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Sample records for network overcomes theoretical

  1. Cooperative networks overcoming defectors by social influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    We address the cooperation problem in structured populations by considering the prisoner’s dilemma game as a metaphor of the social interactions between individuals with imitation capacity. We present a new strategy update rule called democratic weighted update where the individual’s behavior is socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. In particular, the capacity of an individual to socially influence other ones is proportional to its accumulated payoff. When in a neighborhood there are cooperators and defectors, the focal player is contradictorily influenced by them and, therefore, the effective social influence is given by the difference of the accumulated payoff of each strategy in its neighborhood. First, by considering the growing process of the network and neglecting mutations, we show the evolution of highly cooperative systems. Then, we broadly show that the social influence allows to overcome the emergence of defectors into highly cooperative systems. In this way, we conclude that in a structured system formed by a growing process, the cooperation evolves if the individuals have an imitation capacity socially influenced by each one of their neighbors. Therefore, here we present a theoretical solution of the cooperation problem among genetically unrelated individuals.

  2. Information theoretic description of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Hollunder, Jens

    2007-11-01

    We present a new information theoretic approach for network characterizations. It is developed to describe the general type of networks with n nodes and L directed and weighted links, i.e., it also works for the simpler undirected and unweighted networks. The new information theoretic measures for network characterizations are based on a transmitter-receiver analogy of effluxes and influxes. Based on these measures, we classify networks as either complex or non-complex and as either democracy or dictatorship networks. Directed networks, in particular, are furthermore classified as either information spreading and information collecting networks. The complexity classification is based on the information theoretic network complexity measure medium articulation (MA). It is proven that special networks with a medium number of links ( L∼n1.5) show the theoretical maximum complexity MA=(log n)2/2. A network is complex if its MA is larger than the average MA of appropriately randomized networks: MA>MAr. A network is of the democracy type if its redundancy Rdictatorship network. In democracy networks all nodes are, on average, of similar importance, whereas in dictatorship networks some nodes play distinguished roles in network functioning. In other words, democracy networks are characterized by cycling of information (or mass, or energy), while in dictatorship networks there is a straight through-flow from sources to sinks. The classification of directed networks into information spreading and information collecting networks is based on the conditional entropies of the considered networks ( H(A/B)=uncertainty of sender node if receiver node is known, H(B/A)=uncertainty of receiver node if sender node is known): if H(A/B)>H(B/A), it is an information collecting network, otherwise an information spreading network. Finally, different real networks (directed and undirected, weighted and unweighted) are classified according to our general scheme.

  3. Towards overcoming the Monte Carlo sign problem with tensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bañuls Mari Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of lattice gauge theories with Monte Carlo simulations is hindered by the infamous sign problem that appears under certain circumstances, in particular at non-zero chemical potential. So far, there is no universal method to overcome this problem. However, recent years brought a new class of non-perturbative Hamiltonian techniques named tensor networks, where the sign problem is absent. In previous work, we have demonstrated that this approach, in particular matrix product states in 1+1 dimensions, can be used to perform precise calculations in a lattice gauge theory, the massless and massive Schwinger model. We have computed the mass spectrum of this theory, its thermal properties and real-time dynamics. In this work, we review these results and we extend our calculations to the case of two flavours and non-zero chemical potential. We are able to reliably reproduce known analytical results for this model, thus demonstrating that tensor networks can tackle the sign problem of a lattice gauge theory at finite density.

  4. Overcoming uncertainty for within-network relational machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    People increasingly communicate through email and social networks to maintain friendships and conduct business, as well as share online content such as pictures, videos and products. Relational machine learning (RML) utilizes a set of observed attributes and network structure to predict corresponding labels for items; for example, to predict individuals engaged in securities fraud, we can utilize phone calls and workplace information to make joint predictions over the individuals. However, in...

  5. Overcoming barriers to scheduling embedded generation to support distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A.J.; Formby, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Current scheduling of embedded generation for distribution in the UK is limited and patchy. Some DNOs actively schedule while others do none. The literature on the subject is mainly about accommodating volatile wind output, and optimising island systems, for both cost of supply and network stability. The forthcoming NETA will lower prices, expose unpredictable generation to imbalance markets and could introduce punitive constraint payments on DNOs, but at the same time create a dynamic market for both power and ancillary services from embedded generators. Most renewable generators either run as base load (e.g. waste ) or according to the vagaries of the weather (e.g. wind, hydro), so offer little scope for scheduling other than 'off'. CHP plant is normally heat- led for industrial processes or building needs, but supplementary firing or thermal storage often allow considerable scope for scheduling. Micro-CHP with thermal storage could provide short-term scheduling, but tends to be running anyway during the evening peak. Standby generation appears to be ideal for scheduling, but in practice operators may be unwilling to run parallel with the network, and noise and pollution problems may preclude frequent operation. Statistical analysis can be applied to calculate the reliability of several generators compared to one; with a large number of generators such as micro-CHP reliability of a proportion of load is close to unity. The type of communication for generation used will depend on requirements for bandwidth, cost, reliability and whether it is bundled with other services. With high levels of deeply embedded, small-scale generation using induction machines, voltage control and black start capability will become important concerns on 11 kV and LV networks. This will require increased generation monitoring and remote control of switchgear. Examples of cost benefits from scheduling are given, including deferred reinforcement, increased exports on non

  6. Game Theoretic Problems in Network Economics and Mechanism Design Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Narahari, Y; Narayanam, Ramasuri; Prakash, Hastagiri

    2009-01-01

    Explores game theoretic modeling and mechanism design for problem solving in Internet and network economics. This monograph contains an exposition of representative game theoretic problems in three different network economics situations and a systematic exploration of mechanism design solutions to these problems.

  7. Overcoming barriers in care for the dying: Theoretical analysis of an innovative program model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Cara L

    2016-08-01

    This article explores barriers to end-of-life (EOL) care (including development of a death denying culture, ongoing perceptions about EOL care, poor communication, delayed access, and benefit restrictions) through the theoretical lens of symbolic interactionism (SI), and applies general systems theory (GST) to a promising practice model appropriate for addressing these barriers. The Compassionate Care program is a practice model designed to bridge gaps in care for the dying and is one example of a program offering concurrent care, a recent focus of evaluation though the Affordable Care Act. Concurrent care involves offering curative care alongside palliative or hospice care. Additionally, the program offers comprehensive case management and online resources to enrollees in a national health plan (Spettell et al., 2009).SI and GST are compatible and interrelated theories that provide a relevant picture of barriers to end-of-life care and a practice model that might evoke change among multiple levels of systems. These theories promote insight into current challenges in EOL care, as well as point to areas of needed research and interventions to address them. The article concludes with implications for policy and practice, and discusses the important role of social work in impacting change within EOL care.

  8. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The network is an efficient way of social structure analysis for contemporary sociologists. It gives broad opportunities for detailed and fruitful research of different patterns of ties and social relations by quantitative analytical methods and visualization of network models. The network metaphor is used as the most representative tool for description of a new type of society. This new type is characterized by flexibility, decentralization and individualization. Network organizational form became the dominant form in modern societies. The network is also used as a mode of inquiry. Actually three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: social network analysis, “network society” theory and actor-network theory. Every theoretical approach has got its own notion of network. Their special methodological and theoretical features contribute to the Internet studies in different ways. The article represents a brief overview of these network approaches. This overview demonstrates the absence of a unified semantic space of the notion of “network” category. This fact, in turn, points out the need for detailed analysis of these approaches to reveal their theoretical and empirical possibilities in application to the Internet studies. 

  9. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  10. Mathematical and theoretical neuroscience cell, network and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    This volume gathers contributions from theoretical, experimental and computational researchers who are working on various topics in theoretical/computational/mathematical neuroscience. The focus is on mathematical modeling, analytical and numerical topics, and statistical analysis in neuroscience with applications. The following subjects are considered: mathematical modelling in Neuroscience, analytical  and numerical topics;  statistical analysis in Neuroscience; Neural Networks; Theoretical Neuroscience. The book is addressed to researchers involved in mathematical models applied to neuroscience.

  11. THE NETWORKS IN TOURISM: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic world in which tourism companies act today is in a continuous changing process. The most important factor of these changes is the globalization of their environment, both in economic, social, natural and cultural aspects. The tourism companies can benefit from the opportunities brought by globalization, but also could be menaced by the new context. How could react the companies to these changes in order to create and maintain long term competitive advantage for their business? In the present paper we make a literature review of the new tourism companies´ business approach: the networks - a result and/or a reason for exploiting the opportunities or, on the contrary, for keeping their actual position on the market. It’s a qualitative approach and the research methods used are analyses, synthesis, abstraction, which are considered the most appropriate to achieve the objective of the paper.

  12. Genome network medicine: innovation to overcome huge challenges in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukos, Dimitrios H

    2014-01-01

    The post-ENCODE era shapes now a new biomedical research direction for understanding transcriptional and signaling networks driving gene expression and core cellular processes such as cell fate, survival, and apoptosis. Over the past half century, the Francis Crick 'central dogma' of single n gene/protein-phenotype (trait/disease) has defined biology, human physiology, disease, diagnostics, and drugs discovery. However, the ENCODE project and several other genomic studies using high-throughput sequencing technologies, computational strategies, and imaging techniques to visualize regulatory networks, provide evidence that transcriptional process and gene expression are regulated by highly complex dynamic molecular and signaling networks. This Focus article describes the linear experimentation-based limitations of diagnostics and therapeutics to cure advanced cancer and the need to move on from reductionist to network-based approaches. With evident a wide genomic heterogeneity, the power and challenges of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to identify a patient's personal mutational landscape for tailoring the best target drugs in the individual patient are discussed. However, the available drugs are not capable of targeting aberrant signaling networks and research on functional transcriptional heterogeneity and functional genome organization is poorly understood. Therefore, the future clinical genome network medicine aiming at overcoming multiple problems in the new fields of regulatory DNA mapping, noncoding RNA, enhancer RNAs, and dynamic complexity of transcriptional circuitry are also discussed expecting in new innovation technology and strong appreciation of clinical data and evidence-based medicine. The problematic and potential solutions in the discovery of next-generation, molecular, and signaling circuitry-based biomarkers and drugs are explored. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. SOCIOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNET: THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO THE NETWORK ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Dobrinskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet studies are carried out by various scientific disciplines and in different research perspectives. Sociological studies of the Internet deal with a new technology, a revolutionary means of mass communication and a social space. There is a set of research difficulties associated with the Internet. Firstly, the high speed and wide spread of Internet technologies’ development. Secondly, the collection and filtration of materials concerning with Internet studies. Lastly, the development of new conceptual categories, which are able to reflect the impact of the Internet development in contemporary world. In that regard the question of the “network” category use is essential. Network is the base of Internet functioning, on the one hand. On the other hand, network is the ground for almost all social interactions in modern society. So such society is called network society. Three theoretical network approaches in the Internet research case are the most relevant: network society theory, social network analysis and actor-network theory. Each of these theoretical approaches contributes to the study of the Internet. They shape various images of interactions between human beings in their entity and dynamics. All these approaches also provide information about the nature of these interactions. 

  14. Detecting Network Vulnerabilities Through Graph TheoreticalMethods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarz, Patrick; Pomann, Gina-Maria; Torre, Luis de la; Villarosa, Greta; Flournoy, Tamara; Pinar, Ali; Meza Juan

    2007-09-30

    Identifying vulnerabilities in power networks is an important problem, as even a small number of vulnerable connections can cause billions of dollars in damage to a network. In this paper, we investigate a graph theoretical formulation for identifying vulnerabilities of a network. We first try to find the most critical components in a network by finding an optimal solution for each possible cutsize constraint for the relaxed version of the inhibiting bisection problem, which aims to find loosely coupled subgraphs with significant demand/supply mismatch. Then we investigate finding critical components by finding a flow assignment that minimizes the maximum among flow assignments on all edges. We also report experiments on IEEE 30, IEEE 118, and WSCC 179 benchmark power networks.

  15. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

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    Meyer Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  16. Information-Theoretic Inference of Large Transcriptional Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick E. Meyer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents MRNET, an original method for inferring genetic networks from microarray data. The method is based on maximum relevance/minimum redundancy (MRMR, an effective information-theoretic technique for feature selection in supervised learning. The MRMR principle consists in selecting among the least redundant variables the ones that have the highest mutual information with the target. MRNET extends this feature selection principle to networks in order to infer gene-dependence relationships from microarray data. The paper assesses MRNET by benchmarking it against RELNET, CLR, and ARACNE, three state-of-the-art information-theoretic methods for large (up to several thousands of genes network inference. Experimental results on thirty synthetically generated microarray datasets show that MRNET is competitive with these methods.

  17. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras, Juan; Zazo, Santiago

    2018-01-30

    We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi's network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  18. Wireless Networks under a Backoff Attack: A Game Theoretical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Parras

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a wireless sensor network using CSMA/CA in the MAC layer under a backoff attack: some of the sensors of the network are malicious and deviate from the defined contention mechanism. We use Bianchi’s network model to study the impact of the malicious sensors on the total network throughput, showing that it causes the throughput to be unfairly distributed among sensors. We model this conflict using game theory tools, where each sensor is a player. We obtain analytical solutions and propose an algorithm, based on Regret Matching, to learn the equilibrium of the game with an arbitrary number of players. Our approach is validated via simulations, showing that our theoretical predictions adjust to reality.

  19. Advances in neural networks computational and theoretical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Anna; Morabito, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This book collects research works that exploit neural networks and machine learning techniques from a multidisciplinary perspective. Subjects covered include theoretical, methodological and computational topics which are grouped together into chapters devoted to the discussion of novelties and innovations related to the field of Artificial Neural Networks as well as the use of neural networks for applications, pattern recognition, signal processing, and special topics such as the detection and recognition of multimodal emotional expressions and daily cognitive functions, and  bio-inspired memristor-based networks.  Providing insights into the latest research interest from a pool of international experts coming from different research fields, the volume becomes valuable to all those with any interest in a holistic approach to implement believable, autonomous, adaptive, and context-aware Information Communication Technologies.

  20. Optimal information transfer in enzymatic networks: A field theoretic formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Himadri S.; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2017-07-01

    Signaling in enzymatic networks is typically triggered by environmental fluctuations, resulting in a series of stochastic chemical reactions, leading to corruption of the signal by noise. For example, information flow is initiated by binding of extracellular ligands to receptors, which is transmitted through a cascade involving kinase-phosphatase stochastic chemical reactions. For a class of such networks, we develop a general field-theoretic approach to calculate the error in signal transmission as a function of an appropriate control variable. Application of the theory to a simple push-pull network, a module in the kinase-phosphatase cascade, recovers the exact results for error in signal transmission previously obtained using umbral calculus [Hinczewski and Thirumalai, Phys. Rev. X 4, 041017 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevX.4.041017]. We illustrate the generality of the theory by studying the minimal errors in noise reduction in a reaction cascade with two connected push-pull modules. Such a cascade behaves as an effective three-species network with a pseudointermediate. In this case, optimal information transfer, resulting in the smallest square of the error between the input and output, occurs with a time delay, which is given by the inverse of the decay rate of the pseudointermediate. Surprisingly, in these examples the minimum error computed using simulations that take nonlinearities and discrete nature of molecules into account coincides with the predictions of a linear theory. In contrast, there are substantial deviations between simulations and predictions of the linear theory in error in signal propagation in an enzymatic push-pull network for a certain range of parameters. Inclusion of second-order perturbative corrections shows that differences between simulations and theoretical predictions are minimized. Our study establishes that a field theoretic formulation of stochastic biological signaling offers a systematic way to understand error propagation in

  1. Theoretical Guidelines for the Utilization of Instructional Social Networking Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker YAKIN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available interaction and communication technologies. Indeed, there has been an emerging movement in the interaction and communication technologies. More specifically, the growth of Web 2.0 technologies has acted as a catalyst for change in the disciplines of education. The social networking websites have gained popularity in recent years; therefore, many research studies have been conducted to explain how the use of social networking websites for instructional purposes. For the best practices, it is essential to understand theories associated with social networking studies because related theories for any subject may provide insights and guideline for professionals and researchers. This theoretical paper was designed to offer a road map through the literature in relation to the utilization of social networking websites by presenting main understandings of theories associated with social networking. The Uses and Gratification Theory, social network theory, connectives, and constructivism were selected to serve as a basis for designing social networking studies regarding instructional purposes. Moreover, common attributes of the theories and specific application areas were also discussed. This paper contributes to this emerging movement by explaining the role of these theories for researchers and practitioners to find ways to beneficially integrate them into their future research endeavors

  2. A NETWORK-THEORETICAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING INTERSTELLAR CHEMISTRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Douglas, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen dramatic advances in computational models of chemical processes in the interstellar medium (ISM). Typically, these models have been used to calculate changes in chemical abundances with time; the calculated abundances can then be compared with chemical abundances derived from observations. In this study, the output from an astrochemical simulation has been used to generate directed graphs with weighted edges; these have been analyzed with the tools of network theory to uncover whole-network properties of reaction systems in dark molecular clouds. The results allow the development of a model in which global network properties can be rationalized in terms of the basic physical properties of the reaction system. The ISM network exhibits an exponential degree distribution, which is likely to be a generic feature of chemical networks involving a broad range of reaction rate constants. While species abundances span several orders of magnitude, the formation and destruction rates for most species are approximately balanced-departures from this rule indicate species (such as CO) that play a critical role in shaping the dynamics of the system. Future theoretical or observational studies focusing on individual molecular species will be able to situate them in terms of their role in the complete system or quantify the degree to which they deviate from the typical system behavior.

  3. A game theoretic investigation of deception in network security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Thomas E.; Grosu, Daniel

    2010-12-03

    We perform a game theoretic investigation of the effects of deception on the interactions between an attacker and a defender of a computer network. The defender can employ camouflage by either disguising a normal system as a honeypot or by disguising a honeypot as a normal system. We model the interactions between defender and attacker using a signaling game, a non-cooperative two player dynamic game of incomplete information. For this model, we determine which strategies admit perfect Bayesian equilibria. These equilibria are refined Nash equilibria in which neither the defender nor the attacker will unilaterally choose to deviate from their strategies. Finally, we discuss the benefits of employing deceptive equilibrium strategies in the defense of a computer network.

  4. Graph theoretical analysis of resting magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay eRutter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex networks have been observed to comprise small-world properties, believed to represent an optimal organization of local specialization and global integration of information processing at reduced wiring cost. Here, we applied magnitude squared coherence to resting magnetoencephalographic time series in reconstructed source space, acquired from controls and patients with schizophrenia, and generated frequency-dependent adjacency matrices modeling functional connectivity between virtual channels. After configuring undirected binary and weighted graphs, we found that all human networks demonstrated highly localized clustering and short characteristic path lengths. The most conservatively thresholded networks showed efficient wiring, with topographical distance between connected vertices amounting to one-third as observed in surrogate randomized topologies. Nodal degrees of the human networks conformed to a heavy-tailed exponentially truncated power-law, compatible with the existence of hubs, which included theta and alpha bilateral cerebellar tonsil, beta and gamma bilateral posterior cingulate, and bilateral thalamus across all frequencies. We conclude that all networks showed small-worldness, minimal physical connection distance, and skewed degree distributions characteristic of physically-embedded networks, and that these calculations derived from graph theoretical mathematics did not quantifiably distinguish between subject populations, independent of bandwidth. However, post-hoc measurements of edge computations at the scale of the individual vertex revealed trends of reduced gamma connectivity across the posterior medial parietal cortex in patients, an observation consistent with our prior resting activation study that found significant reduction of synthetic aperture magnetometry gamma power across similar regions. The basis of these small differences remains unclear.

