WorldWideScience

Sample records for network protocol implementations

  1. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  2. A model-guided symbolic execution approach for network protocol implementations and vulnerability detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Formal techniques have been devoted to analyzing whether network protocol specifications violate security policies; however, these methods cannot detect vulnerabilities in the implementations of the network protocols themselves. Symbolic execution can be used to analyze the paths of the network protocol implementations, but for stateful network protocols, it is difficult to reach the deep states of the protocol. This paper proposes a novel model-guided approach to detect vulnerabilities in network protocol implementations. Our method first abstracts a finite state machine (FSM) model, then utilizes the model to guide the symbolic execution. This approach achieves high coverage of both the code and the protocol states. The proposed method is implemented and applied to test numerous real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is more effective than traditional fuzzing methods such as SPIKE at detecting vulnerabilities in the deep states of network protocol implementations.

  3. A model-guided symbolic execution approach for network protocol implementations and vulnerability detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Formal techniques have been devoted to analyzing whether network protocol specifications violate security policies; however, these methods cannot detect vulnerabilities in the implementations of the network protocols themselves. Symbolic execution can be used to analyze the paths of the network protocol implementations, but for stateful network protocols, it is difficult to reach the deep states of the protocol. This paper proposes a novel model-guided approach to detect vulnerabilities in network protocol implementations. Our method first abstracts a finite state machine (FSM model, then utilizes the model to guide the symbolic execution. This approach achieves high coverage of both the code and the protocol states. The proposed method is implemented and applied to test numerous real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is more effective than traditional fuzzing methods such as SPIKE at detecting vulnerabilities in the deep states of network protocol implementations.

  4. A Mac Protocol Implementation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Bhar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.4 is an important standard for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LRWPAN. The IEEE 802.15.4 presents a flexible MAC protocol that provides good efficiency for data transmission by adapting its parameters according to characteristics of different applications. In this research work, some restrictions of this standard are explained and an improvement of traffic efficiency by optimizing MAC layer is proposed. Implementation details for several blocks of communication system are carefully modeled. The protocol implementation is done using VHDL language. The analysis gives a full understanding of the behavior of the MAC protocol with regard to backoff delay, data loss probability, congestion probability, slot effectiveness, and traffic distribution for terminals. Two ideas are proposed and tested to improve efficiency of CSMA/CA mechanism for IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Layer. Primarily, we dynamically adjust the backoff exponent (BE according to queue level of each node. Secondly, we vary the number of consecutive clear channel assessment (CCA for packet transmission. We demonstrate also that slot compensation provided by the enhanced MAC protocol can greatly avoid unused slots. The results show the significant improvements expected by our approach among the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC standards. Synthesis results show also hardware performances of our proposed architecture.

  5. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, James W; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S; Watkins, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%

  6. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  7. Experimental implementation of a real-time token-based network protocol on a microcontroller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Krikke, Robert; Baron, Bert; Jansen, P.G.; Scholten, Johan

    2004-01-01

    The real-time token-based RTnet network protocol has been implemented on a standard Ethernet network to investigate the possibility to use cheap components with strict resource limitations while preserving Quality of Service guarantees. It will be shown that the proposed implementation is feasible

  8. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  9. DDN (Defence Data Network) Protocol Implementations and Vendors Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Room NE43-723 545 Technology Square Cambridge, MA 02139 (617) 253-8843 S John Wroclawski, (JTW@AI.AJ.MIT.EDU...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Room NE43-743 545 Technology Square 0 Cambridge, MA 02139 (617) 253-7885 ORDERING...TCP/IP Network Software for PC-DOS Systems CPU: IBM-PC/XT/AT/compatible in conjunction with EXOS 205 Inteligent Ethernet Controller for PCbus 0/s

  10. Performance of Implementation IBR-DTN and Batman-Adv Routing Protocol in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Yuliandoko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks is a network which has high mobility and flexibility network. In Wireless mesh networks nodes are free to move and able to automatically build a network connection with other nodes. High mobility, heterogeneous condition and intermittent network connectivity cause data packets drop during wireless communication and it becomes a problem in the wireless mesh networks. This condition can happen because wireless mesh networks use connectionless networking type such as IP protocol which it is not tolerant to delay. To solve this condition it is needed a technology to keep data packets when the network is disconnect. Delay tolerant technology is a technology that provides store and forward mechanism and it can prevent packet data dropping during communication. In our research, we proposed a test bed wireless mesh networks implementation by using proactive routing protocol and combining with delay tolerant technology. We used Batman-adv routing protocol and IBR-DTN on our research. We measured some particular performance aspect of networking such as packet loss, delay, and throughput of the network. We identified that delay tolerant could keep packet data from dropping better than current wireless mesh networks in the intermittent network condition. We also proved that IBR-DTN and Batman-adv could run together on the wireless mesh networks. In The experiment throughput test result of IBR-DTN was higher than Current TCP on the LoS (Line of Side and on environment with obstacle. Keywords: Delay Tolerant, IBR-DTN, Wireless Mesh, Batman-adv, Performance

  11. A Language-Based Approach for Improving the Robustness of Network Application Protocol Implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgy, Laurent; Reveillere, Laurent; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2007-01-01

    The secure and robust functioning of a network relies on the defect-free implementation of network applications. As network protocols have become increasingly complex, however, hand-writing network message processing code has become increasingly error-prone. In this paper, we present a domain...

  12. Implementation of a network level protocol on a GIXINET type local network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeuillet, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    The installation of a communication system for transferring results from several experiment laboratories to a computing center is described. The objectives of a useful bit rate of 24 kbs, low connection cost and simple infrastructure, extension of the network to 4 buildings situated within a radius of 300m, and connection in the most standardized fashion possible are attained by using the GIXINET local network and adopting the X25 packet protocol. Bit rates of 17.2 kbs for standard 128 octet packets, and 44 kbs for nonstandard packets (776 octets in this case) [fr

  13. Implementation of CAVENET and Its Usage for Performance Evaluation of AODV, OLSR and DYMO Protocols in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evjola Spaho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET is a kind of Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET that establishes wireless connection between cars. In VANETs and MANETs, the topology of the network changes very often, therefore implementation of efficient routing protocols is very important problem. In MANETs, the Random Waypoint (RW model is used as a simulation model for generating node mobility pattern. On the other hand, in VANETs, the mobility patterns of nodes is restricted along the roads, and is affected by the movement of neighbour nodes. In this paper, we present a simulation system for VANET called CAVENET (Cellular Automaton based VEhicular NETwork. In CAVENET, the mobility patterns of nodes are generated by an 1-dimensional cellular automata. We improved CAVENET and implemented some routing protocols. We investigated the performance of the implemented routing protocols by CAVENET. The simulation results have shown that DYMO protocol has better performance than AODV and OLSR protocols.

  14. An effective implementation scheme of just-in-time protocol for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiling; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wang, Hui

    2005-02-01

    Optical burst switching (OBS) has been emerging as a promising technology that can effectively support the next generation IP-oriented transportation networks. JIT signaling protocol for OBS is relatively simple and easy to be implemented by hardware. This paper presented an effective scheme to implement the JIT protocol, which not only can effectively implement reservation and release of optical channels based on JIT, but also can process the failure of channel reservation and release due to loss of burst control packets. The scheme includes: (1) a BHP (burst head packet) path table is designed and built at each OBS node. It is used to guarantee the corresponding burst control packet, i.e. BHP, BEP (burst end packet) and BEP_ACK (BEP acknowledgement), to be transmitted in the same path. (2) The timed retransmission of BEP and the reversed deletion of the item in BHP path tables triggered by the corresponding BEP_ACK are combined to solve the problems caused by the loss of the signaling messages in channel reservation and release process. (3) Burst head packets and BEP_ACK are transmitted using "best-effort" method. Related signaling messages and their formats for the proposed scheme are also given.

  15. Implementation Of The Precision Agriculture Using LEACH Protocol Of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Htike Aung

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network WSN is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor networkagricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture temperature and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and explains about routing protocols of wireless sensor network. In this paper agricultural parameter of temperature will monitor with the use of LEACH protocol.

  16. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  17. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  18. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  19. Design and Implementation of Software Protocol in VAX/VMS Using Ethernet Local Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    firm hclding the trademark: INTEL Ccrporation, Santa Clara, California INTELLEC IDS Multbus DIGITAL Research, Pacific Grove, California CE/M-80...bcard NS2030 VMS device driver and N11010 diagnostic program DIGITAL Equipment Corporation, Maynard, Massachusetts V&Z-11/780 Mini computer VAX/VMS...8217 . . - - . , . editors, libary , etc.) of one node to an application process in another ncde. Such protocols may include: 1) .. 11 T f6 - allowing a process in one node to

  20. Implementation Of The Precision Agriculture Using LEACH Protocol Of Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Than Htike Aung; Su Su Yi Mon; Chaw Myat Nwe; Zaw Min Naing; HLa Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of wireless sensor network technology leads to develop advanced systems for real-time monitoring. Wireless sensor network WSN is a major technology that drives the development of precision agriculture.By forming wireless sensor networkagricultural practicescan be made good monitoring systems.Various agricultural parameters like soil moisture temperature and humidity are monitored by monitoring units.The paper explains about how to utilize thesensors in agricultural practices and...

  1. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  2. DESIGN OF A DIDACTIC PROTOTYPE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS IMPLEMENTATION BASED IN ZIGBEE PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Cázarez-Ayala

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work tries to describe the design and implementation of a didactic wireless data acquisition station (node with the capacity of net operation. Which nodes, are based in the Xbee wireless communication module of Digi International, which are capable of achieve long periods of autonomous energetic, approximately 30 months with just a simple 9 volts battery and under specific conditions of transference of data via RF.We think that the present work has a very important contribution and significant impact in the automation of processes of nature environment monitoring like ecological reserves, health of the forests, early forest fires detection, monitoring of the diverse variables of the sows in a greenhouse or out of them, monitoring and supervision of variables in shrimp and Tilapia farms in the region up to the energy save through the implementation of smart spaces and the demotic.

  3. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  4. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  5. The guideline implementability research and application network (GIRAnet: an international collaborative to support knowledge exchange: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modifying the format and content of guidelines may facilitate their use and lead to improved quality of care. We reviewed the medical literature to identify features desired by different users and associated with guideline use to develop a framework of implementability and found that most guidelines do not contain these elements. Further research is needed to develop and evaluate implementability tools. Methods We are launching the Guideline Implementability Research and Application Network (GIRAnet to enable the development and testing of implementability tools in three domains: Resource Implications, Implementation, and Evaluation. Partners include the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N and its member guideline developers, implementers, and researchers. In phase one, international guidelines will be examined to identify and describe exemplar tools. Indication-specific and generic tools will populate a searchable repository. In phase two, qualitative analysis of cognitive interviews will be used to understand how developers can best integrate implementability tools in guidelines and how health professionals use them for interpreting and applying guidelines. In phase three, a small-scale pilot test will assess the impact of implementability tools based on quantitative analysis of chart-based behavioural outcomes and qualitative analysis of interviews with participants. The findings will be used to plan a more comprehensive future evaluation of implementability tools. Discussion Infrastructure funding to establish GIRAnet will be leveraged with the in-kind contributions of collaborating national and international guideline developers to advance our knowledge of implementation practice and science. Needs assessment and evaluation of GIRAnet will provide a greater understanding of how to develop and sustain such knowledge-exchange networks. Ultimately, by facilitating use of guidelines, this research may lead to improved

  6. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring.

  7. Mobile opportunistic networks architectures, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Denko, Mieso K

    2011-01-01

    Widespread availability of pervasive and mobile devices coupled with recent advances in networking technologies make opportunistic networks one of the most promising communication technologies for a growing number of future mobile applications. Covering the basics as well as advanced concepts, this book introduces state-of-the-art research findings, technologies, tools, and innovations. Prominent researchers from academia and industry report on communication architectures, network algorithms and protocols, emerging applications, experimental studies, simulation tools, implementation test beds,

  8. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    The Rio Earth summit in 1992 has been the starting point of an international awareness about the global risk of climatic change. At this occasion, the richest countries committed themselves to stabilize their greenhouse gas emissions and to reach by the year 2000 an emissions level equivalent to the one of 1990. The Kyoto protocol in 1997 has permitted to convert this will into juridically constraining quantitative commitments. In 2005, Russia ratified the protocol while in 2001 the USA refused to do so. Because the commitments signed are ambitious, flexibility mechanisms have been implemented: 'emission permits' (emissions trading), 'joint implementation' allowing the investments abroad for greenhouse gases abatement in another developed country, and 'clean development mechanisms' when investments are made in a developing country. The Marrakech conference of December 2001 has permitted to fix up the eligibility criteria of projects belonging to the joint implementation and clean development mechanisms. The effective implementation of these mechanisms still raises technical difficulties to evaluate and measure the effective abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  9. Design and Implementation of a Web-based Greenhouse Remote Monitoring System with Zigbee Protocol and GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Tabatabaeifar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern and big greenhouses, it is necessary to measure several climate parameters to automate and control the greenhouse properly. Monitoring and transmitting by cable may lead to an expensive and stiff measurement system. Since, Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a distributed system that consists of small-size wireless sensor nodes equipped with radio and one or several sensors; it is a low cost option to build the required monitoring system. In this paper, we introduce and implement an intelligent monitoring system based on WSN by using Xbee modules. The Xbee Series 2 hardware uses a microchip from Ember Networks that enables several different flavors of standards-based ZigBee mesh networking. All gathered information by sensors, are sent to a remote center in form of GPRS packets through a GSM network and viewed by monitoring software. The proposed system has low power consumption, low cost and simple driver circuits. Furthermore, it can support various types of digital and analog sensors.

  10. Minimal computational-space implementation of multiround quantum protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    A single-party strategy in a multiround quantum protocol can be implemented by sequential networks of quantum operations connected by internal memories. Here, we provide an efficient realization in terms of computational-space resources.

  11. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  12. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  13. An Examination of the Design, Development, and Implementation of an Internet Protocol Version 6 Network: The ADTRAN Inc. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigo, Levi

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author examined the capabilities of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) in regard to replacing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the internetworking technology for Medium-sized Businesses (MBs) in the Information Systems (IS) field. Transition to IPv6 is inevitable, and, thus, organizations are adopting this protocol…

  14. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  15. Network Coding to Enhance Standard Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a design and simulation of a locally optimized network coding protocol, called PlayNCool, for wireless mesh networks. PlayN-Cool is easy to implement and compatible with existing routing protocols and devices. This allows the system to gain from network coding capabilities i...

  16. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  17. Application and Implementation of Network Coding for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2012-01-01

    the initial development of systems and protocols and show that the potential is there. However, I also find that network coding needs to be implemented with care and protocols have to be designed with consideration to make use of this novel technique. 2) The final aspect of this PhD investigates different...... ways that cooperative models may be implemented to cover a wide range of applications. This addresses the development of user cooperative protocols and how we in Device To Device (D2D) communication may reward users that contribute more to the network than they gain. In this area I suggest the use...

  18. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-01-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  19. Optical protocols for advanced spacecraft networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Larry A.

    1991-09-01

    Most present day fiber optic networks are in fact extensions of copper wire networks. As a result, their speed is still limited by electronics even though optics is capable of running three orders of magnitude faster. Also, the fact that photons do not interact with one another (as electrons do) provides optical communication systems with some unique properties or new functionality that is not readily taken advantage of with conventional approaches. Some of the motivation for implementing network protocols in the optical domain, a few possible approaches including optical code-division multiple-access (CDMA), and how this class of networks can extend the technology life cycle of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) with increased performance and functionality are described.

  20. Definition and specification of "CANlike" protocols in the context of wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Juanole , Guy; Mouney , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Rapport LAAS n° 15276; The implementation of distributed real-time applications on wireless networks constitutes today a new important challenge and, in this context, the MAC protocols, which implement the frame exchange scheduling, have an essential role. This paper is precisely concerned by the specification of such MAC protocols. We specify MAC protocols called CANlike protocols because they are inspired by the MAC protocol of the network CAN which is a wired network. The presentation made...

  1. Compiling symbolic attacks to protocol implementation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rusinowitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently efficient model-checking tools have been developed to find flaws in security protocols specifications. These flaws can be interpreted as potential attacks scenarios but the feasability of these scenarios need to be confirmed at the implementation level. However, bridging the gap between an abstract attack scenario derived from a specification and a penetration test on real implementations of a protocol is still an open issue. This work investigates an architecture for automatically generating abstract attacks and converting them to concrete tests on protocol implementations. In particular we aim to improve previously proposed blackbox testing methods in order to discover automatically new attacks and vulnerabilities. As a proof of concept we have experimented our proposed architecture to detect a renegotiation vulnerability on some implementations of SSL/TLS, a protocol widely used for securing electronic transactions.

  2. Performance analysis and implementation of proposed mechanism for detection and prevention of security attacks in routing protocols of vehicular ad-hoc network (VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Tyagi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation communication networks have become widely popular as ad-hoc networks, broadly categorized as the mobile nodes based on mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET and the vehicular nodes based vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANET. VANET is aimed at maintaining safety to vehicle drivers by begin autonomous communication with the nearby vehicles. Each vehicle in the ad-hoc network performs as an intelligent mobile node characterized by high mobility and formation of dynamic networks. The ad-hoc networks are decentralized dynamic networks that need efficient and secure communication requirements due to the vehicles being persistently in motion. These networks are more susceptible to various attacks like Warm Hole attacks, denial of service attacks and Black Hole Attacks. The paper is a novel attempt to examine and investigate the security features of the routing protocols in VANET, applicability of AODV (Ad hoc On Demand protocol to detect and tackle a particular category of network attacks, known as the Black Hole Attacks. A new algorithm is proposed to enhance the security mechanism of AODV protocol and to introduce a mechanism to detect Black Hole Attacks and to prevent the network from such attacks in which source node stores all route replies in a look up table. This table stores the sequences of all route reply, arranged in ascending order using PUSH and POP operations. The priority is calculated based on sequence number and discard the RREP having presumably very high destination sequence number. The result show that proposed algorithm for detection and prevention of Black Hole Attack increases security in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS and reduces the effect of malicious node in the VANET. NCTUNs simulator is used in this research work.

  3. New Communication Network Protocol for a Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Fujii, H.; Nagasaka, Y.; Tanaka, M.

    2006-02-01

    An event builder based on communication networks has been used in high-energy physics experiments, and various networks have been adopted, for example, IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet), asynchronous transfer mode (ATM), and so on. In particular, Ethernet is widely used because its infrastructure is very cost effective. Many systems adopt standard protocols that are designed for a general network. However, in the case of an event builder, the communication pattern between stations is different from that in a general network. The unique communication pattern causes congestion, and thus makes it difficulty to quantitatively design the network. To solve this problem, we have developed a simple network protocol for a data acquisition (DAQ) system. The protocol is designed to keep the sequence of senders so that no congestion occurs. We implemented the protocol on a small hardware component [a field programmable gate array (FPGA)] and measured the performance, so that it will be ready for a generic DAQ system

  4. Analyzing security protocols in hierarchical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ye; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    Validating security protocols is a well-known hard problem even in a simple setting of a single global network. But a real network often consists of, besides the public-accessed part, several sub-networks and thereby forms a hierarchical structure. In this paper we first present a process calculus...... capturing the characteristics of hierarchical networks and describe the behavior of protocols on such networks. We then develop a static analysis to automate the validation. Finally we demonstrate how the technique can benefit the protocol development and the design of network systems by presenting a series...

  5. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    .... Research results are presented on adaptive, energy-efficient, distributed protocols for mobile wireless networks that must operate effectively over unreliable communication links in highly dynamic...

  6. Congestion control for vehicular delay tolerant network routing protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Oham, Chuka Finbars

    2014-01-01

    The Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network (VDTN) is a special and challenging type of the Delay Tolerant Network because of its high mobility, frequent disconnections and nodal congestion features. These challenging features make it prone to congestion which leads to a considerable amount of message drops in the network. To minimize the impact of congestion in the network, we designed and implemented the Congestion Aware Spray and Wait (CASaW) routing protocol. We varied the buffer sizes of the no...

  7. Design and implementation of a telemedicine system using Bluetooth protocol and GSM/GPRS network, for real time remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasemian, Yousef; Nielsen, Lars Arendt

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the design and implementation of a generic wireless and Real-time Multi-purpose Health Care Telemedicine system applying Bluetooth protocol, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). The paper explores the factors that should be considered when evaluating different technologies for application in telemedicine system. The design and implementation of an embedded wireless communication platform utilising Bluetooth protocol is described, and the implementation problems and limitations are investigated. The system is tested and its telecommunication general aspects are verified. The results showed that the system has (97.9 +/- 1.3)% Up-time, 2.5 x 10(-5) Bit Error Rate, 1% Dropped Call Rate, 97.4% Call Success Rate, 5 second transmission delay in average, (3.42 +/- 0.11) kbps throughput, and the system may have application in electrocardiography.

  8. Neural Networks: Implementations and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, E.; Veelenturf, L.P.J.; Jain, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial neural networks, also called neural networks, have been used successfully in many fields including engineering, science and business. This paper presents the implementation of several neural network simulators and their applications in character recognition and other engineering areas

  9. Generalized routing protocols for multihop relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Performance of multihop cooperative networks depends on the routing protocols employed. In this paper we propose the last-n-hop selection protocol, the dual path protocol, the forward-backward last-n-hop selection protocol and the forward-backward dual path protocol for the routing of data through multihop relay networks. The average symbol error probability performance of the schemes is analysed by simulations. It is shown that close to optimal performance can be achieved by using the last-n-hop selection protocol and its forward-backward variant. Furthermore we also compute the complexity of the protocols in terms of number of channel state information required and the number of comparisons required for routing the signal through the network. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  11. Implementation of the Additional Protocol in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000

  12. Protocol design and implementation using formal methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Pires, L.F.; Vissers, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a number of formal methods that support correct protocol design and implementation. These methods are placed in the framework of a design methodology for distributed systems that was studied and developed within the ESPRIT II Lotosphere project (2304). The paper focuses on

  13. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Kanakala; Venugopal Reddy Ananthula; Prashanthi Vempaty

    2014-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing proto...

  14. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  15. Network-topology-adaptive quantum conference protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sheng; Wang Jian; Tang Chao-Jing; Zhang Quan

    2011-01-01

    As an important application of the quantum network communication, quantum multiparty conference has made multiparty secret communication possible. Previous quantum multiparty conference schemes based on quantum data encryption are insensitive to network topology. However, the topology of the quantum network significantly affects the communication efficiency, e.g., parallel transmission in a channel with limited bandwidth. We have proposed two distinctive protocols, which work in two basic network topologies with efficiency higher than the existing ones. We first present a protocol which works in the reticulate network using Greeberger—Horne—Zeilinger states and entanglement swapping. Another protocol, based on quantum multicasting with quantum data compression, which can improve the efficiency of the network, works in the star-like network. The security of our protocols is guaranteed by quantum key distribution and one-time-pad encryption. In general, the two protocols can be applied to any quantum network where the topology can be equivalently transformed to one of the two structures we propose in our protocols. (general)

  16. Real-Time Fault Tolerant Networking Protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    We made significant progress in the areas of video streaming, wireless protocols, mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, peer-to-peer systems, fault tolerant algorithms, dependability and timing analysis...

  17. Dynamic Aggregation Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mounir Said , Adel; William Ibrahim , Ashraf; Soua , Ahmed; Afifi , Hossam

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Sensor networks suffer from limited capabilities such as bandwidth, low processing power, and memory size. There is therefore a need for protocols that deliver sensor data in an energy-efficient way to the sink. One of those techniques, it gathers sensors' data in a small size packet suitable for transmission. In this paper, we propose a new Effective Data Aggregation Protocol (DAP) to reduce the energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which prolongs the...

  18. Network protocol 'EPAP'; Network protokoru 'EPAP'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobori, T.; Fujita, F.; Iwamoto, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Toyo (Japan)

    2000-10-10

    The Ethernet, a standard of information networks, has begun to be applied to the control local area network (LAN). To apply the Ethernet to the field level, Fuji Electric has newly developed the communication protocol 'Ethernet precision access protocol (EPAP)' in which a command/response method is structured on the user datagram protocol (UDP) to realize real time and high reliability. Further, we have implemented the EPAP on the bus interface module of the open PIO. This paper outlines the EPAP and its implementation. (author)

  19. Delay tolerant networks protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Spyropoulos, Thrasyvoulos

    2011-01-01

    Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN) - which include terrestrial mobile networks, exotic media networks, ad-hoc networks, and sensor networks - are becoming more important and may not be well served by the current end-to-end TCP/IP model. This book provides a self-contained, one-stop reference for researchers and practitioners who are looking toward the future of networking. The text presents a systematic exploration of DTN concepts, architectures, protocols, enabling technologies, and applications. It also discusses various challenges associated with DTN. The author includes a wealth of illustrative

  20. Protocol Interoperability Between DDN and ISO (Defense Data Network and International Organization for Standardization) Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    services and protocols above the transport layer are usually implemented as user- callable utilities on the host computers, it is desirable to offer them...Networks, Prentice-hall, New Jersey, 1987 [ BOND 87] Bond , John, "Parallel-Processing Concepts Finally Come together in Real Systems", Computer Design

  1. Network Layer Protocol Activation for Packet Data Access in UMTS WCDMA Laboratory Network

    OpenAIRE

    Lakkisto, Erkka

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s Thesis was to set up the UMTS WCDMA network in the laboratory environment of Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences and to study the network layer protocol activation for packet data access. The development of 3G technology has been very rapid and it can be considered as one of the main technologies in telecommunication. Implementing the laboratory network in Metropolia enables teaching and researching of the modern network technology. Labora...

  2. Design, Implementation, and Verification of the Reliable Multicast Protocol. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) design, first implementation, and formal verification. RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears an undue portion of the communications load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These guarantees are selectable on a per message basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, a client/server model of delivery, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has been commonly believed that total ordering of messages can only be achieved at great performance expense. RMP discounts this. The first implementation of RMP has been shown to provide high throughput performance on Local Area Networks (LAN). For two or more destinations a single LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any other protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast technology. The design, implementation, and verification activities of RMP have occurred concurrently. This has allowed the verification to maintain a high fidelity between design model, implementation model, and the verification model. The restrictions of implementation have influenced the design earlier than in normal sequential approaches. The protocol as a whole has matured smoother by the inclusion of several different perspectives into the product development.

  3. Protocol independent transmission method in software defined optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuze; Li, Hui; Hou, Yanfang; Qiu, Yajun; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of big data and cloud computing technology, the traditional software-defined network is facing new challenges (e.i., ubiquitous accessibility, higher bandwidth, more flexible management and greater security). Using a proprietary protocol or encoding format is a way to improve information security. However, the flow, which carried by proprietary protocol or code, cannot go through the traditional IP network. In addition, ultra- high-definition video transmission service once again become a hot spot. Traditionally, in the IP network, the Serial Digital Interface (SDI) signal must be compressed. This approach offers additional advantages but also bring some disadvantages such as signal degradation and high latency. To some extent, HD-SDI can also be regard as a proprietary protocol, which need transparent transmission such as optical channel. However, traditional optical networks cannot support flexible traffics . In response to aforementioned challenges for future network, one immediate solution would be to use NFV technology to abstract the network infrastructure and provide an all-optical switching topology graph for the SDN control plane. This paper proposes a new service-based software defined optical network architecture, including an infrastructure layer, a virtualization layer, a service abstract layer and an application layer. We then dwell on the corresponding service providing method in order to implement the protocol-independent transport. Finally, we experimentally evaluate that proposed service providing method can be applied to transmit the HD-SDI signal in the software-defined optical network.

  4. Data-sharing protocol: A prototype implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibney, T.; Greenwood, D.

    1992-12-01

    This paper describes a client/server communication protocol which will allow physicists to access data from cooperating remote experiments. Special low-level ''client'' software within the user's ''home'' data-access library formulates a request for data from the remote experiment. This request is sent over a network to a server at the remote site. The server has specific knowledge about the location and format of the requested data. The server gets the data and sends it over the network to the requesting client, which reformats the data according to the local library's conventions. Our prototype is being developed to suppose remote access to data from ATF, PBX, and micro Vax data from Tore-Supra. We have attempted to create a flexible design which should accommodate data from other experiments as well

  5. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  6. Operating systems and network protocols for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prabal; Dunkels, Adam

    2012-01-13

    Sensor network protocols exist to satisfy the communication needs of diverse applications, including data collection, event detection, target tracking and control. Network protocols to enable these services are constrained by the extreme resource scarcity of sensor nodes-including energy, computing, communications and storage-which must be carefully managed and multiplexed by the operating system. These challenges have led to new protocols and operating systems that are efficient in their energy consumption, careful in their computational needs and miserly in their memory footprints, all while discovering neighbours, forming networks, delivering data and correcting failures.

  7. An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Kang, Shin-Gak

    2017-04-28

    Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN

  8. Emulation Platform for Cyber Analysis of Wireless Communication Network Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eldridge, John M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Wireless networking and mobile communications is increasing around the world and in all sectors of our lives. With increasing use, the density and complexity of the systems increase with more base stations and advanced protocols to enable higher data throughputs. The security of data transported over wireless networks must also evolve with the advances in technologies enabling more capable wireless networks. However, means for analysis of the effectiveness of security approaches and implementations used on wireless networks are lacking. More specifically a capability to analyze the lower-layer protocols (i.e., Link and Physical layers) is a major challenge. An analysis approach that incorporates protocol implementations without the need for RF emissions is necessary. In this research paper several emulation tools and custom extensions that enable an analysis platform to perform cyber security analysis of lower layer wireless networks is presented. A use case of a published exploit in the 802.11 (i.e., WiFi) protocol family is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the described emulation platform.

  9. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols,...

  10. Protocol for multiple node network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  11. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2006-01-01

    What started with the sundial has, thus far, been refined to a level of precision based on atomic resonance: Time. Our obsession with time is evident in this continued scaling down to nanosecond resolution and beyond. But this obsession is not without warrant. Precision and time synchronization are critical in many applications, such as air traffic control and stock trading, and pose complex and important challenges in modern information networks.Penned by David L. Mills, the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol

  12. A model based security testing method for protocol implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation.

  13. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  14. Compact wireless control network protocol with fast path switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network protocol stacks require the addition or adjustment of functions based on customer requirements. Sensor network protocols that require low delay and low packet error rate (PER, such as wireless control networks, often adopt time division multiple access (TDMA. However, it is difficult to add or adjust functions in protocol stacks that use TDMA methods. Therefore, to add or adjust functions easily, we propose NES-SOURCE, a compact wireless control network protocol with a fast path-switching function. NES-SOURCE is implemented using carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA rather than TDMA. Wireless control networks that use TDMA prevent communication failure by duplicating the communication path. If CSMA/CA networks use duplicate paths, collisions occur frequently, and communication will fail. NES-SOURCE switches paths quickly when communication fails, which reduces the effect of communication failures. Since NES-SOURCE is implemented using CSMA/CA rather than TDMA, the implementation scale is less than one-half that of existing network stacks. Furthermore, since NES-SOURCE’s code complexity is low, functions can be added or adjusted easily and quickly. Communication failures occur owing to changes in the communication environment and collisions. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed NES-SOURCE’s path-switching function reduces the amount of communication failures when the communication environment changes owing to human movement and others. Furthermore, we clarify the relationships among the probability of a changing communication environment, the collision occurrence rate, and the PER of NES-SOURCE.

  15. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Shameng; Meng, Qingkun; Feng, Chao; Tang, Chaojing

    2017-01-01

    Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  16. Protocol vulnerability detection based on network traffic analysis and binary reverse engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameng Wen

    Full Text Available Network protocol vulnerability detection plays an important role in many domains, including protocol security analysis, application security, and network intrusion detection. In this study, by analyzing the general fuzzing method of network protocols, we propose a novel approach that combines network traffic analysis with the binary reverse engineering method. For network traffic analysis, the block-based protocol description language is introduced to construct test scripts, while the binary reverse engineering method employs the genetic algorithm with a fitness function designed to focus on code coverage. This combination leads to a substantial improvement in fuzz testing for network protocols. We build a prototype system and use it to test several real-world network protocol implementations. The experimental results show that the proposed approach detects vulnerabilities more efficiently and effectively than general fuzzing methods such as SPIKE.

  17. Advanced routing protocols for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Campista , Miguel Elias Mitre

    2014-01-01

    This text introduces the principles of routing protocols and metrics as they affect wireless networking environments, specifically in urban areas. Timely because of the recent rise in small city life, this topic includes the consideration of ad hoc, mesh, vehicular, sensor, and delay tolerant networks. These approaches are each unique, and author Miguel Mitre Campista provides a thorough, but accessible, explanation of their individual characteristics for engineers, computer scientists, IT professionals, and curious Internet users.

  18. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this

  19. Automatic Generation of Network Protocol Gateways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bromberg, Yérom-David; Réveillère, Laurent; Lawall, Julia

    2009-01-01

    for describing protocol behaviors, message structures, and the gateway logic.  Z2z includes a compiler that checks essential correctness properties and produces efficient code. We have used z2z to develop a number of gateways, including SIP to RTSP, SLP to UPnP, and SMTP to SMTP via HTTP, involving a range......The emergence of networked devices in the home has made it possible to develop applications that control a variety of household functions. However, current devices communicate via a multitude of incompatible protocols, and thus gateways are needed to translate between them.  Gateway construction......, however, requires an intimate knowledge of the relevant protocols and a substantial understanding of low-level network programming, which can be a challenge for many application programmers. This paper presents a generative approach to gateway construction, z2z, based on a domain-specific language...

  20. Design of an autonomous decentralized MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Dal Pont, L.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this document the design of a MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks is discussed. The autonomous decentralized TDMA based MAC protocol minimizes power consumtion by efficiency implementing unicast/omnicast, scheduled rendezvous times and wakeup calls. The MAC protocol is an ongoing research

  1. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Kanakala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing protocol to further reduce the energy consumption. The proposed energy-efficient coding-aware cluster based routing protocol (ECCRP scheme applies network coding at cluster heads to reduce number of transmissions. We also modify the queue management procedure of COPE protocol to further improve coding opportunities. We also use an energy efficient scheme while selecting the cluster head. It helps to increase the life time of the network. We evaluate the performance of proposed energy efficient cluster based protocol using simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed ECCRP algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases life time of the network.

  2. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this report. A brief introduction to optical networks and WDM as well as a brief description of Flamingo are also included in this report.

  3. Implementation and Analysis of Real-Time Streaming Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-04-12

    Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.

  4. RadNet: Open network protocol for radiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, B.; Olson, K.; Beckes-Talcott, J.; Kadner, S.; Wenderlich, T.; Hoy, M.; Doyle, W.; Koskelo, M.

    1998-01-01

    Safeguards instrumentation is increasingly being incorporated into remote monitoring applications. In the past, vendors of radiation monitoring instruments typically provided the tools for uploading the monitoring data to a host. However, the proprietary nature of communication protocols lends itself to increased computer support needs and increased installation expenses. As a result, a working group of suppliers and customers of radiation monitoring instruments defined an open network protocol for transferring packets on a local area network from radiation monitoring equipment to network hosts. The protocol was termed RadNet. While it is now primarily used for health physics instruments, RadNet's flexibility and strength make it ideal for remote monitoring of nuclear materials. The incorporation of standard, open protocols ensures that future work will not render present work obsolete; because RadNet utilizes standard Internet protocols, and is itself a non-proprietary standard. The use of industry standards also simplifies the development and implementation of ancillary services, e.g. E-main generation or even pager systems

  5. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  6. Ad Hoc on-Demand Distance Vector (AODV Routing Protocol Performance Evaluation on Hybrid Ad Hoc Network: Comparison of Result of Ns-2 Simulation and Implementation on Testbed using PDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Sari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET, node supplemented with wireless equipment has the capacity to manage and organise autonomously, without the presence of network infrastructures. Hybrid ad hoc network, enable several nodes to move freely (mobile to create instant communication. Independent from infrastructure. They could access the Local Area Network (LAN or the Internet. Functionalities of ad hoc network very much dependent on the routing protocol that determines the routing around node. Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV is one of routing protocols in ad hoc network which has a reactive characteristic. This protocol is the most common protocol being researched and used. In this Research, AODV protocol investigation was conducted by developing a testbed using Personal Computer, several Laptops (the Linux Red Hat operation system 9.0 and Fedora Core 2, and Personal Digital Assistant (PDA. This research also made a complete package by mean of cross compilation for PDA iPAQ. In general, results obtained from the simulation of AODV protocol using Network Simulator NS-2 are packet delivery ratio 99.89%, end-to-end delay of 0.14 seconds and routing overhead of 1,756.61 byte per second. Afterwards results from simulation were compared to results from testbed. Results obtained from testbed are as follows: the packet delivery ratio is 99.57%, the end-to-end delay is 1.004 seconds and the routing overhead is 1,360.36 byte per second.

