Sample records for network-based disk block

  1. Analysis of the blocking probability in optical networks based on the enhanced OSPF (United States)

    Xu, Buwei; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Jingjing; Hu, Weisheng


    Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is used for the routing and topology discovery in the optical networks. In the next generation optical network, enhanced OSPF is extended to support opaque LSA. In optical networks, each OXC disseminates the resource information of the optical links that bundled between the adjacent neighbors. Recently proposed enhanced OSPF protocol is promising to reduce the blocking probability of the data plane at the cost the usage of the control channel bandwidth in the control plane. This article has a full analysis of the bandwidth usage due to the optical LSA updates. We also discuss the blocking probability with the enhanced OSPF, some key results on the performance of the enhance OSPF are also given in this article. Finally, we propose a method to balance the tradeoff of the flooding information and the blocking probability.

  2. Block copolymer templated self-assembly of disk-shaped molecules (United States)

    Aragones, J. L.; Alexander-Katz, A.


    Stacking of disk-shaped organic molecules is a promising strategy to develop electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate the capability of a soft block copolymer matrix that microphase separates into a cylindrical phase to direct the self-assembly of disk-shaped molecules by means of molecular simulations. We show that two disk molecules confined in the cylinder domain experience a depletion force, induced by the polymer chains, which results in the formation of stacks of disks. This entropic interaction and the soft confinement provided by the matrix are both responsible for the structures that can be self-assembled, which include slanted or columnar stacks. In addition, we evidence the transmission of stresses between the different minority domains of the microphase, which results in the establishment of a long-ranged interaction between disk molecules embedded in different domains; this interaction is of the order of the microphase periodicity and may be exploited to direct assembly of disks at larger scales.

  3. Comparison of the efficacy of transforaminal and interlaminar radicular block techniques for treating lumbar disk hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the interlaminar and transforaminal block techniques with regard to the state of pain and presence or absence of complications.METHOD: This was a randomized double-blind prospective study of descriptive and comparative nature, on 40 patients of both sexes who presented lumbar sciatic pain due to central-lateral or foraminal disk hernias. The patients had failed to respond to 20 physiotherapy sessions, but did not present instability, as diagnosed in dynamic radiographic examinations. The type of block to be used was determined by means of a draw: transforaminal (group 1; 20 patients or interlaminar (group 2; 20 patients.RESULTS: Forty patients were evaluated (17 males, with a mean age of 49 years. There was a significant improvement in the state of pain in all patients who underwent radicular block using both techniques, although the transforaminal technique presented better results than the interlaminar technique.CONCLUSION: Both techniques were effective for pain relief and presented low complication rates, but the transforaminal technique was more effective than the interlaminar technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor de Barcellos Zanon


    Full Text Available Objective : Compare the interlaminar blocking technique with the transforaminal blocking, with regard to pain and the presence or absence of complications. Methods : Prospective, descriptive and comparative, double-blind, randomized study, with 40 patients of both sex suffering from sciatic pain due to central-lateral or foraminal disc herniation, who did not respond to 20 physiotherapy sessions and had no instability diagnosed on examination of dynamic radiography. The type of blocking, transforaminal or interlaminar, to be performed was determined by draw. Results : We evaluated 40 patients, 17 males, mean age 49 years, average VAS pre-blocking of 8.85, average values in transforaminal technique in 24 hours, 7, 21, and 90 days of 0.71, 1.04, 2.33 and 3.84, respectively; the average VAS post-blocking for interlaminar technique was 0.89, 1.52, 3.63 and 4.88. The techniques differ only in the post-blocking period of 21 days and overall post-blocking, with significance of p=0.022 and p=0.027, respectively. Conclusion : Both techniques are effective in relieving pain and present low complication rate, and the transforaminal technique proved to be the most effective.

  5. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik


    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  6. Comparison of the Effects of 3 Methods of Intrathecal Bupivacaine, Bupivacaine-Fentanyl, and Bupivacaine-Fentanyl-Magnesium Sulfate on Sensory Motor Blocks and Postoperative Pain in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery. (United States)

    Attari, Moahammad A; Najafabadi, Fereidoun Mortazavi; Talakoob, Reyhanak; Abrishamkar, Saeid; Taravati, Hosein


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adding intrathecal (IT) fentanyl and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) to bupivacaine on sensory motor blocks and postoperative pain in patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery. In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, the patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery were allocated to receive hyperbaric bupivacaine (A), or hyperbaric bupivacaine and fentanyl (B), hyperbaric bupivacaine, fentanyl and MgSO4 (C) IT. Data were collected regarding the onset of sensory block and time to regression to T10, time to complete motor block and full motor recovery, time to first analgesic requirement, postoperative pain score, and analgesic consumption and side effects. Prandomized and assigned to 3 groups (n=35 in each groups). There were no significant differences between groups in regard to time to reach the T10 level of sensory block (P=0.82), time to regression to T10 (P=0.11), and the time to complete motor block (P=0.58). Meanwhile, the time to complete recovery of motor function was significantly longer in group C (116.4±18.4, 126.4±25.5, 130.2±15.7 min, respectively, P=0.016). Time to first analgesic requirement was also significantly longer in group C (3.26±1.12, 5.57±0.92, 6.91±1.27 h, respectively, P<0.001). Total morphine consumption was significantly less in group C (14.3±4.3, 8.3±3.5, 6±3.6 mg, respectively, P<0.001). The severity of pain was significantly less in C group (P<0.001). In patients undergoing lumbar disk herniation surgery, IT MgSO4 in combination with bupivacaine-fentanyl can decrease severity of postoperative pain and analgesic consumption without additional side effect.

  7. Herniated disk (United States)

    ... pulposus Herniated disk repair Lumbar spinal surgery - series Herniated lumbar disk References Gardocki RJ, Park AL. Lower back pain and disorders of intervertebral discs. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative ...

  8. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  9. A pilot study examining the effectiveness of physical therapy as an adjunct to selective nerve root block in the treatment of lumbar radicular pain from disk herniation: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Thackeray, Anne; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Zaman, Faisel M; Willick, Stuart E


    Therapeutic selective nerve root blocks (SNRBs) are a common intervention for patients with sciatica. Patients often are referred to physical therapy after SNRBs, although the effectiveness of this intervention sequence has not been investigated. This study was a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness of SNRBs, with or without subsequent physical therapy, in people with low back pain and sciatica. This investigation was a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. The settings were spine specialty and physical therapy clinics. Forty-four participants (64% men; mean age=38.5 years, SD=11.6 years) with low back pain, with clinical and imaging findings consistent with lumbar disk herniation, and scheduled to receive SNRBs participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to receive either 4 weeks of physical therapy (SNRB+PT group) or no physical therapy (SNRB alone [SNRB group]) after the injections. All participants received at least 1 SNRB; 28 participants (64%) received multiple injections. Participants in the SNRB+PT group attended an average of 6.0 physical therapy sessions over an average of 23.9 days. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months with the Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire, a numeric pain rating scale, and the Global Rating of Change. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred over time in both groups, with no differences between groups at either follow-up for any outcome. Nine participants (5 in the SNRB group and 4 in the SNRB+PT group) underwent surgery during the follow-up period. The limitations of this study were a relatively short-term follow-up period and a small sample size. A physical therapy intervention after SNRBs did not result in additional reductions in pain and disability or perceived improvements in participants with low back pain and sciatica.

  10. Optical-Correlator Neural Network Based On Neocognitron (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Stoner, William W.


    Multichannel optical correlator implements shift-invariant, high-discrimination pattern-recognizing neural network based on paradigm of neocognitron. Selected as basic building block of this neural network because invariance under shifts is inherent advantage of Fourier optics included in optical correlators in general. Neocognitron is conceptual electronic neural-network model for recognition of visual patterns. Multilayer processing achieved by iteratively feeding back output of feature correlator to input spatial light modulator and updating Fourier filters. Neural network trained by use of characteristic features extracted from target images. Multichannel implementation enables parallel processing of large number of selected features.

  11. Building a Network Based Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea Shuan Luo


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study about the development of a network based laboratory environment in the “Unix introduction” course for the undergraduate students. The study results and the response from the students from 2005 to 2006 will be used to better understand what kind of method is more suitable for students. We also use the data collected to adjust our teaching strategy and try to build up a network based laboratory environment.

  12. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji


    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  13. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graninger, Dawn; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kastner, Joel, E-mail: [Center for Imaging Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    The distributions and abundances of small organics in protoplanetary disks are potentially powerful probes of disk physics and chemistry. HNC is a common probe of dense interstellar regions and the target of this study. We use the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to observe HNC 3–2 toward the protoplanetary disks around the T Tauri star TW Hya and the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. HNC is detected toward both disks, constituting the first spatially resolved observations of HNC in disks. We also present SMA observations of HCN 3–2 and IRAM 30 m observations of HCN and HNC 1–0 toward HD 163296. The disk-averaged HNC/HCN emission ratio is 0.1–0.2 toward both disks. Toward TW Hya, the HNC emission is confined to a ring. The varying HNC abundance in the TW Hya disk demonstrates that HNC chemistry is strongly linked to the disk physical structure. In particular, the inner rim of the HNC ring can be explained by efficient destruction of HNC at elevated temperatures, similar to what is observed in the ISM. However, to realize the full potential of HNC as a disk tracer requires a combination of high SNR spatially resolved observations of HNC and HCN and disk-specific HNC chemical modeling.

  15. Exploring Disks Around Planets (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  16. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P


    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  17. Workload-Adaptive Management of Energy-Smart Disk Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otoo, Ekow; Rotem, Doron; Tsao, Shih-Chiang


    Recent studies have identified disk storage systems as one of the major consumers of power in data centers. Many disk power management (DPM) schemes were suggested where the power consumed by disks is reduced by spinning them down during long idle periods. Spinning the disks down and up results in additional energy and response time costs. For that reason, DPM schemes are effective only if the disks experience relatively long idle periods and the scheme does not introduce a severe response time penalty. In this paper we introduce a dynamic block exchange algorithm which switches data between disks based on the observed workload such that frequently accessed blocks end up residing on a few"hot" disks thus allowing the majority of disks to experience longer idle periods. We validate the effectiveness of the algorithm with trace-driven simulations showing power savings of up to 60percent with very small response time penalties.

  18. Lifting of a sector block for YE-2 at Kawasaki.

    CERN Document Server

    R. Loveless/U. of Wisconsin


    YE-2 is build from machined sector blocks. Trial assembly is carried out horizontally. This picture represents the lifting of a machined sector block destined to the trial assembly of a half disk YE-2 at Kawasaki (KHI) Kobe, Japan.

  19. disk historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Jakob Egholm


    Review essay om nye værker indenfor jødisk kulturhistorie. Diskussion af værker af Jay Geller, Boaz Neumann og Daniel Greene......Review essay om nye værker indenfor jødisk kulturhistorie. Diskussion af værker af Jay Geller, Boaz Neumann og Daniel Greene...

  20. Thick Disks of Lenticular Galaxies


    Pohlen, M.; Balcells, M.; Luetticke, R.; Dettmar, R. -J.


    Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found around several disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk, the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (~10 Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of disk evolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in external galaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies but detailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only a sc...

  1. A network-based dynamical ranking system

    CERN Document Server

    Motegi, Shun


    Ranking players or teams in sports is of practical interests. From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system is equivalent a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score (i.e., strength) of a player, for example, depends on time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. Our ranking system, also interpreted as a centrality measure for directed temporal networks, has two parameters. One parameter represents the exponential decay rate of the past score, and the other parameter controls the effect of indirect wins on the score. We derive a set of linear online update equ...

  2. Theory of Disk-to-Vesicle Transformation (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Shi, An-Chang


    Self-assembled membranes from amphiphilic molecules, such as lipids and block copolymers, can assume a variety of morphologies dictated by energy minimization of system. The membrane energy is characterized by a bending modulus (κ), a Gaussian modulus (κG), and the line tension (γ) of the edge. Two basic morphologies of membranes are flat disks that minimize the bending energy at the cost of the edge energy, and enclosed vesicles that minimize the edge energy at the cost of bending energy. In our work, the transition from disk to vesicle is studied theoretically using the string method, which is designed to find the minimum energy path (MEP) or the most probable transition path between two local minima of an energy landscape. Previous studies of disk-to-vesicle transition usually approximate the transitional states by a series of spherical cups, and found that the spherical cups do not correspond to stable or meta-stable states of the system. Our calculation demonstrates that the intermediate shapes along the MEP are very different from spherical cups. Furthermore, some of these transitional states can be meta-stable. The disk-to-vesicle transition pathways are governed by two scaled parameters, κG/κ and γR0/4κ, where R0 is the radius of the disk. In particular, a meta-stable intermediate state is predicted, which may correspond to the open morphologies observed in experiments and simulations.

  3. Gas in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Roberge, Aki


    Gas makes up the bulk of the mass in a protoplanetary disk, but it is much more difficult to observe than the smaller dust component. The l ifetime of gas in a disk has far-reaching consequences. including lim iting the time available for giant planet formation and controlling t he migration of planetary bodies of all sizes, from Jupiters to meter-sized planetesimals. Here I will discuss what is known about the gas component of protoplanetary disks, highlighting recent results from i nfrared studies with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Exciting upcoming o pportunities for gas studies will also be discussed. In particular, the first large far-IR survey of gas tracers from young disks will be p erformed using the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (GASPS) Open Time Key Project.

  4. Disk Defect Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...

  5. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia


    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  6. Fast data placement scheme for video server with zoned-disks (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chung; Tsao, Shiao-Li; Chang, Ray-I.; Chen, Meng-Chang; Ho, Jan-Ming; Ko, Ming-Tat


    Recently, zoning technique has been applied to disk technology to increase disk capacities. As a side effect, data transfer rates from outer zones of a hard disk are much higher than those from inner zones. Unfortunately, either VBR nature of video streams or the effects of disk zoning are neglected by previous studies on data placement of VBR video streams on a zoned- disk. Our objective is to minimize server buffer size and to maximize disk utilization subject to the capacity constraints of disk zones. To solve the problem, we adopt the concept of constant read time in which a constant period of time is allocated to retrieve a variable-sized disk block. Blocks retrieved from the same disk zone have the same size. This problem is then formulated as a constrained combinatorial optimization problem. In a previous paper, we present an optimum algorithm to solve the data placement problem based on dynamic programming. In this paper, we present suboptimum heuristics to reduce time and space complexities. The algorithms are implemented in C language and run on Linux operating system and Pentium Pro 200. Preliminary experimental results show that our solutions are very effective. For example, our approach guarantees 100 percent of disk storage efficiency and bandwidth utilization and its buffer size requirement is no more than 3 disk blocks for practical examples. We also run our program on MPEG/1 encoded movie 'Star War', the optimized buffer size is slightly more than 2 disk blocks, e.g., 500KBytes for 140-220KBytes variable-sized disk blocks, with 70 utilization. Preliminary performance studies also shows that the proposed CRT scheme is very promising in maximizing system throughput.

  7. Network-based recommendation algorithms: A review (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Zeng, An; Gillard, Sébastien; Medo, Matúš


    Recommender systems are a vital tool that helps us to overcome the information overload problem. They are being used by most e-commerce web sites and attract the interest of a broad scientific community. A recommender system uses data on users' past preferences to choose new items that might be appreciated by a given individual user. While many approaches to recommendation exist, the approach based on a network representation of the input data has gained considerable attention in the past. We review here a broad range of network-based recommendation algorithms and for the first time compare their performance on three distinct real datasets. We present recommendation topics that go beyond the mere question of which algorithm to use-such as the possible influence of recommendation on the evolution of systems that use it-and finally discuss open research directions and challenges.

  8. Designing Network-based Business Model Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Nekoo, Ali Reza; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Zarei, Behrouz


    Survival on dynamic environment is not achieved without a map. Scanning and monitoring of the market show business models as a fruitful tool. But scholars believe that old-fashioned business models are dead; as they are not included the effect of internet and network in themselves. This paper...... is going to propose e-business model ontology from the network point of view and its application in real world. The suggested ontology for network-based businesses is composed of individuals` characteristics and what kind of resources they own. also, their connections and pre-conceptions of connections...... such as shared-mental model and trust. However, it mostly covers previous business model elements. To confirm the applicability of this ontology, it has been implemented in business angel network and showed how it works....

  9. Network Based High Speed Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter

    In the first decade of the 21st century, New Product Development has undergone major changes in the way NPD is managed and organised. This is due to changes in technology, market demands, and in the competencies of companies. As a result NPD organised in different forms of networks is predicted...... to be of ever-increasing importance to many different kinds of companies. This happens at the same times as the share of new products of total turnover and earnings is increasing at unprecedented speed in many firms and industries. The latter results in the need for very fast innovation and product development...... - a need that can almost only be resolved by organising NPD in some form of network configuration. The work of Peter Lindgren is on several aspects of network based high speed product innovation and contributes to a descriptive understanding of this phenomenon as well as with normative theory on how NPD...

  10. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  11. Network-Based and Binless Frequency Analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybil Derrible

    Full Text Available We introduce and develop a new network-based and binless methodology to perform frequency analyses and produce histograms. In contrast with traditional frequency analysis techniques that use fixed intervals to bin values, we place a range ±ζ around each individual value in a data set and count the number of values within that range, which allows us to compare every single value of a data set with one another. In essence, the methodology is identical to the construction of a network, where two values are connected if they lie within a given a range (±ζ. The value with the highest degree (i.e., most connections is therefore assimilated to the mode of the distribution. To select an optimal range, we look at the stability of the proportion of nodes in the largest cluster. The methodology is validated by sampling 12 typical distributions, and it is applied to a number of real-world data sets with both spatial and temporal components. The methodology can be applied to any data set and provides a robust means to uncover meaningful patterns and trends. A free python script and a tutorial are also made available to facilitate the application of the method.

  12. Network-based analysis of proteomic profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Limsoon


    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a widely used and powerful tool for profiling systems-wide protein expression changes. It can be applied for various purposes, e.g. biomarker discovery in diseases and study of drug responses. Although RNA-based high-throughput methods have been useful in providing glimpses into the underlying molecular processes, the evidences they provide are indirect. Furthermore, RNA and corresponding protein levels have been known to have poor correlation. On the other hand, MS-based proteomics tend to have consistency issues (poor reproducibility and inter-sample agreement) and coverage issues (inability to detect the entire proteome) that need to be urgently addressed. In this talk, I will discuss how these issues can be addressed by proteomic profile analysis techniques that use biological networks (especially protein complexes) as the biological context. In particular, I will describe several techniques that we have been developing for network-based analysis of proteomics profile. And I will present evidence that these techniques are useful in identifying proteomics-profile analysis results that are more consistent, more reproducible, and more biologically coherent, and that these techniques allow expansion of the detected proteome to uncover and/or discover novel proteins.

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH


    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  14. Premixed direct injection disk (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho


    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  15. Lupus Alma Disk Survey (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan


    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  16. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... large groundbased telescopes, mm and radiowave interferometry have been used to image disks around a large number of YSOs revealing disk structure with ever-increasing detail and variety. The disks around YSOs are believed to be the sites of planet formation and a few such associations have now been confirmed.

  17. Dynamic network-based epistasis analysis: Boolean examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio eAzpeitia


    Full Text Available In this review we focus on how the hierarchical and single-path assumptions of epistasis analysis can bias the topologies of gene interactions infered. This has been acknowledged in several previous papers and reviews, but here we emphasize the critical importance of dynamic analyses, and specifically illustrate the use of Boolean network models. Epistasis in a broad sense refers to gene interactions, however, as originally proposed by Bateson (herein, classical epistasis, defined as the blocking of a particular allelic effect due to the effect of another allele at a different locus. Classical epistasis analysis has proven powerful and useful, allowing researchers to infer and assign directionality to gene interactions. As larger data sets are becoming available, the analysis of classical epistasis is being complemented with computer science tools and system biology approaches. We show that when the hierarchical and single-path assumptions are not met in classical epistasis analysis, the access to relevant information and the correct gene interaction topologies are hindered, and it becomes necessary to consider the temporal dynamics of gene interactions. The use of dynamical networks can overcome these limitations. We particularly focus on the use of Boolean networks that, like classical epistasis analysis, relies on logical formalisms, and hence can complement classical epistasis analysis and relax its assumptions. We develop a couple of theoretical examples and analyze them from a dynamic Boolean network model perspective. Boolean networks could help to guide additional experiments and discern among alternative regulatory schemes that would be impossible or difficult to infer without the elimination of these assumption from the classical epistasis analysis. We also use examples from the literature to show how a Boolean network-based approach has resolved ambiguities and guided epistasis analysis. Our review complements previous accounts, not

  18. Identifying Likely Disk-hosting M dwarfs with Disk Detective (United States)

    Silverberg, Steven; Wisniewski, John; Kuchner, Marc J.; Disk Detective Collaboration


    M dwarfs are critical targets for exoplanet searches. Debris disks often provide key information as to the formation and evolution of planetary systems around higher-mass stars, alongside the planet themselves. However, less than 300 M dwarf debris disks are known, despite M dwarfs making up 70% of the local neighborhood. The Disk Detective citizen science project has identified over 6000 new potential disk host stars from the AllWISE catalog over the past three years. Here, we present preliminary results of our search for new disk-hosting M dwarfs in the survey. Based on near-infrared color cuts and fitting stellar models to photometry, we have identified over 500 potential new M dwarf disk hosts, nearly doubling the known number of such systems. In this talk, we present our methodology, and outline our ongoing work to confirm systems as M dwarf disks.

  19. Magnetization reversal in circularly exchange-biased ferromagnetic disks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanase, M.; Petford-Long, A. K.; Heinonen, O.; Buchanan, K.; Sort, J.; Nogues, J.; Seagate Tech.; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona; Colorado State Univ.


    We investigate the reversal behavior of circularly exchange-biased micron-sized bilayer disks of Permalloy (Py)/IrMn and CoFe/IrMn. A circular exchange bias is induced by imprinting the vortex configuration of the ferromagnetic layer into the IrMn when the disks are cooled in zero external field through the blocking temperature of IrMn. The resulting circular exchange bias has a profound effect on the reversal behavior of the ferromagnetic magnetization. In Py/IrMn disks the reversal takes place via vortex motion only, and the behavior is controlled by the exchange bias; it is reversible over a range of small fields and the vortex maintains a single chirality throughout reversal, determined by the chirality of the exchange bias. In CoFe/IrMn disks the non-negligible magnetocrystalline anisotropy causes a reversal via both vortices and domain walls resulting in a finite coercivity, and the behavior is controlled by microstructure. We verify that circular exchange bias does not give rise to a hysteresis loop shift. It lowers coercivity with respect to the field-cooled case, and in Py/IrMn disks it even causes completely reversible magnetic behavior. In both Py/IrMn and CoFe/IrMn disks, circular exchange bias removes the randomness (i.e., stochastic processes due to thermal activation) inherent in single-layer ferromagnetic disks and causes the magnetic behavior to be reproducible over time.

  20. Population Blocks. (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.


    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  1. Cervical Total Disk Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy T; Filler, Ryan J; Savage, Jason W; Benzel, Edward C


    In the United States, cervical total disk arthroplasty (TDA) is US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use in both 1 and 2-level constructions for cervical disk disease resulting in myelopathy and/or radiculopathy. TDA designs vary in form, function, material composition, and even performance in?vivo. However, the therapeutic goals are the same: to remove the painful degenerative/damaged elements of the intervertebral discoligamenous joint complex, to preserve or restore the natural range of spinal motion, and to mitigate stresses on adjacent spinal segments, thereby theoretically limiting adjacent segment disease (ASDis). Cervical vertebrae exhibit complex, coupled motions that can be difficult to artificially replicate. Commonly available TDA designs include ball-and-socket rotation-only prostheses, ball-and-trough rotation and anterior-posterior translational prostheses, as well as unconstrained elastomeric disks that can rotate and translate freely in all directions. Each design has its respective advantages and disadvantages. At this time, available clinical evidence does not favor 1 design philosophy over another. The superiority of cervical TDA over the gold-standard anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a subject of great controversy. Although most studies agree that cervical TDA is at least as effective as anterior cervical discectomy and fusion at reducing or eliminating preoperative pain and neurological symptoms, the clinical benefits of motion preservation- that is, reduced incidence of ASDis-are far less clear. Several short-to-mid-term studies suggest that disk arthroplasty reduces the radiographic incidence of adjacent segment degeneration; however, the degree to which this is clinically significant is disputed. At this time, TDA has not been clearly demonstrated to reduce symptomatic?ASDis.

  2. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Natta, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Scholz, A., E-mail: [School of Cosmic Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  3. Exploring Our Galaxy's Thick Disk (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What is the structure of the Milky Ways disk, and how did it form? A new study uses giant stars to explore these questions.A View from the InsideSchematic showing an edge-on, not-to-scale view of what we think the Milky Ways structurelookslike. The thick disk is shown in yellow and the thin disk is shown in green. [Gaba p]Spiral galaxies like ours are often observed to have disks consisting of two components: a thin disk that lies close to the galactic midplane, and a thick disk that extends above and below this. Past studies have suggested that the Milky Ways disk hosts the same structure, but our position embedded in the Milky Way makes this difficult to confirm.If we can measure the properties of a broad sample of distant tracer stars and use this to better understand the construction of the Milky Ways disk, then we can start to ask additional questions like, how did the disk components form? Formation pictures for the thick disk generally fall into two categories:Stars in the thick disk formed within the Milky Way either in situ or by migrating to their current locations.Stars in the thick disk formed in satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and then accreted when the satellites were disrupted.Scientists Chengdong Li and Gang Zhao (NAO Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) have now used observations of giant stars which can be detected out to great distances due to their brightness to trace the properties of the Milky Ways thick disk and address the question of its origin.Best fits for the radial (top) and vertical (bottom) metallicity gradients of the thick-disk stars. [Adapted from Li Zhao 2017]Probing OriginsLi and Zhao used data from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in China to examine a sample of 35,000 giant stars. The authors sorted these stars into different disk components halo, thin disk, and thick disk based on their kinematic properties, and then explored how the orbital and

  4. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.


    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  5. DVD - digital versatile disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.


    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  6. Network-based in silico drug efficacy screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guney, Emre; Menche, Jörg; Vidal, Marc; Barábasi, Albert-László


    .... Here, we take advantage of our increasing understanding of the network-based origins of diseases to introduce a drug-disease proximity measure that quantifies the interplay between drugs targets and diseases...

  7. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik


    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  8. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia


    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.

  9. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D


    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  10. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (1734), Immanuel Kant (1755) and by Pierre-Simon Laplace (1796) in the 18th century. 4. The circumstantial evidence for circumstellar disks. Till around early 1980s, the evidence for the existence of circumstellar disks around YSOs had been indirect, based on the interpretation of optical-infrared spectral energy distribu-.

  11. Disk Modeling: Arts and Phenomenology (United States)

    Gayley, K. G.; Porter, J. M.


    This article summarizes the focus session on disk modeling arts and phenomenology, which was devoted to the types of interesting physics a disk modeler may wish to include, and how best to include it. It is assumed that the modeling goal is to guide the process of falsification of various hypotheses with data accessible by existing and planned observations. Appropriate modeling choices depend on the conditions and aspects of the problem under study, but the expectation is that observations will yield to correct interpretation only when the key physics is properly understood, and effectively simulated in the models. This focus review first sketches several potentially relevant phenomena that disk modelers may wish to incorporate, especially in regard to the role of magnetic vs. inertial support of disks, and the source of disk angular momentum. It then concludes with some comments on effective numerical modeling strategies for incorporating these effects.

  12. CFD Optimization on Network-Based Parallel Computer System (United States)

    Cheung, Samson H.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)


    Combining multiple engineering workstations into a network-based heterogeneous parallel computer allows application of aerodynamic optimization with advance computational fluid dynamics codes, which is computationally expensive in mainframe supercomputer. This paper introduces a nonlinear quasi-Newton optimizer designed for this network-based heterogeneous parallel computer on a software called Parallel Virtual Machine. This paper will introduce the methodology behind coupling a Parabolized Navier-Stokes flow solver to the nonlinear optimizer. This parallel optimization package has been applied to reduce the wave drag of a body of revolution and a wing/body configuration with results of 5% to 6% drag reduction.

  13. Heart block (United States)

    ... page: // Heart block To use the sharing features on this page, ... Date 4/16/2017 Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of ...

  14. Comparison of Multi Disk Exponential Gas Distribution vs. Single Disk (United States)

    Rao, Erica; O'Brien, James


    In fitting galactic rotation curves to data, most standard theories make use of a single exponential disk approximation of the gas distribution to account for the HI synthesis data observed at various radio telescope facilities. We take a sample of surface brightness profiles from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS), and apply both single disk exponentials and Multi-Disk exponentials, and use these various models to see how the modelling procedure changes the Newtonian prediction of the mass of the galaxy. Since the missing mass problem has not been fully explained in large spiral galaxies, different modelling procedures could account for some of the missing matter.

  15. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore


    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  16. Artificial Neural Network Based State Estimators Integrated into Kalmtool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayramoglu, Enis; Ravn, Ole; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    In this paper we present a toolbox enabling easy evaluation and comparison of dierent ltering algorithms. The toolbox is called Kalmtool and is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation of nonlinear systems. The toolbox now contains functions for Articial Neural Network Based State Estimation...

  17. IPTV inter-destination synchronization: A network-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Mekuria, R.N.


    This paper introduces a novel network-based approach to inter-destination media synchronization. The approach meets the need for synchronization in advanced TV concepts like social TV and offers high scalability, unlike conventional end-point based approaches. The solution for interdestination media

  18. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia


    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  19. The Tilt between Acretion Disk and Stellar Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... large sample of Type 2 AGNs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, York et al. 2000) to a control galaxy sample. Given that the Type 2 AGN fraction is in the range of 70–90 percent for low luminosity AGNs as a priori, we find that the mean tilt between the accretion disk and stellar disk is ∼ 30 degrees (Shen et al.

  20. Heating of protostellar accretion disks (United States)

    de Campos, R. R.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.


    The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is believed to be the mechanism responsible for a magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence that could lead to the accretion observed in protoplanetary disks. The need of a minimum amount of ionization in protostellar accretion disks is necessary for the MRI to take place. There are in the literature several studies that include the damping of Alfvén waves as an additional heating source besides the viscous heating mechanism in a geometrically thin and optically thick disk. The damping of the waves transfers energy to the disk increasing the temperature and consequently its ionization fraction, making possible the presence of the MRI in a large part of the disk. We analyzed the contribution of non-ideal effects such as Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion for the disk heating and compare these heating rates with those obtained by damping of Alfvén waves. In order to study these non-ideal effects, we have estimated the radiation emission of each effect through the energy conservation equation, and associated each emission with a black body radiation, which enabled us to assign a temperature contribution of each effect. Using the ATHENA code we were able to simulate the disk at different radial distances, and estimate the electric current density needed to calculate the radiation emission associated with each effect. Once we have those data, we were able to compare the results with other heating sources, like viscosity and Alfvén waves damping, and we concluded that the Ohmic and ambipolar diffusions do not heat the disk in any significant way.

  1. Bayesian-network-based fault diagnosis methodology of subsea jumper (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Lei; Hu, Song; Xue, Haitao; Wang, Jiaxing


    The paper proposes a Bayesian-network-based real-time fault diagnosis methodology of M-shaped subsea jumper. Finite element models of a typical M-shaped subsea jumper system are built to get the data for diagnosis. Netica is Bayesian-network -based software and is used to construct diagnosis models of the jumper in two main loading conditions which are falling objects and seabed moving. The results show that the accuracy of falling objects diagnosis model with four faults is 100%, and the accuracy of seabed moving diagnosis model with two faults is also 100%. Combine the two models into one and the accuracy of combined model is 96.59%. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated.

  2. A network-based dynamical ranking system for competitive sports (United States)

    Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki


    From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score of a player (or team) fluctuates over time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. We derive a set of linear online update equations for the score of each player. The proposed ranking system predicts the outcome of the future games with a higher accuracy than the static counterparts.

  3. A network-based dynamical ranking system for competitive sports. (United States)

    Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki


    From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score of a player (or team) fluctuates over time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. We derive a set of linear online update equations for the score of each player. The proposed ranking system predicts the outcome of the future games with a higher accuracy than the static counterparts.

  4. Performance evaluation of cellular phone network based portable ECG device. (United States)

    Hong, Joo-Hyun; Cha, Eun-Jong; Lee, Tae-Soo


    In this study, cellular phone network based portable ECG device was developed and three experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device. First, ECG signals were measured using the developed device and Biopac device (reference device) during sitting and marking time and compared to verify the accuracy of R-R intervals. Second, the reliable data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of simulated emergency event using patient simulator. Third, during daily life with five types of motion, accuracy of data transmission to remote server was verified on two types of event occurring. By acquiring and comparing subject's biomedical signal and motion signal, the accuracy, reliability and operability, applicability during daily life of the developed device were verified. Therefore, cellular phone network based portable ECG device can monitor patient with inobtrusive manner.

  5. A Neural Network-Based Interval Pattern Matcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lu


    Full Text Available One of the most important roles in the machine learning area is to classify, and neural networks are very important classifiers. However, traditional neural networks cannot identify intervals, let alone classify them. To improve their identification ability, we propose a neural network-based interval matcher in our paper. After summarizing the theoretical construction of the model, we take a simple and a practical weather forecasting experiment, which show that the recognizer accuracy reaches 100% and that is promising.

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Based Subsurface Contaminant Plume Monitoring (United States)


    conventional WSN . VSN enabled closed loop system consumes more energy than the VSN only system, because of the commands that are send to the nodes. Energy ...predict future plume behavior. This proof-of-concept research aimed at demonstrating the use of an intelligent Wireless Sensor Network ( WSN ) to...Network ( WSN ) to monitor contaminant plume movement in naturally heterogeneous subsurface formations to advance the sensor networking based monitoring

  7. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap


    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap


    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Simultaneity on the Rotating Disk (United States)

    Koks, Don


    The disk that rotates in an inertial frame in special relativity has long been analysed by assuming a Lorentz contraction of its peripheral elements in that frame, which has produced widely varying views in the literature. We show that this assumption is unnecessary for a disk that corresponds to the simplest form of rotation in special relativity. After constructing such a disk and showing that observers at rest on it do not constitute a true rotating frame, we choose a "master" observer and calculate a set of disk coordinates and spacetime metric pertinent to that observer. We use this formalism to resolve the "circular twin paradox", then calculate the speed of light sent around the periphery as measured by the master observer, to show that this speed is a function of sent-direction and disk angle traversed. This result is consistent with the Sagnac Effect, but constitutes a finer analysis of that effect, which is normally expressed using an average speed for a full trip of the periphery. We also use the formalism to give a resolution of "Selleri's paradox".

  10. An Evaluation and Demonstration of a Network Based Aircraft Telemetry System (United States)

    Waldersen, Matt; Schnarr, Otto, III


    The primary topics of this presentation describe the testing of network based telemetry and RF modulation techniques. The overall intend is to aid the aerospace industry in transitioning to a network based telemetry system.

  11. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.


    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  12. Why Do Disks Form Jets? (United States)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    It is argued that jet modelers have given insufficient study to the natural magneto-static configurations of field wound up in the presence of a confining general pressure. Such fields form towers whose height grows with each twist at a velocity comparable to the circular velocity of the accretion disk that turns them. A discussion of the generation of such towers is preceded by a brief history of the idea that quasars, active galaxies, and galactic nuclei contain giant black holes with accretion disks.

  13. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.


    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  14. Network Medicine: A Network-based Approach to Human Diseases (United States)

    Ghiassian, Susan Dina

    With the availability of large-scale data, it is now possible to systematically study the underlying interaction maps of many complex systems in multiple disciplines. Statistical physics has a long and successful history in modeling and characterizing systems with a large number of interacting individuals. Indeed, numerous approaches that were first developed in the context of statistical physics, such as the notion of random walks and diffusion processes, have been applied successfully to study and characterize complex systems in the context of network science. Based on these tools, network science has made important contributions to our understanding of many real-world, self-organizing systems, for example in computer science, sociology and economics. Biological systems are no exception. Indeed, recent studies reflect the necessity of applying statistical and network-based approaches in order to understand complex biological systems, such as cells. In these approaches, a cell is viewed as a complex network consisting of interactions among cellular components, such as genes and proteins. Given the cellular network as a platform, machinery, functionality and failure of a cell can be studied with network-based approaches, a field known as systems biology. Here, we apply network-based approaches to explore human diseases and their associated genes within the cellular network. This dissertation is divided in three parts: (i) A systematic analysis of the connectivity patterns among disease proteins within the cellular network. The quantification of these patterns inspires the design of an algorithm which predicts a disease-specific subnetwork containing yet unknown disease associated proteins. (ii) We apply the introduced algorithm to explore the common underlying mechanism of many complex diseases. We detect a subnetwork from which inflammatory processes initiate and result in many autoimmune diseases. (iii) The last chapter of this dissertation describes the

  15. A reconsideration of negative ratings for network-based recommendation (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Ren, Liang; Lin, Wenbin


    Recommendation algorithms based on bipartite networks have become increasingly popular, thanks to their accuracy and flexibility. Currently, many of these methods ignore users' negative ratings. In this work, we propose a method to exploit negative ratings for the network-based inference algorithm. We find that negative ratings play a positive role regardless of sparsity of data sets. Furthermore, we improve the efficiency of our method and compare it with the state-of-the-art algorithms. Experimental results show that the present method outperforms the existing algorithms.

  16. Disk Operating System User's Guide (United States)


    This document serves the purpose of bringing together in one place most of the information a user needs to use the DDP-516 Disk Operating System, (DOS). DOS is a core resident, one user, console-oriented operating system which allows the user to cont...

  17. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A


    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  18. Feasibility of a Friendship Network-Based Pediatric Obesity Intervention. (United States)

    Giannini, Courtney M; Irby, Megan B; Skelton, Joseph A; Gesell, Sabina B


    There is growing evidence supporting social network-based interventions for adolescents with obesity. This study's aim was to determine the feasibility of a social network-based intervention by assessing adolescents' friendship networks, willingness to involve friends in treatment, and how these factors influence enjoyment. Adolescents (N = 42) were recruited from a tertiary care obesity clinic. Participants gave a list of closest friends, friendship characteristics, and which of their friends they would involve in treatment. A subset (N = 14) participated in group treatment, were encouraged to bring friends, and invited to a second interview. Participants nominated a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.6) friends and were more likely to nominate closer friends (p = 0.003). Friends who attended group sessions were more likely to have multiple friendships in common with the participant's own network (p = 0.04). Involving friends in treatment is feasible and desired by adolescents and may be a novel approach for augmenting obesity treatment outcomes.

  19. The competitive dynamics of network-based businesses. (United States)

    Coyne, K P; Dye, R


    Telecommunications carriers, transportation companies, and banks are among the many network-based businesses--companies that move people, goods, or information from various points to various other points. Managers have long assumed that customers valued all links in these networks equally. It was thought that banking customers, for example, sought access to all of the branches throughout the network or that shipping customers wanted to be able to send packages everywhere. Intuitively, managers thought that many of their customers' needs were, in reality, narrower, but they had no way of knowing which links were most important. New computing power and robust mapping software now make it possible to understand network customers better. In applying this technology, the authors, both consultants from McKinsey & Company, have uncovered three distinct usage patterns: one in which all links are, indeed, valued equally; another in which customers concentrate their use in particular zones; and a third in which customers value only individual links. Each of these patterns requires a different strategy to direct executives in making the decisions fundamental to managing any network-based business: whether to open or close outlets, whether to connect their network to others, and how to organize business units so that they reflect the network's structure. Those who don't spot the patterns or understand their strategic implications will find themselves on the losing end of the network battle.

  20. Analog neural network-based helicopter gearbox health monitoring system. (United States)

    Monsen, P T; Dzwonczyk, M; Manolakos, E S


    The development of a reliable helicopter gearbox health monitoring system (HMS) has been the subject of considerable research over the past 15 years. The deployment of such a system could lead to a significant saving in lives and vehicles as well as dramatically reduce the cost of helicopter maintenance. Recent research results indicate that a neural network-based system could provide a viable solution to the problem. This paper presents two neural network-based realizations of an HMS system. A hybrid (digital/analog) neural system is proposed as an extremely accurate off-line monitoring tool used to reduce helicopter gearbox maintenance costs. In addition, an all analog neural network is proposed as a real-time helicopter gearbox fault monitor that can exploit the ability of an analog neural network to directly compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) as a sum of weighted samples. Hardware performance results are obtained using the Integrated Neural Computing Architecture (INCA/1) analog neural network platform that was designed and developed at The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve a 100% fault detection rate with 0% false alarm rate by performing a DFT directly on the first layer of INCA/1 followed by a small-size two-layer feed-forward neural network and a simple post-processing majority voting stage.

  1. Optimization of the Processing of Mo Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harvey, James [NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The objective of this work is to decrease the processing time for irradiated disks of enriched Mo for the production of 99Mo. Results are given for the dissolution of nonirradiated Mo disks, optimization of the process for large-scale dissolution of sintered disks, optimization of the removal of the main side products (Zr and Nb) from dissolved targets, and dissolution of irradiated Mo disks.

  2. Growing and moving planets in disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan


    Planets form in disks that are commonly found around young stars. The intimate relationship that exists between planet and disk can account for a lot of the exotic extrasolar planetary systems known today. In this thesis we explore disk-planet interaction using numerical hydrodynamical simulations.

  3. Basics of Videodisc and Optical Disk Technology. (United States)

    Paris, Judith


    Outlines basic videodisc and optical disk technology describing both optical and capacitance videodisc technology. Optical disk technology is defined as a mass digital image and data storage device and briefly compared with other information storage media including magnetic tape and microforms. The future of videodisc and optical disk is…

  4. Microporous Carbon Disks For Sorption Refrigerators (United States)

    Munukutla, Lakshmi V.; Moore, Mark R.


    Slow, carefully controlled pyrolysis found to turn polyvinylidene chloride disks into carbon disks having small pores and large surface areas. Disks exhibit high adsorptivities making them useful in krypton-sorption refrigerators. Carbons made from polyvinylidene chloride have greater adsorptive capacities. Thermal instability controlled and variability of product reduced by careful control of rates of heating, heating times, and rate of final cooling.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Rebecca G. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, UCB 440, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    CO is thought to be a vital building block for prebiotic molecules that are necessary for life. Thus, understanding where CO existed in a solid phase within the solar nebula is important for understanding the origin of life. We model the evolution of the CO snow line in a protoplanetary disk. We find that the current observed location of the CO snow line in our solar system, and in the solar system analog TW Hydra, cannot be explained by a fully turbulent disk model. With time-dependent disk models we find that the inclusion of a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) can resolve this problem. Furthermore, we obtain a fully analytic solution for the CO snow line radius for late disk evolutionary times. This will be useful for future observational attempts to characterize the demographics and predict the composition and habitability of exoplanets.

  6. HST/WFC3 Imaging and Multi-Wavelength Characterization of Edge-On Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Gould, Carolina; Williams, Hayley; Duchene, Gaspard


    In recent years, the imaging detail in resolved protoplanetary disks has vastly improved and created a critical mass of objects to survey and compare properties, leading us to better understandings of system formation. In particular, disks with an edge-on inclination offer an important perspective, not only for the imaging convenience since the disk blocks stellar light, but scientifically an edge-on disk provides an otherwise impossible opportunity to observe vertical dust structure of a protoplanetary system. In this contribution, we compare seven HST-imaged edge-on protoplanetary disks in the Taurus, Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus star-forming regions, making note the variation in morphology (settled vs flared), dust properties revealed by multiwavelength color mapping, brightness variability over years timescales, and the presence in some systems of a blue-colored atmosphere far above the disk midplane. By using a uniform approach for their analysis, together these seven edge-on protoplanetary disk systems can give insights on evolutionary processes and inform future projects that explore this critical stage of planet formation.