  5. Field-theoretic approach to fluctuation effects in neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buice, Michael A.; Cowan, Jack D.

    2007-01-01

    A well-defined stochastic theory for neural activity, which permits the calculation of arbitrary statistical moments and equations governing them, is a potentially valuable tool for theoretical neuroscience. We produce such a theory by analyzing the dynamics of neural activity using field theoretic methods for nonequilibrium statistical processes. Assuming that neural network activity is Markovian, we construct the effective spike model, which describes both neural fluctuations and response. This analysis leads to a systematic expansion of corrections to mean field theory, which for the effective spike model is a simple version of the Wilson-Cowan equation. We argue that neural activity governed by this model exhibits a dynamical phase transition which is in the universality class of directed percolation. More general models (which may incorporate refractoriness) can exhibit other universality classes, such as dynamic isotropic percolation. Because of the extremely high connectivity in typical networks, it is expected that higher-order terms in the systematic expansion are small for experimentally accessible measurements, and thus, consistent with measurements in neocortical slice preparations, we expect mean field exponents for the transition. We provide a quantitative criterion for the relative magnitude of each term in the systematic expansion, analogous to the Ginsburg criterion. Experimental identification of dynamic universality classes in vivo is an outstanding and important question for neuroscience

  6. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  7. A Game-theoretic Framework for Network Coding Based Device-to-Device Communications

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-06-29

    This paper investigates the delay minimization problem for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) based deviceto- device (D2D) communications. In D2D enabled systems, users cooperate to recover all their missing packets. The paper proposes a game theoretic framework as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. The session is modeled by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility functions are designed so as increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Nash equilibrium. Three games are developed whose first reduces the completion time, the second the maximum decoding delay and the third the sum decoding delay. The paper, further, improves the formulations by including a punishment policy upon collision occurrence so as to achieve the Nash bargaining solution. Learning algorithms are proposed for systems with complete and incomplete information, and for the imperfect feedback scenario. Numerical results suggest that the proposed game-theoretical formulation provides appreciable performance gain against the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP), especially for reliable user-to-user channels.

  8. Community, Collective or Movement? Evaluating Theoretical Perspectives on Network Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. What is the most useful theoretical model for conceptualizing the work of the NNOCCI community? This presentation will examine the pros and cons of three perspectives -- community of practice, collective impact, and social movements. The community of practice approach emphasizes use of common tools, support for practice, social learning, and organic development of leadership. A collective impact model focuses on defining common outcomes, aligning activities toward a common goal, structured collaboration. A social movement emphasizes building group identity and creating a sense of group efficacy. This presentation will address how these models compare in terms of their utility in program planning and evaluation, their fit with the unique characteristics of the NNOCCI community, and their relevance to our program goals.

  9. A Game-Theoretical Approach to Multimedia Social Networks Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enqiang; Liu, Zengliang; Shao, Fei; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The contents access and sharing in multimedia social networks (MSNs) mainly rely on access control models and mechanisms. Simple adoptions of security policies in the traditional access control model cannot effectively establish a trust relationship among parties. This paper proposed a novel two-party trust architecture (TPTA) to apply in a generic MSN scenario. According to the architecture, security policies are adopted through game-theoretic analyses and decisions. Based on formalized utilities of security policies and security rules, the choice of security policies in content access is described as a game between the content provider and the content requester. By the game method for the combination of security policies utility and its influences on each party's benefits, the Nash equilibrium is achieved, that is, an optimal and stable combination of security policies, to establish and enhance trust among stakeholders. PMID:24977226

  10. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-05-11

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  11. A Game Theoretic Approach to Minimize the Completion Time of Network Coded Cooperative Data Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Sorour, Sameh; Tembine, Hamidou

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a game theoretic framework for studying the problem of minimizing the completion time of instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) for cooperative data exchange (CDE) in decentralized wireless network. In this configuration, clients cooperate with each other to recover the erased packets without a central controller. Game theory is employed herein as a tool for improving the distributed solution by overcoming the need for a central controller or additional signaling in the system. We model the session by self-interested players in a non-cooperative potential game. The utility function is designed such that increasing individual payoff results in a collective behavior achieving both a desirable system performance in a shared network environment and the Pareto optimal solution. Through extensive simulations, our approach is compared to the best performance that could be found in the conventional point-to-multipoint (PMP) recovery process. Numerical results show that our formulation largely outperforms the conventional PMP scheme in most practical situations and achieves a lower delay.

  12. Category theoretic analysis of hierarchical protein materials and social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Spivak

    Full Text Available Materials in biology span all the scales from Angstroms to meters and typically consist of complex hierarchical assemblies of simple building blocks. Here we describe an application of category theory to describe structural and resulting functional properties of biological protein materials by developing so-called ologs. An olog is like a "concept web" or "semantic network" except that it follows a rigorous mathematical formulation based on category theory. This key difference ensures that an olog is unambiguous, highly adaptable to evolution and change, and suitable for sharing concepts with other olog. We consider simple cases of beta-helical and amyloid-like protein filaments subjected to axial extension and develop an olog representation of their structural and resulting mechanical properties. We also construct a representation of a social network in which people send text-messages to their nearest neighbors and act as a team to perform a task. We show that the olog for the protein and the olog for the social network feature identical category-theoretic representations, and we proceed to precisely explicate the analogy or isomorphism between them. The examples presented here demonstrate that the intrinsic nature of a complex system, which in particular includes a precise relationship between structure and function at different hierarchical levels, can be effectively represented by an olog. This, in turn, allows for comparative studies between disparate materials or fields of application, and results in novel approaches to derive functionality in the design of de novo hierarchical systems. We discuss opportunities and challenges associated with the description of complex biological materials by using ologs as a powerful tool for analysis and design in the context of materiomics, and we present the potential impact of this approach for engineering, life sciences, and medicine.

  13. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  14. Peer influence in network markets: a theoretical and empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Henkel (Joachim); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractNetwork externalities spur the growth of networks and the adoption of network goods in two ways. First, they make it more attractive to join a network the larger its installed base. Second, they create incentives for network members to actively recruit new members. Despite indications

  15. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network Translational Pharmacogenetics Program: Overcoming Challenges of Real-World Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuldiner, AR; Relling, MV; Peterson, JF; Hicks, JK; Freimuth, RR; Sadee, W; Pereira, NL; Roden, DM; Johnson, JA; Klein, TE

    2013-01-01

    The pace of discovery of potentially actionable pharmacogenetic variants has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the implementation of this new knowledge for individualized patient care has been slow. The Pharmacogenomics Research Network (PGRN) Translational Pharmacogenetics Program seeks to identify barriers and develop real-world solutions to implementation of evidence-based pharmacogenetic tests in diverse health-care settings. Dissemination of the resulting toolbox of “implementation best practices” will prove useful to a broad audience. PMID:23588301

  16. Game Theoretic Solutions to Cyber Attack and Network Defense Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jr., , Jose B; Blasch, Erik; Kruger, Martin

    2007-01-01

    .... The protection and defense against cyber attacks to computer network is becoming inadequate as the hacker knowledge sophisticates and as the network and each computer system become more complex...

  17. A network approach to overcoming barriers to market engagement for SMEs in energy efficiency initiatives such as the Green Deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Keeffe, Juliette M.; Gilmour, Daniel; Simpson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Green Deal (GD) was launched in 2013 by the UK Government as a market-led scheme to encourage uptake of energy efficiency measures in the UK and create green sector jobs. The scheme closed in July 2015 after 30 months due to government concerns over low uptake and industry standards but additional factors potentially contributed to its failure such as poor scheme design and lack of understanding of the customer and supply chain journey. We explore the role of key delivery agents of GD services, specifically SMEs, and we use the LoCal-Net project as a case study to examine the use of networks to identify and reduce barriers to SME market engagement. We find that SMEs experienced multiple barriers to interaction with the GD such as lack of access to information, training, and confusion over delivery of the scheme but benefited from interaction with the network to access information, improve understanding of the scheme, increasing networking opportunities and forming new business models and partnerships to reduce risk. The importance of SMEs as delivery agents and their role in the design of market-led schemes such as the GD are discussed with recommendations for improving SME engagement in green sector initiatives. - Highlights: • The role of delivery agents should be addressed in voluntary energy reduction schemes. • SMEs attempting to engage in the Green Deal market faced multiple barriers. • Networks can assist in overcoming SME barriers to entry into new green sector markets. • Access to information, contacts and experts are key benefits of business networks. • Policy driven market-led schemes must consider all actors to prevent early failures.

  18. [Overcoming the limitations of the descriptive and categorical approaches in psychiatric diagnosis: a proposal based on Bayesian networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorias, Soli

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to overcome the problems of descriptive and categorical approaches have not yielded results. In the present article, psychiatric diagnosis using Bayesian networks is proposed. Instead of a yes/no decision, Bayesian networks give the probability of diagnostic category inclusion, thereby yielding both a graded, i.e., dimensional diagnosis, and a value of the certainty of the diagnosis. With the use of Bayesian networks in the diagnosis of mental disorders, information about etiology, associated features, treatment outcome, and laboratory results may be used in addition to clinical signs and symptoms, with each of these factors contributing proportionally to their own specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, a diagnosis (albeit one with a lower probability) can be made even with incomplete, uncertain, or partially erroneous information, and patients whose symptoms are below the diagnostic threshold can be evaluated. Lastly, there is no need of NOS or "unspecified" categories, and comorbid disorders become different dimensions of the diagnostic evaluation. Bayesian diagnoses allow the preservation of current categories and assessment methods, and may be used concurrently with criteria-based diagnoses. Users need not put in extra effort except to collect more comprehensive information. Unlike the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, the Bayesian approach neither increases the diagnostic validity of existing categories nor explains the pathophysiological mechanisms of mental disorders. It, however, can be readily integrated to present classification systems. Therefore, the Bayesian approach may be an intermediate phase between criteria-based diagnosis and the RDoC ideal.

  19. 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on aligned carbon nanotube networks: overcoming the fundamental limitation of network-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Hyungwoo; Lee, Byung Yang; Hong, Seunghun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shilim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, June; Seong, Maeng-Je [Department of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Heukseok-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jhon, Young Min, E-mail: mseong@cau.ac.kr, E-mail: shong@phya.snu.ac.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-05

    Nanoscale sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks have been considered impractical due to several fundamental limitations such as a poor sensitivity and small signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we present a strategy to overcome these fundamental problems and build highly-sensitive low-noise nanoscale sensors simply by controlling the structure of the SWNT networks. In this strategy, we prepared nanoscale width channels based on aligned SWNT networks using a directed assembly strategy. Significantly, the aligned network-based sensors with narrower channels exhibited even better signal-to-noise ratio than those with wider channels, which is opposite to conventional random network-based sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated 100 nm scale low-noise sensors to detect mercury ions with the detection limit of {approx}1 pM, which is superior to any state-of-the-art portable detection system and is below the allowable limit of mercury ions in drinking water set by most government environmental protection agencies. This is the first demonstration of 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on SWNT networks. Considering the increased interests in high-density sensor arrays for healthcare and environmental protection, our strategy should have a significant impact on various industrial applications.

  20. 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on aligned carbon nanotube networks: overcoming the fundamental limitation of network-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Hyungwoo; Lee, Byung Yang; Hong, Seunghun; Park, June; Seong, Maeng-Je; Jhon, Young Min

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks have been considered impractical due to several fundamental limitations such as a poor sensitivity and small signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we present a strategy to overcome these fundamental problems and build highly-sensitive low-noise nanoscale sensors simply by controlling the structure of the SWNT networks. In this strategy, we prepared nanoscale width channels based on aligned SWNT networks using a directed assembly strategy. Significantly, the aligned network-based sensors with narrower channels exhibited even better signal-to-noise ratio than those with wider channels, which is opposite to conventional random network-based sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated 100 nm scale low-noise sensors to detect mercury ions with the detection limit of ∼1 pM, which is superior to any state-of-the-art portable detection system and is below the allowable limit of mercury ions in drinking water set by most government environmental protection agencies. This is the first demonstration of 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on SWNT networks. Considering the increased interests in high-density sensor arrays for healthcare and environmental protection, our strategy should have a significant impact on various industrial applications.

  1. 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on aligned carbon nanotube networks: overcoming the fundamental limitation of network-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minbaek; Lee, Joohyung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Hyungwoo; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, June; Jhon, Young Min; Seong, Maeng-Je; Hong, Seunghun

    2010-02-01

    Nanoscale sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks have been considered impractical due to several fundamental limitations such as a poor sensitivity and small signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we present a strategy to overcome these fundamental problems and build highly-sensitive low-noise nanoscale sensors simply by controlling the structure of the SWNT networks. In this strategy, we prepared nanoscale width channels based on aligned SWNT networks using a directed assembly strategy. Significantly, the aligned network-based sensors with narrower channels exhibited even better signal-to-noise ratio than those with wider channels, which is opposite to conventional random network-based sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated 100 nm scale low-noise sensors to detect mercury ions with the detection limit of ~1 pM, which is superior to any state-of-the-art portable detection system and is below the allowable limit of mercury ions in drinking water set by most government environmental protection agencies. This is the first demonstration of 100 nm scale low-noise sensors based on SWNT networks. Considering the increased interests in high-density sensor arrays for healthcare and environmental protection, our strategy should have a significant impact on various industrial applications.

  2. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ... myths Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  4. Competitive game theoretic optimal routing in optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Abdulsalam; Kabranov, Ognian; Makrakis, Dimitrios

    2002-09-01

    Optical transport service providers need control and optimization strategies for wavelength management, network provisioning, restoration and protection, allowing them to define and deploy new services and maintain competitiveness. In this paper, we investigate a game theory based model for wavelength and flow assignment in multi wavelength optical networks, consisting of several backbone long-haul optical network transport service providers (TSPs) who are offering their services -in terms of bandwidth- to Internet service providers (ISPs). The ISPs act as brokers or agents between the TSP and end user. The agent (ISP) buys services (bandwidth) from the TSP. The TSPs compete among themselves to sell their services and maintain profitability. We present a case study, demonstrating the impact of different bandwidth broker demands on the supplier's profit and the price paid by the network broker.

  5. Epidemiologic Considerations in Network Modeling of Theoretical Disease Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lem, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    .... Network analysis has shown utility in the study of a range of communicable disease outbreaks affecting both health and commerce, including SARS, tuberculosis, syphilis and foot-and mouth-disease...

  6. Sensor and ad-hoc networks theoretical and algorithmic aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Makki, S Kami; Pissinou, Niki; Makki, Shamila; Karimi, Masoumeh; Makki, Kia

    2008-01-01

    This book brings together leading researchers and developers in the field of wireless sensor networks to explain the special problems and challenges of the algorithmic aspects of sensor and ad-hoc networks. The book also fosters communication not only between the different sensor and ad-hoc communities, but also between those communities and the distributed systems and information systems communities. The topics addressed pertain to the sensors and mobile environment.

  7. Deep neural networks for texture classification-A theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Karki, Manohar; DiBiano, Robert; Ganguly, Sangram; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Gayaka, Shreekant

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the use of Deep Neural Networks for the classification of image datasets where texture features are important for generating class-conditional discriminative representations. To this end, we first derive the size of the feature space for some standard textural features extracted from the input dataset and then use the theory of Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension to show that hand-crafted feature extraction creates low-dimensional representations which help in reducing the overall excess error rate. As a corollary to this analysis, we derive for the first time upper bounds on the VC dimension of Convolutional Neural Network as well as Dropout and Dropconnect networks and the relation between excess error rate of Dropout and Dropconnect networks. The concept of intrinsic dimension is used to validate the intuition that texture-based datasets are inherently higher dimensional as compared to handwritten digits or other object recognition datasets and hence more difficult to be shattered by neural networks. We then derive the mean distance from the centroid to the nearest and farthest sampling points in an n-dimensional manifold and show that the Relative Contrast of the sample data vanishes as dimensionality of the underlying vector space tends to infinity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of network resource allocation based on market and game theoretic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingmei; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Gang

    2004-04-01

    We work on the network resource allocation issue concerning network management system function based on market-oriented mechanism. The scheme is to model the telecommunication network resources as trading goods in which the various network components could be owned by different competitive, real-world entities. This is a multidisciplinary framework concentrating on the similarity between resource allocation in network environment and the market mechanism in economic theory. By taking an economic (market-based and game theoretic) approach in routing of communication network, we study the dynamic behavior under game-theoretic framework in allocating network resources. Based on the prior work of Gibney and Jennings, we apply concepts of utility and fitness to the market mechanism with an intention to close the gap between experiment environment and real world situation.

  9. Adaptation in Food Networks: Theoretical Framework and Empirical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Martino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the integration in food networks under a governance point of view. We conceptualize the integration processes in terms of the adaptation theory and focus the issues related under a transaction cost economics perspective. We conjecture that the allocation of decisions rights between the parties to a transaction is a key instrument in order to cope with the sources of basic uncertainty in food networks: technological innovation, sustainability strategies, quality and safety objectives. Six case studies are proposed which contribute to corroborate our conjecture. Managerial patters based on a joint decision approach also are documented

  10. Game-theoretic strategies for asymmetric networked systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; Hausken, Kjell [University of Stavanger, Norway; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA; Yau, David K. Y. [Singapore University of Technology and Design; Zhuang, Jun [University at Buffalo (SUNY)

    2017-07-01

    Abstract—We consider an infrastructure consisting of a network of systems each composed of discrete components that can be reinforced at a certain cost to guard against attacks. The network provides the vital connectivity between systems, and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. We characterize the system-level correlations using the aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network. The survival probabilities of systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure survival as a game between anattacker and a provider, using the sum-form and product-form utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a cost term. We derive Nash Equilibrium conditions which provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities, and also the expected capacity specified by the total number of operational components. These expressions differ only in a single term for the sum-form and product-form utilities, despite their significant differences.We apply these results to simplified models of distributed cloud computing infrastructures.

  11. Game-theoretic pricing for video streaming in mobile networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W Sabrina; Liu, K J Ray

    2012-05-01

    Mobile phones are among the most popular consumer devices, and the recent developments of 3G networks and smart phones enable users to watch video programs by subscribing data plans from service providers. Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones and phone-to-phone communication technologies, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers. Such a redistribution mechanism is a potential competitor for the mobile service provider and is very difficult to trace given users' high mobility. The service provider has to set a reasonable price for the data plan to prevent such unauthorized redistribution behavior to protect or maximize his/her own profit. In this paper, we analyze the optimal price setting for the service provider by investigating the equilibrium between the subscribers and the secondary buyers in the content-redistribution network. We model the behavior between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game and find the optimal price and quantity for both groups of users. Based on the behavior of users in the redistribution network, we investigate the evolutionarily stable ratio of mobile users who decide to subscribe to the data plan. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users.