  7. Internet Core Protocols Help for Network Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Eric

    2000-01-01

    If you've ever been responsible for a network, you know that sinkingfeeling: your pager has gone off at 2 a.m., the network is broken, and you can't figure out why by using a dial-in connection from home. You drive into the office, dig out your protocol analyzer, and spend the next fourhours trying to put things back together before the staff shows up for work. When this happens, you often find yourself looking at the low-level guts of the Internet protocols: you're deciphering individual packets, trying to figure out what is (or isn't) happening. Until now, the only real guide to the protoc

  8. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  9. Witnet: A Decentralized Oracle Network Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    de Pedro, Adán Sánchez; Levi, Daniele; Cuende, Luis Iván

    2017-01-01

    Witnet is a decentralized oracle network (DON) that connects smart contracts to the outer world. Generally speaking, it allows any piece of software to retrieve the contents published at any web address at a certain point in time, with complete and verifiable proof of its integrity and without blindly trusting any third party. Witnet runs on a blockchain with a native protocol token (called Wit), which miners-called witnesses-earn by retrieving, attesting and delivering web contents for clien...

  10. Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: comparison and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Murukesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consists of nodes with limited resources. Hence, it is important to design protocols or algorithms which increases energy efficiency in order to improve the network lifetime. In this paper, techniques used in the network layer (routing of the internet protocol stack to achieve energy efficiency are reviewed. Usually, the routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: (1 Network Structure, (2 Communication Model, (3 Topology Based, and (4 Reliable Routing. In this work, only network structure based routing protocols are reviewed due to the page constraint. Besides, this type of protocols are much popular among the researchers since they are fairly simple to implement and produce good results as presented in this paper. Also, the pros and cons of each protocols are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with possible further research directions.

  11. Multi-processor network implementations in Multibus II and VME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briegel, C.

    1992-01-01

    ACNET (Fermilab Accelerator Controls Network), a proprietary network protocol, is implemented in a multi-processor configuration for both Multibus II and VME. The implementations are contrasted by the bus protocol and software design goals. The Multibus II implementation provides for multiple processors running a duplicate set of tasks on each processor. For a network connected task, messages are distributed by a network round-robin scheduler. Further, messages can be stopped, continued, or re-routed for each task by user-callable commands. The VME implementation provides for multiple processors running one task across all processors. The process can either be fixed to a particular processor or dynamically allocated to an available processor depending on the scheduling algorithm of the multi-processing operating system. (author)

  12. Network protocols. Special issue; Netwerkprotocollen. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, G.A. [RTB Van Heugten, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Rooijakkers, G.W.J. [GTI Building Automation, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peterse, A. [Regel Partners, Hoevelaken (Netherlands); Smits, P. [Konnex Nederland, Valkenswaard (Netherlands); Hamers, E.P. [Van Dorp Installaties, Breda (Netherlands); Van der Velden, J.A.J. [Kropman, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Van Lingen, G.; Wijn, D.M. [Engineer Johnson Controls, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Deckere, W.J.M.A. [Deerns raadgevende ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Driessen, B. [Saia Burgess, Gouda (Netherlands); Van Olst, K. [K en R Consultants, Deventer (Netherlands); Mosterman, F. [Wago Building Technology, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Staub, R. [BUS-House, Zuerich (Switzerland); Meiring, O.B.; Hut, W.H. [Sauter Building Control Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tukker, A. [Webeasy Products, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Bakker, L.G.; Soethout, L.L.; Elkhuizen, P.A. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands); Haeseler, U. [TAC GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Kerdel, J.F. [Siemens Building Technologies, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Lugt, G.L.; Draijer, G.W.

    2007-11-15

    In 20 articles attention is paid to several aspects of network protocols by means of which building automation systems can exchange data: building automation and management, history of technical installations management, the open communication standard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), the so-called ISO/IEC domotics and communication standard KNX or Konnex, the integration of electrotechnical and engineering installations by the LonWorks technology, other standard protocols as Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), an outline of TCP/IP, smart design of networks, automation and networks and building owners, the use of BACnet and Ethernet in a renovated office building, the use of an open management network in buildings, wireless open integrated systems, terminology in network communication, the use of BACnet in combination with KNX, the impact of BACnet on building automation, the role of the installation sector in the ICT-environment, knowledge of building automation and management, regulations with respect to building automation, and BACnet MSTP (Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol) [Dutch] In 20 artikelen wordt in dit themanummer aandacht besteed aan diverse aspecten m.b.t. netwerkprotocollen waarmee verschillende automatiseringssystemen gegevens met elkaar uitwisselen: gebouwautomatisering en beheer, geschiedenis van technisch installatie beheer, de open communicatie standaard BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), de zogenaamde ISO/IEC domotica en communicatie standaard KNX of Konnex, de integratie van electrotechnische en werktuigbouwkundige installaties met behulp van de LonWorks technologie, andere standaard protocollen zoals Modbus, M-bus, OPC (OLE for Process Control), uitleg over TCP/IP, slim ontwerpen van netwerken, gebouweigenaren over automatisering en netwerken, het gebruik van BACnet en Ethernet in een tot kantoorgebouw gerenoveerd monumentaal gebouw, het gebruik van een open management netwerk in gebouwen, draadloos met

  13. Implementation of Siemens USS protocol into LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, P; Diblik, M

    2011-10-01

    This article gives basic overview of the USS protocol as a communication interface to drive Siemens frequency inverters. It presents our implementation of this protocol into LabVIEW, as there was permanent demand from the community of the users to have native LabVIEW implementation of the USS protocol. It also states encountered problems and their solutions. Copyright © 2011 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing Resource-aware Multicast Forwarding in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Sunny, Anjusha; Soler, José

    2018-01-01

    Using multicast data transmissions, data can be eciently distributed to a high number of network users. However, in order to ef-ciently stream multimedia using multicast communication, multicast routing protocols must have knowledge of all network links and their available bandwidth. In Software......-Karp algorithm, by taking into account network topology and links load information. This paper presents the algorithm, implementation details, and an analysis of the testing results....

  15. Kajian Literatur Sinkronisasi Waktu Dengan Network Time Protocol Untuk Pemantauan Aktivitas Jaringan Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budi Setiawan

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Network providers are providing services or networks that enable the implementation of electronic transactions. Each network operator is required to align the time in electronic transactions. The purpose is to provide time alignment of the time standard and provide a time frame for all forms of electronic transactions with the principles of accuracy and traceability. Indonesian Time Alignment System uses the principle of traceability and accuracy principles. The protocols used in the alignment of the time server in Indonesia-based Network Time Protocol. This study discusses the implementation of time synchronization with a network time protocol as a form of telecommunications network security monitoring. The method used in this study is a descriptive narrative on the implementation of time synchronization. Results of this study are input to the policy in the security of electronic transactions through time synchronization

  16. Security Protocols: Specification, Verification, Implementation, and Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almousa, Omar

    An important aspect of Internet security is the security of cryptographic protocols that it deploys. We need to make sure that such protocols achieve their goals, whether in isolation or in composition, i.e., security protocols must not suffer from any aw that enables hostile intruders to break...... results. The most important generalization is the support for all security properties of the geometric fragment proposed by [Gut14]....... their security. Among others, tools like OFMC [MV09b] and Proverif [Bla01] are quite efficient for the automatic formal verification of a large class of protocols. These tools use different approaches such as symbolic model checking or static analysis. Either approach has its own pros and cons, and therefore, we...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Different Protocols to Manage Large Scale Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Rao Pimplapure; Dr Jayant Dubey; Prashant Sen

    2013-01-01

    In recent year the numbers, complexity and size is increased in Large Scale Network. The best example of Large Scale Network is Internet, and recently once are Data-centers in Cloud Environment. In this process, involvement of several management tasks such as traffic monitoring, security and performance optimization is big task for Network Administrator. This research reports study the different protocols i.e. conventional protocols like Simple Network Management Protocol and newly Gossip bas...

  18. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C. L. (Christopher L.); Drozda, M. (Martin); Marathe, A. (Achla); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.)

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  19. A Clustering Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic topology of a mobile ad hoc network poses a real challenge in the design of hierarchical routing protocol, which combines proactive with reactive routing protocols and takes advantages of both. And as an essential technique of hierarchical routing protocol, clustering of nodes provides an efficient method of establishing a hierarchical structure in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we designed a novel clustering algorithm and a corresponding hierarchical routing protocol for large-scale mobile ad hoc networks. Each cluster is composed of a cluster head, several cluster gateway nodes, several cluster guest nodes, and other cluster members. The proposed routing protocol uses proactive protocol between nodes within individual clusters and reactive protocol between clusters. Simulation results show that the proposed clustering algorithm and hierarchical routing protocol provide superior performance with several advantages over existing clustering algorithm and routing protocol, respectively.

  20. Fault discovery protocol for passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; Fonseca, Daniel; da Silva, Henrique J. A.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2007-06-01

    All existing flavors of passive optical networks (PONs) provide an attractive alternative to legacy copper-based access lines deployed between a central office (CO) of the service provider (SP) and a customer site. One of the most challenging tasks for PON network planners is the reduction of the overall cost of employing protection schemes for the optical fiber plant while maintaining a reasonable level of survivability and reducing the downtime, thus ensuring acceptable levels of quality of service (QoS) for end subscribers. The recently growing volume of Ethernet PONs deployment [Kramer, IEEE 802.3, CFI (2006)], connected with low-cost electronic and optical components used in the optical network unit (ONU) modules, results in the situation where remote detection of faulty/active subscriber modules becomes indispensable for proper operation of an EPON system. The problem of the remote detection of faulty ONUs in the system is addressed where the upstream channel is flooded with the cw transmission from one or more damaged ONUs and standard communication is severed, providing a solution that is applicable in any type of PON network, regardless of the operating protocol, physical structure, and data rate.

  1. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M. [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants.

  2. Development of Network Protocol for the Integrated Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. W.; Baek, J. I.; Lee, S. H.; Park, C. S.; Park, K. H.; Shin, J. M.

    2007-06-01

    Communication devices in the safety system of nuclear power plants are distinguished from those developed for commercial purposes in terms of a strict requirement of safety. The concept of safety covers the determinability, the reliability, and the separation/isolation to prevent the undesirable interactions among devices. The safety also requires that these properties be never proof less. Most of the current commercialized communication products rarely have the safety properties. Moreover, they can be neither verified nor validated to satisfy the safety property of implementation process. This research proposes the novel architecture and protocol of a data communication network for the safety system in nuclear power plants

  3. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks

  4. Data aggregation in wireless sensor networks using the SOAP protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Yasiri, A; Sunley, A [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) offer an increasingly attractive method of data gathering in distributed system architectures and dynamic access via wireless connectivity. Wireless sensor networks have physical and resource limitations, this leads to increased complexity for application developers and often results in applications that are closely coupled with network protocols. In this paper, a data aggregation framework using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) on wireless sensor networks is presented. The framework works as a middleware for aggregating data measured by a number of nodes within a network. The aim of the study is to assess the suitability of the protocol in such environments where resources are limited compared to traditional networks.

  5. Auto-configuration protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity.

  6. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  7. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García JoséAPérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  8. Messaging Performance of FIPA Interaction Protocols in Networked Embedded Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Jehovani López Orozco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based technologies in production control systems could facilitate seamless reconfiguration and integration of mechatronic devices/modules into systems. Advances in embedded controllers which are continuously improving computational capabilities allow for software modularization and distribution of decisions. Agent platforms running on embedded controllers could hide the complexity of bootstrap and communication. Therefore, it is important to investigate the messaging performance of the agents whose main motivation is the resource allocation in manufacturing systems (i.e., conveyor system. The tests were implemented using the FIPA-compliant JADE-LEAP agent platform. Agent containers were distributed through networked embedded controllers, and agents were communicating using request and contract-net FIPA interaction protocols. The test scenarios are organized in intercontainer and intracontainer communications. The work shows the messaging performance for the different test scenarios using both interaction protocols.

  9. Recommendations for Enhancing Implementation of Additional Protocol Declarations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niina, Toshiaki; Nidaira, Kazuo; Aono, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    Japan signed the Additional Protocol (hereafter, AP) in December 1998. The domestic law and regulation had been revised to implement the initial and annual declarations for the Agency and the Additional Protocol came into force in December 1999. Since initial declaration in 2000, Japan has submitted the annual declaration in every May. Until 2010, Japan has made 10 annual declarations. This paper gives recommendations to enhance implementation of Additional Protocol declarations based on 10-year experience in Japan and addresses the following: Current status of additional protocol declaration in Japan; Outline of processing method; AP Information Management System; Recommendations for improving quality of declaration. Preparation of additional protocol declaration in NMCC has been conducted in the course of contract with Japan Safeguards Office (hereafter, JSGO) for safeguards information treatment. (author)

  10. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  11. Network architectures and protocols for the integration of ACTS and ISDN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitre, D. M.; Lowry, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    A close integration of satellite networks and the integrated services digital network (ISDN) is essential for satellite networks to carry ISDN traffic effectively. This also shows how a given (pre-ISDN) satellite network architecture can be enhanced to handle ISDN signaling and provide ISDN services. It also describes the functional architecture and high-level protocols that could be implemented in the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) low burst rate communications system to provide ISDN services.

  12. Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networking Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gavrilovska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc and sensor networks are becoming an increasingly popular wireless networking concepts lately. This paper analyzes and compares prominent routing schemes in these networking environments. The knowledge obtained can serve users to better understand short range wireless network solutions thus leading to options for implementation in various scenarios. In addition, it should aid researchers develop protocol improvements reliable for the technologies of interest.

  13. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  14. Design and Implementation of a Secure Modbus Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovino, Igor Nai; Carcano, Andrea; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    The interconnectivity of modern and legacy supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems with corporate networks and the Internet has significantly increased the threats to critical infrastructure assets. Meanwhile, traditional IT security solutions such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems and antivirus software are relatively ineffective against attacks that specifically target vulnerabilities in SCADA protocols. This paper describes a secure version of the Modbus SCADA protocol that incorporates integrity, authentication, non-repudiation and anti-replay mechanisms. Experimental results using a power plant testbed indicate that the augmented protocol provides good security functionality without significant overhead.

  15. IAEA to implement Safeguards Additional Protocols in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei welcomed the entry into force today of the Additional Protocols for 15 States of the European Union - France, the United Kingdom and the 13 non-nuclear weapon States of the EU - and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Protocols, which provide the Agency with better tools to verify compliance with nuclear non-proliferation commitments, entered into force when the European Commission informed the Agency that EURATOM's own requirements for entry into force had been met. The 15 States had provided similar notifications over the past years since signing the Protocols in 1998. The simultaneous entry into force of Additional Protocols for the 15 EU States is 'a very positive development and a milestone in our efforts to strengthen the verification regime', said Dr. ElBaradei. 'In my view, the Additional Protocol should become the standard for verification under the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).' He added that the Agency had been preparing for the entry into force of the EU protocols and was confident that, in co-operation with the 15 States and EURATOM, it would be able to ensure effective and efficient implementation in the EU States. The Model Additional Protocol was developed following the discovery of Iraq's clandestine nuclear weapons programme to ensure that the IAEA is given the information and access it needs for timely discovery of any similar activities in States that have pledged not to use nuclear material and activities for weapons purposes. In the past year, Additional Protocols entered into force for 22 countries, and the Agency will now implement Additional Protocols in 58 States, which includes the 15 EU States. The 10 countries joining the EU on 1 May 2004 - seven of which already have brought into force Additional Protocols to their respective safeguards agreements - are expected to gradually accede to the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol covering

  16. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  17. Adaptive Relay Activation in the Network Coding Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank

    2015-01-01

    State-of-the-art Network coding based routing protocols exploit the link quality information to compute the transmission rate in the intermediate nodes. However, the link quality discovery protocols are usually inaccurate, and introduce overhead in wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we presen...

  18. Cluster protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks: a Research Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ovaliadis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN have different characteristics in relation to terrestrial wireless sensor networks; such as limited bandwidth capacity, high propagation delays and limited battery power. Although there has been much work completed in developing protocols and models for terrestrial networks, these are rarely applicable for underwater sensor networks. Up to today major efforts have been made for designing efficient protocols while considering the underwater communication characteristics. An important issue on this research area is the construction of an efficient clustering algorithm. Clustering in the context of UWSN is important as it contributes a great deal towards the efficient use of energy resources. This paper reviews the most significant cluster based protocols proposed for UWSN. Major performance issues of these protocols with respect to the network conditions such as packet delivery ratio, average packet delay, node mobility effect and energy consumption are examined. The advantages and disadvantages of each protocol are also pointed out.

  19. High-Performance CCSDS AOS Protocol Implementation in FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Torgerson, Jordan L.; Pang, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) space data link protocol provides a framing layer between channel coding such as LDPC (low-density parity-check) and higher-layer link multiplexing protocols such as CCSDS Encapsulation Service, which is described in the following article. Recent advancement in RF modem technology has allowed multi-megabit transmission over space links. With this increase in data rate, the CCSDS AOS protocol implementation needs to be optimized to both reduce energy consumption and operate at a high rate.

  20. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...... the groups. Patients in the After group had a lower 90-d (P = 0.026) and 120-d (P = 0.033) mortality. In the After group, enteral nutrition was prescribed less frequently (P = 0.039) on day 1 but significantly more frequently on all days from day 3. Implementation of the feeding protocol resulted in a higher...

  1. Implementation of a Rapid, Protocol-based TIA Management Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarhult, Susann J; Howell, Melissa L; Barnaure-Nachbar, Isabelle; Chang, Yuchiao; White, Benjamin A; Amatangelo, Mary; Brown, David F; Singhal, Aneesh B; Schwamm, Lee H; Silverman, Scott B; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2018-03-01

    Our goal was to assess whether use of a standardized clinical protocol improves efficiency for patients who present to the emergency department (ED) with symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA). We performed a structured, retrospective, cohort study at a large, urban, tertiary care academic center. In July 2012 this hospital implemented a standardized protocol for patients with suspected TIA. The protocol selected high-risk patients for admission and low/intermediate-risk patients to an ED observation unit for workup. Recommended workup included brain imaging, vascular imaging, cardiac monitoring, and observation. Patients were included if clinical providers determined the need for workup for TIA. We included consecutive patients presenting during a six-month period prior to protocol implementation, and those presenting between 6-12 months after implementation. Outcomes included ED length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, use of neuroimaging, and 90-day risk of stroke or TIA. From 01/2012 to 06/2012, 130 patients were evaluated for TIA symptoms in the ED, and from 01/2013 to 06/2013, 150 patients. The final diagnosis was TIA or stroke in 45% before vs. 41% after (p=0.18). Following the intervention, the inpatient admission rate decreased from 62% to 24% (pTIA among those with final diagnosis of TIA was 3% for both periods. Implementation of a TIA protocol significantly reduced ED LOS and total hospital LOS.

  2. New Heterogeneous Clustering Protocol for Prolonging Wireless Sensor Networks Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Golam Rashed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustering in wireless sensor networks is one of the crucial methods for increasing of network lifetime. The network characteristics of existing classical clustering protocols for wireless sensor network are homogeneous. Clustering protocols fail to maintain the stability of the system, especially when nodes are heterogeneous. We have seen that the behavior of Heterogeneous-Hierarchical Energy Aware Routing Protocol (H-HEARP becomes very unstable once the first node dies, especially in the presence of node heterogeneity. In this paper we assume a new clustering protocol whose network characteristics is heterogeneous for prolonging of network lifetime. The computer simulation results demonstrate that the proposed clustering algorithm outperforms than other clustering algorithms in terms of the time interval before the death of the first node (we refer to as stability period. The simulation results also show the high performance of the proposed clustering algorithm for higher values of extra energy brought by more powerful nodes.

  3. A case for evaluating sensor network protocols concurrently

    KAUST Repository

    Gnawali, Omprakash; Guibas, Leonidas; Levis, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Researchers typically evaluate and compare protocols on the testbeds by running them one at a time. This methodology ignores the variation in link qualities and wireless environment across these experiments. These variations can introduce significant noise in the results. Evaluating two protocols concurrently, however, suffers from inter-protocol interactions. These interactions can perturb performance even under very light load, especially timing and timing sensitive protocols. We argue that the benefits of running protocols concurrently greatly outweigh the disadvantages. Protocols rarely run in isolation in real networks, and so considering such interactions is valuable. Although the wireless environment is still uncontrolled, concurrent evaluations make comparisons fair and more statistically sound. Through experiments on two testbeds, we make the case for evaluating and comparing low data-rate sensor network protocols by running them concurrently. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  4. Wireless sensor networks architectures and protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Jr, Edgar H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Wireless Sensor NetworksApplications and MotivationNetwork Performance ObjectivesContributions of this BookOrganization of this BookThe Development of Wireless Sensor NetworksEarly Wireless NetworksWireless Data NetworksWireless Sensor and Related NetworksConclusionThe Physical LayerSome Physical Layer ExamplesA Practical Physical Layer for Wireless Sensor NetworksSimulations and ResultsConclusionThe Data Link LayerMedium Access Control TechniquesThe Mediation DeviceSystem Analysis and SimulationConclusionThe Network LayerSome Network Design ExamplesA Wireless Sensor Network De

  5. Routing protocol extension for resilient GMPLS multi-domain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Romeral, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multi-domain networks under the Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching control framework in case of a single inter-domain link failure. We propose and evaluate a routing protocol extension for the Border Gateway Protocol, which allows domains to obtain...... two Autonomous System disjoint paths and use them efficiently under failure conditions. Three main applications for the protocol extension are illustrated: reducing traffic loss on existing connections by xploiting pre-selected backup paths derived with our proposal, applying multi-domain restoration...... as survivability mechanism in case of single link failure, and employing proper failure notification mechanisms for routing of future connection requests under routing protocol re-convergence. Via simulations we illustrate the benefits of utilizing the proposed routing protocol extension for networks employing...

  6. WE-E-304-00: Implementing SBRT Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation

  7. WE-E-304-00: Implementing SBRT Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation.

  8. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  9. User-friendly matching protocol for online social networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we outline a privacy-preserving matching protocol for OSN (online social network) users to find their potential friends. With the proposed protocol, a logged-in user can match her profile with that of an off-line stranger, while both profiles are maximally protected. Our solution

  10. A User Driven Dynamic Circuit Network Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Robertson, David; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Thompson, Mary; Johnston, William; Tierney, Brian

    2008-10-01

    The requirements for network predictability are becoming increasingly critical to the DoE science community where resources are widely distributed and collaborations are world-wide. To accommodate these emerging requirements, the Energy Sciences Network has established a Science Data Network to provide user driven guaranteed bandwidth allocations. In this paper we outline the design, implementation, and secure coordinated use of such a network, as well as some lessons learned.

  11. A Study on IP Network Recovery through Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet has taken major role in our communication infrastructure. Such that requirement of internet availability and reliability has increasing accordingly. The major network failure reasons are failure of node and failure of link among the nodes. This can reduce the performance of major applications in an IP networks. The network recovery should be fast enough so that service interruption of link or node failure. The new path taken by the diverted traffic can be computed either at the time of failures or before failures. These mechanisms are known as Reactive and Proactive protocols respectively. In this paper, we surveyed reactive and proactive protocols mechanisms for IP network recovery.

  12. Wireless Multi Hop Access Networks and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Plymoth, Anders

    2007-01-01

    As more and more applications and services in our society now depend on the Internet, it is important that dynamically deployed wireless multi hop networks are able to gain access to the Internet and other infrastructure networks and services. This thesis proposes and evaluates solutions for providing multi hop Internet Access. It investigates how ad hoc networks can be combined with wireless and mesh networks in order to create wireless multi hop access networks. When several access points t...

  13. Evaluation of svr: a wireless sensor network routing protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Khanzada, T.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The advancement in technology has made it possible to create small in size, low cost sensor nodes. However, the small size and low cost of such nodes comesat at price that is, reduced processing power, low memory and significantly small battery energy storage. WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) are inherently ad hoc in nature and are assumed to work in the toughest terrain. The network lifetime plays a pivotal role in a wireless sensor network. A long network lifetime, could be achieved by either making significant changes in these low cost devices, which is not a feasible solution or by improving the means of communication throughout the network. The communication in such networks could be improved by employing energy efficient routing protocols, to route the data throughout the network. In this paper the SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) protocol is compared against the most common WSN routing protocols, and from the results it could be inferred that the SVR protocol out performs its counterparts. The protocol provides an energy efficient means of communication in the network. (author)

  14. Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, Md. Golam; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, Muhammad Sajjadur; Ullah, Shaikh Enayet

    2012-01-01

    The efficient use of energy source in a sensor node is most desirable criteria for prolong the life time of wireless sensor network. In this paper, we propose a two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP). We introduce a new concept called head-set, consists of one active cluster head and some other associate cluster heads within a cluster. The head-set members are responsible for control and management of the network. Results show that t...

  15. Design and implementation of a high performance network security processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixin; Bai, Guoqiang; Chen, Hongyi

    2010-03-01

    The last few years have seen many significant progresses in the field of application-specific processors. One example is network security processors (NSPs) that perform various cryptographic operations specified by network security protocols and help to offload the computation intensive burdens from network processors (NPs). This article presents a high performance NSP system architecture implementation intended for both internet protocol security (IPSec) and secure socket layer (SSL) protocol acceleration, which are widely employed in virtual private network (VPN) and e-commerce applications. The efficient dual one-way pipelined data transfer skeleton and optimised integration scheme of the heterogenous parallel crypto engine arrays lead to a Gbps rate NSP, which is programmable with domain specific descriptor-based instructions. The descriptor-based control flow fragments large data packets and distributes them to the crypto engine arrays, which fully utilises the parallel computation resources and improves the overall system data throughput. A prototyping platform for this NSP design is implemented with a Xilinx XC3S5000 based FPGA chip set. Results show that the design gives a peak throughput for the IPSec ESP tunnel mode of 2.85 Gbps with over 2100 full SSL handshakes per second at a clock rate of 95 MHz.

  16. Auto-Configuration Protocols in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Matesanz, Julián García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Díaz, José Duván Márquez

    2011-01-01

    The TCP/IP protocol allows the different nodes in a network to communicate by associating a different IP address to each node. In wired or wireless networks with infrastructure, we have a server or node acting as such which correctly assigns IP addresses, but in mobile ad hoc networks there is no such centralized entity capable of carrying out this function. Therefore, a protocol is needed to perform the network configuration automatically and in a dynamic way, which will use all nodes in the network (or part thereof) as if they were servers that manage IP addresses. This article reviews the major proposed auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks, with particular emphasis on one of the most recent: D2HCP. This work also includes a comparison of auto-configuration protocols for mobile ad hoc networks by specifying the most relevant metrics, such as a guarantee of uniqueness, overhead, latency, dependency on the routing protocol and uniformity. PMID:22163814

  17. Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gorine; M. Ramadan Elmezughi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issue...

  18. Implementasi Sinkronisasi Waktu dengan Network Time Protocol untuk Pemantauan Keamanan Aktivitas Jaringan Telekomunikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budi Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak           Penyelenggara Jaringan adalah menyediakan dan atau memberikan pelayanan jaringan yang memungkinkan terselenggaranya transaksi elektronik. Setiap penyelenggara jaringan diwajibkan untuk menyelaraskan waktu dalam transaksi elektronik. Tujuan dilakukannya penyelarasan waktu adalah untuk menyediakan waktu yang standar dan menyediakan acuan waktu untuk segala bentuk transaksi elektronik dengan prinsip keakuratan dan ketertelusuran. Sistem Penyelarasan Waktu Indonesia menggunakan prinsip ketertelusuran dan prinsip keakuratan. Protokol yang digunakan dalam penyelarasan waktu server di Indonesia berbasis Network Time Protocol. Kajian ini membahas mengenai implementasi sinkronisasi waktu dengan network time protocol sebagai salah satu bentuk pemantauan keamanan jaringan telekomunikasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah naratif deskriptif mengenai implementasi sinkronisasi waktu.Hasil kajian ini adalah masukan untuk kebijakan dalam keamanan transaksi elektronik melalui sinkronisasi waktu.    Abstract Network providers are providing services or networks that enable the implementation of electronic transactions. Each network operator is required to align the time in electronic transactions. The purpose is to provide time alignment of the time standard and provide a time frame for all forms of electronic transactions with the principles of accuracy and traceability. Indonesian Time Alignment System uses the principle of traceability and accuracy principles. The protocols used in the alignment of the time server in Indonesia-based Network Time Protocol. This study discusses the implementation of time synchronization with a network time protocol as a form of telecommunications network security monitoring. The method used in this study is a descriptive narrative on the implementation of time synchronization. Results of this study are input to the policy in the security of electronic transactions through time

  19. A Secure and Efficient Handover Authentication Protocol for Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Handover authentication protocol is a promising access control technology in the fields of WLANs and mobile wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we firstly review an effcient handover authentication protocol, named PairHand, and its existing security attacks and improvements. Then, we present an improved key recovery attack by using the linearly combining method and reanalyze its feasibility on the improved PairHand protocol. Finally, we present a new handover authentication protocol, which not only achieves the same desirable effciency features of PairHand, but enjoys the provable security in the random oracle model.

  20. Performance Analysis of TDMA Protocol in a Femtocell Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanod Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access protocol using queuing theory in a femtocell network. The fair use of wireless channel among the users of network is carried out using TDMA protocol. The arrival of data packets from M communicating nodes becomes multiple Poisson process. The time slots of TDMA protocol represent c servers to communicate data packets coming from communicating nodes to the input of FAP (Femtocell Access Point. The service time of each server (time slot is exponentially distributed. This complete communication scenario using TDMA protocol is modeled using M/M/c queue. The performance of the protocol is evaluated in terms of mean number in system, average system delay and utilization for varying traffic intensity

  1. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol\\'s perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain\\'s fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  2. Analysis of energy efficient routing protocols for implementation of a ubiquitous health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Koo, Sangjun; Ayurzana, Odgeral; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    The innovative Ubiquitous-Health was born through convergence of medical service, with development of up to date information technologies and ubiquitous IT. The U-Health can be applied to a variety of special situations for managing functions of each medical center efficiently. This paper focuses on estimation of various routing protocols for implementation of U-health monitoring system. In order to facilitate wireless communication over the network, a routing protocol on the network layer is used to establish precise and efficient route between sensor nodes so that information acquired from sensors may be delivered in a timely manner. A route establishment should be considered to minimize overhead, data loss and power consumption because wireless networks for U-health are organized by a large number of sensor nodes which are small in size and have limited processing power, memory and battery life. In this paper a overview of wireless sensor network technologies commonly known is described as well as evaluation of three multi hop routing protocols which are flooding, gossiping and modified low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy(LEACH) for use with these networks using TOSSIM simulator. As a result of evaluation the integrated wireless sensor board was developed in particular. The board is embedded device based on AVR128 porting TinyOS. Also it employs bio sensor measures blood pressure, pulse frequency and ZigBee module for wireless communication. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related the U-Health.

  3. Controlled Delegation Protocol in Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang MingHour

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve off-line delegation for mobile readers, we propose a delegation protocol for mobile RFID allowing its readers access to specific tags through back-end server. That is to say, reader-tag mutual authentication can be performed without readers being connected to back-end server. Readers are also allowed off-line access to tags' data. Compared with other delegation protocols, our scheme uniquely enables back-end server to limit each reader's reading times during delegation. Even in a multireader situation, our protocol can limit reading times and reading time periods for each of them and therefore makes back-end server's delegation more flexible. Besides, our protocol can prevent authorized readers from transferring their authority to the unauthorized, declining invalid access to tags. Our scheme is proved viable and secure with GNY logic; it is against certain security threats, such as replay attacks, denial of service (DoS attacks, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, counterfeit tags, and breaches of location and data privacy. Also, the performance analysis of our protocol proves that current tags can afford the computation load required in this scheme.

  4. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  5. An Energy-efficient Clock Synchronization Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Albu, Roxana; Labit, Yann; Thierry, Gayraud; Pascal, Berthou

    2010-01-01

    5p.; International audience; The behavior of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is nowadays widely analyzed. One of the most important issues is related to their energy consumption, as this has a major impact on the network lifetime. Another important application requirement is to ensure data sensing synchronization, which leads to additional energy consumption as a high number of messages is sent and received at each node. Our proposal consists in implementing a combined synchronization protocol...

  6. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro; Temple, Dan; Mathiasen, Carsten; Pedersen, Lars A.; Klaps, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate ...

  7. Optoelectronic Implementation of Neural Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    neural networks, such as learning, adapting and copying by means of parallel ... to provide robust recognition of hand-printed English text. Engine idle and misfiring .... and s represents the bounded activation function of a neuron. It is typically ...

  8. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pursley, Michael B

    2005-01-01

    Results are reported for basic research in mobile wireless communication networks for tactical applications including investigations of new methods for error-control coding and decoding, modulation...

  9. Mac protocols for wireless sensor network (wsn): a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, J.; Akram, Q.; Saleem, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Data communication between nodes is carried out under Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol which is defined at data link layer. The MAC protocols are responsible to communicate and coordinate between nodes according to the defined standards in WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks). The design of a MAC protocol should also address the issues of energy efficiency and transmission efficiency. There are number of MAC protocols that exist in the literature proposed for WSN. In this paper, nine MAC protocols which includes S-MAC, T-MAC, Wise-MAC, Mu-MAC, Z-MAC, A-MAC, D-MAC, B-MAC and B-MAC+ for WSN have been explored, studied and analyzed. These nine protocols are classified in contention based and hybrid (combination of contention and schedule based) MAC protocols. The goal of this comparative study is to provide a basis for MAC protocols and to highlight different mechanisms used with respect to parameters for the evaluation of energy and transmission efficiency in WSN. This study also aims to give reader a better understanding of the concepts, processes and flow of information used in these MAC protocols for WSN. A comparison with respect to energy reservation scheme, idle listening avoidance, latency, fairness, data synchronization, and throughput maximization has been presented. It was analyzed that contention based MAC protocols are less energy efficient as compared to hybrid MAC protocols. From the analysis of contention based MAC protocols in term of energy consumption, it was being observed that protocols based on preamble sampling consume lesser energy than protocols based on static or dynamic sleep schedule. (author)

  10. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  11. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  12. Research and Implementation of Collision Detection Based on Modbus Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglan Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the communication errors resulted by traditional working condition multi-platform device communication using the custom protocol communication and link congestion malpractice brought by retransmission, it ensures network communication using time-sharing communication conflict detection based on mature Modbus protocol. Thereby it enhances the stability of the entire system during operation process, and provides simple, efficient, stable business specification interface for the future expansion of the system. After a comprehensive evaluation and analysis of system communication messages before and after improvement, system comprehensive evaluation target has improved. While the system is more flexible to modular design, develop transparent, structure open side and has a broad application prospects.

  13. Network Resiliency Implementation in the ATLAS TDAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Stancu, S N; The ATLAS collaboration; Batraneanu, S M; Ballestrero, S; Caramarcu, C; Martin, B; Savu, D O; Sjoen, R V; Valsan, L

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ (Trigger and Data Acquisition) system performs the real-time selection of events produced by the detector. For this purpose approximately 2000 computers are deployed and interconnected through various high speed networks, whose architecture has already been described. This article focuses on the implementation and validation of network connectivity resiliency (previously presented at a conceptual level). Redundancy and eventually load balancing are achieved through the synergy of various protocols: 802.3ad link aggregation, OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol), MST (Multiple Spanning Trees). An innovative method for cost-effective redundant connectivity of high-throughput high-availability servers is presented. Furthermore, real-life examples showing how redundancy works, and more importantly how it might fail despite careful planning are presented.