  7. Debris Disks And The Search For Life In The Universe (United States)

    Cataldi, Gianni


    Circumstellar debris disks are the extrasolar analogues of the asteroid belt and the Kuiper belt. These disks consist of comets and leftover planetesimals that continuously collide to produce copious amounts of circumstellar dust that can be observed as infrared excess or in resolved imaging. As an obvious outcome of the planet formation process, debris disks can help us constrain planet formation theories and learn about the history of our own solar system. Structures in the disks such as gaps or warps can hint at the presence of planets. Thus, the study of debris disks is an important branch of exoplanetary science. In this thesis, some aspects of debris disks are considered in detail.A handful of debris disks show observable amounts of gas besides the dust. One such case is the edge-on debris disk around the young A-type star β Pictoris, where the gas is thought to be of secondary origin, i.e. derived from the dust itself. By observing this gas, we can thus learn something about the dust, and therefore about the building blocks of planets. In paper I, spectrally resolved observations of C II emission with Herschel/HIFI are presented. The line profile is used to constrain the spatial distribution of carbon gas in the disk, which helps understanding the gas producing mechanism. In paper II, we analyse C II and O I emission detected with Herschel/PACS and find that the oxygen must be located in a relatively dense region, possibly similar to the CO clump seen by ALMA. An upcoming analysis of our ALMA C I observations will give us a clearer picture of the system.Another famous debris disk is found around the nearby, 440 Myr old A-star Fomalhaut. Its morphology is that of an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges, suggesting shaping by a planet. However, gas-dust interactions may result in a similar morphology without the need to invoke planets. We test this possibility in paper III by analysing non-detections of C II and O I emission by Herschel/PACS. We find that

  8. Neural network based feed-forward high density associative memory (United States)

    Daud, T.; Moopenn, A.; Lamb, J. L.; Ramesham, R.; Thakoor, A. P.


    A novel thin film approach to neural-network-based high-density associative memory is described. The information is stored locally in a memory matrix of passive, nonvolatile, binary connection elements with a potential to achieve a storage density of 10 to the 9th bits/sq cm. Microswitches based on memory switching in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and alternatively in manganese oxide, have been used as programmable read-only memory elements. Low-energy switching has been ascertained in both these materials. Fabrication and testing of memory matrix is described. High-speed associative recall approaching 10 to the 7th bits/sec and high storage capacity in such a connection matrix memory system is also described.

  9. Semisupervised Clustering for Networks Based on Fast Affinity Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhu


    Full Text Available Most of the existing clustering algorithms for networks are unsupervised, which cannot help improve the clustering quality by utilizing a small number of prior knowledge. We propose a semisupervised clustering algorithm for networks based on fast affinity propagation (SCAN-FAP, which is essentially a kind of similarity metric learning method. Firstly, we define a new constraint similarity measure integrating the structural information and the pairwise constraints, which reflects the effective similarities between nodes in networks. Then, taking the constraint similarities as input, we propose a fast affinity propagation algorithm which keeps the advantages of the original affinity propagation algorithm while increasing the time efficiency by passing only the messages between certain nodes. Finally, by extensive experimental studies, we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can take fully advantage of the prior knowledge and improve the clustering quality significantly. Furthermore, our algorithm has a superior performance to some of the state-of-art approaches.

  10. Regression of lumbar disk herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu Evzikov


    Full Text Available Compression of the spinal nerve root, giving rise to pain and sensory and motor disorders in the area of its innervation is the most vivid manifestation of herniated intervertebral disk. Different treatment modalities, including neurosurgery, for evolving these conditions are discussed. There has been recent evidence that spontaneous regression of disk herniation can regress. The paper describes a female patient with large lateralized disc extrusion that has caused compression of the nerve root S1, leading to obvious myotonic and radicular syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the clinical manifestations of discogenic radiculopathy, as well myotonic syndrome and morphological changes completely regressed 8 months later. The likely mechanism is inflammation-induced resorption of a large herniated disk fragment, which agrees with the data available in the literature. A decision to perform neurosurgery for which the patient had indications was made during her first consultation. After regression of discogenic radiculopathy, there was only moderate pain caused by musculoskeletal diseases (facet syndrome, piriformis syndrome that were successfully eliminated by minimally invasive techniques. 

  11. A Pulsar and a Disk (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  12. Cross-layer restoration with software defined networking based on IP over optical transport networks (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Junni; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Lee, Young


    The IP over optical transport network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in highly-available, cost-effective and energy-effective manner. In case of cross-layer link failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer restoration scheme for data center services with software defined networking based on IP over optical network. The cross-layer restoration scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network and optical network resources, and enhance the data center service restoration responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end service demands. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability and path restoration latency. Numeric results show that the cross-layer restoration scheme improves the recovery success rate and minimizes the overall recovery time.

  13. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory. (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris


    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  14. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek A. Abramowicz


    Full Text Available This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks, Shakura-Sunyaev (thin disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs. After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs.

  15. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Kormendy, John


    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  16. An Observational Perspective of Transitional Disks (United States)

    Espaillat, C.; Muzerolle, J.; Najita, J.; Andrews, S.; Zhu, Z.; Calvet, N.; Kraus, S.; Hashimoto, J.; Kraus, A.; D'Alessio, P.

    Transitional disks are objects whose inner disk regions have undergone substantial clearing. The Spitzer Space Telescope produced detailed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of transitional disks that allowed us to infer their radial dust disk structure in some detail, revealing the diversity of this class of disks. The growing sample of transitional disks also opened up the possibility of demographic studies, which provided unique insights. There now exist (sub)millimeter and infrared images that confirm the presence of large clearings of dust in transitional disks. In addition, protoplanet candidates have been detected within some of these clearings. Transitional disks are thought to be a strong link to planet formation around young stars and are a key area to study if further progress is to be made on understanding the initial stages of planet formation. Here we provide a review and synthesis of transitional disk observations to date with the aim of providing timely direction to the field, which is about to undergo its next burst of growth as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reaches its full potential. We discuss what we have learned about transitional disks from SEDs, color-color diagrams, and imaging in the (sub)millimeter and infrared. We note the limitations of these techniques, particularly with respect to the sizes of the clearings currently detectable, and highlight the need for pairing broadband SEDs with multi-wavelength images to paint a more detailed picture of transitional disk structure. We review the gas in transitional disks, keeping in mind that future observations with ALMA will give us unprecedented access to gas in disks, and also observed infrared variability pointing to variable transitional disk structure, which may have implications for disks in general. We then distill the observations into constraints for the main disk-clearing mechanisms proposed to date (i.e., photoevaporation, grain growth, and companions) and

  17. Why Do Disks Form Jets?


    Lynden-Bell, D.


    It is argued that jet modelers have given insufficient study to the natural magneto-static configurations of field wound up in the presence of a confining general pressure. Such fields form towers whose height grows with each twist at a velocity comparable to the circular velocity of the accretion disk that turns them. A discussion of the generation of such towers is preceded by a brief history of the idea that quasars, active galaxies, and galactic nuclei contain giant black holes with accre...

  18. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G


    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  19. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita


    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  20. Structure of the Kuiper Belt Dust Disk (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    An overview of the Kuiper belt dust disk is provided in this chapter. Mutual collisions among Kuiper belt objects should produce a dust disk in the outer solar system similar to the observed circumstellar dust disks. As the Kuiper belt dust particles migrate toward the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag, they are perturbed by the giant planets. Mean-motion resonances with Neptune and gravitational scattering by Saturn and Jupiter alter their orbital evolution dramatically. Asa result, large-scale structures are created in the disk. Descriptions of the dynamics involved, and the numerical simulations required to unveil the disk features, are included. Implications for extrasolar planet detection from circumstellar dust disk modeling are also discussed.

  1. Thermal continua of AGN accretion disks (United States)

    Shields, G. A.; Coleman, H. H.


    We have computed the thermal continuum energy distribution of thermal radiation from the atmospheres of supermassive accretion disks around supermassive black holes. Non-LTE radiative transfer is combined with a model of the vertical structure at each radius appropriate to the low effective gravities of these disks. Locally, the Lyman edge of H can be in emission or absorption. When the emission is summed over the disk with Doppler and gravitational redshifts taken into account, the observed continuum typically shows little sign of a discontinuity near the Lyman edge. For relatively cool disks, the Lyman edge is in absorption, but it appears as a slope change extending over several hundred angstroms, rather than an abrupt discontinuity. Disks around Kerr black holes can explain the observed range of soft X-ray luminosities of AGN, but disks around Schwarzschild holes are much too faint in soft X-rays.

  2. ADONIS Discovers Dust Disk around a Star with a Planet (United States)


    Zodiacal Light in the iota Horologii Extrasolar Planetary System Retraction (August 2001) The presumed detection of a dust disk around iota Horologii, presented in this Press Release, has been found to be due to an instrumental artefact and is therefore not real. This is the conclusion reached by the astronomers working with the ADONIS Adaptive Optics instrument, following a series of extremely careful tests. In September 2000, iota Horologii - a star which was found earlier by radial velocity measurements to be orbited by a planetary companion - was observed by ADONIS, the adaptive optics system at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. These observations showed an elliptically shaped excess emission around this star when comparing with two reference stars. Such an excess, if real, can only be explained by the presence of a dust disk around this star. A series of new observations - again with the ADONIS system - have not confirmed the previous results. The search for dust disks around stars is a very difficult observational task, because the star is much brighter than the faint extended emission of a dust disk, It is therefore necessary to block the light of the star by means of a so-called coronographic mask. But even this is not sufficient - it is also necessary to subtract the remaining "light-wings" from the star (i.e., the pattern that results from the stray light in the telescope and camera). For this purpose, a "reference" star assumed to be without excess emission is always observed before and after each observation of the "target" star. The light pattern observed for the "reference" star (the standard Point-Spread-Function) is then used to remove numerically the pattern of the "target" star, thereby isolating any additional light that may come from a circumstellar disk. For this analysis, it is crucial that the Point-Spread-Function remains unchanged during the observation of the reference and target stars. In fact, for each observation of the target star, at least two

  3. A Quantum Cryptography Communication Network Based on Software Defined Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongliang


    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet, information security has attracted great attention in today’s society, and quantum cryptography communication network based on quantum key distribution (QKD is a very important part of this field, since the quantum key distribution combined with one-time-pad encryption scheme can guarantee the unconditional security of the information. The secret key generated by quantum key distribution protocols is a very valuable resource, so making full use of key resources is particularly important. Software definition network (SDN is a new type of network architecture, and it separates the control plane and the data plane of network devices through OpenFlow technology, thus it realizes the flexible control of the network resources. In this paper, a quantum cryptography communication network model based on SDN is proposed to realize the flexible control of quantum key resources in the whole cryptography communication network. Moreover, we propose a routing algorithm which takes into account both the hops and the end-to-end availible keys, so that the secret key generated by QKD can be used effectively. We also simulate this quantum cryptography communication network, and the result shows that based on SDN and the proposed routing algorithm the performance of this network is improved since the effective use of the quantum key resources.

  4. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic


    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  5. An efficient neural network based method for medical image segmentation. (United States)

    Torbati, Nima; Ayatollahi, Ahmad; Kermani, Ali


    The aim of this research is to propose a new neural network based method for medical image segmentation. Firstly, a modified self-organizing map (SOM) network, named moving average SOM (MA-SOM), is utilized to segment medical images. After the initial segmentation stage, a merging process is designed to connect the objects of a joint cluster together. A two-dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used to build the input feature space of the network. The experimental results show that MA-SOM is robust to noise and it determines the input image pattern properly. The segmentation results of breast ultrasound images (BUS) demonstrate that there is a significant correlation between the tumor region selected by a physician and the tumor region segmented by our proposed method. In addition, the proposed method segments X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) head images much better than the incremental supervised neural network (ISNN) and SOM-based methods. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Deep Network Based on Stacked Orthogonal Convex Incremental ELM Autoencoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang


    Full Text Available Extreme learning machine (ELM as an emerging technology has recently attracted many researchers’ interest due to its fast learning speed and state-of-the-art generalization ability in the implementation. Meanwhile, the incremental extreme learning machine (I-ELM based on incremental learning algorithm was proposed which outperforms many popular learning algorithms. However, the incremental algorithms with ELM do not recalculate the output weights of all the existing nodes when a new node is added and cannot obtain the least-squares solution of output weight vectors. In this paper, we propose orthogonal convex incremental learning machine (OCI-ELM with Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization method and Barron’s convex optimization learning method to solve the nonconvex optimization problem and least-squares solution problem, and then we give the rigorous proofs in theory. Moreover, in this paper, we propose a deep architecture based on stacked OCI-ELM autoencoders according to stacked generalization philosophy for solving large and complex data problems. The experimental results verified with both UCI datasets and large datasets demonstrate that the deep network based on stacked OCI-ELM autoencoders (DOC-IELM-AEs outperforms the other methods mentioned in the paper with better performance on regression and classification problems.

  7. Network-based analysis of software change propagation. (United States)

    Wang, Rongcun; Huang, Rubing; Qu, Binbin


    The object-oriented software systems frequently evolve to meet new change requirements. Understanding the characteristics of changes aids testers and system designers to improve the quality of softwares. Identifying important modules becomes a key issue in the process of evolution. In this context, a novel network-based approach is proposed to comprehensively investigate change distributions and the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. First, software dependency networks are constructed at class level. And then, the number of times of cochanges among classes is minded from software repositories. According to the dependency relationships and the number of times of cochanges among classes, the scope of change propagation is calculated. Using Spearman rank correlation analyzes the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. Three case studies on java open source software projects Findbugs, Hibernate, and Spring are conducted to research the characteristics of change propagation. Experimental results show that (i) change distribution is very uneven; (ii) PageRank, Degree, and CIRank are significantly correlated to the scope of change propagation. Particularly, CIRank shows higher correlation coefficient, which suggests it can be a more useful indicator for measuring the scope of change propagation of classes in object-oriented software system.

  8. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobin Huang

    Full Text Available It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  9. Visualization of Complex Networks Based on Dyadic Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Hirota


    Full Text Available A visualization method is proposed for understanding the structure of complex networks based on an extended Curvelet transform named Dyadic Curvelet Transform (DClet. The proposed visualization method comes to answer specific questions about structures of complex networks by mapping data into orthogonal localized events with a directional component via the Cartesian sampling sets of detail coefficients. It behaves in the same matter as human visual system, seeing in terms of segments and distinguishing them by scale and orientation. Compressing the network is another fact. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by two different networks with structural properties of small world networks with N = 16 vertices, and a globally coupled network with size N = 1024 and 523 776 edges. As the most large scale real networks are not fully connected, it is tested on the telecommunication network of Iran as a real extremely complex network with 92 intercity switching vertices, 706 350 E1 traffic channels and 315 525 transmission channels. It is shown that the proposed method performs as a simulation tool for successfully design of network and establishing the necessary group sizes. It can clue the network designer in on all structural properties that network has.

  10. Network-based reading system for lung cancer screening CT (United States)

    Fujino, Yuichi; Fujimura, Kaori; Nomura, Shin-ichiro; Kawashima, Harumi; Tsuchikawa, Megumu; Matsumoto, Toru; Nagao, Kei-ichi; Uruma, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Takizawa, Hotaka; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Nakayama, Tomio


    This research aims to support chest computed tomography (CT) medical checkups to decrease the death rate by lung cancer. We have developed a remote cooperative reading system for lung cancer screening over the Internet, a secure transmission function, and a cooperative reading environment. It is called the Network-based Reading System. A telemedicine system involves many issues, such as network costs and data security if we use it over the Internet, which is an open network. In Japan, broadband access is widespread and its cost is the lowest in the world. We developed our system considering human machine interface and security. It consists of data entry terminals, a database server, a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system, and some reading terminals. It uses a secure Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) encrypting method and Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) based secure DICOM image data distribution. We carried out an experimental trial over the Japan Gigabit Network (JGN), which is the testbed for the Japanese next-generation network, and conducted verification experiments of secure screening image distribution, some kinds of data addition, and remote cooperative reading. We found that network bandwidth of about 1.5 Mbps enabled distribution of screening images and cooperative reading and that the encryption and image distribution methods we proposed were applicable to the encryption and distribution of general DICOM images via the Internet.

  11. Theory of Disk Accretion onto Magnetic Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dong


    Full Text Available Disk accretion onto magnetic stars occurs in a variety of systems, including accreting neutron stars (with both high and low magnetic fields, white dwarfs, and protostars. We review some of the key physical processes in magnetosphere-disk interaction, highlighting the theoretical uncertainties. We also discuss some applications to the observations of accreting neutron star and protostellar systems, as well as possible connections to protoplanetary disks and exoplanets.

  12. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak


    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  13. HD 76582's Circumstellar Debris Disk (United States)

    Marshall, J. P.


    The debris disk host star HD 76582 was observed at 450 μm and 850 μm as part of the JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey `Sub-millimetre Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS). The sub-millimetre data are inconsistent with a disk undergoing a steady-state collisional cascade. Combining the sub-millimetre (sub-mm) measurements with mid- and far-infrared measurements from Spitzer and Herschel, we simultaneously model the disk's thermal emission and radial extent in a self-consistent manner.

  14. Dust Migration in Gravitationally Active Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Backus, I.; Quinn, T.


    Solid growth and planet formation may require dense regions of dust. I investigate dust migration concentration, in gravitationally active protoplanetary disks using high resolution, 3D SPH simulations.

  15. Evaluation of powder metallurgy superalloy disk materials (United States)

    Evans, D. J.


    A program was conducted to develop nickel-base superalloy disk material using prealloyed powder metallurgy techniques. The program included fabrication of test specimens and subscale turbine disks from four different prealloyed powders (NASA-TRW-VIA, AF2-1DA, Mar-M-432 and MERL 80). Based on evaluation of these specimens and disks, two alloys (AF2-1DA and Mar-M-432) were selected for scale-up evaluation. Using fabricating experience gained in the subscale turbine disk effort, test specimens and full scale turbine disks were formed from the selected alloys. These specimens and disks were then subjected to a rigorous test program to evaluate their physical properties and determine their suitability for use in advanced performance turbine engines. A major objective of the program was to develop processes which would yield alloy properties that would be repeatable in producing jet engine disks from the same powder metallurgy alloys. The feasibility of manufacturing full scale gas turbine engine disks by thermomechanical processing of pre-alloyed metal powders was demonstrated. AF2-1DA was shown to possess tensile and creep-rupture properties in excess of those of Astroloy, one of the highest temperature capability disk alloys now in production. It was determined that metallographic evaluation after post-HIP elevated temperature exposure should be used to verify the effectiveness of consolidation of hot isostatically pressed billets.

  16. Hard disks with SCSI interface

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, O Yu


    The testing of 20 models of hard SCSI-disks is carried out: the Fujitsu MAE3091LP; the IBM DDRS-39130, DGHS-318220, DNES-318350, DRHS-36V and DRVS-18V; the Quantum Atlas VI 18.2; the Viking 11 9.1; the Seagate ST118202LW, ST118273LW, ST118273W, ST318203LW, ST318275LW, ST34520W, ST39140LW and ST39173W; and the Western Digital WDE9100-0007, WDE9100-AV0016, WDE9100-AV0030 and WDE9180-0048. All tests ran under the Windows NT 4.0 workstation operating system with Service Pack 4, under video mode with 1024*768 pixel resolution, 32- bit colour depth and V-frequency equal to 85 Hz. The detailed description and characteristics of SCSI stores are presented. Test results (ZD Winstone 99 and ZD WinBench 99 tests) are given in both table and diagram (disk transfer rate) forms. (0 refs).

  17. Kinematics in the Circumnuclear Disk (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth; Casey-Clyde, J. Andrew; Rodriguez, Julio; Kruijssen, Diederik; Martin, Sergio; Moser, Lydia; Riquelme, Denise; Harada, Nanase; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Lu, Hauyu


    The Circumnuclear Disk (CND) extends from 1.5-5pc in radius around our Galaxy's central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. New ALMA observations reveal that the CND is a more complex system than previously thought, containing multiple streams, filaments and other structures inconsistent with the uniform circular rotation that is typically assumed for this source. We will present position-position-velocity maps of this region using the HNC 3-2 and HCN 3-2 transitions, which reveal line of sight velocities that are highly discontinuous in several regions, suggesting the CND consists of several overlapping and possibly interacting clouds, rather than one continuous and circularized disk. In particular, we single out a uniquely linear stream on the eastern side of this region, which is continuous in both position and velocity, with a size of 3 x 0.1 pc and velocities ranging from -50 to 100 km/s. For this stream, we will also present the results of recently performed orbital fitting, establishing its 3 dimensional position in the central potential around Sagittarius A*.

  18. Dynamic Wireless Network Based on Open Physical Layer (United States)


    based on the notion of processing soft information is the basic building block for a large number of multi-terminal communication problems , such as...formulations of communication problems are only suitable for point-to-point communications, and in order to address dynamic network problems, new...formulations are needed. We believe that a geometric view is the key of solving the new dynamic communication problems . However, it is important that such new

  19. Boundary Detection Method for Large-Scale Coverage Holes in Wireless Sensor Network Based on Minimum Critical Threshold Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jing


    Full Text Available The existing coverage hole boundary detection methods cannot detect large-scale coverage hole boundary in wireless sensor network quickly and efficiently. Aiming at this problem, a boundary detection method for large-scale coverage holes in wireless sensor network based on minimum critical threshold constraint is proposed. Firstly, the optimization problem of minimum critical threshold is highlighted, and its formulaic description is constructed according to probabilistic sensing model. On the basis of this, the distributed gradient information is used to approximately solve the optimization problem. After that, local-scale rough boundary detection algorithm incorporating the minimum critical threshold and its iterative thinning algorithm are proposed according to blocking flow theory. The experimental results show that the proposed method has low computational complexity and network overhead when detecting large-scale coverage hole boundary in wireless sensor network.

  20. Dynamic neural network-based methods for compensation of nonlinear effects in multimode communication lines (United States)

    Sidelnikov, O. S.; Redyuk, A. A.; Sygletos, S.


    We consider neural network-based schemes of digital signal processing. It is shown that the use of a dynamic neural network-based scheme of signal processing ensures an increase in the optical signal transmission quality in comparison with that provided by other methods for nonlinear distortion compensation.

  1. Combining Host-based and network-based intrusion detection system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These attacks were simulated using hping. The proposed system is implemented in Java. The results show that the proposed system is able to detect attacks both from within (host-based) and outside sources (network-based). Key Words: Intrusion Detection System (IDS), Host-based, Network-based, Signature, Security log.

  2. Network-Based Substrate of Cognitive Reserve in Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Mancini, Matteo; Cercignani, Mara; Di Domenico, Carlotta; Spanò, Barbara; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Marra, Camillo; Bozzali, Marco


    Cognitive reserve (CR) is known to modulate the clinical features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept may be critical for the development of non-pharmacological interventions able to slow down patients' cognitive decline in the absence of disease-modifying treatments. We aimed at identifying the neurobiological substrates of CR (i.e., neural reserve) over the transition between normal aging and AD, by assessing the underlying brain networks and their topological properties. A cohort of 154 participants (n = 68 with AD, n = 61 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 25 healthy subjects) underwent resting-state functional MRI and neuropsychological testing. Within each group, participants were classified as having high or low CR, and functional connectivity measures were compared, within group, between high and low CR individuals. Network-based statistics and topological network properties derived from graph theory were explored. Connectivity differences between high and low CR were evident only for aMCI patients, with participants with high CR showing a significant increase of connectivity in a network involving mainly fronto-parietal nodes. Conversely, they showed significantly decreased connectivity in a network involving fronto-temporo-cerebellar nodes. Consistently, changes to topological measures were observed in either direction, and were associated with measures of global cognitive function. These findings support the hypothesis that CR impacts on neurodegenerative process in the early phase of AD only. In addition, they fit with the existence of a "neural reserve", characterized by specific neural networks and their efficiency. It remains to be demonstrated whether interventions later in life can modulate this "neural reserve".

  3. Improving the thin-disk models of circumstellar disk evolution. The 2+1-dimensional model (United States)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Pavlyuchenkov, Yaroslav N.


    Context. Circumstellar disks of gas and dust are naturally formed from contracting pre-stellar molecular cores during the star formation process. To study various dynamical and chemical processes that take place in circumstellar disks prior to their dissipation and transition to debris disks, the appropriate numerical models capable of studying the long-term disk chemodynamical evolution are required. Aims: We improve the frequently used 2D hydrodynamical model for disk evolution in the thin-disk limit by employing a better calculation of the disk thermal balance and adding a reconstruction of the disk vertical structure. Together with the hydrodynamical processes, the thermal evolution is of great importance since it influences the strength of gravitational instability and the chemical evolution of the disk. Methods: We present a new 2+1-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics model of circumstellar disk evolution, where the thin-disk model is complemented with the procedure for calculating the vertical distributions of gas volume density and temperature in the disk. The reconstruction of the disk vertical structure is performed at every time step via the solution of the time-dependent radiative transfer equations coupled to the equation of the vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Results: We perform a detailed comparison between circumstellar disks produced with our previous 2D model and with the improved 2+1D approach. The structure and evolution of resulting disks, including the differences in temperatures, densities, disk masses, and protostellar accretion rates, are discussed in detail. Conclusions: The new 2+1D model yields systematically colder disks, while the in-falling parental clouds are warmer. Both effects act to increase the strength of disk gravitational instability and, as a result, the number of gravitationally bound fragments that form in the disk via gravitational fragmentation as compared to the purely 2D thin-disk simulations with a simplified

  4. Observational constraints on Acrretion disk formation (United States)

    Harsono, Daniel; Jørgensen, Jes; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Bruderer, Simon; Persson, Magnus; Mottram, Joseph


    Stable rotationally supported disks (RSDs) are important for the star and planet formation process. The structure and stability of the RSDs are linked to the accretion process onto the star and the evolution of the protostellar system. Additionally, these disks are composed of infalling material that encounter a wide range of physical conditions. The history of these changes affect the chemical structure and evolution of the accretion disk and, thus, the material out of which planets are formed. The formation of RSDs is not well understood and it is unclear from the existing data at which stage the young disks are rotationally supported. Here, we present new PdBI observations of 13CO and C18O toward 4 Class I YSOs with higher spatial resolution and significantly higher sensitivity than previously possible. The high quality data allow us to constrain the physical structure of the young embedded disks which are rotationally supported within the inner 100 AU radius. Furthermore, the extent of the RSD is smaller than that of the dust disk. The observed physical structure of embedded disks are compared to semi-analytical disk formation models which suggests that the formation process is consistent with inside-out formation. ALMA is needed to confirm the extent of the rotationally supported structure.

  5. Scaling Ratios and Triangles in Siegel Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buff, Xavier; Henriksen, Christian


    Let f(z)=e^{2i\\pi \\theta} + z^2, where \\theta is a quadratic irrational. McMullen proved that the Siegel disk for f is self-similar about the critical point, and we show that if \\theta = (\\sqrt{5}-1)/2 is the golden mean, then there exists a triangle contained in the Siegel disk, and with one...

  6. 10 MB disk platter from CDC 7638

    CERN Multimedia


    This magnetic disk was one of three which interfaced with various Control Data machines. This single platter came from a Control Data 7638 Disk Storage Subsystem and could contain up to 10MB - about the size of a few MP4's on your iPod.

  7. The Transitional Disks Associated With Herbig Stars (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Lomax, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Currie, T.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; hide


    As part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru YSO survey, we have surveyed a number of Herbig B-F stars mainly at H-band using Polarimetric Differential Imaging + Angular differential imaging. Historically, Herbig stars have been sorted by the shape of the IR SEDs into those which can be fit by power laws over 1-200 micrometers (Meeus et al. 2001, group II), and those which can be interpreted as a power law + a blackbody component (Meeus group I) or as transitional or pre-transitional disks (Maaskant et al. 2013). Meeus group II disks, when imaged with HiCIAO show featureless disks with depolarization along the projection of the disk semi-minor axis (Kusakabe et al. 2012). This is what we had expected to see for the Meeus group I disks, except for the addition of wide gaps or central cavities. Instead we find wild diversity, suggesting that transitional disks are highly perturbed compared to Meeus group II disks. To date, similar structure continues to be observed as higher Strehl ratio imagery becomes available.

  8. Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Pessah, Martin; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios


    if the resolution were set equal to the natural dissipation scale in astrophysical disks. We conclude that, in order for MRI-driven turbulent angular momentum transport to be able to account for the large value of the effective alpha viscosity inferred observationally, the disk must be threaded by a significant...

  9. The Kinematics of Galactic Stellar Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merrifield, M. R.; Kuijken, K.


    Abstract: The disks of galaxies are primarily stellar systems, and fundamentally dynamical entities. Thus, to fully understand galactic disks, we must study their stellar kinematics as well as their morphologies. Observational techniques have now advanced to a point where quite detailed

  10. Protoplanetary disks and exoplanets in scattered light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, T.


    High-contrast imaging facilitates the direct detection of protoplanetary disks in scattered light and self-luminous exoplanets on long-period orbits. The combined power of extreme adaptive optics and differential imaging techniques delivers high spatial resolution images of disk morphologies down to

  11. Dissecting disks around B-type protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Beltran, Maite; Kumar, M. S. Nanda; Stanke, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans; Etoka, Sandra; Galli, Daniele; Hummel, Christian A.; Moscadelli, Luca; Preibisch, Thomas; Ratzka, Thorsten; van der Tak, Floris; Vig, Sarita; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Wang, Kuo-Song

    Recent theoretical models indicate that OB-type stars could form through disk-mediated accretion, like their low mass counterparts. However, on the observational side, circumstellar disks appear still elusive, especially around the most massive (proto)stars. As for early B-type (proto)stars, an ever

  12. Circumstellar disks around binary stars in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akeson, R. L. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, IPAC/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jensen, E. L. N. [Swarthmore College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore, PA 19081 (United States)


    We have conducted a survey of 17 wide (>100 AU) young binary systems in Taurus with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) at two wavelengths. The observations were designed to measure the masses of circumstellar disks in these systems as an aid to understanding the role of multiplicity in star and planet formation. The ALMA observations had sufficient resolution to localize emission within the binary system. Disk emission was detected around all primaries and 10 secondaries, with disk masses as low as 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉}. We compare the properties of our sample to the population of known disks in Taurus and find that the disks from this binary sample match the scaling between stellar mass and millimeter flux of F{sub mm}∝M{sub ∗}{sup 1.5--2.0} to within the scatter found in previous studies. We also compare the properties of the primaries to those of the secondaries and find that the secondary/primary stellar and disk mass ratios are not correlated; in three systems, the circumsecondary disk is more massive than the circumprimary disk, counter to some theoretical predictions.

  13. Types of Heart Block (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  14. What Causes Heart Block? (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  15. Living with Heart Block (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  16. Disk Evolution and the Fate of Water (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee; Ciesla, Fred; Gressel, Oliver; Alexander, Richard


    We review the general theoretical concepts and observational constraints on the distribution and evolution of water vapor and ice in protoplanetary disks, with a focus on the Solar System. Water is expected to freeze out at distances greater than 1-3 AU from solar-type central stars; more precise estimates are difficult to obtain due to uncertainties in the complex processes involved in disk evolution, including dust growth, settling, and radial drift, and the level of turbulence and viscous dissipation within disks. Interferometric observations are now providing constraints on the positions of CO snow lines, but extrapolation to the unresolved regions where water ice sublimates will require much better theoretical understanding of mass and angular momentum transport in disks as well as more refined comparison of observations with sophisticated disk models.

  17. Disk accretion onto a magnetized star

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istomin Ya. N.


    Full Text Available The problem of interaction of the rotating magnetic field, frozen to a star, with a thin well conducting accretion disk is solved exactly. It is shown that a disk pushes the magnetic field lines towards a star, compressing the stellar dipole magnetic field. At the point of corotation, where the Keplerian rotation frequency coincides with the frequency of the stellar rotation, the loop of the electric current appears. The electric currents flow in the magnetosphere only along two particular magnetic surfaces, which connect the corotation region and the inner edge of a disk with the stellar surface. It is shown that the closed current surface encloses the magnetosphere. Rotation of a disk is stopped at some distance from the stellar surface, which is 0.55 of the corotation radius. Accretion from a disk spins up the stellar rotation. The angular momentum transferred to the star is determined.

  18. Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks (United States)

    Fausnaugh, Michael; AGN STORM Collaboration


    I will discuss new reverberation mapping results that allow us to investigate the temperature structure of AGN accretion disks. By measuring time-delays between broad-band continuum light curves, we can determine the size of the disk as a function of wavelength. I will discuss the detection of continuum lags in NGC 5548 reported by the AGN STORM project and implications for the accretion disk. I will also present evidence for continuum lags in two other AGN for which we recently measured black hole masses from continuum-Hbeta reverberations. The mass measurements allow us to compare the continuum lags to predictions from standard thin disk theory, and our results indicate that the accretion disks are larger than the simplest expectations.

  19. Continuum Reverberation Mapping of AGN Accretion Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Fausnaugh


    Full Text Available We show recent detections of inter-band continuum lags in three AGN (NGC 5548, NGC 2617, and MCG+08-11-011, which provide new constraints on the temperature profiles and absolute sizes of the accretion disks. We find lags larger than would be predicted for standard geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disks by factors of 2.3–3.3. For NGC 5548, the data span UV through optical/near-IR wavelengths, and we are able to discern a steeper temperature profile than the T ~ R−3/4 expected for a standard thin disk. Using a physical model, we are also able to estimate the inclinations of the disks for two objects. These results are similar to those found from gravitational microlensing of strongly lensed quasars, and provide a complementary approach for investigating the accretion disk structure in local, low luminosity AGN.

  20. Development of Powered Disk Type Sugar Cane Stubble Saver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radite P.A.S.


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to design, fabricate and test a prototype of sugar cane stubble saver based on powered disk mechanism. In this research, a heavy duty disk plow or disk harrow was used as a rotating knife to cut the sugarcane stubble. The parabolic disk was chosen because it is proven reliable as soil working tools and it is available in the market as spare part of disk plow or disk harrow unit. The prototype was mounted on the four wheel tractor’s three point hitch, and powered by PTO of the tractor. Two kinds of disks were used in these experiments, those were disk with regular edge or plain disk and disk with scalloped edge or scalloped disk. Both disks had diameter of 28 inch. Results of field test showed that powered disk mechanism could satisfy cut sugar cane’s stubble. However, scalloped disk type gave smoother stubble cuts compared to that of plain disk. Plain disk type gave broken stubble cut. Higher rotation (1000 rpm resulted better cuts as compared to lower rotation (500 rpm both either on plain disk and scalloped disk. The developed prototype could work below the soil surface at depth of 5 to 10 cm. With tilt angle setting 20O and disk angle 45O the width of cut was about 25 cm.

  1. Outbursts and Disk Variability in Be Stars (United States)

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Whelan, David G.; Pepper, Joshua; McSwain, M. Virginia; Borges Fernandes, Marcelo; Wisniewski, John P.; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Carciofi, Alex C.; Siverd, Robert J.; Glazier, Amy L.; Anderson, Sophie G.; Caravello, Anthoni J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Lund, Michael B.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; James, David J.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.


    In order to study the growth and evolution of circumstellar disks around classical Be stars, we analyze optical time-series photometry from the KELT survey with simultaneous infrared and visible spectroscopy from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment survey and Be Star Spectra database for a sample of 160 Galactic classical Be stars. The systems studied here show variability including transitions from a diskless to a disk-possessing state (and vice versa), and persistent disks that vary in strength, being replenished at either regularly or irregularly occurring intervals. We detect disk-building events (outbursts) in the light curves of 28% of our sample. Outbursts are more commonly observed in early- (57%), compared to mid- (27%) and late-type (8%) systems. A given system may show anywhere between 0 and 40 individual outbursts in its light curve, with amplitudes ranging up to ∼0.5 mag and event durations between ∼2 and 1000 days. We study how both the photometry and spectroscopy change together during active episodes of disk growth or dissipation, revealing details about the evolution of the circumstellar environment. We demonstrate that photometric activity is linked to changes in the inner disk, and show that, at least in some cases, the disk growth process is asymmetrical. Observational evidence of Be star disks both growing and clearing from the inside out is presented. The duration of disk buildup and dissipation phases are measured for 70 outbursts, and we find that the average outburst takes about twice as long to dissipate as it does to build up in optical photometry. Our analysis hints that dissipation of the inner disk occurs relatively slowly for late-type Be stars.

  2. Neural network based adaptive output feedback control: Applications and improvements (United States)

    Kutay, Ali Turker

    Application of recently developed neural network based adaptive output feedback controllers to a diverse range of problems both in simulations and experiments is investigated in this thesis. The purpose is to evaluate the theory behind the development of these controllers numerically and experimentally, identify the needs for further development in practical applications, and to conduct further research in directions that are identified to ultimately enhance applicability of adaptive controllers to real world problems. We mainly focus our attention on adaptive controllers that augment existing fixed gain controllers. A recently developed approach holds great potential for successful implementations on real world applications due to its applicability to systems with minimal information concerning the plant model and the existing controller. In this thesis the formulation is extended to the multi-input multi-output case for distributed control of interconnected systems and successfully tested on a formation flight wind tunnel experiment. The command hedging method is formulated for the approach to further broaden the class of systems it can address by including systems with input nonlinearities. Also a formulation is adopted that allows the approach to be applied to non-minimum phase systems for which non-minimum phase characteristics are modeled with sufficient accuracy and treated properly in the design of the existing controller. It is shown that the approach can also be applied to augment nonlinear controllers under certain conditions and an example is presented where the nonlinear guidance law of a spinning projectile is augmented. Simulation results on a high fidelity 6 degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation code are presented. The thesis also presents a preliminary adaptive controller design for closed loop flight control with active flow actuators. Behavior of such actuators in dynamic flight conditions is not known. To test the adaptive controller design in

  3. Extragalactic Thick Disks: Implications for Early Galaxy Evolution


    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Seth, Anil; Yoachim, Peter


    I briefly review the growing evidence that thick stellar disks surround most edge-on disk galaxies. Recent studies show that these extragalactic thick disks have old ages, low metallicities, long scale lengths, and moderately flattened axial ratios, much like the thick disk of the Milky Way. However, the properties of thick disks change systematically with the mass of the galaxy. The thick disks of low mass galaxies are more prominent and somewhat more metal-poor than those surrounding massiv...

  4. WL 17: A Young Embedded Transition Disk (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.


    We present the highest spatial resolution ALMA observations to date of the Class I protostar WL 17 in the ρ Ophiuchus L1688 molecular cloud complex, which show that it has a 12 au hole in the center of its disk. We consider whether WL 17 is actually a Class II disk being extincted by foreground material, but find that such models do not provide a good fit to the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and also require such high extinction that it would presumably arise from dense material close to the source, such as a remnant envelope. Self-consistent models of a disk embedded in a rotating collapsing envelope can nicely reproduce both the ALMA 3 mm observations and the broadband SED of WL 17. This suggests that WL 17 is a disk in the early stages of its formation, and yet even at this young age the inner disk has been depleted. Although there are multiple pathways for such a hole to be created in a disk, if this hole was produced by the formation of planets it could place constraints on the timescale for the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks.

  5. Numerical simulations of dissipationless disk accretion (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Tronin, I. V.


    Our goal is to study the regime of disk accretion in which almost all of the angular momentum and energy is carried away by the wind outflowing from the disk in numerical experiments. For this type of accretion the kinetic energy flux in the outflowing wind can exceed considerably the bolometric luminosity of the accretion disk, what is observed in the plasma flow from galactic nuclei in a number of cases. In this paper we consider the nonrelativistic case of an outflow from a cold Keplerian disk. All of the conclusions derived previously for such a system in the self-similar approximation are shown to be correct. The numerical results agree well with the analytical predictions. The inclination angle of the magnetic field lines in the disk is less than 60°, which ensures a free wind outflow from the disk, while the energy flux per wind particle is greater than the particle rotation energy in its Keplerian orbit by several orders of magnitude, provided that the ratio r A/ r ≫ 1, where r A is the Alfvénic radius and r is the radius of the Keplerian orbit. In this case, the particle kinetic energy reaches half the maximum possible energy in the simulation region. The magnetic field collimates the outflowing wind near the rotation axis and decollimates appreciably the wind outflowing from the outer disk periphery.

  6. SPH simulations of structures in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Demidova, T. V.; Grinin, V. P.


    Using the GADGET-2 code modified by us, we have computed hydrodynamic models of a protoplanetary disk perturbed by a low-mass companion. We have considered the cases of circular and eccentric orbits coplanar with the disk and inclined relative to its midplane. During our simulations we computed the column density of test particles on the line of sight between the central star and observer. On this basis we computed the column density of circumstellar dust by assuming the dust and gas to be well mixed with a mass ratio of 1: 100. To study the influence of the disk orientation relative to the observer on the interstellar extinction, we performed our computations for four inclinations of the line of sight to the disk plane and eight azimuthal directions. The column densities in the circumstellar disk of the central star and the circumbinary disk were computed separately. Our computations have shown that periodic column density oscillations can arise in both inner and circumbinary disks. The amplitude and shape of these oscillations depend on the system's parameters (the orbital eccentricity and inclination, the component mass ratio) and its orientation in space. The results of our simulations can be used to explain the cyclic brightness variations of young UX Ori stars.

  7. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.


    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  8. Latest advances in high brightness disk lasers (United States)

    Kuhn, Vincent; Gottwald, Tina; Stolzenburg, Christian; Schad, Sven-Silvius; Killi, Alexander; Ryba, Tracey


    In the last decade diode pumped solid state lasers have become an important tool for many industrial materials processing applications. They combine ease of operation with efficiency, robustness and low cost. This paper will give insight in latest progress in disk laser technology ranging from kW-class CW-Lasers over frequency converted lasers to ultra-short pulsed lasers. The disk laser enables high beam quality at high average power and at high peak power at the same time. The power from a single disk was scaled from 1 kW around the year 2000 up to more than 10 kW nowadays. Recently was demonstrated more than 4 kW of average power from a single disk close to fundamental mode beam quality (M²=1.38). Coupling of multiple disks in a common resonator results in even higher power. As an example we show 20 kW extracted from two disks of a common resonator. The disk also reduces optical nonlinearities making it ideally suited for short and ultrashort pulsed lasers. In a joint project between TRUMPF and IFSW Stuttgart more than 1.3 kW of average power at ps pulse duration and exceptionally good beam quality was recently demonstrated. The extremely low saturated gain makes the disk laser ideal for internal frequency conversion. We show >1 kW average power and >6 kW peak power in multi ms pulsed regime from an internally frequency doubled disk laser emitting at 515 nm (green). Also external frequency conversion can be done efficiently with ns pulses. >500 W of average UV power was demonstrated.

  9. Equilibrium large vortex state in ferromagnetic disks (United States)

    Metlov, Konstantin L.


    Magnetic vortices in soft ferromagnetic nano-disks have been extensively studied for at least several decades both for their applied (non-volatile information storage) as well as fundamental value. Here, it is shown that there is another vortex ground state with large radius-dependent core profile in nano-scale ferromagnetic disks of several exchange lengths in size. Its energy is computed numerically and its stability is studied analytically, which allows to plot it on magnetic phase diagram. Large vortices may exist on par with the classical ones, while being separated by an energy barrier, controllable by tuning the geometry and material of ferromagnetic disk.

