle-Annual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This curriculum outline consists of behavioral objectives (called terminal and enabling objectives) for Introduction to Engineering Chemistry, a one-semester, post-secondary course consisting of four 1-hour lectures each week. Course goal is to introduce marine engineering students to the rudiments of basic/introductory inorganic chemistry. The…

  5. Cooperative Health Occupation Education (Course Outline), Body Structure and Function I: 8009.08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    GRADES OR AGES: Twelfth grade. SUBJECT MATTER: The human body processes in normal and in certain abnormal conditions. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The document contains a preface, a list of goals, a list of specific block objectives, a bibliography, a course outline for each of the six blocks, and a quinmester posttest. The six blocks are…

  6. Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, Milou; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Leijten, Mariëlle; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Smet, M. J. R., Brand-Gruwel, S., Leijten, M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, July). Writing argumentative texts: The effects of electronic outlining on students’ writing product and process. Paper presented at the meeting of EARLI SIG Writing, Porto, Portugal.

  7. 26 CFR 1.482-0 - Outline of regulations under section 482.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Adjustments § 1.482-0 Outline of regulations under section 482. This... allocation. (5) Examples. (f) Scope of review. (1) In general. (i) Intent to evade or avoid tax not a... general. (ii) Funds obtained at situs of borrower. (iii) Safe haven interest rates for certain loans and...

  8. Food Services and Hospitality for 10th, 11th, and 12th Grades. Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks County Technical School, Fairless Hills, PA.

    The outline describes the food services and hospitality course offered to senior high school students at the Bucks County Technical School. Specifically, the course seeks to provide students with a workable knowledge of food services and foster in them a sense of personal pride for quality workmanship. In addition to a statement of the philosophy…

  9. An Outline for an intelligent System performing Peg-in-Hole Actions with flexible Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordt, Andreas; Fugl, Andreas Rune; Bodenhagen, Leon

    We describe the outline of an adaptable system which is able to perform grasping and peg-in-hole actions with flexible objects. the system makes use of visual tracking and shape reconstruction, physical modeling of flexible material and learning based on a kernel density approach. We show results...

  10. Massively Multiplayer Online Games as an Educational Technology: An Outline for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkuehler, Constance

    2008-01-01

    For those with a vested interest in online technologies for learning, the knowledge and skills that constitute successful participation in massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) places these games squarely among the most promising new digital technologies to date. In this article, the author broadly outlines the qualitative results of a two and…

  11. A Descriptive Outline for an Advertising History Course in Seminar Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert

    Advertising history is often treated within the context of journalism or mass communication history. The outline of a seminar course in advertising history presented in this paper offers an approach that discusses the social, cultural, and philosophical roots of advertising as well as the institution as it is known today. The focus of the course…

  12. The Public Law Outline and Family Group Conferences in Childcare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carly Anne

    2011-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Children Act (1989) states that children are best brought up with their families. However, if a child is suffering from or likely to suffer from significant harm, then the local authorities may initiate care proceedings under section 31 of the Children Act (1989). The Public Law Outline is a judicial case management tool…

  13. Peculiarities of dynamic evaluation of globular formation outlines of the lungs with multislice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir G. Kolmogorov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Visualization of infiltration in lung tissue surrounding the globular formation of the lungs (GFL determined by X-ray is one of the important points in the differential diagnosis of primary lung cancer, specific and non-specific inflammatory processes. At CT gauge body phantoms test facilities are widely used for evaluating the performance of scanners that allow the evaluation of scanner characteristics : noise, contrast sensitivity, positioning accuracy, stiffness of the radiation beam, the layer thickness, spatial resolution, etc.Aim. To develop a methodology for assessing the GFL outlines of the dynamics of multislice computed tomography (MSCT by selecting the optimal image processing algorithms.Materials and methods. The visual analysis of two- component physical model images of the electronic window level (WL and electronic window width (WW was installed on the basis of the best conditions for studying a specific group of tissues. In the case of indistinct, poorly defined outlines of globular formations, visual assessment is operator-dependent and requires development and application of quantitative methods of analysis. For a quantitative description of the outlines of the image of the GFL model, a vector in a polar coordinate system coming from the center of the figure mass bounded by the outline was used. The following outline complexity measures were adopted: modified Shannon information entropy H(S(k for k harmonics of the normalized spectral power density S(k of the length of oscillation of loop radius vector R(n; the number of local maxima L of signature radius vector R(n; the maximum value of the normalized power spectral density S(k; product (multiplicity of the entropy H(S and the number of local maxima L.Results. “Multiplicity”, “the number of local maxima” of the outline depend on the GFL geometric dimensions and cannot be used for diagnosis without first normalizing for GFL outline length. The parameters

  14. Issue Professionals in Transnational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    Professionals and organizations both seek to exploit and cooperate with each other. Professionals seek alliances in their own peer networks while organizations do the same. These networks carry not only information that inform incentives but norms about appropriate forms of governance and practices...... that guide how they actually work. In this paper we outline how professionals and organizations operate in two-level networks through a focus on issue control over issues of transnational governance. As such, this interdisciplinary paper brings together insights from Organization Studies and International...... Relations to discuss how professionals and organizations battle over issue control through the designation of tasks and the creation of overlapping networks. We outline the emergence of ‘issue professionals’ and how they attempt network management. We do so via a case on transnational sustainability...

  15. Some conclusions from the registration of electrophonic bolides tracks in the "Unified Churyumov Network" in 2013-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Kruchynenko, V. G.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Steklov, E. A.

    2017-09-01

    The review of main results of observations of traces for day and twilight invasion of electrophone bolides into the atmosphere over Kiev and the region in 2013-2017 is presented. The panicle fly away of numerous flocks of birds from area of the fall of electrophone bolide was observed. Observers themselves were also in a state of unexplained anxiety and discomfort.

  16. [Prospective qualification requirements in nursing care. Results and conclusions of the BMBF research network FreQueNz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, G; Klaes, L; Rommel, A; Schröder, H; Köhler, T

    2013-08-01

    Demographic change, advances in medicine, and innovative health care services are leading to changes in the professional qualification requirements for nursing and care staff. Detecting future trends in relation to these requirements was the focus of a Delphi study developed as part of the BMBF FreQueNz initiative. After qualitative expert interviews, data collection was organized in three consecutive steps, with 243 interviews realized in the second wave. It was found that home care will further diversify in the fields of supporting and counseling services as well as in palliative care, resulting in the necessary expansion of specific qualifications (e.g., intensive care). Moreover, there will be an increased need for interprofessional, intersectoral, and intercultural coordination and communication skills. As a consequence of the delegation of medical tasks, new duties for nonmedical professions in inpatient and outpatient care will also arise. For instance, qualifications need to be tailored to the new demands of assessment, diagnostics, therapy, and patient education and they should take into account evidence-based knowledge as well as clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, the system of care professionals will further diversify through advanced training programs and the continued academization of nursing.

  17. Network systems and groupware for public facilities; Network system to groupware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torimaru, K.; Kubo, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, K. [Osaki Computer Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-10

    This paper outlines solutions for network systems and groupware for the infrastructure of information systems in public facilities. With regard to network systems, Fuji Electric's network solutions including requirements of public facilities and application examples are described. With regard to groupware, the status of groupware used for raising efficiency in public facilities and groupware packages marketed by Fuji Electric. (author)

  18. Basic outline of the network organisation for mining firms. Grundzuege der Netzwerk-Organisation fuer Bergbau-Unternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretschmann, J. (Ruhrkohle Bergbau AG, Herne (Germany). Abt. Organisationsentwicklung/kaufm. Koordinierung/Sonderaufgaben)

    1994-09-01

    The 1990's differ radically in some important aspects from the previous decade. Technological progress is increasingly accelerating. Challenges of previously unknown extent are made by the new world politics conditions. Particularly in the East and South of our world, dramatic economic and sociological changes are taking place, the consequences of which can hardly be forecast. In addition there are the apparently constantly growing ecological problems. People will have to adjust their firms ideas and dealings to these new conditions. (orig.)

  19. A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.

  20. Future biogas plants. New plant outlines and economic potential; Fremtidens biogasfaellesanlaeg. Nye anlaegskoncepter og oekonomisk potentiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Johannes (ed.)

    2006-06-16

    The Working Paper is the first joint reporting from a project aiming at identifying new outlines for joint biogas plants with profitable operation mainly based on slurry. So far a pre-requisition for profitable operation has been supply of 20-25% organic waste as supplement to the slurry, partly because organic waste increases gas production, and partly to collect recipient fee. The new outlines, which are analysed, represent different combinations of technology for separation, pre-treatment and re-circulation, including separation at each separate farm and separation of degassed slurry. Simultaneously with an increased gas yield, a number of synergy effects are achieved, which can contribute to ensure an environmentally friendly distribution and use of the nutrients, especially in areas with large concentrations of animal husbandry. (BA)

  1. Reliability and safety program plan outline for the operational phase of a waste isolation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammer, H.G.; Wood, D.E.

    1977-03-28

    A Reliability and Safety Program plan outline has been prepared for the operational phase of a Waste Isolation Facility. The program includes major functions of risk assessment, technical support activities, quality assurance, operational safety, configuration monitoring, reliability analysis and support and coordination meetings. Detailed activity or task descriptions are included for each function. Activities are time-phased and presented in the PERT format for scheduling and interactions. Task descriptions include manloading, travel, and computer time estimates to provide data for future costing. The program outlined here will be used to provide guidance from a reliability and safety standpoint to design, procurement, construction, and operation of repositories for nuclear waste. These repositories are to be constructed under the National Waste Terminal Storage program under the direction of the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division.

  2. Cultural Landscapes and Neolithisation Processes: Outline of a model for the Scheldt basin (Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick N. Robinson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has indicated the continuation of a hunting-fishing-gathering way of life in the lower Scheldt basin (Belgium for over a millennium after the first arrival of agriculture in the middle Scheldt. Current evidence suggests multiple hiatuses in cultural change from the late 6th-late 5th millennium BC. This article provides the outline of a model that seeks to explain these hiatuses from the perspective of indigenous hunter-fisher-gatherer cultural landscapes. The outline investigates the significance of palaeoecological and social contexts in relation to contact and cultural transmission processes during the transition to agriculture. Recent ethnoarchaeological research from hunter-fisher-gatherers in temperate and boreal environments is referenced as a structural analogy for illuminating the important relationship between territoriality and social mediation within hunter-gatherer groups at the Mesolithic-Neolithic interface.

  3. Latin American Bioethics: intangible outline of the continent’s reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Porto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This brief essay proposes to reflect on what could be Latin American bioethics, speculating about possible identity characteristics and operational limits of the idea of what constitutes Latin America, outlined conceptually by geographical, historical and cultural aspects. This attempt does not assume the task of defining exactly or definitively what Latin American bioethics is, but rather limits itself to the purpose of causing controversy in order to stimulate reflection on this topic to assess its usefulness.

  4. The role of universities in energy and environmental R & D: An extended outline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Issues related to university research and development roles in energy and environmental areas are very briefly outlined in the paper. Fundamental issues discussed include basic versus applied science, and applied science versus technology development. Some specific issues appropriate for university research are identified, such as desulfurizing coal and managing mixed wastes in groundwater. The Plant Biotechnology consortium is described as a model that builds on university strengths in basic and applied technology.

  5. Sexual Dimorphism and Population Affinity in the Human Zygomatic Structure-Comparing Surface to Outline Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Stefan; Rüdell, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The human zygomatic structure, consisting of the zygomatic bone and the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, is an essential part of the masticatory apparatus and has been shown to reflect population history and sexual dimorphism to varying degrees. In this study, we analyzed the predictive value of the outlines vs. the complete surface shape of the zygomatic bone in a sample of 98 Chinese (50 ♀, 48 ♂) and 96 Germans (49 ♀, 47 ♂). We first applied a surface registration process based on statistical shape modeling. A dense set of 1,480 pseudo-landmarks was then sampled automatically from the surface of the pooled mean shape and three curves were digitized manually along the outlines of the zygomatic bone. Both sets of pseudo-landmarks were automatically transferred to all specimens. Analysis of sex and population affinity showed both factors to be independently significant, but the interaction between them was not. Population affinity could be predicted quite accurately with correct classification of 97.9% using the surface data and 93.3% with the curve data. Sexual dimorphism was less distinct with 89.2% correct sex determination when using surface information compared with 77.8% when using the curve data. Population-related shape differences were captured primarily in the outlines, while sexual dimorphism is distributed more uniformly throughout the entire surface of the zygomatic structure. Anat Rec, 300:226-237, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The mission of the French senate about the Erika shipwreck presents its conclusions; La mission du Senat sur l'Erika presente ses conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-08-01

    The conclusions of the information mission carried out by the French senate about the shipwreck of the Erika tanker ship were presented on June 27, 2000. The conclusions comprise two parts: 1 - the wreck and the management of the crisis: the hull cracks passed over in silence, the success of the rescue of the crew, the exploit of the Abeille-Flandre salvage tug, the partial success of the crude pumping from the wreckage; 2 - the proposals of the mission: sustain of the French flag, reinforcement of the maritime safety, reinforcement of pollution fighting means, limitation of unauthorized spills at sea, better mobilization of the government means, improvement of the victims compensation system. (J.S.)

  7. On the development of online cities and neighborhoods: an exploration of cumulative and segmentive network effects in social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, I.; Huizinga, A; Bouman, W.; Tuunainen, V.K.; Rossi, M.; Nandhakumar, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a research in progress set to study network effects in social media. The focus is on outlining the theoretical framework in which this study is embedded. The concepts of cumulative network effects and segmentive network effects are introduced to explain the processes by which

  8. [Outline of the JCS2010 guideline for gender-specific cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The present review introduces the outline of the JCS2010 guideline for gender-specific cardiovascular disease including the assessments according to the class of recommendation and the level of evidence based on totally 581 references. This guideline is started from the basic science of the gender-difference, and refers to gender-specific cardiovascular diseases: ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, valvular diseases, specific arrhythmias, aortic aneurism, peripheral vascular disease, venous thrombotic disease, and hypertensive heart disease. Much are focused on the recent issues regarding ischemic heart disease and heart failure reflecting the increasing prevalence accompanied with a society composed largely of elderly people in Japan.

  9. Pedagogy and didactics: outline of differences, tensions, and relations of two fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Zambrano Leal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogy and Didactics are two fields whose nature, means, and aims reflect the contemporary debate of education. Education aims to see the movement of freedom in nature, since it is self-determination. Daughter of modern thought, Pedagogy seeks to understand the goals of education. Product of a society of control, Didactics sets its limits in learning. These two concepts reveal -because of their nature- tensions, differences, and relationships. In this paper some notions about the configuration of these concepts are outlined and some ideas on the urgency of the contemporary debate are placed.

  10. Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders. The Quality Assurance Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Treatment outlines for paranoid, schizotypal and schizoid personality disorders were developed by having nominated experts consider their own views in the light of the treatment literature and the responses of practising psychiatrists. In the detailed recommendations it is clear that while patients with all three disorders often present for treatment in a crisis and often see no issue other than the resolution of the crisis, patients with schizoid personality disorder can use long-term psychotherapy to develop and change to the extent of no longer being handicapped.

  11. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...... their publication-based research activities across all disciplines. Specific incentives are given to researchers to focus their publication behaviour on the most ‘prestigious' publication channels within the different fields. Such aims necessitate a documentation system based on high-quality data, and require...... differentiated publication counts as the basic measure. Experience until now suggests that the indicator works as intended....

  12. The Outline Design of Students’ Schedule Management System Based on B/S Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on a preliminary outline design involved in the development of B/S mode of student schedule management system. It can provide the foundation and basis for the Panel’s later detailed design and coding, and also standardize the team development. Documents will be divided into various modules, and the functional requirements of corresponding module are raised; total class diagrams, class function definitions and the function of functions are obtained for reference of the later design.

  13. Outline of the safety research results, in the power reactor field, fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has promoted the safety research in fiscal year of 1996 according to the Fundamental Research on Safety Research (fiscal year 1996 to 2000) prepared on March, 1996. Here is described on the research results in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5 years programme, and whole outline of the fundamental research on safety research, on the power reactor field (whole problems on the new nuclear converter and the fast breeder reactor field and problems relating to the power reactor in the safety for earthquake and probability theoretical safety evaluation field). (G.K.)

  14. AN OUTLINE OF THE EUROPE – SOUTH AFRICA RELATIONS DURING AND POST THE APARTHEID ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was always a main interest region for European countries. The United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France and many others at lesser extent, tried to establish control over thecountry due to its special geographical position. On the other hand, since 1948, South Africa had been characterized by a tremendous regime, the so-called apartheid. The idea of this paper is to clarify the position of certain European countries towards South Africa during this severe period for the latest and to outline the major development agreements between the EC/EU and South Africa after the fall of apartheid, since South Africa is an important trade partner for the Union.

  15. Organizing Practice and Practicing Organization: An Outline of Translational Mobilization Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Davina; May, Carl

    2017-01-01

    ...—to address this challenge. Adopting a practice-based approach, we connect interactionist perspectives on social order, analyses of sociotechnical networks, and theories of strategic action fields, to describe and explain...

  16. Full outline of unresponsiveness score versus Glasgow Coma Scale in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochar, Gurpreet Singh; Gulati, Sheffali; Lodha, Rakesh; Pandey, Rm

    2014-10-01

    The study was designed to compare the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score with Glasgow Coma Scale as a predictor of mortality and poor functional outcome at hospital discharge in children with nontraumatic impairment of consciousness. Seventy children aged 5 to 18 years admitted with impaired consciousness were enrolled. The scores were applied by the Pediatric Neurology fellow within 2 hours of admission. The primary outcome studied was in-hospital mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the 2 scores. The area under the curves for Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness scores were 0.916 and 0.940, respectively. However, the difference between the areas under curve for the 2 scores was not statistically significant (0.023; 95% confidence interval: -0.0115 to 0.058). Our data indicate that both the scores are good predictors for in-hospital mortality and functional outcome. However, no significant difference was observed between the ability of the 2 scores to predict the outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The palaeogeographic outlines of the Caucasus in the Jurassic: The Caucasian Sea and the Neotethys Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Caucasian Sea, fringing the northern margin of the Jurassic Neotethys Ocean, largely covered the Caucasus. Continental, shallow-marine and deep-marine palaeoenvironments delineate palaeogeographic outlines for three significant time slices: the Late Toarcian, the Early Bajocian and the Middle Oxfordian. These new palaeogeographic outlines of the Caucasus and adjacent territories match the Neotethys Ocean reconstructions. In the Late Toarcian the Caucasian Sea embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin and the Black Sea Caspian Sea Basin, which were divided by the Northern Transcaucasian Arc; it opened to the Neotethys Ocean which covered the Exterior Caucasian Basin. In the Early Bajocian, the Caucasian Sea only embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin; it opened the epicontinental seas of the Russian Platform, connecting them with the Neotethys Ocean by straits between islands of the Transcaucasian Arc. In the Middle Oxfordian, the Caucasian Sea which further embraced the Greater Caucasus Basin had its outer shelf fringed by carbonate build-ups. The connection between the Russian Platform shallow sea and the Neotethys Ocean was maintained. In the course of the Jurassic, a seaway developed along the northern margin of the Neotethys, of which the Caucasian Sea became a significant part.

  18. Machine learning and complex-network for personalized and systems biomedicine

    KAUST Repository

    Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio

    2016-01-27

    The talk will begin with an introduction on using machine learning to discover hidden information and unexpected patterns in large biomedical datasets. Then, recent results on the use of complex network theory in biomedicine and neuroscience will be discussed. In particular, metagenomics and metabolomics data, approaches for drug-target repositioning, functional/structural MR connectomes and gut-brain axis data will be presented. The conclusion will outline the novel and exciting perspectives offered by the translation of these methods from systems biology to systems medicine.

  19. A Survey on Multisensor Fusion and Consensus Filtering for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangyan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisensor fusion and consensus filtering are two fascinating subjects in the research of sensor networks. In this survey, we will cover both classic results and recent advances developed in these two topics. First, we recall some important results in the development of multisensor fusion technology. Particularly, we pay great attention to the fusion with unknown correlations, which ubiquitously exist in most of distributed filtering problems. Next, we give a systematic review on several widely used consensus filtering approaches. Furthermore, some latest progress on multisensor fusion and consensus filtering is also presented. Finally, conclusions are drawn and several potential future research directions are outlined.

  20. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  1. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  2. Aircraft Wood Structures, Covering and Finishing Methods (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 2 (Air Frame): 9065.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with aircraft wood structures and related Federal Aviation Agency requirements. Topics outlined are identification of defects on wood samples, defining terms used on wood structures, inspecting wood structure together with servicing and repair of wood…

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics and laterality effects of face inversion, feature presence and configuration, and face outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija eMarinkovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although a crucial role of the fusiform gyrus in face processing has been demonstrated with a variety of methods, converging evidence suggests that face processing involves an interactive and overlapping processing cascade in distributed brain areas. Here we examine the spatio-temporal stages and their functional tuning to face inversion, presence and configuration of inner features, and face contour in healthy subjects during passive viewing. Anatomically-constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG combines high-density whole-head MEG recordings and distributed source modeling with high-resolution structural MRI. Each person's reconstructed cortical surface served to constrain noise-normalized minimum norm inverse source estimates. The earliest activity was estimated to the occipital cortex at ~100 ms after stimulus onset and was sensitive to an initial coarse level visual analysis. Activity in the right-lateralized ventral temporal area (inclusive of the fusiform gyrus peaked at ~160ms and was largest to inverted faces. Images containing facial features in the veridical and rearranged configuration irrespective of the facial outline elicited intermediate level activity. The M160 stage may provide structural representations necessary for downstream distributed areas to process identity and emotional expression. However, inverted faces additionally engaged the left ventral temporal area at ~180 ms and were uniquely subserved by bilateral processing. This observation is consistent with the dual route model and spared processing of inverted faces in prosopagnosia. The subsequent deflection, peaking at ~240ms in the anterior temporal areas bilaterally, was largest to normal, upright faces. It may reflect initial engagement of the distributed network subserving individuation and familiarity. These results support dynamic models suggesting that processing of unfamiliar faces in the absence of a cognitive task is subserved by a distributed and

  4. 37 CFR 351.14 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. 351.14 Section 351.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ROYALTY JUDGES RULES AND PROCEDURES PROCEEDINGS § 351.14 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. (a) Any...

  5. Relationship between funding source and conclusion among nutrition-related scientific articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard I Lesser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial support of biomedical research may bias scientific conclusions, as demonstrated by recent analyses of pharmaceutical studies. However, this issue has not been systematically examined in the area of nutrition research. The purpose of this study is to characterize financial sponsorship of scientific articles addressing the health effects of three commonly consumed beverages, and to determine how sponsorship affects published conclusions.Medline searches of worldwide literature were used to identify three article types (interventional studies, observational studies, and scientific reviews about soft drinks, juice, and milk published between 1 January, 1999 and 31 December, 2003. Financial sponsorship and article conclusions were classified by independent groups of coinvestigators. The relationship between sponsorship and conclusions was explored by exact tests and regression analyses, controlling for covariates. 206 articles were included in the study, of which 111 declared financial sponsorship. Of these, 22% had all industry funding, 47% had no industry funding, and 32% had mixed funding. Funding source was significantly related to conclusions when considering all article types (p = 0.037. For interventional studies, the proportion with unfavorable conclusions was 0% for all industry funding versus 37% for no industry funding (p = 0.009. The odds ratio of a favorable versus unfavorable conclusion was 7.61 (95% confidence interval 1.27 to 45.73, comparing articles with all industry funding to no industry funding.Industry funding of nutrition-related scientific articles may bias conclusions in favor of sponsors' products, with potentially significant implications for public health.

  6. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conclusion of the environmental assessment... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Assessments § 46.325 Conclusion of the environmental assessment process. Upon review of the environmental assessment by the Responsible...

  7. Youth as Content Producers in a Niche Social Network Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Most U.S. teenagers participate in online social network sites, devoting hours to these networks, often at the expense of other leisure-time activities. This article describes young people's activities within one topic-focused niche network, outlining its unique features and the role of young people as content producers within and beyond the…

  8. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  9. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  10. An Outline of the Evolution of Rural Cultural Landscapes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KORELESKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the evolution of rural cultural landscapes in Poland against the background of landscape classification. It defines cultural landscape types and subtypes, based on several criteria of landscape classification, such as: genetic, morphological, functional, and economic. A review of rural landscapes, based on genetic criteria, considers the following historical periods: the primeval community, the feudalism, the manorial system, the industrial revolution, the interwar period of 1918 – 1939, the period of socialist economy, and market economy. The processes that most significantly influenced the contemporary shape of the rural landscape occurred just after the Second World War: urbanization and industrialization, settlement in western and northern territories, as well as structural and spatial transformations that took place after the year 1989 related to the promotion of sustainable and multifunctional development of rural areas.

  11. Leiomyosarcoma of Pulmonary Vein Presenting as Left Atrial Mass: An Outline of Management Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Gukop

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary vein is rare and has poor prognosis. Its clinical features are nonspecific and mimic benign conditions. Early diagnosis is challenging. Most cases have been diagnosed only at autopsy or on postoperative histology specimens. Treatment is essentially palliative complete surgical excision. We outline the principles of management with the case of a 39-year-old man with leiomyosarcoma of the left pulmonary veins extending into the left atrium. Extensive investigation to achieve early diagnosis and determine extent of disease is essential. Frozen section guided adequate excision of all cardiac tumours and resection of involved lung tissue achieve local disease control. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been shown to enhance survival.

  12. Leiomyosarcoma of Pulmonary Vein Presenting as Left Atrial Mass: An Outline of Management Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gukop, Philemon; Frassetto, Guido; Karapanagiotidis, Georgios; Chandrasekaran, Venkatachalam

    2012-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary vein is rare and has poor prognosis. Its clinical features are nonspecific and mimic benign conditions. Early diagnosis is challenging. Most cases have been diagnosed only at autopsy or on postoperative histology specimens. Treatment is essentially palliative complete surgical excision. We outline the principles of management with the case of a 39-year-old man with leiomyosarcoma of the left pulmonary veins extending into the left atrium. Extensive investigation to achieve early diagnosis and determine extent of disease is essential. Frozen section guided adequate excision of all cardiac tumours and resection of involved lung tissue achieve local disease control. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy has been shown to enhance survival. PMID:24804111

  13. The development of an electronic educational portfolio: an outline for medical education professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Baker, Raymond C

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of literature shows that many universities and colleges are making educational portfolios part of their faculty assessment and student's learning plan for both undergraduate and graduate programs. We provide an outline for the development of a medical educator's portfolio, including an electronic version. Guidelines for the development of an educational portfolio focusing on medical education are provided, including design, format, and content. An electronic version of the portfolio, which combines flexibility and ease of revision, is also described, including formats for publication and distribution. Student reflections on the e-portfolio are presented, and potential applications of the e-portfolio in medical education are described. We believe that portfolio development is a valuable application that provides rich documentation of participants' educational history, accomplishments, and intellectual property as related to their professional learning and growth.