  12. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  13. Game Theoretic Centrality Analysis of Terrorist Networks : The Cases of Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindelauf, R.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Husslage, B.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of key players in a terrorist network can lead to prevention of attacks, due to efficient allocation of surveillance means or isolation of key players in order to destabilize the network. In this paper we introduce a game theoretic approach to identify key players in terrorist

  14. A measure theoretic approach to traffic flow optimization on networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cacace, Simone; Camilli, Fabio; De Maio, Raul; Tosin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    We consider a class of optimal control problems for measure-valued nonlinear transport equations describing traffic flow problems on networks. The objective isto minimise/maximise macroscopic quantities, such as traffic volume or average speed,controlling few agents, for example smart traffic lights and automated cars. The measuretheoretic approach allows to study in a same setting local and nonlocal drivers interactionsand to consider the control variables as additional measures interacting ...

  15. SEMANTIC NETWORKS: THEORETICAL, TECHNICAL, METHODOLOGIC AND ANALYTICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Vera Noriega

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of the methodological procedures and cares for the measurement of the connotative meanings which will be used in the elaboration of instruments with ethnic validity. Beginning from the techniques originally proposed by Figueroa et al. (1981 and later described by Lagunes (1993, the intention is to offer a didactic panorama to carry out the measurement by semantic networks introducing some recommendations derived from the studies performed with this method.

  16. A theoretical design for learning model addressing the networked society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Nielsen, Janni; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2010-01-01

    The transition from the industrial to the networked society produces contradictions that challenges the educational system and force it to adapt to new conditions. In a Danish virtual Master in Information and Communication Technologies and Learning (MIL) these contradictions appear as a field of...... which enables students to develop Networked Society competencies and maintain progression in the learning process also during the online periods. Additionally we suggest that our model contributes to the innovation of a networked society's design for learning....... is continuously decreasing. We teach for deep learning but are confronted by students' cost-benefit strategies when they navigate through the study programme under time pressure. To meet these challenges a Design for Learning Model has been developed. The aim is to provide a scaffold that ensures students......' acquisition of the subject matter within a time limit and at a learning quality that support their deep learning process during a subsequent period of on-line study work. In the process of moving from theory to application the model passes through three stages: 1) Conceptual modelling; 2) Orchestration, and 3...

  17. On the design of a hierarchical SS7 network: A graph theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lutz; Rufa, Gerhard

    1994-04-01

    This contribution is concerned with the design of Signaling System No. 7 networks based on graph theoretical methods. A hierarchical network topology is derived by combining the advantage of the hierarchical network structure with the realization of node disjoint routes between nodes of the network. By using specific features of this topology, we develop an algorithm to construct circle-free routing data and to assure bidirectionality also in case of failure situations. The methods described are based on the requirements that the network topology, as well as the routing data, may be easily changed.

  18. Graph theoretic analysis of protein interaction networks of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, K.-I.; Kahng, B.; Kim, D.

    2005-11-01

    Owing to the recent progress in high-throughput experimental techniques, the datasets of large-scale protein interactions of prototypical multicellular species, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, have been assayed. The datasets are obtained mainly by using the yeast hybrid method, which contains false-positive and false-negative simultaneously. Accordingly, while it is desirable to test such datasets through further wet experiments, here we invoke recent developed network theory to test such high-throughput datasets in a simple way. Based on the fact that the key biological processes indispensable to maintaining life are conserved across eukaryotic species, and the comparison of structural properties of the protein interaction networks (PINs) of the two species with those of the yeast PIN, we find that while the worm and yeast PIN datasets exhibit similar structural properties, the current fly dataset, though most comprehensively screened ever, does not reflect generic structural properties correctly as it is. The modularity is suppressed and the connectivity correlation is lacking. Addition of interologs to the current fly dataset increases the modularity and enhances the occurrence of triangular motifs as well. The connectivity correlation function of the fly, however, remains distinct under such interolog additions, for which we present a possible scenario through an in silico modeling.

  19. A Comparative Study of Theoretical Graph Models for Characterizing Structural Networks of Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.

  20. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  1. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work for you Addressing breastfeeding ... in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about ...

  2. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages ... breastfeeding myths Breastfeeding myths in the African-American community Incredible facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming ...

  3. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... facts about babies, breastmilk, and breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support It takes a village: Building ...

  4. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list ... breastfeeding means to them. Subscribe To receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit All material contained on ...

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    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  6. Nanoscale molecular communication networks: a game-theoretic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunxiao; Chen, Yan; Ray Liu, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, communication between nanomachines is an important topic for the development of novel devices. To implement a nanocommunication system, diffusion-based molecular communication is considered as a promising bio-inspired approach. Various technical issues about molecular communications, including channel capacity, noise and interference, and modulation and coding, have been studied in the literature, while the resource allocation problem among multiple nanomachines has not been well investigated, which is a very important issue since all the nanomachines share the same propagation medium. Considering the limited computation capability of nanomachines and the expensive information exchange cost among them, in this paper, we propose a game-theoretic framework for distributed resource allocation in nanoscale molecular communication systems. We first analyze the inter-symbol and inter-user interference, as well as bit error rate performance, in the molecular communication system. Based on the interference analysis, we formulate the resource allocation problem as a non-cooperative molecule emission control game, where the Nash equilibrium is found and proved to be unique. In order to improve the system efficiency while guaranteeing fairness, we further model the resource allocation problem using a cooperative game based on the Nash bargaining solution, which is proved to be proportionally fair. Simulation results show that the Nash bargaining solution can effectively ensure fairness among multiple nanomachines while achieving comparable social welfare performance with the centralized scheme.

  7. Theoretical characterization of the topology of connected carbon nanotubes in random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Jerome; Leroy, Yann; Hebrard, Luc; Lallement, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to carbon nanotube (CNT) networks and their applications to electronic devices. Many studies concentrate on the percolation threshold and the characterization of the conduction in such materials. Nevertheless, no theoretical study has yet attempted to characterize the CNT features inside finite size CNT networks. We present a theoretical approach based on geometrical and statistical considerations. We demonstrate the possibility of explicitly determining some relations existing between two neighbor CNTs and their contact efficiency in random networks of identical CNTs. We calculate the contact probability of rigid identical CNTs and we obtain a probability of 0.2027, which turns out to be independent of the CNT density. Based on this probability, we establish also the dependence of the number of contacts per CNT as a function of the CNT density. All the theoretical results are validated by very good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Theoretical Neuroanatomy:Analyzing the Structure, Dynamics,and Function of Neuronal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K.; Edelman, Gerald M.

    The mammalian brain is an extraordinary object: its networks give rise to our conscious experiences as well as to the generation of adaptive behavior for the organism within its environment. Progress in understanding the structure, dynamics and function of the brain faces many challenges. Biological neural networks change over time, their detailed structure is difficult to elucidate, and they are highly heterogeneous both in their neuronal units and synaptic connections. In facing these challenges, graph-theoretic and information-theoretic approaches have yielded a number of useful insights and promise many more.

  9. Graph theoretical analysis and application of fMRI-based brain network in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xue-na

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is clinically characterized by impaired memory and many other cognitive functions. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disease are not thoroughly understood. In recent years, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI as well as advanced graph theory based network analysis approach, several studies of patients with AD suggested abnormal topological organization in both global and regional properties of functional brain networks, specifically, as demonstrated by a loss of small-world network characteristics. These studies provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD and could be helpful in developing imaging biomarkers for disease diagnosis. In this paper we introduce the essential concepts of complex brain networks theory, and review recent advances of the study on human functional brain networks in AD, especially focusing on the graph theoretical analysis of small-world network based on fMRI. We also propound the existent problems and research orientation.

  10. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  11. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... we are What we do Programs and activities Work with us Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  12. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kaida; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yi; Qian, Depei; Zhang, Han; Cai, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability.

  13. Game Theoretical Analysis on Cooperation Stability and Incentive Effectiveness in Community Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaida Song

    Full Text Available Community networks, the distinguishing feature of which is membership admittance, appear on P2P networks, social networks, and conventional Web networks. Joining the network costs money, time or network bandwidth, but the individuals get access to special resources owned by the community in return. The prosperity and stability of the community are determined by both the policy of admittance and the attraction of the privileges gained by joining. However, some misbehaving users can get the dedicated resources with some illicit and low-cost approaches, which introduce instability into the community, a phenomenon that will destroy the membership policy. In this paper, we analyze on the stability using game theory on such a phenomenon. We propose a game-theoretical model of stability analysis in community networks and provide conditions for a stable community. We then extend the model to analyze the effectiveness of different incentive policies, which could be used when the community cannot maintain its members in certain situations. Then we verify those models through a simulation. Finally, we discuss several ways to promote community network's stability by adjusting the network's properties and give some proposal on the designs of these types of networks from the points of game theory and stability.

  14. A study of brain networks associated with swallowing using graph-theoretical approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Luan

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity between brain regions during swallowing tasks is still not well understood. Understanding these complex interactions is of great interest from both a scientific and a clinical perspective. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was utilized to study brain functional networks during voluntary saliva swallowing in twenty-two adult healthy subjects (all females, [Formula: see text] years of age. To construct these functional connections, we computed mean partial correlation matrices over ninety brain regions for each participant. Two regions were determined to be functionally connected if their correlation was above a certain threshold. These correlation matrices were then analyzed using graph-theoretical approaches. In particular, we considered several network measures for the whole brain and for swallowing-related brain regions. The results have shown that significant pairwise functional connections were, mostly, either local and intra-hemispheric or symmetrically inter-hemispheric. Furthermore, we showed that all human brain functional network, although varying in some degree, had typical small-world properties as compared to regular networks and random networks. These properties allow information transfer within the network at a relatively high efficiency. Swallowing-related brain regions also had higher values for some of the network measures in comparison to when these measures were calculated for the whole brain. The current results warrant further investigation of graph-theoretical approaches as a potential tool for understanding the neural basis of dysphagia.

  15. LPI Optimization Framework for Target Tracking in Radar Network Architectures Using Information-Theoretic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely distributed radar network architectures can provide significant performance improvement for target detection and localization. For a fixed radar network, the achievable target detection performance may go beyond a predetermined threshold with full transmitted power allocation, which is extremely vulnerable in modern electronic warfare. In this paper, we study the problem of low probability of intercept (LPI design for radar network and propose two novel LPI optimization schemes based on information-theoretic criteria. For a predefined threshold of target detection, Schleher intercept factor is minimized by optimizing transmission power allocation among netted radars in the network. Due to the lack of analytical closed-form expression for receiver operation characteristics (ROC, we employ two information-theoretic criteria, namely, Bhattacharyya distance and J-divergence as the metrics for target detection performance. The resulting nonconvex and nonlinear LPI optimization problems associated with different information-theoretic criteria are cast under a unified framework, and the nonlinear programming based genetic algorithm (NPGA is used to tackle the optimization problems in the framework. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed LPI strategies are effective in enhancing the LPI performance for radar network.

  16. A novel game theoretic approach for modeling competitive information diffusion in social networks with heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz

    2017-01-01

    Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.

  17. Overcoming Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Camilla Skovbjerg

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, I address the rhetoric of modern love correspondence – its various purposes, modes of communication, and meta-reflections on writing and media – from the beginning of the 20th century till today. I analyze how love and the beloved are mediated in the articulated desire and longing...... of love letters, and how love letters are used as a medium to overcome absence. I also reflect on the material status of love letters in relation to the technological development and subsequently the replacement of traditional letters by their digital counterparts such as email, text messages and real...

  18. Game-theoretic cooperativity in networks of self-interested units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barto, Andrew G.

    1986-08-01

    The behavior of theoretical neural networks is often described in terms of competition and cooperation. I present an approach to network learning that is related to game and team problems in which competition and cooperation have more technical meanings. I briefly describe the application of stochastic learning automata to game and team problems and then present an adaptive element that is a synthesis of aspects of stochastic learning automata and typical neuron-like adaptive elements. These elements act as self-interested agents that work toward improving their performance with respect to their individual preference orderings. Networks of these elements can solve a variety of team decision problems, some of which take the form of layered networks in which the ``hidden units'' become appropriate functional components as they attempt to improve their own payoffs.

  19. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... your breastfeeding support network How to get your family on board with breastfeeding African-American celebrity moms ... health care Get health insurance Get help with family planning Get help with mental health Find girls' ...

  20. Overcoming challenges

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  1. New Theoretical Analysis of the LRRM Calibration Technique for Vector Network Analyzers

    OpenAIRE

    Purroy Martín, Francesc; Pradell i Cara, Lluís

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new theoretical analysis of the four-standards line-reflect-reflect-match (LRRM) vector network-analyzer (VNA) calibration technique is presented. As a result, it is shown that the reference-impedance (to which the LRRM calibration is referred) cannot generally be defined whenever nonideal standards are used. Based on this consideration, a new algorithm to determine the on-wafer match standard is proposed that improves the LRRM calibration accuracy. Experimental verification ...

  2. Theoretical approaches of online social network interventions and implications for behavioral change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Perez-Concha, Oscar; Li, Simon Y W; Lau, Annie Y S

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this review was to identify general theoretical frameworks used in online social network interventions for behavioral change. To address this research question, a PRISMA-compliant systematic review was conducted. A systematic review (PROSPERO registration number CRD42014007555) was conducted using 3 electronic databases (PsycINFO, Pubmed, and Embase). Four reviewers screened 1788 abstracts. 15 studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. Randomized controlled trials and controlled studies were assessed using Cochrane Collaboration's "risk-of-bias" tool, and narrative synthesis. Five eligible articles used the social cognitive theory as a framework to develop interventions targeting behavioral change. Other theoretical frameworks were related to the dynamics of social networks, intention models, and community engagement theories. Only one of the studies selected in the review mentioned a well-known theory from the field of health psychology. Conclusions were that guidelines are lacking in the design of online social network interventions for behavioral change. Existing theories and models from health psychology that are traditionally used for in situ behavioral change should be considered when designing online social network interventions in a health care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Game Theoretic Approach for Balancing Energy Consumption in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Xiong, Lian; Tao, Yang; Zhong, Yuanchang

    2017-11-17

    Clustering is an effective topology control method in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since it can enhance the network lifetime and scalability. To prolong the network lifetime in clustered WSNs, an efficient cluster head (CH) optimization policy is essential to distribute the energy among sensor nodes. Recently, game theory has been introduced to model clustering. Each sensor node is considered as a rational and selfish player which will play a clustering game with an equilibrium strategy. Then it decides whether to act as the CH according to this strategy for a tradeoff between providing required services and energy conservation. However, how to get the equilibrium strategy while maximizing the payoff of sensor nodes has rarely been addressed to date. In this paper, we present a game theoretic approach for balancing energy consumption in clustered WSNs. With our novel payoff function, realistic sensor behaviors can be captured well. The energy heterogeneity of nodes is considered by incorporating a penalty mechanism in the payoff function, so the nodes with more energy will compete for CHs more actively. We have obtained the Nash equilibrium (NE) strategy of the clustering game through convex optimization. Specifically, each sensor node can achieve its own maximal payoff when it makes the decision according to this strategy. Through plenty of simulations, our proposed game theoretic clustering is proved to have a good energy balancing performance and consequently the network lifetime is greatly enhanced.

  4. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongHyup Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN, WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  5. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHyup; Pak, Dohyun

    2016-01-01

    For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN), WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections. PMID:27589743

  6. Investigation on the use of artificial neural networks to overcome the effects of environmental and operational changes on guided waves monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Intelligent feature extraction and advanced signal processing techniques are necessary for a better interpretation of ultrasonic guided waves signals either in structural health monitoring (SHM) or in nondestructive testing (NDT). Such signals are characterized by at least multi-modal and dispersive components. In addition, in SHM, these signals are closely vulnerable to environmental and operational conditions (EOCs), and can be severely affected. In this paper we investigate the use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to overcome these effects and to provide a reliable damage detection method with a minimal of false indications. An experimental case of study (full scale pipe) is presented. Damages sizes have been increased and their shapes modified in different steps. Various parameters such as the number of inputs and the number of hidden neurons were studied to find the optimal configuration of the neural network.

  7. Overcoming the sign problem at finite temperature: Quantum tensor network for the orbital eg model on an infinite square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2017-07-01

    The variational tensor network renormalization approach to two-dimensional (2D) quantum systems at finite temperature is applied to a model suffering the notorious quantum Monte Carlo sign problem—the orbital eg model with spatially highly anisotropic orbital interactions. Coarse graining of the tensor network along the inverse temperature β yields a numerically tractable 2D tensor network representing the Gibbs state. Its bond dimension D —limiting the amount of entanglement—is a natural refinement parameter. Increasing D we obtain a converged order parameter and its linear susceptibility close to the critical point. They confirm the existence of finite order parameter below the critical temperature Tc, provide a numerically exact estimate of Tc, and give the critical exponents within 1 % of the 2D Ising universality class.

  8. Graph theoretical analysis of functional network for comprehension of sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanfang; Yan, Xin; Liu, Jin; Xia, Mingrui; Lu, Chunming; Emmorey, Karen; Chu, Mingyuan; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-09-15

    Signed languages are natural human languages using the visual-motor modality. Previous neuroimaging studies based on univariate activation analysis show that a widely overlapped cortical network is recruited regardless whether the sign language is comprehended (for signers) or not (for non-signers). Here we move beyond previous studies by examining whether the functional connectivity profiles and the underlying organizational structure of the overlapped neural network may differ between signers and non-signers when watching sign language. Using graph theoretical analysis (GTA) and fMRI, we compared the large-scale functional network organization in hearing signers with non-signers during the observation of sentences in Chinese Sign Language. We found that signed sentences elicited highly similar cortical activations in the two groups of participants, with slightly larger responses within the left frontal and left temporal gyrus in signers than in non-signers. Crucially, further GTA revealed substantial group differences in the topologies of this activation network. Globally, the network engaged by signers showed higher local efficiency (t (24) =2.379, p=0.026), small-worldness (t (24) =2.604, p=0.016) and modularity (t (24) =3.513, p=0.002), and exhibited different modular structures, compared to the network engaged by non-signers. Locally, the left ventral pars opercularis served as a network hub in the signer group but not in the non-signer group. These findings suggest that, despite overlap in cortical activation, the neural substrates underlying sign language comprehension are distinguishable at the network level from those for the processing of gestural action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Information-Theoretic Performance Analysis of Sensor Networks via Markov Modeling of Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Jha, Devesh K; Ray, Asok; Wettergren, Thomas A; Yue Li; Jha, Devesh K; Ray, Asok; Wettergren, Thomas A; Wettergren, Thomas A; Li, Yue; Ray, Asok; Jha, Devesh K

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents information-theoretic performance analysis of passive sensor networks for detection of moving targets. The proposed method falls largely under the category of data-level information fusion in sensor networks. To this end, a measure of information contribution for sensors is formulated in a symbolic dynamics framework. The network information state is approximately represented as the largest principal component of the time series collected across the network. To quantify each sensor's contribution for generation of the information content, Markov machine models as well as x-Markov (pronounced as cross-Markov) machine models, conditioned on the network information state, are constructed; the difference between the conditional entropies of these machines is then treated as an approximate measure of information contribution by the respective sensors. The x-Markov models represent the conditional temporal statistics given the network information state. The proposed method has been validated on experimental data collected from a local area network of passive sensors for target detection, where the statistical characteristics of environmental disturbances are similar to those of the target signal in the sense of time scale and texture. A distinctive feature of the proposed algorithm is that the network decisions are independent of the behavior and identity of the individual sensors, which is desirable from computational perspectives. Results are presented to demonstrate the proposed method's efficacy to correctly identify the presence of a target with very low false-alarm rates. The performance of the underlying algorithm is compared with that of a recent data-driven, feature-level information fusion algorithm. It is shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithm.