  10. The performance evaluation of a new neural network based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network (United States)

    Ansari, Nirwan; Liu, Dequan


    A neural-network-based traffic management scheme for a satellite communication network is described. The scheme consists of two levels of management. The front end of the scheme is a derivation of Kohonen's self-organization model to configure maps for the satellite communication network dynamically. The model consists of three stages. The first stage is the pattern recognition task, in which an exemplar map that best meets the current network requirements is selected. The second stage is the analysis of the discrepancy between the chosen exemplar map and the state of the network, and the adaptive modification of the chosen exemplar map to conform closely to the network requirement (input data pattern) by means of Kohonen's self-organization. On the basis of certain performance criteria, whether a new map is generated to replace the original chosen map is decided in the third stage. A state-dependent routing algorithm, which arranges the incoming call to some proper path, is used to make the network more efficient and to lower the call block rate. Simulation results demonstrate that the scheme, which combines self-organization and the state-dependent routing mechanism, provides better performance in terms of call block rate than schemes that only have either the self-organization mechanism or the routing mechanism.

  11. Coupling Mechanism of the Tourism Industrial Network Based on Circular Economy


    Han, Xinming; Zheng, Xiangjiang


    This paper summarizes the research situation of circular economy and tourism industrial network at home and abroad, introduces the concept and characteristics of tourism industrial network, and analyzes the coupling mechanism of tourism industrial network based on circular economy.

  12. Novel Supramolecular Polymer Networks Based on Melamine- and Imide-Containing Oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loontjens, Ton; Put, Jos; Coussens, Betty; Palmen, Jo; Sleijpen, Ton; Plum, Bart


    Reversible, supramolecular polymer networks based on commercially available bulk chemicals, and prepared using an industrially attractive route are described. The difunctional, low molecular weight polytetramethyleneoxide is functionalized with trimellitic imide, and reversibly crosslinked with the

  13. Costs and benefits of network based instruction at the Naval Postgraduate School


    Sorenson, Brian K.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Naval Postgraduate School's (NPS) Strategic Plan for 1998 addresses the significance of distant education in NPS's future. Network Based Instruction (NBI) utilizes new technology and the Internet to provide education at a distance. This thesis provides a framework which identifies the costs and benefits associated with converting, administering and maintaining a traditionally taught course using Network Based Instruction. Conversio...

  14. Disk MHD Conversion System for Nerva Reactor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, W


    The principal results of the study have been to: (1) confirm that cesium seeded hydrogen plasma disk MHD generator can meet its expected performance while operating in a stable plasma regime; and (2...

  15. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P. Chris


    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves...

  16. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  17. Internal and external resonances of dielectric disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dettmann, C. P.; Morozov, G. V.; Sieber, M.; Waalkens, H.

    Circular microresonators (microdisks) are micron size dielectric disks embedded in a material of lower refractive index. They possess modes with complex eigenvalues (resonances) which are solutions of analytically given transcendental equations. The behavior of such eigenvalues in the small opening


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA), Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Muzerolle, J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Telescope Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  19. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe


    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  20. LMC Microlensing and Very Thick Disks


    Gyuk, Geza; Gates, Evalyn


    We investigate the implications of a very thick (scale height 1.5 - 3.0 kpc) disk population of MACHOs. Such a population represents a reasonable alternative to standard halo configurations of a lensing population. We find that very thick disk distributions can lower the lens mass estimate derived from the microlensing data toward the LMC, although an average lens mass substantially below $0.3\\Msol$ is unlikely. Constraints from direct searches for such lenses imply very low luminosity object...

  1. Dissecting disks around B-type protostars (United States)

    Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro; Cesaroni, Riccardo; Beltran, Maite; Kumar, M. S. Nanda; Stanke, Thomas; Zinnecker, Hans; Etoka, Sandra; Galli, Daniele; Hummel, Christian A.; Moscadelli, Luca; Preibisch, Thomas; Ratzka, Thorsten; van der Tak, Floris F. S.; Vig, Sarita; Walmsley, C. Malcolm; Wang, Kuo-Song


    Recent theoretical models indicate that OB-type stars could form through disk-mediated accretion, like their low mass counterparts. However, on the observational side, circumstellar disks appear still elusive, especially around the most massive (proto)stars. As for early B-type (proto)stars, an ever growing number of disk candidates has been proposed, but only very few of these present evidence for Keplerian rotation. The advent of ALMA provides us with the necessary sensitivity and angular resolution to assess the existence of such disks and possibly establish their rotation curves. With this in mind, we have performed ALMA observations with the highest possible resolution (~0.4") at 350 GHz to search for circumstellar disks in a couple of presumably massive young stellar objects with luminosities of ~10000 Lsun and associated with bipolar nebulosities suggestive of the presence of disk/outflow systems. By observing simultaneously core and jet tracers, we could reveal molecular cores with velocity gradients perpendicular to the corresponding jets. In at least one case (G35.20-0.74 N), the core structure appears resolved and the velocity field can be fitted with an almost edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a central mass of 18 Msun. This finding is consistent with the results of a recent study of the CO first overtone bandhead emission at 2.3mum towards G35.20-0.74 N. The disk radius and mass are >2500 au and 3 Msun. To reconcile the observed bolometric luminosity (3x10^4 Lsun) with the estimated stellar mass of 18 Msun, we propose that the latter is the total mass of a binary system.

  2. YottaYotta announces new world record set for TCP disk-to-disk bulk transfer

    CERN Multimedia


    The Yottabyte NetStorage(TM) Company, today announced a new world record for TCP disk-to-disk data transfer using the company's NetStorager(R) System. The record-breaking demonstration transferred 5 terabytes of data between Chicago, Il. to Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON, at a sustained average throughput of 11.1 gigabits per second. Peak throughput exceeded 11.6 gigabits per second, more than 15-times faster than previous records for TCP transfer from disk-to-disk (1 page).

  3. Empirical Temperature Measurement in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Weaver, Erik; Isella, Andrea; Boehler, Yann


    The accurate measurement of temperature in protoplanetary disks is critical to understanding many key features of disk evolution and planet formation, from disk chemistry and dynamics, to planetesimal formation. This paper explores the techniques available to determine temperatures from observations of single, optically thick molecular emission lines. Specific attention is given to issues such as the inclusion of optically thin emission, problems resulting from continuum subtraction, and complications of real observations. Effort is also made to detail the exact nature and morphology of the region emitting a given line. To properly study and quantify these effects, this paper considers a range of disk models, from simple pedagogical models to very detailed models including full radiative transfer. Finally, we show how the use of the wrong methods can lead to potentially severe misinterpretations of data, leading to incorrect measurements of disk temperature profiles. We show that the best way to estimate the temperature of emitting gas is to analyze the line peak emission map without subtracting continuum emission. Continuum subtraction, which is commonly applied to observations of line emission, systematically leads to underestimation of the gas temperature. We further show that once observational effects such as beam dilution and noise are accounted for, the line brightness temperature derived from the peak emission is reliably within 10%–15% of the physical temperature of the emitting region, assuming optically thick emission. The methodology described in this paper will be applied in future works to constrain the temperature, and related physical quantities, in protoplanetary disks observed with ALMA.

  4. Flash memory management system and method utilizing multiple block list windows (United States)

    Chow, James (Inventor); Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)


    The present invention provides a flash memory management system and method with increased performance. The flash memory management system provides the ability to efficiently manage and allocate flash memory use in a way that improves reliability and longevity, while maintaining good performance levels. The flash memory management system includes a free block mechanism, a disk maintenance mechanism, and a bad block detection mechanism. The free block mechanism provides efficient sorting of free blocks to facilitate selecting low use blocks for writing. The disk maintenance mechanism provides for the ability to efficiently clean flash memory blocks during processor idle times. The bad block detection mechanism provides the ability to better detect when a block of flash memory is likely to go bad. The flash status mechanism stores information in fast access memory that describes the content and status of the data in the flash disk. The new bank detection mechanism provides the ability to automatically detect when new banks of flash memory are added to the system. Together, these mechanisms provide a flash memory management system that can improve the operational efficiency of systems that utilize flash memory.

  5. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block. (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur


    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Furlan, Elise [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sargent, Benjamin [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Hernández, Jesús [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Adame, Lucía [Facultad de Ciencias Físico-Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Universidad S/N, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, C.P. 66451, México (Mexico); Espaillat, Catherine [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Muzerolle, James, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others


    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with those of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.

  7. Thermal Test on Target with Pressed Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gromov, Roman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lowden, Rick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A thorough test of the thermal performance of a target for Mo99 production using solid Mo100 target to produce the Mo99 via a gamma-n reaction has previously been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The results are reported in “Zero Degree Line Mo Target Thermal Test Results and Analysis,” LANL report Number LA-UR-15-23134 dated 3/27/15. This target was comprised of 25 disks 1 mm thick and 12 mm in diameter, separated by helium coolant gaps 0.5 mm wide. The test reported in the above referenced report was conducted with natural Mo disks all cut from commercial rod. The production plant will have Mo100 disks pressed and sintered using a process being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The structural integrity of press-and-sinter disks is of some concern. The test reported herein included 4 disks made by the ORNL process and placed in the high heat, and therefore high thermal stress, region of the target. The electron beam energy was 23 MeV for these tests. Beam spot size was 3.5 mm horizontal and 3 mm vertical, FWHM. The thermal stress test of pressed-and-sintered disks resulted in no mechanical failures. The induced thermal stresses were below yield stress for natural Mo, indicating that up to that stress state no inherent deficiencies in the mechanical properties of the fabricated disks were evident.

  8. Ultraviolet Echoes of Quasar Accretion Disks (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan


    We propose a novel ultraviolet monitoring campaign with WFC3/UVIS to measure quasar accretion disk structure. The bulk of supermassive black hole growth occurs in luminous quasar phases of rapid accretion, yet the governing physics remains poorly understood. Continuum reverberation mapping (RM) measures the accretion disk size via the time lag between short- and long-wavelength emission: the proposed UV monitoring forms the foundation for simultaneous optical observations (expected to continue for our quasars through 2019). Currently only 4 Seyfert AGNs have UV/optical RM accretion-disk sizes, all low-luminosity and at z<0.02. We propose to monitor 5 new quasars, spanning an order of magnitude higher accretion rate and out to z 1. The 5 quasar targets are drawn from SDSS-RM, a pioneering multi-object spectroscopic RM campaign, and have been monitored with optical photometry and spectroscopy since 2014. The higher luminosity and accurate RM masses of our sample enable the first measurements of accretion-rate effects on accretion-disk size, with UV monitoring directly probing changes in the inner disk suggested by theory and previous indirect observations. Our proposed HST monitoring campaign is unusually efficient, targeting 5 quasars per orbit using the DASH method with UVIS subarray readouts. We use simulations to demonstrate that our 2-day cadence over 32 epochs will accurately measure continuum lags and accretion-disk structure. Ultraviolet monitoring of these 5 quasars will enable critical new measurements of accretion-disk structure during the rapid accretion mode that dominates black hole growth.

  9. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird


    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  10. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes. (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy


    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  11. The formation of rings and gaps in protoplanetary disks by magnetic disk winds (United States)

    Suriano, Scott; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien


    ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks have revealed previously unresolved radial substructure. These observations, along with the need to fully understand the effects of magnetic fields on the angular momentum transport and global evolution of disks, motivate the study of radial substructure formation in protoplanetary disks. Through 2D-axisymmetric, resistive MHD simulations, we show that rings and gaps can be formed in disks purely through MHD processes in one of two ways: (1) from the removal of angular momentum via a disk wind if the wind torque (and, therefore, the wind-driven mass accretion rate) varies as a function of disk radius, and (2) via the transport of mass through so-called “avalanche accretion streams,” which are a manifestation of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) channel flows in two dimensions. When including ambipolar diffusion (AD), we find that the bulk of the accretion in AD-dominated regions of the disk is concentrated in a thin current sheet near the midplane. Accretion through this current sheet drags magnetic field lines inward with the flow, resulting in a pronounced radial pinch of the magnetic field. Eventually, this radial pinch becomes elongated enough for the magnetic field to reconnect, forming a poloidal magnetic field loop where mass can be concentrated into a dense ring. These mechanisms provide plausible explanations for the radial substructure observed in protoplanetary disks on the tens of au scale.

  12. Cold disks : Spitzer spectroscopy of disks around young stars with large gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, G. A.; Dullemond, C. P.; Merin, B.; Augereau, J. C.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Evans, N. J.; Geers, V. C.; Lahuis, F.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Brown, J.M.


    We have identified four circumstellar disks with a deficit of dust emission from their inner 15-50 AU. All four stars have F-G spectral type and were uncovered as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope "Cores to Disks" Legacy Program Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) first-look survey of similar to 100 pre -

  13. Equilibrium configuration of a stratus floating above accretion disks: Full-disk calculation (United States)

    Itanishi, Yusuke; Fukue, Jun


    We examine floating strati above a luminous accretion disk, supported by the radiative force from the entire disk, and calculate the equilibrium locus, which depends on the disk luminosity and the optical depth of the stratus. Due to the radiative transfer effect (albedo effect), the floating height of the stratus with a finite optical depth generally becomes high, compared with the particle case. In contrast to the case of the near-disk approximation, moreover, the floating height becomes yet higher in the present full-disk calculation, since the intense radiation from the inner disk is taken into account. As a result, when the disk luminosity normalized by the Eddington luminosity is ˜0.3 and the stratus optical depth is around unity, the stable configuration disappears at around r ˜ 50 rg, rg being the Schwarzschild radius, and the stratus would be blown off as a cloudy wind consisting of many strati with appropriate conditions. This luminosity is sufficiently smaller than the Eddington one, and the present results suggest that the radiation-driven cloudy wind can be easily blown off from the sub-Eddington disk, and this can explain various outflows observed in ultra-fast outflow objects as well as in broad-absorption-line quasars.

  14. The Tilt between Acretion Disk and Stellar Disk Shiyin Shen1,2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to a control galaxy sample. Given that the Type 2 AGN fraction is in the range of 70–90 percent for low luminosity AGNs as a priori, we find that the mean tilt between the accretion disk and stellar disk is ∼ 30 degrees. (Shen et al. 2010). Key words. Galaxies: statistics—galaxies: Seyfert—galaxies: nuclei— galaxies: spiral. 1.

  15. Manipulation of magnetic vortex parameters in disk-on-disk nanostructures with various geometry. (United States)

    Stebliy, Maxim E; Kolesnikov, Alexander G; Ognev, Alexey V; Samardak, Alexander S; Chebotkevich, Ludmila A


    Magnetic nanostructures in the form of a sandwich consisting of two permalloy (Py) disks with diameters of 600 and 200 nm separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer are studied. Magnetization reversal of the disk-on-disk nanostructures depends on the distance between centers of the small and big disks and on orientation of an external magnetic field applied during measurements. It is found that manipulation of the magnetic vortex chirality and the trajectory of the vortex core in the big disk is only possible in asymmetric nanostructures. Experimentally studied peculiarities of a motion path of the vortex core and vortex parameters by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometer are supported by the magnetic force microscopy imaging and micromagnetic simulations.

  16. Manipulation of magnetic vortex parameters in disk-on-disk nanostructures with various geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Stebliy


    Full Text Available Magnetic nanostructures in the form of a sandwich consisting of two permalloy (Py disks with diameters of 600 and 200 nm separated by a nonmagnetic interlayer are studied. Magnetization reversal of the disk-on-disk nanostructures depends on the distance between centers of the small and big disks and on orientation of an external magnetic field applied during measurements. It is found that manipulation of the magnetic vortex chirality and the trajectory of the vortex core in the big disk is only possible in asymmetric nanostructures. Experimentally studied peculiarities of a motion path of the vortex core and vortex parameters by the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE magnetometer are supported by the magnetic force microscopy imaging and micromagnetic simulations.

  17. Probing Protoplanetary Disks: From Birth to Planets (United States)

    Guilfoil Cox, Erin


    Disks are very important in the evolution of protostars and their subsequent planets. How early disks can form has implications for early planet formation. In the youngest protostars (i.e., Class 0 sources) magnetic fields can control disk growth. When the field is parallel to the collapsing core’s rotation axis, infalling material loses angular momentum and disks form in later stages. Sub-/millimeter polarization continuum observations of Class 0 sources at ~1000 au resolution support this idea. However, in the inner (~100 au), denser regions, it is unknown if the polarization only traces aligned dust grains. Recent theoretical studies have shown that self-scattering of thermal emission in the disk may contribute significantly to the polarization. Determining the scattering contribution in these sources is important to disentangle the magnetic field. At older times (the Class II phase), the disk structure can both act as a modulator and signpost of planet formation, if there is enough of a mass reservoir. In my dissertation talk, I will present results that bear on disk evolution at both young and late ages. I will present 8 mm polarization results of two Class 0 protostars (IRAS 4A and IC348 MMS) from the VLA at ~50 au resolution. The inferred magnetic field of IRAS 4A has a circular morphology, reminiscent of material being dragged into a rotating structure. I will show results from SOFIA polarization data of the area surrounding IRAS 4A at ~4000 au. I will also present ALMA 850 micron polarization data of ten protostars in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. Most of these sources show very ordered patterns and low (~0.5%) polarization in their inner regions, while having very disordered patterns and high polarization patterns in their extended emission that may suggest different mechanisms in the inner/outer regions. Finally, I will present results from our ALMA dust continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in Rho Ophiuchus; we measured both the sizes and fluxes of

  18. Disk-Jet Connection in Active Supermassive Black Holes in the Standard Accretion Disk Regime (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Doi, Akihiro; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Sikora, Marek; Madejski, Grzegorz M.


    We study the disk-jet connection in supermassive black holes by investigating the properties of their optical and radio emissions utilizing the SDSS DR7 and the NVSS catalogs. Our sample contains 7017 radio-loud quasars with detection both at 1.4 GHz and SDSS optical spectra. Using this radio-loud quasar sample, we investigate the correlation among the jet power ({P}{jet}), the bolometric disk luminosity ({L}{disk}), and the black hole mass ({M}{BH}) in the standard accretion disk regime. We find that the jet powers correlate with the bolometric disk luminosities as {log}{P}{jet}=(0.96+/- 0.012){log}{L}{disk}+(0.79+/- 0.55). This suggests the jet production efficiency of {η }{jet}≃ {1.1}-0.76+2.6 × {10}-2 assuming the disk radiative efficiency of 0.1, implying low black hole spin parameters and/or low magnetic flux for radio-loud quasars. But it can be also due to the dependence of this efficiency on the geometrical thickness of the accretion flow, which is expected to be small for quasars accreting at the disk Eddington ratios 0.01≲ λ ≲ 0.3. This low jet production efficiency does not significantly increase even if we set the disk radiative efficiency to be 0.3. We also investigate the fundamental plane in our samples among {P}{jet}, {L}{disk}, and {M}{BH}. We could not find a statistically significant fundamental plane for radio-loud quasars in the standard accretion regime.

  19. Low-dimensional recurrent neural network-based Kalman filter for speech enhancement. (United States)

    Xia, Youshen; Wang, Jun


    This paper proposes a new recurrent neural network-based Kalman filter for speech enhancement, based on a noise-constrained least squares estimate. The parameters of speech signal modeled as autoregressive process are first estimated by using the proposed recurrent neural network and the speech signal is then recovered from Kalman filtering. The proposed recurrent neural network is globally asymptomatically stable to the noise-constrained estimate. Because the noise-constrained estimate has a robust performance against non-Gaussian noise, the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can minimize the estimation error of Kalman filter parameters in non-Gaussian noise. Furthermore, having a low-dimensional model feature, the proposed neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm has a much faster speed than two existing recurrent neural networks-based speech enhancement algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed recurrent neural network-based speech enhancement algorithm can produce a good performance with fast computation and noise reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Internal and environmental secular evolution of disk galaxies (United States)

    Kormendy, John


    This Special Session is devoted to the secular evolution of disk galaxies. Here `secular' means `slow' i.e., evolution on time scales that are generally much longer than the galaxy crossing or rotation time. Internal and environmentally driven evolution both are covered. I am indebted to Albert Bosma for reminding me at the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School on Secular Evolution that our subject first appeared in print in a comment made by Ivan King (1977) in his introductory talk at the Yale University meeting on The Evolution of Galaxies and Stellar Populations: `John Kormendy would like us to consider the possibility that a galaxy can interact with itself.. . . I'm not at all convinced, but John can show you some interesting pictures.' Two of the earliest papers that followed were Kormendy (1979a, b); the first discusses the interaction of galaxy components with each other, and the second studies these phenomena in the context of a morphological survey of barred galaxies. The earliest modeling paper that we still use regularly is Combes & Sanders (1981), which introduces the now well known idea that box-shaped bulges in edge-on galaxies are side-on, vertically thickened bars. It is gratifying to see how this subject has grown since that time. Hundreds of papers have been written, and the topic features prominently at many meetings (e.g., Block et al. 2004; Falcoń-Barroso & Knapen 2012, and this Special Session). My talk here introduces both internal and environmental secular evolution; a brief abstract follows. My Canary Islands Winter School review covers both subjects in more detail (Kormendy 2012). Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) is a comprehensive review of internal secular evolution, and Kormendy & Bender (2012) covers environmental evolution. Both of these subject make significant progress at this meeting. Secular evolution happens because self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable by the evolution processes

  1. Block-Parallel Data Analysis with DIY2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, Dmitriy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Peterka, Tom [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    DIY2 is a programming model and runtime for block-parallel analytics on distributed-memory machines. Its main abstraction is block-structured data parallelism: data are decomposed into blocks; blocks are assigned to processing elements (processes or threads); computation is described as iterations over these blocks, and communication between blocks is defined by reusable patterns. By expressing computation in this general form, the DIY2 runtime is free to optimize the movement of blocks between slow and fast memories (disk and flash vs. DRAM) and to concurrently execute blocks residing in memory with multiple threads. This enables the same program to execute in-core, out-of-core, serial, parallel, single-threaded, multithreaded, or combinations thereof. This paper describes the implementation of the main features of the DIY2 programming model and optimizations to improve performance. DIY2 is evaluated on benchmark test cases to establish baseline performance for several common patterns and on larger complete analysis codes running on large-scale HPC machines.

  2. Formulas for Radial Transport in Protoplanetary Disks (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Estrada, Paul R.; Kalyaan, Anusha; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.


    The quantification of the radial transport of gaseous species and solid particles is important to many applications in protoplanetary disk evolution. An especially important example is determining the location of the water snow lines in a disk, which requires computing the rates of outward radial diffusion of water vapor and the inward radial drift of icy particles; however, the application is generalized to evaporation fronts of all volatiles. We review the relevant formulas using a uniform formalism. This uniform treatment is necessary because the literature currently contains at least six mutually exclusive treatments of radial diffusion of gas, only one of which is correct. We derive the radial diffusion equations from first principles using Fick's law. For completeness, we also present the equations for radial transport of particles. These equations may be applied to studies of diffusion of gases and particles in protoplanetary and other accretion disks.

  3. Random Number Generators in Secure Disk Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hars Laszlo


    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptographic random number generators seeded by physical entropy sources are employed in many embedded security systems, including self-encrypting disk drives, being manufactured by the millions every year. Random numbers are used for generating encryption keys and for facilitating secure communication, and they are also provided to users for their applications. We discuss common randomness requirements, techniques for estimating the entropy of physical sources, investigate specific nonrandom physical properties, estimate the autocorrelation, then mix reduce the data until all common randomness tests pass. This method is applied to a randomness source in disk drives: the always changing coefficients of an adaptive filter for the read channel equalization. These coefficients, affected by many kinds of physical noise, are used in the reseeding process of a cryptographic pseudorandom number generator in a family of self encrypting disk drives currently in the market.

  4. Subaru SEEDS Survey of Exoplanets and Disks (United States)

    McElwain, Michael W.


    The Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks at Subaru (SEEDS) is the first strategic observing program (SSOPs) awarded by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). SEEDS targets a broad sample of stars that span a wide range of masses and ages to explore the formation and evolution of planetary systems. This survey has been awarded 120 nights over five years time to observe nearly 500 stars. Currently in the second year, SEEDS has already produced exciting new results for the protoplanetary disk AB Aur, transitional disk LkCa15, and nearby companion to GJ 758. We present the survey architecture, performance, recent results, and the projected sample. Finally, we will discuss planned upgrades to the high contrast instrumentation at the Subaru Telescope

  5. Heating and cooling processes in disks (United States)

    Woitke, Peter


    This chapter summarises current theoretical concepts and methods to determine the gas temperature structure in protoplanetary disks by balancing all relevant heating and cooling rates. The processes considered are non-LTE line heating/cooling based on the escape probability method, photo-ionisation heating and recombination cooling, free-free heating/cooling, dust thermal accommodation and high-energy heating processes such as X-ray and cosmic ray heating, dust photoelectric and PAH heating, a number of particular follow-up heating processes starting with the UV excitation of H2, and the release of binding energy in exothermal reactions. The resulting thermal structure of protoplanetary disks is described and discussed. 10th Lecture from Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  6. Toshiba Optical Disk Stores 15000 CT Images (United States)

    Kato, Haruo; Kita, Kouichi


    The Toshiba computed tomography scanner system TCT60A/500X is equipped with an optical disk data storage device for image data archiving. One optical disk stores 3.6 gigabytes of data, or 15000 CT images on both sides. When writing on an optical disk, one spiral of data pits is produced with a semiconductor laser by evaporating the Te-C film coated on the PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) substrate. The pits are read by the same laser at a lower power along with CRC (cyclic redundancy code) error correction. A bit error rate of 1.0E-12 was attained. The IEEE488 interface bus (GPIB) is used to communicate with a host computer. The mean data transfer rate through the bus is 100 kilobytes per second.

  7. To Block or Not to Block?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. (Arona) Cristina; N.M.G. (Nicole) Tweeboom; E.M. (Ellen) Wesselingh


    An investigation into whether or not young people studying in higher education in the Netherlands have modified their download behaviour, in the light of a legal obligation to block The Pirate Bay (TPB) by Dutch Internet Service Providers (ISPs). In the lawsuit, it is argued that a blockade by the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodriguez-Asomoza


    Full Text Available This paper presents a wavelet-neural network based on the L1-norm minimisation for learning chaotic time series.The proposed approach, which is based on multi-resolution analysis, uses wavelets as activation functions in thehidden layer of the wavelet-network. We propose using the L1-norm, as opposed to the L2-norm, due to the wellknownfact that the L1-norm is superior to the L2-norm criterion when the signal has heavy tailed distributions oroutliers. A comparison of the proposed approach with previous reported schemes using a time series benchmark ispresented. Simulation results show that the proposed wavelet-network based on the L1-norm performs better thanthe standard back-propagation network and the wavelet-network based on the traditional L2-norm when applied tosynthetic data.

  9. Simulating a Thin Accretion Disk Using PLUTO (United States)

    Phillipson, Rebecca; Vogeley, Michael S.; Boyd, Patricia T.


    Accreting black hole systems such as X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei exhibit variability in their luminosity on many timescales ranging from milliseconds to tens of days, and even hundreds of days. The mechanism(s) driving this variability and the relationship between short- and long-term variability is poorly understood. Current studies on accretion disks seek to determine how the changes in black hole mass, the rate at which mass accretes onto the central black hole, and the external environment affect the variability on scales ranging from stellar-mass black holes to supermassive black holes. Traditionally, the fluid mechanics equations governing accretion disks have been simplified by considering only the kinematics of the disk, and perhaps magnetic fields, in order for their phenomenological behavior to be predicted analytically. We seek to employ numerical techniques to study accretion disks including more complicated physics traditionally ignored in order to more accurately understand their behavior over time. We present a proof-of-concept three dimensional, global simulation using the astrophysical hydrodynamic code PLUTO of a simplified thin disk model about a central black hole which will serve as the basis for development of more complicated models including external effects such as radiation and magnetic fields. We also develop a tool to generate a synthetic light curve that displays the variability in luminosity of the simulation over time. The preliminary simulation and accompanying synthetic light curve demonstrate that PLUTO is a reliable code to perform sophisticated simulations of accretion disk systems which can then be compared to observational results.

  10. Moving groups in the Galactic thin disk (United States)

    Ramya, P.; Reddy, Bacham Eswar

    Apart from the large scale structures named as thick disk and thin disk, many small scale structures or overdensities are observed in the velocity fields of disk stars in the solar neighborhood. Such structures include open clusters, OB associations, stellar streams etc. Stellar streams or moving groups are kinematically coherent groups of stars which are gravitationally unbound and are seen scattered all over the sky. Although they have been known and studied for long, their origin is not well understood. The most popular scenarios explaining the origin of moving groups are cluster disruption, dynamical perturbations within the Galaxy and the tidal disruption of satellite galaxies by the Galaxy. Arcturus stream is a well known example of streams in the thick disk, while Hercules stream, Sirius stream, Hyades stream etc, are the popular ones in the thin disk of the Galaxy. Here, we present the results of our analysis of three streams -Sirius, Hercules and Hyades. Candidate members for each of the streams were chosen based on the kinematic classification provided in the literature. The kinematic motion (U, V, W) of the sample stars, and the probability with which stars belong to the Galactic thin disk are calculated. Main focus of our study is to understand the chemistry of the stream members. The detailed chemical composition is obtained through high resolution spectroscopy and the results are compared with the abundance patterns of different Galactic components. We do not find chemical homogeneity among the stream members. It appears that the member stars are of different origin. Although, the abundance patterns in these streams favour dynamical perturbations within the Galaxy, the association of Hyades stream with Hyades cluster has been discussed.

  11. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth


    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  12. Protogalaxies. [with early disk and spheroid systems (United States)

    Cowie, Lennox L.


    It is argued that the observed sample of flat-spectrum galaxies seen in recent deep surveys must contain both early disk systems and early spheroid systems in order to match observed number counts if q sub 0 = 0.5. The low average density of neutral hydrogen in damped L-alpha systems at z = 2 - 3 separates the disk formation at z less than about 2 from spheroid formation at z greater than about 3. Based on color arguments, the period of spheroid formation is assigned to z = 4.

  13. Winds from disks in compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauche, C.W.


    We herein present an observational and theoretical review of the winds of compact binaries. After a brief consideration of the accretion disk coronae and winds of X-ray binaries, the review concentrates on the winds of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Specifically, we consider the related problems of the geometry and mass-loss rate of the winds of CVs, their ionization state and variability, and the results from studies of eclipsing CVs. Finally, the properties of bona fide accretion disk wind models are reviewed.

  14. The Rossby wave instability in protoplanetary disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheut H.


    Full Text Available The Rossby wave instability has been proposed as a mechanism to transport angular momentum in the dead zone of protoplanetary disks and to form vortices. These vortices are of particular interest to concentrate solids in their centres and eventually to form planetesimals. Here we summarize some recent results concerning the growth and structure of this instability in radially and vertically stratified disks, its saturation and non-linear evolution. We also discuss the concentration of solids in the Rossby vortices including vertical settling.

  15. Debris Disks in Aggregate: Using Hubble Space Telescope Coronagraphic Imagery to Understand the Scattered-Light Disk Detection Rate (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.


    Despite more than a decade of coronagraphic imaging of debris disk candidate stars, only 16 have been imaged in scattered light. Since imaged disks provide our best insight into processes which sculpt disks, and can provide signposts of the presence of giant planets at distances which would elude radial velocity and transit surveys, we need to understand under what conditions we detect the disks in scattered light, how these disks differ from the majority of debris disks, and how to increase the yield of disks which are imaged with 0.1" angular resolution. In this talk, I will review what we have learned from a shallow HSTINICMOS NIR survey of debris disks, and present first results from our on-going HST /STIS optical imaging of bright scattered-light disks.

  16. Modulation of grasping force in prosthetic hands using neural network-based predictive control. (United States)

    Pasluosta, Cristian F; Chiu, Alan W L


    This chapter describes the implementation of a neural network-based predictive control system for driving a prosthetic hand. Nonlinearities associated with the electromechanical aspects of prosthetic devices present great challenges for precise control of this type of device. Model-based controllers may overcome this issue. Moreover, given the complexity of these kinds of electromechanical systems, neural network-based modeling arises as a good fit for modeling the fingers' dynamics. The results of simulations mimicking potential situations encountered during activities of daily living demonstrate the feasibility of this technique.

  17. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim


    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  18. Fomalhaut's Debris Disk and Planet: Constraining the Mass of Formalhaut B from Disk Morphology (United States)

    Chiang, E.; Kite, E.; Kalas, P.; Graham, J. R.; Clampin, M.


    Following the optical imaging of exoplanet candidate Fomalhaut b (Fom b), we present a numerical model of how Fomalhaut's debris disk is gravitationally shaped by a single interior planet. The model is simple, adaptable to other debris disks, and can be extended to accommodate multiple planets. If Fom b is the dominant perturber of the belt, then to produce the observed disk morphology it must have a mass M(sub pl) 101.5AU, and an orbital eccentricity e(sub pl) = 0.11 - 0.13. These conclusions are independent of Fom b's photometry. To not disrupt the disk, a greater mass for Fom b demands a smaller orbit farther removed from the disk; thus, future astrometric measurement of Fom b's orbit, combined with our model of planet-disk interaction, can be used to determine the mass more precisely. The inner edge of the debris disk at a approximately equals 133AU lies at the periphery of Fom b's chaotic zone, and the mean disk eccentricity of e approximately equals 0.11 is secularly forced by the planet, supporting predictions made prior to the discovery of Fom b. However, previous mass constraints based on disk morphology rely on several oversimplifications. We explain why our constraint is more reliable. It is based on a global model of the disk that is not restricted to the planet's chaotic zone boundary. Moreover, we screen disk parent bodies for dynamical stability over the system age of approximately 100 Myr, and model them separately from their dust grain progeny; the latter's orbits are strongly affected by radiation pressure and their lifetimes are limited to approximately 0.1 Myr by destructive grain-grain collisions. The single planet model predicts that planet and disk orbits be apsidally aligned. Fomalhaut b's nominal space velocity does not bear this out, but the astrometric uncertainties are difficult to quantify. Even if the apsidal misalignment proves real, our calculated upper mass limit of 3 M(sub J) still holds. Parent bodies are evacuated from mean

  19. Block Storage Service: Status and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Ster, Daniel


    This memo summarizes the current status of the Ceph block storage service as it is used for OpenStack Cinder Volumes and Glance Images as of May 2014. We present the block storage activity on the current cluster, measuring IOPS and latencies, and present a cost/benefit analysis of using SSDs to optimize the cost and performance efficiency of the service. During tests in collaboration with IT-CF, we have concluded that by adding SSDs as the synchronous write journals (used to guarantee data durability), we are able increase the IOPS capacity by 4-5 times, at a cost of decreasing the available volume by 20%. Further, the testing has shown that the Ceph implementation is able to operate at the limit of the hardware performance; software-induced performance limitations were not yet observed in either the spinning disk or SSD configurations. In addition, we believe that increasing small write performance with SSDs is applicable only to the block storage use-case; high-bandwidth use-cases such as physics data stora...

  20. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)


    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  1. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents an analysis of the first 2MASS (The Two Micron All Sky Survey) sampler data as observed at lower Galactic latitude in our Galaxy. These new near-infrared data provide insight into the structure of the thin disk of our Galaxy, The interpretation of star counts and color distributions of stars in the ...

  2. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  3. Scale Length of the Galactic Thin Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    synthetic stellar population model, gives strong evidence that the Galactic thin disk density scale length, hR, ... be preferred to investigate the stellar distribution, specially at large distances from the. Sun. In this paper, we present ... city gradient according to age metallicity and age scale height relations. In the model, the key ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Stellar velocity dispersion measurements of a sample of 12 galactic disks are summarized. The observed radial functionality is parameterized such that one dispersion value is assigned to each galaxy. Comparison of the galaxy dispersion with absolute magnitude and maximum rotation reveals that the

  5. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.


    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  6. KNBD: A Remote Kernel Block Server for Linux (United States)

    Becker, Jeff


    I am developing a prototype of a Linux remote disk block server whose purpose is to serve as a lower level component of a parallel file system. Parallel file systems are an important component of high performance supercomputers and clusters. Although supercomputer vendors such as SGI and IBM have their own custom solutions, there has been a void and hence a demand for such a system on Beowulf-type PC Clusters. Recently, the Parallel Virtual File System (PVFS) project at Clemson University has begun to address this need (1). Although their system provides much of the functionality of (and indeed was inspired by) the equivalent file systems in the commercial supercomputer market, their system is all in user-space. Migrating their 10 services to the kernel could provide a performance boost, by obviating the need for expensive system calls. Thanks to Pavel Machek, the Linux kernel has provided the network block device (2) with kernels 2.1.101 and later. You can configure this block device to redirect reads and writes to a remote machine's disk. This can be used as a building block for constructing a striped file system across several nodes.

  7. Resolving the inner disk of UX Orionis (United States)

    Kreplin, A.; Madlener, D.; Chen, L.; Weigelt, G.; Kraus, S.; Grinin, V.; Tambovtseva, L.; Kishimoto, M.


    Aims: The cause of the UX Ori variability in some Herbig Ae/Be stars is still a matter of debate. Detailed studies of the circumstellar environment of UX Ori objects (UXORs) are required to test the hypothesis that the observed drop in photometry might be related to obscuration events. Methods: Using near- and mid-infrared interferometric AMBER and MIDI observations, we resolved the inner circumstellar disk region around UX Ori. Results: We fitted the K-, H-, and N-band visibilities and the spectral energy distribution (SED) of UX Ori with geometric and parametric disk models. The best-fit K-band geometric model consists of an inclined ring and a halo component. We obtained a ring-fit radius of 0.45 ± 0.07 AU (at a distance of 460 pc), an inclination of 55.6 ± 2.4°, a position angle of the system axis of 127.5 ± 24.5°, and a flux contribution of the over-resolved halo component to the total near-infrared excess of 16.8 ± 4.1%. The best-fit N-band model consists of an elongated Gaussian with a HWHM ~ 5 AU of the semi-major axis and an axis ration of a/b ~ 3.4 (corresponding to an inclination of ~72°). With a parametric disk model, we fitted all near- and mid-infrared visibilities and the SED simultaneously. The model disk starts at an inner radius of 0.46 ± 0.06 AU with an inner rim temperature of 1498 ± 70 K. The disk is seen under an nearly edge-on inclination of 70 ± 5°. This supports any theories that require high-inclination angles to explain obscuration events in the line of sight to the observer, for example, in UX Ori objects where orbiting dust clouds in the disk or disk atmosphere can obscure the central star. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory under program IDs: 090.C-0769, 074.C-0552.

  8. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W. -F.

    Context. Emission lines from protoplanetary disks originate mainly in the irradiated surface layers, where the gas is generally warmer than the dust. Therefore, interpreting emission lines requires detailed thermo-chemical models, which are essential to converting line observations into


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui [Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Isella, Andrea [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States)


    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M{sub Jup} at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed.

  10. Consistent dust and gas models for protoplanetary disks. I. Disk shape, dust settling, opacities, and PAHs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woitke, P; Min, M; Pinte, C; Thi, W. -F; Kamp, I; Rab, C; Anthonioz, F; Antonellini, S; Baldovin-Saavea, C; Carmona, A; Dominik, C; Dionatos, O; Greaves, J; Güdel, M; Ilee, J. D; Liebhart, A; Ménard, F; Rigon, L; Waters, L. B. F. M; Aresu, G; Meijerink, R; Spaans, M


    ..., and line radiative transfer from optical to cm wavelengths. The first paper of this series focuses on the assumptions about the shape of the disk, the dust opacities, dust settling, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs...

  11. Neural network based data-driven predictor: Case study on clinker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft sensors are key solutions in process industries. Important parameters which are difficult or cost a lot to measure can be predicted using soft sensors. In this paper neural network based clinker quality predictor is developed. The predictor genuinely estimates LSF, SM, AM and C3S values. There is a time delay while ...

  12. Neural Network Based Model of an Industrial Oil-Fired Boiler System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an oil-fired boiler system is modeled as a multivariable plant with two inputs (feed water rate and oil-fired flow rate) and two outputs (steam temperature and pressure). The plant parameters are modeled using artificial neural network, based on experimental data collected directly from the physical plant.

  13. Learning Styles and Student Attitudes toward Various Aspects of Network-based Instruction. (United States)

    Federico, Pat-Anthony


    Describes a study conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to determine student attitudes toward various aspects of network-based instruction. Discusses Internet technology; Web-based education; online learning; learning styles; and results from Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, the Hidden Figures Test, and a number of multivariate procedures.…

  14. Enhancing Lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with Social Network-based Concepts and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheak, Alicia; Angehrn, Albert; Sloep, Peter


    This paper addresses the challenge of enhancing the social dimension of lifelong Competence Development and Management Systems with social network-based concepts and tools. Our premise is that through a combination of social network visualization tools, simulations, stimulus agents and management

  15. CN rings in full protoplanetary disks around young stars as probes of disk structure (United States)

    Cazzoletti, P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Facchini, S.; Bruderer, S.


    Aims: Bright ring-like structure emission of the CN molecule has been observed in protoplanetary disks. We investigate whether such structures are due to the morphology of the disk itself or if they are instead an intrinsic feature of CN emission. With the intention of using CN as a diagnostic, we also address to which physical and chemical parameters CN is most sensitive. Methods: A set of disk models were run for different stellar spectra, masses, and physical structures via the 2D thermochemical code DALI. An updated chemical network that accounts for the most relevant CN reactions was adopted. Results: Ring-shaped emission is found to be a common feature of all adopted models; the highest abundance is found in the upper outer regions of the disk, and the column density peaks at 30-100 AU for T Tauri stars with standard accretion rates. Higher mass disks generally show brighter CN. Higher UV fields, such as those appropriate for T Tauri stars with high accretion rates or for Herbig Ae stars or for higher disk flaring, generally result in brighter and larger rings. These trends are due to the main formation paths of CN, which all start with vibrationally excited H_2^* molecules, that are produced through far ultraviolet (FUV) pumping of H2. The model results compare well with observed disk-integrated CN fluxes and the observed location of the CN ring for the TW Hya disk. Conclusions: CN rings are produced naturally in protoplanetary disks and do not require a specific underlying disk structure such as a dust cavity or gap. The strong link between FUV flux and CN emission can provide critical information regarding the vertical structure of the disk and the distribution of dust grains which affects the UV penetration, and could help to break some degeneracies in the SED fitting. In contrast with C2H or c-C3H2, the CN flux is not very sensitive to carbon and oxygen depletion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Henning, Thomas; Linz, Hendrik; Birnstiel, Til; Boekel, Roy van; Klahr, Hubert [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chandler, Claire J.; Pérez, Laura [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801-0387 (United States); Anglada, Guillem; Macias, Enrique; Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Flock, Mario [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Menten, Karl [Jansky Fellow of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    The first long-baseline ALMA campaign resolved the disk around the young star HL Tau into a number of axisymmetric bright and dark rings. Despite the very young age of HL Tau, these structures have been interpreted as signatures for the presence of (proto)planets. The ALMA images triggered numerous theoretical studies based on disk–planet interactions, magnetically driven disk structures, and grain evolution. Of special interest are the inner parts of disks, where terrestrial planets are expected to form. However, the emission from these regions in HL Tau turned out to be optically thick at all ALMA wavelengths, preventing the derivation of surface density profiles and grain-size distributions. Here, we present the most sensitive images of HL Tau obtained to date with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array at 7.0 mm wavelength with a spatial resolution comparable to the ALMA images. At this long wavelength, the dust emission from HL Tau is optically thin, allowing a comprehensive study of the inner disk. We obtain a total disk dust mass of (1–3) × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙}, depending on the assumed opacity and disk temperature. Our optically thin data also indicate fast grain growth, fragmentation, and formation of dense clumps in the inner densest parts of the disk. Our results suggest that the HL Tau disk may be actually in a very early stage of planetary formation, with planets not already formed in the gaps but in the process of future formation in the bright rings.