  14. Security Property Validation of the Sensor Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been designed to be deployed in an unsecured, public environment, secured communication is really vital for their wide-spread use. Among all of the communication protocols developed for WSN, the Security Protocols for Sensor Networks (SPINS is exceptional, as it has been designed with security as a goal. SPINS is composed of two building blocks: Secure Network Encryption Protocol (SNEP and the “micro” version of the Timed Efficient Streaming Loss-tolerant Authentication (TESLA, named μTESLA. From the inception of SPINS, a number of efforts have been made to validate its security properties. In this paper, we have validated the security properties of SNEP by using an automated security protocol validation tool, named AVISPA. Using the protocol specification language, HLPSL, we model two combined scenarios—node to node key agreement and counter exchange protocols—followed by data transmission. Next, we validate the security properties of these combined protocols, using different AVISPA back-ends. AVISPA reports the models we have developed free from attacks. However, by analyzing the key distribution sub-protocol, we find one threat of a potential DoS attack that we have demonstrated by modeling in AVISPA. Finally, we propose a modification, and AVISPA reports this modified version free from the potential DoS attack.

  15. Delay-Tolerant, Low-Power Protocols for Large Security-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. Malavenda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the analysis, implementation, and experimental testing of a delay-tolerant and energy-aware protocol for a wireless sensor node, oriented to security applications. The solution proposed takes advantages from different domains considering as a guideline the low power consumption and facing the problems of seamless and lossy connectivity offered by the wireless medium along with very limited resources offered by a wireless network node. The paper is organized as follows: first we give an overview on delay-tolerant wireless sensor networking (DTN; then we perform a simulation-based comparative analysis of state-of-the-art DTN approaches and illustrate the improvement offered by the proposed protocol; finally we present experimental data gathered from the implementation of the proposed protocol on a proprietary hardware node.

  16. Collaborative communication protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Nieberg, T.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    In this document, the design of communication within a wireless sensor network is discussed. The resource limitations of such a network, especially in terms of energy, require an integrated approach for all (traditional) layers of communication. We present such an integrated, collaborative approach

  17. Network Coding Protocols for Data Gathering Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    Tunable sparse network coding (TSNC) with various sparsity levels of the coded packets and different feedback mechanisms is analysed in the context of data gathering applications in multi-hop networks. The goal is to minimize the completion time, i.e., the total time required to collect all data ...

  18. A SURVEY on WIRELESS MESH NETWORKS, ROUTING METRICS and PROTOCOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak DURUKAN ODABASI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, Internet has become an indispensable part of our daily lives. It has a growing user community in many fields from banking transactions to online entertainment. It will be very efficient for users, as the next generation internet access becomes wireless like frequently used services such as cellular phones. But for providing this, a new network is needed to be designed or an existing network must be improved as well as making changes on infrastructure. At this point, mesh network infrastructure arises and offers more sophisticated internet access with less need. The most important advantage of mesh networks is the capability of working without infrastructure. Mesh networks are an additional access technology more than being a renewed one in the next generation wireless networks called 4G. In this study, wireless mesh networks and example applications are mentioned. Base architecture and design factors are emphasized, current routing protocols that are used on wireless mesh networks and routing metrics on which these protocols are based, are explained. Finally, the performance effects of these protocols and metrics on different network topologies are referred.

  19. The case for a network protocol isolation layer

    KAUST Repository

    Il Choi, Jung; Kazandjieva, Maria A.; Jain, Mayank; Levis, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Network protocols are typically designed and tested individually. In practice, however, applications use multiple protocols concurrently. This discrepancy can lead to failures from unanticipated interactions between protocols. In this paper, we argue that sensor network communication stacks should have an isolation layer, whose purpose is to make each protocol's perception of the wireless channel independent of what other protocols are running. We identify two key mechanisms the isolation layer must provide: shared collision avoidance and fair channel allocation. We present an example design of an isolation layer that builds on the existing algorithms of grant-to-send and fair queueing. However, the complexities of wireless make these mechanisms insufficient by themselves. We therefore propose two new mechanisms that address these limitations: channel decay and fair cancellation. Incorporating these new mechanisms reduces the increase in end-to-end delivery cost associated with concurrently operating two protocols by more than 60%. The isolation layer improves median protocol fairness from 0.52 to 0.96 in Jain's fairness index. Together, these results show that using an isolation layer makes protocols more efficient and robust. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  20. Efficient data communication protocols for wireless networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeydan, Engin

    In this dissertation, efficient decentralized algorithms are investigated for cost minimization problems in wireless networks. For wireless sensor networks, we investigate both the reduction in the energy consumption and throughput maximization problems separately using multi-hop data aggregation for correlated data in wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithms exploit data redundancy using a game theoretic framework. For energy minimization, routes are chosen to minimize the total energy expended by the network using best response dynamics to local data. The cost function used in routing takes into account distance, interference and in-network data aggregation. The proposed energy-efficient correlation-aware routing algorithm significantly reduces the energy consumption in the network and converges in a finite number of steps iteratively. For throughput maximization, we consider both the interference distribution across the network and correlation between forwarded data when establishing routes. Nodes along each route are chosen to minimize the interference impact in their neighborhood and to maximize the in-network data aggregation. The resulting network topology maximizes the global network throughput and the algorithm is guaranteed to converge with a finite number of steps using best response dynamics. For multiple antenna wireless ad-hoc networks, we present distributed cooperative and regret-matching based learning schemes for joint transmit beanformer and power level selection problem for nodes operating in multi-user interference environment. Total network transmit power is minimized while ensuring a constant received signal-to-interference and noise ratio at each receiver. In cooperative and regret-matching based power minimization algorithms, transmit beanformers are selected from a predefined codebook to minimize the total power. By selecting transmit beamformers judiciously and performing power adaptation, the cooperative algorithm is shown to

  1. Implementation of a Rapid, Protocol-based TIA Management Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann J. Jarhult

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to assess whether use of a standardized clinical protocol improves efficiency for patients who present to the emergency department (ED with symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA. Methods: We performed a structured, retrospective, cohort study at a large, urban, tertiary care academic center. In July 2012 this hospital implemented a standardized protocol for patients with suspected TIA. The protocol selected high-risk patients for admission and low/intermediate-risk patients to an ED observation unit for workup. Recommended workup included brain imaging, vascular imaging, cardiac monitoring, and observation. Patients were included if clinical providers determined the need for workup for TIA. We included consecutive patients presenting during a six-month period prior to protocol implementation, and those presenting between 6–12 months after implementation. Outcomes included ED length of stay (LOS, hospital LOS, use of neuroimaging, and 90-day risk of stroke or TIA. Results: From 01/2012 to 06/2012, 130 patients were evaluated for TIA symptoms in the ED, and from 01/2013 to 06/2013, 150 patients. The final diagnosis was TIA or stroke in 45% before vs. 41% after (p=0.18. Following the intervention, the inpatient admission rate decreased from 62% to 24% (p<0.001, median ED LOS decreased by 1.2 hours (5.7 to 4.9 hours, p=0.027, and median total hospital LOS from 29.4 hours to 23.1 hours (p=0.019. The proportion of patients receiving head computed tomography (CT went from 68% to 58% (p=0.087; brain magnetic resonance (MR imaging from 83% to 88%, (p=0.44 neck CT angiography from 32% to 22% (p=0.039; and neck MR angiography from 61% to 72% (p=0.046. Ninety-day stroke or recurrent TIA among those with final diagnosis of TIA was 3% for both periods. Conclusion: Implementation of a TIA protocol significantly reduced ED LOS and total hospital LOS.

  2. Space Link Extension Protocol Emulation for High-Throughput, High-Latency Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorowski, Nicole; Murawski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    New space missions require higher data rates and new protocols to meet these requirements. These high data rate space communication links push the limitations of not only the space communication links, but of the ground communication networks and protocols which forward user data to remote ground stations (GS) for transmission. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, (CCSDS) Space Link Extension (SLE) standard protocol is one protocol that has been proposed for use by the NASA Space Network (SN) Ground Segment Sustainment (SGSS) program. New protocol implementations must be carefully tested to ensure that they provide the required functionality, especially because of the remote nature of spacecraft. The SLE protocol standard has been tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center's SCENIC Emulation Lab in order to observe its operation under realistic network delay conditions. More specifically, the delay between then NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) and spacecraft has been emulated. The round trip time (RTT) delay for the continental NISN network has been shown to be up to 120ms; as such the SLE protocol was tested with network delays ranging from 0ms to 200ms. Both a base network condition and an SLE connection were tested with these RTT delays, and the reaction of both network tests to the delay conditions were recorded. Throughput for both of these links was set at 1.2Gbps. The results will show that, in the presence of realistic network delay, the SLE link throughput is significantly reduced while the base network throughput however remained at the 1.2Gbps specification. The decrease in SLE throughput has been attributed to the implementation's use of blocking calls. The decrease in throughput is not acceptable for high data rate links, as the link requires constant data a flow in order for spacecraft and ground radios to stay synchronized, unless significant data is queued a the ground station. In cases where queuing the data is not an option

  3. Reconfigurable optical implementation of quantum complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokkala, J.; Arzani, F.; Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.; Maniscalco, S.; Piilo, J.; Treps, N.; Parigi, V.

    2018-05-01

    Network theory has played a dominant role in understanding the structure of complex systems and their dynamics. Recently, quantum complex networks, i.e. collections of quantum systems arranged in a non-regular topology, have been theoretically explored leading to significant progress in a multitude of diverse contexts including, e.g., quantum transport, open quantum systems, quantum communication, extreme violation of local realism, and quantum gravity theories. Despite important progress in several quantum platforms, the implementation of complex networks with arbitrary topology in quantum experiments is still a demanding task, especially if we require both a significant size of the network and the capability of generating arbitrary topology—from regular to any kind of non-trivial structure—in a single setup. Here we propose an all optical and reconfigurable implementation of quantum complex networks. The experimental proposal is based on optical frequency combs, parametric processes, pulse shaping and multimode measurements allowing the arbitrary control of the number of the nodes (optical modes) and topology of the links (interactions between the modes) within the network. Moreover, we also show how to simulate quantum dynamics within the network combined with the ability to address its individual nodes. To demonstrate the versatility of these features, we discuss the implementation of two recently proposed probing techniques for quantum complex networks and structured environments.

  4. Hardware implementation of stochastic spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Canals, Vincent; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni

    2012-08-01

    Spiking Neural Networks, the last generation of Artificial Neural Networks, are characterized by its bio-inspired nature and by a higher computational capacity with respect to other neural models. In real biological neurons, stochastic processes represent an important mechanism of neural behavior and are responsible of its special arithmetic capabilities. In this work we present a simple hardware implementation of spiking neurons that considers this probabilistic nature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is that it is fully digital and therefore can be massively implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The high computational capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by the study of both feed-forward and recurrent networks that are able to implement high-speed signal filtering and to solve complex systems of linear equations.

  5. Hopping control channel MAC protocol for opportunistic spectrum access networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing-tuan; JI Hong; MAO Xu

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) is considered as a promising approach to mitigate spectrum scarcity by allowing unlicensed users to exploit spectrum opportunities in licensed frequency bands. Derived from the existing channel-hopping multiple access (CHMA) protocol,we introduce a hopping control channel medium access control (MAC) protocol in the context of OSA networks. In our proposed protocol,all nodes in the network follow a common channel-hopping sequence; every frequency channel can be used as control channel and data channel. Considering primary users' occupancy of the channel,we use a primary user (PU) detection model to calculate the channel availability for unlicensed users' access. Then,a discrete Markov chain analytical model is applied to describe the channel states and deduce the system throughput. Through simulation,we present numerical results to demonstrate the throughput performance of our protocol and thus validate our work.

  6. Cross-Layer Protocol as a Better Option in Wireless Mesh Network with Respect to Layered-Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdulwahab Al-Ahdal; Dr. V. P. Pawar; G. N. Shinde

    2014-01-01

    The Optimal way to improve Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) performance is to use a better network protocol, but whether layered-protocol design or cross-layer design is a better option to optimize protocol performance in WMNs is still an on-going research topic. In this paper, we focus on cross-layer protocol as a better option with respect to layered-protocol. The layered protocol architecture (OSI) model divides networking tasks into layers and defines a pocket of services for each layer to b...

  7. Secure Protocol and IP Core for Configuration of Networking Hardware IPs in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Urbina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the incorporation and constant evolution of communication networks in the electricity sector have given rise to the so-called Smart Grid, which is why it is necessary to have devices that are capable of managing new communication protocols, guaranteeing the strict requirements of processing required by the electricity sector. In this context, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs with network architectures are currently available to meet the communication, real-time processing and interoperability requirements of the Smart Grid. The new generation IEDs include an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, to support specialized networking switching architectures for the electric sector, as the IEEE 1588-aware High-availability Seamless Redundancy/Parallel Redundancy Protocol (HSR/PRP. Another advantage to using an FPGA is the ability to update or reconfigure the design to support new requirements that are being raised to the standards (IEC 61850. The update of the architecture implemented in the FPGA can be done remotely, but it is necessary to establish a cyber security mechanism since the communication link generates vulnerability in the case the attacker gains physical access to the network. The research presented in this paper proposes a secure protocol and Intellectual Property (IP core for configuring and monitoring the networking IPs implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The FPGA based implementation proposed overcomes this issue using a light Layer-2 protocol fully implemented on hardware and protected by strong cryptographic algorithms (AES-GCM, defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 standard. The proposed secure protocol and IP core are applicable in any field where remote configuration over Ethernet is required for IP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, the proposal is validated in communications hardware for Smart Grids.

  8. Wireless Cognitive Networks Technologies and Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Loscri , Valeria; Maskooki , Arash; Mitton , Nathalie; Vegni , Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio applied to Wireless Sensor Networks and Body Area Networks represent an intriguing and really recent paradigm, which represents an objective of study of several researchers. In order to make this technology effective, it is necessary to consider an analytical model of communication capacity, energy consumption and congestion, to effectively exploit the Software Defined Radio and Cognitive Radio in this type of systems. This ch...

  9. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  10. Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. The role of environmental agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-09-01

    This report examines under what circumstances voluntary agreements to curb greenhouse gas emissions could be an attractive policy option from the government`s perspective. The report begins by defining the term Environmental Agreement (EA) and then explores EAs in three steps: (1) Advantages and disadvantages of EAs compared to other policy tools (direct regulation, taxes and tradable permits), based on theoretical studies and experience from practical use, (2) The potential of EAs as an international policy tool, either in a bilateral or regional setting, (3) The attractiveness of EAs to implement the Kyoto Protocol, and the relation to joint implementation and international emissions trading. The main conclusions are: (1) Experience from OECD countries suggests that EAs are most attractive as a supplement to traditional command and control, or to market-based policy tools. (2) Skillful design of EAs can improve their efficiency. (3) Bilateral EAs is an interesting policy option to regulate pollution from other countries. (4) Regional EAs are rare but could have important advantages. (5) EAs can play a role in a soft transition stage from traditional command and control to domestic emission trading, and further on to a Kyoto Protocol regime of emission trading and joint implementation. 52 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  12. Investigation into Practical Implementations of a Zero Knowledge Protocol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krentz-Wee, Rebecca E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the concept of Zero Knowledge Protocols (ZKP) as a useful approach to nuclear warhead verification has become increasingly popular. Several implementations of ZKP have been proposed, driving technology development toward proof of concept demonstrations. Whereas proposed implementations seem to fall within the general class of template-based techniques, all physical implementations of ZKPs proposed to date have a complication: once the instrumentation is prepared, it is no longer authenticatable; the instrument physically contains sensitive information. In this work we explore three different concepts that may offer more authenticatable and practical ZKP implementations and evaluate the sensitive information that may be at risk when doing so: sharing a subset of detector counts in a preloaded image (with spatial information removed), real-time image subtraction, and a new concept, CONfirmation using a Fast-neutron Imaging Detector with Anti-image NULL-positive Time Encoding (CONFIDANTE). CONFIDANTE promises to offer an almost ideal implementation of ZKP: a positive result is indicated by a constant rate at all times enabling the monitoring party the possibility of full access to the instrument before, during, and after confirmation. A prototype of CONFIDANTE was designed, built, and its performance evaluated in a series of measurements of several objects including a set of plutonium dioxide Hemispheres. Very encouraging results proving feasibility are presented. 1 Rebecca is currently a graduate student in Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley

  13. Implementation of a Hydrotherapy Protocol to Improve Postpartum Pain Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Meghann; Stevenson, Eleanor; Zimmermann, Deb; Isaacs, Christine

    2017-03-01

    A growing number of women are seeking alternatives to traditional pharmacologic pain management during birth. While there has been an extensive array of nonpharmacologic options developed for labor, there are limited offerings in the postpartum period. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to implement a hydrotherapy protocol in the early postpartum period to improve pain management for women choosing a nonmedicated birth. The postpartum hydrotherapy protocol was initiated in a certified nurse-midwife (CNM) practice in an urban academic medical center. All women who met criteria were offered a 30-minute warm water immersion bath at one hour postpartum. Pain scores were assessed prior to the bath, at 15 minutes after onset, and again at the conclusion (30 minutes). Women who completed the bath were also asked to complete a brief survey on their experience with postpartum hydrotherapy. In women who used the bath (N = 45), there was a significant reduction in pain scores (P hydrotherapy protocol as an alternative or adjunct to medication for early postpartum pain management that significantly reduced pain and improved the birth experience for those who used it. It offers a nonpharmacologic alternative where there have traditionally been limited options. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  14. Frameless ALOHA Protocol for Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Vukobratovic, Dejan

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel distributed random access scheme for wireless networks based on slotted ALOHA, motivated by the analogies between successive interference cancellation and iterative belief-propagation decoding on erasure channels. The proposed scheme assumes that each user independently accesse...

  15. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  16. A quantum-implementable neural network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jialin; Wang, Lingli; Charbon, Edoardo

    2017-10-01

    A quantum-implementable neural network, namely quantum probability neural network (QPNN) model, is proposed in this paper. QPNN can use quantum parallelism to trace all possible network states to improve the result. Due to its unique quantum nature, this model is robust to several quantum noises under certain conditions, which can be efficiently implemented by the qubus quantum computer. Another advantage is that QPNN can be used as memory to retrieve the most relevant data and even to generate new data. The MATLAB experimental results of Iris data classification and MNIST handwriting recognition show that much less neuron resources are required in QPNN to obtain a good result than the classical feedforward neural network. The proposed QPNN model indicates that quantum effects are useful for real-life classification tasks.

  17. Implementing the GBT data transmission protocol in FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Baron, S; Marin, F; Moreira, P; Soos, C

    2009-01-01

    The GBT chip [1] is a radiation tolerant ASIC that can be used to implement bidirectional multipurpose 4.8Gb/s optical links for high-energy physics experiments. It will be proposed to the LHC experiments for combined transmission of physics data, trigger, timing, fast and slow control and monitoring. Although radiation hardness is required on detectors, it is not necessary for the electronics located in the counting rooms, where the GBT functionality can be realized using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components. This paper describes efficient physical implementation of the GBT protocol achieved for FPGA devices on Altera and Xilinx devices with source codes developed in Verilog and VHDL. The current platforms are based on Altera StratixIIGX and Xilinx Virtex5.

  18. IPV6 Mobile Network Protocol Weaknesses and a Cryptosystem Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balitanas, Maricel; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    This paper reviews some of the improvements associated with the new Internet protocol version 6, an emphasis on its security-related functionality particularly in its authentication and concludes with a hybrid cryptosystem for its authentication issue. Since new generation of Internet protocol is on its way to solve the growth of IP address depletion. It is in a process that may take several years to complete. Thus, as a step to effective solution and efficient implementation this review has been made.

  19. Implementation of the Brazilian radiation metrology network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Manoel M.O.; Araujo, Margareth M. de

    1998-01-01

    The ever increasing need for calibration of survey, personal, and contamination meters in Brazil are not completely satisfied by the two operating laboratories. To overcome this deficiency a radiation metrology network is being implemented with the support of IAEA. In a near future this network will count other three calibration laboratories which are being installed in different regions of the country, and accredited through INMETRO. (author)

  20. Criteria for Evaluating Alternative Network and Link Layer Protocols for the NASA Constellation Program Communication Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbenek, Daniel; Soloff, Jason; Lieb, Erica

    2010-01-01

    Selecting a communications and network architecture for future manned space flight requires an evaluation of the varying goals and objectives of the program, development of communications and network architecture evaluation criteria, and assessment of critical architecture trades. This paper uses Cx Program proposed exploration activities as a guideline; lunar sortie, outpost, Mars, and flexible path options are described. A set of proposed communications network architecture criteria are proposed and described. They include: interoperability, security, reliability, and ease of automating topology changes. Finally a key set of architecture options are traded including (1) multiplexing data at a common network layer vs. at the data link layer, (2) implementing multiple network layers vs. a single network layer, and (3) the use of a particular network layer protocol, primarily IPv6 vs. Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN). In summary, the protocol options are evaluated against the proposed exploration activities and their relative performance with respect to the criteria are assessed. An architectural approach which includes (a) the capability of multiplexing at both the network layer and the data link layer and (b) a single network layer for operations at each program phase, as these solutions are best suited to respond to the widest array of program needs and meet each of the evaluation criteria.

  1. Time Error Analysis of SOE System Using Network Time Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Jong Yong; Park, Geun Ok; Park, Heui Youn

    2005-01-01

    To find the accuracy of time in the fully digitalized SOE (Sequence of Events) system, we used a formal specification of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) Version 3, which is used to synchronize time keeping among a set of distributed computers. Through constructing a simple experimental environments and experimenting internet time synchronization, we analyzed the time errors of local clocks of SOE system synchronized with a time server via computer networks

  2. Implementation of Quality Control Protocol in Mammography: A Serbian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciraj Bjelac, O.; Kosutic, D.; Arandjic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Mammography is method of choice for early detection of breast cancer. In Serbia, mammography is performed only clinically, although there is a long term plan to introduce mammography as screening method. Currently there are 60 mammography units in practice in Serbia, resulting with 70 000 mammographies annually. The purpose of this paper is preliminary evaluation of the mammography practice in Serbia, having in mind the annual number of examinations and fact that part of examination is performed on women without any clinical signs. For pilot implementation of Quality Control (QC) protocol in mammography, five hospitals with highest workload have been selected, representing the typical mammography practice in Serbia. Developed QC protocol, based on European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis, actual practice and resources, includes equipment testing and maintenance, staff training and QC management and allocation of responsibilities. Subsequently, it should be applied on the national scale. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Mean glandular doses ranged from 0.12 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density ranged from 1.2 to 2.8. Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and optical density control. The preliminary survey of mammography practice highlighted the need for optimization of radiation protection and training of operating staff, although the survey itself was very valuable learning process for all participants. Furthermore, systematic implementation of QC protocol should provide reliable performance of mammography units and maintain satisfactory image quality and keep patient doses as low as reasonably practical.(author)

  3. Initial Characterization of Optical Communications with Disruption-Tolerant Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolcraft, Joshua; Wilson, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Disruption-tolerant networks (DTNs) are groups of network assets connected with a suite of communication protocol technologies designed to mitigate the effects of link delay and disruption. Application of DTN protocols to diverse groups of network resources in multiple sub-networks results in an overlay network-of-networks with autonomous data routing capability. In space environments where delay or disruption is expected, performance of this type of architecture (such as an interplanetary internet) can increase with the inclusion of new communications mediums and techniques. Space-based optical communication links are therefore an excellent building block of space DTN architectures. When compared to traditional radio frequency (RF) communications, optical systems can provide extremely power-efficient and high bandwidth links bridging sub-networks. Because optical links are more susceptible to link disruption and experience the same light-speed delays as RF, optical-enabled DTN architectures can lessen potential drawbacks and maintain the benefits of autonomous optical communications over deep space distances. These environment-driven expectations - link delay and interruption, along with asymmetric data rates - are the purpose of the proof-of-concept experiment outlined herein. In recognizing the potential of these two technologies, we report an initial experiment and characterization of the performance of a DTN-enabled space optical link. The experiment design employs a point-to-point free-space optical link configured to have asymmetric bandwidth. This link connects two networked systems running a DTN protocol implementation designed and written at JPL for use on spacecraft, and further configured for higher bandwidth performance. Comparing baseline data transmission metrics with and without periodic optical link interruptions, the experiment confirmed the DTN protocols' ability to handle real-world unexpected link outages while maintaining capability of

  4. Directed Security Policies: A Stateful Network Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Diekmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Large systems are commonly internetworked. A security policy describes the communication relationship between the networked entities. The security policy defines rules, for example that A can connect to B, which results in a directed graph. However, this policy is often implemented in the network, for example by firewalls, such that A can establish a connection to B and all packets belonging to established connections are allowed. This stateful implementation is usually required for the network's functionality, but it introduces the backflow from B to A, which might contradict the security policy. We derive compliance criteria for a policy and its stateful implementation. In particular, we provide a criterion to verify the lack of side effects in linear time. Algorithms to automatically construct a stateful implementation of security policy rules are presented, which narrows the gap between formalization and real-world implementation. The solution scales to large networks, which is confirmed by a large real-world case study. Its correctness is guaranteed by the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  5. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S Raja; Seenivasagam, V

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated.

  6. Design and analysis of communication protocols for quantum repeater networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Cody; Kim, Danny; Rakher, Matthew T; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Kwiat, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how the performance of a quantum-repeater network depends on the protocol employed to distribute entanglement, and we find that the choice of repeater-to-repeater link protocol has a profound impact on entanglement-distribution rate as a function of hardware parameters. We develop numerical simulations of quantum networks using different protocols, where the repeater hardware is modeled in terms of key performance parameters, such as photon generation rate and collection efficiency. These parameters are motivated by recent experimental demonstrations in quantum dots, trapped ions, and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. We find that a quantum-dot repeater with the newest protocol (‘MidpointSource’) delivers the highest entanglement-distribution rate for typical cases where there is low probability of establishing entanglement per transmission, and in some cases the rate is orders of magnitude higher than other schemes. Our simulation tools can be used to evaluate communication protocols as part of designing a large-scale quantum network. (paper)

  7. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, S. Raja; Seenivasagam, V.

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. PMID:26881272

  8. Design and implementation of an intrusion detection system based on IPv6 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Zhitang; Li, Yao; Li, Zhanchun

    2005-11-01

    Network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) are important parts of network security architecture. Although many NIDS have been proposed, there is little effort to expand the current set of NIDS to support IPv6 protocol. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Network-based Intrusion Detection System that supports both IPv6 protocol and IPv4 protocol. It characters rules based logging to perform content pattern matching and detect a variety of attacks and probes from IPv4 and IPv6.There are four primary subsystems to make it up: packet capture, packet decoder, detection engine, and logging and alerting subsystem. A new approach to packet capture that combined NAPI with MMAP is proposed in this paper. The test results show that the efficiency of packet capture can be improved significantly by this method. Several new attack tools for IPv6 have been developed for intrusion detection evaluation. Test shows that more than 20 kinds of IPv6 attacks can be detected by this system and it also has a good performance under heavy traffic load.

  9. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  10. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Equations (13a) and (13b) can be satisfied by choosing αk as .... (right) configurations of the two-soliton solution in the Manakov-type system on PSG. .... receivers of messages, the present phase change can be used as protocols of network.

  11. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent...

  12. Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their ...

  13. Autonomous Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy limitation has become a performance bottleneck for mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE 802.11 has been adopted as the current standard MAC protocol for ad hoc networks. However, it was developed without considering energy efficiency. To solve this problem, many modifications on IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control have been proposed in the literature. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use a maximum possible power level for transmitting RTS/CTS and the lowest acceptable power for sending DATA/ACK. However, these schemes may degrade network throughput and reduce the overall energy efficiency of the network. This paper proposes autonomous power control MAC protocol (APCMP, which allows mobile nodes dynamically adjusting power level for transmitting DATA/ACK according to the distances between the transmitter and its neighbors. In addition, the power level for transmitting RTS/CTS is also adjustable according to the power level for DATA/ACK packets. In this paper, the performance of APCMP protocol is evaluated by simulation and is compared with that of other protocols.

  14. Leader Election Protocol for Energy Efficient Mobile Sensor Networks (EYES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we develop and analyze a wireless wave leader election protocol (WWLE) for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, with emphasis on the resulting energy consumption. Within the operating system of the EYES architecture we apply a power model to schedule tasks in order to minimize energy

  15. Hardware Abstraction and Protocol Optimization for Coded Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nistor, Maricica; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Barros, João

    2015-01-01

    The design of the communication protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) often neglects several key characteristics of the sensor's hardware, while assuming that the number of transmitted bits is the dominating factor behind the system's energy consumption. A closer look at the hardware speci...

  16. A proportional integral estimator-based clock synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlun; Fu, Minyue

    2017-11-01

    Clock synchronization is an issue of vital importance in applications of WSNs. This paper proposes a proportional integral estimator-based protocol (EBP) to achieve clock synchronization for wireless sensor networks. As each local clock skew gradually drifts, synchronization accuracy will decline over time. Compared with existing consensus-based approaches, the proposed synchronization protocol improves synchronization accuracy under time-varying clock skews. Moreover, by restricting synchronization error of clock skew into a relative small quantity, it could reduce periodic re-synchronization frequencies. At last, a pseudo-synchronous implementation for skew compensation is introduced as synchronous protocol is unrealistic in practice. Numerical simulations are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed protocol. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Performance Evaluation of NACK-Oriented Protocols as the Foundation of Reliable Delay- Tolerant Networking Convergence Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis; Hylton, Alan; Ishac, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an active area of research in the space communications community. DTN uses a standard layered approach with the Bundle Protocol operating on top of transport layer protocols known as convergence layers that actually transmit the data between nodes. Several different common transport layer protocols have been implemented as convergence layers in DTN implementations including User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several stand-alone implementations of negative-acknowledgment based transport layer protocols to determine how they perform in a variety of different link conditions. The transport protocols chosen for this evaluation include Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM), and Saratoga. The test parameters that the protocols were subjected to are characteristic of common communications links ranging from terrestrial to cis-lunar and apply different levels of delay, line rate, and error.

  18. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  19. Protocol design and analysis for cooperative wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Wei; Jin, A-Long

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the design and analysis of protocols for cooperative wireless networks, especially at the medium access control (MAC) layer and for crosslayer design between the MAC layer and the physical layer. It highlights two main points that are often neglected in other books: energy-efficiency and spatial random distribution of wireless devices. Effective methods in stochastic geometry for the design and analysis of wireless networks are also explored. After providing a comprehensive review of existing studies in the literature, the authors point out the challenges that are worth further investigation. Then, they introduce several novel solutions for cooperative wireless network protocols that reduce energy consumption and address spatial random distribution of wireless nodes. For each solution, the book offers a clear system model and problem formulation, details of the proposed cooperative schemes, comprehensive performance analysis, and extensive numerical and simulation results that validate th...

  20. Computer network time synchronization the network time protocol on earth and in space

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, David L

    2010-01-01

    Carefully coordinated, reliable, and accurate time synchronization is vital to a wide spectrum of fields-from air and ground traffic control, to buying and selling goods and services, to TV network programming. Ill-gotten time could even lead to the unimaginable and cause DNS caches to expire, leaving the entire Internet to implode on the root servers.Written by the original developer of the Network Time Protocol (NTP), Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol on Earth and in Space, Second Edition addresses the technological infrastructure of time dissemination, distrib

  1. The Comparative Study Some of Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols in The Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Ali Hussien

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN consists mostly of a large number of nodes in a large area where not all nodes are directly connected. The applications of comprise a wide variety of scenarios.The mobile nodes are free to move because this network has selfــstructured topology. Routing protocols are responsible for detecting and maintaining paths in the network, and it classified into reactive (OnـــDemand, proactive (Table driven, and hybrid. In this paper represents a performance study of some WSN routing protocols: the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, and Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV. The comparison made according to important metrics like packet delivery ratio (PDR, total packets dropped, Average end-to-end delay (Avg EED, and normalized routing load under the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP and User Datagram Protocol (UDP traffic connection and with varying number of nodes, pause time; and  varying speed. In this work used (NSــ2.35 that installed on (Ubuntu 14.04 operating system to implementing the scenario. Conclude that the DSR has better performance in TCP connection; while the DSDV has better performance in UDP protocol.

  2. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  3. Implementing network constraints in the EMPS model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helseth, Arild; Warland, Geir; Mo, Birger; Fosso, Olav B.

    2010-02-15

    This report concerns the coupling of detailed market and network models for long-term hydro-thermal scheduling. Currently, the EPF model (Samlast) is the only tool available for this task for actors in the Nordic market. A new prototype for solving the coupled market and network problem has been developed. The prototype is based on the EMPS model (Samkjoeringsmodellen). Results from the market model are distributed to a detailed network model, where a DC load flow detects if there are overloads on monitored lines or intersections. In case of overloads, network constraints are generated and added to the market problem. Theoretical and implementation details for the new prototype are elaborated in this report. The performance of the prototype is tested against the EPF model on a 20-area Nordic dataset. (Author)

  4. Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.

  5. On the implementation of a deterministic secure coding protocol using polarization entangled photons

    OpenAIRE

    Ostermeyer, Martin; Walenta, Nino

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a prototype-implementation of deterministic information encoding for quantum key distribution (QKD) following the ping-pong coding protocol [K. Bostroem, T. Felbinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 187902-1]. Due to the deterministic nature of this protocol the need for post-processing the key is distinctly reduced compared to non-deterministic protocols. In the course of our implementation we analyze the practicability of the protocol and discuss some security aspects of informat...

  6. The TENCompetence Infrastructure: A Learning Network Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogten, Hubert; Martens, Harrie; Lemmers, Ruud

    The TENCompetence project developed a first release of a Learning Network infrastructure to support individuals, groups and organisations in professional competence development. This infrastructure Learning Network infrastructure was released as open source to the community thereby allowing users and organisations to use and contribute to this development as they see fit. The infrastructure consists of client applications providing the user experience and server components that provide the services to these clients. These services implement the domain model (Koper 2006) by provisioning the entities of the domain model (see also Sect. 18.4) and henceforth will be referenced as domain entity services.

  7. Implementing Value Added Applications in Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Kuang Tu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in the future Internet is the integration of telecom networks with the Internet. In many countries, large Internet Service Providers (ISPs are also telecom operators that have been focusing on providing Internet services through their telecom networks with telecom-grade mechanisms. In this article, we show that IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a telecom-grade mechanism that addresses this important issue. In Next Generation Network (NGN, IMS supports IP-based multimedia services that can be accessed from various wireless and wired access technologies through fixed-mobile convergence. We show how to integrate Internet Protocol Television (IPTV with NGN/IMS to offer enhanced IPTV services for subscribers with set-top boxes or mobile phones. We specifically describe the implementations of three services: weather forecasts, short messages on TV screens and TV shopping/food ordering for mobile users. Although these services can be directly implemented in the Internet, our commercial operation experiences indicate that the NGN/IMS implementation has advantages in terms of telecom-grade security, Quality of Service (QoS, and flexible service creation.

  8. Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the Arm (PPP-Arm) : The implementation of a national prosthesis prescription protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdenes, Paula; Brouwers, Michael; van der Sluis, Corry K

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: In order to create more uniformity in the prescription of upper limb prostheses by Dutch rehabilitation teams, the development and implementation of a Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the upper limb (PPP-Arm) was initiated. The aim was to create a national digital protocol to

  9. Network Resiliency Implementation in the ATLAS TDAQ System

    CERN Document Server

    Stancu, S N; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS TDAQ system performs the real time selection of events produced by the detector. For this purpose approximately 2000 computers are deployed and interconnected through various high speed networks, whose architecture has already been described. This article focuses on the implementation and validation of network connectivity resiliency (previously presented at a conceptual level). Redundancy and eventually load balancing are achieved through the synergy of various protocols: 802.3ad link aggregation, OSPF, VRRP, MSTP. An innovative method for cost efficient redundant connectivity of high-throughput high-availability servers is presented. Furthermore, real life examples showing how redundancy works, and more importantly how it might fail despite careful planning are presented.