  10. Impaired cerebral blood flow networks in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: A graph theoretical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    Graph theory is an emerging method to investigate brain networks. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) has frequently been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but graph theoretical findings of CBF are poorly understood. Here, we explored graph theoretical networks of CBF in TLE using arterial spin labeling imaging. We recruited patients with TLE and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (19 patients with left TLE, and 21 with right TLE) and 20 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects. We obtained all participants' CBF maps using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and analyzed them using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT) software program. As a result, compared to the controls, the patients with left TLE showed a significantly low clustering coefficient (p=0.024), local efficiency (p=0.001), global efficiency (p=0.010), and high transitivity (p=0.015), whereas the patients with right TLE showed significantly high assortativity (p=0.046) and transitivity (p=0.011). The group with right TLE also had high characteristic path length values (p=0.085), low global efficiency (p=0.078), and low resilience to targeted attack (p=0.101) at a trend level. Lower normalized clustering coefficient (p=0.081) in the left TLE and higher normalized characteristic path length (p=0.089) in the right TLE were found also at a trend level. Both the patients with left and right TLE showed significantly decreased clustering in similar areas, i.e., the cingulate gyri, precuneus, and occipital lobe. Our findings revealed differing left-right network metrics in which an inefficient CBF network in left TLE and vulnerability to irritation in right TLE are suggested. The left-right common finding of regional decreased clustering might reflect impaired default-mode networks in TLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Power dithering algorithm to avoid the overcoming of the voltage limit in presence of DG on distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderaro, V.; Coppola, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A. [Salerno Univ., Fisciano (Italy). Dept. of Information System Engineering and Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A new model of power distribution system has emerged in recent years in response to new generation technologies involving mini- and micro-generators that can be directly connected to medium voltage (MV) or low voltage (LV) power grids. The locations of these dispersed generators (DGs) are typically based on the availability of primary energy resources or on the specific needs of users. The increasing use of DGs causes new problems in terms of distribution network management and planning, with effect on the power quality, voltage profile or protection aspects. One of the problems arising on MV/LV distribution network, especially in weak rural areas, is related to the bus overvoltage at the point of common coupling (PCC). Therefore, this study proposed an approach to power control of the single generator that maximizes the active power injected on the network by DG, avoiding the trip of the minimum and maximum voltage protection installed at the PCC. Overvoltage typically occurs due to the injection of a large amount of power from unschedulable DG and a small power demand by the loads. This can trip overvoltage protection relays of DGs, and disconnect them from the grid. The local control strategy for DG systems proposed in this paper was based on the dithering algorithm. The proposed solution, operating on the electronic interface of the power generator, introduces or absorbs reactive power if the voltage at PCC is close to the limits, thus increasing the total active power injected by renewable sources. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  12. A Continuous 3D-Graphene Network to Overcome Threshold Issues and Contact Resistance in Thermally Conductive Graphene Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Conrado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome thermal resistance issues in polymeric matrix composites, self-standing graphene aerogels were synthetized and infiltrated with an epoxy resin, in order to create conductive preferential pathways through which heat can be easily transported. These continuous highly thermally conductive 3D-structures show, due to the high interconnection degree of graphene flakes, enhanced transport properties. Two kinds of aerogels were investigated, obtained by hydrothermal synthesis (HS and ice-templated direct freeze synthesis (DFS. Following HS method an isotropic structure is obtained, and following DFS method instead an anisotropic arrangement of graphene flakes results. The density of the structure can be tuned leading to a different amount of graphene inside the final composite. The residual oxygen, known to be detrimental to thermal properties, was removed by thermal treatment before the infiltration process. With 1,25 wt.% of graphene, using HS method, the thermal conductivity of the polymeric resin was increased by 80%, suggesting that this technique is a valid route to improve the thermal performance of graphene-based composites. When preferential orientation of the filler was present (DFS case, thermal conductivity was increased more than 25% with a graphene content of only 0,27 wt.%, demonstrating that oriented structures can further improve the thermal transport efficiency.

  13. Game theoretic wireless resource allocation for H.264 MGS video transmission over cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkoulis, Alexandros; Kondi, Lisimachos P.; Parsopoulos, Konstantinos E.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a method for the fair and efficient allocation of wireless resources over a cognitive radio system network to transmit multiple scalable video streams to multiple users. The method exploits the dynamic architecture of the Scalable Video Coding extension of the H.264 standard, along with the diversity that OFDMA networks provide. We use a game-theoretic Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) framework to ensure that each user receives the minimum video quality requirements, while maintaining fairness over the cognitive radio system. An optimization problem is formulated, where the objective is the maximization of the Nash product while minimizing the waste of resources. The problem is solved by using a Swarm Intelligence optimizer, namely Particle Swarm Optimization. Due to the high dimensionality of the problem, we also introduce a dimension-reduction technique. Our experimental results demonstrate the fairness imposed by the employed NBS framework.

  14. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  15. THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS ON OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS WITH VARIOUS FIBER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIN M. KARFAA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to evaluate the performance of an opticalwavelength division multiplexing (WDM network transmission system in the presenceof crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities. The most significant nonlinear effects inthe optical fiber which are Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM,and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS are investigated. Four types of optical fiber areincluded in the analysis; these are: single-mode fiber (SMF, dispersion compensationfiber (DCF, non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF, and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber(NZDSF. The results represent the standard deviation of nonlinearity induced crosstalknoise power due to FWM and SRS, XPM power penalty for SMF, DCF, NZDF, andNZDSF types of fiber, besides the Bit Error Rate (BER for the three nonlinear effectsusing standard fiber type (SMF. It is concluded that three significant fiber nonlinearitiesare making huge limitations against increasing the launched power which is desired,otherwise, lower values of launched power limit network expansion including length,distance, covered areas, and number of users accessing the WDM network, unlesssuitable precautions are taken to neutralize the nonlinear effects. Besides, various fibertypes are not behaving similarly towards network parameters.

  16. PAGANI Toolkit: Parallel graph-theoretical analysis package for brain network big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Haixiao; Xia, Mingrui; Zhao, Kang; Liao, Xuhong; Yang, Huazhong; Wang, Yu; He, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The recent collection of unprecedented quantities of neuroimaging data with high spatial resolution has led to brain network big data. However, a toolkit for fast and scalable computational solutions is still lacking. Here, we developed the PArallel Graph-theoretical ANalysIs (PAGANI) Toolkit based on a hybrid central processing unit-graphics processing unit (CPU-GPU) framework with a graphical user interface to facilitate the mapping and characterization of high-resolution brain networks. Specifically, the toolkit provides flexible parameters for users to customize computations of graph metrics in brain network analyses. As an empirical example, the PAGANI Toolkit was applied to individual voxel-based brain networks with ∼200,000 nodes that were derived from a resting-state fMRI dataset of 624 healthy young adults from the Human Connectome Project. Using a personal computer, this toolbox completed all computations in ∼27 h for one subject, which is markedly less than the 118 h required with a single-thread implementation. The voxel-based functional brain networks exhibited prominent small-world characteristics and densely connected hubs, which were mainly located in the medial and lateral fronto-parietal cortices. Moreover, the female group had significantly higher modularity and nodal betweenness centrality mainly in the medial/lateral fronto-parietal and occipital cortices than the male group. Significant correlations between the intelligence quotient and nodal metrics were also observed in several frontal regions. Collectively, the PAGANI Toolkit shows high computational performance and good scalability for analyzing connectome big data and provides a friendly interface without the complicated configuration of computing environments, thereby facilitating high-resolution connectomics research in health and disease. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A large scale analysis of information-theoretic network complexity measures using chemical structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dehmer

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate information-theoretic network complexity measures which have already been intensely used in mathematical- and medicinal chemistry including drug design. Numerous such measures have been developed so far but many of them lack a meaningful interpretation, e.g., we want to examine which kind of structural information they detect. Therefore, our main contribution is to shed light on the relatedness between some selected information measures for graphs by performing a large scale analysis using chemical networks. Starting from several sets containing real and synthetic chemical structures represented by graphs, we study the relatedness between a classical (partition-based complexity measure called the topological information content of a graph and some others inferred by a different paradigm leading to partition-independent measures. Moreover, we evaluate the uniqueness of network complexity measures numerically. Generally, a high uniqueness is an important and desirable property when designing novel topological descriptors having the potential to be applied to large chemical databases.

  18. Game-theoretic modeling of curtailment rules and network investments with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoni, Merlinda; Robu, Valentin; Früh, Wolf-Gerrit; Flynn, David

    2017-01-01

    to validate our model. We show that charging a transmission fee as a proportion of the feed-in tariff price between 15% and 75% would allow both investors to implement their projects and achieve desirable distribution of the profit. Overall, our results show how using game-theoretic tools can help network operators to bridge the knowledge gap about setting the optimal curtailment rule and determining transmission charges for private network infrastructure.

  19. A game theoretical approach for QoS provisioning in heterogeneous networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Zadid Shifat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of mobile phone users, interference management is a big concern in this neoteric years. To cope with this problem along with ensuring better Quality of Service (QoS, femtocell plays an imperious preamble in heterogeneous networks (HetNets for some of its noteworthy characteristics. In this paper, we propose a game theoretic algorithm along with dynamic channel allocation and hybrid access mechanism with self-organizing power control scheme. With a view to resolving prioritized access issue, the concept of primary and secondary users is applied. Existence of pure strategy Nash equilibrium (NE has been investigated and comes to a perfection that our proposed scheme can be adopted both increasing capacity and increasing revenue of operators considering optimal price for consumers.

  20. Resource Allocation for Multicell Device-to-Device Communications in Cellular Network: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device (D2D communication has recently emerged as a promising technology to improve the capacity and coverage of cellular systems. To successfully implement D2D communications underlaying a cellular network, resource allocation for D2D links plays a critical role. While most of prior resource allocation mechanisms for D2D communications have focused on interference within a single-cell system, this paper investigates the resource allocation problem for a multicell cellular network in which a D2D link reuses available spectrum resources of multiple cells. A repeated game theoretic approach is proposed to address the problem. In this game, the base stations (BSs act as players that compete for resource supply of D2D, and the utility of each player is formulated as revenue collected from both cellular and D2D users using resources. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the proposed approach and the results show that it can considerably enhance the system performance in terms of sum rate and sum rate gain.

  1. Abnormalities of functional brain networks in pathological gambling: a graph-theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschernegg, Melanie; Crone, Julia S.; Eigenberger, Tina; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Lemènager, Tagrid; Mann, Karl; Thon, Natasha; Wurst, Friedrich M.; Kronbichler, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling (PG) demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in PG. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in PG. We compared 19 patients with PG to 19 healthy controls (HCs) using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT). None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (supplementary motor area, SMA), reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients. These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that PG is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in PG cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders. PMID:24098282

  2. Abnormalities of Functional Brain Networks in Pathological Gambling: A Graph-Theoretical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eTschernegg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies of pathological gambling demonstrate alterations in frontal and subcortical regions of the mesolimbic reward system. However, most investigations were performed using tasks involving reward processing or executive functions. Little is known about brain network abnormalities during task-free resting state in pathological gambling. In the present study, graph-theoretical methods were used to investigate network properties of resting state functional MRI data in pathological gambling. We compared 19 patients with pathological gambling to 19 healthy controls using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT. None of the examined global metrics differed between groups. At the nodal level, pathological gambler showed a reduced clustering coefficient in the left paracingulate cortex and the left juxtapositional lobe (SMA, reduced local efficiency in the left SMA, as well as an increased node betweenness for the left and right paracingulate cortex and the left SMA. At an uncorrected threshold level, the node betweenness in the left inferior frontal gyrus was decreased and increased in the caudate. Additionally, increased functional connectivity between fronto-striatal regions and within frontal regions has also been found for the gambling patients.These findings suggest that regions associated with the reward system demonstrate reduced segregation but enhanced integration while regions associated with executive functions demonstrate reduced integration. The present study makes evident that pathological gambling is also associated with abnormalities in the topological network structure of the brain during rest. Since alterations in pathological gambling cannot be explained by direct effects of abused substances on the brain, these findings will be of relevance for understanding functional connectivity in other addictive disorders.

  3. Deciding where to attend: Large-scale network mechanisms underlying attention and intention revealed by graph-theoretic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuelu; Hong, Xiangfei; Bengson, Jesse J; Kelley, Todd A; Ding, Mingzhou; Mangun, George R

    2017-08-15

    The neural mechanisms by which intentions are transformed into actions remain poorly understood. We investigated the network mechanisms underlying spontaneous voluntary decisions about where to focus visual-spatial attention (willed attention). Graph-theoretic analysis of two independent datasets revealed that regions activated during willed attention form a set of functionally-distinct networks corresponding to the frontoparietal network, the cingulo-opercular network, and the dorsal attention network. Contrasting willed attention with instructed attention (where attention is directed by external cues), we observed that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was allied with the dorsal attention network in instructed attention, but shifted connectivity during willed attention to interact with the cingulo-opercular network, which then mediated communications between the frontoparietal network and the dorsal attention network. Behaviorally, greater connectivity in network hubs, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior parietal lobule, was associated with faster reaction times. These results, shown to be consistent across the two independent datasets, uncover the dynamic organization of functionally-distinct networks engaged to support intentional acts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Power allocation for target detection in radar networks based on low probability of intercept: A cooperative game theoretical strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chenguang; Salous, Sana; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jianjiang

    2017-08-01

    Distributed radar network systems have been shown to have many unique features. Due to their advantage of signal and spatial diversities, radar networks are attractive for target detection. In practice, the netted radars in radar networks are supposed to maximize their transmit power to achieve better detection performance, which may be in contradiction with low probability of intercept (LPI). Therefore, this paper investigates the problem of adaptive power allocation for radar networks in a cooperative game-theoretic framework such that the LPI performance can be improved. Taking into consideration both the transmit power constraints and the minimum signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) requirement of each radar, a cooperative Nash bargaining power allocation game based on LPI is formulated, whose objective is to minimize the total transmit power by optimizing the power allocation in radar networks. First, a novel SINR-based network utility function is defined and utilized as a metric to evaluate power allocation. Then, with the well-designed network utility function, the existence and uniqueness of the Nash bargaining solution are proved analytically. Finally, an iterative Nash bargaining algorithm is developed that converges quickly to a Pareto optimal equilibrium for the cooperative game. Numerical simulations and theoretic analysis are provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Game Theoretical Approaches for Transport-Aware Channel Selection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectively sharing channels among secondary users (SUs is one of the greatest challenges in cognitive radio network (CRN. In the past, many studies have proposed channel selection schemes at the physical or the MAC layer that allow SUs swiftly respond to the spectrum states. However, they may not lead to enhance performance due to slow response of the transport layer flow control mechanism. This paper presents a cross-layer design framework called Transport Aware Channel Selection (TACS scheme to optimize the transport throughput based on states, such as RTT and congestion window size, of TCP flow control mechanism. We formulate the TACS problem as two different game theoretic approaches: Selfish Spectrum Sharing Game (SSSG and Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Game (CSSG and present novel distributed heuristic algorithms to optimize TCP throughput. Computer simulations show that SSSG and CSSG could double the SUs throughput of current MAC-based scheme when primary users (PUs use their channel infrequently, and with up to 12% to 100% throughput increase when PUs are more active. The simulation results also illustrated that CSSG performs up to 20% better than SSSG in terms of the throughput.

  6. Dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock: theoretical anti-jitter network and controlled chaos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M Fathallah-Shaykh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Electronic clocks exhibit undesirable jitter or time variations in periodic signals. The circadian clocks of humans, some animals, and plants consist of oscillating molecular networks with peak-to-peak time of approximately 24 hours. Clockwork orange (CWO is a transcriptional repressor of Drosophila direct target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Theory and data from a model of the Drosophila circadian clock support the idea that CWO controls anti-jitter negative circuits that stabilize peak-to-peak time in light-dark cycles (LD. The orbit is confined to chaotic attractors in both LD and dark cycles and is almost periodic in LD; furthermore, CWO diminishes the Euclidean dimension of the chaotic attractor in LD. Light resets the clock each day by restricting each molecular peak to the proximity of a prescribed time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The theoretical results suggest that chaos plays a central role in the dynamics of the Drosophila circadian clock and that a single molecule, CWO, may sense jitter and repress it by its negative loops.

  7. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Network Centric Operations Using Multi-Layer Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong-Jiru, Ann

    2006-01-01

    .... The research incorporates the importance of understanding network topology for evaluating an environment for net-centricity and using network characteristics to help commanders assess the effects...

  8. A game-theoretic approach to optimize ad hoc networks inspired by small-world network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mian; Yang, Tinghong; Chen, Xing; Yang, Gang; Zhu, Guoqing; Holme, Petter; Zhao, Jing

    2018-03-01

    Nodes in ad hoc networks are connected in a self-organized manner. Limited communication radius makes information transmit in multi-hop mode, and each forwarding needs to consume the energy of nodes. Insufficient communication radius or exhaustion of energy may cause the absence of some relay nodes and links, further breaking network connectivity. On the other hand, nodes in the network may refuse to cooperate due to objective faulty or personal selfish, hindering regular communication in the network. This paper proposes a model called Repeated Game in Small World Networks (RGSWN). In this model, we first construct ad hoc networks with small-world feature by forming "communication shortcuts" between multiple-radio nodes. Small characteristic path length reduces average forwarding times in networks; meanwhile high clustering coefficient enhances network robustness. Such networks still maintain relative low global power consumption, which is beneficial to extend the network survival time. Then we use MTTFT strategy (Mend-Tolerance Tit-for-Tat) for repeated game as a rule for the interactions between neighbors in the small-world networks. Compared with other five strategies of repeated game, this strategy not only punishes the nodes' selfishness more reasonably, but also has the best tolerance to the network failure. This work is insightful for designing an efficient and robust ad hoc network.

  9. The Governmentality of Meta-governance : Identifying Theoretical and Empirical Challenges of Network Governance in the Political Field of Security and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Meta-governance recently emerged in the field of governance as a new approach which claims that its use enables modern states to overcome problems associated with network governance. This thesis shares the view that networks are an important feature of contemporary politics which must be taken seriously, but it also maintains that networks pose substantial analytical and political challenges. It proceeds to investigate the potential possibilities and problems associated with meta-governance o...