  17. MHD simulations of jet acceleration from Keplerian accretion disks. The effects of disk resistivity (United States)

    Zanni, C.; Ferrari, A.; Rosner, R.; Bodo, G.; Massaglia, S.


    Context: Accretion disks and astrophysical jets are used to model many active astrophysical objects, such as young stars, relativistic stars, and active galactic nuclei. However, existing proposals for how these structures may transfer angular momentum and energy from disks to jets through viscous or magnetic torques do not yet provide a full understanding of the physical mechanisms involved. Thus, global stationary solutions have not explained the stability of these structures; and global numerical simulations that include both the disk and jet physics have so far been limited to relatively short time scales and narrow (and possibly astrophysically unlikely) ranges of viscosity and resistivity parameters that may be crucial to defining the coupling of the inflow-outflow dynamics. Aims: We present self-consistent, time-dependent simulations of supersonic jets launched from magnetized accretion disks, using high-resolution numerical techniques. In particular we study the effects of the disk's magnetic resistivity, parametrized through an α-prescription, in determining the properties of the inflow-outflow system. Moreover we analyze under which conditions steady state solutions of the type proposed in the self-similar models of Blandford & Payne can be reached and maintained in a self-consistent nonlinear stage. Methods: We used the resistive MHD FLASH code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), allowing us to follow the evolution of the structure on a long enough time scale to reach steady state. A detailed analysis of the initial configuration state is given. Results: We obtain the expected solutions within the axisymmetric (2.5 D) limit. Assuming a magnetic field around equipartition with the thermal pressure of the disk, we show how the characteristics of the disk-jet system, such as the ejection efficiency and the energetics, are affected by the anomalous resistivity acting inside the disk.

  18. Localization of natural modes of vibration in bladed disks (United States)

    Bendiksen, O. O.; Valero, N. A.


    A study is presented of the mode localization phenomenon in imperfect blade-disk and blade-shroud-disk assemblies. The results indicate that unshrouded blades mounted on stiff disks are especially susceptible, and even small blade imperfections within manufacturing tolerances are likely to trigger mode localization. Increasing the interblade coupling by adding shrouds or reducing the disk stiffness greatly reduces the localization susceptiblity, although certain modes may still become localized if the shrouds are free to slip.

  19. Resolving the Disk-Halo Degeneracy using Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Aniyan, S.; Freeman, K. C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Fabricius, M.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M.


    The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σ z ) of stars in the disk and its scale height (h z ), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: star-forming spirals have an old (kinematically hot) disk population and a young cold disk population. Both of these populations contribute to the integrated light spectra from which σ z is measured. The measured scale height h z is for the old disk population. In the Jeans equation, σ z and h z must pertain to the same population. We have developed techniques to extract the velocity dispersion of the old disk from integrated light spectra and from samples of planetary nebulae. We present the analysis of the disk kinematics of the galaxy NGC 628 using IFU data in the inner regions and planetary nebulae as tracers in the outer regions of the disk. We demonstrate that using the scale height of the old thin disk with the vertical velocity dispersion of the same population, traced by PNe, results in a maximal disk for NGC 628. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disk.

  20. Tomographic Sounding of Protoplanetary and Transitional Disks: Using Inner Disk Variability at Near to Mid-IR Wavelengths to Probe Conditions in the Outer Disk (United States)

    Grady, C. A.; Sitko, M.L.


    Spitzer synoptic monitoring of young stellar associations has demonstrated that variability among young stars and their disks is ubiquitous. The Spitzer studies have been limited by target visibility windows and cover only a short temporal baseline in years. A complementary approach is to focus on stars chosen for high-value observations (e.g. high-contrast imaging, interferometry, or access to wavelengths which are difficult to achieve from the ground) where the synoptic data can augment the imagery or interferometry as well as probing disk structure. In this talk, we discuss how synoptic data for two protoplanetary disks, MWC 480 and HD 163296, constrain the dust disk scale height, account for variable disk illumination, and can be used to locate emission features, such as the IR bands commonly associated with PAHs in the disk, as part of our SOFIA cycle 1 study. Similar variability is now known for several pre-transitional disks, where synoptic data can be used to identify inner disks which are not coplanar with the outer disk, and which may be relicts of giant planet-giant planet scattering events. Despite the logistical difficulties in arranging supporting, coordinated observations in tandem with high-value observations, such data have allowed us to place imagery in context, constrained structures in inner disks not accessible to direct imagery, and may be a tool for identifying systems where planet scattering events have occurred.

  1. The Design of a High-Integrity Disk Management Subsystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oey, M.A.


    This dissertation describes and experimentally evaluates the design of the Logical Disk, a disk management subsystem that guarantees the integrity of data stored on disk even after system failures, while still providing performance competitive to other storage systems. Current storage systems that

  2. Imaging polarimetry of protoplanetary disks: feasibility and usability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, M.; Jeffers, S.V.; Rodenhuis, M.; Canovas, H.; Buenzli, E.; Keller, C.U.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Dominik, C.


    Imaging polarimetry is one of the most promising tools to map the structure of faint protoplanetary disks. In order to assess the feasibility of imaging polarimetry of protoplanetary disks and the usability to answer the scientific questions in the field we perform numerical simulations of disks of

  3. Failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  4. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Technology for processing and storage of data in portable external storage hard disks has increasingly improved over the years. Currently, terabytes of data can be stored in one portable external storage hard disk drive. Storing such amount of data on a single disk on itself is a risk. Several instances of data lost by big ...

  5. Water Vapor in the Protoplanetary Disk of DG Tau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Codella, C.; Cabrit, S.; Nisini, B.; Dougados, C.; Sandell, G.; Williams, J. P.; Testi, L.; Thi, W. -F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Aresu, G.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C.


    Water is key in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of comets and icy/water planets. While high-excitation water lines originating in the hot inner disk have been detected in several T Tauri stars (TTSs), water vapor from the outer disk, where most water ice reservoirs are

  6. On the Solar System-Debris Disk Connecction


    Moro-Martin, Amaya


    This paper emphasizes the connection between solar and extra-solar debris disks: how models and observations of the Solar System are helping us understand the debris disk phenomenon, and vice versa, how debris disks are helping us place our Solar System into context.

  7. Bundle Branch Block (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  8. Concrete Block Pavements (United States)


    intersections, bus loading areas, and pedestrian crosswalks. The change in surface texture between conven- tional and block pavements has been successful...blocks polished under traffic within a few weeks, providing a pavement surface with unsatisfactory skid resistance. U. K. Cement and Concrete Association...further problems of this type. Kellersman (1980) reports that although many brick pavements have become polished and slippery under traffic, no concrete

  9. Defining block character


    A E Stamps


    In this paper I propose a clear, efficient, and accurate method for determining if a block of contiguous buildings has an overall character. The work is needed because most contemporary design reviews presuppose the existence of visual character, but existing design principles are often too vague to make the required determination. Clarity is achieved by shifting from vague notions to a definite concept for block character: a design feature will be perceived as part of the overall character o...

  10. Block ciphers in UMTS


    Mathisen, Tor-Erik


    As we are entering the third generation of mobile technology (3G) the number of services needing security grows larger. To assess if the security provided by 3G is sufficient, we take a closer look at the security mechanisms and their building blocks. Within the 3G security environment the Kasumi block cipher plays an important role in the integrity and confidentiality provided. Thus the security of Kasumi, the integrity mode ($9) and confidentiality mode (f8) is vital. ...

  11. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    (AES).Wedescribe the mostgeneraltypes ofblock cipher cryptanalysis but concentrate on the algebraic attacks. While the algebraic techniques have been successful oncertainstreamcipherstheirapplicationtoblock ciphershasnot shown any significant results so far. This thesis contributes to the field of algebraic attacks on block ciphers...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Gisela A.; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC (ESA), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Smith Castelli, Analia V. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Allen, Lori E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)


    Transition disk objects are pre-main-sequence stars with little or no near-IR excess and significant far-IR excess, implying inner opacity holes in their disks. Here we present a multifrequency study of transition disk candidates located in Lupus I, III, IV, V, VI, Corona Australis, and Scorpius. Complementing the information provided by Spitzer with adaptive optics (AO) imaging (NaCo, VLT), submillimeter photometry (APEX), and echelle spectroscopy (Magellan, Du Pont Telescopes), we estimate the multiplicity, disk mass, and accretion rate for each object in our sample in order to identify the mechanism potentially responsible for its inner hole. We find that our transition disks show a rich diversity in their spectral energy distribution morphology, have disk masses ranging from {approx}<1 to 10 M{sub JUP}, and accretion rates ranging from {approx}<10{sup -11} to 10{sup -7.7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Of the 17 bona fide transition disks in our sample, three, nine, three, and two objects are consistent with giant planet formation, grain growth, photoevaporation, and debris disks, respectively. Two disks could be circumbinary, which offers tidal truncation as an alternative origin of the inner hole. We find the same heterogeneity of the transition disk population in Lupus III, IV, and Corona Australis as in our previous analysis of transition disks in Ophiuchus while all transition disk candidates selected in Lupus V, VI turned out to be contaminating background asymptotic giant branch stars. All transition disks classified as photoevaporating disks have small disk masses, which indicates that photoevaporation must be less efficient than predicted by most recent models. The three systems that are excellent candidates for harboring giant planets potentially represent invaluable laboratories to study planet formation with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array.

  13. Herschel-PACS observation of the 10 Myr old T Tauri disk TW Hya : Constraining the disk gas mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, W. -F.; Mathews, G.; Menard, F.; Woitke, P.; Meeus, G.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Pinte, C.; Howard, C. D.; Roberge, A.; Sandell, G.; Pascucci, I.; Riaz, B.; Grady, C. A.; Dent, W. R. F.; Kamp, I.; Duchene, G.; Augereau, J. -C.; Pantin, E.; Vandenbussche, B.; Tilling, I.; Williams, J. P.; Eiroa, C.; Barrado, D.; Alacid, J. M.; Andrews, S.; Ardila, D. R.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Ciardi, D. R.; Danchi, W.; Fedele, D.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Heras, A.; Huelamo, N.; Krivov, A.; Lebreton, J.; Liseau, R.; Martin-Zaidi, C.; Mendigutia, I.; Montesinos, B.; Mora, A.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Nomura, H.; Phillips, N.; Podio, L.; Poelman, D. R.; Ramsay, S.; Rice, K.; Solano, E.; White, G. J.; Wright, G.; Walker, H.


    Planets are formed in disks around young stars. With an age of similar to 10 Myr, TW Hya is one of the nearest T Tauri stars that is still surrounded by a relatively massive disk. In addition a large number of molecules has been found in the TW Hya disk, making TW Hya the perfect test case in a

  14. Constraining a Thin Dark Matter Disk with Gaia


    Schutz, Katelin; Lin, Tongyan; Safdi, Benjamin R.; Wu, Chih-Liang


    If a component of the dark matter has dissipative interactions, it could collapse to form a thin dark disk in our Galaxy that is coplanar with the baryonic disk. It has been suggested that dark disks could explain a variety of observed phenomena, including periodic comet impacts. Using the first data release from the Gaia space observatory, we search for a dark disk via its effect on stellar kinematics in the Milky Way. Our new limits disfavor the presence of a thin dark matter disk, and we p...

  15. Reading the Signatures of Extrasolar Planets in Debris Disks (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.


    An extrasolar planet sculpts the famous debris dish around Fomalhaut; probably ma ny other debris disks contain planets that we could locate if only we could better recognize their signatures in the dust that surrounds them. But the interaction between planets and debris disks involves both orbital resonances and collisions among grains and rocks in the disks --- difficult processes to model simultanemus]y. I will describe new 3-D models of debris disk dynamics that incorporate both collisions and resonant trapping of dust for the first time, allowing us to decode debris disk images and read the signatures of the planets they contain.

  16. TW Hydrae: multi-wavelength interferometry of a transition disk (United States)

    Menu, J.; van Boekel, R.; Henning, T.; Benisty, M.; Chandler, C. J.; Linz, H.; Waelkens, C.; Andrews, S. M.; Calvet, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Dullemond, C. P.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Isella, A.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Mundy, L. G.; Perez, L. M.; Ricci, L.; Sargent, A. I.; Storm, S.; Testi, L.; Wilner, D. J.


    For over a decade, the structure of the inner ``hole'' in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.

  17. Neutron fluence spectrometry using disk activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevestam, Goeran [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)], E-mail:; Hult, Mikael; Fessler, Andreas; Gasparro, Joel; Kockerols, Pierre; Okkinga, Klaas [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Tagziria, Hamid [EC-JRC-Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC), Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy); Vanhavere, Filip [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Wieslander, J.S. Elisabeth [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014, University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    A simple and robust detector for spectrometry of environmental neutrons has been developed. The technique is based on neutron activation of a series of different metal disks followed by low-level gamma-ray spectrometry of the activated disks and subsequent neutron spectrum unfolding. The technique is similar to foil activation but here the applied neutron fluence rates are much lower than usually in the case of foil activation. The detector has been tested in quasi mono-energetic neutron fields with fluence rates in the order of 1000-10000 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where the obtained spectra showed good agreement with spectra measured using a Bonner sphere spectrometer. The detector has also been tested using an AmBe source and at a neutron fluence rate of about 40 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, again, a good agreement with the assumed spectrum was achieved.

  18. Collinear technology for a holographic versatile disk (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi


    A novel reading and writing technology for a holographic versatile disk (HVD) system called collinear technology is developed. With this method a two-dimensional data page can be recorded as volumetric holograms generated by a reference beam and a signal beam that are bundled on the same axis and that are irradiated on the recording medium through a single objective lens. The multiplex recording and reconstruction process is demonstrated, and it is shown that the optical configuration and the dichroic medium disk structure are suitable for a compact system. With the HVD's special structure, the system can use a servo to focus, track, and locate the reading and writing addresses. A unique selectable-capacity recording format of a HVD and its standardization activity are also introduced. This method will enable us to construct a small HVD system with CD and DVD upper compatibilities.

  19. Dead Zone Accretion Flows in Protostellar Disks (United States)

    Turner, Neal; Sano, T.


    Planets form inside protostellar disks in a dead zone where the electrical resistivity of the gas is too high for magnetic forces to drive turbulence. We show that much of the dead zone nevertheless is active and flows toward the star while smooth, large-scale magnetic fields transfer the orbital angular momentum radially outward. Stellar X-ray and radionuclide ionization sustain a weak coupling of the dead zone gas to the magnetic fields, despite the rapid recombination of free charges on dust grains. Net radial magnetic fields are generated in the magnetorotational turbulence in the electrically conducting top and bottom surface layers of the disk, and reach the midplane by ohmic diffusion. A toroidal component to the fields is produced near the midplane by the orbital shear. The process is similar to the magnetization of the solar tachocline. The result is a laminar, magnetically driven accretion flow in the region where the planets form.

  20. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann


    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  1. Line-Driven Ablation of Circumstellar Disks (United States)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan; Owocki, Stan; Kuiper, Rolf; Sundqvist, Jon


    Mass is a key parameter in understanding the evolution and eventual fate of hot, luminous stars. Mass loss through a wind driven by UV-scattering forces is already known to reduce the mass of such stars by 10-10 - 10-4 M⊙/yr over the course of their lifetimes. However, high-mass stars already drive such strong winds while they are still in their accretion epoch. Therefore, stellar UV-scattering forces will efficiently ablate material off the surface of their circumstellar disks, perhaps even shutting off the final accretion through the last several stellar radii and onto a massive protostar. By using a three-dimensional UV-scattering prescription, we here quantify the role of radiative ablation in controlling the disk's accretion rate onto forming high-mass stars. Particular emphasis is given to the potential impact of this process on the stellar upper mass limit.

  2. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.


    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  3. Cryogenic Yb: YAG Thin-Disk Laser (United States)


    R2. The two mirrors are separated by the mirror separation, L. The higher order radial Gaussian modes and a Gaussian multimode beam grow in size...transverse modes oscillating. Yb at the center of the disk is inverted prior to the periphery. As the pump power increases more modes reach the threshold...coupler optic is in place in order to eliminate lasing. A 50µm multimode fiber is placed near the surface so as to capture emission emitted vertically

  4. Ocular ultrasound findings in optic disk melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Lisker-Cervantes


    Conclusion: Melanocytomas are small, benign tumors that are highly assessable by ocular ultrasound when their elevation surpasses 0.5 mm. In our study, the internal reflectivity ranged from high to very high, unlike other malignancies such as choroidal melanoma which tend to present with low internal reflectivity. The avascularity of the tumor is a common finding. Ultrasound is a remarkable tool that helps detect benign characteristics in a pigmented optic disk tumor and helps establish a more reliable diagnosis.

  5. Debris disks in open stellar clusters (United States)

    Gorlova, Nadiya Igorivna

    Indirect searches for planets (such as radial velocity studies) show that their formation may be quite common. The planets are however too small and faint to be seen against the glare of their host stars; therefore, their direct detection is limited to the nearest systems. Alternatively one can study planets by studying their "by-product"---dust. We see raw material available for planets around young stars, and debris dust around old stars betraying planet-induced activity. Dust has a larger surface area per unit mass compared with a large body; it can be spread over a larger solid angle, intercepting more starlight and emitting much more light via reprocessing. By studying dusty disks we can infer the presence of planets at larger distances. Here we present results of a survey conducted with the Spitzer Space Telescope of debris disks in three open clusters. With ages of 30--100 Myrs, these clusters are old enough that the primordial dust should have accreted into planetesimals, fallen onto the star, or been blown away due to a number of physical processes. The dust we observe must come from collisions or sublimation of larger bodies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dust evolution in the terrestrial planet zone, analogous to the Zodiacal cloud in our Solar system. We are most sensitive to this zone because the peak of a 125 K black body radiation falls into the primary pass-band of our survey---24mm. We investigate the fraction and amount of the infra-red excesses around intermediate- to solar-mass stars in open stellar clusters with well defined ages. The results are analyzed in the context of disk studies at other wavelengths and ages, providing an understanding of the time-scale for disk dissipation and ultimately planet building and frequency.

  6. The SEEDS of Planet Formation: Observations of Transitional Disks (United States)

    Grady, Carol A.


    As part of its 5-year study, the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disk Systems (SEEDS) has already observed a number of YSOs with circumstellar disks, including 13 0.5-8 Myr old A-M stars with indications that they host wide gaps or central cavities in their circumstellar disks in millimeter or far-IR observations, or from deficits in warm dust thermal emission. For 8 of the disks, the 0.15" inner working angle of HiCIAO+A0188 samples material in the millimeter or mid-IR identified cavity. In one case we report detection of a previously unrecognized wide gap. For the remaining 4 stars, the SEEDS data sample the outer disk: in 3 cases, we present the first NIR imagery of the disks. The data for the youngest sample members 1-2 Myr) closely resemble coeval primordial disks. After approximately 3 Myr, the transitional disks show a wealth of structure including spiral features, rings, divots, and in some cases, largely cleared gaps in the disks which are not seen in coeval primordial disks. Some of these structural features are predicted consequences of Jovian-mass planets having formed in the disk, while others are novel features. We discuss the implications for massive planet formation timescales and mechanisms.

  7. Weakly Accreting Circumplanetary Disks and Satellites in Resonant Orbits (United States)

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Gressel, Oliver


    During the formation phase of gas giants, circumplanetary gaseous disks form around the planets. Circumplanetary disks are important not only for mass supply to gas giants but also for formation of regular satellites. The size-scale of circumplanetary disks is smaller than that of protoplanetary disks and this makes magnetic diffusion quicker. Thus, it is more difficult to sustain the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in circumplanetary disks. In the absence of significant angular momentum transport, continuous mass flow from the parental protoplanetary disk leads to the formation of a massive circumplanetary disk. We have developed an evolutionary disk model for this scenario and have estimated the orbital evolution of moons within the disk. In a certain temperature range, we find that inward migration of a satellite can be stopped by a disk structure resulting from the opacity transitions. We also find that the second and third migrating satellites can be captured in mean motion resonances. In this way, a compact system in Laplace resonance, which are similar to inner three bodies of Galilean satellites, can be formed in our disk models.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, NY 10024 (United States)


    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contain stars, stellar mass black holes, and other stellar remnants, which perturb the disk gas gravitationally. The resulting density perturbations exert torques on the embedded masses causing them to migrate through the disk in a manner analogous to planets in protoplanetary disks. We determine the strength and direction of these torques using an empirical analytic description dependent on local disk gradients, applied to two different analytic, steady-state disk models of SMBH accretion disks. We find that there are radii in such disks where the gas torque changes sign, trapping migrating objects. Our analysis shows that major migration traps generally occur where the disk surface density gradient changes sign from positive to negative, around 20–300R{sub g}, where R{sub g} = 2GM/c{sup 2} is the Schwarzschild radius. At these traps, massive objects in the AGN disk can accumulate, collide, scatter, and accrete. Intermediate mass black hole formation is likely in these disk locations, which may lead to preferential gap and cavity creation at these radii. Our model thus has significant implications for SMBH growth as well as gravitational wave source populations.

  9. WFIRST: CGI Detection and Characterization of Circumstellar Disks (United States)

    Debes, John; Chen, Christine; Dawson, Bekki; Douglas, Ewan S.; Duchene, Gaspard; Jang-Condell, Hannah; hines, Dean C.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Macintosh, Bruce; Mazoyer, Johan; Meshkat, Tiffany; Nemati, Bijan; Patel, Rahul; Perrin, Marshall; Poteet, Charles; Pueyo, Laurent; Ren, Bin; Rizzo, Maxime; Roberge, Aki; Stark, Chris; Turnbull, Margaret


    The WFIRST Coronagraphic Instrument (CGI) will be capable of obtaining up to 5×10-9 contrast to an inner working angle of ~150 mas for a selection of medium band visible light filters using shaped pupil coronagraph and hybrid Lyot coronagraph designs. We present initial work at defining the scientific capabilities of the CGI with respect to different types of circumstellar disks, including warm exo-zodiacal disks, cold debris disks, and protoplanetary disks. With the above designs, CGI will be able to detect bright protoplanetary and debris disks with sizes of >100 AU beyond 500 pc. Additionally, it will be able to discover warm exozodiacal dust disks ten times more massive than that of the Solar System for over 100 nearby solar-type stars. Finally, it will be able to characterize resolved circumstellar dust disks in multiple filters of visible light, providing constraints on the size, shape, and composition of the dust.

  10. Orbital Evolution of Moons in Weakly Accreting Circumplanetary Disks (United States)

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.; Gressel, Oliver


    We investigate the formation of hot and massive circumplanetary disks (CPDs) and the orbital evolution of satellites formed in these disks. Because of the comparatively small size-scale of the sub-disk, quick magnetic diffusion prevents the magnetorotational instability (MRI) from being well developed at ionization levels that would allow MRI in the parent protoplanetary disk. In the absence of significant angular momentum transport, continuous mass supply from the parental protoplanetary disk leads to the formation of a massive CPD. We have developed an evolutionary model for this scenario and have estimated the orbital evolution of satellites within the disk. We find, in a certain temperature range, that inward migration of a satellite can be stopped by a change in the structure due to the opacity transitions. Moreover, by capturing second and third migrating satellites in mean motion resonances, a compact system in Laplace resonance can be formed in our disk models.

  11. Pathogenesis and clinical implications of optic disk hemorrhage in glaucoma. (United States)

    Suh, Min Hee; Park, Ki Ho


    The association between optic disk hemorrhage and glaucoma has been studied for many years. Recently, randomized clinical trials have confirmed that disk hemorrhage is a risk factor for development and progression of glaucoma. Disk hemorrhage is more commonly detected in open-angle glaucoma with normal tension than in open-angle glaucoma with high tension. Development of disk hemorrhage possibly is associated with the biomechanical properties of the lamina cribrosa and surrounding tissues, including the intraocular pressure (IOP)-cerebrospinal pressure gradient, arterial pressure, and venous pressure. Disk hemorrhage may be a marker of rapid glaucoma progression, in that localized subclinical structural change predisposes to disk hemorrhage, after which subsequent disease progression is accelerated, and recurrent optic disk hemorrhages are related to rapid structural progression of glaucomatous damage. IOP-lowering therapy can be helpful in halting post-hemorrhage glaucoma progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research overview on vibration damping of mistuned bladed disk assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHANG


    Full Text Available Bladed disk assemblies are very important parts in auto engine and gas turbine, and is widely used in practical engineering. The mistuning existing commonly in the bladed disk assemblies can destroy the vibration characteristics of the bladed disk assemblies, which is one of the reasons for the high cycle fatigue failure of bladed disk assemblies, so it is necessary to research how to reduce the vibration of the bladed disk assemblies. On the basis of the review of relevant research at home and abroad, the mistuning vibration mechanism of the bladed disk assemblies is introduced, and the main technical methods of the vibration damping of bladed disk assemblies are reviewed, such as artificially active mistuning, collision damping, friction damping and optimization of the blade position. Some future research directions are presented.

  13. Axisymmetric instabilities between coaxial rotating disks (United States)

    Pécheux, Jean; Foucault, E.


    This paper concerns the stability of the von Kármán swirling flow between coaxial disks. A linear stability analysis shows that for moderate Reynolds numbers (Re≤50) and for any rotation ratio sin[-1,1[ there is a radial location r_{pc} from which the self-similar von Kármán solutions become unstable to axisymmetric disturbances. When the disks are moderately counter-rotating (sin[-0.56,0[), two different disturbances (types I and II) appear at the same critical radius. A spatio-temporal analysis shows that, at a very short distance from this critical radius, the first disturbance (type I) becomes absolutely unstable whereas the second (type II) remains convectively unstable. Outside this range of aspect ratios, all the disturbances examined are found to be absolutely unstable. The flow between two coaxial rotating disks enclosed in a stationary sidewall is then numerically investigated. For sufficently large aspect ratios, the cavity flow is found to be globally unstable for axisymmetric disturbances similar to that calculated with the self-similar solutions. The flow in cavities with aspect ratios smaller than R {≈} 10.3 (and Re {≤} 50) is not destabilized by these axisymmetric disturbances. An experimental investigation conducted for a cavity with aspect ratio R {=} 15 confirms the numerical results. Axisymmetric disturbances similar to those calculated for the same cavity are detected and three-dimensional modes can also be observed near the sidewall.

  14. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars. (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather


    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  15. The building blocks of planets within the `terrestrial' region of protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, R.J.H.M.; Min, M.; Leinert, C.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Richichi, A.; Chesneau, O.; Dominik, C.; Jaffe, W.; Dutrey, A.; Graser, U.; Henning, T.; de Jong, J.; Köhler, R.; de Koter, A.; Lopez, B.; Malbet, F.; Morel, S.; Paresce, F.; Perrin, G.; Preibisch, T.; Przygodda, F.; Schöller, M.; Wittkowski, M.


    Our Solar System was formed from a cloud of gas and dust. Most of the dust mass is contained in amorphous silicates, yet crystalline silicates are abundant throughout the Solar System, reflecting the thermal and chemical alteration of solids during planet formation. (Even primitive bodies such as

  16. Herschel-PACS observation of the 10 Myr old T Tauri disk TW Hya: Constraining the disk gas mass


    Thi, W.-F; Ardila,D. R.; Ciardi, D. R.


    Planets are formed in disks around young stars. With an age of ~10 Myr, TW Hya is one of the nearest T Tauri stars that is still surrounded by a relatively massive disk. In addition a large number of molecules has been found in the TWHya disk, making TWHya the perfect test case in a large survey of disks with Herschel–PACS to directly study their gaseous component. We aim to constrain the gas and dust mass of the circumstellar disk around TW Hya. We observed the fine-structure lines of [O_...

  17. Infrared Observational Studies of Gas Molecules in Disks (United States)

    Salyk, C.


    There remain many fundamental unanswered questions about protoplanetary disks, including how (and if?) they form planets, how mass is transferred through the disk and onto the star, and how they ultimately disperse. Also, a major goal of protoplanetary disk studies is to understand the relationship between disk properties and the physical and chemical properties of planetary systems. IR molecular spectroscopy is a particularly powerful tool for probing the conditions and physical process in protoplanetary disks, which are too small and close to their parent stars to be imaged with ease. I will discuss the suite of infrared molecular transitions observed to date, which highlight the following three techniques of IR spectroscopy. Firstly, line shapes and strengths can be used as tracers of disk physics, including volatile condensation/evaporation, photo-processes, grain growth and turbulence. Secondly, observations of multiple molecular abundances provide constraints for disk chemical models, which may ultimately help explain the great diversity of planetary bodies. Finally, resolved line shapes and spectro-astrometry provide a means to study disk structure on extremely small size scales. Because IR observations are typically sensitive to radii of a few AU or smaller, the processes and structures being probed are relevant to the birth and growth of terrestrial and giant planets. Recent results that I will highlight include the discovery of a multitude of molecules in disks around sun-like stars (including H2O, OH, HCN, C2H2 and CO2), with detection rates that depend on stellar mass, constraints on gas mass and location in transitional disks, detection and characterization of `snow lines', measurements of inner disk rims, and detections of inner disk asymmetries. I will also discuss how IR spectroscopy will remain relevant even with the emergence of facilities such as ALMA, as it allows us to connect the conditions in terrestrial-planet-forming regions with those in

  18. Neural-networks-based feedback linearization versus model predictive control of continuous alcoholic fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjalli, F.S.; Al-Asheh, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)


    In this work advanced nonlinear neural networks based control system design algorithms are adopted to control a mechanistic model for an ethanol fermentation process. The process model equations for such systems are highly nonlinear. A neural network strategy has been implemented in this work for capturing the dynamics of the mechanistic model for the fermentation process. The neural network achieved has been validated against the mechanistic model. Two neural network based nonlinear control strategies have also been adopted using the model identified. The performance of the feedback linearization technique was compared to neural network model predictive control in terms of stability and set point tracking capabilities. Under servo conditions, the feedback linearization algorithm gave comparable tracking and stability. The feedback linearization controller achieved the control target faster than the model predictive one but with vigorous and sudden controller moves. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Design of Artificial Neural Network-Based pH Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebel A. Alsabbah


    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the cost, size and drawbacks might be found with real hardware instrument for measuring pH values such that the complications of the wiring, installing, calibrating and troubleshooting the system, would make a person look for a cheaper, accurate, and alternative choice to perform the measuring operation, Where’s hereby, a feedforward artificial neural network-based pH estimator has to be proposed. The proposed estimator has been designed with multi- layer perceptrons. One input which is a measured base stream and two outputs represent pH values at strong base and strong/weak acids for a titration process. The created data base has been obtained with consideration of temperature variation. The final numerical results ensure the effectiveness and robustness of the design neural network-based pH estimator.

  20. MEDUSA - An overset grid flow solver for network-based parallel computer systems (United States)

    Smith, Merritt H.; Pallis, Jani M.


    Continuing improvement in processing speed has made it feasible to solve the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simple three-dimensional flows on advanced workstations. Combining multiple workstations into a network-based heterogeneous parallel computer allows the application of programming principles learned on MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) distributed memory parallel computers to the solution of larger problems. An overset-grid flow solution code has been developed which uses a cluster of workstations as a network-based parallel computer. Inter-process communication is provided by the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) software. Solution speed equivalent to one-third of a Cray-YMP processor has been achieved from a cluster of nine commonly used engineering workstation processors. Load imbalance and communication overhead are the principal impediments to parallel efficiency in this application.

  1. Radial Basis Function Neural Network-based PID model for functional electrical stimulation system control. (United States)

    Cheng, Longlong; Zhang, Guangju; Wan, Baikun; Hao, Linlin; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong


    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been widely used in the area of neural engineering. It utilizes electrical current to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis. An effective combination of a traditional PID controller and a neural network, being capable of nonlinear expression and adaptive learning property, supply a more reliable approach to construct FES controller that help the paraplegia complete the action they want. A FES system tuned by Radial Basis Function (RBF) Neural Network-based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) model was designed to control the knee joint according to the desired trajectory through stimulation of lower limbs muscles in this paper. Experiment result shows that the FES system with RBF Neural Network-based PID model get a better performance when tracking the preset trajectory of knee angle comparing with the system adjusted by Ziegler- Nichols tuning PID model.

  2. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse


    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  3. An Algorithm of Quantum Restricted Boltzmann Machine Network Based on Quantum Gates and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilin Zhang


    Full Text Available We present an algorithm of quantum restricted Boltzmann machine network based on quantum gates. The algorithm is used to initialize the procedure that adjusts the qubit and weights. After adjusting, the network forms an unsupervised generative model that gives better classification performance than other discriminative models. In addition, we show how the algorithm can be constructed with quantum circuit for quantum computer.

  4. Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband


    Berthe, Abdoulaye; Lecointre, Aubin; Dragomirescu, Daniela; Plana, Robert


    This paper describes a detailed performance evaluation of distributed Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks based on Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) Physical layer (PHY). Two main classes of Medium Access Control protocol have been considered: Slotted and UnSlotted with reliability. The reliability is based on Automatic Repeat ReQuest (ARQ). The performance evaluation is performed using a complete Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) simulator built on the Global ...

  5. A social network-based organizational model for improving knowledge management in supply chains


    Capó-Vicedo, Josep; Mula, Josefa; Capó i Vicedo, Jordi


    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a social network-based model for improving knowledge management in multi-level supply chains formed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: This approach uses social network analysis techniques to propose and represent a knowledge network for supply chains. Also, an empirical experience from an exploratory case study in the construction sector is presented. Findings: This proposal improves the establishment of inter-organi...

  6. Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph (United States)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Wiebalck, Arne


    Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an "organic" storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

  7. Network-based support vector machine for classification of microarray samples. (United States)

    Zhu, Yanni; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei


    The importance of network-based approach to identifying biological markers for diagnostic classification and prognostic assessment in the context of microarray data has been increasingly recognized. To our knowledge, there have been few, if any, statistical tools that explicitly incorporate the prior information of gene networks into classifier building. The main idea of this paper is to take full advantage of the biological observation that neighboring genes in a network tend to function together in biological processes and to embed this information into a formal statistical framework. We propose a network-based support vector machine for binary classification problems by constructing a penalty term from the Finfinity-norm being applied to pairwise gene neighbors with the hope to improve predictive performance and gene selection. Simulation studies in both low- and high-dimensional data settings as well as two real microarray applications indicate that the proposed method is able to identify more clinically relevant genes while maintaining a sparse model with either similar or higher prediction accuracy compared with the standard and the L1 penalized support vector machines. The proposed network-based support vector machine has the potential to be a practically useful classification tool for microarrays and other high-dimensional data.

  8. Disk-to-Disk network transfers at 100 Gb/s (United States)

    Barczyk, Artur; Gable, Ian; Hay, Marilyn; Leavett-Brown, Colin; Legrand, Iosif; Lewall, Kim; McKee, Shawn; McWilliam, Donald; Mughal, Azher; Newman, Harvey; Rozsa, Sandor; Savard, Yvan; Sobie, Randall J.; Tam, Thomas; Voicu, Ramiro


    A 100 Gbps network was established between the California Institute of Technology conference booth at the Super Computing 2011 conference in Seattle, Washington and the computing center at the University of Victoria in Canada. A circuit was established over the BCNET, CANARIE and Super Computing (SCInet) networks using dedicated equipment. The small set of servers at the endpoints used a combination of 10GE and 40GE technologies, and SSD drives for data storage. The configuration of the network and the server configuration are discussed. We will show that the system was able to achieve disk-to-disk transfer rates of 60 Gbps and memory-to-memory rates in excess of 180 Gbps across the WAN. We will discuss the transfer tools, disk configurations, and monitoring tools used in the demonstration.

  9. Adaptive QoS provision for IEEE 802.16e BWA networks based on cross-layer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo GS


    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes an integrated framework for adaptive QoS provision in IEEE 802.16e broadband wireless access networks based on cross-layer design. On one hand, an efficient admission control (AC algorithm is proposed along with a semi-reservation scheme to guarantee the connection-level QoS. First, to guarantee the service continuity for handoff connections and resource efficiency, our semi-reservation scheme considers both users' handoff probability and average resource consumption together, which effectively avoids resource over-reservation and insufficient reservation. For AC, a new/handoff connection is accepted only when the target cell has enough resource to afford both instantaneous and average resource consumption to meet the average source rate request. On the other hand, a joint resource allocation and packet scheduling scheme is designed to provide packet-level QoS guarantee in term of "QoS rate", which can ensure fairness for the services with identical priority level in case of bandwidth shortage. Particularly, an enhanced bandwidth request scheme is designed to reduce unnecessary BR delay and redundant signaling overhead caused by the existing one in IEEE 802.16e, which further improves the packet-level QoS performance and resource efficiency for uplink transmission. Simulation results show that the proposed approach not only balances the tradeoff among connection blocking rate, connection dropping rate, and connection failure rate, but also achieves low mean packet dropping rate (PDR, small deviation of PDR, and low QoS outage rate. Moreover, high resource efficiency is ensured.

  10. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  11. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hua [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  12. How Is Heart Block Treated? (United States)

    ... defects. Acquired heart block is more common than congenital heart block. Damage to the heart muscle or its electrical system causes acquired heart block. Diseases, surgery, or medicines can cause this damage. The three types of heart block are first degree, second degree, ...

  13. Increased H2CO production in the outer disk around HD 163296 (United States)

    Carney, M. T.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Loomis, R. A.; Salinas, V. N.; Öberg, K. I.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. J.


    Context. The gas and dust in circumstellar disks provide the raw materials to form planets. The study of organic molecules and their building blocks in such disks offers insight into the origin of the prebiotic environment of terrestrial planets. Aims: We aim to determine the distribution of formaldehyde, H2CO, in the disk around HD 163296 to assess the contribution of gas- and solid-phase formation routes of this simple organic. Methods: Three formaldehyde lines were observed (H2CO 303-202, H2CO 322-221, and H2CO 321-220) in the protoplanetary disk around the Herbig Ae star HD 163296 with ALMA at 0.5″ (60 AU) spatial resolution. Different parameterizations of the H2CO abundance were compared to the observed visibilities, using either a characteristic temperature, a characteristic radius or a radial power law index to describe the H2CO chemistry. Similar models were applied to ALMA Science Verification data of C18O. In each scenario, χ2 minimization on the visibilities was used to determine the best-fit model in each scenario. Results: H2CO 303-202 was readily detected via imaging, while the weaker H2CO 322-221 and H2CO 321-220 lines required matched filter analysis to detect. H2CO is present throughout most of the gaseous disk, extending out to 550 AU. An apparent 50 AU inner radius of the H2CO emission is likely caused by an optically thick dust continuum. The H2CO radial intensity profile shows a peak at 100 AU and a secondary bump at 300 AU, suggesting increased production in the outer disk. In all modeling scenarios, fits to the H2CO data show an increased abundance in the outer disk. The overall best-fit H2CO model shows a factor of two enhancement beyond a radius of 270 ± 20 AU, with an inner abundance (relative to H2) of 2 - 5 × 10-12. The H2CO emitting region has a lower limit on the kinetic temperature of T> 20 K. The C18O modeling suggests an order of magnitude depletion of C18O in the outer disk and an abundance of 4 - 12 × 10-8 in the inner disk

  14. Disk Masses of Class I Protostars in Taurus and Ophiuchus (United States)

    Sheehan, Patrick; Eisner, Joshua A.


    Recent studies suggest that many protoplanetary disks around pre-main sequence stars with inferred ages of 1-5 Myr (known as Class II protostars) contain insufficient mass to form giant planets. This may be because by this stage much of the material in the disk has already grown into larger bodies, hiding the material from sight. To test this hypothesis, we have observed every protostar in the Taurus and Ophiuchus star forming regions identified as Class I in multiple independent surveys, whose young (< 1 Myr old) disks are more likely to represent the initial mass budget of protoplanetary disks. For my dissertation I have used detailed radiative transfer modeling of CARMA and ALMA millimeter images, broadband SEDs, and near-infrared scattered light images to determine the geometry of the circumstellar material and measure the mass of the disks around these protostars. By comparing the inferred disk mass distribution with results for the existing 1-5 Myr old disk sample, we constrain the initial mass budget for forming planets in protoplanetary disks. We find that the younger Class I disks are, on average, more massive than the older disk sample, but still may be shy of the necessary mass for forming planets. It may be that even by this early stage, planet formation is well underway.

  15. Evolution and precession of accretion disk in tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matzner C.D.


    Full Text Available In a supermassive black hole (BH tidal disruption event (TDE, the tidally disrupted star feeds the BH via an accretion disk. Most often it is assumed that the accretion rate history, hence the emission light curve, tracks the rate at which new debris mass falls back onto the disk, notably the t−5/3 power law. But this is not the case when the disk evolution due to viscous spreading - the driving force for accretion - is carefully considered. We construct a simple analytical model that comprehensively describes the accretion rate history across 4 different phases of the disk evolution, in the presence of mass fallback and disk wind loss. Accretion rate evolves differently in those phases which are governed by how the disk heat energy is carried away, early on by advection and later by radiation. The accretion rate can decline as steeply as t−5/3 only if copious disk wind loss is present during the early advection-cooled phase. Later, the accretion rate history is t−8/7 or shallower. These have great implications on the TDE flare light curve. A TDE accretion disk is most likely misaligned with the equatorial plane of the spinning BH. Moreover, in the TDE the accretion rate is super- or near-Eddington thus the disk is geometrically thick, for which case the BH’s frame dragging effect may cause the disk precess as a solid body, which may manifest itself as quasi-periodic signal in the TDE light curve. Our disk evolution model predicts the disk precession period increases with time, typically as ∝ t. The results are applied to the recently jetted TDE flare Swift transient J1644 + 57 which shows numerous, quasi-periodic dips in its long-term X-ray light curve. As the current TDE sample increases, the identification of the disk precession signature provides a unique way of measuring BH spin and studying BH accretion physics.