  14. Processing strategies for enhanced resistance to impact fracture of thin small-outline packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Min

    2003-10-01

    The cracking potential of TSOPs (thin small-outline packages) was estimated under impact loading, similar to the process that triggers TSOP fracture during the mold ejection process of plastic-encapsulated microelectronic packaging. It was found that the susceptibility of TSOPs to impact-induced damage is more influenced by the existence of residual stresses than surface defects of the die, which result from the wafer back-lapping process. The experimental results showed that diamond particle-induced crater marks, which contribute to introducing residual stresses to particular sites of the die back surface, can be more critical for determining impact strength of TSOPs than grinding-induced scratch marks. The present work also showed that chemical tempering of the back surface of the die is very effective for suppressing such impact-induced damage of TSOPs under very low impact loads.

  15. Historical outline about the undergraduate teaching of astronomy in Brazil from 1808 to 1889.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Videira, Antonio Augusto Passos

    2002-08-01

    In this poster we present the main events occurred in the history of astronomy teaching in undergraduate courses existing in Brazil since the arrival of the Portuguese Royal Family in 1808 until the end of the monarchic period. In order to compose this historic outline, we mainly use didactic books, rules, decrees and laws that organized the contents offered and the careers of those in charge for the discipline. In the analyses of the used material, we searched for the presence of philosophical and scientific assumptions that may have oriented the contents of the disciplines. Comparisons with the teaching of astronomy in other countries haven't been made. We have ended showing that the teaching of astronomy, during the monarchic period, was more directed to forming engineers than astronomers. We would like to observe that the present poster doesn't aim to approach the subject in a complete and detailed way.

  16. Classroom tandem – Outlining a model for language learning and ınstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Karjalaınen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedishmedium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  17. Preliminary Conclusions after the Design and Implementation of Mobile Learning Apps for Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillo, María Dolores; Bárcena, Elena; Pareja-Lora, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    According to a recent research carried out by Aruba Networks (2014) in the US, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Sweden, South Africa, Saudi Arabia and UAE, 86% of all respondents have two or more devices that can connect to the internet, and nearly two thirds (64%) already own three or more mobile devices with this feature; another 39% own four or…

  18. A technique for determination of lung outline and regional lung air volume distribution from computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John; Conway, Joy; Majoral, Caroline; Bennett, Michael; Caillibotte, Georges; Montesantos, Spyridon; Katz, Ira

    2014-02-01

    Determination of the lung outline and regional lung air volume is of value in analysis of three-dimensional (3D) distribution of aerosol deposition from radionuclide imaging. This study describes a technique for using computed tomography (CT) scans for this purpose. Low-resolution CT scans of the thorax were obtained during tidal breathing in 11 healthy control male subjects on two occasions. The 3D outline of the lung was determined by image processing using minimal user interaction. A 3D map of air volume was derived and total lung air volume calculated. The regional distribution of air volume from center to periphery of the lung was analyzed using a radial transform and the outer-to-inner ratio of air volume determined. The average total air volume in the lung was 1,900±126 mL (1 SEM), which is in general agreement with the expected value for adult male subjects in the supine position. The fractional air volume concentration increased from the center toward the periphery of the lung. Outer-to-inner (O/I) ratios were higher for the left lung [11.5±1.8 (1 SD)] than for the right [10.1±0.8 (1 SD)] (plungs from CT images and obtaining an image of the distribution of air volume is described. The normal range of various parameters describing the regional distribution of air volume is presented, together with a measure of intrasubject repeatability. This technique and data will be of value in analyzing 3D radionuclide images of aerosol deposition.

  19. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using networked technologies to support conferences

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, B.; Tonkin, E.; Shabajee, P

    2005-01-01

    The increasing availability of WiFi networks in conference venues is an opportunity to provide additional services for conference delegates and to enhance and enrich the learning experience. This paper reviews experiences of use of networked applications in a conference environment and outlines a number of potentially useful technologies. The paper addresses potential concerns over use of networked technologies including dangers of disruption and distraction, legal and copyright issues as wel...

  1. Trends in Integrated Ship Control Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N.; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1997-01-01

    Integrated Ship Control systems can be designed as robust, distributed, autonomous control systems. The EU funded ATOMOS and ATOMOS II projects involves both technical and non technical aspects of this process. A reference modelling concept giving an outline of a generic ISC system covering...... the network and the equipment connected to it, a framework for verification of network functionality and performance by simulation and a general distribution platform for ISC systems, The ATOMOS Network, are results of this work....

  2. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  3. A Case Study of Facebook Use: Outlining a Multi-Layer Strategy for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Rachel; Petrie, Karen; Zarb, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Many students are looking to appropriate social networking sites, amongst them, Facebook, to enhance their learning experience. A growing body of literature reports on the motivation of students and staff to engage with Facebook as a learning platform as well as mapping such activities to pedagogy and curricula. This paper presents student…

  4. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobs, Jr, David R; Haddad, Ella H; Lanou, Amy Joy; Messina, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current...

  5. Security and privacy preserving in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chbeir, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This volume aims at assessing the current approaches and technologies, as well as to outline the major challenges and future perspectives related to the security and privacy protection of social networks. It provides the reader with an overview of the state-of-the art techniques, studies, and approaches as well as outlining future directions in this field. A wide range of interdisciplinary contributions from various research groups ensures for a balanced and complete perspective.

  6. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance spiromesifen

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State, the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance spiromesifen are reported. The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU) No 188/2011. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of spiromesifen as an insecticide and...

  7. Bandwidth Reservations in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelis, Jelle; Verslype, Dieter; Develder, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In order for service providers to provide their users high quality services in the home network, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning is needed to protect premium services. In this paper, we describe how a Universal Plug-and-Play (UPnP) based home network architecture solves this problem...... in a heterogeneous home network. We outline how it both relieves the end user from troublesome configuration and still offers control to the service provider. We particularly present performance assessment results for UPnP-QoS v3, based on a fully operational experimental implementation. The quantitative measurement...

  8. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  10. Heterogeneidade do desempenho de alunos da Unicamp, do ingresso à conclusão Heterogeneity in the performance of Unicamp students from admission to conclusion of undergraduated studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pimentel Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor uma metodologia para avaliar o desempenho dos alunos da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, do ingresso à conclusão do curso. A amostra é composta por todos os ingressantes dessa universidade nos anos de 1997 a 2000, e a população que corresponde ao universo dos alunos ingressantes em todo o período de existência da universidade. O conjunto de dados disponível foi obtido a partir dos questionários socioculturais, aplicados pela Comissão Permanente de Vestibulares na inscrição do vestibular, e de informações acadêmicas fornecidas pela Diretoria Acadêmica da Universidade. É proposta uma metodologia com base na variável denominada "ganho relativo" sugerida por Dachs e Maia (2006. Essa nova metodologia fundamenta-se em medidas de diversidades propostas por Rao (1982 e na utilização de U-estatísticas. Propõem-se testes de homogeneidade para avaliar se existe diferença no desempenho entre alunos segundo alguns agrupamentos.The aim of this work is to propose a methodology to evaluate the performance of students at Unicamp [São Paulo State University at Campinas] from admission to graduation. The sample consists of all students enrolled in Unicamp from 1997 to 2000, and the population corresponds to the universe of students throughout the existence of the university. The available database was gathered from socio-cultural questionnaires applied by the University Commission on College Entrance Examination at the time of enrollment for the examination ("vestibular" and from academic information provided by the Unicamp Academic Studies Board. A methodology is proposed based on the "relative gain" variable suggested by Dachs and Maia (2006. This new methodology is based on the diversity measures proposed by Rao (1982 and on the use of U-statistics. Homogeneity tests have been proposed to assess whether there is a difference in performance among students from different groups.

  11. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds

  12. Hydro-flattened Elevation Area Outlines for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (Hydro_flattened_water.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of small lakes or ponds within the terrain that were assigned a hydo-flattened elevation during lidar post-processing....

  13. Input Data Boundary Outlines for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (DEM_source_data.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the boundaries of the native input datasets used to construct a seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) was...

  14. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met.

  15. Searching ClinicalTrials.gov did not change the conclusions of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa M; Sharma, Ritu; Dy, Sydney M; Waldfogel, Julie M; Robinson, Karen A

    2017-10-01

    We assessed the effect of searching ClinicalTrials.gov on the conclusions of a systematic review. We conducted this case study concurrently with a systematic review. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov on March 9, 2016, to identify trial records eligible for inclusion in the review. Two independent reviewers screened ClinicalTrials.gov records. We compared conclusions and strength of evidence grade with and without ClinicalTrials.gov records for 31 comparisons and 2 outcomes. We identified 106 trials (53 in the peer-reviewed literature only, 23 in ClinicalTrials.gov only, and 30 in both sources). For one comparison, the addition of results identified through ClinicalTrials.gov reduced the pooled effect size. We found evidence of selective outcome reporting for two comparisons and suspected publication bias for another two comparisons. For all other comparisons, searching ClinicalTrials.gov did not change conclusions or the strength of evidence grading for the two outcomes. Our search of ClinicalTrials.gov bolstered suspicions of reporting biases but did not change either the conclusions or the strength of evidence grading. Further research is needed to determine the effect of searching ClinicalTrials.gov on the conclusions of systematic reviews in different topic areas and as the new rules for registration of trial results take effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-Industry Spatially Localized Innovation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Evseevich Karlik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s objective is to develop conceptual approach to the study of key decision-making factors of cross-industry spatially localized innovation networks regularities by the application of quantitative and qualitative data of St. Petersburg Innovation and Technology Cluster of Machinery Manufacturing and Metalworking. The paper is based on the previous research findings which conclude that such networks have a set of opportunities and constraints for innovation. The hypothesis is that in the clusters, representing a special type of these networks, the spatial proximity partly offsets the negative impact of industrial distance. The authors propose a structural and logical model of strategic decision-making to analyze these effects on innovation. They specify network’s influences on performance: cognitive diversity; knowledge and expertise; structural autonomy and equivalence. The model is applied to spatially localized cross-industry cluster and then improved in accordance with the obtained results for accounting resource flows. It allowed to take into account the dynamics of innovation activity and to develop the practical implications in the particular business context. The analysis identified the peculiarities of spatially localized crossindustry innovation cooperation in perspective of the combinations of tangible resources, information and other intangible resources for the renewal of mature industries. The research results can be used in business as well as in industrial and regional economic policy. In the conclusion, the article outlines future research directions: a comprehensive empirical study with the analysis of data on the factors of cross-industry cooperation which were identified in this paper with testing of causal relations; the developing an approach to the study of spatially localized networks based on the exchange of primary resources in the economic system stability framework.

  17. The grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls: converting philosophical conclusions into policy prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren

    2015-04-01

    This article analyzes a neat conjuring trick employed in bioethics, that is, the immediate conversion of a philosophical conclusion into a policy prescription, and compares it to the "grand leap of the whale up the Niagara Falls" mentioned by Benjamin Franklin. It is shown that there is no simple and easy way to achieve the conversion, by considering arguments falling under four headings: (1) reasonable disagreement about values and theories, (2) general jurisprudential arguments, (3) the differences between policymaking and philosophy, and (4) the messy world of implementation. The particular issue used to illustrate the difficulties in moving from philosophical conclusion to policy description is infanticide of healthy infants, but the analysis is general, and the conclusion that the immediate move to policy is illegitimate is quite general.

  18. How neurons generate behaviour in a hatchling amphibian tadpole: an outline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Roberts

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult nervous systems are so complex that understanding how they produce behaviour remains a real challenge. We chose to study hatchling Xenopus tadpoles where behaviour is controlled by a few thousand neurons but there is a very limited number of types of neuron. Young tadpoles can flex, swim away, adjust their trajectory, speed-up and slow-down, stop when they contact support and struggle when grasped. They are sensitive to touch, pressure, noxious stimuli, light intensity and water currents. Using whole-cell recording has led to rapid progress in understanding central networks controlling behaviour. Our methods are illustrated by an analysis of the flexion reflex to skin touch. We then define the 7 types of neuron that allow the tadpole to swim when the skin is touched and use paired recordings to investigate neuron properties, synaptic connections and activity patterns. Proposals on how the swim network operates are evaluated by experiment and network modelling. We then examine GABAergic inhibitory pathways that control swimming but also produce tonic inhibition to reduce responsiveness when the tadpole is at rest. Finally, we analyse the strong alternating struggling movements the tadpole makes when grasped. We show that the mechanisms for rhythm generation here are very different to those during swimming. Although much remains to be explained, study of this simple vertebrate has uncovered basic principles about the function and organisation of vertebrate nervous systems.

  19. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes–2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N.; Crous, Pedro W.; Kirk, Paul M.; Hawksworth, David L.; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D’souza, Melvina J.; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E. B.Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D.; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S.; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P.; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M.; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N.; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H. A.; Bahkali, Ali H.; Bhat, D. Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G. Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H. C.; Miller, Andrew N.; Phillips, Alan J. L.; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A.; Shivas, Roger S.; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E.; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H. C.; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data. PMID:27284275

  20. Naming and outline of Dothideomycetes-2014 including proposals for the protection or suppression of generic names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardene, Nalin N; Crous, Pedro W; Kirk, Paul M; Hawksworth, David L; Boonmee, Saranyaphat; Braun, Uwe; Dai, Dong-Qin; D'souza, Melvina J; Diederich, Paul; Dissanayake, Asha; Doilom, Mingkhuan; Hongsanan, Singang; Jones, E B Gareth; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Jayawardena, Ruvishika; Lawrey, James D; Liu, Jian-Kui; Lücking, Robert; Madrid, Hugo; Manamgoda, Dimuthu S; Muggia, Lucia; Nelsen, Matthew P; Phookamsak, Rungtiwa; Suetrong, Satinee; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Thambugala, Kasun M; Wanasinghe, Dhanushka N; Wikee, Saowanee; Zhang, Ying; Aptroot, André; Ariyawansa, H A; Bahkali, Ali H; Bhat, D Jayarama; Gueidan, Cécile; Chomnunti, Putarak; De Hoog, G Sybren; Knudsen, Kerry; Li, Wen-Jing; McKenzie, Eric H C; Miller, Andrew N; Phillips, Alan J L; Piątek, Marcin; Raja, Huzefa A; Shivas, Roger S; Slippers, Bernad; Taylor, Joanne E; Tian, Qing; Wang, Yong; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; Cai, Lei; Jaklitsch, Walter M; Hyde, Kevin D

    2014-11-01

    Article 59.1, of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (ICN; Melbourne Code), which addresses the nomenclature of pleomorphic fungi, became effective from 30 July 2011. Since that date, each fungal species can have one nomenclaturally correct name in a particular classification. All other previously used names for this species will be considered as synonyms. The older generic epithet takes priority over the younger name. Any widely used younger names proposed for use, must comply with Art. 57.2 and their usage should be approved by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF). In this paper, we list all genera currently accepted by us in Dothideomycetes (belonging to 23 orders and 110 families), including pleomorphic and nonpleomorphic genera. In the case of pleomorphic genera, we follow the rulings of the current ICN and propose single generic names for future usage. The taxonomic placements of 1261 genera are listed as an outline. Protected names and suppressed names for 34 pleomorphic genera are listed separately. Notes and justifications are provided for possible proposed names after the list of genera. Notes are also provided on recent advances in our understanding of asexual and sexual morph linkages in Dothideomycetes. A phylogenetic tree based on four gene analyses supported 23 orders and 75 families, while 35 families still lack molecular data.

  1. Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri KARJALAINEN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  2. Quantitative Outline-based Shape Analysis and Classification of Planetary Craterforms using Supervised Learning Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Thomas Joseph; Radebaugh, Jani; Christiansen, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The shapes of craterform morphology on planetary surfaces provides rich information about their origins and evolution. While morphologic information provides rich visual clues to geologic processes and properties, the ability to quantitatively communicate this information is less easily accomplished. This study examines the morphology of craterforms using the quantitative outline-based shape methods of geometric morphometrics, commonly used in biology and paleontology. We examine and compare landforms on planetary surfaces using shape, a property of morphology that is invariant to translation, rotation, and size. We quantify the shapes of paterae on Io, martian calderas, terrestrial basaltic shield calderas, terrestrial ash-flow calderas, and lunar impact craters using elliptic Fourier analysis (EFA) and the Zahn and Roskies (Z-R) shape function, or tangent angle approach to produce multivariate shape descriptors. These shape descriptors are subjected to multivariate statistical analysis including canonical variate analysis (CVA), a multiple-comparison variant of discriminant analysis, to investigate the link between craterform shape and classification. Paterae on Io are most similar in shape to terrestrial ash-flow calderas and the shapes of terrestrial basaltic shield volcanoes are most similar to martian calderas. The shapes of lunar impact craters, including simple, transitional, and complex morphology, are classified with a 100% rate of success in all models. Multiple CVA models effectively predict and classify different craterforms using shape-based identification and demonstrate significant potential for use in the analysis of planetary surfaces.

  3. Main Ingredients for Success in L2 Academic Writing: Outlining, Drafting and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students’ writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (un)consciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-)writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading. PMID:26046836

  4. Anatomy in the Third Reich: an outline, part 1. National Socialist politics, anatomical institutions, and anatomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, S

    2009-11-01

    Although it is known that anatomists working in Germany during the Third Reich have used bodies of victims of the National Socialist (NS) regime for dissection and research, a comprehensive history of the anatomy in the Third Reich has not yet been written. Recent studies of the history of German anatomy departments during this time period provide material for a first outline of the subject matter. A historical review can help with the formulation of ethical foundations in modern anatomy. From the outset, the NS regime sought to reorganize German universities according to NS leadership principles and political goals. Many German academics, especially physicians and among them anatomists, followed these intentions with a voluntary "self-alignment" that encompassed their professional actions as well as their ethics. Currently, political information is available for 111 of 178 anatomists. Thirty-eight of the anatomists were dismissed for racial or political reasons, among them 10 chairmen of anatomy, whereas 35 of the anatomists were politically active members of one of the NS organizations. Over 70% of the chairmen of anatomical departments in the time period from 1941 to 1944 were members of NS organizations. Anatomists, as so many other physicians and academics, belonged both, to the group of victims of the regime, i.e., those being dismissed from their positions for racial and political reasons, and to the group of supporters and sometimes active perpetrators of NS policies.

  5. Main Ingredients for Success in L2 Academic Writing: Outlining, Drafting and Proofreading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Munoz-Luna

    Full Text Available Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2 academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others with students' writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (unconsciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading.

  6. Outline of results of safety research (in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The safety research in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation in fiscal year 1996 has been carried out based on the basic plan of safety research (from fiscal year 1996 to 2000) which was decided in March, 1996. In this report, on nuclear fuel cycle field, namely all the subjects in the fields of nuclear fuel facilities, environmental radioactivity and waste disposal, and the subjects related to nuclear fuel facilities among the fields of aseismatic and probabilistic safety assessments, the results of research in fiscal year 1996, the first year of the 5-year project, are summarized together with the outline of the basic plan of safety research. The basic policy, objective and system for promotion of the safety research are described. The objectives of the safety research are the advancement of safety technology, the safety of facilities, stable operation techniques, the safety design and the evaluation techniques of next generation facilities, and the support of transferring nuclear fuel cycle to private businesses. The objects of the research are uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, and waste treatment and storage. 52 investigation papers of the results of the safety research in nuclear fuel cycle field in fiscal year 1996 are collected in this report. (K.I.)

  7. Linguistic research in the empirical paradigm as outlined by Mario Bunge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    In view of the critique of the methodology of the dominant interdisciplinary research involving language studies as the main component, in particular clinical linguistics, Cummings (Pragmatic disorders. Perspectives in pragmatics, philosophy and psychology, vol 3. Springer, Dordrecht, 2014) proposes that "It is perhaps appropriate at this point to move the debate onto non-empirical grounds." In Cummings (2014: 113) she starts such a debate on the grounds of the philosophy of language and pragmatics. In this article, I propose to expand that debate by including the input of the philosophy of science. I start the discussion by presenting the way one may carry out language research in the paradigm of empirical sciences from the perspective outlined in Bunge (Scientific research. Strategy and philosophy. Berlin, Springer, 1967; Method, model and matter (synthese library). D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, 1973; Emergence and convergence: qualitative novelty and the unity of knowledge. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2003) and constrained by Altmann's (Towards a theory of language. Glottometrica 1:1-25, 1978) assumption about self-originating and self-regulatory nature of language.

  8. [Outline of the revision of ISO 15189 and accreditation of medical laboratory for specified health checkup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubono, Katsuo

    2007-11-01

    GOAL which accredited medical laboratory aims at is to continue "offering useful laboratory's service for patient medicine and treatment or the health of the nation". The medical laboratory, administers a quality management system, is competent technically and offers laboratory's service to satisfy the needs of all patients and clinicians taking responsibility for the medical testing and treatment. International standard ISO 15189 is a tool to embody thought of its basic quality and scientific grounds about the test result, and it was published in 2003. A revision for one part was considered to be it, and it was published afterwards for ISO 15189: 2,007 in this April. On the other hand, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare announced that all insurance members from 40 years old to 74 years old must have a checkup by the specified health checkup that paid its attention to visceral fat type obesity from April, 2008. And, in a standard health checkup program, it is shown that it strengthens the quality assurance management of laboratory carrying out medical testing. ISO 15189 which prescribed quality and competence of medical laboratory is an excellent standard, and it is hoped that it can offer high quality medical testing data with using quality management system. Here, I explain both outline of revised ISO 15189 and accreditation of the medical laboratory for specified health checkup using with this standard.

  9. Developing an outline for teleneurology curriculum: AAN Telemedicine Work Group recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Raghav; Anderson, Eric R; Hesselbrock, Roger R; Madhavan, Ramesh; Moo, Lauren R; Mowzoon, Nima; Otis, James; Rubin, Mark N; Soni, Madhu; Tsao, Jack W; Vota, Scott; Planalp, Hannah

    2017-08-29

    The emerging field of teleneurology is delivering quality care to neurologic patients in increasingly numerous technologies and configurations. Teleneurology is well-positioned to address many of the logistical issues neurologists and their patients encounter today. However, formalized medical training has not caught up with this developing field, and there is a lack of formal education concentrating on the specific opportunities and challenges of teleneurology. Considering this, the American Academy of Neurology Telemedicine Work Group identified equivalencies with which any practitioner of teleneurology should be familiar. The purpose of this curriculum is not to define teleneurology or mandate where its use is appropriate, but rather to provide guidance on basic equivalencies that students, residents, and practitioners should know while practicing teleneurology. Comprehensive training in clinical bedside neurology is necessary to safely practice teleneurology and the components of this curriculum are an extension of that training. In this article, we offer a detailed discussion on the rationale for the contents of this curriculum and conclude by providing a model curriculum and an outline for evaluating residents in teleneurology. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Main Ingredients for Success in L2 Academic Writing: Outlining, Drafting and Proofreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students' writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergraduates of English Studies; they are in their fourth year, so they are expected to be proficient in English academic writing but their written production quality varies considerably. Results are analysed following a mixed methodology by which metalinguistic items are statistically measured, and then contrasted with semi-structured interview results; SPSS and NVivo provide quantitative and qualitative outcomes, respectively. The analyses reveal that undergraduate students who produce complex sentences and more coherent texts employ a wider range of writing strategies both prior and while writing, being able to (un)consciously structure and design their texts more successfully. These high-scoring students make more proficient use of complex transition markers for coherence and frame markers for textual cohesion; their commonly used (pre-)writing strategies are drafting, outlining, and proofreading.

  11. Education or degeneration: E. Ray Lankester, H. G. Wells and the outline of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Richard

    2006-06-01

    This paper uses the friendship and collaboration of Edwin Ray Lankester (1847-1929), zoologist, and Herbert George Wells (1866-1946), novelist and journalist, to challenge the current interpretation of late Victorian concern over degeneration as essentially an intellectual movement with little influence in contemporary debates over social and political problems. Degeneration theory provided for Lankester and Wells the basis both for a personal bond and for an active programme of social and educational reform. I trace the construction of Lankester's account of degeneration, initially as empirical 'fact' and later as ideologically inflected theory, and the reciprocal relationship between this theory and his critique of the British university system. I use Wells's Outline of history (1920) to illustrate the profound influence of Lankester's degenerationist worldview on Wells's scientific and socio-political thought. Lankester's synthesis of his theory and his critique led the two men to reject eugenics as an unscientific and ideologically incompatible solution to the problem of national deterioration. Instead, they campaigned for the reform of scientific education as a means of keeping mankind from physical, intellectual and cultural degeneration.

  12. Outlines of the PBL Working programme 2012; Hoofdlijnen PBL Werkprogramma 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    In this note, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) sketches the outlines of its working programme for 2012. With the intended research in this working programme, PBL aims to contribute to scientific substantiation and evaluation of the Dutch cabinet's policy in a wide range of areas: environment, mobility, space, living, energy, water, food provision, nature, international collaboration, declining population, administrative reforms and international competitive position. The PBL study is aligned to three (of the six) governmental strategic knowledge themes that have been selected for this administrative period, i.e. Dealing with scarcity of resources and space; (2) the competitive position of the Netherlands; (3) Towards a new division of responsibilities among the state and society and a new balance between rights and obligations [Dutch] Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) schetst in deze notitie de hoofdlijnen van zijn werkprogramma voor 2012. Met het voorgenomen onderzoek in dit werkprogramma wil het PBL bijdragen aan wetenschappelijke onderbouwing en evaluatie van het kabinetsbeleid op een breed scala aan terreinen: milieu, mobiliteit, ruimte, wonen, energie, water, voedselvoorziening, natuur, internationale samenwerking, bevolkingskrimp, decentralisatie, bestuurlijke vernieuwing en internationale concurrentiepositie. PBL-onderzoek sluit aan bij drie (van de zes) rijksbrede strategische kennisthema's die zijn gekozen voor deze kabinetsperiode, te weten: (1) Omgaan met schaarste aan ruimte en grondstoffen; (2) Het concurrentievermogen van Nederland; (3) Naar een nieuwe verantwoordelijkheidsverdeling tussen staat en samenleving en een nieuwe balans tussen rechten en plichten.