  10. Preventing Wormhole Attacks on Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Graph Theoretic Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, L; Poovendran, Radha; Meadows, C; Syverson, P; Chang, L. W

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of characterizing the wormhole attack, an attack that can be mounted on a wide range of wireless network protocols without compromising any cryptographic quantity or network node...

  11. Theoretical Properties for Neural Networks with Weight Matrices of Low Displacement Rank

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Liang; Liao, Siyu; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Zhe; Tang, Jian; Pan, Victor; Yuan, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Recently low displacement rank (LDR) matrices, or so-called structured matrices, have been proposed to compress large-scale neural networks. Empirical results have shown that neural networks with weight matrices of LDR matrices, referred as LDR neural networks, can achieve significant reduction in space and computational complexity while retaining high accuracy. We formally study LDR matrices in deep learning. First, we prove the universal approximation property of LDR neural networks with a ...

  12. The application of graph theoretical analysis to complex networks in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijneveld, Jaap C; Ponten, Sophie C; Berendse, Henk W; Stam, Cornelis J

    2007-11-01

    Considering the brain as a complex network of interacting dynamical systems offers new insights into higher level brain processes such as memory, planning, and abstract reasoning as well as various types of brain pathophysiology. This viewpoint provides the opportunity to apply new insights in network sciences, such as the discovery of small world and scale free networks, to data on anatomical and functional connectivity in the brain. In this review we start with some background knowledge on the history and recent advances in network theories in general. We emphasize the correlation between the structural properties of networks and the dynamics of these networks. We subsequently demonstrate through evidence from computational studies, in vivo experiments, and functional MRI, EEG and MEG studies in humans, that both the functional and anatomical connectivity of the healthy brain have many features of a small world network, but only to a limited extent of a scale free network. The small world structure of neural networks is hypothesized to reflect an optimal configuration associated with rapid synchronization and information transfer, minimal wiring costs, resilience to certain types of damage, as well as a balance between local processing and global integration. Eventually, we review the current knowledge on the effects of focal and diffuse brain disease on neural network characteristics, and demonstrate increasing evidence that both cognitive and psychiatric disturbances, as well as risk of epileptic seizures, are correlated with (changes in) functional network architectural features.

  13. Culture, agency and power: Theoretical reflections on informal economic networks and political process

    OpenAIRE

    Meagher, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Do network theory really offer a suitable concept for the theorization of informal processes of economic regulation and institutional change? This working paper challenges both essentialist and skeptical attitudes to networks through an examination of the positive and negative effects of network governance in contemporary societies in a range of regional contexts. The analysis focuses on three broad principles of non-state organization - culture, agency and power - and their role in shaping p...

  14. Graph theoretical analysis reveals the reorganization of the brain network pattern in primary open angle glaucoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Li, Ting; Xian, Junfang; Wang, Ningli; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Most previous glaucoma studies with resting-state fMRI have focused on the neuronal activity in the individual structure of the brain, yet ignored the functional communication of anatomically separated structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the functional communication change or not in glaucoma patients. We applied the resting-state fMRI data to construct the connectivity network of 25 normal controls and 25 age-gender-matched primary open angle glaucoma patients. Graph theoretical analysis was performed to assess brain network pattern differences between the two groups. No significant differences of the global network measures were found between the two groups. However, the local measures were radically reorganized in glaucoma patients. Comparing with the hub regions in normal controls' network, we found that six hub regions disappeared and nine hub regions appeared in the network of patients. In addition, the betweenness centralities of two altered hub regions, right fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus, were significantly correlated with the visual field mean deviation. Although the efficiency of functional communication is preserved in the brain network of the glaucoma at the global level, the efficiency of functional communication is altered in some specialized regions of the glaucoma. (orig.)

  15. Graph theoretical analysis reveals the reorganization of the brain network pattern in primary open angle glaucoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jieqiong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Li, Ting; Xian, Junfang [Capital Medical University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Ningli [Capital Medical University, Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing (China); He, Huiguang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Management and Control for Complex Systems, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Research Center for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China)

    2016-11-15

    Most previous glaucoma studies with resting-state fMRI have focused on the neuronal activity in the individual structure of the brain, yet ignored the functional communication of anatomically separated structures. The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of the functional communication change or not in glaucoma patients. We applied the resting-state fMRI data to construct the connectivity network of 25 normal controls and 25 age-gender-matched primary open angle glaucoma patients. Graph theoretical analysis was performed to assess brain network pattern differences between the two groups. No significant differences of the global network measures were found between the two groups. However, the local measures were radically reorganized in glaucoma patients. Comparing with the hub regions in normal controls' network, we found that six hub regions disappeared and nine hub regions appeared in the network of patients. In addition, the betweenness centralities of two altered hub regions, right fusiform gyrus and right lingual gyrus, were significantly correlated with the visual field mean deviation. Although the efficiency of functional communication is preserved in the brain network of the glaucoma at the global level, the efficiency of functional communication is altered in some specialized regions of the glaucoma. (orig.)

  16. Investigating DMOs through the Lens of Social Network Analysis: Theoretical Gaps, Methodological Challenges and Practitioner Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean HRISTOV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extant literature on networks in tourism management research has traditionally acknowledged destinations as the primary unit of analysis. This paper takes an alternative perspective and positions Destination Management Organisations (DMOs at the forefront of today’s tourism management research agenda. Whilst providing a relatively structured approach to generating enquiry, network research vis-à-vis Social Network Analysis (SNA in DMOs is often surrounded by serious impediments. Embedded in the network literature, this conceptual article aims to provide a practitioner perspective on addressing the obstacles to undertaking network studies in DMO organisations. A simple, three-step methodological framework for investigating DMOs as interorganisational networks of member organisations is proposed in response to complexities in network research. The rationale behind introducing such framework lies in the opportunity to trigger discussions and encourage further academic contributions embedded in both theory and practice. Academic and practitioner contributions are likely to yield insights into the importance of network methodologies applied to DMO organisations.

  17. A theoretical and experimental study of neuromorphic atomic switch networks for reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillin, Henry O; Aguilera, Renato; Shieh, Hsien-Hang; Avizienis, Audrius V; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z; Gimzewski, James K

    2013-09-27

    Atomic switch networks (ASNs) have been shown to generate network level dynamics that resemble those observed in biological neural networks. To facilitate understanding and control of these behaviors, we developed a numerical model based on the synapse-like properties of individual atomic switches and the random nature of the network wiring. We validated the model against various experimental results highlighting the possibility to functionalize the network plasticity and the differences between an atomic switch in isolation and its behaviors in a network. The effects of changing connectivity density on the nonlinear dynamics were examined as characterized by higher harmonic generation in response to AC inputs. To demonstrate their utility for computation, we subjected the simulated network to training within the framework of reservoir computing and showed initial evidence of the ASN acting as a reservoir which may be optimized for specific tasks by adjusting the input gain. The work presented represents steps in a unified approach to experimentation and theory of complex systems to make ASNs a uniquely scalable platform for neuromorphic computing.

  18. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Developmental Patterns of the White Matter Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang eChen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of human brain organization is critical for gaining insight into how the enhancement of cognitive processes is related to the fine-tuning of the brain network. However, the developmental trajectory of the large-scale white matter (WM network is not fully understood. Here, using graph theory, we examine developmental changes in the organization of WM networks in 180 typically-developing participants. WM networks were constructed using whole brain tractography and 78 cortical regions of interest were extracted from each participant. The subjects were first divided into 5 equal sample size (n=36 groups (early childhood: 6.0-9.7 years; late childhood: 9.8-12.7 years; adolescence: 12.9-17.5 years; young adult: 17.6-21.8 years; adult: 21.9-29.6 years. Most prominent changes in the topological properties of developing brain networks occur at late childhood and adolescence. During late childhood period, the structural brain network showed significant increase in the global efficiency but decrease in modularity, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more randomized configuration. However, while preserving most topological features, there was a significant increase in the local efficiency at adolescence, suggesting the dynamic process of rewiring and rebalancing brain connections at different growth stages. In addition, several pivotal hubs were identified that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole brain network across all age groups. Significant increases of nodal efficiency were present in several regions such as precuneus at late childhood. Finally, a stable and functionally/anatomically related modular organization was identified throughout the development of the WM network. This study used network analysis to elucidate the topological changes in brain maturation, paving the way for developing novel methods for analyzing disrupted brain connectivity in

  19. A Game Theoretic Approach for Modeling Privacy Settings of an Online Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundong Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Users of online social networks often adjust their privacy settings to control how much information on their profiles is accessible to other users of the networks. While a variety of factors have been shown to affect the privacy strategies of these users, very little work has been done in analyzing how these factors influence each other and collectively contribute towards the users’ privacy strategies. In this paper, we analyze the influence of attribute importance, benefit, risk and network topology on the users’ attribute disclosure behavior by introducing a weighted evolutionary game model. Results show that: irrespective of risk, users aremore likely to reveal theirmost important attributes than their least important attributes; when the users’ range of influence is increased, the risk factor plays a smaller role in attribute disclosure; the network topology exhibits a considerable effect on the privacy in an environment with risk.

  20. Robust Network Architecture Against Random Threats in WMD Environments: Theoretical Limits and Recovery Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    platform for agent- based electric power and communication simulation built from commercial off-the-shelf components,” Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on... communication recovery. With the increasing attention on the national infrastructure, such as civilian and military telecommunication networks, power...grids, and transportation systems, these large-scale, inter-connected networks are vulnerable to WMD attacks. Under such attacks on communication

  1. Theoretical framework on selected core issues on conditions for productive learning in networked learning environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Svendsen, Brian Møller; Ponti, Marisa

    The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments.......The report documents and summarises the elements and dimensions that have been identified to describe and analyse the case studies collected in the Kaleidoscope Jointly Executed Integrating Research Project (JEIRP) on Conditions for productive learning in network learning environments....

  2. General-Purpose Computation with Neural Networks: A Survey of Complexity Theoretic Results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Orponen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2003), s. 2727-2778 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : computational power * computational complexity * perceptrons * radial basis functions * spiking neurons * feedforward networks * reccurent networks * probabilistic computation * analog computation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2003

  3. The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins

    OpenAIRE

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Culture is increasingly being understood as a driver of mammalian phenotypes. Defined as group-specific behaviour transmitted by social learning, culture is shaped by social structure. However, culture can itself affect social structure if individuals preferentially interact with others whose behaviour is similar, or cultural symbols are used to mark groups. Using network formalism, this interplay can be depicted by the coevolution of nodes and edges together with the coevolution of network t...

  4. An Information Theoretic Investigation Of Complex Adaptive Supply Networks With Organizational Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    for the global pattern. A network view has proven useful in modeling a supply - chain for patterns of interaction. Queuing theory can be used to...phenomena. Second, operations management and supply - chain management lack metrics for evolution and dynamism in supply networks. Third, developing...robust theories in the presence of 14 adaptation is a formidable task. Supply - chain management theory can be built by identifying CAS phenomena and

  5. A Game-Theoretic Response Strategy for Coordinator Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianhua; Yue, Guangxue; Shang, Huiliang; Li, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    The coordinator is a specific node that controls the whole network and has a significant impact on the performance in cooperative multihop ZigBee wireless sensor networks (ZWSNs). However, the malicious node attacks coordinator nodes in an effort to waste the resources and disrupt the operation of the network. Attacking leads to a failure of one round of communication between the source nodes and destination nodes. Coordinator selection is a technique that can considerably defend against attack and reduce the data delivery delay, and increase network performance of cooperative communications. In this paper, we propose an adaptive coordinator selection algorithm using game and fuzzy logic aiming at both minimizing the average number of hops and maximizing network lifetime. The proposed game model consists of two interrelated formulations: a stochastic game for dynamic defense and a best response policy using evolutionary game formulation for coordinator selection. The stable equilibrium best policy to response defense is obtained from this game model. It is shown that the proposed scheme can improve reliability and save energy during the network lifetime with respect to security. PMID:25105171

  6. Percolation-theoretic bounds on the cache size of nodes in mobile opportunistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peiyan; Wu, Honghai; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Dong, Zhengnan

    2017-07-18

    The node buffer size has a large influence on the performance of Mobile Opportunistic Networks (MONs). This is mainly because each node should temporarily cache packets to deal with the intermittently connected links. In this paper, we study fundamental bounds on node buffer size below which the network system can not achieve the expected performance such as the transmission delay and packet delivery ratio. Given the condition that each link has the same probability p to be active in the next time slot when the link is inactive and q to be inactive when the link is active, there exists a critical value p c from a percolation perspective. If p > p c , the network is in the supercritical case, where we found that there is an achievable upper bound on the buffer size of nodes, independent of the inactive probability q. When p network is in the subcritical case, and there exists a closed-form solution for buffer occupation, which is independent of the size of the network.

  7. Estimating the Theoretical Value for LAN Network Throughput Based Power Line Communications Technology Under the Homeplug 1.0 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabiola Contreras Higuera

    2013-06-01

    transmission of information using the grid as a physical means of transmission. The analysis considers the influence of the size of the packages, number of stations, mechanisms of access to the medium, the window size of initial containment, among other important aspects; in order to analyze the behavior of the Throughput on LAN networks, making use of PLC technology for their implementation at the theoretical level.

  8. Biological and theoretical relevance of some connectionist assumptions. The development of conceptual networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, JFR; Dalenoort, GJ; Gracia, AP

    2000-01-01

    For the study of psychological processes in cognitive science modelling two general approaches rule nowadays research: Artificial Intelligence (top-down) functional symbolic models, and Connectionist (bottom-up) neural networks modelling. Our goal in this paper is to show that analyzing the

  9. The application of graph theoretical analysis to complex networks in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Ponten, Sophie C.; Berendse, Henk W.; Stam, Cornelis J.

    2007-01-01

    Considering the brain as a complex network of interacting dynamical systems offers new insights into higher level brain processes such as memory, planning, and abstract reasoning as well as various types of brain pathophysiology. This viewpoint provides the opportunity to apply new insights in

  10. Biological and theoretical relevance of some connectionist assumptions : The development of conceptual networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delgado, JFR; Dalenoort, GJ; Pitarque Gracia, A

    2000-01-01

    For the study of psychological processes in cognitive science modelling two general approaches rule nowadays research: Artificial Intelligence (top-down) functional symbolic models, and Connectionist (bottom-up) neural networks modelling. Our goal in this paper is to show that analyzing the

  11. Approaching the theoretical capacitance of graphene through copper foam integrated three-dimensional graphene networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Chi, Qijin

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile and low-cost approach for the preparation of all-in-one supercapacitor electrodes using copper foam (CuF) integrated three-dimensional (3D) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) networks. The binderfree 3DrGO@CuF electrodes are capable of delivering high specific capacitance approaching...

  12. The Mathematics of Networks Science: Scale-Free, Power-Law Graphs and Continuum Theoretical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2012-01-01

    When hoping to initiate or sustain students' interest in mathematics teachers should always consider relevance, relevance to students' lives and in the middle and later years of instruction in high school and university, accessibility. A topic such as the mathematics behind networks science, more specifically scale-free graphs, is up-to-date,…

  13. The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Mauricio; Whitehead, Hal

    2013-05-19

    Culture is increasingly being understood as a driver of mammalian phenotypes. Defined as group-specific behaviour transmitted by social learning, culture is shaped by social structure. However, culture can itself affect social structure if individuals preferentially interact with others whose behaviour is similar, or cultural symbols are used to mark groups. Using network formalism, this interplay can be depicted by the coevolution of nodes and edges together with the coevolution of network topology and transmission patterns. We review attempts to model the links between the spread, persistence and diversity of culture and the network topology of non-human societies. We illustrate these processes using cetaceans. The spread of socially learned begging behaviour within a population of bottlenose dolphins followed the topology of the social network, as did the evolution of the song of the humpback whale between breeding areas. In three bottlenose dolphin populations, individuals preferentially associated with animals using the same socially learned foraging behaviour. Homogeneous behaviour within the tight, nearly permanent social structures of the large matrilineal whales seems to result from transmission bias, with cultural symbols marking social structures. We recommend the integration of studies of culture and society in species for which social learning is an important determinant of behaviour.

  14. A Network Approach to Environmental Impact in Psychotic Disorder : Brief Theoretical Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isvoranu, A.M.; Borsboom, D.; van Os, J.; Guloksuz, S.

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of psychotic disorder represents a multifactorial and heterogeneous condition and is thought to result from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. In the current paper, we analyze this interplay using network analysis, which has been recently proposed as a novel

  15. Studying Pensions Funds Through an Infinite Servers Nodes Network: A Theoretical Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M A M; Andrade, M; Filipe, J A

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to present a representation of a pensions fund through a stochastic network with two infinite servers nodes. With this representation it is allowed to deduce an equilibrium condition of the system with basis on the identity of the random rates expected values, for which the contributions arrive to the fund and the pensions are paid by the fund. In our study a stochastic network is constructed where traffic is represented. This network allows to study the equilibrium in the system and it is admissible to get a balance to a pensions fund. A specific case is studied. When the arrivals from outside at nodes A and B are according to a Poisson process, with rates λ A and λ B , respectively, the system may be seen as a two nodes network where the first node is a M/G/∞ queue and second a M t /G/∞ queue. For this case in the long term the conditions of equilibrium are as follows: m A λ A α A = m B (ρλ A + λ B )α B . In this formula it is established a relationship among the two nodes. Several examples are given in the study.

  16. A Game Theoretic Framework for Bandwidth Allocation and Pricing in Federated Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bo; Yamori, Kyoko; Xu, Sugang; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    With the proliferation of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks, large numbers of wireless access points have been deployed, and it is often the case that a user can detect several access points simultaneously in dense metropolitan areas. Most owners, however, encrypt their networks to prevent the public from accessing them due to the increased traffic and security risk. In this work, we use pricing as an incentive mechanism to motivate the owners to share their networks with the public, while at the same time satisfying users' service demand. Specifically, we propose a “federated network” concept, in which radio resources of various wireless local area networks are managed together. Our algorithm identifies two candidate access points with the lowest price being offered (if available) to each user. We then model the price announcements of access points as a game, and characterize the Nash Equilibrium of the system. The efficiency of the Nash Equilibrium solution is evaluated via simulation studies as well.

  17. Pursuit of Excellence in a Networked Society. : Theoretical and Practical Approaches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. J.J.M. Volker; Dr. Marca Wolfensberger; Drs. L. Drayer

    2014-01-01

    Pursuit of Excellence in a Networked Society gives an overview of research and practice, describing and exploring efforts toward continuous improvement in programming to promote excellence. The talent development of students and teachers is a hot topic in today’s knowledge-based society which

  18. Graph theoretical analysis reveals disrupted topological properties of whole brain functional networks in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjing; Qiu, Shijun; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhenyin; Wen, Xue; Hu, Xiangshu; Zhang, Ruibin; Li, Meng; Wang, Wensheng; Huang, Ruiwang

    2014-09-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies have indicated that the TLE-related impairments existed in extensive local functional networks. However, little is known about the alterations in the topological properties of whole brain functional networks. In this study, we acquired resting-state BOLD-fMRI (rsfMRI) data from 26 TLE patients and 25 healthy controls, constructed their whole brain functional networks, compared the differences in topological parameters between the TLE patients and the controls, and analyzed the correlation between the altered topological properties and the epilepsy duration. The TLE patients showed significant increases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, but significant decrease in global efficiency compared to the controls. We also found altered nodal parameters in several regions in the TLE patients, such as the bilateral angular gyri, left middle temporal gyrus, right hippocampus, triangular part of left inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal but supramarginal and angular gyri, and left parahippocampus gyrus. Further correlation analysis showed that the local efficiency of the TLE patients correlated positively with the epilepsy duration. Our results indicated the disrupted topological properties of whole brain functional networks in TLE patients. Our findings indicated the TLE-related impairments in the whole brain functional networks, which may help us to understand the clinical symptoms of TLE patients and offer a clue for the diagnosis and treatment of the TLE patients. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000884.htm Overcoming job stress To use the sharing features on this page, ... stay healthy and feel better. Causes of Job Stress Although the cause of job stress is different ...