  16. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  17. Ischemic Nerve Block. (United States)

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  18. Childhood to adolescence: dust and gas clearing in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Brown, Joanna Margaret

    Disks are ubiquitous around young stars. Over time, disks dissipate, revealing planets that formed hidden by their natal dust. Since direct detection of young planets at small orbital radii is currently impossible, other tracers of planet formation must be found. One sign of disk evolution, potentially linked to planet formation, is the opening of a gap or inner hole in the disk. In this thesis, I have identified and characterized several cold disks with large inner gaps but retaining massive primordial outer disks. While cold disks are not common, with ~5% of disks showing signs of inner gaps, they provide proof that at least some disks evolve from the inside-out. These large gaps are equivalent to dust clearing from inside the Earth's orbit to Neptune's orbit or even the inner Kuiper belt. Unlike more evolved systems like our own, the central star is often still accreting and a large outer disk remains. I identified four cold disks in Spitzer 5-40 μm spectra and modeled these disks using a 2-D radiative transfer code to determine the gap properties. Outer gap radii of 20-45 AU were derived. However, spectrophotometric identification is indirect and model-dependent. To validate this interpretation, I observed three disks with a submillimeter interferometer and obtained the first direct images of the central holes. The images agree well with the gap sizes derived from the spectrophotometry. One system, LkH&alpha 330, has a very steep outer gap edge which seems more consistent with gravitational perturbation rather than gradual processes, such as grain growth and settling. Roughly 70% of cold disks show CO v=1&rarr 0 gas emission from the inner 1 AU and therefore are unlikely to have evolved due to photoevaporation. The derived rotation temperatures are significantly lower for the cold disks than disks without gaps. Unresolved (sub)millimeter photometry shows that cold disks have steeper colors, indicating that they are optically thin at these wavelengths, unlike

  19. Jets, black holes and disks in blazars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghisellini Gabriele


    Full Text Available The Fermi and Swift satellites, together with ground based Cherenkov telescopes, has greatly improved our knowledge of blazars, namely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and BL Lac objects, since all but the most powerful emit most of their electro–magnetic output at γ–ray energies, while the very powerful blazars emit mostly in the hard X–ray region of the spectrum. Often they show coordinated variability at different frequencies, suggesting that in these cases the same population of electrons is at work, in a single zone of the jet. The location of this region along the jet is a matter of debate. The jet power correlates with the mass accretion rate, with jets existing at all values of disk luminosities, measured in Eddington units, sampled so far. The most powerful blazars show clear evidence of the emission from their disks, and this has revived methods of finding the black hole mass and accretion rate by modelling a disk spectrum to the data. Being so luminous, blazars can be detected also at very high redshift, and therefore are a useful tool to explore the far universe. One interesting line of research concerns how heavy are their black holes at high redshifts. If we associate the presence of a relativistic jets with a fastly spinning black hole, then we naively expect that the accretion efficiency is larger than for non–spinning holes. As a consequence, the black hole mass in jetted systems should grow at a slower rate. In turn, this would imply that, at high redshifts, the heaviest black holes should be in radio–quiet quasars. We instead have evidences of the opposite, challenging our simple ideas of how a black hole grows.

  20. The Effects of Protostellar Disk Turbulence on CO Emission Lines: A Comparison Study of Disks with Constant CO Abundance versus Chemically Evolving Disks (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J., II; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Willacy, Karen; Turner, Neal J.


    Turbulence is the leading candidate for angular momentum transport in protoplanetary disks and therefore influences disk lifetimes and planet formation timescales. However, the turbulent properties of protoplanetary disks are poorly constrained observationally. Recent studies have found turbulent speeds smaller than what fully-developed MRI would produce (Flaherty et al.). However, existing studies assumed a constant CO/H2 ratio of 10-4 in locations where CO is not frozen-out or photo-dissociated. Our previous studies of evolving disk chemistry indicate that CO is depleted by incorporation into complex organic molecules well inside the freeze-out radius of CO. We consider the effects of this chemical depletion on measurements of turbulence. Simon et al. suggested that the ratio of the peak line flux to the flux at line center of the CO J = 3-2 transition is a reasonable diagnostic of turbulence, so we focus on that metric, while adding some analysis of the more complex effects on spatial distribution. We simulate the emission lines of CO based on chemical evolution models presented in Yu et al., and find that the peak-to-trough ratio changes as a function of time as CO is destroyed. Specifically, a CO-depleted disk with high turbulent velocity mimics the peak-to-trough ratios of a non-CO-depleted disk with lower turbulent velocity. We suggest that disk observers and modelers take into account the possibility of CO depletion when using line profiles or peak-to-trough ratios to constrain the degree of turbulence in disks. Assuming that {CO}/{{{H}}}2={10}-4 at all disk radii can lead to underestimates of turbulent speeds in the disk by at least 0.2 km s-1.

  1. Conceptual design of a Disk Chopper Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copley, J.R.D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)


    We describe methods that we have used for the conceptual design of the Disk Chopper Spectrometer at the Cold Neutron Research Facility, National Institute of Standards and Technology. Most of the discussion concerns the multiple chopper system. No single design method is best in every situation. We believe that an analytical approach is preferable, whenever possible. Graphical methods of expressing problems have been very instructive. We have also found it useful, and occasionally invaluable, to cross-check results obtained using different methods, such as analytical integration and ray-tracing.

  2. The Young Outer Disk of M83 (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.


    Deep near-infrared images recorded with NICI on Gemini South are used to investigate the evolved stellar content in the outer southeast quadrant of the spiral galaxy M83. A diffuse population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is detected, indicating that there are stars outside of the previously identified young and intermediate age star clusters in the outer disk. The brightest AGB stars have M K >= -8, and the AGB luminosity function (LF) is well matched by model LFs that assume ages Ciencia e Technologia (Brazil), and the Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion Productiva (Argentina).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Mayra; Macías, Enrique; Anglada, Guillem; Gómez, José F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Zapata, Luis; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 825 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nagel, Erick [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Gto 36240 (Mexico); Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC)-Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB)/IEEC, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We report the discovery of a dwarf protoplanetary disk around the star XZ Tau B that shows all the features of a classical transitional disk but on a much smaller scale. The disk has been imaged with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), revealing that its dust emission has a quite small radius of ∼3.4 au and presents a central cavity of ∼1.3 au in radius that we attribute to clearing by a compact system of orbiting (proto)planets. Given the very small radii involved, evolution is expected to be much faster in this disk (observable changes in a few months) than in classical disks (observable changes requiring decades) and easy to monitor with observations in the near future. From our modeling we estimate that the mass of the disk is large enough to form a compact planetary system.

  4. Investigation of mistuning impact on vibration of rotor bladed disks (United States)

    Repetckii, O.; Ryzhikov, I.; Quyet Nguyen, Tien


    Mistuning often reduces the fatigue life of bladed disks. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of influence of various types of mistuning on bladed disk vibration. It is also important to determine how the position of the detuned blades in the bladed disk affects the vibrations. The results of experimental and numerical analysis of mistuned bladed disk vibration are presented. The authors investigated the effect of various types of mistuning (geometry, mass, etc.) on the free vibrations of the bladed disk. The worst cases with minimum mistuning and maximum localization were identified. The developed algorithms for calculating of mistuned bladed disks vibration and obtained results can be used, when designing turbomachines rotors.

  5. Schrödinger Evolution of Self-Gravitating Disks (United States)

    Batygin, Konstantin


    An understanding of the long-term evolution of self-gravitating disks ranks among the classic outstanding problems of astrophysics. In this work, we show that the secular inclination dynamics of a geometrically thin quasi-Keplerian disk, with a surface density profile that scales as the inverse square-root of the orbital radius, are described by the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Within the context of this formalism, nodal bending waves correspond to the eigenmodes of a quasiparticle's wavefunction, confined in an infinite square well with boundaries given by the radial extent of the disk. We further show that external secular perturbations upon self-gravitating disks exhibit a mathematical similarity to quantum scattering theory. Employing this framework, we derive an analytic criterion for the gravitational rigidity of a nearly-Keplerian disk under external perturbations. Applications of the theory to circumstellar disks and Galactic nuclei are discussed.

  6. Disk Accretion of Tidally Disrupted Rocky Bodies onto White Dwarfs (United States)

    Feng, W.; Desch, S.


    The prevailing model for the pollution of white dwarf photospheres invokes accretion from a disk of gas and solid particles, fed by tidal disruption of rocky bodies inside the Roche radius. Current models can successfully explain the accretion rates of metals onto white dwarfs, provided the gaseous disks viscously spread at rates consistent with a partially suppressed magnetorotational instability (Metzger et al. 2012); however, these models do not explore the extent of the magnetorotational instability in disks by calculating the degree of ionization. We present ionization fractions for thermal and non-thermal processes to assess the extent of the magnetorotational instability in white dwarf disks. We determine that the disk viscosity parameter α can be as high as 0.1 in white disks, implying that the magnetorotational instability must be carefully modeled.

  7. Evidence for accreted component in the Galactic disks (United States)

    Xing, Q. F.; Zhao, G.


    We analyze the distribution of [Mg/Fe] abundance in the Galactic disks with F- and G-type dwarf stars selected from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) archive. The sample stars are assigned into different stellar populations by using kinematic criteria. Our analysis reveals the chemical inhomogeneities in the Galactic thick disk. A few of metal-poor stars in the thick disk exhibit relatively low [Mg/Fe] abundance in respect to the standard thick-disk sample. The orbital eccentricities and maximum Galactocentric radii of low-α metal-poor stars are apparently greater than that of high-α thick-disk stars. The orbital parameters and chemical components of low-α stars in the thick disk suggests that they may have been formed in regions with low star formation rate that were located at large distances from the Galactic center, such as infalling dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  8. Using Purpose-Built Functions and Block Hashes to Enable Small Block and Sub-file Forensics (United States)


    plagiarism detection engines such as Turnitin can be so successful. Other word sequences are not distinct. “To be or not to be” and “four score and seven...disk. By design , Bloomfilters cannot have false negatives but can have false positives. A Bloom filter with m ¼ 232 and k ¼ 4 storing 80 million...blocks that were shared in multiple files which could not be safely removed.We re- designed the tool so that it would remove any sequence of sectors from

  9. Linear Quadratic Controller with Fault Detection in Compact Disk Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Enrique Sanchez; Hansen, K.G.; Andersen, R.S.


    The design of the positioning controllers in Optical Disk Drives are today subjected to a trade off between an acceptable suppression of external disturbances and an acceptable immunity against surfaces defects. In this paper an algorithm is suggested to detect defects of the disk surface combined...... with an observer and a Linear Quadratic Regulator. As a result, the mentioned trade off is minimized and the playability of the tested compact disk player is considerably enhanced....

  10. Giant planet formation from disk instability; cooling and heating


    Mayer, Lucio; Wadsley, James; Quinn, Thomas; Stadel, Joachim


    We present the results of high resolution SPH simulations of the evolution of gravitationally unstable protoplanetary disks. We report on calculations in which the disk is evolved using a locally isothermal or adiabatic equation of state (with shock heating), and also on new simulations in which cooling and heating by radiation are explicitly modeled. We find that disks with a minimum Toomre parameter $< 1.4$ fragment into several gravitationally bound protoplanets with masses from below to a...

  11. Observability of characteristic binary-induced structures in circumbinary disks (United States)

    Avramenko, R.; Wolf, S.; Illenseer, T. F.


    Context. A substantial fraction of protoplanetary disks form around stellar binaries. The binary system generates a time-dependent non-axisymmetric gravitational potential, inducing strong tidal forces on the circumbinary disk. This leads to a change in basic physical properties of the circumbinary disk, which should in turn result in unique structures that are potentially observable with the current generation of instruments. Aims: The goal of this study is to identify these characteristic structures, constrain the physical conditions that cause them, and evaluate the feasibility of observing them in circumbinary disks. Methods: To achieve this, first we perform 2D hydrodynamic simulations. The resulting density distributions are post-processed with a 3D radiative transfer code to generate re-emission and scattered light maps. Based on these distributions, we study the influence of various parameters, such as the mass of the stellar components, mass of the disk, and binary separation on observable features in circumbinary disks. Results: We find that the Atacama Large (sub-)Millimetre Array (ALMA) as well as the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) are capable of tracing asymmetries in the inner region of circumbinary disks, which are affected most by the binary-disk interaction. Observations at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths allow the detection of the density waves at the inner rim of the disk and inner cavity. With the E-ELT one can partially resolve the innermost parts of the disk in the infrared wavelength range, including the disk's rim, accretion arms, and potentially the expected circumstellar disks around each of the binary components.

  12. Exponential bulges and antitruncated disks in lenticular galaxies


    Sil'chenko, Olga K.


    The presence of exponential bulges and anti-truncated disks has been noticed in many lenticular galaxies. In fact, it could be expected because the very formation of S0 galaxies includes various processes of secular evolution. We discuss how to distinguish between a pseudobulge and an anti-truncated disk, and also what particular mechanisms may be responsible for the formation of anti-truncated disks. Some bright examples of lenticular galaxies with the multi-tiers exponential stellar structu...

  13. Quantification of the association between intervertebral disk calcification and disk herniation in Dachshunds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Beck, S.; Christensen, K.A.


    -seven of the dogs had survived to the time of the present study and were >= 8 years of age; 24 others had not survived. Procedures-Radiographic examination of 36 surviving dogs was performed, and information on occurrence of disk calcification at 2 years of age were obtained from records of all 61 Dachshunds...

  14. The AMBRE project: The thick thin disk and thin thick disk of the Milky Way (United States)

    Hayden, M. R.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, S.; Worley, C. C.


    We analyze 494 main sequence turnoff and subgiant stars from the AMBRE:HARPS survey. These stars have accurate astrometric information from Gaia DR1, providing reliable age estimates with relative uncertainties of ±1 or 2 Gyr and allowing precise orbital determinations. The sample is split based on chemistry into a low-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often identified as thin disk stellar populations, and high-[Mg/Fe] sequence, which are often associated with thick disk stellar populations. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence has extended star formation for several Gyr and is coeval with the oldest stars of the low-[Mg/Fe] chemical sequence: both the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences were forming stars at the same time. We find that the high-[Mg/Fe] stellar populations are only vertically extended for the oldest, most-metal poor and highest [Mg/Fe] stars. When comparing vertical velocity dispersion for the low- and high-[Mg/Fe] sequences, the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence has lower vertical velocity dispersion than the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence for stars of similar age. This means that identifying either group as thin or thick disk based on chemistry is misleading. The stars belonging to the high-[Mg/Fe] sequence have perigalacticons that originate in the inner disk, while the perigalacticons of stars on the low-[Mg/Fe] sequence are generally around the solar neighborhood. From the orbital properties of the stars, the high-[Mg/Fe] and low-[Mg/Fe] sequences are most likely a reflection of the chemical enrichment history of the inner and outer disk populations, respectively; radial mixing causes both populations to be observed in situ at the solar position. Based on these results, we emphasize that it is important to be clear in defining what populations are being referenced when using the terms thin and thick disk, and that ideally the term thick disk should be reserved for purely geometric definitions to avoid confusion and be consistent with definitions in external

  15. Contraction of an air disk caught between two different liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Thoraval, M.-J.


    When a drop impacts a pool of liquid it entraps a thin disk of air under its center. This disk contracts rapidly into a bubble to minimize surface energy. Herein we use ultra-high-speed imaging to measure the contraction speed of this disk when the drop and pool are of different liquids. For miscible liquids the contraction rate is governed by the weaker of the two surface tensions. Some undulations are observed on the edge of the disk for a water drop impacting a pool of water, but not on a pool of lower surface tension. Similar results are observed for a pair of immiscible liquids.

  16. Self-consistent dynamical and thermodynamical evolutions of protoplanetary disks. (United States)

    Baillie, K.; Charnoz, S.; Taillifet, E.; Piau, L.


    Astronomical observations reveal the diversity of protoplanetary disk evolutions. In order to understand the global evolution of these disks from their birth, during the collapse of the molecular cloud, to their evaporation because of the stellar radiation, many processes with different timescales must be coupled: stellar evolution, thermodynamical evolution, photoevaporation, cloud collapse, viscous spreading... Simulating all these processes simultaneously is beyond the capacity of modern computers. However, by modeling the results of large scale simulations and coupling them with models of viscous evolution, we have designed a one dimension full model of disk evolution. In order to generate the most realistic protoplanetary disk, we minimize the number of input parameters and try to calculate most of them from self-consistent processes, as early as possible in the history of the disk; starting with the collapse of the molecular cloud that feeds the disk in gas. We start from the Hueso and Guillot, 2005 [2] model of disk evolution and couple the radiative transfer description of Calvet et al, 1991 [1] allowing us to handle a non-isothermal disk which midplane temperature is defined by an irradiation term form the central star and a viscous heating term depending on the optical depth of the disk. Our new model of the disk photosphere profile allows us to estimate self-consistent photosphere heights and midplane temperatures at the same time. We then follow the disk evolution using an upgrade of the viscous spreading equation from Lynden-Bell and Pringle, 1981 [3]. In particular, the molecular cloud collapse adds a time varying term to the temporal variation of the surface mass density of the disk, in the same manner that photo-evaporation introduces a density loss term. The central star itself is modeled using recent stellar evolution code described in Piau et al, 2011 [4]. Using the same temperature model in the vertical direction, we estimate 2D thermal maps of

  17. The Impact of Hard Disk Firmware Steganography on Computer Forensics


    Iain Sutherland; Gareth Davies; Nick Pringle; Andrew Blyth


    The hard disk drive is probably the predominant form of storage media and is a primary data source in a forensic investigation. The majority of available software tools and literature relating to the investigation of the structure and content contained within a hard disk drive concerns the extraction and analysis of evidence from the various file systems which can reside in the user accessible area of the disk. It is known that there are other areas of the hard disk drive which could be used ...

  18. Thermal-mechanical coupled analysis of a brake disk rotor (United States)

    Belhocine, Ali; Bouchetara, Mostefa


    The main purpose of this study is to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of the dry contact between the brake disk and pads during the braking phase. The simulation strategy is based on computer code ANSYS11. The modeling of transient temperature in the disk is actually used to identify the factor of geometric design of the disk to install the ventilation system in vehicles The thermal-structural analysis is then used with coupling to determine the deformation and the Von Mises stress established in the disk, the contact pressure distribution in pads. The results are satisfactory when compared to those of the specialized literature.

  19. High average power scaleable thin-disk laser (United States)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.


    Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari


    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  1. Spontaneous Regression of a Cervical Disk Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen


    Full Text Available A 54 years old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a two months history of muscle spasms of her neck and pain radiating to the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown a large left-sided paracentral disk herniation at the C6-C7 disk space (Figure 1. Neurological examination showed no obvious neurological deficit. She received conservative treatment including bed rest, rehabilitation, and analgesic drugs. After 13 months, requested by the patient, a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed resolution of the disc herniation.(Figure 2 Although the literature contains several reports about spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar disc without surgical intervention, that of phenomenon reported for herniated cervical level is rare, and such reports are few[1]. In conclusion, herniated intervertebral disc have the potential to spontaneously regress independently from the spine level. With further studies, determining the predictive signs for prognostic evaluation for spontaneous regression which would yield to conservative treatment would be beneficial.

  2. Stability of black hole accretion disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny B.


    Full Text Available We discuss the issues of stability of accretion disks that may undergo the limit-cycle oscillations due to the two main types of thermal-viscous instabilities. These are induced either by the domination of radiation pressure in the innermost regions close to the central black hole, or by the partial ionization of hydrogen in the zone of appropriate temperatures. These physical processes may lead to the intermittent activity in AGN on timescales between hundreds and millions of years. We list a number of observational facts that support the idea of the cyclic activity in high accretion rate sources. We conclude however that the observed features of quasars may provide only indirect signatures of the underlying instabilities. Also, the support from the sources with stellar mass black holes, whose variability timescales are observationally feasible, is limited to a few cases of the microquasars. Therefore we consider a number of plausible mechanisms of stabilization of the limit cycle oscillations in high accretion rate accretion disks. The newly found is the stabilizing effect of the stochastic viscosity fluctuations.

  3. Streaming potential near a rotating porous disk. (United States)

    Prieve, Dennis C; Sides, Paul J


    Theory and experimental results for the streaming potential measured in the vicinity of a rotating porous disk-shaped sample are described. Rotation of the sample on its axis draws liquid into its face and casts it from the periphery. Advection within the sample engenders streaming current and streaming potential that are proportional to the zeta potential and the disk's major dimensions. When Darcy's law applies, the streaming potential is proportional to the square of the rotation at low rate but becomes invariant with rotation at high rate. The streaming potential is invariant with the sample's permeability at low rate and is proportional to the inverse square of the permeability at high rate. These predictions were tested by determining the zeta potential and permeability of the loop side of Velcro, a sample otherwise difficult to characterize; reasonable values of -56 mV for zeta and 8.7 × 10(-9) m(2) for the permeability were obtained. This approach offers the ability to determine both the zeta potential and the permeability of materials having open structures. Compressing them into a porous plug is unnecessary. As part of the development of the theory, a convenient formula for a flow-weighted volume-averaged space-charge density of the porous medium, -εζ/k, was obtained, where ε is the permittivity, ζ is the zeta potential, and k is the Darcy permeability. The formula is correct when Smoluchowski's equation and Darcy's law are both valid.

  4. Understanding biases when fitting disk truncations (United States)

    Cardiel, Nicolás; Marino, Raffaella A.; Pascual, Sergio; Ceballos, M. Teresa; Gil de Paz, Armando; Sánchez, Sebastián F.


    Truncations in the stellar population at the edges of disk galaxies are thought to be a common morphological feature (e.g., Erwin et al. 2005; and more recently Marino et al. 2016). In fact, using imaging data from the SDSS, Pohlen & Trujillo (2006) showed that only ~ 10% of face-on to intermediate inclined, nearby, late-type (Sb-Sdm) spiral galaxies have a normal/standard purely exponential disk down to the noise limit. In situations like these, the simultaneous fit of two lines, joined or not at an intermediate point (the break radius), constitutes a natural step towards the modelling of radial variation in surface brightness, metallicity, or any other relevant parameter. This work shows the results of simple simulations in which the simultaneous fit to two joined lines is compared to the simultaneous fit of two independent lines (i.e., two lines that do not necessarily coincide at an intermediate point), and also to the traditional single ordinary least squares fit. These simulations reveal some biases that should be taken into account when facing these kind of fitting procedures.

  5. Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems Deployed on NASA Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Remote Sensing Solutions proposes to develop the Network-based Parallel Retrieval Onboard Computing Environment for Sensor Systems (nPROCESS) for deployment on...

  6. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang


    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  7. Fast inline inspection by Neural Network Based Filtered Backprojection: Application to apple inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Janssens


    Full Text Available Speed is an important parameter of an inspection system. Inline computed tomography systems exist but are generally expensive. Moreover, their throughput is limited by the speed of the reconstruction algorithm. In this work, we propose a Neural Network-based Hilbert transform Filtered Backprojection (NN-hFBP method to reconstruct objects in an inline scanning environment in a fast and accurate way. Experiments based on apple X-ray scans show that the NN-hFBP method allows to reconstruct images with a substantially better tradeoff between image quality and reconstruction time.

  8. Review of Recommender Systems Algorithms Utilized in Social Networks based e-Learning Systems & Neutrosophic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a review of different recommender system algorithms that are utilized in social networks based e-Learning systems. Future research will include our proposed our e-Learning system that utilizes Recommender System and Social Network. Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. The fundamental concepts of neutrosophic set, introduced by Smarandache in [21, 22, 23] and Salama et al. in [24-66].The purpose of this paper is to utilize a neutrosophic set to analyze social networks data conducted through learning activities.

  9. An Efficient Neural Network Based Modeling Method for Automotive EMC Simulation (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Weigel, Robert


    This paper presents a newly developed methodology for VHDL-AMS model integration into SPICE-based EMC simulations. To this end the VHDL-AMS model, which is available in a compiled version only, is characterized under typical loading conditions, and afterwards a neural network based technique is applied to convert characteristic voltage and current data into an equivalent circuit in SPICE syntax. After the explanation of the whole method and the presentation of a newly developed switched state space dynamic neural network model, the entire analysis process is demonstrated using a typical application from automotive industry.

  10. Extended neural network-based scheme for real-time force tracking with magnetorheological dampers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Felix; Bhowmik, Subrata; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    This paper validates numerically and experimentally a new neural network-based real-time force tracking scheme for magnetorheological (MR) dampers on a five-storey shear frame with MR damper. The inverse model is trained with absolute values of measured velocity and force because the targeted...... current is a positive quantity. The validation shows accurate results except of small current spikes when the desired force is in the vicinity of the residual MR damper force. In the closed-loop, higher frequency components in the current are triggered by the transition of the actual MR damper force from...

  11. Neural substrates of motor and cognitive dysfunctions in SCA2 patients: A network based statistics analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Olivito


    In the present study, the network-based statistics (NBS approach was used to assess differences in functional connectivity between specific cerebellar and cerebral “nodes” in SCA2 patients. Altered inter-nodal connectivity was found between more posterior regions in the cerebellum and regions in the cerebral cortex clearly related to cognition and emotion. Furthermore, more anterior cerebellar lobules showed altered inter-nodal connectivity with motor and somatosensory cerebral regions. The present data suggest that in SCA2 a cerebellar dysfunction affects long-distance cerebral regions and that the clinical symptoms may be specifically related with connectivity changes between motor and non-motor cerebello-cortical nodes.

  12. Network-Based Coordination of Civil-Service Training: Lessons from the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metsma Merilin


    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the coordination of civil-service training in a decentralized civil-service system. The Estonian case is studied. The article investigates network-based coordination, analyzes the power sources of the central coordinator and discusses the opportunities and limitations of creating coherence through network-type cooperation. The article concludes that the key power sources for the central coordinator are financial, human and technical resources paired with knowledge, leadership and commitment. The case study shows that, in a decentralized civil service system, a common understanding on training and development can be fostered by intense collaboration through networks.

  13. A novel wavelet neural network based pathological stage detection technique for an oral precancerous condition (United States)

    Paul, R R; Mukherjee, A; Dutta, P K; Banerjee, S; Pal, M; Chatterjee, J; Chaudhuri, K; Mukkerjee, K


    Aim: To describe a novel neural network based oral precancer (oral submucous fibrosis; OSF) stage detection method. Method: The wavelet coefficients of transmission electron microscopy images of collagen fibres from normal oral submucosa and OSF tissues were used to choose the feature vector which, in turn, was used to train the artificial neural network. Results: The trained network was able to classify normal and oral precancer stages (less advanced and advanced) after obtaining the image as an input. Conclusions: The results obtained from this proposed technique were promising and suggest that with further optimisation this method could be used to detect and stage OSF, and could be adapted for other conditions. PMID:16126873

  14. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance (United States)

    Grantham, Katie


    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  15. Radiation thermo-chemical models of protoplanetary disks. I. Hydrostatic disk structure and inner rim (United States)

    Woitke, P.; Kamp, I.; Thi, W.-F.


    Context: Emission lines from protoplanetary disks originate mainly in the irradiated surface layers, where the gas is generally warmer than the dust. Therefore, interpreting emission lines requires detailed thermo-chemical models, which are essential to converting line observations into understanding disk physics. Aims: We aim at hydrostatic disk models that are valid from 0.1 AU to 1000 AU to interpret gas emission lines from UV to sub-mm. In particular, our interest lies in interpreting far IR gas emission lines, such as will be observed by the Herschel observatory, related to the Gasps open time key program. This paper introduces a new disk code called ProDiMo. Methods: We combine frequency-dependent 2D dust continuum radiative transfer, kinetic gas-phase and UV photo-chemistry, ice formation, and detailed non-LTE heating & cooling with the consistent calculation of the hydrostatic disk structure. We include Fe ii and CO ro-vibrational line heating/cooling relevant to the high-density gas close to the star, and apply a modified escape-probability treatment. The models are characterised by a high degree of consistency between the various physical, chemical, and radiative processes, where the mutual feedbacks are solved iteratively. Results: In application to a T Tauri disk extending from 0.5 AU to 500 AU, the models show that the dense, shielded and cold midplane (z/r ⪉ 0.1, T g≈ T d) is surrounded by a layer of hot (T g≈ 5000 K) and thin (n ≈10 7 to 10 8 cm-3) atomic gas that extends radially to about 10 AU and vertically up to z/r≈0.5. This layer is predominantly heated by the stellar UV (e.g. PAH-heating) and cools via Fe ii semi-forbidden and Oi 630 nm optical line emission. The dust grains in this “halo” scatter the starlight back onto the disk, which affects the photochemistry. The more distant regions are characterised by a cooler flaring structure. Beyond r ⪆ 100 AU, T g decouples from T d even in the midplane and reaches values of about T

  16. Probing circumplanetary disks with MagAO and ALMA (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin


    The dedication of the Magellan Adaptive Optics (MagAO) on the 6.5 m Clay Telescope has opened a new era in high-contrast imaging. Its unique diffraction-limited wavelengths of 0.6 to 1 micron helps to probe circumplanetary disks by measuring the amount of dust reddening as well as by searching for the strongest gas accretion indicator H-alpha (0.65 micron). Using MagAO, I found that two wide-orbit planetary-mass companions CT Cha B and 1RXS 1609 B have a significant dust extinction of Av ~ 3 to 5 mag likely from their disks. For GQ Lup B, I found that it is actively accreting material from its disk and emitting strong H-alpha emission. My research with MagAO demonstrates that circumplanetary disks could be ubiquitous among young giant planets. I later carried out a survey using ALMA to image accretion disks around several wide planet-mass companions at 1.3 mm continuum and CO (2-1). This is the first systematic study aiming to measure the size, mass, and structure of planetary disks. However, except for FW Tau C (which was shown to actually be a low-mass star from the dynamical mass measurement) no disks around the companions were found in my ALMA survey. This surprising null result implies that circumplanetary disks are much more compact and denser than expected, so they are faint and optically thick in the radio wavelengths. Therefore, mid- to far-infrared may be more favorable to characterize disk properties. The MIRI camera on the JWST can test this compact optically-thick disk hypothesis by probing disk thermal emission between 10 and 25 micron.

  17. Resolved imaging of the HR 8799 Debris disk with Herschel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Marois, Christian [National Research Council of Canada Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophsyics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, Bruce [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Macintosh, Bruce [Lawrence Livermore National Labs, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160, and 250 μm and detect the disk at 350 and 500 μm. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. We observe no obvious clumps or asymmetries associated with the trapping of planetesimals that is a potential consequence of planetary migration in the system. We estimate that the disk eccentricity must be <0.1. As in previous work by Su et al., we find a disk with three components: a warm inner component and two outer components, a planetesimal belt extending from 100 to 310 AU, with some flexibility (±10 AU) on the inner edge, and the external halo that extends to ∼2000 AU. We measure the disk inclination to be 26° ± 3° from face-on at a position angle of 64° E of N, establishing that the disk is coplanar with the star and planets. The spectral energy distribution of the disk is well fit by blackbody grains whose semi-major axes lie within the planetesimal belt, suggesting an absence of small grains. The wavelength at which the spectrum steepens from blackbody, 47 ± 30 μm, however, is short compared with other A star debris disks, suggesting that there are atypically small grains likely populating the halo. The PACS longer wavelength data yield a lower disk color temperature than do MIPS data (24 and 70 μm), implying two distinct halo dust-grain populations.

  18. On the structure of the transition disk around TW Hydrae (United States)

    Menu, J.; van Boekel, R.; Henning, Th.; Chandler, C. J.; Linz, H.; Benisty, M.; Lacour, S.; Min, M.; Waelkens, C.; Andrews, S. M.; Calvet, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Corder, S. A.; Deller, A. T.; Greaves, J. S.; Harris, R. J.; Isella, A.; Kwon, W.; Lazio, J.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Ménard, F.; Mundy, L. G.; Pérez, L. M.; Ricci, L.; Sargent, A. I.; Storm, S.; Testi, L.; Wilner, D. J.


    Context. For over a decade, the structure of the inner cavity in the transition disk of TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. Modeling the disk with data obtained at different wavelengths has led to a variety of proposed disk structures. Rather than being inconsistent, the individual models might point to the different faces of physical processes going on in disks, such as dust growth and planet formation. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the structure of the transition disk again and to find to what extent we can reconcile apparent model differences. Methods: A large set of high-angular-resolution data was collected from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths. We investigated the existing disk models and established a new self-consistent radiative-transfer model. A genetic fitting algorithm was used to automatize the parameter fitting, and uncertainties were investigated in a Bayesian framework. Results: Simple disk models with a vertical inner rim and a radially homogeneous dust composition from small to large grains cannot reproduce the combined data set. Two modifications are applied to this simple disk model: (1) the inner rim is smoothed by exponentially decreasing the surface density in the inner ~3 AU, and (2) the largest grains (>100 μm) are concentrated towards the inner disk region. Both properties can be linked to fundamental processes that determine the evolution of protoplanetary disks: the shaping by a possible companion and the different regimes of dust-grain growth, respectively. Conclusions: The full interferometric data set from near-infrared to centimeter wavelengths requires a revision of existing models for the TW Hya disk. We present a new model that incorporates the characteristic structures of previous models but deviates in two key aspects: it does not have a sharp edge at 4 AU, and the surface density of large grains differs from that of smaller grains. This is the first successful radiative-transfer-based model for a full set of

  19. Demographic Data - MDC_Block (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  20. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  1. Chondrites and the Protoplanetary Disk, Part 3 (United States)


    Contents include the following: Ca-, Al-Rich Inclusions and Ameoboid Olivine Aggregates: What We Know and Don t Know About Their Origin. Aluminium-26 and Oxygen Isotopic Distributions of Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from Acfer 214 CH Chondrite. The Trapping Efficiency of Helium in Fullerene and Its Implicatiion to the Planetary Science. Constraints on the Origin of Chondritic Components from Oxygen Isotopic Compositions. Role of Planetary Impacts in Thermal Processing of Chondrite Materials. Formation of the Melilite Mantle of the Type B1 CAIs: Flash Heating or Transport? The Iodine-Xenon System in Outer and Inner Portions of Chondrules from the Unnamed Antarctic LL3 Chondrite. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars. The Two-Fluid Analysis of the Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in the Dust Layer of a Protoplanetary Disk: A Possible Path to the Planetesimal Formation Through the Gravitational Instability. Shock-Wave Heating Model for Chonodrule Formation: Heating Rate and Cooling Rate Constraints. Glycine Amide Hydrolysis with Water and OH Radical: A Comparative DFT Study. Micron-sized Sample Preparation for AFM and SEM. AFM, FE-SEM and Optical Imaging of a Shocked L/LL Chondrite: Implications for Martensite Formation and Wave Propagation. Infrared Spectroscopy of Chondrites and Their Components: A Link Between Meteoritics and Astronomy? Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of CAI and Their Mineral Components. The Origin of Iron Isotope Fractionation in Chondrules, CAIs and Matrix from Allende (CV3) and Chainpur (LL3) Chondrites. Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: Early Results from Spitzer. Kinetics of Evaporation-Condensation in a Melt-Solid System and Its Role on the Chemical Composition and Evolution of Chondrules. Oxygen Isotope Exchange Recorded Within Anorthite Single Crystal in Vigarano CAI: Evidence for Remelting by High Temperature Process in the Solar Nebula. Chondrule Forming Shock Waves in Solar Nebula by X-Ray Flares. Organic Globules with Anormalous

  2. Hydrodynamical processes in planet-forming accretion disks (United States)

    Lin, Min-Kai

    Understanding the physics of accretion flows in circumstellar disk provides the foundation to any theory of planet formation. The last few years have witnessed dramatic a revision in the fundamental fluid dynamics of protoplanetary accretion disks. There is growing evidence that the key to answering some of the most pressing questions, such as the origin of disk turbulence, mass transport, and planetesimal formation, may lie within, and intimately linked to, purely hydrodynamical processes in protoplanetary disks. Recent studies, including those from the proposal team, have discovered and highlighted the significance of several new hydrodynamical instabilities in the planet-forming regions of these disks. These include, but not limited to: the vertical shear instability, active between 10 to 100 AU; the zombie vortex instability, operating in regions interior to about 1AU; and the convective over-stability at intermediate radii. Secondary Rossbywave and elliptic instabilities may also be triggered, feeding off the structures that emerge from the above primary instabilities. The result of these hydrodynamic processes range from small-scale turbulence that transports angular momentum, to large-scale vortices that concentrate dust particles and enhance planetesimal formation. Hydrodynamic processes pertain to a wide range of disk conditions, meaning that at least one of these processes are active at any given disk location and evolutionary epoch. This remains true even after planet formation, which affects their subsequent orbital evolution. Hydrodynamical processes also have direct observable consequences. For example, vortices have being invoked to explain recent ALMA images of asymmetric `dust-traps' in transition disks. Hydrodynamic activities thus play a crucial role at every stage of planet formation and disk evolution. We propose to develop theoretical models of the above hydrodynamic processes under physical disk conditions by properly accounting for disk

  3. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold


    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  4. Learnable Programming: Blocks and Beyond


    Bau, David; Gray, Jeff; Kelleher, Caitlin; Sheldon, Josh; Turbak, Franklyn


    Blocks-based programming has become the lingua franca for introductory coding. Studies have found that experience with blocks-based programming can help beginners learn more traditional text-based languages. We explore how blocks environments improve learnability for novices by 1) favoring recognition over recall, 2) reducing cognitive load, and 3) preventing errors. Increased usability of blocks programming has led to widespread adoption within introductory programming contexts across a rang...

  5. Localization of Sodium Channels in Intercalated Disks Modulates Cardiac Conduction (United States)

    Kucera, Jan P.; Rohr, Stephan; Rudy, Yoram


    It is well known that the sodium current (INa) and the degree of gap-junctional electrical coupling are the key determinants of action potential (AP) conduction in cardiac tissue. Immunohistochemical studies have shown that sodium channels (NaChs) are preferentially located in intercalated disks (IDs). Using dual immunocytochemical staining, we confirmed the colocalization of NaChs with connexin43 in cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. In mathematical simulations of conduction using the Luo-Rudy dynamic model of the ventricular AP, we assessed the hypothesis that conduction could be modulated by the preferential localization of NaChs in IDs. Localization of INa at the ID caused a large negative potential in the intercellular cleft, which influenced conduction in two opposing ways, depending on the degree of electrical coupling: (1) for normal and moderately reduced coupling, the negative cleft potential led to a large overshoot of the transmembrane potential resulting in a decreased driving force for INa itself (self-attenuation), which slowed conduction; (2) for greatly reduced coupling (<10%), the negative cleft potential induced by INa in the prejunctional membrane led to suprathreshold depolarization of the postjunctional membrane, which facilitated and accelerated conduction. When cleft potential effects were not incorporated, conduction was not significantly affected by the ID localization of INa. By enhancing conduction through the establishment of cleft potentials, the localization of NaChs in IDs might protect the myocardium from conduction block, very slow conduction, and microreentry under conditions of greatly reduced coupling. Conversely, by supporting moderately slow conduction, this mechanism could also promote arrhythmias PMID:12480819

  6. Is Congenital Amusia a Disconnection Syndrome? A Study Combining Tract- and Network-Based Analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Caicai; Wan, Shibiao; Peng, Gang


    Previous studies on congenital amusia mainly focused on the impaired fronto-temporal pathway. It is possible that neural pathways of amusia patients on a larger scale are affected. In this study, we investigated changes in structural connections by applying both tract-based and network-based analysis to DTI data of 12 subjects with congenital amusia and 20 demographic-matched normal controls. TBSS (tract-based spatial statistics) was used to detect microstructural changes. The results showed that amusics had higher diffusivity indices in the corpus callosum, the right inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the right inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). The axial diffusivity values of the right IFOF were negatively correlated with musical scores in the amusia group. Network-based analysis showed that the efficiency of the brain network was reduced in amusics. The impairments of WM tracts were also found to be correlated with reduced network efficiency in amusics. This suggests that impaired WM tracts may lead to the reduced network efficiency seen in amusics. Our findings suggest that congenital amusia is a disconnection syndrome.

  7. Is Congenital Amusia a Disconnection Syndrome? A Study Combining Tract- and Network-Based Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wang


    Full Text Available Previous studies on congenital amusia mainly focused on the impaired fronto-temporal pathway. It is possible that neural pathways of amusia patients on a larger scale are affected. In this study, we investigated changes in structural connections by applying both tract-based and network-based analysis to DTI data of 12 subjects with congenital amusia and 20 demographic-matched normal controls. TBSS (tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect microstructural changes. The results showed that amusics had higher diffusivity indices in the corpus callosum, the right inferior/superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the right inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus (IFOF. The axial diffusivity values of the right IFOF were negatively correlated with musical scores in the amusia group. Network-based analysis showed that the efficiency of the brain network was reduced in amusics. The impairments of WM tracts were also found to be correlated with reduced network efficiency in amusics. This suggests that impaired WM tracts may lead to the reduced network efficiency seen in amusics. Our findings suggest that congenital amusia is a disconnection syndrome.

  8. Network-Based Method for Identifying Co- Regeneration Genes in Bone, Dentin, Nerve and Vessel Tissues. (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pan, Hongying; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Feng, Kaiyan; Kong, XiangYin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong


    Bone and dental diseases are serious public health problems. Most current clinical treatments for these diseases can produce side effects. Regeneration is a promising therapy for bone and dental diseases, yielding natural tissue recovery with few side effects. Because soft tissues inside the bone and dentin are densely populated with nerves and vessels, the study of bone and dentin regeneration should also consider the co-regeneration of nerves and vessels. In this study, a network-based method to identify co-regeneration genes for bone, dentin, nerve and vessel was constructed based on an extensive network of protein-protein interactions. Three procedures were applied in the network-based method. The first procedure, searching, sought the shortest paths connecting regeneration genes of one tissue type with regeneration genes of other tissues, thereby extracting possible co-regeneration genes. The second procedure, testing, employed a permutation test to evaluate whether possible genes were false discoveries; these genes were excluded by the testing procedure. The last procedure, screening, employed two rules, the betweenness ratio rule and interaction score rule, to select the most essential genes. A total of seventeen genes were inferred by the method, which were deemed to contribute to co-regeneration of at least two tissues. All these seventeen genes were extensively discussed to validate the utility of the method.

  9. Robust Analysis of Network-Based Real-Time Kinematic for GNSS-Derived Heights. (United States)

    Bae, Tae-Suk; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota; Mader, Gerald; Dennis, Michael


    New guidelines and procedures for real-time (RT) network-based solutions are required in order to support Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived heights. Two kinds of experiments were carried out to analyze the performance of the network-based real-time kinematic (RTK) solutions. New test marks were installed in different surrounding environments, and the existing GPS benchmarks were used for analyzing the effect of different factors, such as baseline lengths, antenna types, on the final accuracy and reliability of the height estimation. The RT solutions are categorized into three groups: single-base RTK, multiple-epoch network RTK (mRTN), and single-epoch network RTK (sRTN). The RTK solution can be biased up to 9 mm depending on the surrounding environment, but there was no notable bias for a longer reference base station (about 30 km) In addition, the occupation time for the network RTK was investigated in various cases. There is no explicit bias in the solution for different durations, but smoother results were obtained for longer durations. Further investigation is needed into the effect of changing the occupation time between solutions and into the possibility of using single-epoch solutions in precise determination of heights by GNSS.

  10. Neural network-based sliding mode control for atmospheric-actuated spacecraft formation using switching strategy (United States)

    Sun, Ran; Wang, Jihe; Zhang, Dexin; Shao, Xiaowei


    This paper presents an adaptive neural networks-based control method for spacecraft formation with coupled translational and rotational dynamics using only aerodynamic forces. It is assumed that each spacecraft is equipped with several large flat plates. A coupled orbit-attitude dynamic model is considered based on the specific configuration of atmospheric-based actuators. For this model, a neural network-based adaptive sliding mode controller is implemented, accounting for system uncertainties and external perturbations. To avoid invalidation of the neural networks destroying stability of the system, a switching control strategy is proposed which combines an adaptive neural networks controller dominating in its active region and an adaptive sliding mode controller outside the neural active region. An optimal process is developed to determine the control commands for the plates system. The stability of the closed-loop system is proved by a Lyapunov-based method. Comparative results through numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of executing attitude control while maintaining the relative motion, and higher control accuracy can be achieved by using the proposed neural-based switching control scheme than using only adaptive sliding mode controller.