  13. Do 45% of College Students Lack Critical Thinking Skills? Revisiting a Central Conclusion of "Academically Adrift"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, David; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    The educational literature, the popular press, and educated laypeople have all echoed a conclusion from the book "Academically Adrift" by Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa (which has now become received wisdom), namely, that 45% of college students showed no significant gains in critical thinking skills. Similar results were reported by…

  14. 20 CFR 410.471 - Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or death. 410.471 Section 410.471 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.471 Conclusion by physician regarding miner's disability or death. The...

  15. 20 CFR 404.803 - Conclusiveness of the record of your earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the amounts of your earnings and the periods in which they were received. (b) Before time limit ends. Before the time limit ends for a year, SSA records are evidence, but not conclusive evidence, of the amounts and periods of your earnings in that year. (c) After time limit ends. After the time limit ends...

  16. Conclusions and recommendations. [for problems in energy situation, air transportation, and hydrogen fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Conclusions and recommendations are presented for an analysis of the total energy situation; the effect of the energy problem on air transportation; and hydrogen fuel for aircraft. Properties and production costs of fuels, future prediction for energy and transportation, and economic aspects of hydrogen production are appended.

  17. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  18. The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka; Jaarsma, Thomas; Dewhurst, Richard; Boshuizen, Els

    2013-01-01

    Jarodzka, H., Jaarsma, T., Dewhurst, R., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, October). The medical eye: Conclusions from eye tracking research on expertise development in medicine. Paper presented at the New tools and practices for seeing and learning in medicine ’12, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

  19. Oklo: The fossil nuclear reactors. Physics study - Translation of chapters 6, 13 and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudet, R. [CEA, Paris (France)

    1996-09-01

    Three parts of the 1991 book `Oklo: reacteurs nucleaires fossiles. Etude physique` have been translated in this report. The chapters bear the titles `Study of criticality`(45 p.), `Some problems with the overall functioning of the reactor zones`(45 p.) and `Conclusions` (15 p.), respectively.

  20. Issues in the Conceptualisation and Measurement of Socioeconomic Background: Do Different Measures Generate Different Conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary Neil

    2011-01-01

    Parental occupation and education are used extensively in the analysis of socioeconomic inequalities in education and subsequent social and economic outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to examine if different ways of measuring socioeconomic background substantially alter substantive conclusions on cross-national differences in socioeconomic…

  1. Investing in updating: how do conclusions change when Cochrane systematic reviews are updated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Joanne E

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cochrane systematic reviews aim to provide readers with the most up-to-date evidence on the effects of healthcare interventions. The policy of updating Cochrane reviews every two years consumes valuable time and resources and may not be appropriate for all reviews. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of updating Cochrane systematic reviews over a four year period. Methods This descriptive study examined all completed systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR Issue 2, 1998. The latest version of each of these reviews was then identified in CDSR Issue 2, 2002 and changes in the review were described. For reviews that were updated within this time period and had additional studies, we determined whether their conclusion had changed and if there were factors that were predictive of this change. Results A total of 377 complete reviews were published in CDSR Issue 2, 1998. In Issue 2, 2002, 14 of these reviews were withdrawn and one was split, leaving 362 reviews to examine for the purpose of this study. Of these reviews, 254 (70% were updated. Of these updated reviews, 23 (9% had a change in conclusion. Both an increase in precision and a change in statistical significance of the primary outcome were predictive of a change in conclusion of the review. Conclusion The concerns around a lack of updating for some reviews may not be justified considering the small proportion of updated reviews that resulted in a changed conclusion. A priority-setting approach to the updating of Cochrane systematic reviews may be more appropriate than a time-based approach. Updating all reviews as frequently as every two years may not be necessary, however some reviews may need to be updated more often than every two years.

  2. The implementation of a standards based heterogeneous network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, J.M.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1991-08-05

    Computer networks, supporting an organization's activities, are prevalent and very important to the organization's mission. Implementing a heterogenous organizational network allows the staff to select the computing environment that best supports their job requirements. This paper outlines the lessons learned implementing a heterogenous computer network based on networking standards such as TCP/IP and Ethernet. Such a network is a viable alternative to a proprietary, vendor supported network and can provide all the functionality customers expect in a computer network. 2 figs.

  3. Association of trial registration with the results and conclusions of published trials of new oncology drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Registration of clinical trials has been introduced largely to reduce bias toward statistically significant results in the trial literature. Doubts remain about whether advance registration alone is an adequate measure to reduce selective publication, selective outcome reporting, and biased design. One of the first areas of medicine in which registration was widely adopted was oncology, although the bulk of registered oncology trials remain unpublished. The net influence of registration on the literature remains untested. This study compares the prevalence of favorable results and conclusions among published reports of registered and unregistered randomized controlled trials of new oncology drugs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of published original research articles reporting clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of drugs newly approved for antimalignancy indications by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA from 2000 through 2005. Drugs receiving first-time approval for indications in oncology were identified using the FDA web site and Thomson Centerwatch. Relevant trial reports were identified using PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Evidence of advance trial registration was obtained by a search of clinicaltrials.gov, WHO, ISRCTN, NCI-PDQ trial databases and corporate trial registries, as well as articles themselves. Data on blinding, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted independently by two coders. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified associations between favorable results and conclusions and independent variables including advance registration, study design characteristics, and industry sponsorship. Results Of 137 original research reports from 115 distinct randomized trials assessing 25 newly approved drugs for treating cancer, the 54 publications describing data from trials registered prior to publication were as likely to report

  4. Investigation research of core-basic information associated with the coupling analysis. Outline report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ishihara, Yoshinao [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kawahara, Kenichi; Neyama, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The newest literature information in the foreign countries was researched, and this research showed the basic concept of the coupling analysis code to realize coupling analysis in near field of the geological disposal system. The outline of this research is shown in the following. (1) The combination of M (Mechanical) and C (Chemistry) is placed on the weak relations, because coupling analysis of the United States Yucca Mountain limits a site and the specifications of engineered barrier. (2) One of the purposes of this research is information collecting about coupling analysis code NUFT-C adopted in the United States Yucca Mountain. Therefore, we carried out an information exchange with the United States Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We could collect the development purpose of analysis code, key function, and information such as a test case analysis. (3) The investigation of the analysis code concerned with the newest information of coupling analysis which contains the geochemistry process and 2 phase system was done based on the public information for the purpose of building some concept of the coupling analysis code, the extraction of the development issues. It could be understood about the future development strategy and the precaution in addition to a phenomenon to deal with, the current status of the coupling analysis technique as a result of the investigation. (4) It was cleared about the mission of the coupling analysis code and the requirement items (function, quality) by this research. Then, some development options were presented. (5) It was studied about the procedure of developing it to satisfy the above requirement toward the conditions that a site isn't selected, the short development. The tool (Diffpack) which could cope with the speed-up of the calculation time and visualization flexibly was effective, and it was summarized about the test case by using this tool, the key function of this tool as that result. (author)

  5. The outline report of advanced basic engineering research in the fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The JNC has initiated the cooperation with universities and research institutes for advanced basic engineering on 1995. The number of research cooperation theme is increasing and satisfactorily improving in the forth year, 1998. The objective of this program is to promote the advanced basic engineering research with universities and research institutes in relation with the JNC's projects. The facilities and equipment of the JNC are mainly provided to the cooperation. The JNC has settled the research cooperation themes. The universities and research institute have applied to the themes with their issues, working plans and personnel. The JNC has selected the issues and personnel, and put into practice the cooperation with accepting guest staffs and/or research fellows from the universities. This report summarizes the results of the advanced basic engineering research cooperation executed in the fiscal year, 1998. The total number of issues is 34 for the 29 themes; those are categorized in to two groups. The one is related to the fast breeder reactor technologies and the other is on the environmental technologies. The 12 issues are finished in the fiscal year, 1998, in which the 9 issues are for the fast breeder reactor technologies and the 3 issues are for the environmental technologies. The themes/the issues, the host group, host key persons, university side key persons, a form of cooperation are summarized in the tables. The summary reports of research activities by the all cooperators are presented under the particular format. Those describe the total schedule, a form of cooperation, the research objective, the outline of research contents, main facilities for using, research status, research results, future schedules and bibliographies relevant to the research cooperation. The 25 tables and 158 figures are included. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in prediction of pediatric coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Atahar; Sankhyan, Naveen; Jayashree, Murlidharan; Singhi, Sunit; Singhi, Pratibha

    2017-01-01

    This study was done to compare the admission Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) as predictors of outcome in children with impaired consciousness. In this observational study, children (5-12 years) with impaired consciousness of <7 days were included. Children with traumatic brain injury, on sedatives or neuromuscular blockade; with pre-existing cerebral palsy, mental retardation, degenerative brain disease, vision/hearing impairment; and seizure within last 1 hour were excluded. Primary outcomes: comparison of area under curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes: comparison of AUC of ROC curve for mortality and poor outcome on Pediatric Overall Performance Category Scale at 3 months. Of the 63 children, 20 died during hospital stay. AUC for in-hospital mortality for GCS was 0.83 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) and FOUR score was 0.8 (CI 0.7 to 0.9) [difference between areas -0.0250 (95%CI 0.0192 to 0.0692), Z statistic 1.109, P=0.2674]. AUC for mortality at 3 months for GCS was 0.78 (CI 0.67 to 0.90) and FOUR score was 0.74 (CI 0.62 to 0.87) (P=0.1102) and AUC for poor functional outcome for GCS was 0.82 (CI 0.72 to 0.93) and FOUR score was 0.79 (CI 0.68 to 0.9) (P=0.2377), which were also comparable. Inter-rater reliability for GCS was 0.96 and for FOUR score 0.98. FOUR score was as good as GCS in prediction of in-hospital and 3-month mortality and functional outcome at 3 months. FOUR score had a good inter-rater reliability.

  7. 1000kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. Outline of the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinobe, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hideo

    1988-02-10

    The outline of the 1000KW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant, developed as part of the Moonlight plan, was described. The plant was composed of 4 stacks of 260KW DC output. They were devided into two train with 680V and 765A. The generation efficiency of the plant was 40% and more. Steam reforming of natural gas was used. As the fuel, fuel cell exhaust gas was used in composition with the natural gas. The DC-AC inverter had an efficiency of 96%. The capacity of hot water generator and demineralized water plant for cell cooling were 2t/h and 1.6t/h, respectively, and air-system was incorporated. In September of 1987, the plant has succeeded in 1000KW power generation, and put in operation now. Under the 100% loaded condition, each cell had a voltage of 0.7V with little variation, and the current was 200mA/cm/sup 2/. No problems were found in cooling conditions and in the control of interpole differential pressure. The reformer has been operated for 1200h scince its commisioning, and had experiences of 100 times on start up-shut down operations, the reformer also indicated good performances in the gas compositions. The starting time of 8h and the load follow-up rate 10%/min remain as the subjects for shortening. DC-AC conversion was good. The concentration of NOx and the noise level satisfied the target values. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  8. USING VARIOUS VISUALIZATION TECHNIQUES TO OUTLINE VULNERABILITY TO DROUGHT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANṬA BORONEANṬ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using visualization techniques to outline vulnerability to drought in the Republic of Moldova. This paper is a demonstration of use of various visualization techniques in representing the results on vulnerability to drought at various times scales in the Republic of Moldova. Monthly precipitation totals from simulated data at 10 km horizontal resolution with a regional climatic model RegCM, CRU TS2.10 land observation data set at 0.5ºx0.5º horizontal resolution and observations recorded at 15 meteorological stations in Moldova were used to compare the annual cycle of precipitation, seasonal variability of precipitation, and the spatial and temporal evolution of drought. The Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF analysis was used to identify the principal modes of seasonal variability of precipitation over the country and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI was calculated as an indicator of drought or wetness at various time scales (1 to 24 months. The period of analysis was 1960-1997. One of the visualization techniques was the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS which is an easy manipulation and visualization tool for gridded and station meteorological data. We used it to represent the RegCM and CRU data on their grids. The kriging interpolation with a Gaussian model variance was selected as a suitable interpolation tool for the spatial distribution of the SPI and EOF over Moldova. For temporal diagram and mapping, Golden Software Surfer 9.0 and ArcGis Software 9.1 were used. The results presented with these visualization tools emphasize precipitation and drought characteristics over Moldova domain.

  9. Osservazioni conclusive. (The European Monetary System: the first two years – concluding remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. TRIFFIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L' esperienze con il Sistema monetario europeo durante i primi due anni è stata oggetto del quarto e ultimo seminario in una serie organizzata da Robert Triffin sotto una sovvenzione della Fondazione Ford. Mentre i primi tre seminari sono stati in gran parte in avanti alla ricerca, lo scopo principale del seminario finale è stato quello di valutare come la SME doveva effettivamente funzionare. Nelle sue osservazioni conclusive al seminario, Robert Triffin offre alcune brevi conclusioni personali.The experiences with the European Monetary System during its first two years was the subject of the fourth and final seminar in a series organised by Robert Triffin under a grant from the Ford Foundation. While the first three seminars had been largely forward looking, the main purpose of the final seminar was to evaluate how the EMS had actually work. In his concluding remarks to the seminar, Robert Triffin offers some brief personal conclusions.JEL: E42, F36

  10. View of Mission Control Center celebrating conclusion of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet in the Pacific recovery area (40301); NASA and MSC Officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Offic of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ (40302).

  11. Surveys on attitudes to active euthanasia and the difficulty of drawing normative conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilstun, T; Melltorp, G; Hermerén, G

    2000-06-01

    To present surveys on active euthanasia and to discuss what normative conclusions can be drawn. Two summary articles and 30 recent surveys on attitudes to active euthanasia are discussed. According to the first summary article, acceptance of active euthanasia among the public has stabilized around 65%; according to the second, almost 60% of physicians are in favour of legalizing active euthanasia. As for the 30 recent surveys, physicians are most often respondents. while the general public is surveyed in only three. The differences in attitudes are striking: 21-78% answered that active euthanasia should be legalized, and 14-51% rejected this idea. The core of the general problem of drawing normative conclusions from empirical data is first addressed; then we discuss the principles of autonomy and beneficence, which are often referred to in arguments for and against euthanasia.

  12. Investing in updating: how do conclusions change when Cochrane systematic reviews are updated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon D; McDonald, Steve; McKenzie, Joanne E; Green, Sally E

    2005-10-14

    Cochrane systematic reviews aim to provide readers with the most up-to-date evidence on the effects of healthcare interventions. The policy of updating Cochrane reviews every two years consumes valuable time and resources and may not be appropriate for all reviews. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of updating Cochrane systematic reviews over a four year period. This descriptive study examined all completed systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) Issue 2, 1998. The latest version of each of these reviews was then identified in CDSR Issue 2, 2002 and changes in the review were described. For reviews that were updated within this time period and had additional studies, we determined whether their conclusion had changed and if there were factors that were predictive of this change. A total of 377 complete reviews were published in CDSR Issue 2, 1998. In Issue 2, 2002, 14 of these reviews were withdrawn and one was split, leaving 362 reviews to examine for the purpose of this study. Of these reviews, 254 (70%) were updated. Of these updated reviews, 23 (9%) had a change in conclusion. Both an increase in precision and a change in statistical significance of the primary outcome were predictive of a change in conclusion of the review. The concerns around a lack of updating for some reviews may not be justified considering the small proportion of updated reviews that resulted in a changed conclusion. A priority-setting approach to the updating of Cochrane systematic reviews may be more appropriate than a time-based approach. Updating all reviews as frequently as every two years may not be necessary, however some reviews may need to be updated more often than every two years.

  13. Height and body mass influence on human body outlines: a quantitative approach using an elliptic Fourier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Ferdy, Jean Baptiste; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel; Claude, Julien

    2010-05-01

    Many studies use representations of human body outlines to study how individual characteristics, such as height and body mass, affect perception of body shape. These typically involve reality-based stimuli (e.g., pictures) or manipulated stimuli (e.g., drawings). These two classes of stimuli have important drawbacks that limit result interpretations. Realistic stimuli vary in terms of traits that are correlated, which makes it impossible to assess the effect of a single trait independently. In addition, manipulated stimuli usually do not represent realistic morphologies. We describe and examine a method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to automatically predict and represent body outlines for a given set of predicted variables (e.g., sex, height, and body mass). We first estimate whether these predictive variables are significantly related to human outlines. We find that height and body mass significantly influence body shape. Unlike height, the effect of body mass on shape differs between sexes. Then, we show that we can easily build a regression model that creates hypothetical outlines for an arbitrary set of covariates. These statistically computed outlines are quite realistic and may be used as stimuli in future studies.

  14. One metric does not tell the whole story of scientific production. III. Management and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ-VILLAVICENCIO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are different strategies for scientific publication that can be addressed from the perspective of management, ahead of the assessment by national agencies. Rising of alternative metrics, services and suppliers. Method: Narrative review. Results: the characteristic features of the evaluation criteria of scientific publications by Spanish agencies evaluation are presented and described altmetrics services. Conclusions: The need for national evaluation systems of scientific production to avoid the current bias and ignorance of the publishing sector which suffer WoS and Scopus arises. And also the need for other altmetric systems, complementary to traditional, to expand the type of scientific products and evaluate the scientific social impact.

  15. The value of qualitative conclusions for the interpretation of Super Soft Source grating spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J.

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution (grating) X-ray spectra of Super Soft Sources (SSS) contain a large amount of information. Main-stream interpretation approaches apply radiation transport models that, if uniquely constrained by the data, would provide information about temperature and mass of the underlying white dwarf and chemical composition of the ejecta. The complexity of the grating spectra has so far prohibited unique conclusions because realistic effects such as inhomogeneous density distribution, asymmetric ejecta, expansion etc open up an almost infinite number of dimensions to the problem. Further development of models are with no doubt needed, but unbiased inspection of the observed spectra is needed to narrow down where new developments are needed. In this presentation I illustrate how much we can already conclude without any models and remind of the value of qualitative conclusions. I show examples of past and recent observations and how comparisons with other observations help us to reveal common mechanisms. Albeit the high degree of complexity, some astonishing similarities between very different systems are found which can tailor the development of new models.

  16. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linhai; Fu, Bojie; Zhu, Huoxing; Wang, Cong; Jiao, Lei; Zhou, Ji

    2017-06-16

    Although trait choice is crucial to quantify functional diversity appropriately, the quantitative methods for it are rarely compared and discussed. Meanwhile, very little is known about how trait choice affects ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. We presented the four methods of trait selection as alternatives to the ordination axis-based method, which directly identify a subset of key traits to represent the main variation of all the traits. To evaluate their performance, we compared the closeness of association obtained by different methods between species richness and functional diversity indices (FAD, FD, Q, FDis) in the six ecosystems. The evaluation was also benchmarked against the results obtained by calculating the possible indices using all the trait combinations (the complete search method). We found that the trait selection methods were potential alternatives to axis-based method to gain a mechanistic understanding of functional responses and effects of traits, while these methods as well as the axis-based method possibly use mismatched information to interpret the investigated ecosystem properties. Trait choice profoundly affected the ecological conclusions drawn from functional diversity measures. The complete search method should be used to assess the rationale of different trait choice methods and the quality of the calculated indices.

  17. A case study in explanatory power: John Snow's conclusions about the pathology and transmission of cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Dana

    2011-09-01

    In the mid-1800s, there was much debate about the origin or 'exciting cause' of cholera. Despite much confusion surrounding the disease, the so-called miasma theory emerged as the prevalent account about cholera's cause. Going against this mainstream view, the British physician John Snow inferred several things about cholera's origin and pathology that no one else inferred. Without observing the vibrio cholerae, however,-data unavailable to Snow and his colleagues-, there was no way of settling the question of what exactly was causing cholera and how, or if, it was passed on. The question then arises as to how Snow arrived at conclusions so systematically different from those of his opponents. In this paper, I want to look at Snow's reasoning in some detail, and show that there were certain principles, explanatory power in particular, that were epistemologically important to Snow in their own right. I will show that Snow himself takes explanatory power to be an epistemic property, and makes explicit links between explanatory power and confirmation. Systematically juxtaposing Snow's claims and his opponents', I will show that Snow was right to tout the explanatory power of his theory, and that his conclusions about the epistemic superiority of his theory over that of the miasmatists' were justified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Malnutrition and human function: a comparison of conclusions from the INCAP and nutrition CRSP studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L H

    1995-04-01

    The overall objective of both the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) studies and the Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program (CRSP) was to determine if marginal malnutrition affects human function. The conclusions from the two studies were consistent, notably that growth stunting occurs early in life and is accompanied by functional impairments. These consequences of early malnutrition persist later in life. The comparison of INCAP and Nutrition CRSP results also illustrates that the Guatemalan children were more malnourished and stunted than those in Kenya, Mexico or Egypt and that this greater degree of stunting occurs before 18 months of age. Even the Atole did not bring the average size of supplemented children in Guatemala up to those of the unsupplemented children in the CRSP populations. It is also likely that their functional potential was not realized fully by supplementation. The CRSP studies provide evidence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies associated with poor growth and function and it is probable that these associations exist in Guatemala as well. The overall conclusion is that our attention should be directed to determining the adequacy of micronutrient status in the perinatal period and to the development of approaches that prevent early growth failure.

  19. Comparative analysis of sustainable consumption and production in Visegrad region - conclusions for textile and clothing sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszewska, M.; Militki, J.; Mizsey, P.; Benda-Prokeinova, R.

    2017-10-01

    Gradual environmental degradation, shrinking of non-renewable resources, and lower quality of life are directly or indirectly arising from snowballing consumption. These unfavorable processes concern increasingly textile and clothing sector and are increasingly being felt in Visegrad Region (V4). The objective of the article was to access current consumption patterns in V4 countries, identify the factors that influence those patterns and finally to draw the conclusions for more sustainable consumption and production models as well as to make a comparative analysis of the results across V4 countries. A consumer survey was conducted to examine V4 citizens’ attitudes and behaviors in the context of sustainable consumption. To ensure sample size and comparability across countries 2000 randomly-selected V4 citizens, aged 18 and over, were interviewed. To analyze the supply side of the market and legal framework, the desk research was used. The results allowed to give some guidelines for the joint V4 strategy for solving ecological and social problems of V4 countries as well as the conclusions for textile and clothing sector.

  20. Photonic network-on-chip design

    CERN Document Server

    Bergman, Keren; Biberman, Aleksandr; Chan, Johnnie; Hendry, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive synthesis of the theory and practice of photonic devices for networks-on-chip. It outlines the issues in designing photonic network-on-chip architectures for future many-core high performance chip multiprocessors. The discussion is built from the bottom up: starting with the design and implementation of key photonic devices and building blocks, reviewing networking and network-on-chip theory and existing research, and finishing with describing various architectures, their characteristics, and the impact they will have on a computing system. After acquainting

  1. Brokerage and governance for business networks:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the functioning of network brokers from a governance perspective on inter-firm business networks. As a stylized fact, inter-firm business networks offer benefits to firms, but are at the same time associated with major risks and conflicts that should be managed through adequate...... an integrative conceptual framework that outlines points of departure for implementing brokers as “bridge-builders” for the governance of inter-firm business networks. The framework pays particular attention to the process of brokerage and, in doing so, focuses on three inter-related elements: the factors...

  2. Power consumption optimization strategy for wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Kumar, Sanjay; Marchetti, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the optimization of the total power utilization in a communication network. The utility function used in this paper aims for the maximization of joint network capacity in an interference limited environment. This paper outlines the various approaches currently being used...... in order to reduce the total power consumption in a multi cellular network. We present an algorithm for power optimization under no interference and in presence of interference conditions, targeting to maximize the network capacity. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed if the interference...

  3. Principles of network and system administration

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A practical guide for meeting the challenges of planning and designing a networkNetwork design has to be logical and efficient, decisions have to be made about what services are needed, and security concerns must be addressed. Focusing on general principles, this book will help make the process of setting up, configuring, and maintaining a network much easier. It outlines proven procedures for working in a global community of networked machines, and provides practical illustrations of technical specifics. Readers will also find broad coverage of Linux and other Unix versions, Windows(r), Macs,

  4. Network operating system focus technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    An activity structured to provide specific design requirements and specifications for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS) Network Operating System (NOS) is outlined. Examples are given of the types of supporting studies and implementation tasks presently underway to realize a DMS test bed capability to develop hands-on understanding of NOS requirements as driven by actual subsystem test beds participating in the overall Johnson Space Center test bed program. Classical operating system elements and principal NOS functions are listed.

  5. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  6. Conclusive evidence of abrupt coagulation inside the void during cyclic nanoparticle formation in reactive plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Nijdam, S.; Beckers, J. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-07-25

    In this letter, we present scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results that confirm in a direct way our earlier explanation of an abrupt coagulation event as the cause for the void hiccup. In a recent paper, we reported on the fast and interrupted expansion of voids in a reactive dusty argon–acetylene plasma. The voids appeared one after the other, each showing a peculiar, though reproducible, behavior of successive periods of fast expansion, abrupt contraction, and continued expansion. The abrupt contraction was termed “hiccup” and was related to collective coagulation of a new generation of nanoparticles growing in the void using relatively indirect methods: electron density measurements and optical emission spectroscopy. In this letter, we present conclusive evidence using SEM of particles collected at different moments in time spanning several growth cycles, which enables us to follow the nanoparticle formation process in great detail.

  7. Space debris removal by ground-based lasers: main conclusions of the European project CLEANSPACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmiller, Bruno; Jacquelard, Christophe; Eckel, Hans-Albert; Wnuk, Edwin

    2014-11-01

    Studies show that the number of debris in low Earth orbit is exponentially growing despite future debris release mitigation measures considered. Specifically, the already existing population of small and medium debris (between 1 cm and several dozens of cm) is today a concrete threat to operational satellites. A ground-based laser solution which can remove, at low expense and in a nondestructive way, hazardous debris around selected space assets appears as a highly promising answer. This solution is studied within the framework of the CLEANSPACE project which is part of the FP7 space program. The overall CLEANSPACE objective is: to propose an efficient and affordable global system architecture, to tackle safety regulation aspects, political implications and future collaborations, to develop affordable technological bricks, and to establish a roadmap for the development and the future implantation of a fully functional laser protection system. This paper will present the main conclusions of the CLEANSPACE project.