  10. Predicting implementation from organizational readiness for change: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly P Adam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is widespread interest in measuring organizational readiness to implement evidence-based practices in clinical care. However, there are a number of challenges to validating organizational measures, including inferential bias arising from the halo effect and method bias - two threats to validity that, while well-documented by organizational scholars, are often ignored in health services research. We describe a protocol to comprehensively assess the psychometric properties of a previously developed survey, the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment. Objectives Our objective is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of the psychometric properties of the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment incorporating methods specifically to address threats from halo effect and method bias. Methods and Design We will conduct three sets of analyses using longitudinal, secondary data from four partner projects, each testing interventions to improve the implementation of an evidence-based clinical practice. Partner projects field the Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment at baseline (n = 208 respondents; 53 facilities, and prospectively assesses the degree to which the evidence-based practice is implemented. We will conduct predictive and concurrent validities using hierarchical linear modeling and multivariate regression, respectively. For predictive validity, the outcome is the change from baseline to follow-up in the use of the evidence-based practice. We will use intra-class correlations derived from hierarchical linear models to assess inter-rater reliability. Two partner projects will also field measures of job satisfaction for convergent and discriminant validity analyses, and will field Organizational Readiness to Change Assessment measures at follow-up for concurrent validity (n = 158 respondents; 33 facilities. Convergent and discriminant validities will test associations between organizational readiness and

  11. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Chander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  12. Distributed Velocity-Dependent Protocol for Multihop Cellular Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagyasi Bhushan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cell phones are embedded with sensors form a Cellular Sensor Network which can be used to localize a moving event. The inherent mobility of the application and of the cell phone users warrants distributed structure-free data aggregation and on-the-fly routing. We propose a Distributed Velocity-Dependent (DVD protocol to localize a moving event using a Multihop Cellular Sensor Network (MCSN. DVD is based on a novel form of connectivity determined by the waiting time of nodes for a Random Waypoint (RWP distribution of cell phone users. This paper analyzes the time-stationary and spatial distribution of the proposed waiting time to explain the superior event localization and delay performances of DVD over the existing Randomized Waiting (RW protocol. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to compare the performance of DVD with RW and the existing Centralized approach.

  13. Learning in Neural Networks: VLSI Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan Anh

    1995-01-01

    Fully-parallel hardware neural network implementations may be applied to high-speed recognition, classification, and mapping tasks in areas such as vision, or can be used as low-cost self-contained units for tasks such as error detection in mechanical systems (e.g. autos). Learning is required not only to satisfy application requirements, but also to overcome hardware-imposed limitations such as reduced dynamic range of connections.

  14. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  15. Water quality monitoring protocol for wadeable streams and rivers in the Northern Great Plains Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marcia H.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Wilson, Stephen K.; Paintner-Green, Kara J.

    2014-01-01

    Preserving the national parks unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations is a fundamental purpose of the National Park Service (NPS). To address growing concerns regarding the overall physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems, the NPS implemented science-based management through “Vital Signs” monitoring in 270 national parks (NPS 2007). The Northern Great Plains Network (NGPN) is among the 32 National Park Service Networks participating in this monitoring effort. The NGPN will develop protocols over the next several years to determine the overall health or condition of resources within 13 parks located in Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

  16. Computational Aspects of Sensor Network Protocols (Distributed Sensor Network Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth Iyer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we model the sensor networks as an unsupervised learning and clustering process. We classify nodes according to its static distribution to form known class densities (CCPD. These densities are chosen from specific cross-layer features which maximizes lifetime of power-aware routing algorithms. To circumvent computational complexities of a power-ware communication STACK we introduce path-loss models at the nodes only for high density deployments. We study the cluster heads and formulate the data handling capacity for an expected deployment and use localized probability models to fuse the data with its side information before transmission. So each cluster head has a unique Pmax but not all cluster heads have the same measured value. In a lossless mode if there are no faults in the sensor network then we can show that the highest probability given by Pmax is ambiguous if its frequency is ≤ n/2 otherwise it can be determined by a local function. We further show that the event detection at the cluster heads can be modelled with a pattern 2m and m, the number of bits can be a correlated pattern of 2 bits and for a tight lower bound we use 3-bit Huffman codes which have entropy < 1. These local algorithms are further studied to optimize on power, fault detection and to maximize on the distributed routing algorithm used at the higher layers. From these bounds in large network, it is observed that the power dissipation is network size invariant. The performance of the routing algorithms solely based on success of finding healthy nodes in a large distribution. It is also observed that if the network size is kept constant and the density of the nodes is kept closer then the local pathloss model effects the performance of the routing algorithms. We also obtain the maximum intensity of transmitting nodes for a given category of routing algorithms for an outage constraint, i.e., the lifetime of sensor network.

  17. Enhancement of Adaptive Cluster Hierarchical Routing Protocol using Distance and Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.M.; Soliman, S.E.; Kelash, H.M.; Ayad, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The application of wireless networking is widely used in nuclear applications. This includes reactor control and fire dedication system. This paper is devoted to the application of this concept in the intrusion system of the Radioisotope Production Facility (RPF) of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This includes the tracking, monitoring and control components of this system. The design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research due to the extensive use of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world [1-2]. The original LEACH is named a communication protocol (clustering-based); the extended LEACH’s stochastic cluster head selection algorithm by a deterministic component. Depending on the network configuration an increase of network lifetime can be accomplished [3]. The proposed routing mechanisms after enhancement divide the nodes into clusters. A cluster head performs its task which is considerably more energy-intensive than the rest of the nodes inside sensor network. So, nodes rotate tasks at different rounds between a cluster head and other sensors throughout the lifetime of the network to balance the energy dissipation [4-5].The performance improvement when using routing protocol after enhancement of the algorithm which takes into consideration the distance and the remaining energy for choosing the cluster head by obtains from the advertise message. Network Simulator (Ns2 simulator) is used to prove that LEACH after enhancement performs better than the original LEACH protocol in terms of Average Energy, Network Life Time, Delay, Throughput and Overhead.

  18. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  19. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Elizarraras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15% compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput.

  20. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  1. A tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hashem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR technology is an agile solution for spectrum congestion and spectrum access utilization problems that result from the legacy fixed spectrum management policies. CR technology can exploit unused licensed band to meet the increasing demand for radio frequency. The routing process faces many challenges in CR Network (CRN such as the absence of centralized infrastructure, the coordination between the routing module and spectrum management module, in addition to the frequent link failure due to the sudden appearance of PUs. In this paper we propose a Tree routing protocol for cognitive radio network (C-TRP that jointly utilizes the tree routing algorithm with a spectrum management module in routing decisions, and also we proposed a new metric used in taking the best route decisions. In addition, we enhance the traditional tree routing algorithm by using a neighbor table technique that speeds up the forwarding data packets. Moreover, we add a robust recovery module to C-TRP to resume the network in case of the link failure. The main motivation in the design of C-TRP is quick data transmission and maximization of date rates. The performance evaluation is carried out in NS2 simulator. The simulation results proved that C-TRP protocol achieves better performance in terms of average “PDR”, “end-to-end delay” and “routing overhead ratio “compared to “CTBR” and “STOD-RP” routing protocols.

  2. Implementing the WebSocket Protocol Based on Formal Modelling and Automated Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2014-01-01

    with pragmatic annotations for automated code generation of protocol software. The contribution of this paper is an application of the approach as implemented in the PetriCode tool to obtain protocol software implementing the IETF WebSocket protocol. This demonstrates the scalability of our approach to real...... protocols. Furthermore, we perform formal verification of the CPN model prior to code generation, and test the implementation for interoperability against the Autobahn WebSocket test-suite resulting in 97% and 99% success rate for the client and server implementation, respectively. The tests show...

  3. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  4. Clinical dosimetry in molecular radiotherapy: protocol optimization and clinical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Molecular radiotherapy (mrt) consists in destructing tumour targets by radiolabelled vectors. This nuclear medicine specialty is being considered with increasing interest for example via the success achieved in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas by radioimmunotherapy. One of the keys of mrt optimization relies on the personalising of absorbed doses delivered to the patient: This is required to ascertain that irradiation is focused on tumour cells while keeping surrounding healthy tissue irradiation at an acceptable - non-toxic - level. Radiation dose evaluation in mrt requires in one hand, the spatial and temporal localization of injected radioactive sources by scintigraphic imaging, and on a second hand, the knowledge of the emitted radiation propagating media, given by CT imaging. Global accuracy relies on the accuracy of each of the steps that contribute to clinical dosimetry. There is no reference, standardized dosimetric protocol to date. Due to heterogeneous implementations, evaluation of the accuracy of the absorbed dose is a difficult task. In this thesis, we developed and evaluated different dosimetric approaches that allow us to find a relationship between the absorbed dose to the bone marrow and haematological toxicity. Besides, we built a scientific project, called DosiTest, which aims at evaluating the impact of the various step that contribute to the realization of a dosimetric study, by means of a virtual multicentric comparison based on Monte-Carlo modelling. (author) [fr

  5. On the network protocol performance evaluation for large scale communication system of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K. S.; Lee, T. H.; Kim, H. R.; Kim, D. H.; Ku, I. S.

    1998-01-01

    Computer technology has been dramatically advanced and it is now natural to apply digital network technology into nuclear plants. Communication architecture for nuclear plant defines the coordination of safety reactor control, balance of plant, subsystem utilities, and plant monitoring functions, and how they are connected and their user interface to guarantee plant performance and guarantee safety requirements. Therefore, to implement a digital network for control and monitoring systems of advanced nuclear plant needs systematic design and evaluation procedures because of responsive and hard real-time process characteristics of nuclear plant. In this paper, we evaluate several digital network protocols in terms of network delay, link failure effects to hard real-time requirements with full scale traffic

  6. A Game Theory Based Congestion Control Protocol for Wireless Personal Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, the presence of congestion increases the ratio of packet loss and energy consumption and reduces the network throughput. Particularly, this situation will be more complex in Internet of Things (IoT environment, which is composed of thousands of heterogeneous nodes. RPL is an IPv6 routing protocol in low power and lossy networks standardized by IETF. However, the RPL can induce problems under network congestion, such as frequently parent changing and throughput degradation. In this paper, we address the congestion problem between parent nodes and child nodes in RPL-enabled networks, which typically consist of low power and resource constraint devices. To mitigate the effect of network congestion, we design a parent-change procedure by game theory strategy, by which the child nodes can change next hop neighbors toward the sink. Comparing to the ContikiRPL implementation, the simulation results show that our protocol can achieve more than two times improvement in throughput and reduce packet loss rate with less increasing of average hop count.

  7. Network Coding Applications and Implementations on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Heide, Janus

    2010-01-01

    Network coding has attracted a lot of attention lately. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the implementation of network coding is feasible on mobile platforms. The paper will guide the reader through some examples and demonstrate uses for network coding. Furthermore the paper will also...... show that the implementation of network coding is feasible today on commercial mobile platforms....

  8. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, N.; Selimis, G.; Koufopavlou, O.

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given.

  9. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklavos, N; Selimis, G; Koufopavlou, O

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given

  10. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Pérez-Solano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  11. Optimizing the MAC Protocol in Localization Systems Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Solano, Juan J; Claver, Jose M; Ezpeleta, Santiago

    2017-07-06

    Radio frequency signals are commonly used in the development of indoor localization systems. The infrastructure of these systems includes some beacons placed at known positions that exchange radio packets with users to be located. When the system is implemented using wireless sensor networks, the wireless transceivers integrated in the network motes are usually based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. But, the CSMA-CA, which is the basis for the medium access protocols in this category of communication systems, is not suitable when several users want to exchange bursts of radio packets with the same beacon to acquire the radio signal strength indicator (RSSI) values needed in the location process. Therefore, new protocols are necessary to avoid the packet collisions that appear when multiple users try to communicate with the same beacons. On the other hand, the RSSI sampling process should be carried out very quickly because some systems cannot tolerate a large delay in the location process. This is even more important when the RSSI sampling process includes measures with different signal power levels or frequency channels. The principal objective of this work is to speed up the RSSI sampling process in indoor localization systems. To achieve this objective, the main contribution is the proposal of a new MAC protocol that eliminates the medium access contention periods and decreases the number of packet collisions to accelerate the RSSI collection process. Moreover, the protocol increases the overall network throughput taking advantage of the frequency channel diversity. The presented results show the suitability of this protocol for reducing the RSSI gathering delay and increasing the network throughput in simulated and real environments.

  12. Traffic Adaptive MAC Protocols in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Masud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR, and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.

  13. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  14. Optimal and secure measurement protocols for quantum sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gross, Jonathan A.; Rolston, S. L.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of quantum metrology have shown that the use of many-body entangled states can lead to an enhancement in sensitivity when compared with unentangled states. In this paper, we quantify the metrological advantage of entanglement in a setting where the measured quantity is a linear function of parameters individually coupled to each qubit. We first generalize the Heisenberg limit to the measurement of nonlocal observables in a quantum network, deriving a bound based on the multiparameter quantum Fisher information. We then propose measurement protocols that can make use of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states or spin-squeezed states and show that in the case of GHZ states the protocol is optimal, i.e., it saturates our bound. We also identify nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging as a promising setting for this technology.

  15. A security analysis of the 802.11s wireless mesh network routing protocol and its secure routing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Whye Kit; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lam, Jun Huy; Yoo, Seong-Moo

    2013-09-02

    Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) can act as a scalable backbone by connecting separate sensor networks and even by connecting WMNs to a wired network. The Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) is the default routing protocol for the 802.11s WMN. The routing protocol is one of the most important parts of the network, and it requires protection, especially in the wireless environment. The existing security protocols, such as the Broadcast Integrity Protocol (BIP), Counter with cipher block chaining message authentication code protocol (CCMP), Secure Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (SHWMP), Identity Based Cryptography HWMP (IBC-HWMP), Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm HWMP (ECDSA-HWMP), and Watchdog-HWMP aim to protect the HWMP frames. In this paper, we have analyzed the vulnerabilities of the HWMP and developed security requirements to protect these identified vulnerabilities. We applied the security requirements to analyze the existing secure schemes for HWMP. The results of our analysis indicate that none of these protocols is able to satisfy all of the security requirements. We also present a quantitative complexity comparison among the protocols and an example of a security scheme for HWMP to demonstrate how the result of our research can be utilized. Our research results thus provide a tool for designing secure schemes for the HWMP.

  16. A Secure Network Coding-based Data Gathering Model and Its Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To provide security for data gathering based on network coding in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, a secure network coding-based data gathering model is proposed, and a data-privacy preserving and pollution preventing (DPPaamp;PP protocol using network coding is designed. DPPaamp;PP makes use of a new proposed pollution symbol selection and pollution (PSSP scheme based on a new obfuscation idea to pollute existing symbols. Analyses of DPPaamp;PP show that it not only requires low overhead on computation and communication, but also provides high security on resisting brute-force attacks.

  17. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-03-31

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  18. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Kashif; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Al-Muhtadi, Jalal; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Khalil, Mohammed Sayim; Ali Ahmed, Adel

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP) involves an artificial immune system (AIS) that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP) that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2) and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks. PMID:27043572

  19. Optimizing the ASC WAN: evaluating network performance tools for comparing transport protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydick, Christopher L.

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Simulation & Computing Wide Area Network (ASC WAN), which is a high delay-bandwidth network connection between US Department of Energy National Laboratories, is constantly being examined and evaluated for efficiency. One of the current transport-layer protocols which is used, TCP, was developed for traffic demands which are different from that on the ASC WAN. The Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), on the other hand, has shown characteristics which make it more appealing to networks such as these. Most important, before considering a replacement for TCP on any network, a testing tool that performs well against certain criteria needs to be found. In order to try to find such a tool, two popular networking tools (Netperf v.2.4.3 & v.2.4.6 (OpenSS7 STREAMS), and Iperf v.2.0.6) were tested. These tools implement both TCP and SCTP and were evaluated using four metrics: (1) How effectively can the tool reach a throughput near the bandwidth? (2) How much of the CPU does the tool utilize during operation? (3) Is the tool freely and widely available? And, (4) Is the tool actively developed? Following the analysis of those tools, this paper goes further into explaining some recommendations and ideas for future work.

  20. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  1. On the security of an anonymous roaming protocol in UMTS mobile networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Wu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this communication, we first show that the privacy-preserving roaming protocol recently proposed for mobile networks cannot achieve the claimed security level. Then we suggest an improved protocol to remedy its security problems.

  2. Bit Level Synchronized MAC Protocol for Multireader RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namboodiri Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The operation of multiple RFID readers in close proximity results in interference between the readers. This issue is termed the reader collision problem and cannot always be solved by assigning them to different frequency channels due to technical and regulatory limitations. The typical solution is to separate the operation of such readers across time. This sequential operation, however, results in a long delay to identify all tags. We present a bit level synchronized (BLSync MAC protocol for multi-reader RFID networks that allows multiple readers to operate simultaneously on the same frequency channel. The BLSync protocol solves the reader collision problem by allowing all readers to transmit the same query at the same time. We analyze the performance of using the BLSync protocol and demonstrate benefits of 40%–50% in terms of tag reading delay for most settings. The benefits of BLSync, first demonstrated through analysis, are then validated and quantified through simulations on realistic reader-tag layouts.

  3. Design Aspects of An Energy-Efficient, Lightweight Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the most relevant design aspects of the lightweight medium access control (LMAC) protocol [16] for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). These aspects include selfconfiguring and localized operation of the protocol, time synchronization in multi-hop networks, network

  4. Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17, Chapter 22, Network Based Protocol Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    requirements. 22.2 Network Access Layer 22.2.1 Physical Layer Connectors and cable media should meet the electrical or optical properties required by the...Telemetry Standards, IRIG Standard 106-17 Chapter 22, July 2017 i CHAPTER 22 Network -Based Protocol Suite Acronyms...iii Chapter 22. Network -Based Protocol Suite

  5. Enhanced Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojiang Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development and extensive use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is urgent to enhance the security for WSNs, in which key management is an effective way to protect WSNs from various attacks. However, different types of messages exchanged in WSNs typically have different security requirements which cannot be satisfied by a single keying mechanism. In this study, a basic key management protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its antiattack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.

  6. Monitoring of high voltage supply using the Controller Area Network protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Igo Amauri dos S.; Farias, Paulo Cesar M.A.; Guedes, Germano P. [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, experimental physics has made great progress in the investigation of the phenomenology of neutrinos, with significant contribution from experiments using nuclear reactors as source of particles. In this context, The Neutrinos Angra Project proposes the use of an anti-neutrinos detector with ability to monitor parameters related to the activity of nuclear reactors. One of the tasks defined in the project is the development of a system to control and to monitor the high voltage supply units used by the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of the detector. The solution proposed in this work is based on the use of microcontrollers, from Microchip PIC family to adjust the operating point of the high voltage supply units and to acquire the current and output voltage data. Analysis of these data allows the effective control of the gain of the PMTs and to identify anomalous operational conditions. In this work is proposed the study of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol and the implementation of a laboratory network to reproduce the typical operations of data acquisition and information transfer between the nodes. The development of this network is divided in two stages. The first part consisted of the setup of a CAN network, using the PIC18F2680 microcontroller, which has the CAN protocol internally implemented. This network serves as a reduced model of the final system, allowing simulation of typical situations of data acquisition and transmission between the nodes and a computer. In the second part of the work, the PIC18F4550 microcontroller was associated with the external CAN controller MCP2515 to develop a CAN/USB converter. This converter provides a new communication channel between network nodes and the computer, in addition to the RS232 interface. (author)

  7. Implementing Bayesian networks with embedded stochastic MRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Rafatul; Camsari, Kerem Y.; Datta, Supriyo

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's) with low barrier magnets have been used to implement random number generators (RNG's) and it has recently been shown that such an MTJ connected to the drain of a conventional transistor provides a three-terminal tunable RNG or a p-bit. In this letter we show how this p-bit can be used to build a p-circuit that emulates a Bayesian network (BN), such that the correlations in real world variables can be obtained from electrical measurements on the corresponding circuit nodes. The p-circuit design proceeds in two steps: the BN is first translated into a behavioral model, called Probabilistic Spin Logic (PSL), defined by dimensionless biasing (h) and interconnection (J) coefficients, which are then translated into electronic circuit elements. As a benchmark example, we mimic a family tree of three generations and show that the genetic relatedness calculated from a SPICE-compatible circuit simulator matches well-known results.

  8. e-SCP-ECG+ Protocol: An Expansion on SCP-ECG Protocol for Health Telemonitoring—Pilot Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Mandellos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard Communication Protocol for Computer-assisted Electrocardiography (SCP-ECG provides standardized communication among different ECG devices and medical information systems. This paper extends the use of this protocol in order to be included in health monitoring systems. It introduces new sections into SCP-ECG structure for transferring data for positioning, allergies, and five additional biosignals: noninvasive blood pressure (NiBP, body temperature (Temp, Carbon dioxide (CO2, blood oxygen saturation (SPO2, and pulse rate. It also introduces new tags in existing sections for transferring comprehensive demographic data. The proposed enhanced version is referred to as e-SCP-ECG+ protocol. This paper also considers the pilot implementation of the new protocol as a software component in a Health Telemonitoring System.

  9. Development and implementation of the Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, J P; de Groot, I J M; Joha, B C; van Haelst, J M; van Gorcom, P; Kalmijn, S

    2004-12-01

    In the Netherlands, rehabilitation care plays an important role in the symptomatic and palliative treatment of ALS patients. However, until 1999 there were no guidelines or practice parameters available for the management of ALS. Therefore, the Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management in ALS was developed. We describe the development process, the outcome and implementation of the protocol. A concept management protocol was written and the Delphi method was selected to develop the protocol further. This method comprises repetitive discussion sessions from postulates, using a combination of written questionnaires and work-conferences. Between 80 and 90 persons (rehabilitation team members of different professional backgrounds and neurologists) were involved in this process. The protocol was implemented by sending it to all consultants in rehabilitation medicine in the Netherlands; they were asked to inform all the treatment team members about the final protocol and to implement it in their treatment of ALS patients. The protocol was developed in 1999, implemented in 2000 and evaluated in 2001. Recommendations for improvement were made during the evaluation and improvements are currently being developed by an expert group. The protocol is widely used (88.9%) by consultants in rehabilitation medicine and their treatment teams in the Netherlands. The Dutch protocol for rehabilitative management was developed to provide an optimal and adequate care plan for patients with ALS. It is widely used in the Netherlands.

  10. Improving biofeedback for the treatment of fecal incontinence in women: implementation of a standardized multi-site manometric biofeedback protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, A D; Jelovsek, J E; Whitehead, W E; Newman, D K; Andy, U U; Dyer, K; Harm-Ernandes, I; Cichowski, S; McCormick, J; Rardin, C; Sutkin, G; Shaffer, A; Meikle, S

    2017-01-01

    Standardized training and clinical protocols using biofeedback for the treatment of fecal incontinence (FI) are important for clinical care. Our primary aims were to develop, implement, and evaluate adherence to a standardized protocol for manometric biofeedback to treat FI. In a Pelvic Floor Disorders Network (PFDN) trial, participants were enrolled from eight PFDN clinical centers across the United States. A team of clinical and equipment experts developed biofeedback software on a novel tablet computer platform for conducting standardized anorectal manometry with separate manometric biofeedback protocols for improving anorectal muscle strength, sensation, and urge resistance. The training protocol also included education on bowel function, anal sphincter exercises, and bowel diary monitoring. Study interventionists completed online training prior to attending a centralized, standardized certification course. For the certification, expert trainers assessed the ability of the interventionists to perform the protocol components for a paid volunteer who acted as a standardized patient. Postcertification, the trainers audited interventionists during trial implementation to improve protocol adherence. Twenty-four interventionists attended the in-person training and certification, including 46% advanced practice registered nurses (11/24), 50% (12/24) physical therapists, and 4% physician assistants (1/24). Trainers performed audio audits for 88% (21/24), representing 84 audited visits. All certified interventionists met or exceeded the prespecified 80% pass rate for the audit process, with an average passing rate of 93%. A biofeedback protocol can be successfully imparted to experienced pelvic floor health care providers from various disciplines. Our process promoted high adherence to a standard protocol and is applicable to many clinical settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  12. TMAC: Timestamp-Ordered MAC Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2011-05-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged to meet a need for a self-organized and self-configured multi-hop wireless network infrastructure. Low cost infrastructure and ease of deployment have made WMNs an attractive technology for last mile access. However, 802.11 based WMNs are subject to serious fairness issues. With backlogged TCP traffic, nodes which are two or more hops away from the gateway are subject to starvation, while the one-hop away node saturates the channel with its own local traffic. We study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in WMNs to aid us in understanding and overcoming the unfairness problem. We propose a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically derive the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs via a manipulative per-node scheduling mechanism which takes advantage of the age of each packet as a priority metric. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of TMAC. Our results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining above 90% of maximum link capacity in parking lot and large grid topologies. Our work illuminates the factors affecting TCP fairness in WMNs. Our theoretical and empirical findings can be used in future research to develop more fairness-aware protocols for WMNs.

  13. An improved network layer protocol based on mobile IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mobile [Pv6 proposed by the IETF aims at providing mobility support on the next generation Internet. First, the authors described the basic principle of mobile lPv6 in brief and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of it, presented a new idea of allocating a specific address space for mobile node ( MN ) and developed a new extension header and two ICMP message types for mobile IPv6. Lastly the authors proposed an optimization strategy, for mobile IPv6 based on these extensions of protocol, which has the following advantages:1 ) It is more convenient to manage the MNs because MN can be judged from its IP address; 2) When the correspondent node (CN) is not actively communicating with a MN, the MN and its home agent (HA) need not send Binding Update to tire CN, and the CN need not send Binding Request to the MN. Only when the CN really wants to send a packet to the MN, will the CN voluntarily send a MN Discover Request message to acquire the MN's care-of address. In this way, the transmission of Binding Update and Binding Request is greatly reduced, consequently the network overhead is also decreased; 3) While sending packets, the CN simply uses a MN Home Address Extension Header without using IPinlP encapsulation and routing header, which can reduce the redundant information in the packet and the message delay; 4) All the packets sent by the CN can be directly routed to the MN and the triangle routing can be completely avoided. By using these protocol extensions, the overhead of the network is greatly reduced and the network quality of services (QoS) is improved.

  14. Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Sher, H.A.; Qureshi, S.A

    2010-01-01

    In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

  15. GUI implementation of image encryption and decryption using Open CV-Python script on secured TFTP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K. Rasool; Rao, Ch. Madhava

    2018-04-01

    Currently safety is one of the primary concerns in the transmission of images due to increasing the use of images within the industrial applications. So it's necessary to secure the image facts from unauthorized individuals. There are various strategies are investigated to secure the facts. In that encryption is certainly one of maximum distinguished method. This paper gives a sophisticated Rijndael (AES) algorithm to shield the facts from unauthorized humans. Here Exponential Key Change (EKE) concept is also introduced to exchange the key between client and server. The things are exchange in a network among client and server through a simple protocol is known as Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). This protocol is used mainly in embedded servers to transfer the data and also provide protection to the data if protection capabilities are integrated. In this paper, implementing a GUI environment for image encryption and decryption. All these experiments carried out on Linux environment the usage of Open CV-Python script.

  16. Performance evaluation of spatial vector routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, J.; Jokhio, I.

    2012-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSN s because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing) an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR. (author)

  17. Performance Evaluation of Spatial Vector Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Ali Baloch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks is an emerging area of research. Researchers worldwide are working on the issues faced by sensor nodes. Communication has been a major issue in wireless networks and the problem is manifolds in WSNs because of the limited resources. The routing protocol in such networks plays a pivotal role, as an effective routing protocol could significantly reduce the energy consumed in transmitting and receiving data packets throughout a network. In this paper the performance of SVR (Spatial Vector Routing an energy efficient, location aware routing protocol is compared with the existing location aware protocols. The results from the simulation trials show the performance of SVR.

  18. Implementing a protocol for selection and prioritisation of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-09

    Jul 9, 2012 ... To safeguard drinking water industry customers, it was necessary to develop a generic protocol to assist with ... This is a very important guide to assist water utilities in optimising their resources while not ..... views and experience of the various experts. ...... wastewater by an innovative biological technology.

  19. Implementing Resource-aware Multicast Forwarding in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Sunny, Anjusha; Soler, José

    2018-01-01

    Using multicast data transmissions, data can be eciently distributed to a high number of network users. However, in order to ef-ciently stream multimedia using multicast communication, multicast routing protocols must have knowledge of all network links and their available bandwidth. In Software...

  20. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV in order to resolve that problem. IA-AODV, which is based on multitarget path request, consists of the PREQ prediction scheme, the PREQ loss recovery scheme, and the PREQ sender assignment scheme. A detailed operation according to various network conditions and services is introduced, and the routing efficiency and network reliability of a network using IA-AODV are analyzed over the presented system model. Finally, after a real-world test-bed for MIMC WMNs using the IA-AODV routing protocol is implemented, the various indicators of the network are evaluated through experiments. When the proposed routing protocol is compared with the existing AODV routing protocol, it performs the path update using only 14.33% of the management frames, completely removes the routing malfunction, and reduces the UDP packet loss ratio by 0.0012%.

  1. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  2. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Colagrosso

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  3. Intelligent Broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Three Classes of Adaptive Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colagrosso Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Because adaptability greatly improves the performance of a broadcast protocol, we identify three ways in which machine learning can be applied to broadcasting in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET. We chose broadcasting because it functions as a foundation of MANET communication. Unicast, multicast, and geocast protocols utilize broadcasting as a building block, providing important control and route establishment functionality. Therefore, any improvements to the process of broadcasting can be immediately realized by higher-level MANET functionality and applications. While efficient broadcast protocols have been proposed, no single broadcasting protocol works well in all possible MANET conditions. Furthermore, protocols tend to fail catastrophically in severe network environments. Our three classes of adaptive protocols are pure machine learning, intra-protocol learning, and inter-protocol learning. In the pure machine learning approach, we exhibit a new approach to the design of a broadcast protocol: the decision of whether to rebroadcast a packet is cast as a classification problem. Each mobile node (MN builds a classifier and trains it on data collected from the network environment. Using intra-protocol learning, each MN consults a simple machine model for the optimal value of one of its free parameters. Lastly, in inter-protocol learning, MNs learn to switch between different broadcasting protocols based on network conditions. For each class of learning method, we create a prototypical protocol and examine its performance in simulation.

  4. Creating Open Digital Library Using XML Implementation of OAi-PMH Protocol at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, M; Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Simko, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the OAi-PMH protocol within the CERN Document Server (CDS). In terms of the protocol, CERN acts both as a data provider and service provider and the two core applications are described. The application of XML Schema and XSLT technology is emphasized.

  5. Creating Open Digital Library Using XML: Implementation of OAi-PMH Protocol at CERN

    OpenAIRE

    Vesely, M; Baron, T; Le Meur, Jean-Yves; Simko, Tibor

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of the OAi-PMH protocol within the CERN Document Server (CDS). In terms of the protocol, CERN acts both as a data provider and service provider and the two core applications are described. The application of XML Schema and XSLT technology is emphasized.

  6. Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks. Miloud Ait ... But, it is threatened by weak ... Wireless networks (IEEE standard 802.11 1996, Gast 2005) have allowed computer systems to exchange data without cable.

  7. Implementation of an Evidence-Based Protocol for Surgical Infection Prophylaxis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savino, John A; Smeland, Jane; Flink, Ellen L; Ruperto, Angelo; Hines, Amanda; Sullivan, Thomas; Galvin, Kerri; Risucci, Donald A

    2005-01-01

    An evidence-based surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocol was implemented in multiple facilities to determine if compliance led to a decrease in New York State reportable surgical site infections (SSIs...

  8. Implementation of anomaly detection algorithms for detecting transmission control protocol synchronized flooding attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, NNP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work implements two anomaly detection algorithms for detecting Transmission Control Protocol Synchronized (TCP SYN) flooding attack. The two algorithms are an adaptive threshold algorithm and a cumulative sum (CUSUM) based algorithm...

  9. Secure Group Formation Protocol for a Medical Sensor Network Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    , and experience from user workshops and observations of clinicians at work on a hospital ward show that if the security mechanisms are not well designed, the technology is either rejected altogether, or they are circumvented leaving the system wide open to attacks. Our work targets the problem of designing......Designing security mechanisms such as privacy and access control for medical sensor networks is a challenging task; as such systems may be operated very frequently, at a quick pace, and at times in emergency situations. Understandably, clinicians hold extra unproductive tasks in low regard...... wireless sensors to be both secure and usable by exploring different solutions on a fully functional prototype platform. In this paper, we present an Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) based protocol, which offers fully secure sensor set-up in a few seconds on standard (Telos) hardware. We evaluate...

  10. Relaying Strategies and Protocols for Efficient Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Zafar, Ammar

    2014-10-01

    Next generation wireless networks are expected to provide high data rate and satisfy the Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints of the users. A significant component of achieving these goals is to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks by either optimizing current architectures or exploring new technologies which achieve that. The latter includes revisiting technologies which were previously proposed, but due to a multitude of reasons were ignored at that time. One such technology is relaying which was initially proposed in the latter half of the 1960s and then was revived in the early 2000s. In this dissertation, we study relaying in conjunction with resource allocation to increase the effi ciency of wireless networks. In this regard, we differentiate between conventional relaying and relaying with buffers. Conventional relaying is traditional relaying where the relay forwards the signal it received immediately. On the other hand, in relaying with buffers or buffer-aided relaying as it is called, the relay can store received data in its buffer and forward it later on. This gives the benefit of taking advantage of good channel conditions as the relay can only transmit when the channel conditions are good. The dissertation starts with conventional relaying and considers the problem of minimizing the total consumed power while maintaining system QoS. After upper bounding the system performance, more practical algorithms which require reduced feedback overhead are explored. Buffer-aided relaying is then considered and the joint user-and-hop scheduler is introduced which exploits multi-user diversity (MUD) and 5 multi-hop diversity (MHD) gains together in dual-hop broadcast channels. Next joint user-and-hop scheduling is extended to the shared relay channel where two source-destination pairs share a single relay. The benefits of buffer-aided relaying in the bidirectional relay channel utilizing network coding are then explored. Finally, a new transmission protocol

  11. A Selective-Awakening MAC Protocol for Energy-Efficient Data Forwarding in Linear Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iclia Villordo-Jimenez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Selective-Awakening MAC (SA-MAC protocol which is a synchronized duty-cycled protocol with pipelined scheduling for Linear Sensor Networks (LSNs. In the proposed protocol, nodes selectively awake depending on node density and traffic load conditions and on the state of the buffers of the receiving nodes. In order to characterize the performance of the proposed protocol, we present a Discrete-Time Markov Chain-based analysis that is validated through extensive discrete-event simulations. Our results show that SA-MAC significantly outperforms previous proposals in terms of energy consumption, throughput, and packet loss probability. This is particularly true under high node density and high traffic load conditions, which are expected to be common scenarios in the context of IoT applications. We also present an analysis by grade (i.e., the number of hops to the sink, which is located at one end of the LSN that reveals that LSNs exhibit heterogeneous performance depending on the nodes’ grade. Such results can be used as a design guideline for future LSN implementations.

  12. Asynchronous transfer mode and Local Area Network emulation standards, protocols, and security implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kirwin, John P.

    1999-01-01

    A complex networking technology called Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) and a networking protocol called Local Area Network Emulation (LANE) are being integrated into many naval networks without any security-driven naval configuration guidelines. No single publication is available that describes security issues of data delivery and signaling relating to the transition of Ethernet to LANE and ATM. The thesis' focus is to provide: (1) an overview and security analysis of standardized protocols ...

  13. PANATIKI: A Network Access Control Implementation Based on PANA for IoT Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Gomez Skarmeta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP, which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1 to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2 to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS, called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  14. PANATIKI: a network access control implementation based on PANA for IoT devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Sanchez, Pedro; Marin Lopez, Rafa; Gomez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2013-11-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) networks are the pillar of recent novel scenarios, such as smart cities or e-healthcare applications. Among other challenges, these networks cover the deployment and interaction of small devices with constrained capabilities and Internet protocol (IP)-based networking connectivity. These constrained devices usually require connection to the Internet to exchange information (e.g., management or sensing data) or access network services. However, only authenticated and authorized devices can, in general, establish this connection. The so-called authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) services are in charge of performing these tasks on the Internet. Thus, it is necessary to deploy protocols that allow constrained devices to verify their credentials against AAA infrastructures. The Protocol for Carrying Authentication for Network Access (PANA) has been standardized by the Internet engineering task force (IETF) to carry the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which provides flexible authentication upon the presence of AAA. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first deep study of the feasibility of EAP/PANA for network access control in constrained devices. We provide light-weight versions and implementations of these protocols to fit them into constrained devices. These versions have been designed to reduce the impact in standard specifications. The goal of this work is two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of EAP/PANA in IoT devices; (2) to provide the scientific community with the first light-weight interoperable implementation of EAP/PANA for constrained devices in the Contiki operating system (Contiki OS), called PANATIKI. The paper also shows a testbed, simulations and experimental results obtained from real and simulated constrained devices.