  11. A comparative performance evaluation of neural network based approach for sentiment classification of online reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodhini


    Full Text Available The aim of sentiment classification is to efficiently identify the emotions expressed in the form of text messages. Machine learning methods for sentiment classification have been extensively studied, due to their predominant classification performance. Recent studies suggest that ensemble based machine learning methods provide better performance in classification. Artificial neural networks (ANNs are rarely being investigated in the literature of sentiment classification. This paper compares neural network based sentiment classification methods (back propagation neural network (BPN, probabilistic neural network (PNN & homogeneous ensemble of PNN (HEN using varying levels of word granularity as features for feature level sentiment classification. They are validated using a dataset of product reviews collected from the Amazon reviews website. An empirical analysis is done to compare results of ANN based methods with two statistical individual methods. The methods are evaluated using five different quality measures and results show that the homogeneous ensemble of the neural network method provides better performance. Among the two neural network approaches used, probabilistic neural networks (PNNs outperform in classifying the sentiment of the product reviews. The integration of neural network based sentiment classification methods with principal component analysis (PCA as a feature reduction technique provides superior performance in terms of training time also.

  12. Network-based modeling and intelligent data mining of social media for improving care. (United States)

    Akay, Altug; Dragomir, Andrei; Erlandsson, Bjorn-Erik


    Intelligently extracting knowledge from social media has recently attracted great interest from the Biomedical and Health Informatics community to simultaneously improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs using consumer-generated opinion. We propose a two-step analysis framework that focuses on positive and negative sentiment, as well as the side effects of treatment, in users' forum posts, and identifies user communities (modules) and influential users for the purpose of ascertaining user opinion of cancer treatment. We used a self-organizing map to analyze word frequency data derived from users' forum posts. We then introduced a novel network-based approach for modeling users' forum interactions and employed a network partitioning method based on optimizing a stability quality measure. This allowed us to determine consumer opinion and identify influential users within the retrieved modules using information derived from both word-frequency data and network-based properties. Our approach can expand research into intelligently mining social media data for consumer opinion of various treatments to provide rapid, up-to-date information for the pharmaceutical industry, hospitals, and medical staff, on the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of future treatments.

  13. Surface and thermomechanical characterization of polyurethane networks based on poly(dimethylsiloxane and hyperbranched polyester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Pergal


    Full Text Available Two series of polyurethane (PU networks based on Boltorn® hyperbranched polyester (HBP and hydroxyethoxy propyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane (EO-PDMS or hydroxy propyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane (HPPDMS, were synthesized. The effect of the type of soft PDMS segment on the properties of PUs was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, contact angle measurements, surface free energy determination, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The surface characterization of PUs showed existence of slightly amphiphilic character and it revealed that PUs based on HP-PDMS have lower surface free energy, more hydrophobic surface and better waterproof performances than PUs based on EO-PDMS. PUs based on HPPDMS had higher crosslinking density than PUs based on EO-PDMS. DSC and DMTA results revealed that these newlysynthesized PUs exhibit the glass transition temperatures of the soft and hard segments. DMTA, SEM and AFM results confirmed existence of microphase separated morphology. The results obtained in this work indicate that PU networks based on HBP and PDMS have improved surface and thermomechanical properties.

  14. Design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing system. (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhou, Genyuan; Ji, Sai; Wang, Zilong; Wang, Yang


    The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST) system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Aircraft Strength Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang


    Full Text Available The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  16. Brainstem Anesthesia after Retrobulbar Block

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 6, 2016 ... BACKGROUND: Retro-bulbar anesthesia is one of the most common regional blocks used for intraocular surgeries. Complications associated with regional blocks may be limited to the eye or may be systemic. CASE REPORT: After a retro-bulbar block for glaucoma surgery, a 60-year-old man developed ...

  17. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F.


    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research...

  18. Treatment and outcome of herniated lumbar intervertebral disk in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of treatment in cases of lumbar disk herniation is to return the patient to normal activities as quickly as possible. Therefore unnecessary surgery should be avoided (2). However about 10% of patients with lumbar disk herniation will ultimately require surgery (3). Surgery is recommended if the sciatica is severe and ...

  19. An expanding disk around the young massive star AFGL 2591

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K. S.; van der Tak, F.; Hogerheijde, M.

    Recent detections of disks around young high-mass stars indicate their formation through accretion rather than coalescence, but the physical properties of these disks are poorly known. In this study, we used Plateau de Bure interferometric images to probe the environment of the nearby (˜1 kpc) and

  20. Accretion disks before (?) the main planet formation phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominik, C.


    Protoplanetary disks are the sites of planet formation and therefore one of the foremost targets of future facilities in astronomy. In this review, I will discuss the main options for using JWST and concurrent facilities to study the early, gas-rich, massive phases of protoplanetary disks. We

  1. Probing protoplanetary disk evolution with the HI 21 cm line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamp, Inga; Freudling, Wolfram; Robberto, Massimo; Chengalur, Jayaram; Keto, Eric

    Little is known about the gas disk dispersal timescales in the planet formation process. Disks have a complex chemical structure and a wide range of excitation conditions, making the interpretation of line observations difficult. Here, we use detailed chemo-physical models to predict the Hi


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Poelman, D. R.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Glassgold, A. E.


    Circumstellar disks provide the material reservoir for the growth of young stars and for planet formation. We combine a high-level radiative transfer program with a thermal-chemical model of a typical T Tauri star disk to investigate the diagnostic potential of the far-infrared lines of water for

  3. Superconducting magnet system for an experimental disk MHD facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoopers, H.G.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.


    A predesign of a split-pair magnet for a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) facility for testing a 10-MW open-cycle disk or a 5-MW closed-cycle disk generator is presented. The magnet system consists of a NbTi and a Nb 3Sn section, which provide a magnetic field of 9 T in the active area of the MHD channel.

  4. Stochastic Resonance of Accretion Disk and the Persistent Low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we use a Langevin type equation with a damping term and stochastic force to describe the stochastic oscillations on the vertical direction of the accretion disk around a black hole, and calculate the luminosity and power spectral density (PSD) for an oscillating disk. Then we discuss the stochastic resonance ...

  5. An 80 au cavity in the disk around HD 34282 (United States)

    van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.; Canovas, H.; Avenhaus, H.; Casassus, S.; Pinte, C.; Caceres, C.; Cieza, L.


    Context. Large cavities in disks are important testing grounds for the mechanisms proposed to drive disk evolution and dispersion, such as dynamical clearing by planets and photoevaporation. Aims: We aim to resolve the large cavity in the disk around HD 34282, whose presence has been predicted by previous studies modeling the spectral energy distribution of the disk. Methods: Using ALMA band 7 observations we studied HD 34282 with a spatial resolution of 0.10″ × 0.17'' at 345 GHz. Results: We resolve the disk around HD 34282 into a ring between 0.24'' and 1.15'' (78 and 374 au adopting a distance of 325 pc). The emission in this ring shows azimuthal asymmetry centered at a radial distance of 0.46'' and a position angle of 135° and an azimuthal FWHM of 51°. We detect CO emission both inside the disk cavity and as far out as 2.7 times the radial extent of the dust emission. Conclusions: Both the large disk cavity and the azimuthal structure in the disk around HD 34282 can be explained by the presence of a 50 Mjup brown dwarf companion at a separation of ≈0.1''.

  6. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):. consider small (few %) perturbation in potential. --- solve equations of motion using epicyclic theory. The symmetric disk potential = ψ_0 (R ) = Vc 2 ln R. and the perturbation halo potential = Vc 2 εlop cos φ ...

  7. Volatile depletion in the TW Hydrae disk atmosphere (United States)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.


    An abundance decrease in carbon- and oxygen-bearing species relative to dust has been frequently found in planet-forming disks, which can be attributed to an overall reduction of gas mass. However, in the case of TW Hya, the only disk with gas mass measured directly with HD rotational lines, the inferred gas mass (≲ 0.005 solar mass) is significantly below the directly measured value (≳ 0.05 solar mass). We show that this apparent conflict can be resolved if the elemental abundances of carbon and oxygen are reduced in the upper layers of the outer disk but are normal elsewhere (except for a possible enhancement of their abundances in the inner disk). The implication is that in the outer disk, the main reservoir of the volatiles (CO, water, …) resides close to the midplane, locked up inside solid bodies that are too heavy to be transported back to the atmosphere by turbulence. An enhancement in the carbon and oxygen abundances in the inner disk can be caused by inward migration of these solid bodies. This is consistent with estimates based on previous models of dust grain dynamics. Indirect measurements of the disk gas mass and disk structure from species such as CO will thus be intertwined with the evolution of dust grains, and possibly also with the formation of planetesimals.

  8. Stochastic Oscillations of General Relativistic Disks Described by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A generalized Langevin equation driven by fractional Brownian motion is used to describe the vertical oscillations of general relativistic disks. By means of numerical calculation method, the displacements, velocities and luminosities of oscillating disks are explicitly obtained for different Hurst exponent H . The results show ...

  9. Constraints on Exoplanet System Architectures from Debris Disks (United States)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah; Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, Dan; Lisse, Carey M.


    Debris disks are dusty disks around main sequence stars. Terrestrial planets may be forming in young debris disks with ages structure of debris disks could be an indicator of where planets have formed. We present an analysis of several members of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association (Sco Cen) that host both debris disks and planets, including HD 95086, HD 106906, and HD 133803. These objects are about 15-17 Myr old. The thermal emission from the debris disks constrains the locations of the dust. The dust is typically interior to the directly imaged planets in the systems. If additional planets reside in these systems, their locations are constrained by the positions of the dust belts. Many debris disk systems in Sco Cen appear to be two-belt systems. The gap between the belts in each system is a likely location for additional planets. The detection of planets in debris disk systems provide clues about the planet formation process, giving insights into where, when and how planets form.

  10. Optical Disk for Digital Storage and Retrieval Systems. (United States)

    Rose, Denis A.


    Availability of low-cost digital optical disks will revolutionize storage and retrieval systems over next decade. Three major factors will effect this change: availability of disks and controllers at low-cost and in plentiful supply; availability of low-cost and better output means for system users; and more flexible, less expensive communication…

  11. Videodisc and Optical Disk: Technology, Research, and Applications. (United States)

    Lunin, Lois F.


    Introduction to videodisc and optical disk technology (information storage media which are able to handle word, data, image, and sound) cites articles written about videodisc and optical disk applications, instructional use, videodisc research, and information retrieval. A list of 30 suggested readings and additional information resources are…

  12. Information Providers and Videodisc/Optical Disk Technology. (United States)

    Galloway, Emily; Paris, Judith


    Explores the possibilities of using videodisc and optical disk technology as publishing media, highlighting the videodisc as an educational tool and visual supplement to online databases, digital database publishing on videodisc, optical disks for electronic document and image delivery systems, and costs associated with videodisc design and…

  13. A debris disk around an isolated young neutron star. (United States)

    Wang, Zhongxiang; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Kaplan, David L


    Pulsars are rotating, magnetized neutron stars that are born in supernova explosions following the collapse of the cores of massive stars. If some of the explosion ejecta fails to escape, it may fall back onto the neutron star or it may possess sufficient angular momentum to form a disk. Such 'fallback' is both a general prediction of current supernova models and, if the material pushes the neutron star over its stability limit, a possible mode of black hole formation. Fallback disks could dramatically affect the early evolution of pulsars, yet there are few observational constraints on whether significant fallback occurs or even the actual existence of such disks. Here we report the discovery of mid-infrared emission from a cool disk around an isolated young X-ray pulsar. The disk does not power the pulsar's X-ray emission but is passively illuminated by these X-rays. The estimated mass of the disk is of the order of 10 Earth masses, and its lifetime (> or = 10(6) years) significantly exceeds the spin-down age of the pulsar, supporting a supernova fallback origin. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks seen around ordinary young stars, suggesting the possibility of planet formation around young neutron stars.

  14. A Fundamental Plane of Spiral Structure in Disk Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Shields, Douglas W.; Flatman, Russell; Hartley, Matthew T.; Berrier, Joel C.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Swaters, Rob A.

    Spiral structure is the most distinctive feature of disk galaxies and yet debate persists about which theory of spiral structure is correct. Many versions of the density wave theory demand that the pitch angle be uniquely determined by the distribution of mass in the bulge and disk of the galaxy. We

  15. Power Spectrum Density of Stochastic Oscillating Accretion Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Accretion; accretion disks; black hole physics; instabilities. ... In the model, we assume that there is a relativistic oscillation of thin accretion disks and it interacts with an external thermal bath through a friction force and a random force. ... Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, China.

  16. Gauging the Galactic thick disk with RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz G.


    Full Text Available In this contribution we present results from the QUEST RR Lyrae Survey of the thick disk. The survey spans ~480 sq. deg. at low latitude |b| < 30°, with multi-epoch VRI observations, obtained with the QUEST-I camera at the 1m Jürgen Stock Schmidt telescope located at the National Astronomical Observatory of Venezuela. This constitutes the first deep RR Lyrae survey of the Galactic thick disk conducted at low galactic latitudes, covering simultaneously a large range in radial (8disk structural parameters from in situ RR Lyrae stars having accurate distances (errors <7% and individual reddenings derived from each star’s color curve at minimum light. Moreover, the use of RR Lyrae stars as tracers ensures negligible contamination from the Galactic thin disk. We find a thick disk mean scale height hZ = 0.94 ± 0.11kpc and scale length hR = 3.2 ± 0.4kpc, derived from the vertical and radial mean density profiles of RR Lyrae stars. We also find evidence of thick disk flaring and results that may suggest the thick disk radial density profile shows signs of antitruncation. We discuss our findings in the context of recent thick disk formation models.

  17. Equilibrium and stability of tokamak plasmas and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, J.W.S.


    In both fusion research as well in astrophysics, plasmas are widely studied. These plasmas can be found in different geometric configurations, such as in a tokamak, stellarator or in astrophysical jets, accretion disks, etc. In this thesis we focus on plasmas found in tokamaks or accretion disks. In

  18. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA (United States)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen


    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  19. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.


    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  20. Multidimensional Scaling in the Poincare Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetkovski, Andrej


    Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a class of projective algorithms traditionally used to produce two- or three-dimensional visualizations of datasets consisting of multidimensional objects or interobject distances. Recently, metric MDS has been applied to the problems of graph embedding for the purpose of approximate encoding of edge or path costs using node coordinates in metric space. Several authors have also pointed out that for data with an inherent hierarchical structure, hyperbolic target space may be a more suitable choice for accurate embedding than Euclidean space. In this paper we present the theory and the implementation details of MDS-PD, a metric MDS algorithm designed specifically for the Poincare disk model of the hyperbolic plane. Our construction is based on an approximate hyperbolic line search and exemplifies some of the particulars that need to be addressed when applying iterative optimization methods in a hyperbolic space model. MDS-PD can be used both as a visualization tool and as an e...

  1. Evaluation of the solar disk sextant concept (United States)

    Chiu, H.-Y.


    In this paper the viability of the solar disk sextant concept is evaluated, the optimum parameters required to carry out solar variability studies, which are the mission objectives, are derived. The experimental environment is first discussed, followed by the application of the finite Fourier transform definition (FFTD) to the detector array data. The requirements on the optical system are studied next. A computer program was carried out simulating solar edge data and FFTD. From this study, it is concluded that the required accuracy of measurement may be reached using currently available detector array technology, a focal ratio of the optical system in excess of 90, and an entrance aperture of 22 cm. The guidance error must be small enough to require no more than a correction rate of 0.1 arcsec/sec. All these conditions are well within current technology.

  2. Static structure of active Brownian hard disks (United States)

    de Macedo Biniossek, N.; Löwen, H.; Voigtmann, Th; Smallenburg, F.


    We explore the changes in static structure of a two-dimensional system of active Brownian particles (ABP) with hard-disk interactions, using event-driven Brownian dynamics simulations. In particular, the effect of the self-propulsion velocity and the rotational diffusivity on the orientationally-averaged fluid structure factor is discussed. Typically activity increases structural ordering and generates a structure factor peak at zero wave vector which is a precursor of motility-induced phase separation. Our results provide reference data to test future statistical theories for the fluid structure of active Brownian systems. This manuscript was submitted for the special issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter associated with the Liquid Matter Conference 2017.

  3. Surface reconstruction through poisson disk sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenguang Hou

    Full Text Available This paper intends to generate the approximate Voronoi diagram in the geodesic metric for some unbiased samples selected from original points. The mesh model of seeds is then constructed on basis of the Voronoi diagram. Rather than constructing the Voronoi diagram for all original points, the proposed strategy is to run around the obstacle that the geodesic distances among neighboring points are sensitive to nearest neighbor definition. It is obvious that the reconstructed model is the level of detail of original points. Hence, our main motivation is to deal with the redundant scattered points. In implementation, Poisson disk sampling is taken to select seeds and helps to produce the Voronoi diagram. Adaptive reconstructions can be achieved by slightly changing the uniform strategy in selecting seeds. Behaviors of this method are investigated and accuracy evaluations are done. Experimental results show the proposed method is reliable and effective.

  4. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail:; Liverts, E., E-mail:; Mond, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  5. Bulk disk resonator based ultrasensitive mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagliani, Alberto; Davis, Zachary James


    In the framework of developing an innovative label-free sensor for multiarrayed biodetection applications, we present a novel bulk resonator based mass sensor. The sensor is a polysilicon disk which shows a Q-factor of 6400 in air at 68.8 MHz, resulting in mass resolutions down in the femtogram...... range. The sensor has been characterized in terms of sensitivity both for distributed mass detection, performing six consecutive depositions of e-beam evaporated Au, and localized mass detection, depositing approximately 7.5 pg of Pt/Ga/C three times consecutively with a Focused Ion Beam system....... The sensor has an extremely high distributed mass to frequency shift sensitivity of 60104 Hzcm2/¿g and shows a localized mass to frequency sensitivity up to 4405 Hz/pg with a localized mass resolution down to 15 fg. The device has been fabricated with a new microfabrication process that uses only two...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Keping [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beuther, Henrik; Fallscheer, Cassandra, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)


    We present a study of outflow, infall, and rotation in a {approx}10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} star-forming region, IRAS 18360-0537, with Submillimeter Array and IRAM 30 m observations. The 1.3 mm continuum map shows a 0.5 pc dust ridge, of which the central compact part has a mass of {approx}80 M{sub Sun} and harbors two condensations, MM1 and MM2. The CO (2-1) and SiO (5-4) maps reveal a biconical outflow centered at MM1, which is a hot molecular core (HMC) with a gas temperature of 320 {+-} 50 K and a mass of {approx}13 M{sub Sun }. The outflow has a gas mass of 54 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical timescale of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} yr. The kinematics of the HMC are probed by high-excitation CH{sub 3}OH and CH{sub 3}CN lines, which are detected at subarcsecond resolution and unveil a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, suggesting a disk-like rotation of the HMC. An infalling envelope around the HMC is evidenced by CN lines exhibiting a profound inverse P Cygni profile, and the estimated mass infall rate, 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, is well comparable to that inferred from the mass outflow rate. A more detailed investigation of the kinematics of the dense gas around the HMC is obtained from the {sup 13}CO and C{sup 18}O (2-1) lines; the position-velocity diagrams of the two lines are consistent with the model of a free-falling and Keplerian-like rotating envelope. The observations suggest that the protostar of a current mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} embedded within MM1 will develop into an O star via disk accretion and envelope infall.

  7. Multifrequency emission from hot ion disks (United States)

    Maisack, Michael; Becker, Peter A.; Kafatos, Menas


    The discovery of a large number of gamma-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) has spawned a lot of theoretical interest in the high-energy and multifrequency emission from these objects. Since most of them show evidence for relativistic outflow, jet models have received most of the attention so far. However, the presence of soft photons at the center of the active nucleus and the resulting Compton drag make it difficult to produce the observed amount of MeV/GeV emission. We explore hot, two-temperature accretion disks around Kerr black holes as an alternative to relativistic beam models for the production of the high-enerty emission. The decay of neutral pions created in the hot region produces photons with energies up to several hundred MeV. Relativistic pairs created as a result of charged pion decays produce additional inverse-Compton radiation in the range of approx. 1 keV-4 MeV if the pairs are exposed to UV radiation, or in the range of approx. 40 keV-150 MeV if the pairs are exposed to soft X-rays. This suggests that high-energy flares in AGNs may be triggered by changes in the disk structure (such as phase transitions or the development of electron scattering coronae) that temporarily shield the hot inner region from UV photons emitted at larger radii, thereby reducing the optical depth for MeV/GeV gamma-rays. Stochastic processes may also play a role in accelerating the utrarelativistic electrons responsible for producing the highest energy (GeV) emission.



    This diagram shows the geometry of a warped disk of dust surrounding a suspected black hole in the active galaxy NGC 6251. The diagram is based on NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the disk which reveal that only one side reflects light emitted from a suspected black hole, hence the disk is warped. Such a warp could be due to gravitational perturbations in the galaxy's nucleus that keep the disk from being perfectly flat, or from precession of the rotation axis of the black hole relative to the rotation axis of the galaxy. Perpendicular to the disk is a jet of high-energy particles blasted into space along the black hole's spin axis. Illustration: James Gitlin (Space Telescope Science Institute)

  9. A young massive planet in a star-disk system. (United States)

    Setiawan, J; Henning, Th; Launhardt, R; Müller, A; Weise, P; Kürster, M


    There is a general consensus that planets form within disks of dust and gas around newly born stars. Details of their formation process, however, are still a matter of ongoing debate. The timescale of planet formation remains unclear, so the detection of planets around young stars with protoplanetary disks is potentially of great interest. Hitherto, no such planet has been found. Here we report the detection of a planet of mass (9.8+/-3.3)M(Jupiter) around TW Hydrae (TW Hya), a nearby young star with an age of only 8-10 Myr that is surrounded by a well-studied circumstellar disk. It orbits the star with a period of 3.56 days at 0.04 au, inside the inner rim of the disk. This demonstrates that planets can form within 10 Myr, before the disk has been dissipated by stellar winds and radiation.

  10. Grinding Down Stars and Stellar Remnants Into Accretion Disks (United States)

    Sadika Nasim, Syeda; Fabj, Gaia; McKernan, Barry; Ford, K. E. Saavik


    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are powered by the accretion of matter onto supermassive black holes (SMBH). Most accretion models take the form of disks of gas around the SMBH. Stars and stellar remnants also orbit the SMBH. Orbiting objects plunging through the disk experience a drag force, and through repeated passage, orbiters can have their orbits ground-down into the plane of the disk. Using two different accretion disk models, TQM (Thompson, Quataert & Murray), and SG (Sirko & Goodman), we determine the grind-down time for stars and stellar remnants, as a function of initial inclination angle, and initial radius. Orbital grind-down time is important because stellar-mass black holes (sBH) within AGN disks are likely to merge at a higher rate than in the field. Accurate estimates of orbital grind-down time can help constrain predictions of the AGN channel for LIGO.

  11. On Hydromagnetic Stresses in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan


    Detailed calculations of the physical structure of accretion disk boundary layers, and thus their inferred observational properties, rely on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear...... viscosity satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is inefficient in disk regions where......, as expected in boundary layers, the angular frequency increases with radius. In order to shed light on physically viable mechanisms for angular momentum transport in this inner disk region, we examine the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in differentially rotating backgrounds...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, V. V.; Öberg, K. I.; Loomis, R.; Qi, C., E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    HCN is a commonly observed molecule in Solar System bodies and in interstellar environments. Its abundance with respect to CN is a proposed tracer of UV exposure. HCN is also frequently used to probe the thermal history of objects, by measuring its degree of nitrogen fractionation. To address the utility of HCN as a probe of disks, we present Atacama Large (sub-) Millimeter Array observations of CN, HCN, H{sup 13}CN, and HC{sup 15}N toward the protoplanetary disk around Herbig Ae star MWC 480, and of CN and HCN toward the disk around T Tauri star DM Tau. Emission from all molecules is clearly detected and spatially resolved, including the first detection of HC{sup 15}N in a disk. Toward MWC 480, CN emission extends radially more than 1″ exterior to the observed cut-off of HCN emission. Quantitative modeling further reveals very different radial abundance profiles for CN and HCN, with best-fit outer cut-off radii of >300 AU and 110 ± 10 AU, respectively. This result is in agreement with model predictions of efficient HCN photodissociation into CN in the outer-part of the disk where the vertical gas and dust column densities are low. No such difference in CN and HCN emission profiles are observed toward DM Tau, suggestive of different photochemical structures in Herbig Ae and T Tauri disks. We use the HCN isotopologue data toward the MWC 480 disk to provide the first measurement of the {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio in a disk. We find a low disk averaged {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N ratio of 200 ± 100, comparable to what is observed in cloud cores and comets, demonstrating interstellar inheritance and/or efficient nitrogen fractionation in this disk.

  13. Program structure-based blocking (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K.; Sura, Zehra N.


    Embodiments relate to program structure-based blocking. An aspect includes receiving source code corresponding to a computer program by a compiler of a computer system. Another aspect includes determining a prefetching section in the source code by a marking module of the compiler. Yet another aspect includes performing, by a blocking module of the compiler, blocking of instructions located in the prefetching section into instruction blocks, such that the instruction blocks of the prefetching section only contain instructions that are located in the prefetching section.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, Wladimir [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lin, Min-Kai, E-mail:, E-mail: [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)


    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array has returned images of transitional disks in which large asymmetries are seen in the distribution of millimeter sized dust in the outer disk. The explanation in vogue borrows from the vortex literature and suggests that these asymmetries are the result of dust trapping in giant vortices, excited via Rossby wave instabilities at planetary gap edges. Due to the drag force, dust trapped in vortices will accumulate in the center and diffusion is needed to maintain a steady state over the lifetime of the disk. While previous work derived semi-analytical models of the process, in this paper we provide analytical steady-steady solutions. Exact solutions exist for certain vortex models. The solution is determined by the vortex rotation profile, the gas scale height, the vortex aspect ratio, and the ratio of dust diffusion to gas-dust friction. In principle, all of these quantities can be derived from observations, which would validate the model and also provide constrains on the strength of the turbulence inside the vortex core. Based on our solution, we derive quantities such as the gas-dust contrast, the trapped dust mass, and the dust contrast at the same orbital location. We apply our model to the recently imaged Oph IRS 48 system, finding values within the range of the observational uncertainties.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Vakulenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper aims at estimation of resource of strength increase for railway wheel disk. Methodology. The material for research was carbon steel of railway wheel containing 0.57%C, 0.65%Si, 0.45%Mn, 0.0029%S, 0,014%P, 0,11%Cr. A railway wheel was heated to the temperatures above and was held at this temperature until the completion of аustenite homogenization processes and then the disk was cooled at a growing rate to a certain temperature. A temperature interval of completion of the speed-up wheel disk cooling was 200-450C. Structure was studied with the use of research methods under electronic and light microscopes. After accelerated cooling the estimation of metal structure imperfection degree was carried out with the use of X-ray structural analysis method. The stress and yielding limit of carbon steel were determined at tension, at a speed of deformation . The microhardness of steel structural components was estimated using the microhardness tester of PMT-3 type. Findings. The properties complex of railway wheel carbon steel depending on the temperature of the accelerated cooling termination is determined by the correlation of soften and work-hardening processes development. The effect of work-hardening is based on blocking of mobile dislocations due to a precipitation carbon atoms and dispersion work-hardening from the formed particles of carbidic phase. At the temperatures of the accelerated cooling termination of carbon steel higher than 300-350C the decrease rate of strength properties is determined by the exceeding of total soften effect from disintegration of solid solution, acceleration of spheroidithation and coalescence of cementite particles above the dislocations blocking by the carbon atoms and dispersion work-hardening. Originality. Authors proved that the strength level of the railway wheel carbon steel from the temperature of accelerated cooling completion is determined by the influence ratio of the solid solution

  16. Graphene plasmonics: multiple sharp Fano resonances in silver split concentric nanoring/disk resonator dimers on a metasurface (United States)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Sinha, Raju; Pala, Nezih


    We introduce a platform based on plasmonic metamaterials to design various optical devices. A simple structure brokenring with a nanodisk at the center is utilized to excite and hybridize the plasmon resonant modes. We show that the proposed nanoantenna is able to support strong sub- and superradiant plasmon resonances because of its unique geometrical features. Using the concentric ring/disk in a dimer orientation as a nanoantenna on a multilayer metasurface consisting of graphene monolayer, we induced double sharp plasmonic Fano resonant modes in the transmission window across the visible to the near-infrared region. Considering the strong polarization-dependency of the broken-ring/disk dimer antenna, it is shown that the proposed plasmonic metamaterial can be tailored as an optical router device for fast switching applications. This understanding opens new paths to employ plasmonic metamaterials with simple geometrical nanoscale blocks for sensing and switching applications.

  17. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks (United States)

    Bae, Jaehan


    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  18. Discovery of Ionized Gas Associated with the Tilted Inner Disk of the Milky Way (United States)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.; Krishnarao, Dhanesh


    The complex distribution and motion of gas within the central few kiloparsecs of our Galaxy does not follow the more regular patterns seen throughout the rest of its gaseous disk. Sensitive observations of the neutral and molecular gas over the past 40 years reveal emission intensities and velocities that are far from symmetric about the Galactic equator and the line at zero longitude. Burton and Liszt (1978-1992) show that much of the anomalous behavior is well explained by an elliptical disk, tilted with respect to the Galactic plane and our line of sight.Using the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM), we report the discovery of ionized gas near the Galactic center (l = 0° - 14° b = -8° to +4°) with a distribution and velocities also explained by this creative model. Emission from distant regions near the Galactic plane is typically blocked by a thick band of interstellar dust. However, a portion of the tilted disk is behind Baade's Window, a hole in the thick dust near the Galactic center. Combined with the unparalleled sensitivity of the WHAM Sky Survey (IHα ~ 0.1 R; EM ~ 0.2 pc cm-6), we are able to trace the distribution and kinematics of the ionized phase of this structure for the first time. The relationship between this multi-phase inner disk, outflow from the Galactic center, and the Fermi bubbles is not yet clear.In several directions around the disk, WHAM captures emission from Hα, Hβ, and several ions (N, S, and O) to explore the state and source of the ionized gas. [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [S II]/[N II] line ratios are much different than classical H II regions and diffuse gas near the plane but are similar to those seen at high-|z| (> 1.5 kpc) in the Perseus arm. We will also compare this emission to multi-phase absorption components revealed in a recent UV absorption-line study through the low halo (z ~ -1 kpc) in this direction (Savage et al. 2017) and to emission seen near nuclear regions of other spiral galaxies, where high low

  19. Disk Evolution, Element Abundances and Cloud Properties of Young Gas Giant Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Helling


    Full Text Available We discuss the chemical pre-conditions for planet formation, in terms of gas and ice abundances in a protoplanetary disk, as function of time and position, and the resulting chemical composition and cloud properties in the atmosphere when young gas giant planets form, in particular discussing the effects of unusual, non-solar carbon and oxygen abundances. Large deviations between the abundances of the host star and its gas giants seem likely to occur if the planet formation follows the core-accretion scenario. These deviations stem from the separate evolution of gas and dust in the disk, where the dust forms the planet cores, followed by the final run-away accretion of the left-over gas. This gas will contain only traces of elements like C, N and O, because those elements have frozen out as ices. PRODIMO protoplanetary disk models are used to predict the chemical evolution of gas and ice in the midplane. We find that cosmic rays play a crucial role in slowly un-blocking the CO, where the liberated oxygen forms water, which then freezes out quickly. Therefore, the C/O ratio in the gas phase is found to gradually increase with time, in a region bracketed by the water and CO ice-lines. In this regions, C/O is found to approach unity after about 5 Myrs, scaling with the cosmic ray ionization rate assumed. We then explore how the atmospheric chemistry and cloud properties in young gas giants are affected when the non-solar C/O ratios predicted by the disk models are assumed. The DRIFT cloud formation model is applied to study the formation of atmospheric clouds under the influence of varying premordial element abundances and its feedback onto the local gas. We demonstrate that element depletion by cloud formation plays a crucial role in converting an oxygen-rich atmosphere gas into carbon-rich gas when non-solar, premordial element abundances are considered as suggested by disk models.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stephane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia [Deptartamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McDonald, Michael, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA (United States)


    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to break the age-metallicity degeneracy and the significant size of our sample represent key improvements over complementary studies of field disk galaxies. Our results can be summarized as follows: first, and contrary to observations of disk galaxies in the field, these cluster galaxies are distributed almost equally amongst the three main types of disk galaxy luminosity profiles (I/II/III), indicating that the formation and/or survival of Type II breaks is suppressed within the cluster environment. Second, we find examples of statistically significant inversions ({sup U}-shapes{sup )} in the age profiles of all three disk galaxy types, reminiscent of predictions from high-resolution simulations of classically truncated Type II disks in the field. These features characterize the age profiles for only about a third ({<=}36%) of each disk galaxy type in our sample. An even smaller fraction of cluster disks ({approx}11% of the total sample) exhibit age profiles that decrease outward (i.e., negative age gradients). Instead, flat and/or positive age gradients prevail ({>=}50%) within our Type I, II, and III subsamples. These observations thus suggest that while stellar migrations and inside-out growth can play a significant role in the evolution of all disk galaxy types, other factors contributing to the evolution of galaxies can overwhelm the predicted signatures of these processes. We interpret our observations through a scenario whereby Virgo cluster disk galaxies formed initially like their brethren in the field but which, upon falling into the cluster, were transformed into their present state through external processes linked to the environment (e.g., ram-pressure stripping and harassment). Current disk galaxy formation models, which have largely

  1. Measuring geographic access to health care: raster and network-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delamater Paul L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequalities in geographic access to health care result from the configuration of facilities, population distribution, and the transportation infrastructure. In recent accessibility studies, the traditional distance measure (Euclidean has been replaced with more plausible measures such as travel distance or time. Both network and raster-based methods are often utilized for estimating travel time in a Geographic Information System. Therefore, exploring the differences in the underlying data models and associated methods and their impact on geographic accessibility estimates is warranted. Methods We examine the assumptions present in population-based travel time models. Conceptual and practical differences between raster and network data models are reviewed, along with methodological implications for service area estimates. Our case study investigates Limited Access Areas defined by Michigan’s Certificate of Need (CON Program. Geographic accessibility is calculated by identifying the number of people residing more than 30 minutes from an acute care hospital. Both network and raster-based methods are implemented and their results are compared. We also examine sensitivity to changes in travel speed settings and population assignment. Results In both methods, the areas identified as having limited accessibility were similar in their location, configuration, and shape. However, the number of people identified as having limited accessibility varied substantially between methods. Over all permutations, the raster-based method identified more area and people with limited accessibility. The raster-based method was more sensitive to travel speed settings, while the network-based method was more sensitive to the specific population assignment method employed in Michigan. Conclusions Differences between the underlying data models help to explain the variation in results between raster and network-based methods. Considering that the

  2. Block copolymer investigations (United States)

    Yufa, Nataliya A.

    The research presented in this thesis deals with various aspects of block copolymers on the nanoscale: their behavior at a range of temperatures, their use as scaffolds, or for creation of chemically striped surfaces, as well as the behavior of metals on block copolymers under the influence of UV light, and the healing behavior of copolymers. Invented around the time of World War II, copolymers have been used for decades due to their macroscopic properties, such as their ability to be molded without vulcanization, and the fact that, unlike rubber, they can be recycled. In recent years, block copolymers (BCPs) have been used for lithography, as scaffolds for nano-objects, to create a magnetic hard drive, as well as in photonic and other applications. In this work we used primarily atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), described in Chapter II, to conduct our studies. In Chapter III we demonstrate a new and general method for positioning nanoparticles within nanoscale grooves. This technique is suitable for nanodots, nanocrystals, as well as DNA. We use AFM and TEM to demonstrate selective decoration. In Chapters IV and V we use AFM and TEM to study the structure of polymer surfaces coated with metals and self-assembled monolayers. We describe how the surfaces were created, exhibit their structure on the nanoscale, and prove that their macroscopic wetting properties have been altered compared to the original polymer structures. Finally, Chapters VI and VII report out in-situ AFM studies of BCP at high temperatures, made possible only recently with the invention of air-tight high-temperature AFM imaging cells. We locate the transition between disordered films and cylinders during initial ordering. Fluctuations of existing domains leading to domain coarsening are also described, and are shown to be consistent with reptation and curvature minimization. Chapter VII deals with the healing of PS-b-PMMA following AFM-tip lithography or

  3. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  4. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael


    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film...... coating tools to depositand develop anti-reflection filters by means of sputtering or e-beam evaporation. To reduce the area taken up by metallic contacts transparent conducting oxides like Aluminium doped ZincOxide (AZO) and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) can be deposited. We also support research.......7%2. Such efforts we also provide service for through our tools designed for this material system.Our team of process generalists can guide and advice you to utilize our clean room facilities most efficiently while our process specialists can help you to develop new processes and fabrication recipes. Our dedicated...

  5. Using smart mobile devices in social-network-based health education practice: a learning behavior analysis. (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Ting


    Virtual communities provide numerous resources, immediate feedback, and information sharing, enabling people to rapidly acquire information and knowledge and supporting diverse applications that facilitate interpersonal interactions, communication, and sharing. Moreover, incorporating highly mobile and convenient devices into practice-based courses can be advantageous in learning situations. Therefore, in this study, a tablet PC and Google+ were introduced to a health education practice course to elucidate satisfaction of learning module and conditions and analyze the sequence and frequency of learning behaviors during the social-network-based learning process. According to the analytical results, social networks can improve interaction among peers and between educators and students, particularly when these networks are used to search for data, post articles, engage in discussions, and communicate. In addition, most nursing students and nursing educators expressed a positive attitude and satisfaction toward these innovative teaching methods, and looked forward to continuing the use of this learning approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced neural network-based computational schemes for robust fault diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Mrugalski, Marcin


    The present book is devoted to problems of adaptation of artificial neural networks to robust fault diagnosis schemes. It presents neural networks-based modelling and estimation techniques used for designing robust fault diagnosis schemes for non-linear dynamic systems. A part of the book focuses on fundamental issues such as architectures of dynamic neural networks, methods for designing of neural networks and fault diagnosis schemes as well as the importance of robustness. The book is of a tutorial value and can be perceived as a good starting point for the new-comers to this field. The book is also devoted to advanced schemes of description of neural model uncertainty. In particular, the methods of computation of neural networks uncertainty with robust parameter estimation are presented. Moreover, a novel approach for system identification with the state-space GMDH neural network is delivered. All the concepts described in this book are illustrated by both simple academic illustrative examples and practica...

  7. Validity-Guided Fuzzy Clustering Evaluation for Neural Network-Based Time-Frequency Reassignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khan Adnan


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper describes the validity-guided fuzzy clustering evaluation for optimal training of localized neural networks (LNNs used for reassigning time-frequency representations (TFRs. Our experiments show that the validity-guided fuzzy approach ameliorates the difficulty of choosing correct number of clusters and in conjunction with neural network-based processing technique utilizing a hybrid approach can effectively reduce the blur in the spectrograms. In the course of every partitioning problem the number of subsets must be given before the calculation, but it is rarely known apriori, in this case it must be searched also with using validity measures. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  8. Optimization on a Network-based Parallel Computer System for Supersonic Laminar Wing Design (United States)

    Garcia, Joseph A.; Cheung, Samson; Holst, Terry L. (Technical Monitor)


    A set of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) routines and flow transition prediction tools are integrated into a network based parallel numerical optimization routine. Through this optimization routine, the design of a 2-D airfoil and an infinitely swept wing will be studied in order to advance the design cycle capability of supersonic laminar flow wings. The goal of advancing supersonic laminar flow wing design is achieved by wisely choosing the design variables used in the optimization routine. The design variables are represented by the theory of Fourier series and potential theory. These theories, combined with the parallel CFD flow routines and flow transition prediction tools, provide a design space for a global optimal point to be searched. Finally, the parallel optimization routine enables gradient evaluations to be performed in a fast and parallel fashion.

  9. Determination of Optimal Opening Scheme for Electromagnetic Loop Networks Based on Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li


    Full Text Available Studying optimization and decision for opening electromagnetic loop networks plays an important role in planning and operation of power grids. First, the basic principle of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP is introduced, and then an improved FAHP-based scheme evaluation method is proposed for decoupling electromagnetic loop networks based on a set of indicators reflecting the performance of the candidate schemes. The proposed method combines the advantages of analytic hierarchy process (AHP and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. On the one hand, AHP effectively combines qualitative and quantitative analysis to ensure the rationality of the evaluation model; on the other hand, the judgment matrix and qualitative indicators are expressed with trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to make decision-making more realistic. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by the application results on the real power system of Liaoning province of China.

  10. Heterogeneity Involved Network-based Algorithm Leads to Accurate and Personalized Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Qiu, Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhong, Li-Xin; Chen, Guang


    Heterogeneity of both the source and target objects is taken into account in a network-based algorithm for the directional resource transformation between objects. Based on a biased heat conduction recommendation method (BHC) which considers the heterogeneity of the target object, we propose a heterogeneous heat conduction algorithm (HHC), by further taking the source object degree as the weight of diffusion. Tested on three real datasets, the Netflix, RYM and MovieLens, the HHC algorithm is found to present a better recommendation in both the accuracy and personalization than two excellent algorithms, i.e., the original BHC and a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM), while not requiring any other accessorial information or parameter. Moreover, the HHC even elevates the recommendation accuracy on cold objects, referring to the so-called cold start problem, for effectively relieving the recommendation bias on objects with different level of popularity.

  11. Artificial neural Network-Based modeling and monitoring of photovoltaic generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. MEKKI


    Full Text Available In this paper, an artificial neural network based-model (ANNBM is introduced for partial shading detection losses in photovoltaic (PV panel. A Multilayer Perceptron (MLP is used to estimate the electrical outputs (current and voltage of the photovoltaic module using the external meteorological data: solar irradiation G (W/m2 and the module temperature T (°C. Firstly, a database of the BP150SX photovoltaic module operating without any defect has been used to train the considered MLP. Subsequently, in the first case of this study, the developed model is used to estimate the output current and voltage of the PV module considering the partial shading effect. Results confirm the good ability of the ANNBM to detect the partial shading effect in the photovoltaic module with logical accuracy. The proposed strategy could also be used for the online monitoring and supervision of PV modules.

  12. A robust neural network-based approach for microseismic event detection

    KAUST Repository

    Akram, Jubran


    We present an artificial neural network based approach for robust event detection from low S/N waveforms. We use a feed-forward network with a single hidden layer that is tuned on a training dataset and later applied on the entire example dataset for event detection. The input features used include the average of absolute amplitudes, variance, energy-ratio and polarization rectilinearity. These features are calculated in a moving-window of same length for the entire waveform. The output is set as a user-specified relative probability curve, which provides a robust way of distinguishing between weak and strong events. An optimal network is selected by studying the weight-based saliency and effect of number of neurons on the predicted results. Using synthetic data examples, we demonstrate that this approach is effective in detecting weaker events and reduces the number of false positives.

  13. Y-source impedance-network-based isolated boost DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Town, Graham; Loh, Poh Chiang


    A dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain is proposed in this paper for any medium-power application requiring a high voltage boost with galvanic isolation. The proposed converter topology can be realized using only two switches. With this topology a very high voltage boost can be achieved even...... with a relatively low duty cycle of the switches, and the gain obtainable is presently not matched by any existing impedance network based converter operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed converter has a Y-source impedance network to boost the voltage at the intermediate dc-link side and a push......-pull transformer for square-wave AC inversion and isolation. The voltage-doubler rectifier provides a constant dc voltage at the output stage. A theoretical analysis of the converter is presented, supported by simulation and experimental results. A 250 W down-scaled prototype was implemented in the laboratory...