  8. On the possible physical mechanism of Chernobyl catastrophe and the unsoundness of official conclusion

    CERN Document Server

    Rukhadze, A A; Filippov, D V

    2003-01-01

    The official conclusion about the origin and mechanism of the Chernobyl catastrophe is shown to essentially contradict experimental facts available from the accident. In the frame of existing physical models of nuclear fission reactor, it is shown analytically that under conditions of the accident the period of runaway of reactor at the fourth power generating unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) should be either 10 times slower or 100 times faster than that observed. A self-consistent hypothesis is suggested for the probable birth of magnetic charges, during the turbine generator test under it's own momentum test, at the fourth power generating unit of CNPP, and for the impact of these charges on the reactivity coefficient.

  9. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined.

  10. Gasification of waste. Summary and conclusions of twenty-five years of development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensfelt, Erik [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Oestman, Anders [Kemiinformation AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    An overview of nearly thirty years development of waste gasification and pyrolysis technology is given, and some major general conclusions are drawn. The aim has been to give new developers an overview of earlier major attempts to treat MSW/RDF with thermochemical processes, gasification or pyrolysis. Research work in general is not covered, only R and D efforts that have led to substantial testing in pilot scale or demonstration. For further details, especially related to ongoing R and D, readers are referred to other recent reviews. The authors' view is that gasification of RDF with appropriate gas cleaning can play an important role in the future, for environmentally acceptable and efficient energy production. A prerequisite is that some of the major mistakes can be avoided, such as: (1) too rapid scale-up without experimental base, (2) unsuitable pretreatment of MSW to RDF and poor integration with material recycling, and (3) too limited gas/flue gas cleaning.

  11. No Conclusive Evidence for Transits of Proxima b in MOST Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.; Cameron, Chris; Hartman, Joel D.; Davenport, James R. A.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Rowe, Jason; Siverd, Robert J.; Chen, Jingjing; Sandford, Emily; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Jordán, Andrés; Bayliss, Daniel; Henning, Thomas; Mancini, Luigi; Penev, Kaloyan; Csubry, Zoltan; Bhatti, Waqas; Da Silva Bento, Joao; Guenther, David B.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Weiss, Werner W.

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of Proxima Centauri’s radial velocities recently led Anglada-Escudé et al. to claim the presence of a low-mass planet orbiting the Sun’s nearest star once every 11.2 days. Although the a priori probability that Proxima b transits its parent star is just 1.5%, the potential impact of such a discovery would be considerable. Independent of recent radial velocity efforts, we observed Proxima Centauri for 12.5 days in 2014 and 31 days in 2015 with the Microwave and Oscillations of Stars space telescope. We report here that we cannot make a compelling case that Proxima b transits in our precise photometric time series. Imposing an informative prior on the period and phase, we do detect a candidate signal with the expected depth. However, perturbing the phase prior across 100 evenly spaced intervals reveals one strong false positive and one weaker instance. We estimate a false-positive rate of at least a few percent and a much higher false-negative rate of 20%-40%, likely caused by the very high flare rate of Proxima Centauri. Comparing our candidate signal to HATSouth ground-based photometry reveals that the signal is somewhat, but not conclusively, disfavored (1σ-2σ), leading us to argue that the signal is most likely spurious. We expect that infrared photometric follow-up could more conclusively test the existence of this candidate signal, owing to the suppression of flare activity and the impressive infrared brightness of the parent star.

  12. Conclusions via unique predictions obtained despite unidentifiability--new definitions and a general method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedersund, Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    It is often predicted that model-based data analysis will revolutionize biology, just as it has physics and engineering. A widely used tool within such analysis is hypothesis testing, which focuses on model rejections. However, the fact that a systems biology model is non-rejected is often a relatively weak statement, as such models usually are highly over-parametrized with respect to the available data, and both parameters and predictions may therefore be arbitrarily uncertain. For this reason, we formally define and analyse the concept of a core prediction. A core prediction is a uniquely identified property that must be fulfilled if the given model structure is to explain the data, even if the individual parameters are non-uniquely identified. It is shown that such a prediction is as strong a conclusion as a rejection. Furthermore, a new method for core prediction analysis is introduced, which is beneficial for the uncertainty of specific model properties, as the method only characterizes the space of acceptable parameters in the relevant directions. This avoids the curse of dimensionality associated with the generic characterizations used by previously proposed methods. Analysis on examples shows that the new method is comparable to profile likelihood with regard to practical identifiability, and thus generalizes profile likelihood to the more general problem of observability. If used, the concepts and methods presented herein make it possible to distinguish between a conclusion and a mere suggestion, which hopefully will contribute to a more justified confidence in systems biology analyses. © 2012 The Author Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  13. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Mörsdorf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in

  14. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Martin A; Ravolainen, Virve T; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  15. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Barbara E; Abrams, Steve; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Brenna, J Thomas; Campbell, Wayne W; Clinton, Steven; Hu, Frank; Nelson, Miriam; Neuhouser, Marian L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Story, Mary; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-05-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y. As detailed in the report, an expansive, transparent, and comprehensive process was used to address each question, with multiple opportunities for public input included. Consensus was reached on all DGAC's findings, including each conclusion and recommendation, and the entire report. When research questions were answered by original systematic literature reviews and/or with existing, high-quality expert reports, the quality and strength of the evidence was formally graded. The report was organized around the following 5 themes: 1) food and nutrient intakes and health: current status and trends; 2) dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes; 3) diet and physical activity behavior change; 4) food and physical activity environments; and 5) food sustainability and food safety. The following 3 cross-cutting topics were addressed: 1) sodium, 2) saturated fat, and 3) added sugars. Physical activity recommendations from recent expert reports were endorsed. The overall quality of the American diet was assessed to identify overconsumed and underconsumed nutrients of public health concern. Common food characteristics of healthy dietary patterns were determined. Features of effective interventions to change individual and population diet and physical activity behaviors in clinical, public

  16. Conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999: translating results into nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article presents and overview of the main results and conclusions from the Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999 and the principal nutrition policy implications of the findings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The NNS-1999 was conducted on a national probabilistic sample of almost 18 000 households, representative of the national, regional, as well as urban and rural levels in Mexico. Subjects included were children <12 years and women 12-49 years. Anthropometry, blood specimens, diet and socioeconomic information of the family were collected. RESULTS: The principal public nutrition problems are stunting in children < 5 years of age; anemia, iron and zinc deficiency, and low serum vitamin C concentrations at all ages; and vitamin A deficiency in children. Undernutrition (stunting and micronutrient deficiencies was generally more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic groups, in rural areas, in the south and in Indigenous population. Overweight and obesity are serious public health problems in women and are already a concern in school-age children. CONCLUSIONS: A number of programs aimed at preventing undernutrition are currently in progress; several of them were designed or modified as a result of the NNS-1999 findings. Most of them have an evaluation component that will inform adjustments or modifications of their design and implementation. However, little is being done for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity and there is limited experience on effective interventions. The design and evaluation of prevention strategies for controlling obesity in the population, based on existing evidence, is urgently needed and success stories should be brought to scale quickly to maximize impact.

  17. An outline of compilation and processing of metadata in agricultural database management system WebAgris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Bartol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles international information system for agriculture Agris and local processing of metadata with database management software WebAgris. Operations are coordinated by the central repository at the FAO in Rome. Based on international standards and unified methodology, national and regional centers collect and process local publications, and then send the records to the central unit, which enables global website accessibility of the data. Earlier DOS-run application was based on package Agrin CDS/ISIS. The Current package WebAgris runs on web servers. Database construction tools and instructions are accessible on FAO Web pages. Data are entered through unified input masks. International consistency is achieved through authority control of certain elements, such as author or corporate affiliation. Central authority control is made available for subject headings, such as descriptors and subject categories.Subject indexing is based on controlled multilingual thesaurus Agrovoc, also available freely on the Internet. This glossary has become an important tool in the area of the international agricultural ontology. The data are exported to the central unit in XML format. Global database is currently eccessible to everyone. This international cooperative information network combines elements of a document repository,electronic publishing, open archiving and full text open access. Links with Google Scholar provide a good possibility for international promotion of publishing.

  18. Synthetic biology in the UK - An outline of plans and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, L J; Kitney, R I

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic biology is capable of delivering new solutions to key challenges spanning the bioeconomy, both nationally and internationally. Recognising this significant potential and the associated need to facilitate its translation and commercialisation the UK government commissioned the production of a national Synthetic Biology Roadmap in 2011, and subsequently provided crucial support to assist its implementation. Critical infrastructural investments have been made, and important strides made towards the development of an effectively connected community of practitioners and interest groups. A number of Synthetic Biology Research Centres, DNA Synthesis Foundries, a Centre for Doctoral Training, and an Innovation Knowledge Centre have been established, creating a nationally distributed and integrated network of complementary facilities and expertise. The UK Synthetic Biology Leadership Council published a UK Synthetic Biology Strategic Plan in 2016, increasing focus on the processes of translation and commercialisation. Over 50 start-ups, SMEs and larger companies are actively engaged in synthetic biology in the UK, and inward investments are starting to flow. Together these initiatives provide an important foundation for stimulating innovation, actively contributing to international research and development partnerships, and helping deliver useful benefits from synthetic biology in response to local and global needs and challenges.

  19. Acute consciousness disorders in intensive care medicine - value of its grading for prognostic conclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sániová, Beata; Drobný, Michal; Drobná, Eva; Matloobi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    To understand consciousness we have to understand the mechanism of its function, which is to effectively organize sensory inputs from our environment. Consciousness is the basic, essential outcome of the process of organizing these sensory inputs, resulting in cognitive, mental, emotional, executive, instinctual or other marginally aware states. This reciprocal process of the CNS implies that organization is an act, which precedes consciousness, i.e. preconscious function. Most scientific explanations portray consciousness as an "emergent property" of classical computer-like activities in the brains neural networks. Doctors at ICU work daily with patients with altered human consciousness. Therefore, they must recognize and manage it skilfully and use adequate approaches for definite solutions. We observed a series of patients with traumatic and non traumatic brain injuries admitted to the ICU. The quality of life of these patients during the course of intensive care was very elementary and the final outcome GCS (oGCS) for future life was defined as a comatose state or apallic state, very rarely was it restored to premorbid condition as far as lucidity, attention, cognition, and executive functions. We found that a significant oGCS increase in relation to condition at admission or intake GCS (iGCS) in the group with 184 patients total (pevolution through the following possible ways: death in fluent comatose state, delirium and awakening, delirium ending in death, direct awakening from comatose state. Therefore significantly increased oGCS is the only basic prerequisite for pragmatically optimal "quality of life" in the course of later life. We raise general questions for both scientists and clinicians that will assist in their efforts to understand the basic endogenous conscious biological processes, their pathological changes and the links between them.

  20. Domain Modeling for Adaptive Training and Education in Support of the US Army Learning Model-Research Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    evaluation tools and methods, and architectural and ontological support for adaptive training. The reports documenting these vectors expand the...tools and methods; evaluation tools and methods; and architectural and ontological support. This report (1 of 6 interdependent research outlines...educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, 1956. Burke S, Sottilare R, Salas E, Johnston J, Sinatra

  1. OUTLINE FOR THE PREPARATORY COURSE IN OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS IN THE FIELD OF FOOD SERVICES (PREPARATION AND MANAGEMENT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    TEACHERS MAY USE THIS EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IN PLANNING A PREPARATORY COURSE IN OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS FOOD SERVICE FOR SECONDARY AND ADULT STUDENTS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS SUPERVISORS AND TEACHERS. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO HELP STUDENTS RECOGNIZE THE CONTRIBUTIONS AND SCOPE OF THE FOOD SERVICE INDUSTRY AND TO ACQUIRE…

  2. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Part Nine; Morale and Esprit De Corps. Content Outline, Terminal and Enabling Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    The content is outlined and the terminal and enabling objectives are provided for a curriculum area on morale and esprit de corps (see EM 010 439, EM 010 440, and EM 010 461), part of an introduction to psychology and leadership course for the United States Naval Academy (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010…

  3. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  4. NEDO business outline for fiscal 1997. 18th project report meeting; 1997 nendo gyomu gaiyo. Dai 18 kai jigyo hokokukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-22

    The projects of NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) are stated as reported at the 18th project report meeting. Outlined are new energy-related projects involving technology development, resources exploitation, promotion of new energy introduction, promotion of international cooperation, gathering of information, and so on. Outlined in relation to the research and development of industrial technologies are projects on research and development, development of medical and welfare equipment, research and development of global environment-related industrial technology, development of international industrial technology, and improvement on platforms for researches. Concerning coal, subsidy-granted projects on domestic coal and projects on domestic coal mine improvement are outlined. Projects relating to compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining and those relating to alcohol production are also outlined. NEDO's financial statement for fiscal 1997 is reported. Also reported are budgets for fiscal 1998 for projects relating to new energy, research and development of industrial technology, coal mining structure coordination, compensation for environmental pollution resulting from coal mining, and alcohol production. (NEDO)

  5. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  6. From Fibrevision To The Multi-Star Wideband Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R.; Moore, D.

    1984-03-01

    Following experience gained with the Fibrevision cable TV trial at Milton Keynes the implementation of a large scale multi-star wideband local network is being investigated by British Telecom. An update on the Fibrevision trial is given followed by an outline description of a future multi-star wideband network.

  7. Leading to learn in networks of practice: Two leadership strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekijad, M.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Agterberg, L.C.M.; Huysman, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines two leadership strategies to support organizational learning through networks of practice (NOPs). An in-depth case study in a development organization reveals that network leaders cope with a learning tension between management involvement and emergent learning processes by

  8. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  9. Green corridors and network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    major overhaul of the EU transportation infrastructure policy is outlined and the basic differences with the past are pinpointed. The provisions of the new TEN-T Guidelines are scrutinized so as to check whether the TEN-T core network corridors exhibit the characteristics of a green corridor......The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the relation between the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) and the green corridor concept. First, the need is established for a corridor governance structure that enables the close cooperation among the numerous stakeholders from both the public......, as they have been identified in the previous chapter. Based on the results of this analysis, it is concluded that the TEN-T core network is, as far as its freight dimension is concerned, a network of green corridors....

  10. Network architecture as internet governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Musiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of a networked system is its underlying technical and logical structure, including transmission equipment, communication protocols, infrastructure, and connectivity between its components or nodes. This article introduces the idea of network architecture as internet governance, and more specifically, it outlines the dialectic between centralised and distributed architectures, institutions and practices, and how they mutually affect each other. The article argues that network architecture is internet governance in the sense that, by changing the design of the networks subtending internet-based services and the global internet itself, its politics are affected – the balance of rights between users and providers, the capacity of online communities to engage in open and direct interaction, the fair competition between actors of the internet market.

  11. Supporting Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards: A Needs Assessment Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S. M.; Robeck, E.; Awad, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) explicitly treat Earth and Space Science (ESS) content with the same level of priority as Physical Science, Life Science, and Engineering & Technology. Therefore, the geoscience community has a vested interest in the use of NGSS as it is being implemented in K-12 classrooms. Individuals and groups from all facets of the geosciences can take action to support the implementation of the NGSS. That action will be most effective if it is guided by a thorough understanding of the needs of teachers and other stakeholders who have a role to play in NGSS implementation. This session will describe qualitative and quantitative needs assessment data that was gathered in advance of the Summit Meeting on the Implementation of the NGSS at the State Level, which was jointly organized in April 2015 by the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) and the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT). The data to be discussed are from interviews and quantitative survey data, as well as data based on responses by the 50+ Summit attendees who represented a variety of perspectives in geoscience education. Particular attention will be given to areas where responses suggested points of tension, such as the fact that many survey respondents feel that they understand dimensions of the NGSS that their colleagues do not understand as well, making for a potentially difficult context in which to work to implement the NGSS. Actions suggested by the Summit attendees that are related to the different need areas will also be described, with the intent being to open discussion among session participants about additional actions that they can take individually and/or collectively. The overarching goal of this presentation will be to work in coordination with the other presentations in the session to expand the network of member of the geoscience community who are informed and committed to supporting NGSS implementation.

  12. Permutation entropy based time series analysis: Equalities in the input signal can lead to false conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunino, Luciano, E-mail: lucianoz@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata – CIC), C.C. 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Olivares, Felipe, E-mail: olivaresfe@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (PUCV), 23-40025 Valparaíso (Chile); Scholkmann, Felix, E-mail: Felix.Scholkmann@gmail.com [Research Office for Complex Physical and Biological Systems (ROCoS), Mutschellenstr. 179, 8038 Zurich (Switzerland); Biomedical Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Neonatology, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: oarosso@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), BR 104 Norte km 97, 57072-970, Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires (ITBA) and CONICET, C1106ACD, Av. Eduardo Madero 399, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Complex Systems Group, Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad de los Andes, Av. Mons. Álvaro del Portillo 12.455, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2017-06-15

    A symbolic encoding scheme, based on the ordinal relation between the amplitude of neighboring values of a given data sequence, should be implemented before estimating the permutation entropy. Consequently, equalities in the analyzed signal, i.e. repeated equal values, deserve special attention and treatment. In this work, we carefully study the effect that the presence of equalities has on permutation entropy estimated values when these ties are symbolized, as it is commonly done, according to their order of appearance. On the one hand, the analysis of computer-generated time series is initially developed to understand the incidence of repeated values on permutation entropy estimations in controlled scenarios. The presence of temporal correlations is erroneously concluded when true pseudorandom time series with low amplitude resolutions are considered. On the other hand, the analysis of real-world data is included to illustrate how the presence of a significant number of equal values can give rise to false conclusions regarding the underlying temporal structures in practical contexts. - Highlights: • Impact of repeated values in a signal when estimating permutation entropy is studied. • Numerical and experimental tests are included for characterizing this limitation. • Non-negligible temporal correlations can be spuriously concluded by repeated values. • Data digitized with low amplitude resolutions could be especially affected. • Analysis with shuffled realizations can help to overcome this limitation.

  13. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  14. EDUCATIONAL CONCEPT FOR SAFE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN R. MACEDONIA (GOOD PRACTICES, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Tomevska-Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research focus of this work raises the issue that refers to the assessment of the effects of the project models for safe schools, which are derived from the National Strategy for Reducing Violence in Schools in Republic of Macedonia (2012-2015 through promoting a sustainable educational concept for safe secondary schools. This work offers answers, in the form of conclusions to the stated questions, such as: whether, and how much do the project models, which are realized in secondary schools, supported and in a “dialectic” relation with the relevant educational institutions from the governmental and non-governmental sector (Ministry of Education and Science, the municipalities, and non-governmental organizations, achieve the primary goal; what are the benefits from the implementation; and what are the models of sustainability? The goal of the research is to assess the conceptual insights and efficiency of the projects, and their influence on strengthening the educational concept of securing a safe school environment in secondary schools in R. Macedonia. Research of this issue is done with assessment research. Due to the complex and diverse nature of the issue under investigation, primary significance is given to the views and needs of all the relevant factors involved in the process. This benefits the idea that the research is of empirical character. It is also supposed that the conceptual insights of the projects have a positive influence on strengthening the educational concept for securing a safe school environment in secondary schools in Republic of Macedonia.

  15. Iron deficiency anaemia: with the conclusion of a need for iron reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra

    2017-10-01

    In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.

  16. A fine-grained analysis of the jumping-to-conclusions bias in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Impaired decision behavior has been repeatedly observed in schizophrenia patients. We investigated several cognitive mechanisms that might contribute to the jumping-to-conclusions bias (JTC seen in schizophrenia patients: biases in information-gathering, information weighting and integration, and overconfidence, using the process tracing paradigm Mouselab. Mouselab allows for an in-depth exploration of various decision-making processes in a structured information environment. A total of 37 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls participated in the experiment. Although showing less focused and systematic information search, schizophrenia patients practically considered all pieces of information and showed no JTC in the sense of collecting less pieces of evidence. Choices of patients and controls both approximated a rational solution quite well, but patients showed more extreme confidence ratings. Both groups mainly used weighted additive decision strategies for information integration and only a small proportion relied on simple heuristics. Under high stress induced by affective valence plus time pressure, however, schizophrenia patients switched to equal weighting strategies: less valid cues and more valid ones were weighted equally.

  17. Development integration via real and technological convergence. Experience of Poland and conclusions for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał G. Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes main achievements, losses and gains during the first decade of Poland's membership in the EU, while also aiming at development of suggestions for the Polish economic policy in the years to come, as well as draws conclusions for Ukraine, which has now elected the strategy of international economic cooperation. The first part of the paper presents an empirical analysis of Poland's both real and technological convergence with the developed EU countries. These data show that since 1994, as the process of Poland integration with the EU commenced, our country significantly reduced the income and technology gap as compared to the EU. During the financial crisis, Poland 'felt' better than most European countries. In the second part of the paper we attempt to answer the question as to the current conditions of Polish economy development. It is demonstrated that Poland's economic success was due to multiple factors such as endogenous and exogenous, historical and those derived from present events. However, it can be assumed that integration with the EU has been an important positive factor in development of Poland during recent 20 years. Great importance was also vested in the implementation of economic reforms in Poland as well as in policy of the government, although not faultless. The last section of the paper identifies problems now faced by the EU and individual member states, including Poland as regards future years till 2020

  18. Pressure Measurement Techniques for Abdominal Hypertension: Conclusions from an Experimental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Santosh Chopra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP measurement is an indispensable tool for the diagnosis of abdominal hypertension. Different techniques have been described in the literature and applied in the clinical setting. Methods. A porcine model was created to simulate an abdominal compartment syndrome ranging from baseline IAP to 30 mmHg. Three different measurement techniques were applied, comprising telemetric piezoresistive probes at two different sites (epigastric and pelvic for direct pressure measurement and intragastric and intravesical probes for indirect measurement. Results. The mean difference between the invasive IAP measurements using telemetric pressure probes and the IVP measurements was −0.58 mmHg. The bias between the invasive IAP measurements and the IGP measurements was 3.8 mmHg. Compared to the realistic results of the intraperitoneal and intravesical measurements, the intragastric data showed a strong tendency towards decreased values. The hydrostatic character of the IAP was eliminated at high-pressure levels. Conclusion. We conclude that intragastric pressure measurement is potentially hazardous and might lead to inaccurately low intra-abdominal pressure values. This may result in missed diagnosis of elevated abdominal pressure or even ACS. The intravesical measurements showed the most accurate values during baseline pressure and both high-pressure plateaus.

  19. Cumulative Instructional Time and Relative Effectiveness Conclusions: Extending Research on Response Intervals, Learning, and Measurement Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michelle P; Skinner, Christopher H; Forbes, Bethany E; McCurdy, Merilee; Coleman, Mari Beth; Davis, Kristie; Gettelfinger, Maripat

    2016-03-01

    Adapted alternating treatments designs were used to evaluate three computer-based flashcard reading interventions (1-s, 3-s, or 5-s response intervals) across two students with disabilities. When learning was plotted with cumulative instructional sessions on the horizontal axis, the session-series graphs suggest that the interventions were similarly effective. When the same data were plotted as a function of cumulative instructional seconds, time-series graphs suggest that the 1-s intervention caused the most rapid learning for one student. Discussion focuses on applied implications of comparative effectiveness studies and why measures of cumulative instructional time are needed to identify the most effective intervention(s).Comparative effectiveness studies may not identify the intervention which causes the most rapid learning.Session-series repeated measures are not the same as time-series repeated measures.Measuring the time students spend in each intervention (i.e., cumulative instructional seconds) allows practitioners to identify interventions that enhance learning most rapidly.Student time spent working under interventions is critical for drawing applied conclusions.

  20. Blast Testing Issues and TBI: Experimental Models That Lead to Wrong Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Charles E; Ritzel, David; Rule, Gregory T; Wiri, Suthee; Young, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena, enable researchers to extract useful information from well-documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems. This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well-documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data.

  1. Blast Testing Issues and TBI; Experimental Models that Lead to Wrong Conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Needham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years we have noticed an increase in the number of blast injury studies published in peer-reviewed biomedical journals that have utilized improperly conceived experiments. Data from these studies will lead to false conclusions and more confusion than advancement in the understanding of blast injury, particularly blast neurotrauma. Computational methods to properly characterize the blast environment have been available for decades. These methods, combined with a basic understanding of blast wave phenomena enable researchers to extract useful information from well documented experiments. This basic understanding must include the differences and interrelationships of static pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, and total or stagnation pressure in transient shockwave flows, how they relate to loading of objects, and how they are properly measured. However, it is critical that the research community effectively overcomes the confusion that has been compounded by a misunderstanding of the differences between the loading produced by a free field explosive blast and loading produced by a conventional shock tube. The principles of blast scaling have been well established for decades and when properly applied will do much to repair these problems.This paper provides guidance regarding proper experimental methods and offers insights into the implications of improperly designed and executed tests. Through application of computational methods, useful data can be extracted from well documented historical tests, and future work can be conducted in a way to maximize the effectiveness and use of valuable biological test data.

  2. Permutation entropy based time series analysis: Equalities in the input signal can lead to false conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Luciano; Olivares, Felipe; Scholkmann, Felix; Rosso, Osvaldo A.

    2017-06-01

    A symbolic encoding scheme, based on the ordinal relation between the amplitude of neighboring values of a given data sequence, should be implemented before estimating the permutation entropy. Consequently, equalities in the analyzed signal, i.e. repeated equal values, deserve special attention and treatment. In this work, we carefully study the effect that the presence of equalities has on permutation entropy estimated values when these ties are symbolized, as it is commonly done, according to their order of appearance. On the one hand, the analysis of computer-generated time series is initially developed to understand the incidence of repeated values on permutation entropy estimations in controlled scenarios. The presence of temporal correlations is erroneously concluded when true pseudorandom time series with low amplitude resolutions are considered. On the other hand, the analysis of real-world data is included to illustrate how the presence of a significant number of equal values can give rise to false conclusions regarding the underlying temporal structures in practical contexts.

  3. Investigation Team Methodically Arrives at a Logical Conclusion for the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, L.; Smith, M.; West, M.