  15. Mobile Device Based Dynamic Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Ling Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN applications have tended to transmit data hop by hop, from sensor nodes through cluster nodes to the base station. As a result, users must collect data from the base station. This study considers two different applications: hop by hop transmission of data from cluster nodes to the base station and the direct access to cluster nodes data by mobile users via mobile devices. Due to the hardware limitations of WSNs, some low-cost operations such as symmetric cryptographic algorithms and hash functions are used to implement a dynamic key management. The session key can be updated to prevent threats of attack from each communication. With these methods, the data gathered in wireless sensor networks can be more securely communicated. Moreover, the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with related schemes. In addition, an NS2 simulation is developed in which the experimental results show that the designed communication protocol is workable.

  16. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  17. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  18. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  19. Alert: An Adaptive Low-Latency Event-Driven MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Namboodiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Collection of rare but delay-critical messages from a group of sensor nodes is a key process in many wireless sensor network applications. This is particularly important for security-related applications like intrusion detection and fire alarm systems. An event sensed by multiple sensor nodes in the network can trigger many messages to be sent simultaneously. We present Alert, a MAC protocol for collecting event-triggered urgent messages from a group of sensor nodes with minimum latency and without requiring any cooperation or prescheduling among the senders or between senders and receiver during protocol execution. Alert is designed to handle multiple simultaneous messages from different nodes efficiently and reliably, minimizing the overall delay to collect all messages along with the delay to get the first message. Moreover, the ability of the network to handle a large number of simultaneous messages does not come at the cost of excessive delays when only a few messages need to be handled. We analyze Alert and evaluate its feasibility and performance with an implementation on commodity hardware. We further compare Alert with existing approaches through simulations and show the performance improvement possible through Alert.

  20. Communicating systems with UML 2 modeling and analysis of network protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Barrera, David Garduno

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a practical approach to modeling and analyzing communication protocols using UML 2. Network protocols are always presented with a point of view focusing on partial mechanisms and starting models. This book aims at giving the basis needed for anybody to model and validate their own protocols. It follows a practical approach and gives many examples for the description and analysis of well known basic network mechanisms for protocols.The book firstly shows how to describe and validate the main protocol issues (such as synchronization problems, client-server interactions, layer

  1. Wireless Plug and Play Control Systems: Hardware, Networks, and Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports the result of efforts to identify and solve the problems that arise when a control system is to be designed for various industrial case studies of the Plug and Play Process Control (P3C) project that require autonomous addition/removal of sensors, actuators and subsystems...... in only one of the P3C case studies where all of the nodes of the wireless networked control system are placed underground and should be able to transmit data among themselves. It is not a trivial problem because the well known radio frequency electromagnetic waves face serious difficulties penetrating...... is recommended for wireless plug and play control systems. Formation and maintenance of clusters of nodes are directly linked to the top level application layer via a novel application-based routing metric. The proposed routing metric facilitates implementation of the networking topology in accordance...

  2. Implementation of the AAPM Task Group 21 protocol by the Radiological Physics Center and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastorf, R.J.; Hanson, W.F.; Shalek, R.J.; Berkley, L.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Radiation Therapy Committee of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine appointed Task Group 21 to write a new protocol for the calibration of high-energy photon and electron therapy beams. This protocol updates the physical parameters used in the calculations and is intended to account for differences in ionization chamber design and some differences between phantom materials that were not considered in previous protocols. This paper discusses how the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) intends to implement the new protocol, the changes required in the RPC calibration techniques, and the magnitude of the change in the RPC calculations of absorbed dose resulting from the implementation of the new protocol. Although the change in the RPC absorbed-dose calculations will be only 0%-2% over the range of photon and electron energies of interest, some institutions using specific dosimetry systems may find their absorbed-dose calculations changing by 4% or more

  3. Implementation of a protocol to reduce occurrence of retained sponges after vaginal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Schindler, Lynnett L; Hill, James B; Magann, Everett F; O'Boyle, John D

    2011-06-01

    Retained sponges (gossypiboma) following vaginal delivery are an uncommon occurrence. Although significant morbidity from such an event is unlikely, there are many reported adverse effects, including symptoms of malodorous discharge, loss of confidence in providers and the medical system, and legal claims. To report a protocol intended to reduce the occurrence of retained sponges following vaginal delivery. After identification of limitations with existing delivery room protocols, we developed a sponge count protocol to reduce occurrence of retained vaginal sponges. We report our experience at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, a large tertiary care military treatment facility with our efforts to implement a sponge count protocol to reduce retained sponges following vaginal delivery. With appropriate pre-implementation training, protocols which incorporate post-delivery vaginal sweep and sponge counts are well accepted by the health care team and can be incorporated into the delivery room routine.

  4. Selection application for platforms and security protocols suitable for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S; Newe, T; Lochmann, S

    2009-01-01

    There is a great number of platforms and security protocols which can be used for wireless sensor networks (WSN). All these platforms and protocols have different properties with certain advantages and disadvantages. For a good choice of platform and an associated protocol, these advantages and disadvantages should be compared and the best for the appropriate WSN chosen. To select a Security protocol and a wireless platform suitable for a specific application a software tool will be developed. That tool will enable wireless network deployment engineers to easily select a suitable wireless platform for their application based on their network needs and application security requirements.

  5. Implementation of the quality control protocol in Crawls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroa Rey, E. M.; Gimenez Insua, M.; Vazquez Vazquez, R.; Sanchez Garcia, M.; Luna Vega, V.; Mosquera Suero, J.; Otero Martinez, C.; Lobato Busto, R.; Pombar Camean, M.

    2013-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy is a test widely used in Nuclear Medicine of our service. 33% of the tests performed are of this type, so it is necessary to develop a specific quality control protocol for the tracking of the gamma camera acquisitions. This type of procurement means the mechanical movement of the stretcher, with a static initial phase in which the movement of the stretcher is replaced by the gradual opening of the field of view (electronic window). This creates the density of accounts to be uniform throughout the study. The presence of a movement mechanical and co-registration with the static phase implies the need for specific tests. (Author)

  6. Persistent RCSMA: A MAC Protocol for a Distributed Cooperative ARQ Scheme in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alonso-Zárate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent relay carrier sensing multiple access (PRCSMA protocol is presented in this paper as a novel medium access control (MAC protocol that allows for the execution of a distributed cooperative automatic retransmission request (ARQ scheme in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. The underlying idea of the PRCSMA protocol is to modify the basic rules of the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol to execute a distributed cooperative ARQ scheme in wireless networks in order to enhance their performance and to extend coverage. A closed formulation of the distributed cooperative ARQ average packet transmission delay in a saturated network is derived in the paper. The analytical equations are then used to evaluate the performance of the protocol under different network configurations. Both the accuracy of the analysis and the performance evaluation of the protocol are supported and validated through computer simulations.

  7. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States' understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that will be supported by detailed guidance and examples in 'Safeguards Implementation Practices' (SIPs) to be published separately.

  8. Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is aimed at enhancing States’ understanding of the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, and at improving the cooperation between States and the IAEA in safeguards implementation. It is principally intended for State or regional safeguards regulatory authorities and facility operators, and is a reference document that is supported by detailed guidance and examples in safeguards implementation practices presented in other publications in the series. (This version is the 2016 update.)

  9. Application of Game Theory Approaches in Routing Protocols for Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Mohammad M.; Aliahmadipour, Laya

    2011-09-01

    An important and essential issue for wireless networks is routing protocol design that is a major technical challenge due to the function of the network. Game theory is a powerful mathematical tool that analyzes the strategic interactions among multiple decision makers and the results of researches show that applied game theory in routing protocol lead to improvement the network performance through reduce overhead and motivates selfish nodes to collaborate in the network. This paper presents a review and comparison for typical representatives of routing protocols designed that applied game theory approaches for various wireless networks such as ad hoc networks, mobile ad hoc networks and sensor networks that all of them lead to improve the network performance.

  10. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  11. Implementation of IGMP v3 and its application to IPTV carrying network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Dong, Ximing

    2008-11-01

    IGMP is a host-router signaling protocol, and it is used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups for IPv4. IGMPv3 adds "source filtering" function required to support SSM. Firstly, this paper analyses the improvements and implementation of IGMPv3. Secondly, it points out the problems when applying IGMPv3 to IPTV carrying network. Then it presents the solutions by improving IGMPv3 protocol to reduce channel zapping time which is one of the important metrics affecting the QoE in IPTV service. Method to realize the end user authentication, authorization and accounting in the IP multicast security and authentication area by extending the IGMPv3 protocol is described at last.

  12. Analog memristive synapse in spiking networks implementing unsupervised learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Covi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging brain-inspired architectures call for devices that can emulate the functionality of biological synapses in order to implement new efficient computational schemes able to solve ill-posed problems. Various devices and solutions are still under investigation and, in this respect, a challenge is opened to the researchers in the field. Indeed, the optimal candidate is a device able to reproduce the complete functionality of a synapse, i.e. the typical synaptic process underlying learning in biological systems (activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. This implies a device able to change its resistance (synaptic strength, or weight upon proper electrical stimuli (synaptic activity and showing several stable resistive states throughout its dynamic range (analog behavior. Moreover, it should be able to perform spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP, an associative homosynaptic plasticity learning rule based on the delay time between the two firing neurons the synapse is connected to. This rule is a fundamental learning protocol in state-of-art networks, because it allows unsupervised learning. Notwithstanding this fact, STDP-based unsupervised learning has been proposed several times mainly for binary synapses rather than multilevel synapses composed of many binary memristors. This paper proposes an HfO2-based analog memristor as a synaptic element which performs STDP within a small spiking neuromorphic network operating unsupervised learning for character recognition. The trained network is able to recognize five characters even in case incomplete or noisy characters are displayed and it is robust to a device-to-device variability of up to +/-30%.

  13. Analog Memristive Synapse in Spiking Networks Implementing Unsupervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covi, Erika; Brivio, Stefano; Serb, Alexander; Prodromakis, Themis; Fanciulli, Marco; Spiga, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Emerging brain-inspired architectures call for devices that can emulate the functionality of biological synapses in order to implement new efficient computational schemes able to solve ill-posed problems. Various devices and solutions are still under investigation and, in this respect, a challenge is opened to the researchers in the field. Indeed, the optimal candidate is a device able to reproduce the complete functionality of a synapse, i.e., the typical synaptic process underlying learning in biological systems (activity-dependent synaptic plasticity). This implies a device able to change its resistance (synaptic strength, or weight) upon proper electrical stimuli (synaptic activity) and showing several stable resistive states throughout its dynamic range (analog behavior). Moreover, it should be able to perform spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP), an associative homosynaptic plasticity learning rule based on the delay time between the two firing neurons the synapse is connected to. This rule is a fundamental learning protocol in state-of-art networks, because it allows unsupervised learning. Notwithstanding this fact, STDP-based unsupervised learning has been proposed several times mainly for binary synapses rather than multilevel synapses composed of many binary memristors. This paper proposes an HfO 2 -based analog memristor as a synaptic element which performs STDP within a small spiking neuromorphic network operating unsupervised learning for character recognition. The trained network is able to recognize five characters even in case incomplete or noisy images are displayed and it is robust to a device-to-device variability of up to ±30%.

  14. Achieving sink node anonymity in tactical wireless sensor networks using a reactive routing protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    node anonymity, base station anonymity, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation ... Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without...within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand – Next Generation

  15. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Alsharabi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  16. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Pal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.

  17. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  18. Cost-Effective Encryption-Based Autonomous Routing Protocol for Efficient and Secure Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Saleem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of intelligent remote surveillance systems depends on wireless sensor networks (WSNs composed of various miniature resource-constrained wireless sensor nodes. The development of routing protocols for WSNs is a major challenge because of their severe resource constraints, ad hoc topology and dynamic nature. Among those proposed routing protocols, the biology-inspired self-organized secure autonomous routing protocol (BIOSARP involves an artificial immune system (AIS that requires a certain amount of time to build up knowledge of neighboring nodes. The AIS algorithm uses this knowledge to distinguish between self and non-self neighboring nodes. The knowledge-building phase is a critical period in the WSN lifespan and requires active security measures. This paper proposes an enhanced BIOSARP (E-BIOSARP that incorporates a random key encryption mechanism in a cost-effective manner to provide active security measures in WSNs. A detailed description of E-BIOSARP is presented, followed by an extensive security and performance analysis to demonstrate its efficiency. A scenario with E-BIOSARP is implemented in network simulator 2 (ns-2 and is populated with malicious nodes for analysis. Furthermore, E-BIOSARP is compared with state-of-the-art secure routing protocols in terms of processing time, delivery ratio, energy consumption, and packet overhead. The findings show that the proposed mechanism can efficiently protect WSNs from selective forwarding, brute-force or exhaustive key search, spoofing, eavesdropping, replaying or altering of routing information, cloning, acknowledgment spoofing, HELLO flood attacks, and Sybil attacks.

  19. Performance Analysis of On-Demand Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafatur RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs have recently gained a lot of popularity due to their rapid deployment and instant communication capabilities. WMNs are dynamically self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing with the nodes in the network automatically establishing an adiej hoc network and preserving the mesh connectivity. Designing a routing protocol for WMNs requires several aspects to consider, such as wireless networks, fixed applications, mobile applications, scalability, better performance metrics, efficient routing within infrastructure, load balancing, throughput enhancement, interference, robustness etc. To support communication, various routing protocols are designed for various networks (e.g. ad hoc, sensor, wired etc.. However, all these protocols are not suitable for WMNs, because of the architectural differences among the networks. In this paper, a detailed simulation based performance study and analysis is performed on the reactive routing protocols to verify the suitability of these protocols over such kind of networks. Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO routing protocol are considered as the representative of reactive routing protocols. The performance differentials are investigated using varying traffic load and number of source. Based on the simulation results, how the performance of each protocol can be improved is also recommended.

  20. Model checking a cache coherence protocol of a Java DSM implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, J.; Fokkink, W.J.; Hofman, R.; Veldema, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Jackal is a fine-grained distributed shared memory implementation of the Java programming language. It aims to implement Java's memory model and allows multithreaded Java programs to run unmodified on a distributed memory system. It employs a multiple-writer cache coherence protocol. In this paper,

  1. A simplified protocol for differentiation of electrophysiologically mature neuronal networks from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunhanlar, N; Shpak, G; van der Kroeg, M; Gouty-Colomer, L A; Munshi, S T; Lendemeijer, B; Ghazvini, M; Dupont, C; Hoogendijk, W J G; Gribnau, J; de Vrij, F M S; Kushner, S A

    2017-04-18

    Progress in elucidating the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders has been hindered by the limited availability of living human brain tissue. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has offered a unique alternative strategy using patient-derived functional neuronal networks. However, methods for reliably generating iPSC-derived neurons with mature electrophysiological characteristics have been difficult to develop. Here, we report a simplified differentiation protocol that yields electrophysiologically mature iPSC-derived cortical lineage neuronal networks without the need for astrocyte co-culture or specialized media. This protocol generates a consistent 60:40 ratio of neurons and astrocytes that arise from a common forebrain neural progenitor. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of 114 neurons derived from three independent iPSC lines confirmed their electrophysiological maturity, including resting membrane potential (-58.2±1.0 mV), capacitance (49.1±2.9 pF), action potential (AP) threshold (-50.9±0.5 mV) and AP amplitude (66.5±1.3 mV). Nearly 100% of neurons were capable of firing APs, of which 79% had sustained trains of mature APs with minimal accommodation (peak AP frequency: 11.9±0.5 Hz) and 74% exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity (amplitude, 16.03±0.82 pA; frequency, 1.09±0.17 Hz). We expect this protocol to be of broad applicability for implementing iPSC-based neuronal network models of neuropsychiatric disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 18 April 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.56.

  2. CBHRP: A Cluster Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed, M. G.; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Rahim, M. Sajjadur; Ullah, Sk. Enayet

    2012-01-01

    A new two layer hierarchical routing protocol called Cluster Based Hierarchical Routing Protocol (CBHRP) is proposed in this paper. It is an extension of LEACH routing protocol. We introduce cluster head-set idea for cluster-based routing where several clusters are formed with the deployed sensors to collect information from target field. On rotation basis, a head-set member receives data from the neighbor nodes and transmits the aggregated results to the distance base station. This protocol ...

  3. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  4. Prairie Monitoring Protocol Development: North Coast and Cascades Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Allen; Dalby, Craig

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to conduct research that will guide development of a standard approach to monitoring several components of prairies within the North Coast and Cascades Network (NCCN) parks. Prairies are an important element of the natural environment at many parks, including San Juan Island National Historical Park (NHP) and Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve (NHR). Forests have been encroaching on these prairies for many years, and so monitoring of the prairies is an important resource issue. This project specifically focused on San Juan Island NHP. Prairies at Ebey's Landing NHR will be monitored in the future, but that park was not mapped as part of this prototype project. In the interest of efficiency, the Network decided to investigate two main issues before launching a full protocol development effort: (1) the imagery requirements for monitoring prairie components, and (2) the effectiveness of software to assist in extracting features from the imagery. Several components of prairie monitoring were initially identified as being easily tracked using aerial imagery. These components included prairie/forest edge, broad prairie composition (for example, shrubs, scattered trees), and internal exclusions (for example, shrubs, bare ground). In addition, we believed that it might be possible to distinguish different grasses in the prairies if the imagery were of high enough resolution. Although the areas in question at San Juan Island NHP are small enough that mapping on the ground with GPS (Global Positioning System) would be feasible, other applications could benefit from aerial image acquisition on a regular, recurring basis and thereby make the investment in aerial imagery worthwhile. The additional expense of orthorectifying the imagery also was determined to be cost-effective.

  5. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  6. Youth's social network structures and peer influences: study protocol MyMovez project - Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Smit, Crystal R; van Woudenberg, Thabo J; Buijs, Laura; Burk, William J; Buijzen, Moniek

    2018-04-16

    Youth are an important target group for social network interventions, because they are particularly susceptible to the adaptation of healthy and unhealthy habits and behaviors of others. They are surrounded by 'social influence agents' (i.e., role models such as family, friends and peers) that co-determine their dietary intake and physical activity. However, there is a lack of systematic and comprehensive research on the implementation of a social network approach in health campaigns. The MyMovez research project aims to fill this gap by developing a method for effective social network campaign implementation. This protocol paper describes the design and methods of Phase I of the MyMovez project, aiming to unravel youth's social network structures in combination with individual, psychosocial, and environmental factors related to energy intake and expenditure. In addition, the Wearable Lab is developed to enable an attractive and state-of-the-art way of collecting data and online campaign implementation via social networks. Phase I of the MyMovez project consists of a large-scale cross-sequential cohort study (N = 953; 8-12 and 12-15 y/o). In five waves during a 3-year period (2016-2018), data are collected about youth's social network exposure, media consumption, socialization experiences, psychological determinants of behavior, physical environment, dietary intake (snacking and drinking behavior) and physical activity using the Wearable Lab. The Wearable Lab exists of a smartphone-based research application (app) connected to an activity tracking bracelet, that is developed throughout the duration of the project. It generates peer- and self-reported (e.g., sociometric data and surveys) and experience sampling data, social network beacon data, real-time physical activity data (i.e., steps and cycling), location information, photos and chat conversation data from the app's social media platform Social Buzz. The MyMovez project - Phase I is an innovative cross

  7. Implementing a Standardized Social Networks Testing Strategy in a Low HIV Prevalence Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Casey; Kahn, Danielle; Broaddus, Michelle; Dougherty, Jacob; Elderbrook, Megan; Vergeront, James; Westergaard, Ryan

    2018-05-15

    Alternative HIV testing strategies are needed to engage individuals not reached by traditional clinical or non-clinical testing programs. A social networks recruitment strategy, in which people at risk for or living with HIV are enlisted and trained by community-based agencies to recruit individuals from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks for HIV testing, demonstrates higher positivity rates compared to other non-clinical recruitment strategies in some jurisdictions. During 2013-2015, a social networks testing protocol was implemented in Wisconsin to standardize an existing social networks testing program. Six community-based, non-clinical agencies with multiple sites throughout the state implemented the protocol over the 2-year period. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The new positivity rate (0.49%) through social networks testing did not differ from that of traditional counseling, testing, and referral recruitment methods (0.48%). Although social networks testing did not yield a higher new positivity rate compared to other testing strategies, it proved to be successful at reaching high risk individuals who may not otherwise engage in HIV testing.

  8. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  9. Space Network Time Distribution and Synchronization Protocol Development for Mars Proximity Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Simon S.; Gao, Jay L.; Mills, David

    2010-01-01

    Time distribution and synchronization in deep space network are challenging due to long propagation delays, spacecraft movements, and relativistic effects. Further, the Network Time Protocol (NTP) designed for terrestrial networks may not work properly in space. In this work, we consider the time distribution protocol based on time message exchanges similar to Network Time Protocol (NTP). We present the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) algorithm that can work with the CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Data Link Protocol. The PITS algorithm provides faster time synchronization via two-way time transfer over proximity links, improves scalability as the number of spacecraft increase, lowers storage space requirement for collecting time samples, and is robust against packet loss and duplication which underlying protocol mechanisms provide.

  10. Implementation of two-party protocols in the noisy-storage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Stephanie; Curty, Marcos; Schaffner, Christian; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2010-01-01

    The noisy-storage model allows the implementation of secure two-party protocols under the sole assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. No quantum storage is thereby required for the honest parties. Examples of such protocols include bit commitment, oblivious transfer, and secure identification. Here, we provide a guideline for the practical implementation of such protocols. In particular, we analyze security in a practical setting where the honest parties themselves are unable to perform perfect operations and need to deal with practical problems such as errors during transmission and detector inefficiencies. We provide explicit security parameters for two different experimental setups using weak coherent, and parametric down-conversion sources. In addition, we analyze a modification of the protocols based on decoy states.

  11. Analysis of transmission speed of AX.25 Protocol implemented in satellital earth station UPTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Vera Cely

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important parameters for the proper functioning of satellital ground station projected on Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia (UPTC is the efficiency in transmission speed on communications protocol. This paper shows the results of analysis of the transmission speed of the AX.25 protocol implemented in the communication system of the satellital ground station UPTC. It begins with a brief description of the implemented hardware; the behavior of the transmission rate is evaluated using a theoretical analysis based on equations to estimate this parameter in the operation of the protocol, then tests are performed using the hardware that the satellital ground station UPTC has and finally, the conclusions are presented. Based on comparison of the theoretical analysis results obtained experimentally, it became apparent that AX.25 protocol efficiency is higher when increasing the number of frames.

  12. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  13. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  14. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seers Kate

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation, with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline

  15. Implementation of the protocol on treatment of outpatients and hospitalized patients with iodine 131r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mildred De Mendoza, L.

    1996-01-01

    In Nuclear medicine different working protocols are used which are adequate for the treatment of patients with radioactive materials and which at the same time prevent the contamination of the occupationally exposed workers In Guatemala (the implementation of these protocols aims at keeping a records all the personal and centers that make use of iodine 131, improving the quality of diagnostic information; utilizing the necessary amount of radionuclide activity so as to ensure a good diagnosis and effectively utilizing economic resources

  16. Fuzzy Extractor and Elliptic Curve Based Efficient User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks and Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anup Kumar Maurya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the quality of service and reduce the possibility of security attacks, a secure and efficient user authentication mechanism is required for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the Internet of Things (IoT. Session key establishment between the sensor node and the user is also required for secure communication. In this paper, we perform the security analysis of A.K.Das’s user authentication scheme (given in 2015, Choi et al.’s scheme (given in 2016, and Park et al.’s scheme (given in 2016. The security analysis shows that their schemes are vulnerable to various attacks like user impersonation attack, sensor node impersonation attack and attacks based on legitimate users. Based on the cryptanalysis of these existing protocols, we propose a secure and efficient authenticated session key establishment protocol which ensures various security features and overcomes the drawbacks of existing protocols. The formal and informal security analysis indicates that the proposed protocol withstands the various security vulnerabilities involved in WSNs. The automated validation using AVISPA and Scyther tool ensures the absence of security attacks in our scheme. The logical verification using the Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN logic confirms the correctness of the proposed protocol. Finally, the comparative analysis based on computational overhead and security features of other existing protocol indicate that the proposed user authentication system is secure and efficient. In future, we intend to implement the proposed protocol in real-world applications of WSNs and IoT.

  17. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  18. [The intervention mapping protocol: A structured process to develop, implement and evaluate health promotion programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassier, J-B; Lamort-Bouché, M; Sarnin, P; Durif-Bruckert, C; Péron, J; Letrilliart, L; Durand, M-J

    2016-02-01

    Health promotion programs are expected to improve population health and reduce social inequalities in health. However, their theoretical foundations are frequently ill-defined, and their implementation faces many obstacles. The aim of this article is to describe the intervention mapping protocol in health promotion programs planning, used recently in several countries. The challenges of planning health promotion programs are presented, and the six steps of the intervention mapping protocol are described with an example. Based on a literature review, the use of this protocol, its requirements and potential limitations are discussed. The intervention mapping protocol has four essential characteristics: an ecological perspective (person-environment), a participative approach, the use of theoretical models in human and social sciences and the use of scientific evidence. It comprises six steps: conduct a health needs assessment, define change objectives, select theory-based change techniques and practical applications, organize techniques and applications into an intervention program (logic model), plan for program adoption, implementation, and sustainability, and generate an evaluation plan. This protocol was used in different countries and domains such as obesity, tobacco, physical activity, cancer and occupational health. Although its utilization requires resources and a critical stance, this protocol was used to develop interventions which efficacy was demonstrated. The intervention mapping protocol is an integrated process that fits the scientific and practical challenges of health promotion. It could be tested in France as it was used in other countries, in particular to reduce social inequalities in health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. A Novel Smart Routing Protocol for Remote Health Monitoring in Medical Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. P. Sundararajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a Medical Wireless Network (MWN, sensors constantly monitor patient's physiological condition and movement. Inter-MWN communications are set up between the Patient Server and one or more Centralized Coordinators. However, MWNs require protocols with little energy consumption and the self-organizing attribute perceived in ad-hoc networks. The proposed Smart Routing Protocol (SRP selects only the nodes with a higher residual energy and lower traffic density for routing. This approach enhances cooperation among the nodes of a Mobile Ad Hoc Network. Consequently, SRP produces better results than the existing protocols, namely Conditional Min-Max Battery Cost Routing, Min-Max Battery Cost Routing and AdHoc On-demand Distance Vector in terms of network parameters. The performance of the erstwhile schemes for routing protocols is evaluated using the network simulator Qualnet v 4.5.

  20. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm-i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data-to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the absence

  1. A Probabilistic Model of the LMAC Protocol for Concurrent Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esparza, Luz Judith R; Zeng, Kebin; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2011-01-01

    We present a probabilistic model for the network setup phase of the Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for concurrent Wireless Sensor Networks. In the network setup phase, time slots are allocated to the individual sensors through resolution of successive collisions. The setup phase...

  2. A Gossip-based Energy Efficient Protocol for Robust In-network Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauji, Shantanu

    We consider the problem of energy efficient and fault tolerant in--network aggregation for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In-network aggregation is the process of aggregation while collecting data from sensors to the base station. This process should be energy efficient due to the limited energy at the sensors and tolerant to the high failure rates common in sensor networks. Tree based in--network aggregation protocols, although energy efficient, are not robust to network failures. Multipath routing protocols are robust to failures to a certain degree but are not energy efficient due to the overhead in the maintenance of multiple paths. We propose a new protocol for in-network aggregation in WSNs, which is energy efficient, achieves high lifetime, and is robust to the changes in the network topology. Our protocol, gossip--based protocol for in-network aggregation (GPIA) is based on the spreading of information via gossip. GPIA is not only adaptive to failures and changes in the network topology, but is also energy efficient. Energy efficiency of GPIA comes from all the nodes being capable of selective message reception and detecting convergence of the aggregation early. We experimentally show that GPIA provides significant improvement over some other competitors like the Ridesharing, Synopsis Diffusion and the pure version of gossip. GPIA shows ten fold, five fold and two fold improvement over the pure gossip, the synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing protocols in terms of network lifetime, respectively. Further, GPIA retains gossip's robustness to failures and improves upon the accuracy of synopsis diffusion and Ridesharing.

  3. Control protocol: large scale implementation at the CERN PS complex - a first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abie, H.; Benincasa, G.; Coudert, G.; Davydenko, Y.; Dehavay, C.; Gavaggio, R.; Gelato, G.; Heinze, W.; Legras, M.; Lustig, H.; Merard, L.; Pearson, T.; Strubin, P.; Tedesco, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Control Protocol is a model-based, uniform access procedure from a control system to accelerator equipment. It was proposed at CERN about 5 years ago and prototypes were developed in the following years. More recently, this procedure has been finalized and implemented at a large scale in the PS Complex. More than 300 pieces of equipment are now using this protocol in normal operation and another 300 are under implementation. These include power converters, vacuum systems, beam instrumentation devices, RF equipment, etc. This paper describes how the single general procedure is applied to the different kinds of equipment. The advantages obtained are also discussed. ((orig.))

  4. Experiences from Implementing a Mobile Multiplayer Real-Time Game for Wireless Networks with High Latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Inge Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results and experiences from designing, implementing, and testing a multiplayer real-time game over mobile networks with high latency. The paper reports on network latency and bandwidth measurements from playing the game live over GPRS, EDGE, UMTS, and WLAN using the TCP and the UDP protocols. These measurements describe the practical constraints of various wireless networks and protocols when used for mobile multiplayer game purposes. Further, the paper reports on experiences from implementing various approaches to minimize issues related to high latency. Specifically, the paper focuses on a discussion about how much of the game should run locally on the client versus on the server to minimize the load on the mobile device and obtain sufficient consistency in the game. The game was designed to reveal all kinds of implementation issues of mobile network multiplayer games. The goal of the game is for a player to push other players around and into traps where they loose their lives. The game relies heavily on collision detection between the players and game objects. The paper presents experiences from experimenting with various approaches that can be used to handle such collisions, and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches.

  5. Intelligent QoS routing algorithm based on improved AODV protocol for Ad Hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huibin, Liu; Jun, Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Networks were playing an increasingly important part in disaster reliefs, military battlefields and scientific explorations. However, networks routing difficulties are more and more outstanding due to inherent structures. This paper proposed an improved cuckoo searching-based Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing protocol (CSAODV). It elaborately designs the calculation methods of optimal routing algorithm used by protocol and transmission mechanism of communication-package. In calculation of optimal routing algorithm by CS Algorithm, by increasing QoS constraint, the found optimal routing algorithm can conform to the requirements of specified bandwidth and time delay, and a certain balance can be obtained among computation spending, bandwidth and time delay. Take advantage of NS2 simulation software to take performance test on protocol in three circumstances and validate the feasibility and validity of CSAODV protocol. In results, CSAODV routing protocol is more adapt to the change of network topological structure than AODV protocol, which improves package delivery fraction of protocol effectively, reduce the transmission time delay of network, reduce the extra burden to network brought by controlling information, and improve the routing efficiency of network.

  6. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF SECURE AODV FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharmila

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks are extremely vulnerable to any kind of routing attacks due to several factors such as wireless transmission and resource-constrained nodes. In this respect, securing the packets is of great importance when designing the infrastructure and protocols of sensor networks. This paper describes the hardware architecture of secure routing for wireless sensor networks. The routing path is selected using Ad-hoc on demand distance vector routing protocol (AODV. The data packets are converted into digest using hash functions. The functionality of the proposed method is modeled using Verilog HDL in MODELSIM simulator and the performance is compared with various target devices. The results show that the data packets are secured and defend against the routing attacks with minimum energy consumption.

  7. Delay-tolerant mobile network protocol for rice field monitoring using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Alexandre; Andres, Frédéric; Cardoso, Jarbas Lopes; Kawtrakul, Asanee; Barbin, Silvio E.

    2015-10-01

    The monitoring of rice fields can improve productivity by helping farmers throughout the rice cultivation cycle, on various issues: when to harvest, when to treat the crops against disease, when to increase the water level, how to share observations and decisions made in a collaborative way, etc. In this paper, we propose an architecture to monitor a rice field by a wireless sensor network. Our architecture is based on static sensor nodes forming a disconnected network, and mobile nodes communicating with the sensor nodes in a delay-tolerant manner. The data collected by the static sensor nodes are transmitted to mobile nodes, which in turn transmit them to a gateway, connected to a database, for further analysis. We focus on the related architecture, as well as on the energy-efficient protocols intended to perform the data collection.

  8. Managing symptoms during cancer treatments: evaluating the implementation of evidence-informed remote support protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Dawn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of cancer treatment-related symptoms is an important safety issue given that symptoms can become life-threatening and often occur when patients are at home. With funding from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, a pan-Canadian steering committee was established with representation from eight provinces to develop symptom protocols using a rigorous methodology (CAN-IMPLEMENT©. Each protocol is based on a systematic review of the literature to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines. Protocols were validated by cancer nurses from across Canada. The aim of this study is to build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing evidence-informed protocols for nurses to use when providing remote symptom assessment, triage, and guidance in self-management for patients experiencing symptoms while undergoing cancer treatments. Methods A prospective mixed-methods study design will be used. Guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework, the study will involve (a establishing an advisory knowledge user team in each of three targeted settings; (b assessing factors influencing nurses’ use of protocols using interviews/focus groups and a standardized survey instrument; (c adapting protocols for local use, ensuring fidelity of the content; (d selecting intervention strategies to overcome known barriers and implementing the protocols; (e conducting think-aloud usability testing; (f evaluating protocol use and outcomes by conducting an audit of 100 randomly selected charts at each of the three settings; and (g assessing satisfaction with remote support using symptom protocols and change in nurses’ barriers to use using survey instruments. The primary outcome is sustained use of the protocols, defined as use in 75% of the calls. Descriptive analysis will be conducted for the barriers, use of protocols, and chart audit outcomes. Content analysis will be conducted on interviews/focus groups and usability testing

  9. Emotional assistance in thalassaemia: pilot implementation of a standard protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Veit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the creation process of standard procedures to make possible multicentre studies related to emotional aspects of thalassaemic patients, their families and caregivers; and the pilot phase of the routine implementation. The objectives defined to perform this goal are: i develop routines to assess and manage/treat emotional issues; ii adjust the ABRASTA - Brazilian Association of Thalassaemia computer system to the input of collected data and its compilation; iii conduct a pilot implementation of the routines; iv discuss the whole process and propose next steps. Forty patients were assisted following the above mentioned routines of psychological evaluation, follow-up assistance and management of specific emotional issues. Conclusions are that the routines are adequate to enable multicenter research to compare findings and develop specific interventions to Thalassaemia patients, their families and caregivers; information gathered through them is an important means of supporting medical doctors and other members of the professional team, both in the therapeutic planning and in the communication process with patients and families; finally, considering the nature of the information, psychologists and psychiatrists are the most indicated professionals to perform the assessment and the interventions related to emotional issues, due to their professional background, training and specific skills that allow a free and candid communication with the patients and their families. 本研究旨在描述标准程序的创造过程,来进行关于地中海贫血患者、其家属和照顾者情感方面可能的多中心研究;以及例程实施的试点阶段。 为实现此目的而定下的目标有: 1)制定例程评估和管理/处理情感问题;2)调整巴西地中海贫血病协会(ABRASTA)计算机系统, 输入收集到的数据并对其进行编辑;3)对例程进行试点实施;4)讨论整个过

  10. Altruistic Backoff: Collision Avoidance for Receiver-Initiated MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Orfanidis, Charalampos; Dragoni, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    In receiver-initiated medium access control (MAC) protocols for wireless sensor networks, communication is initiated by the receiver node which transmits beacons indicating its availability to receive data. In the case of multiple senders having traffic for a given receiver, such beacons form...... points where collisions are likely to happen. In this paper, we present altruistic backoff (AB), a novel collision avoidance mechanism that aims to avoid collisions before the transmission of a beacon. As a result of an early backoff, senders spend less time in idle listening waiting for a beacon, thus...... saving significant amounts of energy. We present an implementation of AB for Texas Instruments' eZ430-rf2500 sensor nodes and we evaluate its performance with simulations and experiments....

  11. Quantum cryptography: Theoretical protocols for quantum key distribution and tests of selected commercial QKD systems in commercial fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.

  12. Researches on the Security of Cluster-based Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Along with the in-depth application of sensor networks, the security issues have gradually become the bottleneck of wireless sensor applications. To provide a solution for security scheme is a common concern not only of researchers but also of providers, integrators and users of wireless sensor networks. Based on this demand, this paper focuses on the research of strengthening the security of cluster-based wireless sensor networks. Based on the systematic analysis of the clustering protocol and its security enhancement scheme, the paper introduces the broadcast authentication scheme, and proposes an SA-LEACH network security enhancement protocol. The performance analysis and simulation experiments prove that the protocol consumes less energy with the same security requirements, and when the base station is comparatively far from the network deployment area, it is more advantageous in terms of energy consumption and t more suitable for wireless sensor networks.