  20. Network analysis of metaphors in immigrants' accounts of techno-science: A theoretical-methodological proposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús René Luna Hernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Immigration is currently a source of much, sometimes divisive, social debate. However, what the immigrants themselves have to say about their own situation often goes unreported. One of the least-studied aspects of immigration is the immigrant's relationship with new information and communication technologies (ICTs. Here I suggest, as a project for investigation, the analysis of the metaphors that immigrants (from sub-Saharan Africa to Spain use to represent ICTs and the practices that surround them. These immigrants are of special interest because they come from places where contact with ICTs is minimal, and also because the jobs they find on arrival in Spain tend not to involve the use of ICTs. I propose the adoption of a perspective in which context and social relationships take precedence over individualistic factors, such as attitudes or attributions. I argue that social network analysis, and more specifically, discursive network analysis, is the investigative strategy most appropriate to such a project.

  1. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks.

  2. A game theoretical approach for cooperative environmentally friendly cellular networks powered by the smart grid

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates the collaboration between multiple mobile operators to optimize the energy efficiency of cellular networks, maximize their profits or achieve or tradeoff between both objectives. Mobile operators cooperate together by eliminating redundant base stations (BSs) using a low complexity algorithm that aims to maximize their objective functions subject to a quality of service constraint. The problem is modeled as a two-level Stackelberg game: a mobile operator level and a smart grid level. Indeed, in our framework, we assume that cellular networks are powered by multiple energy providers existing in the smart grid characterized by different pollutant levels in addition to renewable energy source deployed in BS sites. The objective is to find the best active BS combination and the optimal procurement decision needed to the network operation during collaboration by considering electricity real-time pricing. Our study includes the daily traffic variation in addition to the daily green energy availability. Our simulation results show a significant saving in terms of CO2 emissions compared to the non-collaboration case and that cooperative mobile operators exploiting renewables are more awarded than traditional operators. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. The management of complex system innovations. A theoretic approach to network formation and critical success factor identification using the case of fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venghaus, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    Given the economic, ecological and social importance of automotive transportation, the development of alternative fueling and propulsion technologies requires a wise and sustainable political course of action. Not least the public debate on the impact of transport emissions on climate change and the call for limits to automotive CO-2-emissions reflect the relevance of the topic. In the search for innovative alternatives to the conventional gasoline or diesel propulsion technology, electromobility and hydrogen-based fuel cell vehicles constitute the two most widely discussed long-term options. The market introduction of fuel cell vehicles serves as an expedient example of a highly complex system innovation (CSI), which requires the cooperation of a variety of actors from formerly independent economic sectors in order to overcome the significant barriers to market entry. As will be discussed, such CSI can only be successfully implemented in an environment, within which the complexity-induced knowledge gap is reduced by a systematic exchange of information with respect to both the critical success factors identified by each of the involved stakeholders as well as their cooperation needs and expectations. Given this challenge, a framework is developed, which serves as the basis for a structured dialogue among the multiple stakeholders involved in the development process of a complex system innovation. The framework can thus best be classified as a corporate moderation and decision-support tool to achieve transparency in and impose structure on complex contexts. Methodically, the presented thesis addresses the development of a holistic approach to the management of complex system innovations from two perspectives: (1) a theoretical perspective of analyzing underlying structures and processes of CSI management (i.e., the CSI Management Framework), as well as (2) the development of a strategic approach for the practical implementation of CSI management in complex networks

  4. A theoretical cost optimization model of reused flowback distribution network of regional shale gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    The logistical issues surrounding the timing and transport of flowback generated by each shale gas well to the next is a big challenge. Due to more and more flowback being stored temporarily near the shale gas well and reused in the shale gas development, both transportation cost and storage cost are the heavy burden for the developers. This research proposed a theoretical cost optimization model to get the optimal flowback distribution solution for regional multi shale gas wells in a holistic perspective. Then, we used some empirical data of Marcellus Shale to do the empirical study. In addition, we compared the optimal flowback distribution solution by considering both the transportation cost and storage cost with the flowback distribution solution which only minimized the transportation cost or only minimized the storage cost. - Highlights: • A theoretical cost optimization model to get optimal flowback distribution solution. • An empirical study using the shale gas data in Bradford County of Marcellus Shale. • Visualization of optimal flowback distribution solutions under different scenarios. • Transportation cost is a more important factor for reducing the cost. • Help the developers to cut the storage and transportation cost of reusing flowback.

  5. Game-Theoretic Social-Aware Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Communications Underlaying Cellular Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Device-to-Device communication underlaying cellular network can increase the spectrum efficiency due to direct proximity communication and frequency reuse. However, such performance improvement is influenced by the power interference caused by spectrum sharing and social characteristics in each social community jointly. In this investigation, we present a dynamic game theory with complete information based D2D resource allocation scheme for D2D communication underlaying cellular network. In this resource allocation method, we quantify both the rate influence from the power interference caused by the D2D transmitter to cellular users and rate enhancement brought by the social relationships between mobile users. Then, the utility function maximization game is formulated to optimize the overall transmission rate performance of the network, which synthetically measures the final influence from both power interference and sociality enhancement. Simultaneously, we discuss the Nash Equilibrium of the proposed utility function maximization game from a theoretical point of view and further put forward a utility priority searching algorithm based resource allocation scheme. Simulation results show that our proposed scheme attains better performance compared with the other two advanced proposals.

  6. Brain network of semantic integration in sentence reading: insights from independent component analysis and graph theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Doñamayor, Nuria; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-02-01

    A set of cortical and sub-cortical brain structures has been linked with sentence-level semantic processes. However, it remains unclear how these brain regions are organized to support the semantic integration of a word into sentential context. To look into this issue, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that required participants to silently read sentences with semantically congruent or incongruent endings and analyzed the network properties of the brain with two approaches, independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA). The GTA suggested that the whole-brain network is topologically stable across conditions. The ICA revealed a network comprising the supplementary motor area (SMA), left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left caudate nucleus, and left angular gyrus, which was modulated by the incongruity of sentence ending. Furthermore, the GTA specified that the connections between the left SMA and left caudate nucleus as well as that between the left caudate nucleus and right thalamus were stronger in response to incongruent vs. congruent endings. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Networks and Mechanisms of Interdependence. Theoretical developments beyond the rational action model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Bailón, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is interdependence when the actions of an individual influence the decisions (and later actions of other individuals. This paper claims that social networks define the structure of that range of influence and unleash a number of mechanisms that go beyond those captured by rational action theory. Networks give access to the ideas and actions of other individuals, and this exposure determines the activation of thresholds, the timing of actions, and the emergence of contagion processes, informational cascades and epidemics. This paper sustains that rational action theory does not offer the necessary tools to model these processes if it is not inserted in a general theory of networks. This is especially the case in the context opened by new information and communication technologies, where the interdependence of individuals is acquiring greater empirical relevance.

    Existe interdependencia cuando las acciones de unos individuos influyen en las decisiones (y posteriores acciones de otros individuos. Este artículo sostiene que las redes sociales definen la estructura de ese espacio de influencia y desatan una serie de mecanismos de los que la teoría de la elección racional no puede dar cuenta. Las redes sociales abren acceso a las ideas y acciones de otros individuos, y esta exposición determina la satisfacción de umbrales, el tempo con en el que se llevan a cabo las acciones y la emergencia de procesos de contagio, cascadas de información y epidemias. Este artículo defiende que la teoría de la elección racional no ofrece las herramientas necesarias para modelizar tales procesos si no se inserta en una teoría general de redes. Éste es especialmente el caso en unos momentos en los que la interdependencia de individuos está adquiriendo, al amparo de las nuevas tecnologías, mayor relevancia empírica.

  8. Theoretical properties of the global optimizer of two layer neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Boob, Digvijay; Lan, Guanghui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of optimizing a two-layer artificial neural network that best fits a training dataset. We look at this problem in the setting where the number of parameters is greater than the number of sampled points. We show that for a wide class of differentiable activation functions (this class involves "almost" all functions which are not piecewise linear), we have that first-order optimal solutions satisfy global optimality provided the hidden layer is non-singular. ...

  9. Concurrent Transmission Based on Channel Quality in Ad Hoc Networks: A Game Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xiaoji; Pei, Qingqi

    In this paper, a decentralized concurrent transmission strategy in shared channel in Ad Hoc networks is proposed based on game theory. Firstly, a static concurrent transmissions game is used to determine the candidates for transmitting by channel quality threshold and to maximize the overall throughput with consideration of channel quality variation. To achieve NES (Nash Equilibrium Solution), the selfish behaviors of node to attempt to improve the channel gain unilaterally are evaluated. Therefore, this game allows each node to be distributed and to decide whether to transmit concurrently with others or not depending on NES. Secondly, as there are always some nodes with lower channel gain than NES, which are defined as hunger nodes in this paper, a hunger suppression scheme is proposed by adjusting the price function with interferences reservation and forward relay, to fairly give hunger nodes transmission opportunities. Finally, inspired by stock trading, a dynamic concurrent transmission threshold determination scheme is implemented to make the static game practical. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme is feasible to increase concurrent transmission opportunities for active nodes, and at the same time, the number of hunger nodes is greatly reduced with the least increase of threshold by interferences reservation. Also, the good performance on network goodput of the proposed model can be seen from the results.

  10. Information processing in network architecture of genome controlled signal transduction circuit. A proposed theoretical explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar; Patel, Pratiksha; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, Shannon information theory has been applied to elaborate cell signaling. It is proposed that in the cellular network architecture, four components viz. source (DNA), transmitter (mRNA), receiver (protein) and destination (another protein) are involved. The message transmits from source (DNA) to transmitter (mRNA) and then passes through a noisy channel reaching finally the receiver (protein). The protein synthesis process is here considered as the noisy channel. Ultimately, signal is transmitted from receiver to destination (another protein). The genome network architecture elements were compared with genetic alphabet L = {A, C, G, T} with a biophysical model based on the popular Shannon information theory. This study found the channel capacity as maximum for zero error (sigma = 0) and at this condition, transition matrix becomes a unit matrix with rank 4. The transition matrix will be erroneous and finally at sigma = 1 channel capacity will be localized maxima with a value of 0.415 due to the increased value at sigma. On the other hand, minima exists at sigma = 0.75, where all transition probabilities become 0.25 and uncertainty will be maximum resulting in channel capacity with the minima value of zero.

  11. A game theoretic algorithm to detect overlapping community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Zhao, Xiaohui; Liu, Yanheng; Sun, Geng

    2018-04-01

    Community detection can be used as an important technique for product and personalized service recommendation. A game theory based approach to detect overlapping community structure is introduced in this paper. The process of the community formation is converted into a game, when all agents (nodes) cannot improve their own utility, the game process will be terminated. The utility function is composed of a gain and a loss function and we present a new gain function in this paper. In addition, different from choosing action randomly among join, quit and switch for each agent to get new label, two new strategies for each agent to update its label are designed during the game, and the strategies are also evaluated and compared for each agent in order to find its best result. The overlapping community structure is naturally presented when the stop criterion is satisfied. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms other similar algorithms for detecting overlapping communities in networks.

  12. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carriger, John F. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL, 32561 (United States); Martin, Todd M. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Sustainable Technology Division, Cincinnati, OH, 45220 (United States); Barron, Mace G., E-mail: barron.mace@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Breeze, FL, 32561 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network was developed to classify chemical mode of action (MoA). • The network was based on the aquatic toxicity MoA for over 1000 chemicals. • A Markov blanket algorithm selected a subset of theoretical molecular descriptors. • Sensitivity analyses found influential descriptors for classifying the MoAs. • Overall precision of the Bayesian MoA classification model was 80%. - Abstract: The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently published dataset containing over one thousand chemicals with MoA assignments for aquatic animal toxicity. Two dimensional theoretical chemical descriptors were generated for each chemical using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool. The model was developed through augmented Markov blanket discovery from the dataset of 1098 chemicals with the MoA broad classifications as a target node. From cross validation, the overall precision for the model was 80.2%. The best precision was for the AChEI MoA (93.5%) where 257 chemicals out of 275 were correctly classified. Model precision was poorest for the reactivity MoA (48.5%) where 48 out of 99 reactive chemicals were correctly classified. Narcosis represented the largest class within the MoA dataset and had a precision and reliability of 80.0%, reflecting the global precision across all of the MoAs. False negatives for narcosis most often fell into electron transport inhibition, neurotoxicity or reactivity MoAs. False negatives for all other MoAs were most often narcosis. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was undertaken for each MoA to examine the sensitivity to individual and multiple descriptor findings. The results show that the Markov blanket of a structurally complex dataset can simplify analysis and interpretation by

  13. Critical supply network protection against intentional attacks: A game-theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricha, Naji; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in today's critical supply chains is how to protect facilities against intentional attacks, since it has become unacceptable to ignore the high impact of low probability disruptions caused by these attacks. This article develops a game-theoretical model to deal with the protection of facilities, in the context of the uncapacitated fixed-charge location problem. Given a set of investment alternatives for protecting the facilities against identified threats, the objective is to select the optimal defence strategy. The attacker is considered as a player who tries to maximise the expected damage while weighing against the attacks expenditures. The conflict on facilities vulnerability is modelled using the concept of contest. The vulnerability of a facility is defined by its destruction probability. Contest success functions determine the vulnerability of each facility dependent on the relative investments of the defender and the attacker on each facility, and on the characteristics of the contest. A method is developed to evaluate the utilities of the players (i.e., the defender and the attacker). This method evaluates many expected costs, including the cost needed to restore disabled facilities, the backorder cost, and the cost incurred because of the increase in transportation costs after attacks. In fact, when one or several facilities are unavailable, transportation costs will increase since reassigned customers may receive shipments from facilities which are farther away. The model considers a non-cooperative two-period game between the players, and an algorithm is presented to determine the equilibrium solution and the optimal defence strategy. An illustrative example is presented. The approach is compared to other suggested strategies, and some managerial insights are provided in the context of facility location

  14. Extracting Gene Networks for Low-Dose Radiation Using Graph Theoretical Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Scharff, Jon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perkins, Andy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Saxton, Arnold [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Borate, Bhavesh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Langston, Michael A [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2006-01-01

    Genes with common functions often exhibit correlated expression levels, which can be used to identify sets of interacting genes from microarray data. Microarrays typically measure expression across genomic space, creating a massive matrix of co-expression that must be mined to extract only the most relevant gene interactions. We describe a graph theoretical approach to extracting co-expressed sets of genes, based on the computation of cliques. Unlike the results of traditional clustering algorithms, cliques are not disjoint and allow genes to be assigned to multiple sets of interacting partners, consistent with biological reality. A graph is created by thresholding the correlation matrix to include only the correlations most likely to signify functional relationships. Cliques computed from the graph correspond to sets of genes for which significant edges are present between all members of the set, representing potential members of common or interacting pathways. Clique membership can be used to infer function about poorly annotated genes, based on the known functions of better-annotated genes with which they share clique membership (i.e., ''guilt-by-association''). We illustrate our method by applying it to microarray data collected from the spleens of mice exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation. Differential analysis is used to identify sets of genes whose interactions are impacted by radiation exposure. The correlation graph is also queried independently of clique to extract edges that are impacted by radiation. We present several examples of multiple gene interactions that are altered by radiation exposure and thus represent potential molecular pathways that mediate the radiation response.

  15. Extracting gene networks for low-dose radiation using graph theoretical algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynn H Voy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes with common functions often exhibit correlated expression levels, which can be used to identify sets of interacting genes from microarray data. Microarrays typically measure expression across genomic space, creating a massive matrix of co-expression that must be mined to extract only the most relevant gene interactions. We describe a graph theoretical approach to extracting co-expressed sets of genes, based on the computation of cliques. Unlike the results of traditional clustering algorithms, cliques are not disjoint and allow genes to be assigned to multiple sets of interacting partners, consistent with biological reality. A graph is created by thresholding the correlation matrix to include only the correlations most likely to signify functional relationships. Cliques computed from the graph correspond to sets of genes for which significant edges are present between all members of the set, representing potential members of common or interacting pathways. Clique membership can be used to infer function about poorly annotated genes, based on the known functions of better-annotated genes with which they share clique membership (i.e., "guilt-by-association". We illustrate our method by applying it to microarray data collected from the spleens of mice exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation. Differential analysis is used to identify sets of genes whose interactions are impacted by radiation exposure. The correlation graph is also queried independently of clique to extract edges that are impacted by radiation. We present several examples of multiple gene interactions that are altered by radiation exposure and thus represent potential molecular pathways that mediate the radiation response.

  16. Information theoretic measures of network coordination in high-frequency scalp EEG reveal dynamic patterns associated with seizure termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Schomer, Donald L; Chang, Bernard S

    2013-08-01

    How a seizure terminates is still under-studied and, despite its clinical importance, remains an obscure phase of seizure evolution. Recent studies of seizure-related scalp EEGs at frequencies >100 Hz suggest that neural activity, in the form of oscillations and/or neuronal network interactions, may play an important role in preictal/ictal seizure evolution (Andrade-Valenca et al., 2011; Stamoulis et al., 2012). However, the role of high-frequency activity in seizure termination, is unknown, if it exists at all. Using information theoretic measures of network coordination, this study investigated ictal and immediate postictal neurodynamic interactions encoded in scalp EEGs from a relatively small sample of 8 patients with focal epilepsy and multiple seizures originating in temporal and/or frontal brain regions, at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz and >100 Hz, respectively. Despite some heterogeneity in the dynamics of these interactions, consistent patterns were also estimated. Specifically, in several seizures, linear or non-linear increase in high-frequency neuronal coordination during ictal intervals, coincided with a corresponding decrease in coordination at frequencies interval, which continues during the postictal interval. This may be one of several possible mechanisms that facilitate seizure termination. In fact, inhibition of pairwise interactions between EEGs by other signals in their spatial neighborhood, quantified by negative interaction information, was estimated at frequencies ≤ 100 Hz, at least in some seizures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Game Theoretic Analysis of Cooperative Message Forwarding in Opportunistic Mobile Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sujata; Saha, Barun Kumar; Misra, Sudip

    2017-12-01

    In cooperative communication, a set of players forming a coalition ensures communal behavior among themselves by helping one another in message forwarding. Opportunistic mobile networks (OMNs) require multihop communications for transferring messages from the source to the destination nodes. However, noncooperative nodes only forward their own messages to others, and drop others' messages upon receiving them. So, the message delivery overhead increases in OMN. For minimizing the overhead and maximizing the delivery rate, we propose two coalition-based cooperative schemes: 1) simple coalition formation (SCF) and 2) overlapping coalition formation (OCF) game. In SCF, we consider the presence of a central information center, whereas OCF is a fully distributed scheme. In SCF, coalitions are disjoint, whereas in OCF, a node may be the member of multiple coalitions at the same time. All nodes in a coalition help each other cooperatively by forwarding group messages to the intermediate or destination nodes. The goal of the nodes is to achieve high success rate in delivering messages. The proposed SCF scheme is cohesive, in which disjoint coalitions always combine to form grand coalition. In OCF, a node reaches a stable grand coalition when all the nodes of the OMN are members of overlapping coalition of the node. No node gains by deviating from the grand coalition in SCF and OCF. Simulation results based on synthetic mobility model and real-life traces show that the message delivery ratio of OMNs increase by up to 67%, as compared to the noncooperative scenario. Moreover, the message overhead ratio using the proposed coalition-based schemes reduces by up to about (1/3)rd of that of the noncooperative communication scheme.