    Continued development of the design and fabrication of National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB depends significantly on knowledge and experience gained from successful balloon flights but more importantly from anomalies or failures On February 4 2005 a 176 000 cu m 6 2 MCF ULDB balloon carrying a 1361 kg 3 000 lb payload was launched from Ft Sumner New Mexico The balloon successfully pressurized reached float altitude and deployed flawlessly Unfortunately the balloon catastrophically failed not long after it reached float Following the Flight 540 NT failure members of the scientific ballooning community were immediately pulled together to form a highly skilled and vastly diverse investigating working group The team was comprised of management scientists engineers quality auditors and balloon manufacturing assemblers and quality inspectors from NASA Wallops Flight Facility and Goddard Space Flight Center New Mexico State University s Physical Science Laboratory and the National Scientific Balloon Facility TENSYS Winzen Engineering and Aerostar International Inc This paper will present how the team progressed to a logical conclusion by methodically evaluating testing and analyzing intricate pieces of the design and fabrication processes that were previously not known Once understood changes and preventative measures were immediately implemented to prevent the kind of problems that caused the failure A brief overview of these changes will also be included in the paper

  4. Community Health Global Network: “Clustering” Together to Increase the Impact of Community Led Health and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Safe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community Health Global Network (CHGN is a collaborative network, founded to strengthen collaboration between community-based health programs - many of which are faith based initiatives. It seeks to address this in two ways: through its global network of players in community health and in the formation of “Clusters.” CHGN Clusters are networks of community health programmes and individuals in specific geographical locations. This case report outlines the formation of the Kenya Cluster. Aims: To describe the steps in the formation of the Kenya Cluster and to outline the primary outcomes and potential impact of the network. To discuss how learning from the Kenya Cluster may assist other established Clusters and the initiation of new Clusters. Method: Information for this case report was gained from meetings and consultations with various individuals including leaders and members of the Kenya Cluster, other national community health experts, CHGN International staff and advisors to CHGN Uttarakhand Cluster in India. In addition, information was gained from personal observation during in-country field work. Results: The Kenya Cluster is emerging as a platform for community health programs to connect and network. These connections have led to transfer of information through stories, best practice, training, contacts and opportunities amongst Cluster members. The Cluster has also established links with government and multilaterals enabling greater access to support at the community level. Conclusions: There is early indication that the formation of the Kenya Cluster is supportive of the Cluster model as a unique way of strengthening collaboration between community health programs. Clusters have the potential to improve the link between faith-inspired initiatives and secular and multilateral development organisations. Lessons from the Kenya Cluster can progress the development of other Clusters. Further evaluation will be conducted to

  5. Twenty years of children’s health monitoring: organization, results, conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep understanding of human potential reproduction, presenting it as a continuous cycle and reflecting the continuity of generations, is significant for the formation of health and development of children. Today’s children will determine the future of Russian society. It is they who in 10–15 years will be a major part of the labor and creative population, a demographic base of the country. The research into children’s problems through the prism of socio-economic development helps identify targets of the state many-sided policy. The article presents results of the long-term medical sociological monitoring on the formation of child health carried out by the Institute of Socio-Economic Development of Territories of RAS with the support of the Vologda Oblast Healthcare Department since 1995. The special monitoring study of health dynamics in real time is unique not only for the Vologda Oblast, but for Russia as well. It reveals the transformation of a personality and the dependence of these changes on direct and indirect factors. The work’s feature is that it addresses an extremely important and wide range of issues: whether man was born healthy or not, if he/she is unhealthy, then why and why he/she was born unhealthy; whether his/her health after the birth is improving or deteriorating; if health is changing, what causes the changes. The 15 year observations disclose the dynamics of child health in the conditions of transformation processes taking place in the country. If the official statistics only records certain health trends, the monitoring results allow us to talk about them at a qualitatively new level. They reveal the underlying causes of demographic processes. The conclusion is, on the one hand, obvious and, on the other hand, it can not be neglected: economic stability and orderly development of the social sphere are critical for family well-being and child health. The reverse situation leads to the destruction of the family

  6. Differences in lupus anticoagulant final conclusion through clotting time or Rosner index for mixing test interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreter, Barbara; Devreese, Katrien M J

    2016-09-01

    Lupus anticoagulant (LAC) testing includes a screening, mixing and confirmation step. Although recently published guidelines on LAC testing are a useful step towards standardization, a lack of consensus remains whether to express mixing tests in clotting time (CT) or index of circulating anticoagulant (ICA). The influence of anticoagulant therapy, e.g. vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) on both methods of interpretation remains to be investigated. The objective of this study was to contribute to a simplification and standardization of the LAC three-step interpretation on the level of the mixing test. Samples from 148 consecutive patients with LAC request and prolonged screening step, and 77 samples from patients non-suspicious for LAC treated with VKA (n=37) or DOAC (n=30) were retrospectively evaluated. An activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) were used for routine LAC testing. The supplemental anticoagulant samples were tested with dRVVT only. We focused on the interpretation differences for mixing tests expressed as CT or ICA and compared the final LAC conclusion within each distinct group of concordant and discordant mixing test results. Mixing test interpretation by CT resulted in 10 (dRVVT) and 16 (aPTT) more LAC positive patients compared to interpretation with ICA. Isolated prolonged dRVVT screen mix ICA results were exclusively observed in samples from VKA-treated patients without suspicion for LAC. We recommend using CT in respect to the 99th percentile cut-off for interpretation of mixing steps in order to reach the highest sensitivity and specificity in LAC detection.

  7. Beads task vs. box task: The specificity of the jumping to conclusions bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Ryan P; Ephraums, Rachel; Delfabbro, Paul; Andreou, Christina

    2017-09-01

    Previous research involving the probabilistic reasoning 'beads task' has consistently demonstrated a jumping-to-conclusions (JTC) bias, where individuals with delusions make decisions based on limited evidence. However, recent studies have suggested that miscomprehension may be confounding the beads task. The current study aimed to test the conventional beads task against a conceptually simpler probabilistic reasoning "box task" METHODS: One hundred non-clinical participants completed both the beads task and the box task, and the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI) to assess for delusion-proneness. The number of 'draws to decision' was assessed for both tasks. Additionally, the total amount of on-screen evidence was manipulated for the box task, and two new box task measures were assessed (i.e., 'proportion of evidence requested' and 'deviation from optimal solution'). Despite being conceptually similar, the two tasks did not correlate, and participants requested significantly less information on the beads task relative to the box task. High-delusion-prone participants did not demonstrate hastier decisions on either task; in fact, for box task, this group was observed to be significantly more conservative than low-delusion-prone group. Neither task was incentivized; results need replication with a clinical sample. Participants, and particularly those identified as high-delusion-prone, displayed a more conservative style of responding on the novel box task, relative to the beads task. The two tasks, whilst conceptually similar, appear to be tapping different cognitive processes. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the JTC bias and the theoretical mechanisms thought to underlie it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review on health effects related to mobile phones. Part II: results and conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayada M R

    2011-01-01

    Part 1 of this review was published in the Journal of Egyptian Association of Public Health 2010; 85(5, 6):337-345. It included the introduction and methodology. It was based on reviewing the literature published in the last 10 years (2000-2010). Searches were made electronically through various search engines and health-related databases, and manually through journals, reports, and conference proceedings. The references used in the introduction of part 1 were mainly WHO reports, textbooks, and nonserial publications. In part 2, the literature published in 2011 was added to the yield and the results and conclusions are based on the updated search. In this literature search, 69 research articles (epidemiologic, experimental, cellular, and animal studies), 17 systemic or meta-analysis review studies, and four reports were included. The evidence presented in these peer-reviewed publications did not provide a consistent pattern that exposure to mobile phones is detrimental to health. Only studies associating mobile phone use during driving with road traffic accidents and those investigating electromagnetic interference with personal or hospital medical electronic devices showed consistent results. Regarding children, there are currently little data on cell phone use and health effects, including the risk of cancer. Further experimental and epidemiologic studies are needed to seek explanations for the controversies in studies on mobile phones so far. These studies should apply sound methodology for exposure assessment of mobile phone radiation and should focus on the effects of long-term use (more than 10 years). Cohort studies, in particular, should be established to investigate the long-term effects of mobile phone use on brain cancer as well as to investigate the possible health effects among children.

  9. On the challenges of drawing conclusions from p-values just below 0.05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have attempted to provide an indication of the prevalence of inflated Type 1 error rates by analyzing the distribution of p-values in the published literature. De Winter & Dodou (2015) analyzed the distribution (and its change over time) of a large number of p-values automatically extracted from abstracts in the scientific literature. They concluded there is a ‘surge of p-values between 0.041–0.049 in recent decades’ which ‘suggests (but does not prove) questionable research practices have increased over the past 25 years.’ I show the changes in the ratio of fractions of p-values between 0.041–0.049 over the years are better explained by assuming the average power has decreased over time. Furthermore, I propose that their observation that p-values just below 0.05 increase more strongly than p-values above 0.05 can be explained by an increase in publication bias (or the file drawer effect) over the years (cf. Fanelli, 2012; Pautasso, 2010, which has led to a relative decrease of ‘marginally significant’ p-values in abstracts in the literature (instead of an increase in p-values just below 0.05). I explain why researchers analyzing large numbers of p-values need to relate their assumptions to a model of p-value distributions that takes into account the average power of the performed studies, the ratio of true positives to false positives in the literature, the effects of publication bias, and the Type 1 error rate (and possible mechanisms through which it has inflated). Finally, I discuss why publication bias and underpowered studies might be a bigger problem for science than inflated Type 1 error rates, and explain the challenges when attempting to draw conclusions about inflated Type 1 error rates from a large heterogeneous set of p-values. PMID:26246976

  10. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Conclusion to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Chris J; Shaw, William S

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Research of employer policies and practices to manage and prevent disability spans many disciplines and perspectives, and there are many challenges related to stakeholder collaboration, data access, and interventions. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the findings from a conference and year-long collaboration among a group of invited researchers intended to spur new research innovations in this field. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The conference goals were to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. In this paper, we summarize key points from the 6 resulting papers, compare them with an earlier 2005 conference on improving return-to-work research, and conclude with recommendations for further overarching research directions. Results/Conclusion In comparison with the 2005 conference, a greater emphasis was placed on organizational and social factors, employer roles and responsibilities, methods of implementation, non-clinical approaches, and facilitating stay-at-work as well as return-to-work. A special panel of employer consultants and representatives who were featured at the 2015 conference reinforced the importance of organizational culture, leadership style, and financial decision-making strategies at the employer level. Based on the conference proceedings, we recommend that future research in this area should strive for: (a) broader inclusion of workers and workplaces; (b) attention to multilevel influences in the workplace; (c) a focus on social as well as physical aspects of work; (d) earlier employer collaboration efforts; (e) more attention to

  11. Food, plant food, and vegetarian diets in the US dietary guidelines: conclusions of an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David R; Haddad, Ella H; Lanou, Amy Joy; Messina, Mark J

    2009-05-01

    We summarize conclusions drawn from a panel discussion at the "Fifth International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition" about the roles of and emphasis on food, plant food, and vegetarianism in current and future US dietary guidelines. The most general recommendation of the panel was that future dietary guidelines, following the lead of the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, should emphasize food-based recommendations and thinking to the full extent that evidence allows. Although nutrient-based thinking and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) may help ensure an adequate diet in the sense that deficiency states are avoided, the emphasis on DRIs may not capture many important nutritional issues and may inhibit a focus on foods. More generally, in the context of the conference on vegetarian nutrition, this report focuses on the history and structure of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, on various plant food-oriented recommendations that are supported by literature evidence, and on mechanisms for participating in the process of forming dietary guidelines. Among recommendations that likely would improve health and the environment, some are oriented toward increased plant food consumption and some toward vegetarianism. The literature on health effects of individual foods and whole lifestyle diets is insufficient and justifies a call for future food-oriented research, including expanding the evidence base for plant-based and vegetarian diets. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's role should be carried forward to creation of a publicly accessible icon (eg, the current pyramid) and related materials to ensure that the science base is fully translated for the public.

  12. PACS in the Utrecht University Hospital: final conclusions of the clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmink, J. B.; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Barneveld Binkhuysen, Frits H.; Achterberg, A. J.; Zuiderveld, Karel J.; Calkoen, P.; Kouwenberg, Jef M.

    1990-08-01

    In the past three years, a clinical evaluation of a PACS has been performed in the Utrecht University Hospital as part of the Dutch PACS project. The clinical evaluation focussed on the following aspects: technical evaluation of the prototype PACS equipment coupled to the HIS; diagnostic accuracy studies; studies concerning the impact on the organization of the radiology-department and the referring wards; and cost-savings analysis. Some of the results of these subprojects have already been presented at previous SPIE conferences. In this paper the general condusions are presented about the usefulness of the evaluated PAC-System in the daily routine of radiology department and clinic. By making available the images of radiological examinations fast, complete, reliable and continously on the ward, concrete improvements with regard to the current process could be realized. The possibilities of PACS caused an increasing enthousiasm among the clinicians. By the easier access to all images of their patients during 24 hours/day, they saw more images on the day of the examination and images could be more easily used at consultations of other specialists. The overall conclusion is positive, but a lot of work has to be done to transform PACS from an experimental setup into a routine production system on which a flimless hospital can be based. A complete PACS needs an inteffigent Image Management System, which indudes prefetching algorithms based on data from the Hospital Information System and automated procedures for removing obsolete images from the local buffers in the workstations. As yet PACS is very expensive, and the direct savings in the hospital cannot compensate for the high costs of investment. Possibly PACS can contribute to a shorter stay of patients in the hospital. This will lead to savings for government and health insurance companies and they can be expected to contribute to PAS implementation studies.

  13. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  14. Outlines and Outcomes of Instrumented Posterior Fusion in the Pediatric Cervical Spine: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Haddadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The most common source of cervical spine arthrodesis in the pediatric populace is the instability related to congenital or traumatic damage. Surgery of cervical spine can be challenging given slighter anatomical constructions, fewer hardened bone, and upcoming growth potential and growth. Evidence Acquisition Trainings in adult patients recommended that consuming screw constructs results in enhanced consequences with inferior amounts of instrumentation catastrophe. But, the pediatric literature is inadequate for minor retrospective series. Authors reviewed the existing pediatric cervical spine arthrodesis literature. They studied 184 abstracts from January 1976 to December 2014. An entire of 883 patients in 82 articles were involved in the evaluation. Patients were characterized as taking either posterior cervical fusion with wiring or posterior cervical fusion with screws or occipitocervical fusion. Results The etiologies faced most frequently were inherited abnormalities (54% shadowed by trauma (28%, Down syndrome (8%, and infectious, oncological, iatrogenic, or mixed causes (10%. The mean duration of follow-up was 32.5 months. Conclusions The consequences of this training are restricted by deviations in construct policy, usage of orthoses, follow-up period and fresher adjuvant produces stimulating fusions. But, a literature review recommend that instrumentation of the cervical spine in children may be harmless and more effective than using screw concepts rather than wiring methods.

  15. SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 − Project Outline, and Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamamoto

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 is an observation campaign to study the spatial structure of the field-aligned irregularity (FAI and sporadic-E(Es-layer by means of two sounding rockets and a ground-based observation network with radars and optical instruments. The experiment was successfully conducted on 3 August 2002, with successive launches of two sounding rockets from the Uchinoura Space Center (USC of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA. The timing of the experiment was carefully selected, while intense quasi-periodic (QP echoes were observed with two radars in Tanegashima. The main Es-layer, with its double-layered structure, was observed at altitudes of 103–105 km, the presence of which was well accounted for by the ion accumulation due to neutral-wind shear. Several minor peaks were detected in the electron density profiles at altitudes of up to 130 km. The intensity of the electric field was 5–10 mV/m and showed intense fluctuations below 110 km. Wave-like variation of the electric field was seen above 110 km. From radar experiments, we found that QP echoes appeared around 105 km, which agreed well with the main Es-layer height. The QP echoes propagated to the west-northwest, with frontal structures elongated from north-northeast to south-southwest. Radar observations conduced throughout the SEEK-2 period, on the other hand, showed that frontal structures of the QP echoes were most frequently propagated to the southeast. This result was consistent with the direction of gravity-wave propagation observed with the OH imager during the same period. The rocket beacon experiment with the Es-layers revealed the spatial structure of the plasma densities. On the basis of these results and those from SEEK-1 in 1996, we examined the structures of the nighttime mid-latitude E-region. We concluded that the QP echoes reflect the horizontal structures of the main Es-layers. The source of the structures was not clearly

  16. SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS FOR THE PILOT IN-SITU CHROMIUM REDUCTION TEST AT RIVERBANK ARMY AMMUNITIONS PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridley, M

    2007-04-25

    A treatability study was conducted at Riverbank Army Ammunition Plant's (RBAAP) Site 17, to evaluate the effectiveness of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr{sup 6+}). The chromium contamination at Site 17 is hydrologically isolated and unsuitable for standard extraction and treatment (pump and treat). The majority of the chromium contamination at Site 17 is trapped within the fine grain sediments of a clay/slit zone (45 to 63). The PRB was established above and adjacent to the contaminated zone at Site 17 to reduce the hexavalent chromium as it leaches out of the contaminated clay/silt zone separating the A zone from the A zone. Site 17 and the monitoring network are described in the In-Situ Chromium Reduction Treatability Study Work Plan (CH2MHILL, January 2004). The PRB was created by reducing naturally occurring Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} with the injection of a buffered sodium dithionite solution into subsurface chromium source area. The Cr{sup 6+} leaching out of the contaminated clay/silt zone and migrating through the PRB is reduced by Fe{sup 2+} to Cr{sup 3+} and immobilized (Amonette, et al., 1994). The sodium dithionite will also reduce accessible Cr{sup 6+}, however the long-term reductant is the Fe{sup 2+}. Bench scale tests (Appendix A) were conducted to assess the quantity and availability of the naturally occurring iron at Site 17, the ability of the sodium dithionite to reduce the hexavalent chromium and Fe within the sediments, and the by-products produced during the treatment. Appendix A, provides a detailed description of the laboratory treatability tests, and provides background information on the technologies considered as possible treatment options for Site 17. Following the sodium dithionite treatment, groundwater/treatment solution was extracted to remove treatment by-products (sulfate, manganese, and iron). The following sections briefly discuss the current treatment status, future

  17. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  18. Optical Network Testbeds Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Mambretti

    2007-06-01

    technologies. Several years ago, when many of these optical networking research topics were first being investigated, they were the subject of controversial debate. The new techniques challenged many long-held concepts related to architecture and technology. However, today all major networking organizations are transitioning toward infrastructure that incorporates these new concepts. This progress has been assisted through the series of Optical Networking Testbed Workshops (ONT). The first (ONT1) outlined a general framework of key issues and topics and developed a series of recommendations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop7). The second (ONT2) developed a common vision of optical network technologies, services, infrastructure, and organizations (www.nren.nasa.gov/workshop8). Processes that allow for a common vision encourage widespread deployment of these types of resources among advanced networking communities. Also, such a shared vision enables key concepts and technologies to migrate from basic research testbeds to wider networking communities. The ONT-3 workshop built on these earlier activities by expanding discussion to include additional considerations of the international interoperability and of greater impact of optical networking technology on networking in general. In accordance with this recognition, the workshop confirmed that future-oriented research and development is indispensable to fundamentally change the current Internet architecture to create a global network incorporating completely new concepts. The workshop also recognized that the first priority to allow for this progress is basic research and development, including international collaborative activities, which are important for the global realization of interoperability of a new generation architecture.

  19. Important Conclusions on the Messinian Salinity Crisis Depositional History of the Eastern Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Pinar; Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The interpretation of a comprehensive set of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, multibeam bathymetry data and the litho- and bio-stratigraphic information from exploration wells across the Antalya Basin and Florence Rise revealed important conclusions on the Miocene to Recent tectonic evolution and the Messinian Salinity Crisis depositional history of the eastern Mediterranean Basin. This study clearly demonstrated the presence of a 4-division Messinian evaporite stratigraphy in the eastern Mediterranean, similar to that observed in the western Mediterranean, suggesting the existence of a similar set of depositional processes across the Mediterranean during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. However, the stratigraphic and depositional similarities of the evaporites between the eastern and western basins do not necessitate synchroneity in their depositional histories. The fact that the only saline water source for the eastern Mediterranean is the Atlantic Ocean and that the Sicily sill creates a physical barrier between the eastern and western Mediterranean impose several critical conditions. A simple 2-D model is developed which satisfies these conditions. The synchroneity of evaporite deposition across the eastern and western basins broke down as the Sicily Gateway became largely subaerial during a period when the Calabrian Arc area experienced uplift associated with slab break-off: the Sicily sill must have remained within a "goldilocks" zone to allow the right amount of saline water inflow into the eastern Mediterranean so that evaporites (massive halite) could be deposited. During this time, the sea level in western Mediterranean was at the breach-level of the Sicily sill, thus no evaporite deposition took place there. The model suggests that the eastern and western basin margins experienced a nearly synchronized gypsum deposition associated with the initial drawdown of the Mediterranean level, followed by the resedimentation in the deep

  20. LEAping to conclusions: A computational reanalysis of late embryogenesis abundant proteins and their possible roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wise Michael J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The late embryogenesis abundant (LEA proteins cover a number of loosely related groups of proteins, originally found in plants but now being found in non-plant species. Their precise function is unknown, though considerable evidence suggests that LEA proteins are involved in desiccation resistance. Using a number of statistically-based bioinformatics tools the classification of a large set of LEA proteins, covering all Groups, is reexamined together with some previous findings. Searches based on peptide composition return proteins with similar composition to different LEA Groups; keyword clustering is then applied to reveal keywords and phrases suggestive of the Groups' properties. Results Previous research has suggested that glycine is characteristic of LEA proteins, but it is only highly over-represented in Groups 1 and 2, while alanine, thought characteristic of Group 2, is over-represented in Group 3, 4 and 6 but under-represented in Groups 1 and 2. However, for LEA Groups 1 2 and 3 it is shown that glutamine is very significantly over-represented, while cysteine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and tryptophan are significantly under-represented. There is also evidence that the Group 4 LEA proteins are more appropriately redistributed to Group 2 and Group 3. Similarly, Group 5 is better found among the Group 3 LEA proteins. Conclusions There is evidence that Group 2 and Group 3 LEA proteins, though distinct, might be related. This relationship is also evident in the overlapping sets of keywords for the two Groups, emphasising alpha-helical structure and, at a larger scale, filaments, all of which fits well with experimental evidence that proteins from both Groups are natively unstructured, but become structured under stress conditions. The keywords support localisation of LEA proteins both in the nucleus and associated with the cytoskeleton, and a mode of action similar to chaperones, perhaps the cold shock chaperones

  1. Conclusive meta-analyses on antenatal magnesium may be inconclusive! Are we underestimating the risk of random error?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Huusom, Lene D; Thorlund, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Results from meta-analyses significantly influence clinical practice. Both simulation and empirical studies have demonstrated that the risk of random error (i.e. spurious chance findings) in meta-analyses is much higher than previously anticipated. Hence, authors and users of systematic reviews...... about the investigated intervention effect(s). We outline the rationale for conducting trial sequential analysis including some examples of the meta-analysis on antenatal magnesium for women at risk of preterm birth....

  2. Computer and Network Security in Small Libraries: A Guide for Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert L.

    This manual is intended to provide a free resource on essential network security concepts for non-technical managers of small libraries. Managers of other small nonprofit or community organizations will also benefit from it. An introduction defines network security; outlines three goals of network security; discusses why a library should be…

  3. Benefits and Pitfalls: Simple Guidelines for the Use of Social Networking Tools in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The article will outline a framework for the use of social networking tools in K-12 education framed around four thought provoking questions: 1) what are the benefits and pitfalls of using social networking tools in P-12 education, 2) how do we plan effectively for the use of social networking tool, 3) what role does professional development play…

  4. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  5. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  6. Dynamical rearrangement of super-Earths during disk dispersal. I. Outline of the magnetospheric rebound model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Ormel, Chris W.; Lin, Douglas N. C.

    2017-05-01

    disk dispersal can be retrieved. Conclusions: We highlight "magnetospheric" rebound as an important ingredient able to reconcile disk migration theory with observations. Even when planets are trapped into MMRs during the early gas-rich stage, subsequent cavity expansion induces substantial changes to their orbits that move them out of resonance.

  7. Taxonomic differences in deciduous upper second molar crown outlines of Homo sapiens, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Shara E; Benazzi, Stefano; Souday, Caroline; Astorino, Claudia; Paul, Kathleen; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    A significant number of Middle to Late Pleistocene sites contain primarily (and sometimes only) deciduous teeth (e.g., Grotta del Cavallo, Mezmaiskaya, Blombos). Not surprisingly, there has been a recent renewed interest in deciduous dental variation, especially in the context of distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens. Most studies of the deciduous dentition of fossil hominins have focused on standard metrical variation but morphological (non-metric and morphometric) variation also promises to shed light on long standing taxonomic questions. This study examines the taxonomic significance of the crown outline of the deciduous upper second molar through principal components analysis and linear discriminant analysis. We examine whether or not the crown shape of the upper deciduous second molar separates H. neanderthalensis from H. sapiens and explore whether it can be used to correctly assign individuals to taxa. It builds on previous studies by focusing on crown rather than cervical outline and by including a large sample of geographically diverse recent human populations. Our samples include 17 H. neanderthalensis, five early H. sapiens, and 12 Upper Paleolithic H. sapiens. In addition, we include two Homo erectus specimens in order to evaluate the polarity of crown shape differences observed between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens. Our results show that crown outline shape discriminates H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis quite well, but does not do well at distinguishing H. erectus from H. sapiens. We conclude that the crown outline shape observed in H. sapiens is a primitive retention and that the skewed shape observed in H. neanderthalensis is a derived condition. Finally, we explore the phylogenetic implications of the results for the H. erectus molars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Outlining a Population “at Risk” of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tommaso Schirinzi; Giuseppina Martella; Alessio D’Elia; Giulia Di Lazzaro; Paola Imbriani; Graziella Madeo; Leonardo Monaco; Marta Maltese; Antonio Pisani

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease (PD) requires a careful identification of populations ?at risk? of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population ?at risk? of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environ...