  13. Medium Access Control Protocols for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Zareei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available New wireless network paradigms will demand higher spectrum use and availability to cope with emerging data-hungry devices. Traditional static spectrum allocation policies cause spectrum scarcity, and new paradigms such as Cognitive Radio (CR and new protocols and techniques need to be developed in order to have efficient spectrum usage. Medium Access Control (MAC protocols are accountable for recognizing free spectrum, scheduling available resources and coordinating the coexistence of heterogeneous systems and users. This paper provides an ample review of the state-of-the-art MAC protocols, which mainly focuses on Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks (CRAHN. First, a description of the cognitive radio fundamental functions is presented. Next, MAC protocols are divided into three groups, which are based on their channel access mechanism, namely time-slotted protocol, random access protocol and hybrid protocol. In each group, a detailed and comprehensive explanation of the latest MAC protocols is presented, as well as the pros and cons of each protocol. A discussion on future challenges for CRAHN MAC protocols is included with a comparison of the protocols from a functional perspective.

  14. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  15. Modelling and Initial Validation of the DYMO Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espensen, Kristian Asbjørn Leth; Kjeldsen, Mads Keblov; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2008-01-01

    A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructureless network established by a set of mobile devices using wireless communication. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol is a routing protocol for multi-hop communication in MANETs currently under development by the Internet Engineering Task...... Force (IETF). This paper presents a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) model of the mandatory parts of the DYMO protocol, and shows how scenario-based state space exploration has been used to validate key properties of the protocol. Our CPN modelling and verification work has spanned two revisions of the DYMO...... protocol specification and have had direct impact on the most recent version of the protocol specification....

  16. Wireless Sensor Networks Database: Data Management and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the core application of wireless sensor network technology, Data management and processing have become the research hotspot in the new database. This article studied mainly data management in wireless sensor networks, in connection with the characteristics of the data in wireless sensor networks, discussed wireless sensor network data query, integrating technology in-depth, proposed a mobile database structure based on wireless sensor network and carried out overall design and implementation for the data management system. In order to achieve the communication rules of above routing trees, network manager uses a simple maintenance algorithm of routing trees. Design ordinary node end, server end in mobile database at gathering nodes and mobile client end that can implement the system, focus on designing query manager, storage modules and synchronous module at server end in mobile database at gathering nodes.

  17. Towards a CPN-Based Modelling Approach for Reconciling Verification and Implementation of Protocol Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kent Inge; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2013-01-01

    Formal modelling of protocols is often aimed at one specific purpose such as verification or automatically generating an implementation. This leads to models that are useful for one purpose, but not for others. Being able to derive models for verification and implementation from a single model...... is beneficial both in terms of reduced total modelling effort and confidence that the verification results are valid also for the implementation model. In this paper we introduce the concept of a descriptive specification model and an approach based on refining a descriptive model to target both verification...... how this model can be refined to target both verification and implementation....

  18. Ecological networks and greenways; concept, design, implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Pungetti, G.

    2004-01-01

    The establishment of ecological networks in Europe and greenways in America has required some of the most advanced applications of the principles of landscape ecology to land use planning. This book provides a thorough overview of recent developments in this emerging field, combining theoretical

  19. FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C; Neufeld, N

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to accelerate the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialized protocols. A test module is being implemented to be integrated in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, and flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets. Traffic data are either internally generated or read from external storage via the network. We have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a file-system on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  20. LHCb: FPGA based data-flow injection module at 10 Gbit/s reading data from network exported storage and using standard protocols

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemouzy, B; Garnier, J-C

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the LHCb readout upgrade is to speed up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or similar technologies and might also need new networking protocols such as a customized, light-weight TCP or more specialised protocols. A test module is being implemented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a multiple 10-Gigabit traffic generator, driven by a Stratix IV FPGA, which is flexibile enough to either generate LHCb's raw data packets internally or read them from external storage via the network. For reading the data we have implemented a light-weight industry standard protocol ATA over Ethernet (AoE) and we present an outlook of using a filesystem on these network-exported disk-drivers.

  1. Cryptanalysis and improvement of quantum secure communication network protocol with entangled photons for mobile communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a communication protocol called controlled bidirectional quantum secret direct communication for mobile networks was proposed by Chou et al (2014 Mobile Netw. Appl. 19 121). We study the security of the proposed communication protocol and find that it is not secure. The controller, Telecom Company, may eavesdrop secret messages from mobile devices without being detected. Finally, we give a possible improvement of the communication protocol. (paper)

  2. Implementation and Characterization of Dynamic Genetic Networks in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Niederholtmeyer, Henrike Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and translation (TX-TL) can be performed in vitro, outside of cells, allowing the assembly and analysis of genetic networks. This approach to engineering biological networks in a less complex and more controllable environment could one day allow rapid prototyping of network designs before implementing them in living cells. Furthermore, the in vitro approach provides insight into how natural biological systems are built and is instructive to define the rules for engineering biolo...

  3. Throughput and Fairness of Collision Avoidance Protocols in Ad Hoc Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J; Wang, Yu

    2004-01-01

    .... In Section 1, The authors present an analytical modeling to derive the saturation throughput of these sender-initiated collision avoidance protocols in multi-hop ad hoc networks with nodes randomly...

  4. IDMA: improving the defense against malicious attack for mobile ad hoc networks based on ARIP protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2008-04-01

    Malicious nodes are mounting increasingly sophisticated attacking operations on the Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). This is mainly because the IP-based MANETs are vulnerable to attacks by various malicious nodes. However, the defense against malicious attack can be improved when a new layer of network architecture can be developed to separate true IP address from disclosing to the malicious nodes. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to improve the defense against malicious attack (IDMA) that is based on a recently developed Assignment Router Identify Protocol (ARIP) for the clustering-based MANET management. In the ARIP protocol, we design the ARIP architecture based on the new Identity instead of the vulnerable IP addresses to provide the required security that is embedded seamlessly into the overall network architecture. We make full use of ARIP's special property to monitor gateway forward packets by Reply Request Route Packets (RREP) without additional intrusion detection layer. We name this new algorithm IDMA because of its inherent capability to improve the defense against malicious attacks. Through IDMA, a watching algorithm can be established so as to counterattack the malicious node in the routing path when it unusually drops up packets. We provide analysis examples for IDMA for the defense against a malicious node that disrupts the route discovery by impersonating the destination, or by responding with state of corrupted routing information, or by disseminating forged control traffic. The IDMA algorithm is able to counterattack the malicious node in the cases when the node lunch DoS attack by broadcast a large number of route requests, or make Target traffic congestion by delivering huge mount of data; or spoof the IP addresses and send forge packets with a fake ID to the same Target causing traffic congestion at that destination. We have implemented IDMA algorism using the GloMoSim simulator and have demonstrated its performance under a variety of

  5. A Performance Study of LEACH and Direct Diffusion Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakher, S.; Sharshar, K.; Moawad, M.I.; Shokair, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is composed of a large number of sensor nodes with limited computation communication, and battery facilities. One of the common applications of this network is environment monitoring through sensing motion, measuring temperature, humidity and radiation. One of the basic activities in WSN is data gathering which represents a great challenge. Many routing protocols are proposed for that network to collect and aggregate the data. The most popular ones are hierarchy and data centric routing protocols. The main goal of this study is to identify the most preferable routing protocol, to be used in each mobility model. This paper studies the performance of LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) from hierarchy routing protocol and direct diffusion from data centric routing protocol which is not clarified until now. Moreover, a comparison between LEACH and direct diffusion protocol using NS2 simulator will be made, and an analysis of these protocols will be conducted. The comparison includes packet delivery ratio, throughput, average energy ratio, average delay, network lifetime, and routing overhead. The performance is evaluated by varying the number of sensor nodes under three mobility models Reference Point Group Mobility Model (RPGM), Manhattan and random waypoint mobility model. Simulation results show that LEACH routing protocol has a good performance in RPGM and Manhattan than random waypoint mobility model. Direct diffusion has a good performance in random waypoint mobility model than in RPGM and Manhattan mobility model

  6. Specification and Validation of an Edge Router Discovery Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Jensen, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    We present an industrial project at Ericsson Telebit A/S where Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the design and specification of an edge router discovery protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. The Edge Router Discovery Protocol (ERDP) supports an edge router in a stationary...

  7. Performance Evaluation of a Cluster-Based Service Discovery Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract—This paper evaluates the performance in terms of resource consumption of a service discovery protocol proposed for heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The protocol is based on a clustering structure, which facilitates the construction of a distributed directory. Nodes with higher

  8. Knowledge-Based Multiple Access Protocol in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Dittmann, Lars

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a knowledge-based multiple access protocol for the extension of wireline ATM to wireless networks. The objective is to enable effecient transmission of all kinds of ATM traffic in the wireless channel with guaranteed QoS.The proposed protocol utilixes knowledge of the main...... guaranteed QoS requirements to a variety of ATM applications....

  9. Optimization and Verification of the TR-MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Energy-efficiency is an important requirement in the design of communication protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSN). TR-MAC is an energy-efficient medium access control (MAC) layer protocol for low power WSN that exploits transmitted-reference (TR) modulation in the physical layer. The

  10. A network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijuan; Liu, Jingao

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes a network identity authentication protocol of bank account system based on fingerprint identification and mixed encryption. This protocol can provide every bank user a safe and effective way to manage his own bank account, and also can effectively prevent the hacker attacks and bank clerk crime, so that it is absolute to guarantee the legitimate rights and interests of bank users.

  11. Biopiracy after the Nagoya Protocol: Problem Structure, Regime Design and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rabitz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the effectiveness of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD for addressing "biopiracy" of genetic resources; that is, their biotechnological utilization in violation of either the provider country legislation or mutually agreed contractual obligations. Biopiracy is defined as a problem resulting from a distributive conflict between provider and user countries, the practical difficulties of monitoring the utilization of genetic resources in a transnational context, and the pervasive scientific uncertainty about the nature and extent of the problem. The Nagoya Protocol predominantly focuses on compliance management while lacking the necessary enforcement provisions for deterring non-compliance through effective monitoring and sanctions. Using the example of recent European Union implementing legislation, this article underscores how parties may use the Protocol's legal ambiguities to soften its regulatory impact on domestic industry. As a result, in light of both problem structure and regime design, the Protocol only offers modest improvements over the status quo ante.

  12. Consensus problem in directed networks of multi-agents via nonlinear protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiwei; Chen Tianping; Lu Wenlian

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, the consensus problem via distributed nonlinear protocols for directed networks is investigated. Its dynamical behaviors are described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Based on graph theory, matrix theory and the Lyapunov direct method, some sufficient conditions of nonlinear protocols guaranteeing asymptotical or exponential consensus are presented and rigorously proved. The main contribution of this work is that for nonlinearly coupled networks, we generalize the results for undirected networks to directed networks. Consensus under pinning control technique is also developed here. Simulations are also given to show the validity of the theories.

  13. Wireless networking for the dental office: current wireless standards and security protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupparapu, Muralidhar; Arora, Sarika

    2004-11-15

    Digital radiography has gained immense popularity in dentistry today in spite of the early difficulty for the profession to embrace the technology. The transition from film to digital has been happening at a faster pace in the fields of Orthodontics, Oral Surgery, Endodontics, Periodontics, and other specialties where the radiographic images (periapical, bitewing, panoramic, cephalometric, and skull radiographs) are being acquired digitally, stored within a server locally, and eventually accessed for diagnostic purposes, along with the rest of the patient data via the patient management software (PMS). A review of the literature shows the diagnostic performance of digital radiography is at least comparable to or even better than that of conventional radiography. Similarly, other digital diagnostic tools like caries detectors, cephalometric analysis software, and digital scanners were used for many years for the diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. The introduction of wireless charged-coupled device (CCD) sensors in early 2004 (Schick Technologies, Long Island City, NY) has moved digital radiography a step further into the wireless era. As with any emerging technology, there are concerns that should be looked into before adapting to the wireless environment. Foremost is the network security involved in the installation and usage of these wireless networks. This article deals with the existing standards and choices in wireless technologies that are available for implementation within a contemporary dental office. The network security protocols that protect the patient data and boost the efficiency of modern day dental clinics are enumerated.

  14. The interventional effect of new drugs combined with the Stupp protocol on glioblastoma: A network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Song, Xiangqi; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Aijun; Li, Jianmin; Chen, Tong

    2017-08-01

    New therapeutic agents in combination with the standard Stupp protocol (a protocol about the temozolomide combined with radiotherapy treatment with glioblastoma was research by Stupp R in 2005) were assessed to evaluate whether they were superior to the Stupp protocol alone, to determine the optimum treatment regimen for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. We implemented a search strategy to identify studies in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CNKI, CBM, Wanfang, and VIP, and assessed the quality of extracted data from the trials included. Statistical software was used to perform network meta-analysis. The use of novel therapeutic agents in combination with the Stupp protocol were all shown to be superior than the Stupp protocol alone for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma, ranked as follows: cilengitide 2000mg/5/week, bevacizumab in combination with irinotecan, nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, cilengitide 2000mg/2/week, cytokine-induced killer cell immunotherapy, and the Stupp protocol. In terms of serious adverse effects, the intervention group showed a 29% increase in the incidence of adverse events compared with the control group (patients treated only with Stupp protocol) with a statistically significant difference (RR=1.29; 95%CI 1.17-1.43; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, pneumonia, nausea, and vomiting, none of which were significantly different between the groups except for neutropenia, pneumonia, and embolism. All intervention drugs evaluated in our study were superior to the Stupp protocol alone when used in combination with it. However, we could not conclusively confirm whether cilengitide 2000mg/5/week was the optimum regime, as only one trial using this protocol was included in our study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Effects of Data Replication on Data Exfiltration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Utilizing Reactive Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    aerial vehicle VANET vehicular ad hoc network VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol VRR Virtual Ring Routing xiii EFFECTS OF DATA REPLICATION ON DATA...ad hoc networks in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), and flying ad hoc net- works (FANETs). Much of the research...metric, such as capacity, congestion , power, or combinations thereof. Caro refers to two different types of ants, FANTs and BANTs which are analogous to

  16. Who needs inpatient detox? Development and implementation of a hospitalist protocol for the evaluation of patients for alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Liles, E Allen; Dancel, Ria; Gilchrist, Michael; Kirsch, Jonathan; DeWalt, Darren A

    2014-04-01

    Clinicians caring for patients seeking alcohol detoxification face many challenges, including lack of evidence-based guidelines for treatment and high recidivism rates. To develop a standardized protocol for determining which alcohol dependent patients seeking detoxification need inpatient versus outpatient treatment, and to study the protocol's implementation. Review of best evidence by ad hoc task force and subsequent creation of standardized protocol. Prospective observational evaluation of initial protocol implementation. Patients presenting for alcohol detoxification. Development and implementation of a protocol for evaluation and treatment of patients requesting alcohol detoxification. Number of admissions per month with primary alcohol related diagnosis (DRG), 30-day readmission rate, and length of stay, all measured before and after protocol implementation. We identified one randomized clinical trial and three cohort studies to inform the choice of inpatient versus outpatient detoxification, along with one prior protocol in this population, and combined that data with clinical experience to create an institutional protocol. After implementation, the average number of alcohol related admissions was 15.9 per month, compared with 18.9 per month before implementation (p = 0.037). There was no difference in readmission rate or length of stay. Creation and utilization of a protocol led to standardization of care for patients requesting detoxification from alcohol. Initial evaluation of protocol implementation showed a decrease in number of admissions.

  17. The Network Form of Implementing Educational Programs: Differences and Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Alexandr Borisovich

    2016-01-01

    The article describes peculiarities of implementation and major differences in network educational programs, currently introduced in Russia. It presents a general typology of models and forms for implementing interaction between educational institutions of Russia, including teacher institutes and federal universities, as well as a typology of…

  18. Implementing the Kyoto protocol : why JI and CDM show more promise than international emissions trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, E.

    The Kyoto protocol allows developed countries to achieve cost-effective greenhouse gas emission reductions abroad by means of international emissions trading (IET), joint implementation (JI) and the clean development mechanism (CDM). The article argues that JI and CDM projects will be more

  19. [Impact of the implementation of a protocol for the adequate and safe use of tumor markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida de la Torre, Francisco Javier; Moreno Campoy, Elvira Eva; Martos Crespo, Francisco

    2015-12-21

    Improper clinical use of tumor markers (TM) may cause unnecessary additional studies to confirm or refute a positive result. After observing 2 adverse events due to a wrong use of TM, a protocol for improving their use was implemented. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the implementation of the protocol. This was a pre-postintervention study, where analytical requests of carcinoembryonic antigen, CA15.3, CA19.9 and CA125 were analyzed during one year in patients not undergoing checking of neoplasia. A protocol was implemented and physicians were trained as recommended by the European Group on Tumor Markers, limiting its use to monitor the disease and its treatment. The study period was 2010-2014. The total number of requests dropped 50.81% and the percentage of adequacy of TM increased, each year, from 31.03 to 77.91%. The implementation of a protocol for the proper use of TM contributes to a safer use, avoiding incorrect studies and unnecessary and harmful tests for the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. SU-E-I-68: Practical Considerations On Implementation of the Image Gently Pediatric CT Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Adams, C; Lumby, C; Dillon, J; Woods, E; Richer, E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One limitation associated with the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols is practical implementation of the recommended manual techniques. Inconsistency as a result of different practice is a possibility among technologist. An additional concern is the added risk of data error that would result in over or underexposure. The Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) features automatically reduce radiation for children. However, they do not work efficiently for the patients of very small size and relative large size. This study aims to implement the Image Gently pediatric CT protocols in the practical setting while maintaining the use of AEC features for pediatric patients of varying size. Methods: Anthropomorphological abdomen phantoms were scanned in a CT scanner using the Image Gently pediatric protocols, the AEC technique with a fixed adult baseline, and automatic protocols with various baselines. The baselines were adjusted corresponding to patient age, weight and posterioranterior thickness to match the Image Gently pediatric CT manual techniques. CTDIvol was recorded for each examination. Image noise was measured and recorded for image quality comparison. Clinical images were evaluated by pediatric radiologists. Results: By adjusting vendor default baselines used in the automatic techniques, radiation dose and image quality can match those of the Image Gently manual techniques. In practice, this can be achieved by dividing pediatric patients into three major groups for technologist reference: infant, small child, and large child. Further division can be done but will increase the number of CT protocols. For each group, AEC can efficiently adjust acquisition techniques for children. This implementation significantly overcomes the limitation of the Image Gently manual techniques. Conclusion: Considering the effectiveness in clinical practice, Image Gently Pediatric CT protocols can be implemented in accordance with AEC techniques, with adjusted baselines, to

  1. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  2. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols. PMID:25162060

  3. Design and implementation of dynamic hybrid Honeypot network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peili; Hu, Shan-Shan; Zhai, Ji-Qiang

    2013-05-01

    The method of constructing a dynamic and self-adaptive virtual network is suggested to puzzle adversaries, delay and divert attacks, exhaust attacker resources and collect attacking information. The concepts of Honeypot and Honeyd, which is the frame of virtual Honeypot are introduced. The techniques of network scanning including active fingerprint recognition are analyzed. Dynamic virtual network system is designed and implemented. A virtual network similar to real network topology is built according to the collected messages from real environments in this system. By doing this, the system can perplex the attackers when Hackers attack and can further analyze and research the attacks. The tests to this system prove that this design can successfully simulate real network environment and can be used in network security analysis.

  4. Clinical benefits after the implementation of a multimodal perioperative protocol in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo de; Salomão, Alberto Bicudo; Caporossi, Cervantes; Diniz, Breno Nadaf

    2010-01-01

    Multimodal protocol of perioperative care may enhance recovery after surgery. Based on evidence these new routines of perioperative care changed conventional prescriptions in surgery. To evaluate the results of a multimodal protocol (ACERTO protocol) in elderly patients. Non-randomized historical cohort study was performed at the surgical ward of a tertiary university hospital. One hundred seventeen patients aged 60 and older were submitted to elective abdominal operations under either conventional (n = 42; conventional group, January 2004-June 2005) or a fast-track perioperative protocol named ACERTO (n = 75; ACERTO group, July 2005-December 2007). Main endpoints were preoperative fasting time, postoperative day of re-feeding, volume of intravenous fluids, length of hospital stay and morbidity. The implantation of the ACERTO protocol was followed by a decrease in both preoperative fasting (15 [8-20] vs 4 [2-20] hours, P<0.001) and postoperative day of refeeding (1st [1st-10th] vs 0 [0-5th] PO day; P<0.01), and intravenous fluids (10.7 [2.5-57.5] vs 2.5 [0.5-82] L, P<0.001). The changing of protocols reduced the mean length of hospital stay by 4 days (6[1-43] vs 2[1-97] days; P = 0.002) and surgical site infection rate by 85.7% (19%; 8/42 vs 2.7%; 2/75, P<0.001; relative risk = 1.20; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.39). Per-protocol analysis showed that hospital stay in major operations diminished only in patients who completed the protocol (P<0.01). The implementation of multidisciplinary routines of the ACERTO protocol diminished both hospitalization and surgical site infection in elderly patients submitted to abdominal operations.

  5. An energy-efficient data gathering protocol in large wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yamin; Zhang, Ruihua; Tao, Shizhong

    2006-11-01

    Wireless sensor network consisting of a large number of small sensors with low-power transceiver can be an effective tool for gathering data in a variety of environment. The collected data must be transmitted to the base station for further processing. Since a network consists of sensors with limited battery energy, the method for data gathering and routing must be energy efficient in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. In this paper, we presented an energy-efficient data gathering protocol in wireless sensor network. The new protocol used data fusion technology clusters nodes into groups and builds a chain among the cluster heads according to a hybrid of the residual energy and distance to the base station. Results in stochastic geometry are used to derive the optimum parameter of our algorithm that minimizes the total energy spent in the network. Simulation results show performance superiority of the new protocol.

  6. Sequential and parallel image restoration: neural network implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, M T; Leitao, J N

    1994-01-01

    Sequential and parallel image restoration algorithms and their implementations on neural networks are proposed. For images degraded by linear blur and contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise, maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation and regularization theory lead to the same high dimension convex optimization problem. The commonly adopted strategy (in using neural networks for image restoration) is to map the objective function of the optimization problem into the energy of a predefined network, taking advantage of its energy minimization properties. Departing from this approach, we propose neural implementations of iterative minimization algorithms which are first proved to converge. The developed schemes are based on modified Hopfield (1985) networks of graded elements, with both sequential and parallel updating schedules. An algorithm supported on a fully standard Hopfield network (binary elements and zero autoconnections) is also considered. Robustness with respect to finite numerical precision is studied, and examples with real images are presented.

  7. Enhanced just-in-time plus protocol for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Gregório, José M. B.; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a new one-way resource reservation protocol for optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called Enhanced Just-in-Time Plus (E-JIT+). The protocol is described in detail, and its formal specification is presented, following an extended finite state machine approach. The performance evaluation of E-JIT+ is analyzed in comparison with other proposed OBS protocols (JIT+ and E-JIT) for the following network topologies: rings; degree-two, degree-three, and degree-four chordal rings; mesh-torus; NSFNET; ARPANET; FCCN-NET; and the European Optical Network. We evaluate and compare the performance of the different protocols in terms of burst loss probability, taking into account the most important OBS network parameters. It was shown that E-JIT+ performs better than available one-way resource reservation protocols for all the evaluated network topologies. Moreover, the scalability of E-JIT+ was observed, and when the network traffic increases, the burst loss probability also increases, leading to a worse network performance.

  8. The Application of RPL Routing Protocol in Low Power Wireless Sensor and Lossy Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of computer information technology, wireless sensor has been successfully changed the mode of human life, at the same time, as one of the technologies continues to improve the future life, how to better integration with the RPL routing protocols together become one of research focuses in the current climate. This paper start from the wireless sensor network, briefly discusses the concept, followed by systematic exposition of RPL routing protocol developed background, relevant standards, working principle, topology and related terms, and finally explore the RPL routing protocol in wireless sensor low power lossy network applications.

  9. Design and implementation considerations of a MSAT packet data network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Fouad G.; Hearn, Terry; Rohr, Doug; Guibord, Arthur F.

    1993-01-01

    The Mobile Data System, which is intended to provide for packet switched data services is currently under development. The system is based on a star network topology consisting of a centralized Data Hub (DH) serving a large number of mobile terminals. Through the Data Hub, end-to-end connections can be established between terrestrial users on public or private data networks and mobile users. The MDS network will be capable of offering a variety of services some of which are based on the standard X.25 network interface protocol, and others optimized for short messages and broadcast messages. A description of these services and the trade-offs in the DH design are presented.

  10. SDL-Based Protocol Validation for the Integrated Safety Communication Network in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung-hun; Kim, Dong-hoon; Lee, Dong-young; Park, Sung-woo

    2006-01-01

    The communication protocol in nuclear power plants needs to be validated systematically to avoid the critical situation that may be caused by its own faults. We establish the methodology to validate the protocol designed for the Integrated Safety Communication Networks (ISCN) of Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS). The ISCN protocol is specified using the formal description technique called the SDL. The validation of ISCN protocol is done via the Simulator and Validator, both of which are main functions provided by the SDL

  11. IMHRP: Improved Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Ruan, Danwei; Hong, Yadong; Zhao, Ziming; Zheng, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a self-organizing system formed by a large number of low-cost sensor nodes through wireless communication. Sensor nodes collect environmental information and transmit it to the base station (BS). Sensor nodes usually have very limited battery energy. The batteries cannot be charged or replaced. Therefore, it is necessary to design an energy efficient routing protocol to maximize the network lifetime. This paper presents an improved multi-hop routing protocol (IMHRP) for homogeneous networks. In the IMHRP protocol, based on the distances to the BS, the CH nodes are divided into internal CH nodes and external CH nodes. The set-up phase of the protocol is based on the LEACH protocol and the minimum distance between CH nodes are limited to a special constant distance, so a more uniform distribution of CH nodes is achieved. In the steady-state phase, the routes of different CH nodes are created on the basis of the distances between the CH nodes. The energy efficiency of communication can be maximized. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can more effectively reduce the energy consumption of each round and prolong the network lifetime compared with LEACH protocol and MHT protocol.

  12. An Efficient Causal Group Communication Protocol for Free Scale Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory Evropeytsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks, a group of n (≥2 peer processes have to cooperate with each other. Each peer sends messages to every peer and receives messages from every peer in a group. In group communications, each message sent by a peer is required to be causally delivered to every peer. Most of the protocols designed to ensure causal message order are designed for networks with a plain architecture. These protocols can be adapted to use in free scale and hierarchical topologies; however, the amount of control information is O(n, where n is the number of peers in the system. Some protocols are designed for a free scale or hierarchical networks, but in general they force the whole system to accomplish the same order viewed by a super peer. In this paper, we present a protocol that is specifically designed to work with a free scale peer-to-peer network. By using the information about the network’s architecture and by representing message dependencies on a bit level, the proposed protocol ensures causal message ordering without enforcing super peers order. The designed protocol is simulated and compared with the Immediate Dependency Relation and the Dependency Sequences protocols to show its lower overhead.

  13. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  14. Effective Data Acquisition Protocol for Multi-Hop Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Using Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Khedr

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is important to reduce energy dissipation and prolong network lifetime. Clustering of nodes is one of the most effective approaches for conserving energy in WSNs. Cluster formation protocols generally consider the heterogeneity of sensor nodes in terms of energy difference of nodes but ignore the different transmission ranges of them. In this paper, we propose an effective data acquisition clustered protocol using compressive sensing (EDACP-CS for heterogeneous WSNs that aims to conserve the energy of sensor nodes in the presence of energy and transmission range heterogeneity. In EDACP-CS, cluster heads are selected based on the distance from the base station and sensor residual energy. Simulation results show that our protocol offers a much better performance than the existing protocols in terms of energy consumption, stability, network lifetime, and throughput.

  15. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  16. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  17. Multipath Activity Based Routing Protocol for Mobile ‎Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Omar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks improve spectrum utilization by ‎sharing licensed spectrum with cognitive radio devices. In ‎cognitive radio ad hoc networks the routing protocol is one ‎of the most challenging tasks due to the changes in ‎frequency spectrum and the interrupted connectivity ‎caused by the primary user activity. In this paper, a multi‎path activity based routing protocol for cognitive radio ‎network (MACNRP is proposed. The protocol utilizes ‎channel availability and creates multiple node-disjoint ‎routes between the source and destination nodes. The ‎proposed protocol is compared with D2CARP and FTCRP ‎protocols. The performance evaluation is conducted ‎through mathematical analysis and using OPNET ‎simulation. The performance of the proposed protocol ‎achieves an increase in network throughput; besides it ‎decreases the probability of route failure due to node ‎mobility and primary user activity. We have found that the ‎MACNRP scheme results in 50% to 75% reduction in ‎blocking probability and 33% to 78% improvement in ‎network throughput, with a reasonable additional routing ‎overhead and average packet delay. Due to the successful ‎reduction of collision between primary users and ‎cognitive users, the MACNRP scheme results in decreasing ‎the path failure rate by 50% to 87%.‎

  18. Efficient MAC Protocol for Hybrid Wireless Network with Heterogeneous Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nasre Alam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several Directional Medium Access Control (DMAC protocols have been designed for use with homogeneous networks, it can take a substantial amount of time to change sensor nodes that are equipped with an omnidirectional antenna for sensor nodes with a directional antenna. Thus, we require a novel MAC protocol for use with an intermediate wireless network that consists of heterogeneous sensor nodes equipped with either an omnidirectional antenna or a directional antenna. The MAC protocols that have been designed for use in homogeneous networks are not suitable for use in a hybrid network due to deaf, hidden, and exposed nodes. Therefore, we propose a MAC protocol that exploits the characteristics of a directional antenna and can also work efficiently with omnidirectional nodes in a hybrid network. In order to address the deaf, hidden, and exposed node problems, we define RTS/CTS for the neighbor (RTSN/CTSN and Neighbor Information (NIP packets. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated through a numerical analysis using a Markov model. In addition, the analytical results of the MAC protocol are verified through an OPNET simulation.

  19. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  20. WE-E-304-02: Implementing SBRT Protocols: A NRG CIRO Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation

  1. WE-E-304-02: Implementing SBRT Protocols: A NRG CIRO Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Y. [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    SBRT is having a dramatic impact on radiation therapy of early-stage, locally advanced cancers. A number of national protocols have been and are being developed to assess the clinical efficacy of SBRT for various anatomical sites, such as lung and spine. Physics credentialing for participating and implementation of trial protocols involve a broad spectrum of requirements from image guidance, motion management, to planning technology and dosimetric constrains. For radiation facilities that do not have extensive experiences in SBRT treatment and protocol credentialing, these complex processes of credentialing and implementation could be very challenging and, sometimes, may lead to ineffective even unsuccessful execution of these processes. In this proposal, we will provide comprehensive review of some current SBRT protocols, explain the requirements and their underline rationales, illustrate representative failed and successful experiences, related to SBRT credentialing, and discuss strategies for effective SBRT credentialing and implementation. Learning Objectives: Understand requirements and challenges of SBRT credentailing and implentation Discuss processes and strategies of effective SBRT credentailing Discuss practical considerations, potential pitfalls and solutions of SBRT implentation.

  2. A protocol is not enough to implement an enhanced recovery programme for colorectal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maessen, J; Dejong, C.H.C.; Hausel, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Single-centre studies have suggested that enhanced recovery can be achieved with multimodal perioperative care protocols. This international observational study evaluated the implementation of an enhanced recovery programme in five European centres and examined the determinants...... with a shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION: Functional recovery in 3 days after colorectal resection could be achieved in daily practice. A protocol is not enough to enable discharge of patients on the day of functional recovery; more experience and better organization of care may be required. Copyright (c) 2006...

  3. Implementing an ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosingappendicitis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Atta, Angela J.; Baskin, Henry J.; Maves, Connie K.; Dansie, David M.; Rollins, Michael D.; Bolte, Robert G.; Mundorff, Michael B.; Andrews, Seth P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in children is well-documented but not universally employed outside of pediatric academic centers, especially in the United States. Various obstacles make it difficult for institutions and radiologists to abandon a successful and accurate CT-based imaging protocol in favor of a US-based protocol. To describe how we overcame barriers to implementing a US-based appendicitis protocol among a large group of nonacademic private-practice pediatric radiologists while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and decreasing medical costs. A multidisciplinary team of physicians (pediatric surgery, pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric radiology) approved an imaging protocol using US as the primary modality to evaluate suspected appendicitis with CT for equivocal cases. The protocol addressed potential bias against US and accommodated for institutional limitations of radiologist and sonographer experience and availability. Radiologists coded US reports according to the probability of appendicitis. Radiology reports were compared with clinical outcomes to assess diagnostic accuracy. During the study period, physicians from each group were apprised of the interim US protocol accuracy results. Problematic cases were discussed openly. A total of 512 children were enrolled and underwent US for evaluation of appendicitis over a 30-month period. Diagnostic accuracy was comparable to published results for combined US/CT protocols. Comparing the first 12 months to the last 12 months of the study period, the proportion of children achieving an unequivocal US result increased from 30% (51/169) to 53% (149/282) and the proportion of children undergoing surgery based solely on US findings increased from 55% (23/42) to 84% (92/109). Overall, 63% (325/512) of patients in the protocol did not require a CT. Total patient costs were reduced by $30,182 annually. We overcame several barriers to implementing a US protocol. During the study period our

  4. Implementing an ultrasound-based protocol for diagnosingappendicitis while maintaining diagnostic accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Atta, Angela J. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baskin, Henry J.; Maves, Connie K.; Dansie, David M. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rollins, Michael D. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bolte, Robert G. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Mundorff, Michael B.; Andrews, Seth P. [Primary Children' s Hospital, Systems Improvement, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The use of ultrasound to diagnose appendicitis in children is well-documented but not universally employed outside of pediatric academic centers, especially in the United States. Various obstacles make it difficult for institutions and radiologists to abandon a successful and accurate CT-based imaging protocol in favor of a US-based protocol. To describe how we overcame barriers to implementing a US-based appendicitis protocol among a large group of nonacademic private-practice pediatric radiologists while maintaining diagnostic accuracy and decreasing medical costs. A multidisciplinary team of physicians (pediatric surgery, pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric radiology) approved an imaging protocol using US as the primary modality to evaluate suspected appendicitis with CT for equivocal cases. The protocol addressed potential bias against US and accommodated for institutional limitations of radiologist and sonographer experience and availability. Radiologists coded US reports according to the probability of appendicitis. Radiology reports were compared with clinical outcomes to assess diagnostic accuracy. During the study period, physicians from each group were apprised of the interim US protocol accuracy results. Problematic cases were discussed openly. A total of 512 children were enrolled and underwent US for evaluation of appendicitis over a 30-month period. Diagnostic accuracy was comparable to published results for combined US/CT protocols. Comparing the first 12 months to the last 12 months of the study period, the proportion of children achieving an unequivocal US result increased from 30% (51/169) to 53% (149/282) and the proportion of children undergoing surgery based solely on US findings increased from 55% (23/42) to 84% (92/109). Overall, 63% (325/512) of patients in the protocol did not require a CT. Total patient costs were reduced by $30,182 annually. We overcame several barriers to implementing a US protocol. During the study period our

  5. Model-based prototyping of an interoperability protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristensen, L.M.; Westergaard, M.; Norgaard, P.C.; Romijn, J.; Smith, G.; Pol, van de J.