  18. GAT: a graph-theoretical analysis toolbox for analyzing between-group differences in large-scale structural and functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S M Hadi; Hoeft, Fumiko; Kesler, Shelli R

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, graph theoretical analyses of neuroimaging data have increased our understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, tools for pipeline application of graph theory for analyzing topology of brain networks is still lacking. In this report, we describe the development of a graph-analysis toolbox (GAT) that facilitates analysis and comparison of structural and functional network brain networks. GAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI) that facilitates construction and analysis of brain networks, comparison of regional and global topological properties between networks, analysis of network hub and modules, and analysis of resilience of the networks to random failure and targeted attacks. Area under a curve (AUC) and functional data analyses (FDA), in conjunction with permutation testing, is employed for testing the differences in network topologies; analyses that are less sensitive to the thresholding process. We demonstrated the capabilities of GAT by investigating the differences in the organization of regional gray-matter correlation networks in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and healthy matched Controls (CON). The results revealed an alteration in small-world characteristics of the brain networks in the ALL survivors; an observation that confirm our hypothesis suggesting widespread neurobiological injury in ALL survivors. Along with demonstration of the capabilities of the GAT, this is the first report of altered large-scale structural brain networks in ALL survivors.

  19. GAT: a graph-theoretical analysis toolbox for analyzing between-group differences in large-scale structural and functional brain networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Hadi Hosseini

    Full Text Available In recent years, graph theoretical analyses of neuroimaging data have increased our understanding of the organization of large-scale structural and functional brain networks. However, tools for pipeline application of graph theory for analyzing topology of brain networks is still lacking. In this report, we describe the development of a graph-analysis toolbox (GAT that facilitates analysis and comparison of structural and functional network brain networks. GAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI that facilitates construction and analysis of brain networks, comparison of regional and global topological properties between networks, analysis of network hub and modules, and analysis of resilience of the networks to random failure and targeted attacks. Area under a curve (AUC and functional data analyses (FDA, in conjunction with permutation testing, is employed for testing the differences in network topologies; analyses that are less sensitive to the thresholding process. We demonstrated the capabilities of GAT by investigating the differences in the organization of regional gray-matter correlation networks in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and healthy matched Controls (CON. The results revealed an alteration in small-world characteristics of the brain networks in the ALL survivors; an observation that confirm our hypothesis suggesting widespread neurobiological injury in ALL survivors. Along with demonstration of the capabilities of the GAT, this is the first report of altered large-scale structural brain networks in ALL survivors.

  20. The Sharing of Benefits from a Logistics Alliance Based on a Hub-Spoke Network: A Cooperative Game Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyoung Yea

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates a strategic alliance as a horizontal cooperation in the logistics and transportation industries by considering various sharing rules with a cooperative game approach. Through forging a strategic alliance, carriers gain extra benefits from resource sharing and high efficiency resource utilization. In particular, our research focuses on the cost savings from using larger vehicles utilizing collective market demand and regarding them as benefits of cooperation. The model conceptualizes the characteristic function of cost savings by coalitions that take into account the hub-spoke network which is common in transportation services. To share the improved profits fairly between members, we use different allocation schemes: the Shapley value, the core center, the τ -value, and the nucleolus. By analyzing those cooperative game theoretic solutions employing an alliance composed of three carriers, we investigate whether satisfaction in this specific coalition provides an incentive for carriers to join such a coalition. Our results from the analysis, with respect to fair allocation schemes, provide a practical and academic foundation for further research.

  1. Theoretical Evaluation of Crosslink Density of Chain Extended Polyurethane Networks Based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene and Butanediol and Comparison with Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkar, Venkataraman; Alex, Ancy Smitha; Kumar, Vijendra; Bandyopadhyay, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    Polyurethane networks between hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and butanediol (BD) were prepared using toluene diisocyanate (TDI) as the curative. HTPB and BD were taken at equivalent ratios viz.: 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, and 1:8. Crosslink density (CLD) was theoretically calculated using α-model equations developed by Marsh. CLD for the polyurethane networks was experimentally evaluated from equilibrium swell and stress-strain data. Young's modulus and Mooney-Rivlin approaches were adopted to calculate CLD from stress-strain data. Experimentally obtained CLD values were enormously higher than theoretical values especially at higher BD/HTPB equivalent ratios. The difference in the theoretical and experimental values for CLD was explained in terms of local crystallization due to the formation of hard segments and hydrogen bonded interactions.

  2. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  3. A theoretical bilevel control scheme for power networks with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroojeni, Kianoosh; Amini, M. Hadi; Nejadpak, Arash

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a bilevel control framework to achieve a highly-reliable smart distribution network with large-scale penetration of distributed renewable resources (DRRs). We assume that the power distribution network consists of several residential/commercial communities. In the first ...

  4. Theoretical Study of the Vibration Suppression on a Mistuned Bladed Disk Using a Bi-periodic Piezoelectric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Deng, Pengcheng; Liu, Jiuzhou; Li, Chao

    2018-03-01

    The paper deals with the vibration suppression of a bladed disk with a piezoelectric network. The piezoelectric network has a different period (so called bi-period) from that of the bladed disk and there is no inductor in it. The system is simulated by an electromechanical lumped parameter model with two DOFs per sector. The research focuses on suppressing the amplitude magnification or reducing the vibration localization of the mistuned bladed disk. The dynamic equations of the system are derived. Both mechanical mistuning and electrical mistuning have been taken into account. The Modified Modal Assurance Criterion (MMAC) is used to evaluate the vibration suppression ability of the bi-periodic piezoelectric network. The Monte Carlo simulation is used to calculate the MMAC of the system with the random mistuning. As a reference, the forced responses of the bladed disk with and without the piezoelectric network are given. The results show that the piezoelectric network would effectively suppress amplitude magnification induced by mistuning. The vibration amplitude is even smaller than that of the tuned system. The robustness analysis shows that the bi-periodic piezoelectric network can provide a reliable assurance for avoiding the forced response amplification of the mistuned bladed disk. The amplified response induced by the mechanical mistuning with standard deviation 0.2 can be effectively suppressed through the bi-periodic piezoelectric network.

  5. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, Ahmad Mohamad; Igartua, Mónica Aguilar; de la Cruz Llopis, Luis J; Pallarès Segarra, Esteve; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Forné, Jordi; Sanvicente Gargallo, Emilio

    2015-04-17

    The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc.) could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers) rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  6. A Multi-User Game-Theoretical Multipath Routing Protocol to Send Video-Warning Messages over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohamad Mezher

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention of accidents is one of the most important goals of ad hoc networks in smart cities. When an accident happens, dynamic sensors (e.g., citizens with smart phones or tablets, smart vehicles and buses, etc. could shoot a video clip of the accident and send it through the ad hoc network. With a video message, the level of seriousness of the accident could be much better evaluated by the authorities (e.g., health care units, police and ambulance drivers rather than with just a simple text message. Besides, other citizens would be rapidly aware of the incident. In this way, smart dynamic sensors could participate in reporting a situation in the city using the ad hoc network so it would be possible to have a quick reaction warning citizens and emergency units. The deployment of an efficient routing protocol to manage video-warning messages in mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs has important benefits by allowing a fast warning of the incident, which potentially can save lives. To contribute with this goal, we propose a multipath routing protocol to provide video-warning messages in MANETs using a novel game-theoretical approach. As a base for our work, we start from our previous work, where a 2-players game-theoretical routing protocol was proposed to provide video-streaming services over MANETs. In this article, we further generalize the analysis made for a general number of N players in the MANET. Simulations have been carried out to show the benefits of our proposal, taking into account the mobility of the nodes and the presence of interfering traffic. Finally, we also have tested our approach in a vehicular ad hoc network as an incipient start point to develop a novel proposal specifically designed for VANETs.

  7. The theoretical strength of rubber: numerical simulations of polyisoprene networks at high tensile strains evidence the role of average chain tortuosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, David E; Barber, John L

    2013-01-01

    The ultimate stress and strain of polyisoprene rubber were studied by numerical simulations of three-dimensional random networks, subjected to tensile strains high enough to cause chain rupture. Previously published molecular chain force extension models and a numerical network construction procedure were used to perform the simulations for network crosslink densities between 2 × 10 19 and 1 × 10 20 cm −3 , corresponding to experimental dicumyl-peroxide concentrations of 1–5 parts per hundred. At tensile failure (defined as the point of maximum stress), we find that the fraction of network chains ruptured is between 0.1% and 1%, depending on the crosslink density. The fraction of network chains that are taut, i.e. their end-to-end distance is greater than their unstretched contour length, ranges between 10% and 15% at failure. Our model predicts that the theoretical (defect-free) failure stress should be about twice the highest experimental value reported. For extensions approaching failure, tensile stress is dominated by the network morphology and purely enthalpic bond distortion forces and, in this regime, the model has essentially no free parameters. The average initial chain tortuosity (τ) appears to be an important statistical property of rubber networks; if the stress is scaled by τ and the tensile strain is scaled by τ −1 , we obtain a master curve for stress versus strain, valid for all crosslink densities. We derive an analytic expression for the average tortuosity, which is in agreement with values calculated in the simulations. (paper)

  8. Investigation of Means of Mitigating Congestion in Complex, Distributed Network Systems by Optimization Means and Information Theoretic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Information Theoretic Proceedures Frank Mufalli Rakesh Nagi Jim Llinas Sumita Mishra SUNY at Buffalo— CUBRC 4455 Genessee Street Buffalo...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER NY 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) SUNY at Buffalo— CUBRC * Paine College ** 4455 Genessee

  9. Alterations of brain network hubs in reflex syncope: Evidence from a graph theoretical analysis based on DTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Soo; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Jin-Han; Kim, Il Hwan; Park, Si Hyung; Lee, Ho-Joon; Park, Kang Min

    2018-06-01

    We evaluated global topology and organization of regional hubs in the brain networks and microstructural abnormalities in the white matter of patients with reflex syncope. Twenty patients with reflex syncope and thirty healthy subjects were recruited, and they underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans. Graph theory was applied to obtain network measures based on extracted DTI data, using DSI Studio. We then investigated differences in the network measures between the patients with reflex syncope and the healthy subjects. We also analyzed microstructural abnormalities of white matter using tract-based spatial statistics analysis (TBSS). Measures of global topology were not different between patients with reflex syncope and healthy subjects. However, in reflex syncope patients, the strength measures of the right angular, left inferior frontal, left middle orbitofrontal, left superior medial frontal, and left middle temporal gyrus were lower than in healthy subjects. The betweenness centrality measures of the left middle orbitofrontal, left fusiform, and left lingual gyrus in patients were lower than those in healthy subjects. The PageRank centrality measures of the right angular, left middle orbitofrontal, and left superior medial frontal gyrus in patients were lower than those in healthy subjects. Regarding the analysis of the white matter microstructure, there were no differences in the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values between the two groups. We have identified a reorganization of network hubs in the brain network of patients with reflex syncope. These alterations in brain network may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying reflex syncope. © 2018 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  11. Graph-Theoretic Properties of Networks Based on Word Association Norms: Implications for Models of Lexical Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Recchia, Gabriel; Rubin, Tim; Jones, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the ability of three different contextual models of lexical semantic memory (BEAGLE, Latent Semantic Analysis, and the Topic model) and of a simple associative model (POC) to predict the properties of semantic networks derived from word association norms. None of the semantic models were able to accurately predict all of the network…

  12. The Role of Nonlinearity in Computing Graph-Theoretical Properties of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan; Mantini, D.; Corbetta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2011), art.no 013119 ISSN 1054-1500 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E08027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : complex network * fMRI * brain connectivity * nonlinear * mutual information * correlation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.076, year: 2011

  13. Epidemic Wave Dynamics Attributable to Urban Community Structure: A Theoretical Characterization of Disease Transmission in a Large Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Lenczner, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple waves of transmission during infectious disease epidemics represent a major public health challenge, but the ecological and behavioral drivers of epidemic resurgence are poorly understood. In theory, community structure—aggregation into highly intraconnected and loosely interconnected social groups—within human populations may lead to punctuated outbreaks as diseases progress from one community to the next. However, this explanation has been largely overlooked in favor of temporal shifts in environmental conditions and human behavior and because of the difficulties associated with estimating large-scale contact patterns. Objective The aim was to characterize naturally arising patterns of human contact that are capable of producing simulated epidemics with multiple wave structures. Methods We used an extensive dataset of proximal physical contacts between users of a public Wi-Fi Internet system to evaluate the epidemiological implications of an empirical urban contact network. We characterized the modularity (community structure) of the network and then estimated epidemic dynamics under a percolation-based model of infectious disease spread on the network. We classified simulated epidemics as multiwave using a novel metric and we identified network structures that were critical to the network’s ability to produce multiwave epidemics. Results We identified robust community structure in a large, empirical urban contact network from which multiwave epidemics may emerge naturally. This pattern was fueled by a special kind of insularity in which locally popular individuals were not the ones forging contacts with more distant social groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that ordinary contact patterns can produce multiwave epidemics at the scale of a single urban area without the temporal shifts that are usually assumed to be responsible. Understanding the role of community structure in epidemic dynamics allows officials to anticipate epidemic

  14. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-01-01

    the effectiveness of online social networking within health promotion interventions. Most of the trials investigated the value of a “social networking condition” in general and did not identify specific features that might play a role in effectiveness. Issues about the usability and level of uptake of interventions were more common among pilot studies, while observational studies showed positive evidence about the role of social support. A total of 20 papers showed the use of theory in the design of interventions, but authors evaluated effectiveness in only 10 papers. Conclusions More research is needed in this area to understand the actual effect of social network technologies on health promotion. More RCTs of greater length need to be conducted taking into account contextual factors such as patient characteristics and types of a social network technology. Also, more evidence is needed regarding the actual usability of online social networking and how different interface design elements may help or hinder behavior change and engagement. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate further the effect of theory on the effectiveness of this type of technology for health promotion. Research is needed linking theoretical grounding with observation and analysis of health promotion in online networks. PMID:26068087

  15. The Role of Social Network Technologies in Online Health Promotion: A Narrative Review of Theoretical and Empirical Factors Influencing Intervention Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balatsoukas, Panos; Kennedy, Catriona M; Buchan, Iain; Powell, John; Ainsworth, John

    2015-06-11

    networking within health promotion interventions. Most of the trials investigated the value of a "social networking condition" in general and did not identify specific features that might play a role in effectiveness. Issues about the usability and level of uptake of interventions were more common among pilot studies, while observational studies showed positive evidence about the role of social support. A total of 20 papers showed the use of theory in the design of interventions, but authors evaluated effectiveness in only 10 papers. More research is needed in this area to understand the actual effect of social network technologies on health promotion. More RCTs of greater length need to be conducted taking into account contextual factors such as patient characteristics and types of a social network technology. Also, more evidence is needed regarding the actual usability of online social networking and how different interface design elements may help or hinder behavior change and engagement. Moreover, it is crucial to investigate further the effect of theory on the effectiveness of this type of technology for health promotion. Research is needed linking theoretical grounding with observation and analysis of health promotion in online networks.

  16. Decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia: The relationship between social functioning, social cognition and graph theoretical network measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Burak; Serin, Emin; İbadi, Yelda; Taş, Cumhur

    2017-12-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which abnormalities in brain connectivity and social functioning play a central role. The aim of this study is to explore small-world network properties, and understand their relationship with social functioning and social cognition in the context of schizophrenia, by testing functional connectivity differences in network properties and its relation to clinical behavioral measures. Resting-state fMRI time series data were acquired from 23 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 healthy volunteers. The results revealed that patients with schizophrenia show significantly decreased connectivity between a range of brain regions, particularly involving connections among the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral putamen and left amygdala. Furthermore, topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with schizophrenia were characterized by reduced path length compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found for clustering coefficient, local efficiency or global efficiency. Additionally, we found that nodal efficiency of the amygdala and the putamen were significantly correlated with the independence-performance subscale of social functioning scale (SFC), and Reading the Mind in the Eyes test; however, the correlations do not survive correction for multiple comparison. The current results help to clarify the relationship between social functioning deficits and topological brain measures in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the total theoretical, and financially viable, resource of biomethane for injection to a natural gas network in a region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, Richard; Wall, David M.; Kilgallon, Ian; Browne, James D.; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The total theoretical biomethane resource of grass silage in a region was estimated. • A theoretical biomethane resource of ca. 138 PJ was identified. • An optimisation model determined profitable biomethane facility locations. • Profitable plants produced 12 PJ of biomethane, 8.6% of the theoretical resource. • Approximately 22% of industrial gas demand could be supplied by profitable plants. - Abstract: The total theoretical biomethane resource of cattle slurry and grass silage in Ireland was estimated using the most up to date spatially explicit data available. The cattle slurry resource (9.6 PJ) was predominantly found in southern and north-eastern regions while the grass silage resource (128.4 PJ) was more concentrated in western regions. The total biomethane resource of cattle slurry and grass silage was equivalent to 6% and 76% of total natural gas consumption in Ireland in 2014/15, respectively. A sequential optimisation model was run to determine where to source cattle slurry and grass silage from, for 42 potential biomethane plant locations in Ireland. The concept was to maximise plant net present value (NPV) and develop locations in order of plant profitability. The impact of plant size, grass silage price, volatile solids ratio (VSR) of grass silage to cattle slurry, and incentive per unit energy of biomethane was assessed in 81 separate scenarios. The results indicated that total biomethane production from plants with a positive NPV ranged from 3.51 PJ/a to 12.19 PJ/a, considerably less than the total resource. The levelised cost of energy (LCOE) of plants was also calculated and ranged from ca. 50.2 €/MW h to ca. 109 €/MW h depending on the various plant parameters. LCOE decreased with increased plant size and ratio of grass silage to cattle slurry. The relationship between grass silage price and LCOE was assessed. In the median scenario (33 €/t_w_w_t grass silage, VSR of 4, 75,000 t_w_w_t/a plant size, 60 €/MW h

  18. Bioethics networks and reproduction technologies: theoretical and methodological controversies - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v1i2.87en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Leite Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to discuss some of the theoretical and methodological controversies surrounding the emerging field of bioethics, especially focusing on reproduction biotechnologies, attempting to give some examples of its implications as a network of controversies. Initially, it presents the new reproduction biotechnologies in terms of the effect which they are producing on our understanding about human nature and life, as well as the context of the emergence of bioethics, traditionally conceived of as a critical and analytical example of the relationship between technology and humanity. As an alternative way of explaining these relationships, it outlines the aspect of bioethics as a network effect, in which the technology-society hybrid is shown both in the building of bioethical norms and in the instabilities which challenge these norms. As a way of understanding this heterogeneous and complex network, Controversy Analysis is proposed as a methodological tool. In order to illustrate the richness of such perspective, a brief empirical study is presented, in which an attempt is made to track controversies articulated around the relations between bioethics and reproduction biotechnologies, with a specific focus on stem cell research, as published by the on-line media from January of 2004 until July of 2006, raising questions about subjects such as: life, humanity, artifice and autonomy.