  9. Comparison of maxillary first molar occlusal outlines of Neandertals from the Meuse River Basin of Belgium using elliptical Fourier analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Frank L’Engle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Neandertals derive from the karstic caves of the Meuse river tributaries of Belgium, including Engis 2, Scladina 4A-4 and Spy 1. These may form a group that is distinct in maxillary first molar occlusal outlines compared to La Quina 5 from Southwest France. Alternatively, chronological differences may separate individuals given that Scladina 4A-4 from MIS 5 is older than the others from MIS 3. Neolithic samples (n = 42 from Belgium (Maurenne Caverne de la Cave, Hastière Caverne M, Hastière Trou Garçon, Sclaigneaux and Bois Madame dated to 4.6–3.9 kyr provide a context for the Neandertals. Dental casts were prepared from dental impressions of the original maxillary molars. Crown and occlusal areas as well as mesiodistal lengths were measured by calibrated Motic 3.0 microscope cameras. Occlusal outlines of the casts were captured through photostereomicroscopy and non-landmark smooth tracing methods. Occlusal outlines were processed using elliptical Fourier analysis within SHAPE v1.3 which reduced amplitudes of the harmonics into principal components (PC axes. The first two PC axes group the Neandertals, although Scladina 4A-4 falls nearly outside the convex hull for the Neolithic sample. Neandertals are imperfectly separated from the Neolithic sample on PC3 and PC4, and completely distinct on PC5 and PC6. Scladina 4A-4 differs from the other Neandertals on most PC axes. Chronology may best explain the separation of Scladina 4A-4 from the more recent fossils, and particularly Spy 1 and La Quina 5 which are the most similar in maxillary first molar occlusal outline shape.

  10. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  11. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  12. A universal, fault-tolerant, non-linear analytic network for modeling and fault detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, J.E. [Advanced Modeling Techniques Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); King, R.W.; Monson, L.R.; Olson, D.L.; Staffon, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-03-06

    The similarities and differences of a universal network to normal neural networks are outlined. The description and application of a universal network is discussed by showing how a simple linear system is modeled by normal techniques and by universal network techniques. A full implementation of the universal network as universal process modeling software on a dedicated computer system at EBR-II is described and example results are presented. It is concluded that the universal network provides different feature recognition capabilities than a neural network and that the universal network can provide extremely fast, accurate, and fault-tolerant estimation, validation, and replacement of signals in a real system.

  13. Targeting molecular networks for drug research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pedro Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of molecular networks has recently moved into the limelight of biomedical research. While it has certainly provided us with plenty of new insights into cellular mechanisms, the challenge now is how to modify or even restructure these networks. This is especially true for human diseases, which can be regarded as manifestations of distorted states of molecular networks. Of the possible interventions for altering networks, the use of drugs is presently the most feasible. In this mini-review, we present and discuss some exemplary approaches of how analysis of molecular interaction networks can contribute to pharmacology (e.g., by identifying new drug targets or prediction of drug side effects, as well as listing pointers to relevant resources and software to guide future research. We also outline recent progress in the use of drugs for in vitro reprogramming of cells, which constitutes an example par excellence for altering molecular interaction networks with drugs.

  14. An Architecture for Cooperative Localization in Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-24

    An Architecture for Cooperative Localization in Underwater Acoustic Networks ∗ Jeffrey M. Walls University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan jmwalls...umich.edu Ryan M. Eustice University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan eustice@umich.edu ABSTRACT This paper outlines an architecture for underwater...underwater navigation framework. In this paper, we outline the design, implemen- tation, and deployment of a system architecture for multiple vehicle

  15. Networking and Information Technology Research and Development. Supplement of the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This Supplement to the President's Budget for Fiscal Year 2006 offers a brief technical outline of the 2006 budget request for the Networking and Information Technology Research and Development (NITRD) Program...

  16. Real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks case study for the pharmaceutical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Schapranow, Matthieu-P

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews the design of real-time security extensions for EPCglobal networks based on in-memory technology, presents authentication protocols for devices with low computational resources and outlines steps for implementing history-based access control.

  17. Research Challenges for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melodia, Tommaso; Akyildiz, Ian F.

    This chapter discusses the state of the art and the major research challenges in architectures, algorithms, and protocols, for wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). These are networks of wirelessly interconnected smart devices designed and deployed to retrieve video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data. First, applications and key factors influencing the design of WMSNs are discussed. Then, the existing solutions at the application, transport, network, link, and physical layers of the communication protocol stack are investigated. Finally, fundamental open research issues are discussed and future research trends in this area are outlined.

  18. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  19. The networking practices of businesswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Bogaards

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the networking practices of businesswomen in the Gauteng Province, South Africa. The study of businesswomen's networking practices can provide critical insight into the manner in which networking can assist businesswomen in personal and professional skills development. Problem investigated: An investigation was conducted into the manner in which the concepts of networking and social networking are perceived by businesswomen in Gauteng. The study further investigated the motivation behind businesswomen's networking practices and the contents of their social networks were explored. Design/methodology/approach: A non-probability purposive sample, followed by snowball sampling, was used to select businesswomen for in-depth interviews (n = 31. In-depth interviews were used as a qualitative method to investigate the networking practices of these participants.Findings: The results indicate that businesswomen have various perceptions regarding the concepts of networking and social networking. It was also found that businesswomen include certain types of people in their social networks and that they receive various business and personal benefits when their networking is focused (having a clear objective to networking. Originality/value: These findings provide a background to the manner in which businesswomen perceive networking and social networking. This can serve as a basis for training initiatives to raise businesswomen's awareness of networking and social networking. Aforementioned may also provide insight into the meaning this may hold for them in their work and personal lives (for example, obtaining insight into the manner in which networking can be used to obtain business and personal support. Information derived from this study can further be utilised by businesswomen to assist them in social network development. Conclusion: It was concluded from the study that businesswomen perceive

  20. Knowledge transfer & exchange through social networks: building foundations for a community of practice within tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huerta Tim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health services and population health innovations advance when knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE occurs among researchers, practitioners, policy-makers and consumers using high-quality evidence. However, few KTE models have been evaluated in practice. Communities of practice (CoP – voluntary, self-organizing, and focused groups of individuals and organizations – may provide one option. This paper outlines an approach to lay the foundation for a CoP within the area of Web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATI. The objectives of the study were to provide a data-driven foundation to inform decisions about organizing a CoP within the geographically diverse, multi-disciplinary WATI group using evaluation and social network methodologies. Methods A single-group design was employed using a survey of expectations, knowledge, and interpersonal WATI-related relationships administered prior to a meeting of the WATI group followed by a 3-week post-meeting Web survey to assess short-term impact on learning and networking outcomes. Results Twenty-three of 27 WATI attendees (85% from diverse disciplinary and practice backgrounds completed the baseline survey, with 21 (91% of those participants completing the three-week follow-up. Participants had modest expectations of the meeting at baseline. A social network map produced from the data illustrated a centralized, yet sparse network comprising of interdisciplinary teams with little trans-sectoral collaboration. Three-week follow-up survey results showed that participants had made new network connections and had actively engaged in KTE activities with WATI members outside their original network. Conclusion Data illustrating both the shape and size of the WATI network as well as member's interests and commitment to KTE, when shared and used to frame action steps, can positively influence the motivation to collaborate and create communities of practice. Guiding KTE planning through

  1. Advanced functional network analysis in the geosciences: The pyunicorn package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan F.; Heitzig, Jobst; Runge, Jakob; Schultz, Hanna C. H.; Wiedermann, Marc; Zech, Alraune; Feldhoff, Jan; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha; Kutza, Hannes; Radebach, Alexander; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Functional networks are a powerful tool for analyzing large geoscientific datasets such as global fields of climate time series originating from observations or model simulations. pyunicorn (pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) is an open-source, fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for constructing functional networks (aka climate networks) representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large datasets and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures for networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn allows to study the complex dynamics of geoscientific systems as recorded by time series by means of recurrence networks and visibility graphs. The range of possible applications of the package is outlined drawing on several examples from climatology.

  2. Hyperbolicity measures democracy in real-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borassi, Michele; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we analyze the hyperbolicity of real-world networks, a geometric quantity that measures if a space is negatively curved. We provide two improvements in our understanding of this quantity: first of all, in our interpretation, a hyperbolic network is "aristocratic", since few elements "connect" the system, while a non-hyperbolic network has a more "democratic" structure with a larger number of crucial elements. The second contribution is the introduction of the average hyperbolicity of the neighbors of a given node. Through this definition, we outline an "influence area" for the vertices in the graph. We show that in real networks the influence area of the highest degree vertex is small in what we define "local" networks (i.e., social or peer-to-peer networks), and large in "global" networks (i.e., power grid, metabolic networks, or autonomous system networks).

  3. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  4. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  5. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  6. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  7. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R

    2002-09-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 23, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Freightliner, and Portland State University participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. The meeting began with an introduction by the Project Lead Rose McCallen of LLNL, where she emphasized that the world energy consumption is predicted to relatively soon exceed the available resources (i.e., fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission). This short fall is predicted to begin around the year 2050. Minimizing vehicle aerodynamic drag will significantly reduce our Nation's dependence on foreign oil resources and help with our world-wide fuel shortage. Rose also mentioned that educating the populace and researchers as to our world energy issues is important and that our upcoming United Engineering Foundation (UEF) Conference on ''The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains'' was one way our DOE Consortium was doing this. Mentioned were the efforts of Fred Browand from USC in organizing and attracting internationally recognized speakers to the Conference. Rose followed with an overview of the DOE project goals, deliverables, and FY03 activities. The viewgraphs are attached at the end of this

  8. Different Teams, Same Conclusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuller, Thomas E; Haider, Haula F; Kikidis, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    , use of a validated questionnaire(s) to assess tinnitus related distress, and referral to a psychologist when required. Cognitive behavioral treatment for tinnitus related distress, use of hearing aids in instances of hearing loss and recommendations against the use of medicines were consistent across......Background: Though clinical guidelines for assessment and treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus do exist, a comprehensive review of those guidelines has not been performed. The objective of this review was to identify current clinical guidelines, and compare their recommendations...... for the assessment and treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. Method: We systematically searched a range of sources for clinical guidelines (as defined by the Institute of Medicine, United States) for the assessment and/or treatment of subjective tinnitus in adults. No restrictions on language or year...

  9. Summary and conclusions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Subrahmanyam, C

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_233.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  11. Conclusion Dokter en digter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-08-17

    Aug 17, 1994 ... Die see sy sagte aandgebed laat hoor. Kyk hoe die alwee kand'laars teen die hang. Aan brand gesteek word deur die Westerson! Met mantels van skarlaken, goud-omsoom. Staan wolke in die weste saamgeskaar: In die draaikolk van die duisternis. Wat nou die klere uit die weste suig. En soos 'n dief sluip ...

  12. Geomagnetic field: Conclusions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gorodnitsky, A; Subrahmanyam, A

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  13. Conclusions and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettuzzi, Saverio

    2009-01-01

    Since its first discovery, CLU has been fascinating many researchers around the world, probably because CLU has always been a surprise. In many studies, CLU showed up unexpected as a secondary but significant observation in the hands of scientists which probably had no specific intention to study it. Too often the first descriptions of the structure, action, and biological meaning of CLU had to be changed in the light of novel and rather surprising findings, making what was thought to be well established, actually obsolete. CLU is a biological object still in movement. To understand more, we will have to cope correctly with this challenge. As an Ariadne's thread, following CLU we will challenge our static ideas pointing to alternative views which will possibly lead us to a different thinking and a much better understanding of the complexity of cell transformation. In this final chapter, we will provide "take home messages" from the chapters of vols. 104 and 105 concerning the most up to date knowledge about CLU. Then we will provide some agreements and consensus in this field, wherever possible. Highlighting possible faults or misunderstandings, we will define the open issues which will very likely drive the research on CLU in the near future. Finally, we will address how this novel knowledge about CLU may possibly result in important implementations, from basic science all the way to the clinical setting, in the fight against cancer.

  14. Conclusions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van H.; Kabat, P.; Connor, R.

    2003-01-01

    Work will continue. The Water-and-Climate ball is rolling and there is a strong commitment to keep it going. This wrapup chapter contains a ten-point action agenda for countries, river basin authorities, regional organisations and the international development community. Contents: 6.1 Undeniable

  15. Conclusion of the Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Rob; Sloep, Peter; Hummel, Hans; Vogten, Hubert; van Bruggen, Jan; Specht, Marcus; Greller, Wolfgang

    The aim of this book, as described in the introduction, is to help people to further develop their professional competences during their careers by using the innovative powers of new media, mobile devices, and modern Internet services. This is related to the question of how to become and stay employable as a professional, given the permanently changing knowledge and technologies, and the change of jobs and markets during their careers. We have explained that the traditional educational method is not always the most suitable for all types of learning and especially not suitable for every professional.

  16. Conclusions and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Benchmarking, when done properly, offers a lot of promise for higher education units that want to improve how they do business. It is clear that much is known, but still more needs to be learned before it reaches its full potential as a useful tool. Readers of this issue of "New Directions for Institutional Research" have been treated to useful…

  17. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  18. How leaders create and use networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Herman; Hunter, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Most people acknowledge that networking-creating a fabric of personal contacts to provide support, feedback, insight, and resources--is an essential activity for an ambitious manager. Indeed, it's a requirement even for those focused simply on doing their current jobs well. For some, this is a distasteful reality. Working through networks, they believe,means relying on "who you know" rather than "what you know"--a hypocritical, possibly unethical, way to get things done. But even people who understand that networking is a legitimate and necessary part of their jobs can be discouraged by the payoff--because they are doing it in too limited a fashion. On the basis of a close study of 30 emerging leaders, the authors outline three distinct forms of networking. Operational networking is geared toward doing one's assigned tasks more effectively. It involves cultivating stronger relationships with colleagues whose membership in the network is clear; their roles define them as stakeholders. Personal networking engages kindred spirits from outside an organization in an individual's efforts to learn and find opportunities for personal advancement. Strategic networking puts the tools of networking in the service of business goals. At this level, a manager creates the kind of network that will help uncover and capitalize on new opportunities for the company. The ability to move to this level of networking turns out to be a key test of leadership. Companies often recognize that networks are valuable, andthey create explicit programs to support them. But typically these programs facilitate only operational networking. Likewise, industry associations provide formal contexts for personal networking. The unfortunate effect is to give managers the impression that they know how to network and are doing so sufficiently. A sidebar notes the implication for companies' leadership development initiatives: that teaching strategic networking skills will serve their aspiring leaders and

  19. A Comparison of the Glasgow Coma Scale Score with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Scale to Predict Patients’ Traumatic Brain Injury Outcomes in Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostam Jalali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment is an essential element of early warning scores used to recognize critically ill patients. We compared the performance of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS with Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR scale as an alternative method in the identification of clinically relevant outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of GCS with FOUR scale. Methods. For this study 104 patients with brain injury were recruited from the ICU of Taleghani Hospital, a major teaching hospital in Kermanshah in the western part of Iran. Data was collected concurrently from the ICU admissions by three well-educated nurses and then checked for accuracy by the researcher. Patients were followed up until two weeks or hospital discharge to record their survival status. As a final point expected risk of mortality was calculated using the original formulas for each scale. Results. The mean age of 104 participants was 41.38 ± 18.22 (rang 17 to 86 years mostly (81 patients 77.9% males. The FOUR scale has a better prediction for death than GCS. Conclusion. It appears that FOUR scale had better predictive power for mortality and may be a suitable alternative or complementary tool for GCS.

  20. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  1. Obama Outlines NCLB Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele; Klein, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration will waive cornerstone requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act, including the 2014 deadline for all students to be proficient in math and reading/language arts, and will give states the freedom to set their own student-achievement goals and design their own interventions for failing schools. In exchange for that…

  2. Moses Maimonides: Biographic Outlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Rosner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Moses, son of Maimon (Rambam in Hebrew, Abu Imran Musa Ibn Maimun in Arabic, was born in Cordova, Spain on 30 March 1135, corresponding to Passover eve of the Hebrew year 4895. His mother died in childbirth, and consequently his father Dayan (judge Maimon raised him. Persecution by the Almochades, a fanatical group from North Africa, forced the Maimon family to flee Cordova in the year 1148. Maimonides was 13 years old. The family wandered through southern Spain and northern Africa for the next 10 years and finally settled in Fez, Morocco in 1158.

  3. Compulsive buying in outline

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Zadka; Marcin Olajossy

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occu...

  4. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  5. Schaum's outline of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Students can gain a thorough understanding of differential and integral calculus with this powerful study tool. They'll also find the related analytic geometry much easier. The clear review of algebra and geometry in this edition will make calculus easier for students who wish to strengthen their knowledge in these areas. Updated to meet the emphasis in current courses, this new edition of a popular guide­­--more than 104,000 copies were bought of the prior edition--­­includes problems and examples using graphing calculators.

  6. Massive wildlife project outlined

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — News article on the Chase Lake Prairie Project that is centered on the Chase Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Over the next 11 years the project aims to support 1.3...

  7. Oceanography: scientific outline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proposed subject for a film series; oceanography, ocean physics, ocean circulation, waves, tsunamis, tides, seawater, life in the sea, marine ecology, marine resources, limonology, pollution and conservation, mineral exploration...

  8. Compulsive buying in outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadka, Łukasz; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    In spite of a hundred year long history of scientific research compulsive buying has been a hardly known phenomenon until today. Ambiguous scientific information makes it impossible to classify compulsive buying as a separate mental disorder. Recently many researchers have noticed phenomenological compatibility of compulsive buying with behavioural addictions. Nowadays, there is reasonable grounds that compulsive buying disorder can be defined as an addiction. There are many similarities occurring between a consumer type behaviours in compulsive buyers and a pathologic consumption of psychoactive substances which included the obsessive need to consumer or a compulsion to consume, personal dependence and loss of control over self-behaviour, as well as tendencies to the consumption increase. Compulsive buying disorder differs in its course from the compulsive behaviours. A strong compulsion to make a given activity, often impossible to restrain is associated with overwhelming but acceptable desire to purchase a specific item. Due to the latest information about the described phenomenon, it has been decided to present current knowledge of adequate classifications, epidemiology and therapy of compulsive buyers. In the article authors' own standpoint as regards pathogenesis and potential risk factors was described.

  9. [Outline of Nahua ethnopsychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, S J

    1994-11-01

    In this paper we will show some historical and cultural aspects of the Aztec's medicine and cosmology at the XVI century. The Aztecs or Nahuas used to believe in different kinds of anemic entities, the most important ones being the tonalli, the ihiyotl and the teyolia. At the time the word tonalli meant, simultaneously, the particular "genius" of everyone, good fortune and the "star" or destiny. The tonalli's loss was a cause of illness and dead and it could be provoked by some physical violent acts or by sudden feelings of fright. The most frequent expression of this sickness was named tetonalcahualiztli. The hispanic designation of this problem is susto. The Nahuas used many kind of psychological proceedings in order to alleviate anguish and to treat mental troubles. Illness was considered by nahuas practitioners as the balance's loss of the organism, not only of its own components but also of its relationship with the world.

  10. A Bayesian network approach to the database search problem in criminal proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The ‘database search problem’, that is, the strengthening of a case - in terms of probative value - against an individual who is found as a result of a database search, has been approached during the last two decades with substantial mathematical analyses, accompanied by lively debate and centrally opposing conclusions. This represents a challenging obstacle in teaching but also hinders a balanced and coherent discussion of the topic within the wider scientific and legal community. This paper revisits and tracks the associated mathematical analyses in terms of Bayesian networks. Their derivation and discussion for capturing probabilistic arguments that explain the database search problem are outlined in detail. The resulting Bayesian networks offer a distinct view on the main debated issues, along with further clarity. Methods As a general framework for representing and analyzing formal arguments in probabilistic reasoning about uncertain target propositions (that is, whether or not a given individual is the source of a crime stain), this paper relies on graphical probability models, in particular, Bayesian networks. This graphical probability modeling approach is used to capture, within a single model, a series of key variables, such as the number of individuals in a database, the size of the population of potential crime stain sources, and the rarity of the corresponding analytical characteristics in a relevant population. Results This paper demonstrates the feasibility of deriving Bayesian network structures for analyzing, representing, and tracking the database search problem. The output of the proposed models can be shown to agree with existing but exclusively formulaic approaches. Conclusions The proposed Bayesian networks allow one to capture and analyze the currently most well-supported but reputedly counter-intuitive and difficult solution to the database search problem in a way that goes beyond the traditional, purely formulaic expressions

  11. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  12. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  13. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  14. Geometric morphometric analysis of shape outlines of the normal and abnormal fetal skull using three-dimensional sonographic multiplanar display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelson, B; Vohra, N; Krantz, D; Macri, V J

    2006-02-01

    Geometric morphometric analysis has been used to quantify differences in biological shapes. Cranial irregularities are described in anomalous fetuses but are qualitative and ill-defined. Our goal was to apply geometric morphometric statistical analysis using three-dimensional (3D) multiplanar display to quantify shape differences in normal and abnormal fetal skulls. This was a retrospective pilot study of mid-trimester patients undergoing ultrasonography. 3D multiplanar display using spatial rotation was used to identify landmarks in coronal and transverse planes to establish a consistent fetal facial profile. Outline coordinates of the brow were determined by blinded examiners using computer software. Elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) was used to obtain sets of functional coefficients. An atypicality index (AI) was determined from retained principal component (PC) scores. An AI > 95(th) percentile of the expected distribution defined outliers. Outlines were successfully identified in 38 patients (six abnormal). Using the AI, there were three outliers, all from abnormal fetuses (trisomy 18, trisomy 21, and campomelic dysplasia). Two fetuses with trisomy 21 and one with an unbalanced translocation had normal atypicality indices. 3D multiplanar display and geometric morphometric analysis enable quantification of fetal skull shape. An abnormal skull shape was identified in two of four aneuploid fetuses and no normal ones. Geometric morphometric analysis represents a promising new quantitative modality which, when applied with 3D sonographic multiplanar display, may be used to more objectively analyze fetal malformation. Larger prospective trials are needed to refine the technique and improve reproducibility. Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG.

  15. Mistletoe Berry Outline Mapping with a Path Curve Function and Recording the Circadian Rhythm of Their Phenotypic Shape Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbidge, Renatus; Baumgartner, Stephan; Heusser, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album) berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months) by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ). λ is known in projective geometry as a measure for pertinent features of the outline shapes of egg-like forms, so called path curves. Ascertained circadian changes of form were analyzed for their correlation with environmental factors such as light, temperature, and other weather influences. Certain weather conditions such as sky cover, i.e., sunshine minutes per hour, have an impact on the amplitude of the daily change in form. The present paper suggests a possible supplement to established methods in chronobiology, as in this case the dynamic of form-change becomes a measurable feature, displaying a convincing accordance between mathematical rule and plant shape.

  16. Mistletoe Berry Outline Mapping with a Path Curve Function and Recording the Circadian Rhythm of their Phenotypic Shape Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renatus Derbidge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discovery: the change of the outline shape of mistletoe (Viscum album ssp. album berries in vivo and in situ during ripening. It was found that a plant organ that is usually considered to merely increase in size actually changes shape in a specific rhythmic fashion. We introduce a new approach to chronobiological research on a macro-phenotypic scale to trace changes over long periods of time (with a resolution from hours to months by using a dynamic form-determining parameter called Lambda (λ. λ is known in projective geometry as a measure for pertinent features of the outline shapes of egg-like forms, so called path curves. Ascertained circadian changes of form were analyzed for their correlation with environmental factors such as light, temperature and other weather influences. Certain weather conditions such as sky cover i.e. sunshine minutes per hour, have an impact on the amplitude of the daily change in form. The present paper suggests a possible supplement to established methods in chronobiology, as in this case the dynamic of form-change becomes a measurable feature, displaying a convincing accordance between mathematical rule and plant shape.

  17. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  18. The Australasian Society for Infectious Diseases and Refugee Health Network of Australia recommendations for health assessment for people from refugee-like backgrounds: an abridged outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Nadia J; Paxton, Georgia A; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Thambiran, Aesen; Gardiner, Joanne; Williams, Jan; Smith, Mitchell M; Davis, Joshua S

    2017-04-17

    In 2009, the Australasian Society of Infectious Diseases published guidelines on the post-arrival health assessment of recently arrived refugees. Since then, the number of refugees and asylum seekers reaching Australia has increased substantially (17 555 refugees in 2015-16) and the countries of origin have changed. These groups are likely to have had poor access to health care pre-arrival and, consequently, are at risk of a range of chronic and infectious diseases. We established an advisory group that included infectious diseases physicians, general practitioners, public health specialists, paediatricians and refugee health nurses to update the 2009 guidelines.Main recommendations: All people from refugee-like backgrounds, including children, should be offered a tailored comprehensive health assessment and management plan, ideally within 1 month of arrival in Australia. This can be offered at any time if initial contact with a GP or clinic is delayed. Recommended screening depends on history, examination and previous investigations, and is tailored based on age, gender, countries of origin and transit and risk profile. The full version of the guidelines is available at http://www.asid.net.au/documents/item/1225.Changes in management as a result of this guideline: These guidelines apply to all people from refugee-like backgrounds, including asylum seekers. They provide more information about non-communicable diseases and consider Asia and the Middle East as regions of origin as well as Africa. Key changes include an emphasis on person-centred care; risk-based rather than universal screening for hepatitis C virus, malaria, schistosomiasis and sexually transmissible infections; updated immunisation guidelines; and new recommendations for other problems, such as nutritional deficiencies, women's health and mental health.

  19. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  20. Creative Network Communities in the Translocal Space of Digital Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Smite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available What should sociological research be in the age of Web 2.0? Considering that the task of “network sociology” is not only empirical research but also the interpretation of tendencies of the network culture, this research explores the rise of network communities within Eastern and Western Europe in the early Internet era. I coined the term creative networks to distinguish these early creative and social activities from today’s popular social networking. Thus I aimed to interpret the meaning of social action; the motivation of creative community actors, their main fields of activities and social organization forms; and the potential that these early developments contain for the future sustainability of networks. Data comprise interviews with networking experts and founders and members of various networks. Investigating respondents’ motivations for creating online networks and communities, and interpreting those terms, allows for comparing the creative networks of the 1990s with today’s social networks and for drawing conclusions.

  1. Process query systems for network security monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Vincent; Fox, Naomi

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we present the architecture of our network security monitoring infrastructure based on a Process Query System (PQS). PQS offers a new and powerful way of efficiently processing data streams, based on process descriptions that are submitted as queries. In this case the data streams are familiar network sensors, such as Snort, Netfilter, and Tripwire. The process queries describe the dynamics of network attacks and failures, such as worms, multistage attacks, and router failures. Using PQS the task of monitoring enterprise class networks is simplified, offering a priority-based GUI to the security administrator that clearly outlines events that require immediate attention. The PQS-Net system is deployed on an unsecured production network; the system has successfully detected many diverse attacks and failures.