    2005-01-01

    We present an industrial project conducted at Ericsson Danmark A/S, Telebit where formal methods in the form of Coloured Petri Nets (CP-nets or CPNs) have been used for the specification of an interoperability protocol for routing packets between fixed core networks and mobile ad-hoc networks. The

  6. Implantable Body Sensor Network MAC Protocols Using Wake-up Radio – Evaluation in Animal Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; van der Zwaag, B.J.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    Applications of implantable sensor networks in the health-care industry have increased tremendously over the last decade. There are different types of medium access control (MAC) protocols that are designed for implantable body sensor networks, using different physical layer technologies such as

  7. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  8. Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution

  9. Secure and Lightweight Cloud-Assisted Video Reporting Protocol over 5G-Enabled Vehicular Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenyereye, Lewis; Kwon, Joonho; Choi, Yoon-Ho

    2017-09-23

    In the vehicular networks, the real-time video reporting service is used to send the recorded videos in the vehicle to the cloud. However, when facilitating the real-time video reporting service in the vehicular networks, the usage of the fourth generation (4G) long term evolution (LTE) was proved to suffer from latency while the IEEE 802.11p standard does not offer sufficient scalability for a such congested environment. To overcome those drawbacks, the fifth-generation (5G)-enabled vehicular network is considered as a promising technology for empowering the real-time video reporting service. In this paper, we note that security and privacy related issues should also be carefully addressed to boost the early adoption of 5G-enabled vehicular networks. There exist a few research works for secure video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. However, their usage is limited because of public key certificates and expensive pairing operations. Thus, we propose a secure and lightweight protocol for cloud-assisted video reporting service in 5G-enabled vehicular networks. Compared to the conventional public key certificates, the proposed protocol achieves entities' authorization through anonymous credential. Also, by using lightweight security primitives instead of expensive bilinear pairing operations, the proposed protocol minimizes the computational overhead. From the evaluation results, we show that the proposed protocol takes the smaller computation and communication time for the cryptographic primitives than that of the well-known Eiza-Ni-Shi protocol.

  10. An exploration of how guideline developer capacity and guideline implementability influence implementation and adoption: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemieux-Charles Louise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Practice guidelines can improve health care delivery and outcomes but several issues challenge guideline adoption, including their intrinsic attributes, and whether and how they are implemented. It appears that guideline format may influence accessibility and ease of use, which may overcome attitudinal barriers of guideline adoption, and appear to be important to all stakeholders. Guideline content may facilitate various forms of decision making about guideline adoption relevant to different stakeholders. Knowledge and attitudes about, and incentives and capacity for implementation on the part of guideline sponsors may influence whether and how they develop guidelines containing these features, and undertake implementation. Examination of these issues may yield opportunities to improve guideline adoption. Methods The attributes hypothesized to facilitate adoption will be expanded by thematic analysis, and quantitative and qualitative summary of the content of international guidelines for two primary care (diabetes, hypertension and institutional care (chronic ulcer, chronic heart failure topics. Factors that influence whether and how guidelines are implemented will be explored by qualitative analysis of interviews with individuals affiliated with guideline sponsoring agencies. Discussion Previous research examined guideline implementation by measuring rates of compliance with recommendations or associated outcomes, but this produced little insight on how the products themselves, or their implementation, could be improved. This research will establish a theoretical basis upon which to conduct experimental studies to compare the cost-effectiveness of interventions that enhance guideline development and implementation capacity. Such studies could first examine short-term outcomes predictive of guideline utilization, such as recall, attitude toward, confidence in, and adoption intention. If successful, then long-term objective

  11. Quorum system and random based asynchronous rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Romaszko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rendezvous protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks, RAC2E-gQS, which utilizes (1 the asynchronous and randomness properties of the RAC2E protocol, and (2 channel mapping protocol, based on a grid Quorum System (gQS, and taking into account channel heterogeneity and asymmetric channel views. We show that the combination of the RAC2E protocol with the grid-quorum based channel mapping can yield a powerful RAC2E-gQS rendezvous protocol for asynchronous operation in a distributed environment assuring a rapid rendezvous between the cognitive radio nodes having available both symmetric and asymmetric channel views. We also propose an enhancement of the protocol, which uses a torus QS for a slot allocation, dealing with the worst case scenario, a large number of channels with opposite ranking lists.

  12. A Secure Key Establishment Protocol for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    ZigBee is a wireless sensor network standard that defines network and application layers on top of IEEE 802.15.4’s physical and medium access control layers. In the latest version of ZigBee, enhancements are prescribed for the security sublayer but we show in this paper that problems persist....... In particular we show that the End-to-End Application Key Establishment Protocol is flawed and we propose a secure protocol instead. We do so by using formal verification techniques based on static program analysis and process algebras. We present a way of using formal methods in wireless network security......, and propose a secure key establishment protocol for ZigBee networks....

  13. An Efficient and Secure Certificateless Authentication Protocol for Healthcare System on Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Wen, Qiaoyan; Jin, Zhengping; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Sensor networks have opened up new opportunities in healthcare systems, which can transmit patient's condition to health professional's hand-held devices in time. The patient's physiological signals are very sensitive and the networks are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. It must be ensured that patient's privacy is not exposed to unauthorized entities. Therefore, the control of access to healthcare systems has become a crucial challenge. An efficient and secure authentication protocol will thus be needed in wireless medical sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a certificateless authentication scheme without bilinear pairing while providing patient anonymity. Compared with other related protocols, the proposed scheme needs less computation and communication cost and preserves stronger security. Our performance evaluations show that this protocol is more practical for healthcare system in wireless medical sensor networks. PMID:23710147

  14. Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA Protocol to Mitigate Blackhole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The self-organizing nature of the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs provide a communication channel anywhere, anytime without any pre-existing network infrastructure. However, it is exposed to various vulnerabilities that may be exploited by the malicious nodes. One such malicious behavior is introduced by blackhole nodes, which can be easily introduced in the network and, in turn, such nodes try to crumble the working of the network by dropping the maximum data under transmission. In this paper, a new protocol is proposed which is based on the widely used Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, Enhanced Secure Trusted AODV (ESTA, which makes use of multiple paths along with use of trust and asymmetric cryptography to ensure data security. The results, based on NS-3 simulation, reveal that the proposed protocol is effectively able to counter the blackhole nodes in three different scenarios.

  15. A survey on bio inspired meta heuristic based clustering protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Nandakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that utilizing a mobile sink to harvest and carry data from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can improve network operational efficiency as well as maintain uniform energy consumption by the sensor nodes in the network. Due to Sink mobility, the path between two sensor nodes continuously changes and this has a profound effect on the operational longevity of the network and a need arises for a protocol which utilizes minimal resources in maintaining routes between the mobile sink and the sensor nodes. Swarm Intelligence based techniques inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, termites and honey bees can be artificially simulated and utilized to solve real wireless network problems. The author presents a brief survey on various bio inspired swarm intelligence based protocols used in routing data in wireless sensor networks while outlining their general principle and operation.

  16. Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocols, Design and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive systems, which are described as networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments, are considered to have the potential to change our daily lives by creating smart surroundings and by their ubiquity, just as the Internet. In the last decade, “Wireless Sensor Networks��? have appeared as one of the real-world examples of pervasive systems by combining automated sensing, embedded computing and wireless networking into tiny embedded devices. A wireless sensor network typ...

  17. ING: INDOOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR GREEN HOME NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaouthar Sethom; Nozha Al- Ibrahimi; Guy Pujolle

    2011-01-01

    Because of all the innovations in computer communications and digital consumer device technologies,people have had great interest in researching home networking systems. The home is evolving rapidlyinto a smart Mesh networked environment.Moreover, the energy consumption of wireless devices and networks gradually increases to represent asignificant portion of the operational cost, naturally also causing increased equivalent carbonemissions to the environment. Therefore, reducing the energy con...

  18. ADAPTIVE CLUSTER BASED ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH ANT COLONY OPTIMIZATION FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK IN DISASTER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Budianto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In post-disaster rehabilitation efforts, the availability of telecommunication facilities takes important role. However, the process to improve telecommunication facilities in disaster area is risky if it is done by humans. Therefore, a network method that can work efficiently, effectively, and capable to reach the widest possible area is needed. This research introduces a cluster-based routing protocol named Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP equipped by Ant Colony Optimization method, and its implementation in a simulator developed by author. After data analysis and statistical tests, it can be concluded that routing protocol ACBRP performs better than AODV and DSR routing protocol. Pada upaya rehabilitasi pascabencana, ketersediaan fasilitas telekomunikasi memiliki peranan yang sangat penting. Namun, proses untuk memperbaiki fasilitas telekomunikasi di daerah bencana memiliki resiko jika dilakukan oleh manusia. Oleh karena itu, metode jaringan yang dapat bekerja secara efisien, efektif, dan mampu mencapai area seluas mungkin diperlukan. Penelitian ini memperkenalkan sebuah protokol routing berbasis klaster bernama Adaptive Cluster Based Routing Protocol (ACBRP, yang dilengkapi dengan metode Ant Colony Optimization, dan diimplementasikan pada simulator yang dikembangkan penulis. Setelah data dianalisis dan dilakukan uji statistik, disimpulkan bahwa protokol routing ACBRP beroperasi lebih baik daripada protokol routing AODV maupun DSR.

  19. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Subhajit Pal; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Tai-hoon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and comp...

  20. Design and Implementation of a Secure Wireless Mote-Based Medical Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malasri, Kriangsiri; Wang, Lan

    2009-01-01

    A medical sensor network can wirelessly monitor vital signs of humans, making it useful for long-term health care without sacrificing patient comfort and mobility. For such a network to be viable, its design must protect data privacy and authenticity given that medical data are highly sensitive. We identify the unique security challenges of such a sensor network and propose a set of resource-efficient mechanisms to address these challenges. Our solution includes (1) a novel two-tier scheme for verifying the authenticity of patient data, (2) a secure key agreement protocol to set up shared keys between sensor nodes and base stations, and (3) symmetric encryption/decryption for protecting data confidentiality and integrity. We have implemented the proposed mechanisms on a wireless mote platform, and our results confirm their feasibility. PMID:22454585

  1. Implementation of Guaranteed Services in the MANGO Clockless Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2006-01-01

    (clockless implementation, standard socket access points, and guaranteed communication services) make MANGO suitable for a modular SoC design flow is explained. Among the advantages of using clockless circuit techniques are inherent global timing closure, low forward latency in pipelines, and zero dynamic......Shared, segmented, on-chip interconnection networks, known as networks-on-chip (NoC), may become the preferred way of interconnecting intellectual property (IP) cores in future giga-scale system-on-chip (SoC) designs. A NoC can provide the required communication bandwidth while accommodating...... the effects of scaling microchip technologies. Equally important, a NoC facilitates a truly modular and scalable design flow. The MANGO (message-passing asynchronous network-on-chip providing guaranteed services over open core protocol (OCP) interfaces) NoC is presented, and how its key characteristics...

  2. Power-Controlled MAC Protocols with Dynamic Neighbor Prediction for Ad hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Meng; ZHANG Lin; XIAO Yong-kang; SHAN Xiu-ming

    2004-01-01

    Energy and bandwidth are the scarce resources in ad hoc networks because most of the mobile nodes are battery-supplied and share the exclusive wireless medium. Integrating the power control into MAC protocol is a promising technique to fully exploit these precious resources of ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, a new intelligent power-controlled Medium Access Control (MAC) (iMAC) protocol with dynamic neighbor prediction is proposed. Through the elaborate design of the distributed transmit-receive strategy of mobile nodes, iMAC greatly outperforms the prevailing IEEE 802.11 MAC protocols in not only energy conservation but also network throughput. Using the Dynamic Neighbor Prediction (DNP), iMAC performs well in mobile scenes. To the best of our knowledge, iMAC is the first protocol that considers the performance deterioration of power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile scenes and then proposes a solution. Simulation results indicate that DNP is important and necessary for power-controlled MAC protocols in mobile ad hoc networks.

  3. An authenticated encrypted routing protocol against attacks in mobile ad-hoc networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Suma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad hoc Network is stated as a cluster that contains Digital data terminals and they are furnished with the wireless transceivers which are able to communicate with each other with no need of any fixed architecture or concentrated authority. Security is one of the major issues in MANETs because of vast applications such as Military Battlefields, emergency and rescue operations[10]. In order to provide anonymous communications and to identify the malicious nodes in MANETs, many authors have proposed different secure routing protocols but each protocol have their own advantages and disadvantages. In MANTE’s each and every node in the communicating network functions like router and transmits the packets among the networking nodes for the purpose of communication[11]. Sometimes nodes may be attacked by the malicious nodes or the legitimate node will be caught by foemen there by controlling and preventing the nodes to perform the assigned task or nodes may be corrupted due to loss of energy. So, due to these drawbacks securing the network under the presence of adversaries is an important thing. The existing protocols were designed with keeping anonymity and the identification of vicious nodes in the network as the main goal. For providing better security, the anonymity factors such as Unidentifiability and Unlinkability must be fully satisfied[1]. Many anonymous routing schemes that concentrate on achieving anonymity are proposed in the past decade and they provides the security at different levels and also provides the privacy protection that is of different cost. In this paper we consider a protocol called Authenticated Secure Routing Protocol proposed which provides both security & anonymity. Anonymity is achieved in this protocol using Group signature. Over all by using this protocol performance in terms of throughput as well as the packet dropping rate is good compared to the other living protocols.

  4. Implementing a pain management nursing protocol for orthopaedic surgical patients: Results from a PAIN OUT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cui; Wang, Ling-Xiao; Li, Qi; Zaslansky, Ruth; Li, Li

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of introducing a standardised pain management nursing protocol in orthopaedic patients undergoing surgery. Postoperative pain is a common phenomenon but is still undertreated in hospitalised patients. Nurses' lack of sufficient knowledge and skills about pain management may be a contributing factor to poor outcomes. An interventional, separate sample pre- and post-test. A pain management nursing protocol was introduced and a handbook and training sessions regarding management of postsurgical pain were provided to the nurses on a Joint Orthopaedic ward at a university-affiliated general hospital in Guangzhou, China. Before and after the intervention, nurses' knowledge about pain management and attitudes were assessed, and perioperative management practices and pain-related patient-reported outcomes were evaluated. Sixteen and 15 registered nurses, and 77 and 71 patients participated in the study before and after the intervention, respectively. Nurses' scores related to knowledge and skills increased significantly after the protocol was introduced but were still insufficient with regard to pharmacological-related items. The proportion of patients receiving a combined opioid and nonopioid increased after the intervention. Clinically significant changes were observed in some patient-reported outcomes, such as worst pain since surgery, percentage of time experiencing severe pain, and pain interference with activities out of bed. There were significant changes in nonpharmacological methods administered by nurses to patients or used by patients to relieve pain. Implementation of a pain management nursing protocol combined with education in one surgical ward was associated with nurses' increased knowledge and attitudes regarding pain, a change in some management practices, and improvement in a number of pain-related patient-reported outcomes. It was feasible to develop and implement a standardised pain management nursing protocol and use it in the

  5. Implementing size-optimal discrete neural networks require analog circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-12-01

    This paper starts by overviewing results dealing with the approximation capabilities of neural networks, as well as bounds on the size of threshold gate circuits. Based on a constructive solution for Kolmogorov`s superpositions the authors show that implementing Boolean functions can be done using neurons having an identity transfer function. Because in this case the size of the network is minimized, it follows that size-optimal solutions for implementing Boolean functions can be obtained using analog circuitry. Conclusions and several comments on the required precision are ending the paper.

  6. Low-Power Wireless Sensor Networks Protocols, Services and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jukka; Kaseva, Ville; Hämäläinen, Timo D; Hännikäinen, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc network technology comprising even thousands of autonomic and self-organizing nodes that combine environmental sensing, data processing, and wireless networking. The applications for sensor networks range from home and industrial environments to military uses. Unlike the traditional computer networks, a WSN is application-oriented and deployed for a specific task. WSNs are data centric, which means that messages are not send to individual nodes but to geographical locations or regions based on the data content. A WSN node is typically battery powered and characterized by extremely small size and low cost. As a result, the processing power, memory, and energy resources of an individual sensor node are limited. However, the feasibility of a WSN lies on the collaboration between the nodes. A reference WSN node comprises a Micro-Controller Unit (MCU) having few Million Instructions Per Second (MIPS) processing speed, tens of kilobytes program memory, few kilobytes data m...

  7. Energy- Efficient Routing Protocols For Wireless Sensor Network A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep Kaur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been plenty of interest in building and deploying sensor networks. Wireless sensor network is a collection of a large number of small nodes which acts as routers also. These nodes carry very limited power source which is non-rechargeable and non-replaceable which makes energy consumption an significant issue. Energy conservation is a very important issue for prolonging the lifetime of the network. As the sensor nodes act like routers as well the determination of routing technique plays a key role in controlling the consumption of energy. This paper describes the framework of wireless sensor network and the analysis and study of various research work related to Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

  8. Development and implementation of intranasal naloxone opioid overdose response protocol at a homeless health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Horstman, Molly J; Williams, Brent C

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of Opioid Overdose Response Protocol using intranasal (IN) naloxone in a homeless shelter. Opioid Overdose Response Protocol and training curriculum were developed using the Massachusetts Department of Public Health Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) flow chart, the American Heart Association (AHA) simplified adult basic life support algorithm, and resources through Harms Reduction Coalition. Intranasal naloxone offers a safe and effective method for opioid reversal. To combat the rising incidence of opioid overdose, IN naloxone should be made available at homeless shelters and other facilities with high frequency of opioid overdose, including the training of appropriate staff. This project has demonstrated the effective training and implementation of an Opioid Overdose Response Protocol, based on feedback received from cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) trained nonhealthcare staff. Nurse practitioners (NPs), with our focus on patient care, prevention, and education, are well suited to the deployment of this life-saving protocol. NPs are in critical positions to integrate opioid overdose prevention education and provide naloxone rescue kits in clinical practices. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  10. A secured authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Chen, Tien-Ho; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Kim, Tai-Hoo; Wei, Hsin-Wen

    2011-01-01

    User authentication is a crucial service in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that is becoming increasingly common in WSNs because wireless sensor nodes are typically deployed in an unattended environment, leaving them open to possible hostile network attack. Because wireless sensor nodes are limited in computing power, data storage and communication capabilities, any user authentication protocol must be designed to operate efficiently in a resource constrained environment. In this paper, we review several proposed WSN user authentication protocols, with a detailed review of the M.L Das protocol and a cryptanalysis of Das' protocol that shows several security weaknesses. Furthermore, this paper proposes an ECC-based user authentication protocol that resolves these weaknesses. According to our analysis of security of the ECC-based protocol, it is suitable for applications with higher security requirements. Finally, we present a comparison of security, computation, and communication costs and performances for the proposed protocols. The ECC-based protocol is shown to be suitable for higher security WSNs.

  11. Implementation of a baby doll therapy protocol for people with dementia: Innovative practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Barbara A; Gaspar, Phyllis M

    2015-09-01

    Dementia is exhibited by both emotional and physical states such as agitation. Chemical restraints, often used for agitated behaviors, are not always effective and produce untoward effects. Baby doll therapy is a nonpharmacologic therapy that can affect agitated behavior in dementia patients, yet a protocol for the therapy did not exist. An implementation protocol for doll therapy for those with dementia was developed and implemented with 16 residents in a dementia care center. Outcomes were measurements of the impact of the dolls on six areas of the resident's behavior and their reactions to the doll. Participants had an increase in level of happiness, activity/liveliness, interaction with staff and others, and ease of giving care. There was also a reduction in the level of anxiety. The increase in happiness was a statistically significant outcome. Baby doll therapy is an effective nonpharmacological approach for improving the well-being of patients with moderate to severe dementia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A systematic review protocol: social network analysis of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Davey, Rachel; Lovett, Ray; van der Sterren, Anke; Corbett, Joan; Cochrane, Tom

    2014-08-08

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world. Evidence indicates that behaviours such as tobacco use can influence social networks, and that social network structures can influence behaviours. Social network analysis provides a set of analytic tools to undertake methodical analysis of social networks. We will undertake a systematic review to provide a comprehensive synthesis of the literature regarding social network analysis and tobacco use. The review will answer the following research questions: among participants who use tobacco, does social network structure/position influence tobacco use? Does tobacco use influence peer selection? Does peer selection influence tobacco use? We will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systemic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and search the following databases for relevant articles: CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature); Informit Health Collection; PsycINFO; PubMed/MEDLINE; Scopus/Embase; Web of Science; and the Wiley Online Library. Keywords include tobacco; smoking; smokeless; cigarettes; cigar and 'social network' and reference lists of included articles will be hand searched. Studies will be included that provide descriptions of social network analysis of tobacco use.Qualitative, quantitative and mixed method data that meets the inclusion criteria for the review, including methodological rigour, credibility and quality standards, will be synthesized using narrative synthesis. Results will be presented using outcome statistics that address each of the research questions. This systematic review will provide a timely evidence base on the role of social network analysis of tobacco use, forming a basis for future research, policy and practice in this area. This systematic review will synthesise the evidence, supporting the hypothesis that social network structures can influence tobacco use. This will also include exploring the relationship between social

  13. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  14. Multimedia over cognitive radio networks algorithms, protocols, and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    PrefaceAbout the EditorsContributorsNetwork Architecture to Support Multimedia over CRNA Management Architecture for Multimedia Communication in Cognitive Radio NetworksAlexandru O. Popescu, Yong Yao, Markus Fiedler , and Adrian P. PopescuPaving a Wider Way for Multimedia over Cognitive Radios: An Overview of Wideband Spectrum Sensing AlgorithmsBashar I. Ahmad, Hongjian Sun, Cong Ling, and Arumugam NallanathanBargaining-Based Spectrum Sharing for Broadband Multimedia Services in Cognitive Radio NetworkYang Yan, Xiang Chen, Xiaofeng Zhong, Ming Zhao, and Jing WangPhysical Layer Mobility Challen

  15. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  16. Assessing citation networks for dissemination and implementation research frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Lehmann, Todd; Tabak, Rachel G; Harris, Jenine; Lecy, Jesse; Sales, Anne E

    2017-07-28

    A recent review of frameworks used in dissemination and implementation (D&I) science described 61 judged to be related either to dissemination, implementation, or both. The current use of these frameworks and their contributions to D&I science more broadly has yet to be reviewed. For these reasons, our objective was to determine the role of these frameworks in the development of D&I science. We used the Web of Science™ Core Collection and Google Scholar™ to conduct a citation network analysis for the key frameworks described in a recent systematic review of D&I frameworks (Am J Prev Med 43(3):337-350, 2012). From January to August 2016, we collected framework data including title, reference, publication year, and citations per year and conducted descriptive and main path network analyses to identify those most important in holding the current citation network for D&I frameworks together. The source article contained 119 cited references, with 50 published articles and 11 documents identified as a primary framework reference. The average citations per year for the 61 frameworks reviewed ranged from 0.7 to 103.3 among articles published from 1985 to 2012. Citation rates from all frameworks are reported with citation network analyses for the framework review article and ten highly cited framework seed articles. The main path for the D&I framework citation network is presented. We examined citation rates and the main paths through the citation network to delineate the current landscape of D&I framework research, and opportunities for advancing framework development and use. Dissemination and implementation researchers and practitioners may consider frequency of framework citation and our network findings when planning implementation efforts to build upon this foundation and promote systematic advances in D&I science.

  17. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  18. Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing Protocol for Vehicular Self-organizing Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Fan, Quanrun; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Wanjin

    2018-03-01

    PGPSR (Prediction based Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) is based on and extended the GPSR protocol to adapt to the high speed mobility of the vehicle auto organization network (VANET) and the changes in the network topology. GPSR is used in the VANET network environment, the network loss rate and throughput are not ideal, even cannot work. Aiming at the problems of the GPSR, the proposed PGPSR routing protocol, it redefines the hello and query packet structure, in the structure of the new node speed and direction information, which received the next update before you can take advantage of its speed and direction to predict the position of node and new network topology, select the right the next hop routing and path. Secondly, the update of the outdated node information of the neighbor’s table is deleted in time. The simulation experiment shows the performance of PGPSR is better than that of GPSR.

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng Kiat Amos, Teo

    2005-01-01

    ... and have topologies engineered. As such, recent research into wireless sensor networks has attracted great interest due to its diversity of applications, ranging in areas such as home, health, environmental and military applications...

  20. Local networks and the Internet from protocols to interconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Toutain, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    This title covers the most commonly used elements of Internet and Intranet technology and their development. It details the latest developments in research and covers new themes such as IP6, MPLS, and IS-IS routing, as well as explaining the function of standardization committees such as IETF, IEEE, and UIT. The book is illustrated with numerous examples and applications which will help the reader to place protocols in their proper context.

  1. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  2. Secure and Fair Cluster Head Selection Protocol for Enhancing Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Paramasivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  3. Secure and fair cluster head selection protocol for enhancing security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivan, B; Kaliappan, M

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are wireless networks consisting of number of autonomous mobile devices temporarily interconnected into a network by wireless media. MANETs become one of the most prevalent areas of research in the recent years. Resource limitations, energy efficiency, scalability, and security are the great challenging issues in MANETs. Due to its deployment nature, MANETs are more vulnerable to malicious attack. The secure routing protocols perform very basic security related functions which are not sufficient to protect the network. In this paper, a secure and fair cluster head selection protocol (SFCP) is proposed which integrates security factors into the clustering approach for achieving attacker identification and classification. Byzantine agreement based cooperative technique is used for attacker identification and classification to make the network more attack resistant. SFCP used to solve this issue by making the nodes that are totally surrounded by malicious neighbors adjust dynamically their belief and disbelief thresholds. The proposed protocol selects the secure and energy efficient cluster head which acts as a local detector without imposing overhead to the clustering performance. SFCP is simulated in network simulator 2 and compared with two protocols including AODV and CBRP.

  4. A Review of Various Security Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anupma Sangwan; Deepti Sindhu; Kulbir Singh

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks are highly distributed networks of small, lightweight wireless sensor nodes, deployed in large numbers to monitor the environment or system by the measurement of physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, or relative humidity, sound, vibration, motion or pollutants, at different locations. A WSN [1] is composed of a large number of low-cost sensor nodes (SNs) and one or several base stations (BS) or destination nodes. SNs are typically small wireless devices with limit...

  5. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  6. Safeguards Implementation Guide for States with Small Quantities Protocols (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance the contribution of nuclear energy for peace and prosperity around the world, while helping to ensure that nuclear material is not diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. In implementing safeguards, the IAEA plays an instrumental independent verification role, providing credible assurances that States' safeguards commitments are being respected. Most of the world's non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWSs) have concluded comprehensive safeguards agreements (CSAs) with the IAEA, pursuant to the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The IAEA and States are required to cooperate in the implementation of such agreements. Effective cooperation demonstrates a State's commitment to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and furthers the State's national interests by reducing the risk of unauthorized use of nuclear material. Over 100 NNWSs party to the NPT have very limited quantities of nuclear material and have concluded protocols to their CSAs which hold in abeyance many procedures in Part II of a CSA. These protocols are referred to as 'small quantities protocols' or 'SQPs' and remain in effect as long as the State meets certain eligibility criteria. The purpose of an SQP is to reduce the burden of safeguards implementation for States with little or no nuclear activities, while retaining the integrity of the safeguards system. States with SQPs have very important obligations they must fulfil under their CSAs. In 1997, as part of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen its safeguards system, the Model Additional Protocol to the Agreement(s) between State(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards was developed to provide the IAEA with broader access to information and locations, thus significantly increasing the IAEA's ability to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities in States. Many States with SQPs have

  7. Proficient Node Scheduling Protocol for Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saravanakumar; N. Mohankumar; J. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Recent communications in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have much new energy-efficient protocols specifically designed, where energy awareness is an essential consideration. In WSNs, large numbers of tiny sensor nodes are used as an effective way of data gathering in various environments. Since the sensor nodes operate on battery of limited power, it is a great challenging aim to design an energy-efficient routing protocol, which can minimize the delay while offering high-energy efficiency a...

  8. An efficient multi-carrier position-based packet forwarding protocol for wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Beaconless position-based forwarding protocols have recently evolved as a promising solution for packet forwarding in wireless sensor networks. However, as the node density grows, the overhead incurred in the process of relay selection grows significantly. As such, end-to-end performance in terms of energy and latency is adversely impacted. With the motivation of developing a packet forwarding mechanism that is tolerant to variation in node density, an alternative position-based protocol is proposed in this paper. In contrast to existing beaconless protocols, the proposed protocol is designed such that it eliminates the need for potential relays to undergo a relay selection process. Rather, any eligible relay may decide to forward the packet ahead, thus significantly reducing the underlying overhead. The operation of the proposed protocol is empowered by exploiting favorable features of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) at the physical layer. The end-to-end performance of the proposed protocol is evaluated against existing beaconless position-based protocols analytically and as well by means of simulations. The proposed protocol is demonstrated in this paper to be more efficient. In particular, it is shown that for the same amount of energy the proposed protocol transports one bit from source to destination much quicker. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. ACCPndn : adaptive congestion control protocol in named data networking by learning capacities using optimized time-lagged feedforward neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Amin

    2015-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a promising network architecture being considered as a possible replacement for the current IP-based Internet infrastructure. However, NDN is subject to congestion when the number of data packets that reach one or various routers in a certain period of time is so high than its queue gets overflowed. To address this problem many congestion control protocols have been proposed in the literature which, however, they are highly sensitive to their control parameters ...

  10. MAC-layer protocol for TCP fairness in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput performance due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. Our protocol uses the age of packet as a priority metric for packet scheduling. Simulation is conducted to validate our model and to illustrate the fairness characteristics of our proposed MAC protocol. We conclude that we can achieve fairness with only little impact on network capacity.

  11. A Protocol for Content-Based Communication in Disconnected Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Haillot

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In content-based communication, information flows towards interested hosts rather than towards specifically set destinations. This new style of communication perfectly fits the needs of applications dedicated to information sharing, news distribution, service advertisement and discovery, etc. In this paper we address the problem of supporting content-based communication in partially or intermittently connected mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. The protocol we designed leverages on the concepts of opportunistic networking and delay-tolerant networking in order to account for the absence of end-to-end connectivity in disconnected MANETs. The paper provides an overview of the protocol, as well as simulation results that show how this protocol can perform in realistic conditions.

  12. NM-Net Gigabit-based Implementation on Core Network Facilities and Network Design Hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia computing network or NM the main backbone of internet working on operational staffs. Main network operating center or NOC is situated in Block 15 and linkup via fiber cabling to adjacent main network blocks (18, 29, 11 connections. Pre 2009 infrastructure; together to form the core networking switch. of the core network infrastructure were limited by the up link between core switches that is the Pair (UTP) Category 6 Cable. Furthermore, majority of the networking infrastructure throughout the agency were mainly built with Fast Ethernet Based specifications to date. With current research and operational tasks highly dependent on IT infrastructure that is being enabled through NM-Net, the performance NM-Net implementing gigabit-based networking system achieve optimal performance of internet networking services in the agency thus catalyze initiative. (author)

  13. A distributed Synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol for mobile Ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanling; SUN Xianpu; LI Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a new multiple access control protocol named distributed synchronous reservation multiple access control protocol.in which the hidden and exposed terminal problems are solved,and the quality of service(QoS)requirements for real-time traffic are guaranteed.The protocol is founded on time division multiplex address and a different type of traffic is assigned to difierent priority,according to which a node should compete for and reserve the free slots in a different method.Moreover,there is a reservation acknowledgement process before data transmit in each reserved slot,so that the intruded terminal problem is solved.The throughput and average packets drop probability of this protocol are analyzed and simulated in a fully connected network.the results of which indicate that this protocol is efficient enough to support the real-time traffic.and it is more suitable to MANETs.

  14. A two-hop based adaptive routing protocol for real-time wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachamalla, Sandhya; Kancherla, Anitha Sheela

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important and challenging issues in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is to optimally manage the limited energy of nodes without degrading the routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient adaptive routing mechanism for WSNs, which saves energy of nodes by removing the much delayed packets without degrading the real-time performance of the used routing protocol. It uses the adaptive transmission power algorithm which is based on the attenuation of the wireless link to improve the energy efficiency. The proposed routing mechanism can be associated with any geographic routing protocol and its performance is evaluated by integrating with the well known two-hop based real-time routing protocol, PATH and the resulting protocol is energy-efficient adaptive routing protocol (EE-ARP). The EE-ARP performs well in terms of energy consumption, deadline miss ratio, packet drop and end-to-end delay.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  16. Routing Protocols for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Research Challenges, Routing Strategies and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Ali, Ihsan; Ghani, Abdullah; Khan, Nawsher; Alsaqer, Mohammed; Rahman, Atiq Ur; Mahmood, Hasan

    2018-05-18

    Recent research in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has gained the attention of researchers in academia and industry for a number of applications. They include disaster and earthquake prediction, water quality and environment monitoring, leakage and mine detection, military surveillance and underwater navigation. However, the aquatic medium is associated with a number of limitations and challenges: long multipath delay, high interference and noise, harsh environment, low bandwidth and limited battery life of the sensor nodes. These challenges demand research techniques and strategies to be overcome in an efficient and effective fashion. The design of routing protocols for UWSNs is one of the promising solutions to cope with these challenges. This paper presents a survey of the routing protocols for UWSNs. For the ease of description, the addressed routing protocols are classified into two groups: localization-based and localization-free protocols. These groups are further subdivided according to the problems they address or the major parameters they consider during routing. Unlike the existing surveys, this survey considers only the latest and state-of-the-art routing protocols. In addition, every protocol is described in terms of its routing strategy and the problem it addresses and solves. The merit(s) of each protocol is (are) highlighted along with the cost. A description of the protocols in this fashion has a number of advantages for researchers, as compared to the existing surveys. Firstly, the description of the routing strategy of each protocol makes its routing operation easily understandable. Secondly, the demerit(s) of a protocol provides (provide) insight into overcoming its flaw(s) in future investigation. This, in turn, leads to the foundation of new protocols that are more intelligent, robust and efficient with respect to the desired parameters. Thirdly, a protocol can be selected for the appropriate application based on its described

  17. An Improved Digital Signature Protocol to Multi-User Broadcast Authentication Based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bashirpour

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, users can use broadcast authentication mechanisms to connect to the target network and disseminate their messages within the network. Since data transfer for sensor networks is wireless, as a result, attackers can easily eavesdrop deployed sensor nodes and the data sent between them or modify the content of eavesdropped data and inject false data into the sensor network. Hence, the implementation of the message authentication mechanisms (in order to avoid changes and injecting messages into the network of wireless sensor networks is essential. In this paper, we present an improved protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC to accelerate authentication of multi-user message broadcasting. In comparison with previous ECC-based schemes, complexity and computational overhead of proposed scheme is significantly decreased. Also, the proposed scheme supports user anonymity, which is an important property in broadcast authentication schemes for WSNs to preserve user privacy and user untracking.

  18. Toward implementation of a national ground water monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Robert P.; Cunningham, William L.; Copeland, Rick; Frederick, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    The Federal Advisory Committee on Water Information's (ACWI) Subcommittee on Ground Water (SOGW) has been working steadily to develop and encourage implementation of a nationwide, long-term ground-water quantity and quality monitoring framework. Significant progress includes the planned submission this fall of a draft framework document to the full committee. The document will include recommendations for implementation of the network and continued acknowledgment at the federal and state level of ACWI's potential role in national monitoring toward an improved assessment of the nation's water reserves. The SOGW mission includes addressing several issues regarding network design, as well as developing plans for concept testing, evaluation of costs and benefits, and encouraging the movement from pilot-test results to full-scale implementation within a reasonable time period. With the recent attention to water resource sustainability driven by severe droughts, concerns over global warming effects, and persistent water supply problems, the SOGW mission is now even more critical.

  19. Multiple access protocol for supporting multimedia services in wireless ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo

    1999-01-01

    The furture broadband wireless asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks must provide seamless extension of multimedia services from the wireline ATM networks. This requires an effecient wireless access protocol to fulfill varying Quality-og-Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia applications....... In this paper, we propose a multiple access protocol using centralized and distributed channel access control techniques to provide QoS guarantees for multimedia services by taking advantage of the characteristics of different kinds of ATM traffics. Multimedia traffic, including constant bit rate (CBR...

  20. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok; Kahng, Hyunkook

    2012-01-01

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  1. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  2. Improvement over the OLSR Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks by Eliminating the Unnecessary Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Behzad; Reza Fotohi; Shahram Jamali

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks are type of wireless networks in which any kind of infrastructure is not used, i.e. there are no infrastructures such as routers or switches or anything else on the network that can be used to support the network structure and the nodes has mobility. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better quality of the package delivery rate and the throughput, that is in need of powerful routing protocol standards, which can guarantee delivering of the packages to destination...