  14. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail:; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe [CEA-INES, 50 avenue du Lac Léman, 73375 Le Bourget-du-Lac (France); Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald [Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco [ENEA, P.le E.Fermi 1, Località Granatello, 80055 Portici (Italy); Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo [RSE, Via Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan (Italy)


    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  15. Simulation and stability analysis of neural network based control scheme for switched linear systems. (United States)

    Singh, H P; Sukavanam, N


    This paper proposes a new adaptive neural network based control scheme for switched linear systems with parametric uncertainty and external disturbance. A key feature of this scheme is that the prior information of the possible upper bound of the uncertainty is not required. A feedforward neural network is employed to learn this upper bound. The adaptive learning algorithm is derived from Lyapunov stability analysis so that the system response under arbitrary switching laws is guaranteed uniformly ultimately bounded. A comparative simulation study with robust controller given in [Zhang L, Lu Y, Chen Y, Mastorakis NE. Robust uniformly ultimate boundedness control for uncertain switched linear systems. Computers and Mathematics with Applications 2008; 56: 1709-14] is presented. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neural network based semi-active control strategy for structural vibration mitigation with magnetorheological damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Subrata


    This paper presents a neural network based semi-active control method for a rotary type magnetorheological (MR) damper. The characteristics of the MR damper are described by the classic Bouc-Wen model, and the performance of the proposed control method is evaluated in terms of a base exited shear...... frame structure. As demonstrated in the literature effective damping of flexible structures is obtained by a suitable combination of pure friction and negative damper stiffness. This damper model is rate-independent and fully described by the desired shape of the hysteresis loops or force...... mode of the structure. The neural network control is then developed to reproduce the desired force based on damper displacement and velocity as network input, and it is therefore referred to as an amplitude dependent model reference control method. An inverse model of the MR damper is needed...

  17. Decoherence and Entanglement Simulation in a Model of Quantum Neural Network Based on Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaisky Mikhail V.


    Full Text Available We present the results of the simulation of a quantum neural network based on quantum dots using numerical method of path integral calculation. In the proposed implementation of the quantum neural network using an array of single-electron quantum dots with dipole-dipole interaction, the coherence is shown to survive up to 0.1 nanosecond in time and up to the liquid nitrogen temperature of 77K.We study the quantum correlations between the quantum dots by means of calculation of the entanglement of formation in a pair of quantum dots on the GaAs based substrate with dot size of 100 ÷ 101 nanometer and interdot distance of 101 ÷ 102 nanometers order.

  18. Wireless sensor network-based greenhouse environment monitoring and automatic control system for dew condensation prevention. (United States)

    Park, Dae-Heon; Park, Jang-Woo


    Dew condensation on the leaf surface of greenhouse crops can promote diseases caused by fungus and bacteria, affecting the growth of the crops. In this paper, we present a WSN (Wireless Sensor Network)-based automatic monitoring system to prevent dew condensation in a greenhouse environment. The system is composed of sensor nodes for collecting data, base nodes for processing collected data, relay nodes for driving devices for adjusting the environment inside greenhouse and an environment server for data storage and processing. Using the Barenbrug formula for calculating the dew point on the leaves, this system is realized to prevent dew condensation phenomena on the crop's surface acting as an important element for prevention of diseases infections. We also constructed a physical model resembling the typical greenhouse in order to verify the performance of our system with regard to dew condensation control.

  19. Analysis of Video Signal Transmission Through DWDM Network Based on a Quality Check Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Markovic


    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the multiplexed video signal transmission through the Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM network based on a quality check algorithm, which determines where the interruption of the transmission quality starts. On the basis of this algorithm, simulations of transmission for specific values of fiber parameters ​​ are executed. The analysis of the results shows how the BER and Q-factor change depends on the length of the fiber, i.e. on the number of amplifiers, and what kind of an effect the number of multiplexed channels and the flow rate per channel have on a transmited signals. Analysis of DWDM systems is performed in the software package OptiSystem 7.0, which is designed for systems with flow rates of 2.5 Gb/s and 10 Gb/s per channel.

  20. Nitrate leaching from a potato field using adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekofteh, Hosein; Afyuni, Majid M; Hajabbasi, Mohammad-Ali


    The conventional methods of application of nitrogen fertilizers might be responsible for the increased nitrate concentration in groundwater of areas dominated by irrigated agriculture. Appropriate water and nutrient management strategies are required to minimize groundwater pollution...... of nitrate (NO3) leaching from a potato field under a drip fertigation system. In the first part of the study, a two-dimensional solute transport model was used to simulate nitrate leaching from a sandy soil with varying emitter discharge rates and fertilizer doses. The results from the modeling were used...... to train and validate an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) in order to estimate nitrate leaching. Two performance functions, namely mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and correlation coefficient (R), were used to evaluate the adequacy of the ANFIS. Results showed that ANFIS can...

  1. Optimization of wireless sensor networks based on chicken swarm optimization algorithm (United States)

    Wang, Qingxi; Zhu, Lihua


    In order to reduce the energy consumption of wireless sensor network and improve the survival time of network, the clustering routing protocol of wireless sensor networks based on chicken swarm optimization algorithm was proposed. On the basis of LEACH agreement, it was improved and perfected that the points on the cluster and the selection of cluster head using the chicken group optimization algorithm, and update the location of chicken which fall into the local optimum by Levy flight, enhance population diversity, ensure the global search capability of the algorithm. The new protocol avoided the die of partial node of intensive using by making balanced use of the network nodes, improved the survival time of wireless sensor network. The simulation experiments proved that the protocol is better than LEACH protocol on energy consumption, also is better than that of clustering routing protocol based on particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  2. A Bayesian Network-Based Probabilistic Framework for Drought Forecasting and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yae Shin


    Full Text Available Reliable drought forecasting is necessary to develop mitigation plans to cope with severe drought. This study developed a probabilistic scheme for drought forecasting and outlook combined with quantification of the prediction uncertainties. The Bayesian network was mainly employed as a statistical scheme for probabilistic forecasting that can represent the cause-effect relationships between the variables. The structure of the Bayesian network-based drought forecasting (BNDF model was designed using the past, current, and forecasted drought condition. In this study, the drought conditions were represented by the standardized precipitation index (SPI. The accuracy of forecasted SPIs was assessed by comparing the observed SPIs and confidence intervals (CIs, exhibiting the associated uncertainty. Then, this study suggested the drought outlook framework based on probabilistic drought forecasting results. The overall results provided sufficient agreement between the observed and forecasted drought conditions in the outlook framework.

  3. Multi-index algorithm of identifying important nodes in complex networks based on linear discriminant analysis (United States)

    Hu, Fang; Liu, Yuhua


    The evaluation of node importance has great significance to complex network, so it is important to seek and protect important nodes to ensure the security and stability of the entire network. At present, most evaluation algorithms of node importance adopt the single-index methods, which are incomplete and limited, and cannot fully reflect the complex situation of network. In this paper, after synthesizing multi-index factors of node importance, including eigenvector centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, degree centrality, mutual-information, etc., the authors are proposing a new multi-index evaluation algorithm of identifying important nodes in complex networks based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In order to verify the validity of this algorithm, a series of simulation experiments have been done. Through comprehensive analysis, the simulation results show that the new algorithm is more rational, effective, integral and accurate.

  4. Visual evoked potential estimation by adaptive noise cancellation with neural-network-based fuzzy inference system. (United States)

    Zeng, Y; Zhang, J; Yin, H; Pan, Y


    Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are time-varying signals typically buried in relatively large background noise known as the electroencephalogram (EEG). In this paper, an adaptive noise cancellation with neural network-based fuzzy inference system (NNFIS) was used and the NNFIS was carefully designed to model the VEP signal. It is assumed that VEP responses can be modelled by NNFIS with the centres of its membership functions evenly distributed over time. The weights of NNFIS are adaptively determined by minimizing the variance of the error signal using the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm. As the NNFIS is dynamic to any change of VEP, the non-stationary characteristics of VEP can be tracked. Thus, this method should be able to track the VEP. Four sets of simulated data indicate that the proposed method is appropriate to estimate VEP. A total of 150 trials are processed to demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method.

  5. A Predictive Neural Network-Based Cascade Control for pH Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahed AlDhaifallah


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the development of predictive neural network-based cascade control for pH reactors. The cascade structure consists of a master control loop (fuzzy proportional-integral and a slave one (predictive neural network. The master loop is chosen to be more accurate but slower than the slave one. The strong features found in cascade structure have been added to the inherent features in model predictive neural network. The neural network is used to alleviate modeling difficulties found with pH reactor and to predict its behavior. The parameters of predictive algorithm are determined using an optimization algorithm. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed design have been demonstrated using MatLab.

  6. Estimation of tool wear during CNC milling using neural network-based sensor fusion (United States)

    Ghosh, N.; Ravi, Y. B.; Patra, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Paul, S.; Mohanty, A. R.; Chattopadhyay, A. B.


    Cutting tool wear degrades the product quality in manufacturing processes. Monitoring tool wear value online is therefore needed to prevent degradation in machining quality. Unfortunately there is no direct way of measuring the tool wear online. Therefore one has to adopt an indirect method wherein the tool wear is estimated from several sensors measuring related process variables. In this work, a neural network-based sensor fusion model has been developed for tool condition monitoring (TCM). Features extracted from a number of machining zone signals, namely cutting forces, spindle vibration, spindle current, and sound pressure level have been fused to estimate the average flank wear of the main cutting edge. Novel strategies such as, signal level segmentation for temporal registration, feature space filtering, outlier removal, and estimation space filtering have been proposed. The proposed approach has been validated by both laboratory and industrial implementations.

  7. A Low Energy Algorithm of Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Fractal Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Dong


    Full Text Available For the energy limitation of nodes and imbalance energy consuming among nodes, this paper proposes an optimization algorithm --Low Energy Algorithm-- of wireless sensor networks based on fractal dimension algorithm for the purpose of reduction of the energy consumption. The nodes in WSN cannot be located evenly, and cannot move with the monitoring environment changed once be located. Considering the characteristics of WSN, the paper designs an optimized clustering method accompany with dimension by calculating the dimension of each cluster to determine the cluster which needs to be adjusted dynamically. If the cluster with high value of dimension, increasing more nodes in this cluster. If the cluster with low value of dimension, reducing more nodes in the cluster. The simulation results show that the LEA algorithm improves energy efficiency, prolongs the network lifetime, and balances energy consumption in the sensor network.

  8. Autonomous Orbit Determination for Lagrangian Navigation Satellite Based on Neural Network Based State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youtao Gao


    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of the dynamical model used in the orbit determination of the Lagrangian navigation satellites, the nonlinear perturbations acting on Lagrangian navigation satellites are estimated by a neural network. A neural network based state observer is applied to autonomously determine the orbits of Lagrangian navigation satellites using only satellite-to-satellite range. This autonomous orbit determination method does not require linearizing the dynamical mode. There is no need to calculate the transition matrix. It is proved that three satellite-to-satellite ranges are needed using this method; therefore, the navigation constellation should include four Lagrangian navigation satellites at least. Four satellites orbiting on the collinear libration orbits are chosen to construct a constellation which is used to demonstrate the utility of this method. Simulation results illustrate that the stable error of autonomous orbit determination is about 10 m. The perturbation can be estimated by the neural network.

  9. Spectral network based on component cells under the SOPHIA European project (United States)

    Núñez, Rubén; Antón, Ignacio; Askins, Steve; Sala, Gabriel; Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe; Steiner, Marc; Siefer, Gerald; Fucci, Rafaelle; Roca, Franco; Minuto, Alessandro; Morabito, Paolo


    In the frame of the European project SOPHIA, a spectral network based on component (also called isotypes) cells has been created. Among the members of this project, several spectral sensors based on component cells and collimating tubes, so-called spectroheliometers, were installed in the last years, allowing the collection of minute-resolution spectral data useful for CPV systems characterization across Europe. The use of spectroheliometers has been proved useful to establish the necessary spectral conditions to perform power rating of CPV modules and systems. If enough data in a given period of time is collected, ideally a year, it is possible to characterize spectrally the place where measurements are taken, in the same way that hours of annual irradiation can be estimated using a pyrheliometer.

  10. REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llosa


    Full Text Available In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports.

  11. Characterizing Protoplanetary Disks in a Young Binary in Orion (United States)

    Powell, Jonas; Hughes, A. Meredith; Mann, Rita; Flaherty, Kevin; Di Francesco, James; Williams, Jonathan


    Planetary systems form in circumstellar disks of gas and dust surrounding young stars. One open question in the study of planet formation involves understanding how different environments affect the properties of the disks and planets they generate. Understanding the properties of disks in high-mass star forming regions (SFRs) is critical since most stars - probably including our Sun - form in those regions. By comparing the disks in high-mass SFRs to those in better-studied low-mass SFRs we can learn about the role environment plays in planet formation. Here we present 0.5" resolution observations of the young two-disk binary system V2434 Ori in the Orion Nebula from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in molecular line tracers of CO(3-2), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6). We model each disk’s mass, radius, temperature structure, and molecular abundances, by creating synthetic images using an LTE ray-tracing code and comparing simulated observations with the ALMA data in the visibility domain. We then compare our results to a previous study of molecular line emission from a single Orion proplyd, modeled using similar methods, and to previously characterized disks in low-mass SFRs to investigate the role of environment in disk chemistry and planetary system formation.

  12. Multi-Terabyte EIDE Disk Arrays running Linux RAID5

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, D A; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Joy, M D; Summers, D J; Petravick, D L


    High-energy physics experiments are currently recording large amounts of data and in a few years will be recording prodigious quantities of data. New methods must be developed to handle this data and make analysis at universities possible. Grid Computing is one method; however, the data must be cached at the various Grid nodes. We examine some storage techniques that exploit recent developments in commodity hardware. Disk arrays using RAID level 5 (RAID-5) include both parity and striping. The striping improves access speed. The parity protects data in the event of a single disk failure, but not in the case of multiple disk failures. We report on tests of dual-processor Linux Software RAID-5 arrays and Hardware RAID-5 arrays using a 12-disk 3ware controller, in conjunction with 250 and 300 GB disks, for use in offline high-energy physics data analysis. The price of IDE disks is now less than $1/GB. These RAID-5 disk arrays can be scaled to sizes affordable to small institutions and used when fast random acces...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olczak, C. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum fuer Astronomie Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaczmarek, T.; Pfalzner, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 7, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Harfst, S. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Portegies Zwart, S., E-mail: [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)


    Most stars form in a cluster environment. These stars are initially surrounded by disks from which potentially planetary systems form. Of all cluster environments, starburst clusters are probably the most hostile for planetary systems in our Galaxy. The intense stellar radiation and extreme density favor rapid destruction of circumstellar disks via photoevaporation and stellar encounters. Evolving a virialized model of the Arches cluster in the Galactic tidal field, we investigate the effect of stellar encounters on circumstellar disks in a prototypical starburst cluster. Despite its proximity to the deep gravitational potential of the Galactic center, only a moderate fraction of members escapes to form an extended pair of tidal tails. Our simulations show that encounters destroy one-third of the circumstellar disks in the cluster core within the first 2.5 Myr of evolution, preferentially affecting the least and most massive stars. A small fraction of these events causes rapid ejection and the formation of a weaker second pair of tidal tails that is overpopulated by disk-poor stars. Two predictions arise from our study. (1) If not destroyed by photoevaporation protoplanetary disks of massive late B- and early O-type stars represent the most likely hosts of planet formation in starburst clusters. (2) Multi-epoch K- and L-band photometry of the Arches cluster would provide the kinematically selected membership sample required to detect the additional pair of disk-poor tidal tails.

  14. Freddi: Fast Rise Exponential Decay accretion Disk model Implementation (United States)

    Malanchev, K. L.; Lipunova, G. V.


    Freddi (Fast Rise Exponential Decay: accretion Disk model Implementation) solves 1-D evolution equations of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk. It simulates fast rise exponential decay (FRED) light curves of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The basic equation of the viscous evolution relates the surface density and viscous stresses and is of diffusion type; evolution of the accretion rate can be found on solving the equation. The distribution of viscous stresses defines the emission from the source. The standard model for the accretion disk is implied; the inner boundary of the disk is at the ISCO or can be explicitely set. The boundary conditions in the disk are the zero stress at the inner boundary and the zero accretion rate at the outer boundary. The conditions are suitable during the outbursts in X-ray binary transients with black holes. In a binary system, the accretion disk is radially confined. In Freddi, the outer radius of the disk can be set explicitely or calculated as the position of the tidal truncation radius.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haubois, X.; Carciofi, A. C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Rivinius, Th. [European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Okazaki, A. T. [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Toyohira-ku, Sapporo 062-8605 (Japan); Bjorkman, J. E., E-mail: [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)


    Be stars possess gaseous circumstellar disks that modify in many ways the spectrum of the central B star. Furthermore, they exhibit variability at several timescales and for a large number of observables. Putting the pieces together of this dynamical behavior is not an easy task and requires a detailed understanding of the physical processes that control the temporal evolution of the observables. There is an increasing body of evidence that suggests that Be disks are well described by standard {alpha}-disk theory. This paper is the first of a series that aims at studying the possibility of inferring several disk and stellar parameters through the follow-up of various observables. Here we study the temporal evolution of the disk density for different dynamical scenarios, including the disk build-up as a result of a long and steady mass injection from the star, the disk dissipation that occurs after mass injection is turned off, as well as scenarios in which active periods are followed by periods of quiescence. For those scenarios, we investigate the temporal evolution of continuum photometric observables using a three-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer code. We show that light curves for different wavelengths are specific of a mass loss history, inclination angle, and {alpha} viscosity parameter. The diagnostic potential of those light curves is also discussed.

  16. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals]. (United States)

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael


    Long-term sick leave by illeness is cause of financial expences and worker's loss of productivity. To evaluate the financial expense incurred by spinal disk herniation in health professionals. 3000 health professionals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social work in Tecate, Tijuana and Rosarito, cities of Baja California, Mexico. During 2009-2011, 1070 health professionals had long sick leave certificates and 48 had a cervical or lumbar disk herniation. We evaluated the total days of absenteeism in comparison with the absenteeism days suggested by the Medical Disability Advisor. Of the 48 spinal herniated disks, 54% were cervical and 65% had surgical management. The mean (± SD) days of absence was 125 ± 84 and 24 (50%) of the spinal herniated disks exceeded the Medical Disability Advisor disability duration parameters, in 6 (26%), 12 (52%), and 5 (22%) patients due to no diagnostic concordance, diagnosis delay and residual pain, respectively. The total cost of the spinal herniated disks that extended outside of the Medical Disability Advisor disability duration parameters was 683,026 pesos versus 367,081 pesos of the spinal herniated disks that did not exceed the Medical Disability Advisor disability duration parameters. After 12 months of follow-up, 9 (18.8%) continue with sick leave and 2 (4%) had permanent disability. In patients with a spinal herniated disk, the costs of subsidies were two-fold more due principally to a not diagnostic agreement.

  17. Potential parasite transmission in multi-host networks based on parasite sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Pilosof

    Full Text Available Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing--and thus potential transmission pathways--among rodent hosts in Southeast Asia. We focused on differences between networks of a single host species and networks that involve multiple host species. In host-parasite networks, modularity (the extent to which the network is divided into subgroups of rodents that interact with similar parasites was higher in the multi-species than in the single-species networks. This suggests that phylogeny affects patterns of parasite sharing, which was confirmed in analyses showing that it predicted affiliation of individuals to modules. We then constructed "potential transmission networks" based on the host-parasite networks, in which edges depict the similarity between a pair of individuals in the parasites they share. The centrality of individuals in these networks differed between multi- and single-species networks, with species identity and individual characteristics influencing their position in the networks. Simulations further revealed that parasite dynamics differed between multi- and single-species networks. We conclude that multi-host networks based on parasite sharing can provide new insights into the potential for transmission among hosts in an ecological community. In addition, the factors that determine the nature of parasite sharing (i.e. structure of the host-parasite network may impact transmission patterns.

  18. Network-based landscape of research strengths of universities in Mainland China (United States)

    Liu, Zihua; Xiao, Qin; Zhan, Qian; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie


    A landscape of a complex system presents a quantitative measure of its global state. The profile of research strength in Mainland China is investigated in detail, by which we illustrate a complex network based framework to extract a landscape from detailed records. First, a measure analogous to the Jaccard similarity is proposed to calculate from the presided funds similarities between the top-ranked universities. The neighbor threshold method is employed to reconstruct the similarity network of the universities. Second, the network is divided into communities. In each community the node with the largest degree and the smallest average shortest path length is taken as the representative of the community, called central node. The node bridging each pair of communities is defined to be a boundary. The central nodes and boundaries cooperatively give us a picture of the research strength landscape. Third, the evolutionary behavior is monitored by the fission and fusion probability matrices, elements of which are the percentage of a community at present time that joins into every community at the next time, and the percentage of a community at next time that comes from every present community, respectively. The landscapes in three successive 4-year durations are identified. It was found that some types of universities, such as the medicine&pharmacy and the finance&economy, conserve in single communities in the more than ten years, respectively. The agriculture&forest universities tend to cluster into one community. Meanwhile the engineering type distributes in different communities and tends to mix with the comprehension type. This framework can be used straightforwardly to analyze temporal networks. It provides also a new network-based method for multivariate time series analysis.

  19. Pacs Observations of Dust and Gas in Transition Disks (United States)

    Ménard, F.


    The GASPS Open Time Key Programme has observed a large sample of about 250 protoplanetary disks with the PACS instrument in both the continuum and atomic and molecular emission lines. The sample spans a range in mass and ages in several star forming regions. It also contains a significant number of so-called transition disks. In this contribution we will discuss the transition disks that show clear signs of inner holes or gaps in dust thermal emission. We will revisit them in view of the new Herschel PACS continuum and line observations. We will re-examine the geometry of the disks and the properties of their central gaps using full radiative transfer models of the continuum emission (SED fitting). When available, (sub-) millimeter interferometry data, as well as constraints from NIR long-baseline interferometry and/or high-resolution imaging of the disks (and their associated gaps) will be used. The gas properties (Tgas, abundances, level population) will then be calculated and line fluxes compared with the PACS line data for a few species. Finally, trends will be discussed, e.g., the [OI] 63 micron line fluxes with respect to the nearby continuum. Transition disks around T Tauri stars will be compared to those around Herbig AeBe stars. The transition disks will be compared to other "normal" protoplanetary disks around samples of single T Tauri stars (with or without jets/outflows) or located in binary systems with circumbinary disks (e.g., GG Tau, UY Aur). We will discuss the differences and propose interpretations.

  20. Capture of Planetesimals by Gas Drag from Circumplanetary Disks (United States)

    Fujita, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, K.; Tanigawa, T.


    The regular satellites of the giant planets (e.g. Galilean satellites) have nearly circular and coplanar prograde orbits, and are thought to have formed by accretion of solid particles in the circumplanetary disk. Because a significant amount of gas and solids are likely to be supplied to growing giant planets through the circumplanetary disk, the amount of solid material in circumplanetary disks is important not only for satellite formation but also for the growth and the origin of the heavy element content of giant planets. Solid particles smaller than meter-scale are strongly coupled with the gas flow from the protoplanetary disk and delivered into the disk with the gas. On the other hand, trajectories of large planetesimals are decoupled from the gas. When these large planetesimals approach a growing giant planet, their orbits can be perturbed by gas drag from the circumplanetary disk depending on their size and random velocity, and some of them would be captured by the disk. In the present work, we examine orbital evolution of planetesimals approaching a growing giant planet with a circumplanetary disks by integrating Hill’s equation including the gas drag term. We assume that the gas in the disk rotates in circular orbits around the planet. We found that the condition for capture of planetesimals approaching in the prograde direction (i.e., trajectory in the same direction as the circular motion of the gas) is different from that for those approaching in the retrograde trajectories. We obtained analytic expressions for energy dissipation, critical approach distance from the planet for capture, and capture probability for prograde and retrograde orbits in the coplanar case. We will discuss results of orbital integration for capture rates, including the cases of inclined orbits of planetesimals.

  1. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W


    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  2. Transient mass transfer at the rotating disk electrode. (United States)

    Nanis, L.; Klein, I.


    Transient mass transfer at the rotating disk has been investigated theoretically and experimentally for cathodic reduction of ferricyanide in the redox system ferricyanide-ferrocyanide with potassium hydroxide supporting electrolyte. It has been shown that overpotential-time predictions for the rotating disk are fitted very well for decay (current interruption) but poorly for build-up following switching on of constant current. As an explanation for this behavior, attention is directed to the inadequacy of the assumption that a radially independent concentration profile exists at the disk surface just at the start of galvanostatic current passage.

  3. Gap processing for adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming


    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  4. Hysteresis in mesoscopic superconducting disks: The Bean-Livingston barrier (United States)

    Singha Deo, P.; Schweigert, V. A.; Peeters, F. M.


    Depending on the size of mesoscopic superconducting disks, the magnetization can show hysteretic behavior which we explain by using the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory and properly taking into account the demagnetization effects due to geometrical form factors. In large disks the hysteresis is due to the Bean-Livingston surface barrier while in small disks it is the volume barrier which is responsible for it. Although the sample magnetization is diamagnetic (negative) we show that the measured magnetization can be positive at certain fields as observed experimentally and which is a consequence of both the demagnetization effect and the experimental setup.

  5. Levitation of dust at the surface of protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurm, Gerhard; Haack, Henning


    In recent years photophoretic forces acting on dust particles have been shown to be important for optically thin parts of protoplanetary disks. The optical surface (photosphere) of protoplanetary disks is a transitional region where the thermal radiation of the disk can escape. We show here...... that photophoresis by the thermal radiation is sufficient to levitate dust particles at several pressure scale heights. Under certain conditions these particles can constitute the surface layer. In this case only the particles which are most susceptible to photophoresis are observed at the surface of protoplanetary...

  6. Membangun Sistem Linux Mandrake Minimal Menggunakan Inisial Disk Ram


    Wagito, Wagito


    Minimal Linux system is commonly used for special systems like router, gateway, Linux installer and diskless Linux system. Minimal Linux system is a Linux system that use a few facilities of all Linux capabilities. Mandrake Linux, as one of Linux distribution is able to perform minimal Linux system. RAM is a computer resource that especially used as main memory. A part of RAM's function can be changed into disk called RAM disk. This RAM disk can be used to run the Linux system. This ...

  7. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming


    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  8. The photometric and kinematic structure and asymmetry of disk galaxies (United States)

    Andersen, David Roger


    We establish a sample of 39 nearby, nearly face-on disk galaxies for a detailed study of their photometric and kinematic structure and asymmetries. For this sample we collected two-dimensional Halpha velocity-fields at echelle resolutions with the DensePak integral field unit on the WIYN 3.5m telescope, HI line widths taken with the Nancay radio telescope, and deep R and I-band imaging from the WIYN telescope, the 2.1m telescope at KPNO, and the Harlan J. Smith 2.7m telescope at McDonald Observatory. These data put constraints on the shape of disk galaxies and their halos and are used to study the fundamental disk galaxy scaling relationship between rotation speed and luminosity, i.e., the Tully-Fisher relation. To study the shapes of galaxy disks, we measured both photometric and kinematic asymmetries. From studies of the asymmetry, we were able to show that the now commonly used photometric rotational asymmetry index does not measure disk flocculence as previously suggested; instead it is shown to be equivalent to low order, odd Fourier amplitudes, i.e., lopsidedness. In addition to studying disk lopsidedness, a set of kinematic and photometric indices are used to present the first measurements of disk ellipticity for galaxies outside the Milky Way. These measurements are decoupled from a phase angle which plagues previous estimates of disk ellipticity. Nonetheless, our disk ellipticity measurement of 0.083 +/- 0.054 is consistent with these previous estimates. This measurement allows us to put a limit of 0.15 mag on Tully-Fisher scatter due to the intrinsic ellipticity of disk galaxies. Kinematic inclination angles, one of the primary kinematic indices used to measure disk ellipticity, were derived from model velocity-field fits to our Halpha velocity fields. These inclinations are both accurate and precise and allowed us to create the first Tully-Fisher relation for nearly face-on disk galaxies. We demonstrate that our face-on Tully-Fisher sample is well fit by

  9. Advances in solid-phase extraction disks for environmental chemistry (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Snavely, K.


    The development of solid-phase extraction (SPE) for environmental chemistry has progressed significantly over the last decade to include a number of new sorbents and new approaches to SPE. One SPE approach in particular, the SPE disk, has greatly reduced or eliminated the use of chlorinated solvents for the analysis of trace organic compounds. This article discusses the use and applicability of various SPE disks, including micro-sized disks, prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of trace organic compounds in water. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Fabrication of disk droplets and evaluation of their lasing action. (United States)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Hashimoto, Takuya; Taniguchi, Jumpei


    Disk resonators are difficult to create with droplets, since they self-form spheres due to the surface tension. In this study, disk (cylindrical) droplets were created by enclosing a dye (rhodamine 6G) solution in silicone rubber. Lasing actions of these droplets were examined by pulsed green laser excitation. In a large droplet (2 mm diameter), the whispering gallery mode emission was difficult to attain, since it competed with the radial or axial modes that made a round trip in the droplet. A disk droplet of 150 μm diameter exhibited a comb-like spectrum of the whispering gallery mode resonant emission.

  11. Millimeter observations of the disk around GW Orionis (United States)

    Fang, M.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Wilner, D.; Wang, Y.; Roccatagliata, V.; Fedele, D.; Wang, J. Z.


    The GW Ori system is a pre-main sequence triple system (GW Ori A/B/C) with companions (GW Ori B/C) at 1 AU and 8 AU, respectively, from the primary (GW Ori A). The primary of the system has a mass of 3.9 M⊙, but shows a spectral type of G8. Thus, GW Ori A could be a precursor of a B star, but it is still at an earlier evolutionary stage than Herbig Be stars. GW Ori provides an ideal target for experiments and observations (being a "blown-up" solar system with a very massive sun and at least two upscaled planets). We present the first spatially resolved millimeter interferometric observations of the disk around the triple pre-main sequence system GW Ori, obtained with the Submillimeter Array, both in continuum and in the 12CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, and C18O J = 2-1 lines. These new data reveal a huge, massive, and bright disk in the GW Ori system. The dust continuum emission suggests a disk radius of around 400 AU, but the 12CO J = 2-1 emission shows a much more extended disk with a size around 1300 AU. Owing to the spatial resolution ( 1''), we cannot detect the gap in the disk that is inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We characterize the dust and gas properties in the disk by comparing the observations with the predictions from the disk models with various parameters calculated with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. The disk mass is around0.12 M⊙, and the disk inclination with respect to the line of sight is around 35°. The kinematics in the disk traced by the CO line emission strongly suggest that the circumstellar material in the disk is in Keplerian rotation around GW Ori.Tentatively substantial C18O depletion in gas phase is required to explain the characteristics of the line emission from the disk.

  12. The evolution of network-based business models illustrated through the case study of an entrepreneurship project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Morten; Nielsen, Christian


    -based business model that generates additional value for the core business model and for both the partners and the customers. Research limitations/implications: The results should be taken with caution as they are based on the case study of a single network-based business model. Practical implications: Managers......Purpose: Existing frameworks for understanding and analyzing the value configuration and structuring of partnerships in relation such network-based business models are found to be inferior. The purpose of this paper is therefore to broaden our understanding of how business models may change over......: This paper illustrates how a network-based business model arises and evolves and how the forces of a network structure impact the development of its partner relationships. The contribution of this article is to understanding how partners positioned around a business model can be organized into a network...

  13. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron


    Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty.

  14. Misaligned Disks as Obscurers in Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, A.; Elvis, M.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.


    We review critically the evidence concerning the fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) which appear as Type 2 AGN, carefully distinguishing strict Type 2 AGN from both more lightly reddened Type 1 AGN, and from low excitation narrow line AGN, which may represent a different mode of activity. Low excitation AGN occur predominantly at low luminosities; after removing these, true Type 2 AGN represent 58{-+}5% of all AGN, and lightly reddened Type 1 AGN a further {approx}15%. Radio, IR, and volume-limited samples all agree in showing no change of Type 2 fraction with luminosity. X-ray samples do show a change with luminosity; we discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. We test a very simple picture which produces this Type 2 fraction with minimal assumptions. In this picture, infall from large scales occurs in random directions, but must eventually align with the inner accretion flow, producing a severely warped disk on parsec scales. If the re-alignment is dominated by tilt, with minimal twist, a wide range of covering factors is predicted in individual objects, but with an expected mean fraction of Type 2 AGN of exactly 50%. This 'tilted disc' picture predicts reasonable alignment of observed nuclear structures on average, but with distinct misalignments in individual cases. Initial case studies of the few well resolved objects show that such misalignments are indeed present.

  15. Paraumbilical block for umbilical herniorraphy. (United States)

    Clarke, Frederick K; Cassey, John G


    Umbilical herniorraphy is a common paediatric surgery day case. Paraumbilical blocks have previously been reported to provide excellent analgesia for umbilical hernia repairs. Local anaesthesia through a paraumbilical block was compared with local infiltration. Postoperative analgesic requirements were used to gauge the effectiveness of the techniques. Patients receiving a paraumbilical block required significantly less analgesia postoperatively. These patients were generally discharged from hospital sooner. Paraumbilical block results in improved postoperative pain control through the more precise delivery of local anaesthetic to the intercostal nerves.

  16. Anticipating, complete and lag synchronizations in RC phase-shift network based coupled Chua's circuits without delay. (United States)

    Srinivasan, K; Senthilkumar, D V; Raja Mohamed, I; Murali, K; Lakshmanan, M; Kurths, J


    We construct a new RC phase shift network based Chua's circuit, which exhibits a period-doubling bifurcation route to chaos. Using coupled versions of such a phase-shift network based Chua's oscillators, we describe a new method for achieving complete synchronization (CS), approximate lag synchronization (LS), and approximate anticipating synchronization (AS) without delay or parameter mismatch. Employing the Pecora and Carroll approach, chaos synchronization is achieved in coupled chaotic oscillators, where the drive system variables control the response system. As a result, AS or LS or CS is demonstrated without using a variable delay line both experimentally and numerically.

  17. Block QCA Fault-Tolerant Logic Gates (United States)

    Firjany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon


    Suitably patterned arrays (blocks) of quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) have been proposed as fault-tolerant universal logic gates. These block QCA gates could be used to realize the potential of QCA for further miniaturization, reduction of power consumption, increase in switching speed, and increased degree of integration of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) electronic circuits. The limitations of conventional VLSI circuitry, the basic principle of operation of QCA, and the potential advantages of QCA-based VLSI circuitry were described in several NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35; and Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs (NPO-20923), which follows this article. To recapitulate the principle of operation (greatly oversimplified because of the limitation on space available for this article): A quantum-dot cellular automata contains four quantum dots positioned at or between the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the quantummechanical sense) between neighboring dots within the cell. The Coulomb repulsion between the two electrons tends to make them occupy antipodal dots in the cell. For an isolated cell, there are two energetically equivalent arrangements (denoted polarization states) of the extra electrons. The cell polarization is used to encode binary information. Because the polarization of a nonisolated cell depends on Coulomb-repulsion interactions with neighboring cells, universal logic gates and binary wires could be constructed, in principle, by arraying QCA of suitable design in suitable patterns. Heretofore, researchers have recognized two major obstacles to realization of QCA

  18. Silicate-SiO reaction in a protoplanetary disk recorded by oxygen isotopes in chondrules (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Eizo


    The formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos during the earliest stages of the solar protoplanetary disk largely determined the composition and structure of the terrestrial planets. Within a few million years of the birth of the Solar System, chondrule formation and the accretion of the parent bodies of differentiated achondrites and the terrestrial planets took place in the inner protoplanetary disk 1,2 . Here we show that, for chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites, high-precision Δ17O values (where Δ17O is the deviation of the δ17O value from a terrestrial silicate fractionation line) vary significantly (ranging from -0.49 to +0.84‰) and fall on an array with a steep slope of 1.27 on a three-oxygen-isotope plot. This array can be explained by the reaction between an olivine-rich chondrule melt and an SiO-rich gas derived from vaporized dust and nebular gas. Our study suggests that a large proportion of the building blocks of planetary embryos formed by successive silicate-gas interaction processes: silicate-H2O followed by silicate-SiO interactions under more oxidized and reduced conditions, respectively, within a few million years of the formation of the Solar System.

  19. Disk calculator indicates legible lettering size for slide projection (United States)

    Hultberg, R. R.


    Hand-operated disk calculator indicates the minimum size of letters and numbers in relation to the width and height of a working drawing. The lettering is legible when a slide of the drawing is projected.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wen; Liang, Edison [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lubow, Stephen, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We carried out two-dimensional, high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios (0.001-0.01) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number 4 × 10{sup –4}-0.16) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inward, vortices are very effective at collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with a higher initial dust/gas density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.

  1. Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emch, Todd M. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neuroradiology L-10, Cleveland, OH (United States); Modic, Michael T. [Cleveland Clinic, Division of Neuroradiology, Imaging Institute, Neurological Institute T-13, Cleveland, OH (United States)


    One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous hypertrophic changes, and the sequelae of instability. Its role in terms of predicting natural history of low back pain, identifying causality, or offering prognostic information is unclear. As available modalities for imaging the spine have progressed from radiography, myelography, and computed tomography to MR imaging, there have also been advances in spine surgery for degenerative disk disease. These advances are described in a temporal context for historical purposes with a focus on MR imaging's history and current state. (orig.)

  2. Disk storage management for LHCb based on Data Popularity estimator

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00545541; Charpentier, Philippe; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey


    This paper presents an algorithm providing recommendations for optimizing the LHCb data storage. The LHCb data storage system is a hybrid system. All datasets are kept as archives on magnetic tapes. The most popular datasets are kept on disks. The algorithm takes the dataset usage history and metadata (size, type, configuration etc.) to generate a recommendation report. This article presents how we use machine learning algorithms to predict future data popularity. Using these predictions it is possible to estimate which datasets should be removed from disk. We use regression algorithms and time series analysis to find the optimal number of replicas for datasets that are kept on disk. Based on the data popularity and the number of replicas optimization, the algorithm minimizes a loss function to find the optimal data distribution. The loss function represents all requirements for data distribution in the data storage system. We demonstrate how our algorithm helps to save disk space and to reduce waiting times ...

  3. Flying Instability due to Organic Compounds in Hard Disk Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sonoda


    Full Text Available The influence of organic compounds (OCs on the head-disk interface (HDI was investigated in hard disk drives. The drives were tested at high temperature to investigate the influence of gaseous OC and to confirm if the gaseous OC forms droplets on head or disk. In the experiment, errors occurred by readback signal jump and we observed the droplets on the disk after full stroke seek operation of the drive. Our results indicate that the gaseous OC condensed on the slider and caused flying instability resulting in drive failure due to slider contact with a droplet of liquid OC. Furthermore, this study shows that kinetic viscosity of OC is an important factor to cause drive failure using alkane reagents.

  4. Disk Emission from Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Spinning Black Holes (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Krolik, Julian H.; Noble, Scott C.


    We present the results of a new series of global, three-dimensional, relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of thin accretion disks around spinning black holes. The disks have aspect ratios of H/R approx. 0.05 and spin parameters of a/M = 0, 0.5, 0.9, and 0.99. Using the ray-tracing code Pandurata, we generate broadband thermal spectra and polarization signatures from the MHD simulations. We find that the simulated spectra can be well fit with a simple, universal emissivity profile that better reproduces the behavior of the emission from the inner disk, compared to traditional analyses carried out using a Novikov-Thorne thin disk model. Finally, we show how spectropolarization observations can be used to convincingly break the spin-inclination degeneracy well known to the continuum-fitting method of measuring black hole spin.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Ramprasad [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra Catalonia (Spain); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Marrone, Daniel P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)


    We present subarcsecond resolution polarimetric observations of the 878 μm thermal dust continuum emission obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward the IRAS 16293–2422 protostellar binary system. We report the detection of linearly polarized dust emission arising from the circumstellar disk associated with the IRAS 16293–2422 B protostar. The fractional polarization of ≅ 1.4% is only slightly lower than that expected from theoretical calculations in such disks. The magnetic field structure on the plane of the sky derived from the dust polarization suggests a complex magnetic field geometry in the disk, possibly associated with a rotating disk that is wrapping the field lines as expected from the simulations. The polarization around IRAS 16293–2422 A at subarcsecond angular resolution is only marginally detected.

  6. Convective heat and mass transfer in rotating disk systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchuk, Igor V


    The book describes results of investigations of a series of convective heat and mass transfer problems in rotating-disk systems. Methodology used included integral methods, self-similar and approximate analytical solutions, as well as CFD.

  7. Self-gravity in Magnetized Neutrino-dominated Accretion Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahamat, Narjes; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: [Department of Physics, School of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, P.O. Box 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In the present work we study self-gravity effects on the vertical structure of a magnetized neutrino-dominated accretion disk as a central engine for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Some of the disk physical timescales that are supposed to play a pivotal role in the late-time evolutions of the disk, such as viscous, cooling, and diffusion timescales, have been studied. We are interested in investigating the possibility of the occurrence of X-ray flares, observed in late-time GRBs’ extended emission through the “magnetic barrier” and “fragmentation” processes in our model. The results lead us to interpret self-gravity as an amplifier for Blandford–Payne luminosity (BP power) and the generated magnetic field, but a suppressor for neutrino luminosity and magnetic barrier processes via highlighting the fragmentation mechanism in the outer disk, especially for the higher mass accretion rates.

  8. The Height Distribution of Core Collapse Supernovae in Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Molloy, M.; Meurs, E.; Norci, L.; Kavanagh, P.

    Core collapse (CC) supernovae are exploding massive stars and are therefore expected to occur in the disks of spiral galaxies. However, in the historical record some CC SNae can be noticed outside the disks. To investigate this further, the distribution of SNae above and below the disks of spiral galaxies is examined for the case of edge-on galaxies. The CC SNae that are observed away from their parent Population I in the galaxy planes must previously have left the disks due to dynamical encounters or SN explosions of companion stars. We develop a simple interpretative model that describes the observed height distribution of the SNae, taking into account kick velocities imparted during the explosive events. We also briefly comment on the radial distribution of SNae, utilizing face-on galaxies for this purpose.

  9. Operated herniated disk and lumbar spinal stenosis in Togolese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Operated herniated disk and lumbar spinal stenosis in Togolese patients: anatomical aspects and results of surgical treatment. AVE Koffi-Tessio, H Fatiga, P Houzou, K Kakpovi, E Fianyo, O Oniankitan, M Mijiyawa ...

  10. The Comparative Analysis and Evaluation of Ecological Characteristics of Drum and Disk Wheel Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Revin


    Full Text Available It is well-known that automobile transport as well as industry are the main sources of air pollution. In addition to exhaust gases, the flow of traffic releases a cloud of dust, consisting of over 60% of micro- and ultramicroscopic particles with radius of 10.0–0.25 µm, which are formed due to wheel abrasion (caused by the road grip of a tyre and the use of the brake blocks (in braking. The products formed in the process of wearing of the wheel brake pads are also the sources of the mass of fine dispersed particles over an urban highway. The authors analyse and evaluate ecological characteristics of drum and disk wheel brakes of vehicles.Article in Russian

  11. Occurrence of giant planets around stars with dusty debris disks (United States)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Mawet, Dimitri; Bryan, Marta; Hinkley, Sasha; Bowler, Brendan; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Batygin, Konstantin; Padgett, Deborah; Morales, Farisa; serabyn, Eugene; Christiaens, Valentin; Brandt, Timothy; Wahhaj, Zahed


    Debris disks may be the signposts of recent planet formation. The dust, which is generated in collisional cascades of asteroids and comets, is enhanced by the gravitational stirring of gas giant planets. Thus bright debris disk systems are natural targets for imaging searches for planets, as it indicates that the host star likely possesses some kind of planetary system. In this work, we describe a joint high contrast imaging survey for planetary mass companions at Keck and VLT of the last significant sample of debris disks identified by the Spitzer Space Telescope. No new substellar companions were discovered in our survey of Spitzer-selected targets. We combine these observations with from three published surveys, to put constraints on the frequency of planets around debris disk stars in the largest sample to date. We also obtained published data on stars that do not show infrared excesses for a control sample. We assume a double power law distribution of the form f(m,a) = Cm^alpha a^beta for this population of companions. We find that the frequency of giant planets with masses 5-20 MJup and separations 10-1000 au around stars with debris disks is 6.3% (68% confidence interval 3.7-9.8%), compared to 0.7% (68% confidence interval 0.2-1.8%) for the control sample of stars without disks. For the first time, we show that the occurrence of young giant planets around stars with debris disks is higher than those without debris disks at the 88% confidence level, tentatively suggesting that these distributions are distinct.