  2. Attractor metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso M De la Fuente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a Systemic Metabolic Structure in the cell, characterized by a set of different enzymatic reactions always locked into active states (metabolic core while the rest of the catalytic processes are only intermittently active. This global metabolic structure was verified for Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it seems to be a common key feature to all cellular organisms. In concordance with these observations, the cell can be considered a complex metabolic network which mainly integrates a large ensemble of self-organized multienzymatic complexes interconnected by substrate fluxes and regulatory signals, where multiple autonomous oscillatory and quasi-stationary catalytic patterns simultaneously emerge. The network adjusts the internal metabolic activities to the external change by means of flux plasticity and structural plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to research the systemic mechanisms involved in the regulation of the cellular enzymatic activity we have studied different catalytic activities of a dissipative metabolic network under different external stimuli. The emergent biochemical data have been analysed using statistical mechanic tools, studying some macroscopic properties such as the global information and the energy of the system. We have also obtained an equivalent Hopfield network using a Boltzmann machine. Our main result shows that the dissipative metabolic network can behave as an attractor metabolic network. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have found that the systemic enzymatic activities are governed by attractors with capacity to store functional metabolic patterns which can be correctly recovered from specific input stimuli. The network attractors regulate the catalytic patterns

  3. If you can't beat 'em, join 'em: Cooperative and non-cooperative games in network sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offergelt, F.H.S.; Berkers, F.T.H.M.; Hendrix, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    No Mobile Network Operator (MNO) will make the decision to share its network lightly. There are many financial and strategic considerations to this question. In this paper we outline a non-cooperative game which can be used to model the strategic decision of an MNO regarding mobile network sharing

  4. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  5. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  6. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  7. Conclusions in systematic reviews of mammography for breast cancer screening and associations with review design and author characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichand, Smriti; Dunn, Adam G; Ong, Mei-Sing; Bourgeois, Florence T; Coiera, Enrico; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2017-05-22

    Debates about the benefits and harms of mammography continue despite the accumulation of evidence. We sought to quantify the disagreement across systematic reviews of mammography and determine whether author or design characteristics were associated with conclusions that were favourable to the use of mammography for routine breast cancer screening. We identified systematic reviews of mammography published between January 2000 and November 2015, and extracted information about the selection of evidence, age groups, the use of meta-analysis, and authors' professions and financial competing interest disclosures. Conclusions about specific age groups were graded as favourable if they stated that there were meaningful benefits, that benefits of mammography outweighed harms, or that harms were inconsequential. The main outcome measures were the proportions of favourable conclusions relative to review design and author characteristics. From 59 conclusions identified in 50 reviews, 42% (25/59) were graded as favourable by two investigators. Among the conclusions produced by clinicians, 63% (12/19) were graded as favourable compared to 32% (13/40) from other authors. In the 50-69 age group where the largest proportion of systematic reviews were focused, conclusions drawn by authors without financial competing interests (odds ratio 0.06; 95% CI 0.07-0.56) and non-clinicians (odds ratio 0.11; 95% CI 0.01-0.84) were less likely to be graded as favourable. There was no trend in the proportion of favourable conclusions over the period, and we found no significant association between review design characteristics and favourable conclusions. Differences in the conclusions of systematic reviews of the evidence for mammography have persisted for 15 years. We found no strong evidence that design characteristics were associated with greater support for the benefits of mammography in routine breast cancer screening. Instead, the results suggested that the specific expertise and

  8. Integrative Genomics Outlines a Biphasic Glucose Response and a ChREBP-RORγ Axis Regulating Proliferation in β Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Madsen, Jesper Grud Skat; Frafjord, Kari Østerli

    2016-01-01

    activity in response to glucose in the INS-1E pancreatic β cell line. Our data outline a biphasic response with a first transcriptional wave during which metabolic genes are activated, and a second wave where cell-cycle genes are activated and β cell identity genes are repressed. The glucose......-sensing transcription factor ChREBP directly activates first wave enhancers, whereas repression and activation of second wave enhancers are indirect. By integrating motif enrichment within late-regulated enhancers with expression profiles of the associated transcription factors, we have identified multiple putative...... regulators of the second wave. These include RORγ, the activity of which is important for glucose-induced proliferation of both INS-1E and primary rat β cells....

  9. Outline and comparison of the possible effects present in a metal-thin-film-insulator-semiconductor solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The advantages possible with the insertion of a thin-film insulating or semi-insulating layer between a metal and a semiconductor to form the MIS photovoltaic device have been presented previously in the literature. This MIS configuration may be considered as a specific example of a more general class of photovoltaic devices: electrode-thin-film-insulator-semiconductor devices. Since the advantages of the configuration were pointed out, there has been considerable experimental interest in these photovoltaic devices. Because the previous analysis showed that the introduction of the insulator layer could produce several different but advantageous effects, this paper presents a further outline giving a comparison of these effects together with their ramifications.

  10. Towards sustainability: An interoperability outline for a Regional ARC based infrastructure in the WLCG and EGEE infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Field, L; Johansson, D; Kleist, J

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability of grid infrastructures is becoming increasingly important in the emergence of large scale grid infrastructures based on national and regional initiatives. To achieve interoperability of grid infrastructures adaptions and bridging of many different systems and services needs to be tackled. A grid infrastructure offers services for authentication, authorization, accounting, monitoring, operation besides from the services for handling and data and computations. This paper presents an outline of the work done to integrate the Nordic Tier-1 and 2s, which for the compute part is based on the ARC middleware, into the WLCG grid infrastructure co-operated by the EGEE project. Especially, a throughout description of integration of the compute services is presented.

  11. Multicultural psychiatric education: using the DSM-IV-TR Outline for Cultural Formulation to improve resident cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Treniece Lewis; McQuery, Joy; Raab, Barbara; Elmore, Shekinah

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a 9-week multicultural competence course organized around the DSM-IV-TR Outline for Cultural Formulation. The course alternated large group lectures with experiential small group discussions to acquire knowledge, develop skills, and explore attitudes. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the course on residents' training and application of multicultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Second-, third- and fourth-year residents completed anonymous self-report questionnaires immediately before and after the course and 9 months following the course. Residents' pre- and postcourse scores indicated statistically significant increases in multicultural knowledge, attitudes, and clinical application. Residents did not report additional gains in multicultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes at the 9-month follow-up. This multicultural training course resulted in modest gains in resident training in multicultural knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Further study is needed to determine ways to sustain immediate multicultural knowledge and ways to support long-term application of multicultural education.

  12. Northern Ireland and 'The Troubles', outlining an innovative approach to nursing/midwifery student teaching and module evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Johanna; Clarke, Susan A; O'Hagan, Marie Therese; O'Connor, Tony; Power, John J

    2016-02-01

    This discussion paper outlines an approach to developing and evaluating an educative programme primarily delivered by lay `citizen trainers' in educating student nurses, and student midwives to the impact of and experience of extended and extensive civil unrest within their communities (`the Troubles' ). This is drawn from experience within the Northern Ireland `Troubles' and all of the citizen trainers were directly affected physically/psychologically. The programme was intended to both educate but primarily to help facilitate student nurses and student midwives to better understanding to experience and context and to more effective care delivery to those affected by/damaged by `the Troubles'. Evaluation of the teaching and learning by the students was significantly positive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  14. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  15. Significance of the Maritimes Region ecosystem research initiative to marine protected area network planning within Fisheries and Oceans Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawton, P; Westhead, M; Greenlaw, M.E; Smith, S.J; Brown, C.J; Quigley, S; Brickman, D

    2013-01-01

    This research document outlines the relevance to Marine Protected Area (MPA) network planning of scientific work recently completed under Fisheries and Oceans Canada's Maritimes Region Ecosystem Research Initiative (ERI...

  16. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP, which is open-accessible now (http://ieg2.ou.edu/MENA. Conclusions The RMT-based molecular ecological network analysis provides powerful tools to elucidate network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes, which are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology and environmental microbiology.

  17. Partial networking. Deactivation of inactive ECUs; Teilnetzbetrieb. Abschaltung inaktiver Steuergeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, Stephan [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Meyer, Juergen [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Projekt Teilnetzbetrieb und WakeUp-Sleep-Konzepte; Linn, Guenter [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany). Bereich Physical Layer Flexray und Hardware-Teilnetzbetrieb

    2012-02-15

    CAN partial networking technology makes it possible to reduce power consumption and ensures energy efficiency during both operating and idle time. Audi is developing and standardizing this technology in collaboration with other OEMs and semiconductor manufacturers. Partial networking technology will become an inherent item in the Volkswagen Group Networking Technology Kit, with series production planned to begin in 2014. The article deals with the development, application and verification of partial network technology at Audi. The standardization process within the OEM overarching bodies Switch, Autosar and ISO is also outlined. (orig.)

  18. Silicon photonic integrated devices for datacenter optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marco; Chen, Chin-Hui; Kurczveil, Géza; Liang, Di; Peng, Zhen; Beausoleil, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of computing infrastructure and workloads has put an enormous pressure on datacenter networks. It is expected that bandwidth will scale without increases in the network power envelope and total cost of ownership. Networks based on silicon photonic devices promise to help alleviate these problems, but a viable development path for these technologies is not yet fully outlined. In this paper, we report our progress on developing components and strategies for datacenter silicon photonics networks. We will focus on recent progress on compact, low-threshold hybrid Si lasers and the CWDM transceivers based on these lasers as well as DWDM microring resonator-based transceivers.

  19. Biological network motif detection and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wooyoung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular level of biological data can be constructed into system level of data as biological networks. Network motifs are defined as over-represented small connected subgraphs in networks and they have been used for many biological applications. Since network motif discovery involves computationally challenging processes, previous algorithms have focused on computational efficiency. However, we believe that the biological quality of network motifs is also very important. Results We define biological network motifs as biologically significant subgraphs and traditional network motifs are differentiated as structural network motifs in this paper. We develop five algorithms, namely, EDGEGO-BNM, EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM, NMF-BNM, NMFGO-BNM and VOLTAGE-BNM, for efficient detection of biological network motifs, and introduce several evaluation measures including motifs included in complex, motifs included in functional module and GO term clustering score in this paper. Experimental results show that EDGEGO-BNM and EDGEBETWEENNESS-BNM perform better than existing algorithms and all of our algorithms are applicable to find structural network motifs as well. Conclusion We provide new approaches to finding network motifs in biological networks. Our algorithms efficiently detect biological network motifs and further improve existing algorithms to find high quality structural network motifs, which would be impossible using existing algorithms. The performances of the algorithms are compared based on our new evaluation measures in biological contexts. We believe that our work gives some guidelines of network motifs research for the biological networks.

  20. General survey and conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijtema, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Publikatie die bestaat uit twee delen: 1. General survey of the relation between water quantity and water quality; 2. Conclusions with regard to the connection of water quantity and water quality studies of surface waters

  1. Network of networks in Linux operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoqin; Chen, Zhen; Xiao, Guanping; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Operating system represents one of the most complex man-made systems. In this paper, we analyze Linux Operating System (LOS) as a complex network via modeling functions as nodes and function calls as edges. It is found that for the LOS network and modularized components within it, the out-degree follows an exponential distribution and the in-degree follows a power-law distribution. For better understanding the underlying design principles of LOS, we explore the coupling correlations of components in LOS from aspects of topology and function. The result shows that the component for device drivers has a strong manifestation in topology while a weak manifestation in function. However, the component for process management shows the contrary phenomenon. Moreover, in an effort to investigate the impact of system failures on networks, we make a comparison between the networks traced from normal and failure status of LOS. This leads to a conclusion that the failure will change function calls which should be executed in normal status and introduce new function calls in the meanwhile.

  2. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance imidacloprid

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance imidacloprid are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory mammalian toxicology and ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation ...

  3. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of confirmatory data submitted for the active substance ethoprophos

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) following the peer review of the initial risk assessment carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State the United Kingdom, for the pesticide active substance ethoprophos are reported. The context of the peer review was that requested by the European Commission following the submission and evaluation of confirmatory ecotoxicology data. The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the represen...

  4. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Gonon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and

  5. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  6. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  7. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  8. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  9. Multi-scale brain networks

    CERN Document Server

    Betzel, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    The network architecture of the human brain has become a feature of increasing interest to the neuroscientific community, largely because of its potential to illuminate human cognition, its variation over development and aging, and its alteration in disease or injury. Traditional tools and approaches to study this architecture have largely focused on single scales -- of topology, time, and space. Expanding beyond this narrow view, we focus this review on pertinent questions and novel methodological advances for the multi-scale brain. We separate our exposition into content related to multi-scale topological structure, multi-scale temporal structure, and multi-scale spatial structure. In each case, we recount empirical evidence for such structures, survey network-based methodological approaches to reveal these structures, and outline current frontiers and open questions. Although predominantly peppered with examples from human neuroimaging, we hope that this account will offer an accessible guide to any neuros...

  10. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  11. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  12. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  13. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  14. Optimal hub location in pipeline networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dott, D.R.; Wirasinghe, S.C.; Chakma, A. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses optimization strategies and techniques for the location of natural gas marketing hubs in the North American gas pipeline network. A hub is a facility at which inbound and outbound network links meet and freight is redirected towards their destinations. Common examples of hubs used in the gas pipeline industry include gas plants, interconnects and market centers. Characteristics of the gas pipeline industry which are relevant to the optimization of transportation costs using hubs are presented. Allocation techniques for solving location-allocation problems are discussed. An outline of the research in process by the authors in the field of optimal gas hub location concludes the paper.

  15. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonon, Francois; Bezard, Erwan; Boraud, Thomas

    2011-01-31

    There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and the causes of data misrepresentations and suggest a few corrective actions.

  16. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Shweta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Results Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics. Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. Conclusion ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in

  17. Local area networks an introduction to the technology

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, John E

    1985-01-01

    This concise book provides an objective introduction to local area networks - how they work, what they do, and how you can benefit from them. It outlines the pros and cons of the most common configurations so you can evaluate them in light of your own needs. You'll also learn about network software, with special emphasis on the ISO layered model of communications protocols.

  18. Face haulage equipment failure analysis. Volume I. Technical information and conclusions. Final technical report as of November 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W.N.; Orona, F.

    1980-11-01

    Face haulage equipment used in conjunction with continuous miners (shuttle cars, diesel haulers, battery scoops, and bridge conveyors) was investigated by recording section delay reports for computer analysis to determine the effect of haulage equipment failures and downtime on productivity, pinpoint the causes of machine failures and downtime, and develop the possible design and operational changes required to reduce machine failures and downtime and increase section productivity. For the mobile vehicle type of haulage (shuttle car, diesel hauler, and battery scoop) failure of one unit in multiple unit haulage operations would not normally stop section production. Bridge conveyors as a haulage system provide continuous haulage of section production but when any part of the bridge system fails, the section production is stopped. In the course of this program, it was determined through the use of daily section shift reports on 200 machines that face haulage equipment is responsible for about 40 to 56 minutes of lost section production time per shift. The most prevalent failure for shuttle cars was found to be the trailing cable umbilical. Bridge conveyors had the most trouble with the conveyor subsystem. Discussions of these and other recorded failures are developed with possible solutions outlined for future implementation. This report only covers the face haulage element of the continuous miner system. Companion reports were developed for the continuous miner and roof bolter elements under separate task orders.

  19. Financial competing interests were associated with favorable conclusions and greater author productivity in nonsystematic reviews of neuraminidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Zhou, Xujuan; Hudgins, Joel; Arachi, Diana; Mandl, Kenneth D; Coiera, Enrico; Bourgeois, Florence T

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the conclusions and production of nonsystematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors relative to financial competing interests held by the authors. We searched for articles about neuraminidase inhibitors and influenza (January 2005 to April 2015), identifying nonsystematic reviews and grading them according to the favorable/nonfavorable presentation of evidence on safety and efficacy. We recorded financial competing interests disclosed in the reviews and from other articles written by their authors. We measured associations between competing interests, author productivity, and conclusions. Among 213 nonsystematic reviews, 138 (65%) presented favorable conclusions. Financial competing interests were identified for 26% (137/532) of authors; 51% (108/213) of reviews were associated with a financial competing interest. Reviews produced exclusively by authors with financial competing interests (33%; 71/213) were more likely to present favorable conclusions than reviews with no competing interests (risk ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.55). Authors with financial competing interests published more articles about neuraminidase inhibitors than their counterparts. Half of nonsystematic reviews about neuraminidase inhibitors included an author with a financial competing interest. Reviews produced exclusively by these authors were more likely to present favorable conclusions, and authors with financial competing interests published a greater number of reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  1. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  2. Network effects on scientific collaborations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahadat Uddin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analysis of co-authorship network aims at exploring the impact of network structure on the outcome of scientific collaborations and research publications. However, little is known about what network properties are associated with authors who have increased number of joint publications and are being cited highly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Measures of social network analysis, for example network centrality and tie strength, have been utilized extensively in current co-authorship literature to explore different behavioural patterns of co-authorship networks. Using three SNA measures (i.e., degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality, we explore scientific collaboration networks to understand factors influencing performance (i.e., citation count and formation (tie strength between authors of such networks. A citation count is the number of times an article is cited by other articles. We use co-authorship dataset of the research field of 'steel structure' for the year 2005 to 2009. To measure the strength of scientific collaboration between two authors, we consider the number of articles co-authored by them. In this study, we examine how citation count of a scientific publication is influenced by different centrality measures of its co-author(s in a co-authorship network. We further analyze the impact of the network positions of authors on the strength of their scientific collaborations. We use both correlation and regression methods for data analysis leading to statistical validation. We identify that citation count of a research article is positively correlated with the degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of its co-author(s. Also, we reveal that degree centrality and betweenness centrality values of authors in a co-authorship network are positively correlated with the strength of their scientific collaborations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Authors' network positions in co

  3. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  4. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  5. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  6. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  7. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  8. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  9. User-friendly matching protocol for online social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a privacy-preserving matching protocol for OSN (online social network) users to find their potential friends. With the proposed protocol, a logged-in user can match her profile with that of an off-line stranger, while both profiles are maximally protected. Our solution

  10. Bayesian probabilistic network approach for managing earthquake risks of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktarli, Yahya; Faber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the application of Bayesian probabilistic networks (BPNs) to large-scale risk based decision making in regard to earthquake risks. A recently developed risk management framework is outlined which utilises Bayesian probabilistic modelling, generic indicator based risk models...

  11. Signed Networks, Triadic Interactions and the Evolution of Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Károly Takács

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We outline a model to study the evolution of cooperation in a population of agents playing the prisoner's dilemma in signed networks. We highlight that if only dyadic interactions are taken into account, cooperation never evolves. However, when triadic considerations are introduced, a window of opportunity for emergence of cooperation as a stable behaviour emerges.

  12. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Accounting and Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacanski, Slobodan; Lusher, Dean

    2017-01-01

    for different analyses. The example of a one-mode network between audit partners is presented, to which a number of previously outlined concepts are applied and discussed. Finally, we describe the potential of a cutting-edge statistical method for SNA, exponential random graph model (ERGM), which act...

  13. Reframing political violence and mental health outcomes: outlining a research and action agenda for Latin America and the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pedersen

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the number of people exposed to traumatic events has significantly increased as various forms of violence, including war and political upheaval, engulf civilian populations worldwide. In spite of widespread armed conflict, guerrilla warfare and political violence in the Latin American and Caribbean region, insufficient attention had been paid in assessing the medium and long-term psychological impact and additional burden of disease, death, and disability caused by violence and wars amongst civilian populations. Following a review of the literature, a few central questions are raised: What is the short, medium and long-term health impact of extreme and sustained forms of violence in a given population? How political violence is linked to poor mental health outcomes at the individual and collective levels? Are trauma-related disorders, universal outcomes of extreme and sustained violence? These questions lead us to reframe the analysis of political violence and mental health outcomes, and reexamine the notions of trauma, after which a research and action agenda for the region is outlined. In the concluding sections, some basic principles that may prove useful when designing psychosocial interventions in post-conflict situations are reviewed.

  14. Outline of fitness club facilitates and its trend in Japan. Nippon no fitness club no shisetsu gaiyo to doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagano, S. (The Institute of Fitness Business, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)): Saito, H. (Japan Physical Fitness and Sports Foundation, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-07-05

    In Japan, main facilities of the fitness club (FC) are a training room where high space efficiency is obtained and instruction effects are expected, a multi-purpose studio mainly for aerobics dance and a multi-functional swimming pool. The paper outlines these individually. (The retention rate of the facilities except the above three is extremely low.) The floor area of at least 1000m{sup 2} is needed to retain these three facilities. About 58% of all the FCs retain the floor area of 1000 - 3000m{sup 2}. Using 50-55% of the total floor area for the sports space is generally an index of constructing facilities. Moreover, FC is classified here by function such as fitness function, amenities function and by type such as small-size, large size. As for the future trend of FC, notice is taken of where FC is placed as a service business and how to deal with administration. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Model curriculum outline for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle (AFV) automotive technician training in light and medium duty CNG and LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This model curriculum outline was developed using a turbo-DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process which utilizes practicing experts to undertake a comprehensive job and task analysis. The job and task analysis serves to establish current baseline data accurately and to improve both the process and the product of the job through constant and continuous improvement of training. The DACUM process is based on the following assumptions: (1) Expert workers are the best source for task analysis. (2) Any occupation can be described effectively in terms of tasks. (3) All tasks imply knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values. A DACUM panel, comprised of six experienced and knowledgeable technicians who are presently working in the field, was given an orientation to the DACUM process. The panel then identified, verified, and sequenced all the necessary job duty areas and tasks. The broad duty categories were rated according to relative importance and assigned percentage ratings in priority order. The panel then rated every task for each of the duties on a scale of 1 to 3. A rating of 3 indicates an {open_quotes}essential{close_quotes} task, a rating of 2 indicates an {open_quotes}important{close_quotes} task, and a rating of 1 indicates a {open_quotes}desirable{close_quotes} task.

  16. Wars and Conflicts are Only Randomly Connected with Religion and Religious Beliefs. An Outline of Historical, Cognitive, and Evolutionary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szocik Konrad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars that study of religion and religious beliefs find that they affect behavioral patterns. Some of them suggest that this impact is morally wrong because religion and religious beliefs can cause aggression, conflicts, and wars. However, it seems that this topic is more complicated and complex. Here I show that religion and religious beliefs can affect mentioned above morally wrong patterns only in some particular cases. Usually they do not do it. Here I show an outline of philosophical historical approach that was critically oriented against religion and that accused it about conflicts and wars. Then I briefly discuss two current scientific research approaches to the study of religion, cognitive and evolutionary. They falsify these critically oriented philosophers because they treat connection between religious beliefs and conflicts as random and necessary. The core idea of this paper assumes that religious beliefs do not affect aggression and wars directly. They can sometimes strengthen or weaken some biological mechanisms that then can be used to compete by conflicts or by not-violent inter-group competition.

  17. Identification of three common Loliginidae squid species in the South China Sea by analyzing hard tissues with geometric outline method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Bilin; Li, Jianhua; Chen, Xinjun

    2017-10-01

    The hard tissues of squid can provide important information for species identification. In this study, we used statolith and beak to identify three squid species including Uroteuthis duvaucelii, Loliolus beka, and U. edulis in the South China Sea. Because of the highly overlapping habitat and similar body morphology of the three squid species, we explored four different ways to identify them, by using statolith, upper beak, lower beak and a combination of statolith and beak. An outline geometric morphometric method and stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate the most suitable method for the identification. We found that the combination of statolith and beak had the highest cross validation rate that was 75.0%, 87.5% and 88.7% for U. duvaucelii, L. beka and U. edulis, respectively. Using two beaks had similar results and the lowest cross validation rate was 60.0%, 50.0%, and 73.7% for the upper beak, 46.9%, 58.5% and 75.3% for the lower beak of U. duvaucelii, L. beka and U. edulis, respectively. Analyzing with the statolith had moderate cross validation which was 72.2%, 80.0%, and 87.7% for U. duvaucelii, L. beka and U. edulis, respectively. From the results it is suggested when the entire body of a squid is available, a combination of statolith and beak should be used for the identification. When only one hard tissue is available, species identification can be subjected to large errors.

  18. Outline of civil engineering works for Hekinan thermal power plant. Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho doboku koji no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Kinji (Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., Nagoya, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    An outline of major civil engineering works for the coal-fired power plant(2.10 million kW) being constructed in Hekinan City in Aichi Prefecture is introduced. The intake is located at the side of the land from the alignment of reclamation, and the curtain-wall type deep intake facility is installed to prevent the recycling of warm drainage. The most part of the tailrace is constructed on the spread foundation although its length is as long as 1700m and the layer around it is complicated. The outlet is also constructed on the spread foundation and its outlet flux is set to be 0.3m/s. The coal landing pier is 660m long. Since it is long, one block is determined to be 25m, considering the effect of its horizontal force in case of earthquakes or when marine vessels come alongside the pier. The floating movable timbering is applied for the upper part of the pier. The foundation of the coal yard was strengthened in order to support the load of 13t/m{sup 2} securely. Revetment of the ash dumping yard consists of foreland and inland, and the penetration type prefabricated steel sheet-pile cell method is used for it. Structural drawings and construction conditions of facilities are also given. 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Integrative Genomics Outlines a Biphasic Glucose Response and a ChREBP-RORγ Axis Regulating Proliferation in β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Fisker Schmidt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is an important inducer of insulin secretion, but it also stimulates long-term adaptive changes in gene expression that can either promote or antagonize the proliferative potential and function of β cells. Here, we have generated time-resolved profiles of enhancer and transcriptional activity in response to glucose in the INS-1E pancreatic β cell line. Our data outline a biphasic response with a first transcriptional wave during which metabolic genes are activated, and a second wave where cell-cycle genes are activated and β cell identity genes are repressed. The glucose-sensing transcription factor ChREBP directly activates first wave enhancers, whereas repression and activation of second wave enhancers are indirect. By integrating motif enrichment within late-regulated enhancers with expression profiles of the associated transcription factors, we have identified multiple putative regulators of the second wave. These include RORγ, the activity of which is important for glucose-induced proliferation of both INS-1E and primary rat β cells.