  3. Integrating addiction treatment into primary care using mobile health technology: protocol for an implementation research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew R; Gustafson, David H; Marsch, Lisa A; McTavish, Fiona; Brown, Randall T; Mares, Marie-Louise; Johnson, Roberta; Glass, Joseph E; Atwood, Amy K; McDowell, Helene

    2014-05-29

    Healthcare reform in the United States is encouraging Federally Qualified Health Centers and other primary-care practices to integrate treatment for addiction and other behavioral health conditions into their practices. The potential of mobile health technologies to manage addiction and comorbidities such as HIV in these settings is substantial but largely untested. This paper describes a protocol to evaluate the implementation of an E-Health integrated communication technology delivered via mobile phones, called Seva, into primary-care settings. Seva is an evidence-based system of addiction treatment and recovery support for patients and real-time caseload monitoring for clinicians. Our implementation strategy uses three models of organizational change: the Program Planning Model to promote acceptance and sustainability, the NIATx quality improvement model to create a welcoming environment for change, and Rogers's diffusion of innovations research, which facilitates adaptations of innovations to maximize their adoption potential. We will implement Seva and conduct an intensive, mixed-methods assessment at three diverse Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers in the United States. Our non-concurrent multiple-baseline design includes three periods - pretest (ending in four months of implementation preparation), active Seva implementation, and maintenance - with implementation staggered at six-month intervals across sites. The first site will serve as a pilot clinic. We will track the timing of intervention elements and assess study outcomes within each dimension of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, including effects on clinicians, patients, and practices. Our mixed-methods approach will include quantitative (e.g., interrupted time-series analysis of treatment attendance, with clinics as the unit of analysis) and qualitative (e.g., staff interviews regarding adaptations to implementation protocol) methods, and assessment of

  4. Enhanced SWEET protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available operate independently and yet in cohesion, constituting a network through a way of self-organization. MIS’s are characterized by their low transmit power, small-size and inexpensiveness. However, energy management remains a major topic in most research..., Rosenberg, C., ”Homogeneous vs heterogeneous clustered sensor networks: a comparative study,” IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp.3646-3651 Jun. 2004 [4] A. Bari, R. Chaturvedi, A. aekel, S. Bandyopadhyay, “Energy Aware Distributed...

  5. Effectiveness of the implementation of a simple radiation reduction protocol in the catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurado-Román, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonsojuradoroman@gmail.com [Unidad de Hemodinámica, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain); Sánchez-Pérez, Ignacio; Lozano Ruíz-Poveda, Fernando; López-Lluva, María T.; Pinilla-Echeverri, Natalia; Moreno Arciniegas, Andrea [Unidad de Hemodinámica, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain); Agudo-Quilez, Pilar [Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Madrid (Spain); Gil Agudo, Antonio [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Background and purpose: A reduction in radiation doses at the catheterization laboratory, maintaining the quality of procedures is essential. Our objective was to analyze the results of a simple radiation reduction protocol at a high-volume interventional cardiology unit. Methods: We analyzed 1160 consecutive procedures: 580 performed before the implementation of the protocol and 580 after it. The protocol consisted in: the reduction of the number of ventriculographies and aortographies, the optimization of the collimation and the geometry of the X ray tube-patient-receptor, the use of low dose-rate fluoroscopy and the reduction of the number of cine sequences using the software “last fluoroscopy hold”. Results: There were no significant differences in clinical baseline features or in the procedural characteristics with the exception of a higher percentage of radial approach (30.7% vs 69.6%; p < 0.001) and of percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions after the implementation of the protocol (2.1% vs 6.7%; p = 0,001). Angiographic success was similar during both periods (98.3% vs 99.2%; p = 0.2). There were no significant differences between both periods regarding the overall duration of the procedures (26.9 vs 29.6 min; p = 0.14), or the fluoroscopy time (13.3 vs 13.2 min; p = 0.8). We observed a reduction in the percentage of procedures with ventriculography (80.9% vs 7.1%; p < 0.0001) or aortography (15.4% vs 4.4%; p < 0.0001), the cine runs (21.8 vs 6.9; p < 0.0001) and the dose–area product (165 vs 71 Gyxcm{sup 2}; p < 0.0001). Conclusions: With the implementation of a simple radiation reduction protocol, a 57% reduction of dose–area product was observed without a reduction in the quality or the complexity of procedures. - Highlights: • This simple protocol can achieve a reduction in dose–area product of 57%. • It does not interfere with the quality or complexity of the procedures. • Full advantage of “Last Fluoroscopy

  6. Maintenance Management in Network Utilities Framework and Practical Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Fernández, Juan F

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the needs of their customers, network utilities require specially developed maintenance management capabilities. Maintenance Management information systems are essential to ensure control, gain knowledge and improve-decision making in companies dealing with network infrastructure, such as distribution of gas, water, electricity and telecommunications. Maintenance Management in Network Utilities studies specified characteristics of maintenance management in this sector to offer a practical approach to defining and implementing  the best management practices and suitable frameworks.   Divided into three major sections, Maintenance Management in Network Utilities defines a series of stages which can be followed to manage maintenance frameworks properly. Different case studies provide detailed descriptions which illustrate the experience in real company situations. An introduction to the concepts is followed by main sections including: • A Literature Review: covering the basic concepts an...

  7. Perspectives for laboratory implementation of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller protocol for quantum repeaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Milrian S.; Felinto, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the efficiency and scalability of the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) protocol for quantum repeaters focusing on the behavior of the experimentally accessible measures of entanglement for the system, taking into account crucial imperfections of the stored entangled states. We calculate then the degradation of the final state of the quantum-repeater linear chain for increasing sizes of the chain, and characterize it by a lower bound on its concurrence and the ability to violate the Clausner-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. The states are calculated up to an arbitrary number of stored excitations, as this number is not fundamentally bound for experiments involving large atomic ensembles. The measurement by avalanche photodetectors is modeled by ''ON/OFF'' positive operator-valued measure operators. As a result, we are able to consistently test the approximation of the real fields by fields with a finite number of excitations, determining the minimum number of excitations required to achieve a desired precision in the prediction of the various measured quantities. This analysis finally determines the minimum purity of the initial state that is required to succeed in the protocol as the size of the chain increases. We also provide a more accurate estimate for the average time required to succeed in each step of the protocol. The minimum purity analysis and the new time estimates are then combined to trace the perspectives for implementation of the DLCZ protocol in present-day laboratory setups.

  8. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  9. Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks: Protocols, Design and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmaz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Pervasive systems, which are described as networked embedded systems integrated with everyday environments, are considered to have the potential to change our daily lives by creating smart surroundings and by their ubiquity, just as the Internet. In the last decade, “Wireless Sensor Networks��? have

  10. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks : Protocols and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  11. Model-Checking Driven Design of QoS-Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable routing protocols with Quality of Service (QoS support determine the mission-critical application efficiency in WSNs. This paper proposes a model-checking design driven framework for designing the QoS-based routing protocols of WSNs, which involves the light-weight design process, the timed automata model, and the alternative QoS verification properties. The accurate feedback of continually model checking in the iterative design process effectively stimulates the parameter tuning of the protocols. We demonstrate the straightforward and modular characteristics of the proposed framework in designing a prototype QoS-based routing protocol. The prototype study shows that the model-checking design framework may complement other design methods and ensure the QoS implementation of the QoS-based routing protocol design for WSNs.

  12. [Fewer breech deliveries after implementation of a modified cephalic version protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Simone M I; Francois, Anne M H; Hasaart, Tom H M; van der Donk, Maria W P; Pop, Victor J M

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of implementation of a number of process policy guidelines (protocol), on the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) for breech presentation. Prospective study. During a 3-year period (2004-2006) a standardized protocol for an ECV consultation was developed, evaluated and adapted. After implementing this modified protocol as 'process policy guidelines', the effect on the rate of successful ECV was prospectively evaluated during the period 1 January 2007-31 July 2008. Success was defined as cephalic presentation (ultrasound) immediately after ECV. A secondary outcome measure was the elective caesarean section rate for breech presentation. The rate of successful ECV increased significantly from 47% (110/236 pregnant women) in the period January 2004-December 2006 to 61% (85/139, p = 0.006) in the period January 2007-July 2008. Patient characteristics were similar in both groups, with the exception of 2 subgroups of term of version. The increase was preferentially found in nulliparous and multiparous women with frank breech. Nulliparity, frank breech, anterior placenta and low birth weight were associated with a lower success rate of ECV. The term of pregnancy at which ECV was performed did not seem to affect the success rate. Implementing the process policy guidelines increased the number of cephalic presentations at delivery and decreased the rate of elective caesarean sections for breech presentation from 39% to 27% (p = 0.03). The number needed to treat to prevent 1 elective caesarean section by ECV according to the process policy guidelines was 8. After implementation of the process policy guidelines, the success rate of ECV increased considerably. The rate of elective caesarean section for breech presentation declined. These findings are in favour of establishing specialized ECV centres in the Netherlands.

  13. PROTOCOLS FOR INCREASING THE LIFETIME OF NODES OF AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Malarkodi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption of nodes in ad hoc networks is a critical issue as they predominantly operate on batteries. In order to improve the lifetime of an ad hoc network, all the nodes must be utilized evenly and the power required for connections must be minimized. Energy management deals with the process of managing energy resources by means of controlling the battery discharge, adjusting the transmission power and scheduling of power sources so as to increase the lifetime of the nodes of an ad hoc wireless network. In this paper, two protocols are proposed to improve the lifetime of the nodes. The first protocol assumes smart battery packages with L cells and uses dynamic programming (DP to optimally select the set of cells used to satisfy a request for power. The second one proposes a MAC layer protocol denoted as Power Aware medium Access Control (PAMAC protocol which enables the network layer to select a route with minimum total power requirement among the possible routes between a source and a destination provided all nodes in the routes have battery capacity above a threshold. The life time of the nodes using the DP based scheduling policy is found through simulation and compared with that obtained using the techniques reported in the literature. It is found that DP based policy increases the lifetime of the mobile nodes by a factor of 1.15 to 1.8. The life expectancy, the average power consumption and throughput of the network using PAMAC protocol are computed through simulation and compared with that of the other MAC layer protocols 802.11, MACA, and CSMA. Besides this, the life expectancy and average power consumption of the network for different values of threshold are also compared. From the simulation results, it is observed that PAMAC consumes the least power and provides the longest lifetime among the various MAC Layer protocols. Moreover, using PAMAC as the MAC layer protocol, the performance obtained using different routing layer

  14. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Josée Fleury

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources: The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada with the author as principal investigator. Description: Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion: To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested.

  15. A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Considering Secure Data Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triana Mugia Rahayu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The commonly unattended and hostile deployments of WSNs and their resource-constrained sensor devices have led to an increasing demand for secure energy-efficient protocols. Routing and data aggregation receive the most attention since they are among the daily network routines. With the awareness of such demand, we found that so far there has been no work that lays out a secure routing protocol as the foundation for a secure data aggregation protocol. We argue that the secure routing role would be rendered useless if the data aggregation scheme built on it is not secure. Conversely, the secure data aggregation protocol needs a secure underlying routing protocol as its foundation in order to be effectively optimal. As an attempt for the solution, we devise an energy-aware protocol based on LEACH and ESPDA that combines secure routing protocol and secure data aggregation protocol. We then evaluate its security effectiveness and its energy-efficiency aspects, knowing that there are always trade-off between both.

  16. An energy efficient and dynamic time synchronization protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anran; Bai, Fengshan

    2017-01-01

    Time synchronization is an important support technology of WSN(Wireless Sensor Network), and plays an irreplaceable role in the development of WSN. In view of the disadvantage of the traditional timing sync protocol for sensor networks (TPSN), we present a Physical Timing-sync Protocol (PTPSN) that aims at reducing the energy consumption of the synchronization process and realizes a dynamic Network. The algorithm broadcasts reference message to select some nodes in specific area. The receiver calculate offset of every selected node, and then calculate the average of offset to compensate for clock skew . At the same time ,we add time-filter process to ensure the security of the algorithm for time synchronization. The experiment results show that our algorithm is efficient in both saving energy consumption and dynamic network, and it can effectively resist attacks.

  17. A DUAL RESERVATION CDMA-BASED MAC PROTOCOL WITH POWER CONTROL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Min; Chen Huimin; Yuan Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new multi-channel Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol named as Dual Reservation Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based MAC protocol with Power Control (DRCPC). The code channel is divided into common channel, broadcast channel and several data channels. And dynamic power control mechanism is implemented to reduce near-far interference. Compared with IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocol, the results show that the proposed mechanism improves the average throughput and limits the transmission delay efficiently.

  18. Implementing the Kyoto protocol in Europe: Interactions between international and Community controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-07-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book which discusses the coexistence of the Kyoto protocol and of a regional regime within the European Union for the actual application of rules requiring mechanisms of control. The international regime implements a continuous monitoring which combines conventional techniques and more intrusive procedures. The European Community introduced a non-contentious mechanism with a large and strong law basis and sanction ability. The author assesses the ability of the monitoring system as a whole to ensure the very credibility of the Protocol. She also assesses the reliability of international and community economic tools which aim at reducing greenhouse gas emissions at a minimum cost. She also discusses the desirable evolutions of the regime of struggle against climate changes

  19. The Medical Library Association Benchmarking Network: development and implementation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C.; Smith, Bernie Todd

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the development and implementation of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network from the initial idea and test survey, to the implementation of a national survey in 2002, to the establishment of a continuing program in 2004. Started as a program for hospital libraries, it has expanded to include other nonacademic health sciences libraries. Methods: The activities and timelines of MLA's Benchmarking Network task forces and editorial board from 1998 to 2004 are described. Results: The Benchmarking Network task forces successfully developed an extensive questionnaire with parameters of size and measures of library activity and published a report of the data collected by September 2002. The data were available to all MLA members in the form of aggregate tables. Utilization of Web-based technologies proved feasible for data intake and interactive display. A companion article analyzes and presents some of the data. MLA has continued to develop the Benchmarking Network with the completion of a second survey in 2004. Conclusions: The Benchmarking Network has provided many small libraries with comparative data to present to their administrators. It is a challenge for the future to convince all MLA members to participate in this valuable program. PMID:16636702

  20. The Medical Library Association Benchmarking Network: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind Farnam; Corcoran, Kate; Kaplan, Janice; Magouirk, Jeff; Rand, Debra C; Smith, Bernie Todd

    2006-04-01

    This article explores the development and implementation of the Medical Library Association (MLA) Benchmarking Network from the initial idea and test survey, to the implementation of a national survey in 2002, to the establishment of a continuing program in 2004. Started as a program for hospital libraries, it has expanded to include other nonacademic health sciences libraries. The activities and timelines of MLA's Benchmarking Network task forces and editorial board from 1998 to 2004 are described. The Benchmarking Network task forces successfully developed an extensive questionnaire with parameters of size and measures of library activity and published a report of the data collected by September 2002. The data were available to all MLA members in the form of aggregate tables. Utilization of Web-based technologies proved feasible for data intake and interactive display. A companion article analyzes and presents some of the data. MLA has continued to develop the Benchmarking Network with the completion of a second survey in 2004. The Benchmarking Network has provided many small libraries with comparative data to present to their administrators. It is a challenge for the future to convince all MLA members to participate in this valuable program.

  1. Design and Analysis of Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiong; Zhang, Hua

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, with the development of science and technology and the progress of the times, China's wireless network technology has become increasingly prosperous and it plays an important role in social production and life. In this context, in order to further to enhance the stability of wireless network data transmission and security enhancements, the staff need to focus on routing security and carry out related work. Based on this, this paper analyzes the design of wireless sensor based on secure routing protocol.

  2. A MODIFIED ROUTE DISCOVERY APPROACH FOR DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Azmi Allahham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs involved in many applications, whether commercial or military because of their characteristics that do not depend on the infrastructure as well as the freedom movement of their elements, but in return has caused this random mobility of the nodes many of the challenges, where the routing is considered one of these challenges. There are many types of routing protocols that operate within MANET networks, which responsible for finding paths between the source and destination nodes with the modernization of these paths which are constantly changing due to the dynamic topology of the network stemming from the constant random movement of the nodes. The DSR (Dynamic Source Routing routing protocol algorithm is one of these routing protocols which consist of two main stages; route discovery and maintenance, where the route discovery algorithm operates based on blind flooding of request messages. blind flooding is considered as the most well known broadcasting mechanism, it is inefficient in terms of communication and resource utilization, which causing increasing the probability of collisions, repeating send several copies of the same message, as well as increasing the delay. Hence, a new mechanism in route discovery stage and in caching the routes in DSR algorithm according to the node's location in the network and the direction of the broadcast is proposed for better performance especially in terms of delay as well as redundant packets rate. The implementation of proposed algorithms showed positive results in terms of delay, overhead, and improve the performance of MANETs in general.

  3. Perfect quantum multiple-unicast network coding protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize long-distance and large-scale quantum communication, it is natural to utilize quantum repeater. For a general quantum multiple-unicast network, it is still puzzling how to complete communication tasks perfectly with less resources such as registers. In this paper, we solve this problem. By applying quantum repeaters to multiple-unicast communication problem, we give encoding-decoding schemes for source nodes, internal ones and target ones, respectively. Source-target nodes share EPR pairs by using our encoding-decoding schemes over quantum multiple-unicast network. Furthermore, quantum communication can be accomplished perfectly via teleportation. Compared with existed schemes, our schemes can reduce resource consumption and realize long-distance transmission of quantum information.

  4. A Hybrid Energy Efficient Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Kumar Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed an energy conservation technique called Location Based Topology Control with Sleep Scheduling for ad hoc networks. It uses the feature of both topology control approach and power management approach. Like the topology control approach, it attempts to reduce the transmission power of a node, which is determined from its neighborhood location information. A node goes to sleep state based on the traffic condition as that of power management approach. In the proposed scheme, a node goes to sleep state only when its absence does not create local partition in its neighborhood. We preformed extensive simulation to compare the proposed scheme with existing ones. Simulation results show that the energy consumption is lower with increase in the network lifetime and higher throughput in the proposed scheme.

  5. Kyoto Protocol implementation in Serbia as precognition of sustainable energetic and economic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golusin, Mirjana; Munitlak Ivanovic, Olja

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives reasons for low energy efficiency typical of the Serbian economy, which is based on outdated and dirty technologies. The comparison of selected economic indicators and indicators of energy efficiency in both Serbia and the European Union points out the benefits of the Kyoto Protocol implementation due to the growth of competitiveness in the global market. Serbia has no obligation to reduce GHG emissions, the authors point to the proposals whose implementation along with the mechanisms of the Protocol can enable Serbia the access to markets that trade GHG emissions and the access to dedicated funds, self-financing or attracting foreign investments to raise energy efficiency, which will be accompanied by adequate economic benefits. A similar principle can be applied in all countries that are not obliged to reduce GHG emissions. The application of different mechanisms aiming to increase energy efficiency in Serbia, could contribute to the increase of GDP annual growth rate from 5% to 7%, which cannot be achieved by any other economic instrument. Energy efficiency, which is actually a question of competitiveness of each economy, can finance itself through the mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol by selling excess emissions resulting from improved energy efficiency. - Research highlights: → Serbia is a country with the outdated technology and low energy efficiency values. → Sustainable economic and energetic growth can be stirred by inserting Kyoto Protocol. → By investing in modern technology Serbia could lessen emission into the atmosphere. → Cut of emission in the atmosphere could help reaching certain carbon credit values. → By selling the carbon credit Serbia could do economic growth of 5-7% on a year level.

  6. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems including open loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed extended for the control of non......-linear systems. GPC is model-based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis on an efficient Quasi......-Newton optimization algorithm. The performance is demonstrated on a pneumatic servo system....

  7. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez López, M. A.; Goy, C. B.; Bolognini, P. C.; Herrera, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were sucessfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  8. FPGA implementation of a ZigBee wireless network control interface to transmit biomedical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, M A Gómez; Goy, C B; Bolognini, P C; Herrera, M C

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, cardiac hemodynamic monitors have incorporated new technologies based on wireless sensor networks which can implement different types of communication protocols. More precisely, a digital conductance catheter system recently developed adds a wireless ZigBee module (IEEE 802.15.4 standards) to transmit cardiac signals (ECG, intraventricular pressure and volume) which would allow the physicians to evaluate the patient's cardiac status in a noninvasively way. The aim of this paper is to describe a control interface, implemented in a FPGA device, to manage a ZigBee wireless network. ZigBee technology is used due to its excellent performance including simplicity, low-power consumption, short-range transmission and low cost. FPGA internal memory stores 8-bit signals with which the control interface prepares the information packets. These data were send to the ZigBee END DEVICE module that receives and transmits wirelessly to the external COORDINATOR module. Using an USB port, the COORDINATOR sends the signals to a personal computer for displaying. Each functional block of control interface was assessed by means of temporal diagrams. Three biological signals, organized in packets and converted to RS232 serial protocol, were successfully transmitted and displayed in a PC screen. For this purpose, a custom-made graphical software was designed using LabView.

  9. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Das Ayan Kumar; Chaki Rituparna; Dey Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to s...

  10. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  11. Applications of Multi-Channel Safety Authentication Protocols in Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Young-Long; Liau, Ren-Hau; Chang, Liang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    People can use their web browser or mobile devices to access web services and applications which are built into these servers. Users have to input their identity and password to login the server. The identity and password may be appropriated by hackers when the network environment is not safe. The multiple secure authentication protocol can improve the security of the network environment. Mobile devices can be used to pass the authentication messages through Wi-Fi or 3G networks to serve as a second communication channel. The content of the message number is not considered in a multiple secure authentication protocol. The more excessive transmission of messages would be easier to collect and decode by hackers. In this paper, we propose two schemes which allow the server to validate the user and reduce the number of messages using the XOR operation. Our schemes can improve the security of the authentication protocol. The experimental results show that our proposed authentication protocols are more secure and effective. In regard to applications of second authentication communication channels for a smart access control system, identity identification and E-wallet, our proposed authentication protocols can ensure the safety of person and property, and achieve more effective security management mechanisms.

  12. Security Analysis of DTN Architecture and Bundle Protocol Specification for Space-Based Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2009-01-01

    A Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) Architecture (Request for Comment, RFC-4838) and Bundle Protocol Specification, RFC-5050, have been proposed for space and terrestrial networks. Additional security specifications have been provided via the Bundle Security Specification (currently a work in progress as an Internet Research Task Force internet-draft) and, for link-layer protocols applicable to Space networks, the Licklider Transport Protocol Security Extensions. This document provides a security analysis of the current DTN RFCs and proposed security related internet drafts with a focus on space-based communication networks, which is a rather restricted subset of DTN networks. Note, the original focus and motivation of DTN work was for the Interplanetary Internet . This document does not address general store-and-forward network overlays, just the current work being done by the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Space Internetworking Services Area (SIS) - DTN working group under the DTN and Bundle umbrellas. However, much of the analysis is relevant to general store-and-forward overlays.

  13. Self-Adaptive Context Aware Routing Protocol for Unicast Communication in Delay and Tolerant Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, most of research works in mobile network focus on the network overhead of the known path which exists between the sender and the receiver. However, the trend of the current practical application demands is becoming increasingly distributed and decentralized. The Delay and Tolerant Network (DTN just comes out of such background of the conflicts between them. The DTN could effectively eliminate the gap between the mobile network and the practical application demands. In this paper, a Self-Adaptive Context Aware Routing Protocol (SACARP for the unicast communication in delay and tolerant networks is presented. Meanwhile, according to the real-time context information of DTN, the Kalman filter theory is introduced to predict the information state of mobility for the optional message ferrying node, and then gives the optimal selection strategy of the message ferrying nodes. The simulation experiments have shown that, compared to the familiar single- copy and multi-copy protocols, the SACARP proposed in this paper has better transmission performance and stability, especially when the network is free, the protocol would keep a good performance with fewer connections and less buffer space.

  14. A distance-aware replica adaptive data gathering protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node's limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes.

  15. [Research and implementation of the TLS network transport security technology based on DICOM standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    With the development of medical information, Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS), Hospital Information System/Radiology Information System(HIS/RIS) and other medical information management system become popular and developed, and interoperability between these systems becomes more frequent. So, these enclosed systems will be open and regionalized by means of network, and this is inevitable. If the trend becomes true, the security of information transmission may be the first problem to be solved. Based on the need for network security, we investigated the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol, and implemented the TLS transmission of the DICOM medical information with OpenSSL toolkit and DCMTK toolkit.

  16. FODA: a novel efficient multiple access protocol for highly dynamic self-organizing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hantao; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun

    2005-11-01

    Based on the concept of contention reservation for polling transmission and collision prevention strategy for collision resolution, a fair on-demand access (FODA) protocol for supporting node mobility and multihop architecture in highly dynamic self-organizing networks is proposed. In the protocol, a distributed clustering network architecture formed by self-organizing algorithm and a main idea of reserving channel resources to get polling service are adopted, so that the hidden terminal (HT) and exposed terminal (ET) problems existed in traffic transmission due to multihop architecture and wireless transmission can be eliminated completely. In addition, an improved collision prevention scheme based on binary countdown algorithm (BCA), called fair collision prevention (FCP) algorithm, is proposed to greatly eliminate unfair phenomena existed in contention access of newly active ordinary nodes and completely resolve access collisions. Finally, the performance comparison of the FODA protocol with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and polling protocols by OPNET simulation are presented. Simulation results show that the FODA protocol can overcome the disadvantages of CSMA/CA and polling protocols, and achieve higher throughput, lower average message delay and less average message dropping rate.

  17. EpSoc: Social-Based Epidemic-Based Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikul Lenando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks, the nature of intermittent and disruptive connections degrades the efficiency of routing. Epidemic routing protocol is used as a benchmark for most of routing protocols in opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs due to its high message delivery and latency. However, Epidemic incurs high cost in terms of overhead and hop count. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol called EpSoc which utilizes the Epidemic routing forwarding strategy and exploits an important social feature, that is, degree centrality. Two techniques are used in EpSoc. Messages’ TTL is adjusted based on the degree centrality of nodes, and the message blocking mechanism is used to control replication. Simulation results show that EpSoc increases the delivery ratio and decreases the overhead ratio, the average latency, and the hop counts as compared to Epidemic and Bubble Rap.

  18. A Multipath Routing Protocol Based on Bloom Filter for Multihop Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwei Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On-demand multipath routing in a wireless ad hoc network is effective in achieving load balancing over the network and in improving the degree of resilience to mobility. In this paper, the salvage capable opportunistic node-disjoint multipath routing (SNMR protocol is proposed, which forms multiple routes for data transmission and supports packet salvaging with minimum overhead. The proposed mechanism constructs a primary path and a node-disjoint backup path together with alternative paths for the intermediate nodes in the primary path. It can be achieved by considering the reverse route back to the source stored in the route cache and the primary path information compressed by a Bloom filter. Our protocol presents higher capability in packet salvaging and lower overhead in forming multiple routes. Simulation results show that SNMR outperforms the compared protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio, normalized routing load, and throughput.

  19. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF INTEGRATED MACRO AND MICRO MOBILITY PROTOCOLS FOR WIDE AREA WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Gunasundari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The success of next generation wireless networks will rely much on advanced mechanisms for seamless mobility support among emerging heterogeneous technologies. Currently, Mobile IP is the most promising solution for mobility management in the Internet. Several IP micro mobility approaches have been proposed to enhance the performance of Mobile IP which supports quality of service, minimum packet loss, limited handoff delay and scalability and power conservation but they are not scalable for macro mobility. A practical solution would therefore require integration of Mobile IP and Micro mobility protocols where Mobile IP handles macro mobility and micro mobility protocols handles micro mobility. In this paper an integrated mobility management protocol for IP based wireless networks is proposed and analyzed. Simulation results presented in this paper are based on ns 2.

  1. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-04-20

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  2. Receiver-initiated medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Vithanage, Madava D.

    2015-01-01

    One of the fundamental building blocks of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, that part of the system governing when and how two independent neighboring nodes activate their respective transceivers to directly interact. Historically, data exchange has always...

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, G.P.; Langendoen, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation ofMAC protocols forWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality inmany ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover,

  4. Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Improving the security of the Hwang-Su protocol for mobile networks. Miloud Ait Hemad, My ... Furthermore, the wireless data channel is low data rate. These restrictions have an ..... Research in Security and Privacy. Wu T. Y. and Tsen Y. M., ...

  5. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  6. A Novel Nonlinear Multitarget k-Degree Coverage Preservation Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the existence of a large number of redundant data in the process of covering multiple targets, the effective coverage of monitored region decreases, causing the network to consume more energy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a multitarget k-degree coverage preservation protocol. Firstly, the affiliation between the sensor nodes and target nodes is established in the network model; meanwhile the method used to calculate the coverage expectation value of the monitored region is put forward; secondly, in the aspect of the network energy conversion, use scheduling mechanisms on the sensor nodes to balance the network energy and achieve different network coverage quality with energy conversion between different nodes. Finally, simulation results show that NMCP can improve the network lifetime by effectively reducing the number of active nodes to meet certain coverage requirements.

  7. Implementing the Internet of Things vision in industrial wireless sensor networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, CP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this paper explore the use of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN), IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low power and Lossy Networks (RPL) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) as a possible solution for realising...

  8. A Lightweight Medium Access Protocol (LMAC) for Wireless Sensor Networks: Reducing Preamble Transmissions and Transceiver State Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient medium access protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Although the protocol uses TDMA to give nodes in the WSN the opportunity to communicate collision-free, the network is self-organizing in terms of time slot assignment and synchronization. The

  9. Impact on the Food Industry of New EU Rules Implementing the Nagoya Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vooren, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Over the years there have been global news reports of ‘bio-piracy’ by companies accused of marketing blockbuster products derived from the biological resources of developing countries. This perception stimulated the adoption of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol, to implement the objective of the 1992...... Regulation only encompasses bioprospecting or ethno-pharmacological R&D. Instead, the EU has purposely set up a broad regime that affects companies developing pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and biocides, as well as food, feed, beverages, and any of their components. This article summarizes the new EU Nagoya...... compliance regime, with examples drawn fromthe food sector to explain its impact....

  10. The Study of MSADQ/CDMA Protocol in Voice/Data Integration Packet Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new packet medium access protocol, namely, minislot signalingaccess based on distributed queues(MSADQ/CDMA), is proposed in voice and data intergration CDMA networks. The MSADQ protocol is based on distributed queues and collision resolution algorithm. Through proper management of the PN codes, the number of random competition collision reduces greatly, the multiple access interference (MAI) decreases. It has several special access signaling channels to carry the voice and data access request. Each slot is devided into several control minislots (CMSs), in which the Data Terminals (DT) or Voice Terminals (VT) transmit their request. According to the voice and data traffic character, the signaling access structure is proposed. The code assign rules and queue managing rules are also proposed to ensure the QoS requirement of each traffic. Comparisions with other three protocol are developed by simulation, which shows that MSADQ/CDMA protocol occupies less PN codes, but still has very good performance.

  11. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  12. ARQ Protocols in Cognitive Decode-and-Forward Relay Networks: Opportunities Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongsheng Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two novel automatic-repeat-request (ARQ based protocols were proposed, which exploit coop- eration opportunity inherent in secondary retransmission to create access opportunities. If the signal was not decoded correctly in destination, another user can be acted as a relay to reduce retransmission rounds by relaying the signal. For comparison, we also propose a Direct ARQ Protocol. Specif- ically, we derive the exact closed-form outage probability of three protocols, which provides an effective means to evalu- ate the effects of several parameters. Moreover, we propose a new metric to evaluate the performance improvement for cognitive networks. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations were presented to validate the theory analysis, and a comparison is made among the three protocols.

  13. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  14. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-hoon

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads. PMID:28531159

  15. Security Enhanced User Authentication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.’s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.’s protocol. However, Shi et al.’s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.’s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  16. Security enhanced user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks using elliptic curves cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Donghoon; Kim, Jiye; Jung, Jaewook; Nam, Junghyun; Won, Dongho

    2014-06-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensors, gateways and users. Sensors are widely distributed to monitor various conditions, such as temperature, sound, speed and pressure but they have limited computational ability and energy. To reduce the resource use of sensors and enhance the security of WSNs, various user authentication protocols have been proposed. In 2011, Yeh et al. first proposed a user authentication protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) for WSNs. However, it turned out that Yeh et al.'s protocol does not provide mutual authentication, perfect forward secrecy, and key agreement between the user and sensor. Later in 2013, Shi et al. proposed a new user authentication protocol that improves both security and efficiency of Yeh et al.'s protocol. However, Shi et al.'s improvement introduces other security weaknesses. In this paper, we show that Shi et al.'s improved protocol is vulnerable to session key attack, stolen smart card attack, and sensor energy exhausting attack. In addition, we propose a new, security-enhanced user authentication protocol using ECC for WSNs.

  17. A Family of ACO Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez Cañas, Delfín; Sandoval Orozco, Ana Lucila; García Villalba, Luis Javier; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2017-05-22

    In this work, an ACO routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks based on AntHocNet is specified. As its predecessor, this new protocol, called AntOR, is hybrid in the sense that it contains elements from both reactive and proactive routing. Specifically, it combines a reactive route setup process with a proactive route maintenance and improvement process. Key aspects of the AntOR protocol are the disjoint-link and disjoint-node routes, separation between the regular pheromone and the virtual pheromone in the diffusion process and the exploration of routes, taking into consideration the number of hops in the best routes. In this work, a family of ACO routing protocols based on AntOR is also specified. These protocols are based on protocol successive refinements. In this work, we also present a parallelized version of AntOR that we call PAntOR. Using programming multiprocessor architectures based on the shared memory protocol, PAntOR allows running tasks in parallel using threads. This parallelization is applicable in the route setup phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. In addition, a variant of PAntOR that consists of having more than one interface, which we call PAntOR-MI (PAntOR-Multiple Interface), is specified. This approach parallelizes the sending of broadcast messages by interface through threads.

  18. Implementing e-network-supported inquiry learning in science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, John; Cowie, Bronwen; Khoo, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The successful implementation of electronically networked (e-networked) tools to support an inquiry-learning approach in secondary science classrooms is dependent on a range of factors spread between teachers, schools, and students. The teacher must have a clear understanding of the nature......-construct knowledge using a wide range of resources for meaning making and expression of ideas. These outcomes were, however, contingent on the interplay of teacher understanding of the nature of science inquiry and school provision of an effective technological infrastructure and support for flexible curriculum...... of inquiry, the school must provide effective technological infrastructure and sympathetic curriculum parameters, and the students need to be carefully scaffolded to the point of engaging with the inquiry process. Within this study, e-networks supported students to exercise agency, collaborate, and co...

  19. A Quantum Implementation Model for Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Daskin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The learning process for multilayered neural networks with many nodes makes heavy demands on computational resources. In some neural network models, the learning formulas, such as the Widrow–Hoff formula, do not change the eigenvectors of the weight matrix while flatting the eigenvalues. In infinity, these iterative formulas result in terms formed by the principal components of the weight matrix, namely, the eigenvectors corresponding to the non-zero eigenvalues. In quantum computing, the phase estimation algorithm is known to provide speedups over the conventional algorithms for the eigenvalue-related problems. Combining the quantum amplitude amplification with the phase estimation algorithm, a quantum implementation model for artificial neural networks using the Widrow–Hoff learning rule is presented. The complexity of the model is found to be linear in the size of the weight matrix. This provides a quadratic improvement over the classical algorithms. Quanta 2018; 7: 7–18.

  20. Two-Layer Hierarchy Optimization Model for Communication Protocol in Railway Wireless Monitoring Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless monitoring system is always destroyed by the insufficient energy of the sensors in railway. Hence, how to optimize the communication protocol and extend the system lifetime is crucial to ensure the stability of system. However, the existing studies focused primarily on cluster-based or multihop protocols individually, which are ineffective in coping with the complex communication scenarios in the railway wireless monitoring system (RWMS. This study proposes a hybrid protocol which combines the cluster-based and multihop protocols (CMCP to minimize and balance the energy consumption in different sections of the RWMS. In the first hierarchy, the total energy consumption is minimized by optimizing the cluster quantities in the cluster-based protocol and the number of hops and the corresponding hop distances in the multihop protocol. In the second hierarchy, the energy consumption is balanced through rotating the cluster head (CH in the subnetworks and further optimizing the hops and the corresponding hop distances in the backbone network. On this basis, the system lifetime is maximized with the minimum and balance energy consumption among the sensors. Furthermore, the hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm (PSO-GA are adopted to optimize the energy consumption from the two-layer hierarchy. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed CMCP is verified in the simulation. The performances of the proposed CMCP in system lifetime, residual energy, and the corresponding variance are all superior to the LEACH protocol widely applied in the previous research. The effective protocol proposed in this study can facilitate the application of the wireless monitoring network in the railway system and enhance safety operation of the railway.