  12. The Evolution of CO in Protoplanetary Disks During Planet Formation (United States)

    Schwarz, Kamber; Bergin, Edwin


    CO has long been used as a tracer of gas mass. However, recent observations have revealed a low CO to dust mass ratio in numerous protoplanetary disks. In at least some of these systems it is the CO, rather than the total gas mass, which is missing. During my PhD I have used models of protoplanetary disk chemistry as well as millimeter observations to explore the causes and extent of CO depletion in disks. My ALMA observations of CO isotopologues in the TW Hya protoplanetary disk revealed that CO is under-abundant in that system by nearly two orders of magnitude, failing to return to ISM abundances even inside the midplane CO snow line. I have also explored the physical conditions needed to remove carbon from gas phase CO via chemically process using a large grid of chemical models. My analysis reveals that in the warm molecular layer, a wide range of physical conditions can result in an order of magnitude reduction of CO in the outer disk. In the inner disk, ionization, such as from cosmic rays, is needed for chemical reprocessing to occur. However, it is very difficult for chemical processes alone to result in two orders of magnitude of depletion, such as is seen in TW Hya and inferred for other disks. In the midplane, where planets form, it is even more difficult to remove carbon from CO without invoking cosmic rays. My work shows that while CO is missing from the gas in protoplanetary disks, chemistry is unlikely to be the sole cause.

  13. Thermal Management Investigations in Ceramic Thin Disk Lasers (United States)


    new alternative is the use of ceramic materials. Highly translucent and low scattering ceramic materials have been produced using purely chemical...MANAGEMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CERAMIC THIN DISK LASERS William P. Latham et al. 14 January 2011 Technical Note...Investigations in Ceramic Thin Disk Lasers 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63605F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  14. Magnetic fields in circumstellar disks. The potential of Zeeman observations (United States)

    Brauer, R.; Wolf, S.; Flock, M.


    Context. Recent high angular resolution polarimetric continuum observations of circumstellar disks provide new insights into their magnetic field. However, direct constraints are limited to the plane-of-sky component of the magnetic field. Observations of Zeeman split spectral lines are a potential way to enhance these insights by providing complementary information. Aims: We investigate which constraints for magnetic fields in circumstellar disks can be obtained from Zeeman observations of the 113 GHz CN lines. Furthermore, we analyze the conditions needed to perform these observations and their dependence on selected quantities. Methods: We simulate the Zeeman splitting with the radiative transfer (RT) code POLARIS extended by our Zeeman splitting RT extension ZRAD, which is based on the line RT code Mol3D. Results: We find that Zeeman observations of the 113 GHz CN lines provide significant insights into the magnetic fields of circumstellar disks. However, with the capabilities of recent and upcoming instruments and observatories, even spatially unresolved observations would be challenging. Nevertheless, these observations are feasible for the most massive disks with a strong magnetic field and high abundance of CN/H. The most restrictive quantity is the magnetic field strength, which should be at least on the order of 1 mG. In addition, the inclination of the disk should be around 60° to preserve the ability to derive the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field strength and to obtain a sufficiently high circularly polarized flux. Finally, we simulate the RT of a circumbinary disk model based on a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. We find that our analysis of the magnetic field is still applicable. However, owing to their lower circularly polarized emission, Zeeman observations of circumbinary disks with a significant separation between their stellar components (rstar 10 AU) are more challenging than observations of circumstellar disks with a single star.

  15. A search for circumstellar dust disks with ADONIS


    Schuetz, O.; Boehnhardt, H.; Pantin, E.; Sterzik, M.; Els, S; Hahn, J.; Henning, Th.


    We present results of a coronographic imaging search for circumstellar dust disks with the Adaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) at the ESO 3.6m telescope in La Silla (Chile). 22 candidate stars, known to be orbited by a planet or to show infrared excess radiation, were examined for circumstellar material. In the PSF-subtracted images no clear disk was found. We further determine the detection sensitivities and outline how remaining atmospheric fluctuations still can hamper adaptive o...

  16. Why Buckling Stellar Bars Weaken in Disk Galaxies


    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Shlosman, Isaac


    Young stellar bars in disk galaxies experience a vertical buckling instability which terminates their growth and thickens them, resulting in a characteristic peanut/boxy shape when viewed edge on. Using N-body simulations of galactic disks embedded in live halos, we have analyzed the bar structure throughout this instability and found that the outer third of the bar dissolves completely while the inner part (within the vertical inner Lindblad resonance) becomes less oval. The bar acquires the...

  17. Dual-Alloy Disks are Formed by Powder Metallurgy (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Miner, R. V.; Kortovich, C. S.; Marder, J. M.


    High-performance disks have widely varying properties from hub to rim. Dual property disk is fabricated using two nickel-base alloys, AF-115 for rim and Rene 95 for hub. Dual-alloy fabrication may find applications in automobiles, earth-moving equipment, and energy conversion systems as well as aircraft powerplants. There is potential for such applications as shafts, gears, and blades.

  18. Star Formation Modes in Low-Mass Disk Galaxies


    Gallagher, J. S.; Matthews, L. D.


    Low-mass disk galaxies with well-organized structures are relatively common in low density regions of the nearby Universe. They display a wide range in levels of star formation activity, extending from sluggishly evolving `superthin' disk systems to nearby starbursts. Investigations of this class of galaxy therefore provides opportunities to test and define models of galactic star formation processes. In this paper we briefly explore characteristics of examples of quiescent and starbursting l...

  19. Can we measure protoplanetary disk masses with CO observations? (United States)

    Yu, Mo; Evans, Neal J.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.


    Gas in protostellar disks provides the raw material for giant planet formation and controls the dynamics of the planetesimal-building dust grains. Accurate gas-mass measurements provide insight into disk evolution and also help us to understand the formation environments of planets. While carbon monoxide (CO) is usually too optically thick to probe the entire mass budget in giant-planet forming regions, rare isotopologues of CO have been used as gas mass tracers for disks, assuming an interstellar CO/H2 abundance ratio. However, our chemical models of T-Tauri disks show that CO beyond 20 AU around a solar-type star is dissociated by He+, with the carbon becoming sequestered in complex organic molecules. Over million-year time scale, CO dissociation leads to a CO/H2 ratio that decreases both with distance from the star and as a function of time.In this dissertation talk, I will present radiative transfer simulations that assess the accuracy of CO-based disk mass measurements. The combination of CO chemical depletion in the outer disk and optically thick emission from the inner disk leads to gas mass estimates that are too low by over an order of magnitude, given the standard assumptions of interstellar CO/H2 ratio and optically thin emission. Furthermore, the million-year timescale of CO depletion introduces an age/mass degeneracy into observations. To reach factor of a few accuracy for CO-based disk mass measurements, we suggest that observers and modelers adopt the following strategies: (1) select the low-J transitions; (2) observe multiple CO isotopologues and use either intensity ratios or normalized line profiles to diagnose CO depletion; and (3) use spatially resolved observations to measure the CO abundance distribution.

  20. Flow-Rate-Pressure Characteristics of a Disk Blood Pump (United States)

    Chernyavskii, A. M.; Medvedev, A. E.; Prikhodko, Yu. M.; Fomin, V. M.; Fomichev, V. P.; Fomichev, A. V.; Lomanovich, K. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Karas‧kov, A. M.


    An experimental model of a disk pump for pumping a liquid has been designed and fabricated. This model was tested on a special stand with the use of a 40% aqueous solution of glycerin whose hydrodynamical characteristics most closely correspond to those of blood. The results obtained lend credence to the view that an implantable blood pump can be developed on the basis of the disk pump.

  1. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block. (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A


    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  2. Correlation between T2 relaxation time and intervertebral disk degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hiroyuki; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Yoshimoto, Mitsunori; Terashima, Yoshinori; Tsuda, Hajime; Ida, Kazunori; Yamashita, Toshihiko [Sapporo Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)


    Magnetic resonance T2 mapping allows for the quantification of water and proteoglycan content within tissues and can be used to detect early cartilage abnormalities as well as to track the response to therapy. The goal of the present study was to use T2 mapping to quantify intervertebral disk water content according to the Pfirrmann classification. This study involved 60 subjects who underwent lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (a total of 300 lumbar disks). The degree of disk degeneration was assessed in the midsagittal section on T2-weighted images according to the Pfirrmann classification (grades I to V). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed among grades to determine the cut-off values. In the nucleus pulposus, T2 values tended to decrease with increasing grade, and there was a significant difference in T2 values between each grade from grades I to IV. However, there was no significant difference in T2 values in the anterior or posterior annulus fibrosus. T2 values according to disk degeneration level classification were as follows: grade I (>116.8 ms), grade II (92.7-116.7 ms), grade III (72.1-92.6 ms), grade IV (<72.0 ms). T2 values decreased with increasing Pfirrmann classification grade in the nucleus pulposus, likely reflecting a decrease in proteoglycan and water content. Thus, T2 value-based measurements of intervertebral disk water content may be useful for future clinical research on degenerative disk diseases. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnstiel, Tilman; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pinilla, Paola; Kama, Mihkel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Recent imaging of protoplanetary disks with high resolution and contrast have revealed a striking variety of substructure. Of particular interest are cases where near-infrared scattered light images show evidence for low-intensity annular “gaps.” The origins of such structures are still uncertain, but the interaction of the gas disk with planets is a common interpretation. We study the impact that the evolution of the solid material can have on the observable properties of disks in a simple scenario without any gravitational or hydrodynamical disturbances to the gas disk structure. Even with a smooth and continuous gas density profile, we find that the scattered light emission produced by small dust grains can exhibit ring-like depressions similar to those presented in recent observations. The physical mechanisms responsible for these features rely on the inefficient fragmentation of dust particles. The occurrence and position of the proposed “gap” features depend most strongly on the dust-to-gas ratio, the fragmentation threshold velocity, the strength of the turbulence, and the age of the disk, and should be generic (at some radius) for typically adopted disk parameters. The same physical processes can affect the thermal emission at optically thin wavelengths (∼1 mm), although the behavior can be more complex; unlike for disk–planet interactions, a “gap” should not be present at these longer wavelengths.

  4. Angular Momentum Evolution Of Disk Galaxies At High Redshift (United States)

    Okamura, Taku; Kazuhiro, Shimasaku; Ryota, Kawamata


    The stellar disk size of a galaxy depends on the fraction of the dark-halo mass settled as disk stars, m★= M★/Mdh, and the fraction of the dark-halo angular momentum transferred to the disk, j★ = J★/Jdh. Since j★ is also determined by various star-formation related mechanisms such as inflows and feedbacks, measuring j★ and m★ at high redshifts is needed to understand the formation history of disk galaxies. We use the 3D-HST GOODS-S, COSMOS, and AEGIS imaging data and photo-z catalogs to examine j★ and m★ for star-forming galaxies at z 2,3,4, when disks are actively forming. We find that the j★/m★ ratio is roughly constant at ≃ 0.8 for all three redshifts over the entire halo mass range examined. This high ratio is close to those of local disk galaxies but a factor of a few higher than predicted (at z 2) by galaxy formation models. We also find that a significant fraction of our galaxies appear to be unstable against bar formation.

  5. Using Deduplicating Storage for Efficient Disk Image Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lin


    Full Text Available Many clouds and network testbeds use disk images to initialize local storage on their compute devices. Large facilities must manage thousands or more images, requiring significant amounts of storage. At the same time, to provide a good user experience, they must be able to deploy those images quickly. Driven by our experience in operating the Emulab site at the University of Utah---a long-lived and heavily-used testbed---we have created a new service for efficiently storing and deploying disk images. This service exploits the redundant data found in similar images, using deduplication to greatly reduce the amount of physical storage required. In addition to space savings, our system is also designed for highly efficient image deployment---it integrates with an existing highly-optimized disk image deployment system, Frisbee, without significantly increasing the time required to distribute and install images. In this paper, we explain the design of our system and discuss the trade-offs we made to strike a balance between efficient storage and fast disk image deployment. We also propose a new chunking algorithm, called AFC, which enables fixed-size chunking for deduplicating allocated disk sectors. Experimental results show that our system reduces storage requirements by up to 3x while imposing only a negligible runtime overhead on the end-to-end disk-deployment process.

  6. Modeling of crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Stang, Henrik


    Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling approa...... instead of 3D calculations to predict the response of a structure and that it opens up for simpler evaluation of strengthened concrete structures using the finite element method....... approaches. The first method is 3D modeling of strengthening, interface and disk, and the second method is modeling of an equivalent disk in 2D, with an effective cohesive crack, equivalent thickness and equivalent stiffness. The 2D modeling approach simplifies modeling of the problem significantly......Crack propagation in strengthened concrete disks is a problem that has not yet been addressed properly. To investigate it, a cracked half-infinite disk of concrete is strengthened with a linear elastic material bonded to the surface, and analyzed using two different finite element modeling...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Bergin, E.; Cleeves, L. I. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Bldg., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAUtónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Manoj, P. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Sargent, B., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    We present Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of T Tauri stars, in which we detect amorphous and crystalline water ice features. Using irradiated accretion disk models, we determine the disk structure and ice abundance in each of the systems. Combining a model-independent comparison of the ice feature strength and disk size with a detailed analysis of the model ice location, we estimate that the ice emitting region is at disk radii >30 AU, consistent with a proto-Kuiper belt. Vertically, the ice emits most below the photodesorption zone, consistent with Herschel observations of cold water vapor. The presence of crystallized water ice at a disk location (1) colder than its crystallization temperature and (2) where it should have been re-amorphized in ∼1 Myr suggests that localized generation is occurring; the most likely cause appears to be micrometeorite impact or planetesimal collisions. Based on simple tests with UV models and different ice distributions, we suggest that the SED shape from 20 to 50 μm may probe the location of the water ice snowline in the disk upper layers. This project represents one of the first extra-solar probes of the spatial structure of the cometary ice reservoir thought to deliver water to terrestrial planets.

  8. Wobbling and Precessing Jets from Warped Disks in Binary Systems (United States)

    Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Fendt, Christian


    We present results of the first ever three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the accretion-ejection structure. We investigate the 3D evolution of jets launched symmetrically from single stars but also jets from warped disks in binary systems. We have applied various model setups and tested them by simulating a stable and bipolar symmetric 3D structure from a single star-disk-jet system. Our reference simulation maintains a good axial symmetry and also a bipolar symmetry for more than 500 rotations of the inner disk, confirming the quality of our model setup. We have then implemented a 3D gravitational potential (Roche potential) due by a companion star and run a variety of simulations with different binary separations and mass ratios. These simulations show typical 3D deviations from axial symmetry, such as jet bending outside the Roche lobe or spiral arms forming in the accretion disk. In order to find indications of precession effects, we have also run an exemplary parameter setup, essentially governed by a small binary separation of only ≃200 inner disk radii. This simulation shows a strong indication that we observe the onset of a jet precession caused by the wobbling of the jet-launching disk. We estimate the opening angle of the precession cone defined by the lateral motion of the jet axis to be about 4° after about 5000 dynamical time steps.

  9. Deciphering Debris Disk Structure with the Submillimeter Array (United States)

    MacGregor, Meredith Ann


    More than 20% of nearby main sequence stars are surrounded by dusty disks continually replenished via the collisional erosion of planetesimals, larger bodies similar to asteroids and comets in our own Solar System. The material in these ‘debris disks’ is directly linked to the larger bodies such as planets in the system. As a result, the locations, morphologies, and physical properties of dust in these disks provide important probes of the processes of planet formation and subsequent dynamical evolution. Observations at millimeter wavelengths are especially critical to our understanding of these systems, since they are dominated by larger grains that do not travel far from their origin and therefore reliably trace the underlying planetesimal distribution. The Submillimeter Array (SMA) plays a key role in advancing our understanding of debris disks by providing sensitivity at the short baselines required to determine the structure of wide-field disks, such as the HR 8799 debris disk. Many of these wide-field disks are among the closest systems to us, and will serve as cornerstone templates for the interpretation of more distant, less accessible systems.

  10. A WISE survey of circumstellar disks in Taurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplin, T. L.; Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mamajek, E. E., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)


    We have compiled photometry at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22 μm from the all-sky survey performed by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) for all known members of the Taurus complex of dark clouds. Using these data and photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have identified members with infrared excess emission from circumstellar disks and have estimated the evolutionary stages of the detected disks, which include 31 new full disks and 16 new candidate transitional, evolved, evolved transitional, and debris disks. We have also used the WISE All-Sky Source Catalog to search for new disk-bearing members of Taurus based on their red infrared colors. Through optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we have confirmed 26 new members with spectral types of M1-M7. The census of disk-bearing stars in Taurus should now be largely complete for spectral types earlier than ∼M8 (M ≳ 0.03 M {sub ☉}).

  11. Hot Molecular Gas in the Circumnuclear Disk (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Togi, Aditya; Kaufman, Michael


    We present an analysis of archival Infrared Space Observatory observations of H2 for three 14\\prime\\prime × 20\\prime\\prime pointings in the central 3 pc of the Galaxy: toward the southwest region and northeast region of the Galactic center circumnuclear disk (CND), and toward the supermassive black hole Sgr A*. We detect pure rotational lines from 0-0 S(0) to S(13), as well as a number of rovibrationally excited transitions. Using the pure rotational lines, we perform both fits to a discrete temperature distribution (measuring up to three temperature components with T = 500-600 K, T = 1250-1350 K, and T > 2600 K) and fits to a continuous temperature distribution, assuming a power-law distribution of temperatures. We measure power-law indices of n = 3.22 for the northeast region and n = 2.83 for the southwest region. These indices are lower than those measured for other galaxies or other Galactic center clouds, indicating a larger fraction of gas at high temperatures. We also test whether extrapolating this temperature distribution can yield a reasonable estimate of the total molecular mass, as has been recently done for H2 observations in other galaxies. Extrapolating to a cutoff temperature of 50 K in the southwest (northeast) region, we would measure 32% (140%) of the total molecular gas mass inferred from the dust emission, and 26% (125%) of the total molecular gas mass inferred from the CO emission. Ultimately, the inconsistency of the masses inferred in this way suggests that a simple application of this method cannot yield a reliable estimate of the mass of the CND.

  12. Self-mode-locking semiconductor disk laser. (United States)

    Gaafar, Mahmoud; Richter, Philipp; Keskin, Hakan; Möller, Christoph; Wichmann, Matthias; Stolz, Wolfgang; Rahimi-Iman, Arash; Koch, Martin


    The development of mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers received striking attention in the last 14 years and there is still a vast potential of such pulsed lasers to be explored and exploited. While for more than one decade pulsed operation was strongly linked to the employment of a saturable absorber, self-mode-locking emerged recently as an effective and novel technique in this field - giving prospect to a reduced complexity and improved cost-efficiency of such lasers. In this work, we highlight recent achievements regarding self-mode-locked semiconductor devices. It is worth to note, that although nonlinear effects in the active medium are expected to give rise to self-mode-locking, this has to be investigated with care in future experiments. However, there is a controversy whether results presented with respect to self-mode-locking truly show mode-locking. Such concerns are addressed in this work and we provide a clear evidence of mode-locking in a saturable-absorber-free device. By using a BBO crystal outside the cavity, green light originating from second-harmonic generation using the out-coupled laser beam is demonstrated. In addition, long-time-span pulse trains as well as radiofrequency-spectra measurements are presented for our sub-ps pulses at 500 MHz repetition rate which indicate the stable pulse operation of our device. Furthermore, a long-time-span autocorrelation trace is introduced which clearly shows absence of a pedestal or double pulses. Eventually, a beam-profile measurement reveals the excellent beam quality of our device with an M-square factor of less than 1.1 for both axes, showing that self-mode-locking can be achieved for the fundamental transverse mode.

  13. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  14. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  15. Interscalene block for shoulder surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 15, 2011 ... comprising 0.25% bupivacaine and 1.0% of lidocaine with 1 : 200 000 epinephrine in equal parts was administered to establish the block. Surgical anesthesia was achieved 18 minutes after instituting the block and surgery lasted 70 minutes without complications. This technique may obviate the use of ...

  16. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  17. Region 9 Census Block 2010 (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  18. Real-time disk scheduling in a mixed-media file system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.


    This paper presents our real-time disk scheduler called the Delta L scheduler, which optimizes unscheduled best-effort disk requests by giving priority to best-effort disk requests while meeting real-time request deadlines. Our scheduler tries to execute real-time disk requests as much as possible

  19. Neural network based load and price forecasting and confidence interval estimation in deregulated power markets (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    With the deregulation of the electric power market in New England, an independent system operator (ISO) has been separated from the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL). The ISO provides a regional spot market, with bids on various electricity-related products and services submitted by utilities and independent power producers. A utility can bid on the spot market and buy or sell electricity via bilateral transactions. Good estimation of market clearing prices (MCP) will help utilities and independent power producers determine bidding and transaction strategies with low risks, and this is crucial for utilities to compete in the deregulated environment. MCP prediction, however, is difficult since bidding strategies used by participants are complicated and MCP is a non-stationary process. The main objective of this research is to provide efficient short-term load and MCP forecasting and corresponding confidence interval estimation methodologies. In this research, the complexity of load and MCP with other factors is investigated, and neural networks are used to model the complex relationship between input and output. With improved learning algorithm and on-line update features for load forecasting, a neural network based load forecaster was developed, and has been in daily industry use since summer 1998 with good performance. MCP is volatile because of the complexity of market behaviors. In practice, neural network based MCP predictors usually have a cascaded structure, as several key input factors need to be estimated first. In this research, the uncertainties involved in a cascaded neural network structure for MCP prediction are analyzed, and prediction distribution under the Bayesian framework is developed. A fast algorithm to evaluate the confidence intervals by using the memoryless Quasi-Newton method is also developed. The traditional back-propagation algorithm for neural network learning needs to be improved since MCP is a non-stationary process. The extended Kalman

  20. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    -based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The first......In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block...

  1. Black-Hole Accretion Disks --- Towards a New Paradigm --- (United States)

    Kato, S.; Fukue, J.; Mineshige, S.


    Part I: Concepts of Accretion Disks: Chap. 1: Introduction, 1.1 Accretion Energy - Historical Origin, { Accretion-Disk Paradigm - Active Universe, 1.3 Accretion-Powered Objects - Observational Reviews, 1.4 X-Ray Binaries and Ultra-Luminous X-Ray Sources, 1.5 Active Galactic Nuclei, 1.6 Present Paradigm, Chap. 2: Physical Processes Related to Accretion, 2.1 Eddington Luminosity, 2.2 Bondi Accretion, 2.3 Viscous Process, 2.4 Magnetic Instabilities, 2.5 Relativistic Effects Part II: Classical Picture: Chap. 3: Classical Models, 3.1 Viscous Accretion Disks, 3.2 Standard Disks, 3.3 Optically Thin Disks, 3.4 Accretion Disk Coronae, 3.5 Relativistic Standard Disks, 3.6 Relativistic Tori Chap. 4: Secular and Thermal Instabilities, 4.1 Secular Instability, 4.2 Thermal Instability, 4.3 Stability Examination on dot{M}-Σ and T-Σ Planes, 4.4 Mathematical Derivation of the Stability Criterion, Chap. 5: Dwarf-Nova Type Instability, 5.1 Thermal-Ionization Instability, 5.2 Time Evolution of Disks in X-Ray Novae Chap. 6: Observability of Relativistic Effects, 6.1 Ray Tracing, 6.2 Imaging - Black Hole Silhouette, 6.3 Spectroscopy - Continuum and Line, 6.4 Photometry - Light Curve Diagnosis, 6.5 Other Effects - Lensing and Jets, Part III: Modern Picture: Chap. 7: Equations to Construct Generalized Models, 7.1 Basic Equations and Importance of Advection, 7.2 One-Temperature Disks, 7.3 Two-Temperature Disks, 7.4 Time-Dependent Equations Chap. 8: Transonic Nature of Accretion Flows, 8.1 Topology of Black-Hole Accretion, 8.2 Regularity Condition at a Critical Radius, 8.3 Topology around the Critical Radius in Isothermal Disks, 8.4 Numerical Examples of Transonic Flows, 8.5 Transonic Flows with Standing Shocks Chap. 9: Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flows, 9.1 Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow, 9.2 Radial Structure of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.3 Radiation Spectra of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.4 Stability of Advection-Dominated Flow, 9.5 Multi-Dimensional Effects, Chap. 10: Slim

  2. Implementation of Network-Based Higher Education for the Chinese Deaf People under the Background of the Internet (United States)

    Wang, Ai-guo


    Now there are 17.7 million deaf people in China, but only four universities can provide them with higher education, which is far from enough. The implementation of network-based higher education for the deaf under the background of the Internet is an effective mean and objective needs for China's to carry out of the special higher education. This…

  3. How network-based incubation helps start-up performance : a systematic review against the background of management theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, Chris P.; van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Niesten, Eva M M I


    The literature on how network-based incubation influences the performance of technology-based start-ups has recently grown considerably and provided valuable insights. However, at the same time this literature has become quite fragmented, inconsistently conceptualised, and theoretically

  4. Analysing the Correlation between Social Network Analysis Measures and Performance of Students in Social Network-Based Engineering Education (United States)

    Putnik, Goran; Costa, Eric; Alves, Cátia; Castro, Hélio; Varela, Leonilde; Shah, Vaibhav


    Social network-based engineering education (SNEE) is designed and implemented as a model of Education 3.0 paradigm. SNEE represents a new learning methodology, which is based on the concept of social networks and represents an extended model of project-led education. The concept of social networks was applied in the real-life experiment,…

  5. Network-based integration of molecular and physiological data elucidates regulatory mechanisms underlying adaptation to high-fat diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derous, D.; Kelder, T.; Schothorst, E.M. van; Erk, M. van; Voigt, A.; Klaus, S.; Keijer, J.; Radonjic, M.


    Health is influenced by interplay of molecular, physiological and environmental factors. To effectively maintain health and prevent disease, health-relevant relations need to be understood at multiple levels of biological complexity. Network-based methods provide a powerful platform for integration

  6. A Process Perspective on Regulation: A Grounded Theory Study into Regulatory Practice in Newly Liberalized Network-Based Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubacht, J.

    The transition from a former monopolistic towards a more competitive market in
    newly liberalized network-based markets raises regulatory issues. National Regulatory Authorities (NRA) face the challenge to deal with these issues in order to guide the transition process. Although this transition

  7. Development of nondestructive system for detecting the cracks in KTX brake disk using Rayleigh wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Ho Yong [Korea Railroad Research Institute, Uiwang (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Yun Taek; Park, Jin Hyun; Song, Sung Jing; Kim, Hak Joon [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sung Duck [Dept. of Physics, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, KTX (Korean Train Express) train stoppage accidents were mainly caused by malfunctioning equipment, aging and cracking of railway vehicles, crack breakages of brake disks, and breakages of brake disks. Breakage of brake disk can cause large-scale casualties such as high-speed collision and concern about derailment by hitting lower axle and wheel. Therefore, in this study, a brake disk with solid and ventilation type, which is the brake disk of a KTX train was modeled, and a dynamometer system was constructed to operate the disk. A Rayleigh wave was used to inspect the surface of the brake disk. An ultrasonic inspection module was developed for the brake disk by using a local immersion method due to the difficulty involved in ultrasonic inspection using an existing immersion method. In addition, the surface defects of the brake disk were evaluated using a dynamometer mock-up system and an ultrasonic inspection module of the brake disk.

  8. Detecting the cold water reservoir in a protoplanetary disk. (United States)

    Hogerheijde, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Brinch, C.; Cleeves, L.; Fogel, J.; Blake, G.; Cernicharo, J.; Dominik, C.; Lis, D. C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Panic, O.; Pearson, J.; Kristensen, L.; Yildiz, U.; van Dishoeck, E.


    Water plays a pivotal role in planet-forming disks around newly formed stars. Frozen out onto dust grains in the cold and dense disk interior, water ice likely aids coagulation of grains and enables planet formation. The ice mantles are also a locus of complex chemistry, and provide a potentially rich source of water to be delivered to early Earth-like planets. The observational evidence for the presence of water in protoplanetary disks has so-far been limited to mid-infrared emission lines of hot water in the inner regions of several disks (<3 AU) and a few rare occasions of the water-ice feature at 3 μm in absorption or in scattered light. The infrared water emission lines indicate that the water gas-phase abundance drops sharply outside a few AU, possibly because the water freezes out efficiently onto cold dust grains outside the `snow line'. We present the first detections of the rotational ground-state emission lines of both spin-isomers of water, obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on-board the Herschel Space Observatory toward the disk around the young, low-mass star TW Hya. These velocity-resolved spectra show that cold water vapor is present throughout the entire radial extent of the disk. Efficient photodesorption of water-ice molecules by stellar ultraviolet radiation is a likely explanation for the presence of water vapor beyond a few AU, and our detections proof that a water-ice reservoir extends throughout the disk. The strength of the emission lines is lower than expected based on recent laboratory measurements of photodesorption and a fiducial model for the TW Hya disk. This suggests that grains carrying as much as 80--90% of the water ice content have settled toward the disk mid-plane, and are outside the reach of the stellar ultraviolet radiation. From our calculations and the detection of both ortho- and para-water, we derive the `spin temperature' of the cold water vapor in the TW Hya disk, which we compare to

  9. Gravitational Instabilities in a Young Protoplanetary Disk with Embedded Objects (United States)

    Desai, Karna M.; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.


    Gravitational Instabilities (GIs), a mechanism for angular momentum transport, are more prominent during the early phases of protoplanetary disk evolution when the disk is relatively massive. In my dissertation work, I performed radiative 3D hydrodynamics simulations (by employing the code, CHYMERA) and extensively studied GIs by inserting different objects in the ‘control disk’ (a 0.14 M⊙ protoplanetary disk around a 1 M⊙ star).Studying planetary migration helps us better constrain planet formation models. To study the migration of Jovian planets, in 9 separate simulations, each of the 0.3 MJ, 1 MJ, and 3 MJ planets was inserted near the Inner and Outer Lindblad Resonances and the Corotation Radius (CR) of the dominant GI-induced two-armed spiral density wave in the disk. I found the migration timescales to be longer in a GI-active disk when compared to laminar disks. The 3 MJ planet controls its own orbital evolution, while the migration of a 0.3 MJ planet is stochastic in nature. I defined a ‘critical mass’ as the mass of an arm of the dominant two-armed spiral density wave within the planet’s Hill diameter. Planets above this mass control their own destiny, and planets below this mass are scattered by the disk. This critical mass could provide a recipe for predicting the migration behavior of planets in GI-active disks.To understand the stochastic migration of low-mass planets, I performed a simulation of 240 zero-mass planet-tracers (hereafter, planets) by inserting these at a range of locations in the control disk (an equivalent of 240 simulations of Saturn-mass or lower-mass objects). I calculated a Diffusion Coefficient (3.6 AU2/ 1000 yr) to characterize the stochastic migration of planets. I analyzed the increase in the eccentricity dispersion and compared it with the observed exoplanet eccentricities. The diffusion of planets can be a slow process, resulting in the survival of small planetary cores. Stochastic migration of planets is

  10. Resonantly driven nonlinear density waves in protostellar disks (United States)

    Yuan, Chi; Cassen, Pat


    Recent observations of binary, pre-main-sequence, solar-type stars provide evidence that such systems may coexist with circumstellar disks. The binary disk systems, besides being of general interest for the study of star formation, potentially provide useful tests of companion-disk interaction theories prominent in current hypotheses of planet formation. In this paper, we apply an asymptotic analysis of the nonlinear, resonant interaction of a stellar companion with a disk to understand the dependence of such interactions on the properties of the system: the binary mass ratio, the physical properties of the disk, and the effective dissipation (treated herein as viscosity). The method is based on a WKBJ approximation and exploits the conditions that the disk is thin and much less massive than the primary, but does not require that the companion-induced disturbance be small. Both isothermal and adiabatic responses are treated. Only circular orbit resonances are considered in this paper. It is demonstrated that the temperature of the disk as well as the relative mass of the companion affects the degree of nonlinearity, and that nonlinearity promotes high wave compression ratios, long wavelengths, and increased propagation distances. Nevertheless, the total torque exerted between the companion and the disk is well represented by linear theory. The amplitudes of density disturbances are reduced by viscosity and nonisothermality. Because resonant interactions are generally strong and capable of driving rapid evolution, one might expect observations of systems undergoing strong, resonant-driven evolution to be rare. In this connection, it is pointed out that the m = 1 resonance is distinguished by being anomalously weaker than the others and is therefore of observational interest. It is speculated that, in conditions of intrinsically small dissipation, the propagation of resonant-driven density waves is limited by the tendency of their wavelength to diminish with distance

  11. The catalog of edge-on disk galaxies from SDSS. I. The catalog and the structural parameters of stellar disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizyaev, D. V. [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, Sunspot, NM, 88349 (United States); Kautsch, S. J. [Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (United States); Mosenkov, A. V. [Central Astronomical Observatory of RAS (Russian Federation); Reshetnikov, V. P.; Sotnikova, N. Ya.; Yablokova, N. V. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Hillyer, R. W. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)


    We present a catalog of true edge-on disk galaxies automatically selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). A visual inspection of the g, r, and i images of about 15,000 galaxies allowed us to split the initial sample of edge-on galaxy candidates into 4768 (31.8% of the initial sample) genuine edge-on galaxies, 8350 (55.7%) non-edge-on galaxies, and 1865 (12.5%) edge-on galaxies not suitable for simple automatic analysis because these objects either show signs of interaction and warps, or nearby bright stars project on it. We added more candidate galaxies from RFGC, EFIGI, RC3, and Galaxy Zoo catalogs found in the SDSS footprints. Our final sample consists of 5747 genuine edge-on galaxies. We estimate the structural parameters of the stellar disks (the stellar disk thickness, radial scale length, and central surface brightness) in the galaxies by analyzing photometric profiles in each of the g, r, and i images. We also perform simplified three-dimensional modeling of the light distribution in the stellar disks of edge-on galaxies from our sample. Our large sample is intended to be used for studying scaling relations in the stellar disks and bulges and for estimating parameters of the thick disks in different types of galaxies via the image stacking. In this paper, we present the sample selection procedure and general description of the sample.

  12. Vicus: Exploiting local structures to improve network-based analysis of biological data. (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Huang, Lin; Zhu, Yuke; Kundaje, Anshul; Batzoglou, Serafim; Goldenberg, Anna


    Biological networks entail important topological features and patterns critical to understanding interactions within complicated biological systems. Despite a great progress in understanding their structure, much more can be done to improve our inference and network analysis. Spectral methods play a key role in many network-based applications. Fundamental to spectral methods is the Laplacian, a matrix that captures the global structure of the network. Unfortunately, the Laplacian does not take into account intricacies of the network's local structure and is sensitive to noise in the network. These two properties are fundamental to biological networks and cannot be ignored. We propose an alternative matrix Vicus. The Vicus matrix captures the local neighborhood structure of the network and thus is more effective at modeling biological interactions. We demonstrate the advantages of Vicus in the context of spectral methods by extensive empirical benchmarking on tasks such as single cell dimensionality reduction, protein module discovery and ranking genes for cancer subtyping. Our experiments show that using Vicus, spectral methods result in more accurate and robust performance in all of these tasks.

  13. Prediction of Drug-Target Interactions and Drug Repositioning via Network-Based Inference (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lu, Weiqiang; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Zhou, Weixing; Huang, Jin; Tang, Yun


    Drug-target interaction (DTI) is the basis of drug discovery and design. It is time consuming and costly to determine DTI experimentally. Hence, it is necessary to develop computational methods for the prediction of potential DTI. Based on complex network theory, three supervised inference methods were developed here to predict DTI and used for drug repositioning, namely drug-based similarity inference (DBSI), target-based similarity inference (TBSI) and network-based inference (NBI). Among them, NBI performed best on four benchmark data sets. Then a drug-target network was created with NBI based on 12,483 FDA-approved and experimental drug-target binary links, and some new DTIs were further predicted. In vitro assays confirmed that five old drugs, namely montelukast, diclofenac, simvastatin, ketoconazole, and itraconazole, showed polypharmacological features on estrogen receptors or dipeptidyl peptidase-IV with half maximal inhibitory or effective concentration ranged from 0.2 to 10 µM. Moreover, simvastatin and ketoconazole showed potent antiproliferative activities on human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in MTT assays. The results indicated that these methods could be powerful tools in prediction of DTIs and drug repositioning. PMID:22589709

  14. Understanding structure of urban traffic network based on spatial-temporal correlation analysis (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong; Han, Shixiu; Dong, Honghui


    Understanding the structural characteristics of urban traffic network comprehensively can provide references for improving road utilization rate and alleviating traffic congestion. This paper focuses on the spatial-temporal correlations between different pairs of traffic series and proposes a complex network-based method of constructing the urban traffic network. In the network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding spatial-temporal correlation. Further, a modified PageRank algorithm, named the geographical weight-based PageRank algorithm (GWPA), is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of important segments in the road network. Finally, experiments are conducted by using three kinds of traffic series collected from the urban road network in Beijing. Experimental results show that the urban traffic networks constructed by three traffic variables all indicate both small-world and scale-free characteristics. Compared with the results of PageRank algorithm, GWPA is proved to be valid in evaluating the importance of segments and identifying the important segments with small degree.

  15. Network-based auto-probit modeling for protein function prediction. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Gold, David; Kolaczyk, Eric D


    Predicting the functional roles of proteins based on various genome-wide data, such as protein-protein association networks, has become a canonical problem in computational biology. Approaching this task as a binary classification problem, we develop a network-based extension of the spatial auto-probit model. In particular, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian probit-based framework for modeling binary network-indexed processes, with a latent multivariate conditional autoregressive Gaussian process. The latter allows for the easy incorporation of protein-protein association network topologies-either binary or weighted-in modeling protein functional similarity. We use this framework to predict protein functions, for functions defined as terms in the Gene Ontology (GO) database, a popular rigorous vocabulary for biological functionality. Furthermore, we show how a natural extension of this framework can be used to model and correct for the high percentage of false negative labels in training data derived from GO, a serious shortcoming endemic to biological databases of this type. Our method performance is evaluated and compared with standard algorithms on weighted yeast protein-protein association networks, extracted from a recently developed integrative database called Search Tool for the Retrieval of INteracting Genes/proteins (STRING). Results show that our basic method is competitive with these other methods, and that the extended method-incorporating the uncertainty in negative labels among the training data-can yield nontrivial improvements in predictive accuracy. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  16. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Galbraith


    Full Text Available Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or learning by doing, an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  17. A neural network-based exploratory learning and motor planning system for co-robots. (United States)

    Galbraith, Byron V; Guenther, Frank H; Versace, Massimiliano


    Collaborative robots, or co-robots, are semi-autonomous robotic agents designed to work alongside humans in shared workspaces. To be effective, co-robots require the ability to respond and adapt to dynamic scenarios encountered in natural environments. One way to achieve this is through exploratory learning, or "learning by doing," an unsupervised method in which co-robots are able to build an internal model for motor planning and coordination based on real-time sensory inputs. In this paper, we present an adaptive neural network-based system for co-robot control that employs exploratory learning to achieve the coordinated motor planning needed to navigate toward, reach for, and grasp distant objects. To validate this system we used the 11-degrees-of-freedom RoPro Calliope mobile robot. Through motor babbling of its wheels and arm, the Calliope learned how to relate visual and proprioceptive information to achieve hand-eye-body coordination. By continually evaluating sensory inputs and externally provided goal directives, the Calliope was then able to autonomously select the appropriate wheel and joint velocities needed to perform its assigned task, such as following a moving target or retrieving an indicated object.

  18. Computing network-based features from physiological time series: application to sepsis detection. (United States)

    Santaniello, Sabato; Granite, Stephen J; Sarma, Sridevi V; Winslow, Raimond L


    Sepsis is a systemic deleterious host response to infection. It is a major healthcare problem that affects millions of patients every year in the intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. Despite the fact that ICU patients are heavily instrumented with physiological sensors, early sepsis detection remains challenging, perhaps because clinicians identify sepsis by using static scores derived from bed-side measurements individually, i.e., without systematically accounting for potential interactions between these signals and their dynamics. In this study, we apply network-based data analysis to take into account interactions between bed-side physiological time series (PTS) data collected in ICU patients, and we investigate features to distinguish between sepsis and non-sepsis conditions. We treated each PTS source as a node on a graph and we retrieved the graph connectivity matrix over time by tracking the correlation between each pair of sources' signals over consecutive time windows. Then, for each connectivity matrix, we computed the eigenvalue decomposition. We found that, even though raw PTS measurements may have indistinguishable distributions in non-sepsis and early sepsis states, the median /I of the eigenvalues computed from the same data is statistically different (p sepsis detection.

  19. A novel neural network-based technique for smart gas sensors operating in a dynamic environment. (United States)

    Baha, Hakim; Dibi, Zohir


    Thanks to their high sensitivity and low-cost, metal oxide gas sensors (MOX) are widely used in gas detection, although they present well-known problems (lack of selectivity and environmental effects…). We present in this paper a novel neural network- based technique to remedy these problems. The idea is to create intelligent models; the first one, called corrector, can automatically linearize a sensor's response characteristics and eliminate its dependency on the environmental parameters. The corrector's responses are processed with the second intelligent model which has the role of discriminating exactly the detected gas (nature and concentration). The gas sensors used are industrial resistive kind (TGS8xx, by Figaro Engineering). The MATLAB environment is used during the design phase and optimization. The sensor models, the corrector, and the selective model were implemented and tested in the PSPICE simulator. The sensor model accurately expresses the nonlinear character of the response and the dependence on temperature and relative humidity in addition to their gas nature dependency. The corrector linearizes and compensates the sensor's responses. The method discriminates qualitatively and quantitatively between seven gases. The advantage of the method is that it uses a small representative database so we can easily implement the model in an electrical simulator. This method can be extended to other sensors.

  20. Assigning Passenger Flows on a Metro Network Based on Automatic Fare Collection Data and Timetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Hong


    Full Text Available Assigning passenger flows on a metro network plays an important role in passenger flow analysis that is the foundation of metro operation. Traditional transit assignment models are becoming increasingly complex and inefficient. These models may even not be valid in case of sudden changes in the timetable or disruptions in the metro system. We propose a methodology for assigning passenger flows on a metro network based on automatic fare collection (AFC data and realized timetable. We find that the routes connecting a given origin and destination (O-D pair are related to their observed travel times (OTTs especially their pure travel times (PTTs abstracted from AFC data combined with the realized timetable. A novel clustering algorithm is used to cluster trips between a given O-D pair based on PTTs/OTTs and complete the assignment. An initial application to categorical O-D pairs on the Shanghai metro system, which is one of the largest systems in the world, shows that the proposed methodology works well. Accompanying the initial application, an interesting approach is also provided for determining the theoretical maximum accuracy of the new assignment model.