  20. Outlining a Population “at Risk” of Parkinson’s Disease: Evidence from a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Schirinzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease (PD requires a careful identification of populations “at risk” of developing the disease. In this case-control study we analyzed a large Italian population, in an attempt to outline general criteria to define a population “at risk” of PD. We enrolled 300 PD patients and 300 controls, gender and age matched, from the same urban geographical area. All subjects were interviewed on demographics, family history of PD, occupational and environmental toxicants exposure, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A sample of 65 patients and 65 controls also underwent serum dosing of iron, copper, mercury, and manganese by means of Inductively Coupled-Plasma-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-MS. Positive family history, toxicants exposure, non-current-smoker, and alcohol nonconsumer status occurred as significant risk factors in our population. The number of concurring risk factors overlapping in the same subject impressively increased the overall risk. No significant differences were measured in the metal serum levels. Our findings indicate that combination of three to four concurrent PD-risk factors defines a condition “at risk” of PD. A simple stratification, based on these questionnaires, might be of help in identifying subjects suitable for neuroprotective strategies.

  1. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  2. It Is Incorrect To Say "The Test Is Reliable": Bad Language Habits Can Contribute to Incorrect or Meaningless Research Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce

    Researchers too frequently consider the reliability of the scores they analyze, and this may lead to incorrect conclusions. Practice in this regard may be negatively influenced by telegraphic habits of speech implying that tests possess reliability and other measurement characteristics. Styles of speaking in journal articles, in textbooks, and in…

  3. "Simply No Worse and Simply No Better" May Simply Be Wrong: A Critique of Veenman's Conclusion about Multigrade Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, De Wayne A.; Burns, Robert B.

    1996-01-01

    Critiques the conclusions of S. Veenman (1995) about multigrade classes and suggests that selection bias and lower-quality instruction should be included as part of the explanation for his findings of no difference. Indicates that multigrade classes have at least a small negative effect on achievement and potentially negative effects on teacher…

  4. A Cross-Disciplinary and Cross-Cultural Study of Directives in Discussions and Conclusions of Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilifar, Alireza; Mehrabi, Khodayar

    2014-01-01

    The current study provided cross-cultural and cross-disciplinary analyses of the distribution of directives in discussion and conclusion sections of English and Persian research articles (RAs) in disciplines of physics, chemistry, counseling, and sociology, representing hard and soft sciences, respectively. To that aim, 80 RAs from both English…

  5. The neural development of conditional reasoning in children: Different mechanisms for assessing the logical validity and likelihood of conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Flora; Epinat-Duclos, Justine; Léone, Jessica; Prado, Jérôme

    2017-09-19

    Scientific and mathematical thinking relies on the ability to evaluate whether conclusions drawn from conditional (if-then) arguments are logically valid. Yet, the neural development of this ability -- termed deductive reasoning -- is largely unknown. Here we aimed to identify the neural mechanisms that underlie the emergence of deductive reasoning with conditional rules in children. We further tested whether these mechanisms have their roots in the neural mechanisms involved in judging the likelihood of conclusions. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner, 8- to 13-year-olds were presented with causal conditional problems such as "If a baby is hungry then he will start crying; The baby is crying; Is the baby hungry?". In Validity trials, children were asked to indicate whether the conclusion followed out of necessity from the premises. In Likelihood trials, they indicated the degree of likelihood of the conclusion. We found that children who made accurate judgments of logical validity (as compared to those who did not) exhibited enhanced activity in left and medial frontal regions. In contrast, differences in likelihood ratings between children were related to differences of activity in right frontal and bilateral parietal regions. There was no overlap between the brain regions underlying validity and likelihood judgments. Therefore, our results suggest that the ability to evaluate the logical validity of conditional arguments emerges from brain mechanisms that qualitatively differ from those involved in evaluating the likelihood of these arguments in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, Heart Healthy Omega-3s for Food: Stearidonic Acid (SDA) as a Sustainable Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Calder, Philip C; Harris, William S; Akoh, Casimir C; Maki, Kevin C; Whelan, Jay; Banz, William J; Kennedy, Eileen

    2012-03-01

    Faculty who had presented at the symposium "Heart Healthy Omega-3s (n-3 fatty acids) for Food: Stearidonic Acid (SDA) as a Sustainable Choice" met and agreed upon conclusions and recommendations that could be made on the basis of evidence provided at the symposium. The participants also submitted manuscripts relating to their topics and these are presented in this supplement. These manuscripts were reviewed and also contributed to the conclusions and recommendations presented herein. The three major objectives of the symposium were to: 1) increase understanding of the current and emerging knowledge regarding the health benefits of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) including a focus on stearidonic acid (SDA) and EPA; 2) evaluate the importance of increasing (n-3) FA consumption in the US and the current challenge of doing so via mainstream foods; and 3) consider the health and food application benefits of SDA as a precursor to EPA and a plant-based sustainable source of highly unsaturated (n-3) FA for mainstream foods. Specific areas for future research were defined and included in the summary and conclusions herein. Overall evidence-based conclusions included: the current evidence provides a strong rationale for increasing (n-3) FA intakes in the US and other populations; current consumption of (n-3) FA in most populations is either insufficient or not efficient at providing adequate tissue levels of the long-chain (n-3) FA EPA and DHA; SDA in soybean oil appears to be a cost-effective and sustainable plant-based source that could contribute to reaching recommended levels of (n-3) FA intake, but more research and surveillance is needed; and adding SDA-enriched soybean oil to foods should be considered as a natural fortification approach to improving (n-3) FA status in the US and other populations. References for these conclusions and recommendations can be found in the articles included in the supplement.

  7. Multidimensional Convergence in Future 5G Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Marco

    2017-02-01

    Future 5G services are characterised by unprecedented need for high rate, ubiquitous availability, ultra-low latency and high reliability. The fragmented network view that is widespread in current networks will not stand the challenge posed by next generations of users. A new vision is required, and this paper provides an insight on how network convergence and application-centric approaches will play a leading role towards enabling the 5G vision. The paper, after expressing the view on the need for an end-to-end approach to network design, brings the reader into a journey on the expected 5G network requirements and outlines some of the work currently carried out by main standardisation bodies. It then proposes the use of the concept of network convergence for providing the overall architectural framework to bring together all the different technologies within a unifying and coherent network ecosystem. The novel interpretation of multi-dimensional convergence we introduce leads us to the exploration of aspects of node consolidation and converged network architectures, delving into details of optical-wireless integration and future convergence of optical data centre and access-metro networks. We then discuss how ownership models enabling network sharing will be instrumental in realising the 5G vision. The paper concludes with final remarks on the role SDN will play in 5G and on the need for new business models that reflect the application-centric view of the network. Finally, we provide some insight on growing research areas in 5G networking.

  8. Características da clientela e barreiras à conclusão de um curso a distância Trainee characteristics and barriers towards the conclusion of a distance course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Brauer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi subdivida em dois estudos: o Estudo 1 objetivou a construção e validação de escala de Barreiras Pessoais à Conclusão do Curso (N=541. O Estudo 2 verificou o poder de explicação de variáveis antecedentes de características de clientela - dados demográficos - sobre barreiras pessoais à conclusão de um curso a distância. O estudo foi realizado junto ao SEBRAE e constituiu da avaliação do curso Iniciando um Pequeno Grande Negócio - IPGN. A coleta foi realizada via web, por meio de instrumentos digitalizados e hospedados na internet, e ocorreu em duas etapas: a primeira com evadidos, contendo questões abertas sobre motivos de evasão; a segunda, após o curso, aplicou o instrumento de barreiras pessoais à conclusão do curso para os evadidos das turmas. O instrumento apresentou índices psicométricos satisfatórios. Os resultados das análises de regressão múltipla padrão tiveram baixo poder explicativo.This research was subdivided into two studies: Study 1 aimed at the development and validation of the Personal Barriers towards the Conclusion of a Course scale (N=541. In Study 2, the aim was at verifying the explanation of variables of trainee characteristics in personal barriers towards the conclusion of a distance course. This study, in cooperation with SEBRAE, is part of the assessment of the IPGN course. The data was collected on the web, by digitalized instruments and hosted on internet and has been made in two stages: the first with drop outs, containing open questions on the reason why they were quitting the course; the second, after the course, the personal barrier instrument was used at the end of the course with who had dropped out. The instrument presented satisfactory psychometrical indexes. The results of standard multiple regression analyses had a low explicatory power.

  9. NETWORK, HOW? Perceptions of business people on networking practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia De Klerk

    2010-12-01

    and that networking skills form an important part of management and entrepreneurship. The conclusion is that this research supports the notion that networking skills are important and should be developed on a wider basis. Formal courses on networking or incorporation in existing management training and development courses need to be implemented on all levels by educational institutions and government.

  10. Outline of changes in cortisol and melatonin circadian rhythms in the security guards of shiraz university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zamanian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study aimed to investigate the subsequences of shift working in the security guards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences and showed that occupational exposure to bright light could affect some biological markers, such as melatonin and cortisol secretion.

  11. Jugular bulb oxygen saturation correlates with Full Outline of Responsiveness score in severe traumatic brain injury patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senapathi, Tjokorda Gde Agung; Wiryana, Made; Sinardja, Ketut; Nada, Ketut Wibawa; Sutawan, Ida Bagus Krisna Jaya; Ryalino, Christopher; Alphonso, Aloysius

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining brain oxygenation status is the main goal of treatment in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2) monitoring is a technique to estimate global balance between cerebral oxygen supply and its metabolic requirement. Full Outline of Responsiveness (FOUR) score, a new consciousness measurement scoring, is expected to become an alternative for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in evaluating neurologic status of patients with severe traumatic head injury, especially for those under mechanical ventilation. A total of 63 patients with severe TBI admitted to emergency department (ED) were included in this study. SjvO2 sampling was taken every 24 hours, until 72 hours after arrival. The assessment of FOUR score was conducted directly after each blood sample for SjvO2 was taken. Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the correlation between SjvO2 and FOUR score. Regression analysis was used to determine mortality predictors. From the 63 patients, a weak positive correlation between SjvO2 and FOUR score (r=0.246, p=0.052) was found upon admission. Meanwhile, strong and moderate negative correlation values were found in 48 hours (r=-0.751, p<0.001) and 72 hours (r=-0.49, p=0.002) after admission. Both FOUR score (p<0.001) and SjvO2 (p=0.04) were found to be independent mortality predictors in severe TBI. There was a negative correlation between the value of SjvO2 and FOUR score at 48 and 72 hours after admission. Both SjvO2 and FOUR score are independent mortality predictors in severe TBI.

  12. A complete survey of normal pores on a smooth shell ostracod (Crustacea): Landmark-based versus outline geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Lavtižar, Vesna; Djurakic, Marko

    2017-08-01

    Pores and sensilla on ostracod shell have often been used in studies of ontogeny, taxonomy, and phylogeny of the group. However, an analysis of sexual dimorphism and variation between valves in the number and distribution of pores is lacking. Also, such studies have never been done on a widely distributed, morphologically variable, and weakly ornamented freshwater ostracod. Here, we survey pores in one such species, Physocypria kraepelini. We choose 27 homologous pores as landmarks for 2D-geometric morphometric analysis, with the aim to assess intersexual and between valves variation in size and shape relative to the Fourier outline analysis. This species has only simple (Type A) pores with and without a lip, and each pore carries an undivided sensory seta. Our results show that the total number of pores varies (from 270 to 296), but this is not associated with a specific valve. Males carry fewer pores than females, however no sex specific pores are found. Small intrapopulation divergence of the Cyt b molecular marker (1%) indicates that morphological variability is not species related. We found that P. kraepelini exhibits directional asymmetry of size and shape, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) but lacks sexual shape dimorphism (SShD). Two geometric morphometrics methods were congruent in the estimation of SSD, SShD, and directional asymmetry of shape but differ in the statistical evaluation of directional asymmetry of size. Contrary to other animal groups, our study suggests that ostracods have more pronounced directional asymmetry of shape compared to directional asymmetry of size. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  14. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  15. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  16. Data quality affects meta-analytic conclusions: a response to Miner and Raju (2004) concerning entrepreneurial risk propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Wayne H; Roth, Philip L

    2004-02-01

    J. B. Miner and N. S. Raju (2004) contended that there are additional studies that compare the risk propensity of entrepreneurs and managers, which, when added to the data from W. H. Stewart and P. L. Roth (2001) and meta-analyzed, produce relationships between risk propensity and entrepreneurial status that are substantially weaker than previously believed. This conclusion was evaluated by identifying and examining methodological problems associated with their inclusion of effect sizes (i.e., ds) from studies with variables not relevant to research questions, dependent samples, extraneous variance in outcome variables, and confusion of constructs. When these methodological issues were addressed, a new meta-analysis indicated an overall conclusion consistent with that of Stewart and Roth, but the results varied according to instrumentation, particularly objective instrumentation (observed d = 0.31) versus the Miner Sentence Completion Scale-Form T (observed d = -0.35). ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  17. An investigation of the "jumping to conclusions" data-gathering bias and paranoid thoughts in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, self-consciousness and paranoid ideation. The AS group performed less well than the control group on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task with regard to accuracy but responded more quickly and tended to make decisions on the basis of less evidence on the Beads Task with 50 % demonstrating a clear 'jumping to conclusions bias', whereas none of the control group showed such a bias. Depression and general anxiety were associated with paranoid ideation but not data-gathering style, which was contrary to expectation.

  18. An Investigation of the "Jumping to Conclusions" Data-Gathering Bias and Paranoid Thoughts in Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänsch, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2014-01-01

    The existence of a data-gathering bias, in the form of jumping to conclusions, and links to paranoid ideation was investigated in Asperger syndrome (AS). People with AS (N = 30) were compared to a neurotypical control group (N = 30) on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Beads tasks, with self-report measures of depression, general anxiety,…

  19. Research publications in the field of health: omission of hypotheses and presentation of common-sense conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Ribeiro Turato

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Medical literature should consist of knowledge applicable to professional education; nevertheless, the profusion of articles in databases provokes disquiet among students. The authors considered the premise that scientific production in the field of health follows a mechanical description of phenomena without the clarity of motivating questions. The aim was to interpret material from expert reports, applied by medical students to analyze articles from renowned journals. DESIGN AND SETTING: This research project was exploratory, searching for latent meanings regarding methodological problems in a sample of papers. It was performed in a Brazilian medical school. METHODS: The sample was intentionally built, consisting of articles related to original research in the field of health, published over the previous five years. The results came from text content analysis, performed by a professor and his medical students. RESULTS: (1 Failure to state a hypothesis is an equivocal practice: articles did not show clarity of hypothesis to demonstrate that their authors had epistemological knowledge of the methods chosen. (2 There is a certain belief that in normal scientific practice, hypotheses are unnecessary: studies without explicit hypotheses led to suppositions that they merely repeat dominant models. (3 Presentation of common sense as scientific conclusions: research brings together what would have mobilized the researchers initially. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of formal hypotheses leaves scientific production vulnerable when put under epistemological discussion. Conclusions from scientific articles are often confounded with common-sense statements. Quantitative research is suggested, for studying the frequency of occurrence of these dubious methodological points.

  20. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...

  1. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    architecture of ‘Hovering Ad-hoc Network (HANET)’ for the latter will be deployed to assist and manage the overloaded primary base stations enhancing the on-demand coverage and capacity of the entire system. Proposed modes can either operate independently or as a cascaded architecture to form a Heterodox......It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide...

  2. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  3. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  4. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  5. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  6. Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner

    2004-01-01

    Building upon a long tradition in sociology, economists have recently turned their attention to the analysis of social networks. The present paper adds to this emerging literature by proposing a different approach to social-network formation. As in the model of Jackson and Wolinsky (1996), formation of a link between two individuals requires two-sided investments in the present framework. But in contrast to their approach, where the required investments are exogenously specified and link form...

  7. Developer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  8. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  9. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  10. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  11. Complex-linear invariants of biochemical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Robert L; Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Dickenstein, Alicia; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2012-10-21

    The nonlinearities found in molecular networks usually prevent mathematical analysis of network behaviour, which has largely been studied by numerical simulation. This can lead to difficult problems of parameter determination. However, molecular networks give rise, through mass-action kinetics, to polynomial dynamical systems, whose steady states are zeros of a set of polynomial equations. These equations may be analysed by algebraic methods, in which parameters are treated as symbolic expressions whose numerical values do not have to be known in advance. For instance, an "invariant" of a network is a polynomial expression on selected state variables that vanishes in any steady state. Invariants have been found that encode key network properties and that discriminate between different network structures. Although invariants may be calculated by computational algebraic methods, such as Gröbner bases, these become computationally infeasible for biologically realistic networks. Here, we exploit Chemical Reaction Network Theory (CRNT) to develop an efficient procedure for calculating invariants that are linear combinations of "complexes", or the monomials coming from mass action. We show how this procedure can be used in proving earlier results of Horn and Jackson and of Shinar and Feinberg for networks of deficiency at most one. We then apply our method to enzyme bifunctionality, including the bacterial EnvZ/OmpR osmolarity regulator and the mammalian 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase glycolytic regulator, whose networks have deficiencies up to four. We show that bifunctionality leads to different forms of concentration control that are robust to changes in initial conditions or total amounts. Finally, we outline a systematic procedure for using complex-linear invariants to analyse molecular networks of any deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    psychological analyses of patients. The paper outlines major historical concepts of color perception and the present usefulness of color vision tests in psychology.

  13. Optimizing the control of foot-and-mouth disease in Denmark by simulation – the project outline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to generate scientifically based methods for improving the control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This was achieved by using and optimizing existing stochastic simulation models. These include the: 1) InterSpread Plus model from Massey....... These control options included different options for emergency vaccination, zoning and culling. Optimal control/eradication strategies was evaluated based on costs, number of culled animals, epidemic duration and time to lift of restrictions on animal movements and trade. An important part of the project...... was to examine the effect of predicted structural changes in livestock populations over the coming years, including fewer but larger herds. The project consisted of 3 work packages: • WP 1: Networking, gap analysis and modelling scenarios. • WP 2: Adaptation, development and optimization of existing disease...

  14. Impact of bowel gas and body outline variations on total accumulated dose with intensity-modulated proton therapy in locally advanced cervical cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Thomas; Petersen, Jørgen Breede Baltzer; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Density changes occurring during fractionated radiotherapy in the pelvic region may degrade proton dose distributions. The aim of the study was to quantify the dosimetric impact of gas cavities and body outline variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven patients with locally advanced....... The anatomy of each fraction was simulated by propagating gas cavities contours and body outlines from each daily CBCT to the pCT. Hounsfield units corresponding to gas and fat were assigned to the propagated contours. D98 (least dose received by the hottest 98% of the volume) and D99.9 for targets and V43Gy...... dose was 45 Gy [Relative-Biological-Effectiveness-weighted (RBE)] in 25 fractions and simultaneously integrated boosts of pathologic lymph nodes were 55-57.5 Gy (RBE). In total, 475 modified CTs were generated to evaluate the effect of: 1/gas cavities, 2/outline variations and 3/the two combined...

  15. Inter-rater reliability of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used scoring system for comatose patients in intensive care. Limitations of the GCS include the impossibility to assess the verbal score in intubated or aphasic patients, and an inconsistent inter-rater reliability. The FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score, a new coma scale not reliant on verbal response, was recently proposed. The aim of the present study was to compare the inter-rater reliability of the GCS and the FOUR score among unselected patients in general critical care. A further aim was to compare the inter-rater reliability of neurologists with that of intensive care unit (ICU) staff. Methods In this prospective observational study, scoring of GCS and FOUR score was performed by neurologists and ICU staff on 267 consecutive patients admitted to intensive care. Results In a total of 437 pair wise ratings the exact inter-rater agreement for the GCS was 71%, and for the FOUR score 82% (P = 0.0016); the inter-rater agreement within a range of ± 1 score point for the GCS was 90%, and for the FOUR score 92% (P = ns.). The exact inter-rater agreement among neurologists was superior to that among ICU staff for the FOUR score (87% vs. 79%, P = 0.04) but not for the GCS (73% vs. 73%). Neurologists and ICU staff did not significantly differ in the inter-rater agreement within a range of ± 1 score point for both GCS (88% vs. 93%) and the FOUR score (91% vs. 88%). Conclusions The FOUR score performed better than the GCS for exact inter-rater agreement, but not for the clinically more relevant agreement within the range of ± 1 score point. Though neurologists outperformed ICU staff with regard to exact inter-rater agreement, the inter-rater agreement of ICU staff within the clinically more relevant range of ± 1 score point equalled that of the neurologists. The small advantage in inter-rater reliability of the FOUR score is most likely insufficient to replace the GCS, a score with a long

  16. SU-F-P-29: Impact of Oral Contrast Agent for Assisting in Outlining Small Intestine On Pelvic IMAT Dose in Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Bai, W; Fan, X [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As the advanced intensity modulated arc therapy(IMAT) delivery systems becoming a main role of treatment ways, which places even greater demands on delivering accuracy. The impact of oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) for assisting in outlining the small intestine on pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer was investigated. Methods: Ten cervical cancer patients for postoperative radiotherapy underwent CT scans, and the planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (including the small intestine, rectum, bladder, colon and the left and right femoral head) were contoured. The IMAT plans were generated on Oncentra v4.1 planning system for each case, PTV was prescribed to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Then another plan was generated by re-calculating the radiation dose after changing the electron density of the small bowel. The first plan (plan A) was the conventional IMAT plan (with oral contrast agent), and the second one (plan B) specified the electron density of the small bowel (without oral contrast agent). Paired t-test was used to compare the dose distribution between the two plans. Results: The PTV’s D2, D50, D95, V110, conformity index, and homogeneity index of plans A and B were 5610.5 vs. 5611.4 cGy (P=0.175), 5348.5 vs. 5348.0 cGy (P=0.869), 5039 vs. 5042.3 (P=0.518), 6.0% vs. 6.1 %( P=0.886), 0.1269 vs. 0.1271 (P=0.34) and 0.8421 vs. 0.8416 (P=0.598), respectively. The volumes of the small bowel receiving at least 30 Gy (V30) and the minimum dose of 2% volume accepted (D2) for plans A and B were 31.6% vs. 31.9% (P=0.371) and 5067.8 vs. 5085.4 cGy (P=0.377), while rectum V50 of the two plans was 12.4% vs. 12.1% (P=0.489). Conclusion: The oral contrast agent (meglumine diatrizoate) filling the small intestine does not lead to a significant increase in the pelvic IMAT dose in patients with cervical cancer.

  17. The impact of using a JAFROC or ROC approach on the conclusions of a typical observer performance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Mohammad; Lee, Warwick; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Bourne, Roger; Ryan, Elaine; Reed, Warren; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: The current study aims to compare ROC with JAFROC methodologies to investigate how the choice of available analytical approaches in observer studies can impact upon study conclusions. Methods and materials: A total of 129 readers independently reviewed 60 mammographic cases, 20 of which were biopsy proven cases (abnormal) and 40 were normal. Each case consisted of the four standard cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) projections. Readers were asked to interpret and locate any presence of cancer, and levels of confidence were scored on a scale of 1-5. Radiology workstations supporting 5MP diagnostic monitors and with full image manipulation tools were used to display all images. JAFROC and ROC methodologies were used and figures of merit and Az values respectively were correlated against key reader characteristics such as experience, qualifications, breast reading practices and physical characteristics using Spearman techniques. Results: Correlation analysis between reader characteristics and JAFROC analysis demonstrated that four key characteristics were linked to performance: years of qualification as a radiologist (p=0.05, r= 0.18), years reading mammograms (p=0.01, r=0.24), number of mammograms read per year (p=0.001, r=0.24), and hours reading mammogram per week (p=0.04, r= 0.19). The ROC method indicated that determinants of performance were confined to years reading mammograms (p=0.02, r = 0.2), and number of mammograms read per year (p=0.04, r=0.23). Conclusion: This work demonstrates the practical impact on study conclusions when different methodologies are used. The location sensitivity approach employed and statistical power with JAFROC, would suggest that the findings from this approach should be prioritized.

  18. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  19. Topology of molecular interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Molecular interactions are often represented as network models which have become the common language of many areas of biology. Graphs serve as convenient mathematical representations of network models and have themselves become objects of study. Their topology has been intensively researched over the last decade after evidence was found that they share underlying design principles with many other types of networks. Initial studies suggested that molecular interaction network topology is related to biological function and evolution. However, further whole-network analyses did not lead to a unified view on what this relation may look like, with conclusions highly dependent on the type of molecular interactions considered and the metrics used to study them. It is unclear whether global network topology drives function, as suggested by some researchers, or whether it is simply a byproduct of evolution or even an artefact of representing complex molecular interaction networks as graphs. Nevertheless, network biology has progressed significantly over the last years. We review the literature, focusing on two major developments. First, realizing that molecular interaction networks can be naturally decomposed into subsystems (such as modules and pathways), topology is increasingly studied locally rather than globally. Second, there is a move from a descriptive approach to a predictive one: rather than correlating biological network topology to generic properties such as robustness, it is used to predict specific functions or phenotypes. Taken together, this change in focus from globally descriptive to locally predictive points to new avenues of research. In particular, multi-scale approaches are developments promising to drive the study of molecular interaction networks further. PMID:24041013

  20. RMBNToolbox: random models for biochemical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Jari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing interest to model biochemical and cell biological networks, as well as to the computational analysis of these models. The development of analysis methodologies and related software is rapid in the field. However, the number of available models is still relatively small and the model sizes remain limited. The lack of kinetic information is usually the limiting factor for the construction of detailed simulation models. Results We present a computational toolbox for generating random biochemical network models which mimic real biochemical networks. The toolbox is called Random Models for Biochemical Networks. The toolbox works in the Matlab environment, and it makes it possible to generate various network structures, stoichiometries, kinetic laws for reactions, and parameters therein. The generation can be based on statistical rules and distributions, and more detailed information of real biochemical networks can be used in situations where it is known. The toolbox can be easily extended. The resulting network models can be exported in the format of Systems Biology Markup Language. Conclusion While more information is accumulating on biochemical networks, random networks can be used as an intermediate step towards their better understanding. Random networks make it possible to study the effects of various network characteristics to the overall behavior of the network. Moreover, the construction of artificial network models provides the ground truth data needed in the validation of various computational methods in the fields of parameter estimation and data analysis.