  19. Quantum cryptography: Theoretical protocols for quantum key distribution and tests of selected commercial QKD systems in commercial fiber networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacak, Monika; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Piotr; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz

    2016-06-01

    The overview of the current status of quantum cryptography is given in regard to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, implemented both on nonentangled and entangled flying qubits. Two commercial R&D platforms of QKD systems are described (the Clavis II platform by idQuantique implemented on nonentangled photons and the EPR S405 Quelle platform by AIT based on entangled photons) and tested for feasibility of their usage in commercial TELECOM fiber metropolitan networks. The comparison of systems efficiency, stability and resistivity against noise and hacker attacks is given with some suggestion toward system improvement, along with assessment of two models of QKD.

  20. The Theoretical Aspects of the Development of Global Production Networks and Value Chains: the New Paradigm of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkas Nataliia I.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at systematizing the contemporary perceptions of the changing paradigms of globalization and international competition as a result of the spread of global networks and value chains. The development of global value chains (GVC occurred as a result of two distributions of globalization: (1 global competition is manifested at the level of sectors and companies (from the mid-nineteenth century (2 the concept of trade in tasks arises (at the end of XX century. The publication analyzes the impact of globalization on the international competitiveness of both the EU and the developing countries in the trade of final products and tasks. The model takes into consideration differences in wages, technology gap and trade costs, and provides for assessing the comparative advantages of individual sectors or segments of GVC. Features of the conception of global production networks have been identified as: «imports for production» and «imports for exports», which define international competitiveness on the basis of creation of the intrinsic value added. It is determined that the competitiveness of the economy is determined by the country’s positions in the GVC, and the increase in productivity of companies depends on their involvement in the segments (tasks with a high level of value added.

  1. Zero-sum two-player game theoretic formulation of affine nonlinear discrete-time systems using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehraeen, Shahab; Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, S; Crow, Mariesa L

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the nearly optimal solution for discrete-time (DT) affine nonlinear control systems in the presence of partially unknown internal system dynamics and disturbances is considered. The approach is based on successive approximate solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs (HJI) equation, which appears in optimal control. Successive approximation approach for updating control and disturbance inputs for DT nonlinear affine systems are proposed. Moreover, sufficient conditions for the convergence of the approximate HJI solution to the saddle point are derived, and an iterative approach to approximate the HJI equation using a neural network (NN) is presented. Then, the requirement of full knowledge of the internal dynamics of the nonlinear DT system is relaxed by using a second NN online approximator. The result is a closed-loop optimal NN controller via offline learning. A numerical example is provided illustrating the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Disposition of overcoming students for critical reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Miola Galvão

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present the possibilities of an educational practice that focuses on the formation of Basic Education students in critical readers. For this, understand the concepts of alienation and language from the point of view of Historical and Dialectical Materialism and Historical-Cultural Theory was essential to understand how the students of the 7th year are able to overcome this paradigm that contributes to the naive reading of texts worked in the classroom. It was a qualitative study of bibliographic revision in union with the dialectical practice with students in a public school located in the north of the State of Paraná. As methodology, was developed twelve classes with diversified material in which the teacher's mediation sought to contemplate form and content in the way that occurred the deconstruction of the fictitious hero concept represented at the end by the art of the haicai poem. The use of the cell phone instrument and Whatsapp were important for the development of the poetic sense. It seeks, therefore, to demonstrate the contributions of historical and dialectical materialism to teaching practice and human development. The theorists considerations allow us to note that language contributes to the development of higher psychic functions in man and the alienation of subjects in today's society considerably affects the students interpretation and, consequently, formation for critical reading, which can be overcome with the use of a conscious theoretical current.

  3. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  4. Overcoming Blockages to Collective Innovation in Digital Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukanova, Boriana; Reuver, Mark; Henningsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized digital technologies increasingly enable multiple organizations to co-create digital infrastructures. However, collective innovation processes often come to a stand-still because of conflicting interests and business models. While existing research suggests various factors that block...... collective innovation processes, there is still little understanding of how organizations can overcome these blockages. In this paper, we identify patterns that explain how organizations overcome blockages of collective innovation processes for digital infrastructures. We follow a processual approach...... and develop a conceptual framework based on collective action theory. We evaluate the framework through a longitudinal case study on mobile payment infrastructure development. We find various reconfiguration processes that organizations use to overcome blockages of collective innovation. Theoretically...

  5. Theoretical foundations for nervous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasslacher, B.; Tilden, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    Following three years of study into experimental Nervous Net (Nv) control devices, various successes and several amusing failures have implied some general principles on the nature of capable control systems for autonomous machines and perhaps, we conjecture, even biological organisms. These systems are minimal, elegant, and, depending upon their implementation in a open-quotes creatureclose quotes structure, astonishingly robust. Their only problem seems to be that as they are collections of non-linear asynchronous elements, only complex analysis can adequately extract and explain the emergent competency of their operation. The implications are that so long as Nv non-linear topologies can retain some measure of sub-critically coupled planar stability, the Piexito theorem will guarantee a form of plastic mode-locking necessary for broad-behavior competency. Further experimental evidence also suggests that if Nv topologies are kept in sub-chaotically stable regimes, they can be implemented at any scale and still automatically fall into effective survival strategies in unstructured environments. An explanation for how this is be possible in such minimal structures is presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Seismic signals hard clipping overcoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowa, Paula; Sokolowski, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    In signal processing the clipping is understand as the phenomenon of limiting the signal beyond certain threshold. It is often related to overloading of a sensor. Two particular types of clipping are being recognized: soft and hard. Beyond the limiting value soft clipping reduces the signal real gain while the hard clipping stiffly sets the signal values at the limit. In both cases certain amount of signal information is lost. Obviously if one possess the model which describes the considered signal and the threshold value (which might be slightly more difficult to obtain in the soft clipping case), the attempt of restoring the signal can be made. Commonly it is assumed that the seismic signals take form of an impulse response of some specific system. This may lead to belief that the sine wave may be the most appropriate to fit in the clipping period. However, this should be tested. In this paper the possibility of overcoming the hard clipping in seismic signals originating from a geoseismic station belonging to an underground mine is considered. A set of raw signals will be hard-clipped manually and then couple different functions will be fitted and compared in terms of least squares. The results will be then analysed.

  7. Heating plant overcomes coal crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinkovic, B.

    2006-01-01

    At the last moment Kosice managed to overcome the threat of a more than 30-percent heating price increase. The biggest local heat producer, Teplaren Kosice, is running out of coal supplies. The only alternative would be gas, which is far more expensive. The reason for this situation was a dispute of the heating plant with one of its suppliers, Kimex. Some days ago, the dispute was settled and the heating plant is now expecting the first wagon loads of coal to arrive. These are eagerly awaited, as its supplies will not last for more than a month. It all started with a public tender for a coal supplier. Teplaren Kosice (TEKO) announced the tender for the delivery of 120,000 tons of coal in June. Kimex, one of the traditional and biggest suppliers, was disqualified in the course of the tender. The winners of the tender were Slovenergo, Bratislava and S-Plus Trade, Vranov nad Toplou. TEKO signed contracts with them but a district court in Kosice prohibited the company from purchasing coal from these contractors. Kimex filed a complaint claiming that it was disqualified unlawfully. Based on this the court issued a preliminary ruling prohibiting the purchase of coal from the winners of the tender. The heating plant had to wait for the final verdict. The problem was then solved by the company's new Board of Directors, who were appointed in mid October who managed to sign new contracts with the two winners and Kimex. The new contracts cover the purchase of 150-thousand tons of coal, which is 30,000 more than in the original tender specification. Each company will supply one third. (authors)

  8. Graph Theoretical Analysis of Functional Brain Networks: Test-Retest Evaluation on Short- and Long-Term Resting-State Functional MRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Hui; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Gohel, Suril; Milham, Michael P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; He, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Graph-based computational network analysis has proven a powerful tool to quantitatively characterize functional architectures of the brain. However, the test-retest (TRT) reliability of graph metrics of functional networks has not been systematically examined. Here, we investigated TRT reliability of topological metrics of functional brain networks derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Specifically, we evaluated both short-term (5 months apart) TRT reliability for 12 global and 6 local nodal network metrics. We found that reliability of global network metrics was overall low, threshold-sensitive and dependent on several factors of scanning time interval (TI, long-term>short-term), network membership (NM, networks excluding negative correlations>networks including negative correlations) and network type (NT, binarized networks>weighted networks). The dependence was modulated by another factor of node definition (ND) strategy. The local nodal reliability exhibited large variability across nodal metrics and a spatially heterogeneous distribution. Nodal degree was the most reliable metric and varied the least across the factors above. Hub regions in association and limbic/paralimbic cortices showed moderate TRT reliability. Importantly, nodal reliability was robust to above-mentioned four factors. Simulation analysis revealed that global network metrics were extremely sensitive (but varying degrees) to noise in functional connectivity and weighted networks generated numerically more reliable results in compared with binarized networks. For nodal network metrics, they showed high resistance to noise in functional connectivity and no NT related differences were found in the resistance. These findings provide important implications on how to choose reliable analytical schemes and network metrics of interest. PMID:21818285

  9. Overcoming Barriers in Unhealthy Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Lemke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the phenomenon of sustained health-supportive behaviors among long-haul commercial truck drivers, who belong to an occupational segment with extreme health disparities. With a focus on setting-level factors, this study sought to discover ways in which individuals exhibit resiliency while immersed in endemically obesogenic environments, as well as understand setting-level barriers to engaging in health-supportive behaviors. Using a transcendental phenomenological research design, 12 long-haul truck drivers who met screening criteria were selected using purposeful maximum sampling. Seven broad themes were identified: access to health resources, barriers to health behaviors, recommended alternative settings, constituents of health behavior, motivation for health behaviors, attitude toward health behaviors, and trucking culture. We suggest applying ecological theories of health behavior and settings approaches to improve driver health. We also propose the Integrative and Dynamic Healthy Commercial Driving (IDHCD paradigm, grounded in complexity science, as a new theoretical framework for improving driver health outcomes.

  10. Overcoming the Challenges of Co-creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Udu-gama, N.; Goodwin, M.; Otellini, P.

    2016-12-01

    There is growing interest in co-creation, especially for community-related issues like climate change, resilience, pollution, and environmental justice. Nevertheless, co-creation is still not mainstream practice in either geosciences or the world of decision-makers. This presents many challenges. On the science side, challenges include a paucity of training opportunities, lack of funding for co-creation, difficulty publishing or otherwise getting credit for the effort, and a perceived lack of prestige compared to theoretical research. On the community side, parallel challenges include a lack of experience working with scientists or thinking about geoscience's relevance to community issues, tight budgets and competing priorities, the need for outputs beyond publications, and the difficulty including science among a range of factors. Additionally, scientists and community leaders often work across public and private sectors and must navigate different approaches to data, privacy, and accountability. We'll use this session to explore opportunities to overcome the challenges of co-creation. Systems thinking suggests a range of approaches: enabling individuals, reducing specific challenges, changing the relationship between the elements of the systems, and changing the goals or mindsets of the systems - each more powerful than the last. For example, mentoring and coaching enables individuals, and pro-bono work eases the challenge of getting professional credit. New modes of output, like plain language abstracts, change the relationship between publications and other outputs. We can work on changing mindsets by publicizing and celebrating individual successes. With more effort and impact, we can build collaborations in the collective impact model, where we bring scientific and community organizations together around a common agenda and shared measurement. Building on these examples, we will use this session to collect strategies and opportunities from all participants.

  11. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  12. Modelling the structure of a ceRNA-theoretical, bipartite microRNA-mRNA interaction network regulating intestinal epithelial cellular pathways using R programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J M; Henderson, W A

    2018-01-12

    We report a method using functional-molecular databases and network modelling to identify hypothetical mRNA-miRNA interaction networks regulating intestinal epithelial barrier function. The model forms a data-analysis component of our cell culture experiments, which produce RNA expression data from Nanostring Technologies nCounter ® system. The epithelial tight-junction (TJ) and actin cytoskeleton interact as molecular components of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Upstream regulation of TJ-cytoskeleton interaction is effected by the Rac/Rock/Rho signaling pathway and other associated pathways which may be activated or suppressed by extracellular signaling from growth factors, hormones, and immune receptors. Pathway activations affect epithelial homeostasis, contributing to degradation of the epithelial barrier associated with osmotic dysregulation, inflammation, and tumor development. The complexity underlying miRNA-mRNA interaction networks represents a roadblock for prediction and validation of competing-endogenous RNA network function. We developed a network model to identify hypothetical co-regulatory motifs in a miRNA-mRNA interaction network related to epithelial function. A mRNA-miRNA interaction list was generated using KEGG and miRWalk2.0 databases. R-code was developed to quantify and visualize inherent network structures. We identified a sub-network with a high number of shared, targeting miRNAs, of genes associated with cellular proliferation and cancer, including c-MYC and Cyclin D.

  13. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  14. Theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Joos, Georg

    1986-01-01

    Among the finest, most comprehensive treatments of theoretical physics ever written, this classic volume comprises a superb introduction to the main branches of the discipline and offers solid grounding for further research in a variety of fields. Students will find no better one-volume coverage of so many essential topics; moreover, since its first publication, the book has been substantially revised and updated with additional material on Bessel functions, spherical harmonics, superconductivity, elastomers, and other subjects.The first four chapters review mathematical topics needed by theo

  15. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the theoretical Physics Center (Ecole Polytechnique, France), is presented. The research activities are carried out in the fields of the supersymmetry theory, the dynamic systems theory, the statistical mechanics, the plasma physics and the random media. Substantial improvements are obtained on dynamical system investigations. In the field theory, the definition of the Gross-Neveu model is achieved. However the construction of the non-abelian gauge theories and the conformal theories are the main research activities. Concerning Astrophysics, a three-dimensional gravitational code is obtained. The activities of each team, and the list of the published papers, congress communications and thesis are given [fr

  16. Theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear theory program deals with the properties of nuclei and with the reactions and interactions between nuclei and a variety of projectiles. The main areas of concentration are: heavy-ion direct reactions at nonrelativistic energies; nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure; nuclear matter and nuclear forces;intermediate-energy physics and pion-nucleus interactions; and high-energy collisions of heavy ions. Recent progress and plans for future work in these five main areas of concentration and a summary of other theoretical studies currently in progress or recently completed are presented

  17. Theoretical Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöltzner, Michael

    Answering to the double-faced influence of string theory on mathematical practice and rigour, the mathematical physicists Arthur Jaffe and Frank Quinn have contemplated the idea that there exists a `theoretical' mathematics (alongside `theoretical' physics) whose basic structures and results still require independent corroboration by mathematical proof. In this paper, I shall take the Jaffe-Quinn debate mainly as a problem of mathematical ontology and analyse it against the backdrop of two philosophical views that are appreciative towards informal mathematical development and conjectural results: Lakatos's methodology of proofs and refutations and John von Neumann's opportunistic reading of Hilbert's axiomatic method. The comparison of both approaches shows that mitigating Lakatos's falsificationism makes his insights about mathematical quasi-ontology more relevant to 20th century mathematics in which new structures are introduced by axiomatisation and not necessarily motivated by informal ancestors. The final section discusses the consequences of string theorists' claim to finality for the theory's mathematical make-up. I argue that ontological reductionism as advocated by particle physicists and the quest for mathematically deeper axioms do not necessarily lead to identical results.

  18. Intervention: Help a Loved One Overcome Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intervention: Help a loved one overcome addiction An intervention can motivate someone to seek help for alcohol or drug misuse, compulsive eating, or ... successful. By Mayo Clinic Staff It's challenging to help a loved one struggling with any type of ...

  19. Re-Vitalizing Worthiness: A theory of overcoming suicidality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gordon, RPN, Reg. Fam. Ther. & Sup. (FTAI, MSc, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rates of suicide and suicidality have risen in many countries in recent years and in Ireland this trend has been particularly evident among young men (NOSP, 2005, focusing attention on how best to respond to this group. Although mental health professionals have been identified as a key group to respond to the suicidal person, it has been suggested that they are ill-prepared for working in this area (Maltsberger & Goldblatt, 1996; Ting et al., 2006; Cutcliffe & Stevenson, 2007. This study aimed to address these issues by developing a theoretical understanding of suicidality among young men to inform professional practice. Using Classic Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with 17 young men who had been suicidal and had been in contact with the mental health services. The substantive theory that emerged, re-vitalizing worthiness in overcoming suicidality, describes the psychosocial process that young men go through to resolve their main concern, which centres on their painful pull between life and death. Overcoming suicidality involves moving from a death orientation to a life orientation while incorporating the inevitability of death into their new sense of being. This transition entails identity re-configuration whereby young men emerge as individuals of value who are deserving of life. The process is influenced significantly by personal insights and interpersonal interactions that influence their suicide trajectories and life pathways. The theory contributes to the fields of suicidology and mental health by providing a theoretical understanding of overcoming suicidality and identifying professional and social practices that facilitate and impede this process.

  20. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S.

    2010-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  1. Theoretical Physics 1. Theoretical Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizler, Reiner M.; Luedde, Cora S. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. (orig.)

  2. Information Theoretic-Learning Auto-Encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Eder; Emigh, Matthew; Principe, Jose C

    2016-01-01

    We propose Information Theoretic-Learning (ITL) divergence measures for variational regularization of neural networks. We also explore ITL-regularized autoencoders as an alternative to variational autoencoding bayes, adversarial autoencoders and generative adversarial networks for randomly generating sample data without explicitly defining a partition function. This paper also formalizes, generative moment matching networks under the ITL framework.

  3. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  4. Theoretical Mechanics Theoretical Physics 1

    CERN Document Server

    Dreizler, Reiner M

    2011-01-01

    After an introduction to basic concepts of mechanics more advanced topics build the major part of this book. Interspersed is a discussion of selected problems of motion. This is followed by a concise treatment of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics, as well as a brief excursion on chaotic motion. The last chapter deals with applications of the Lagrangian formulation to specific systems (coupled oscillators, rotating coordinate systems, rigid bodies). The level of this textbook is advanced undergraduate. The authors combine teaching experience of more than 40 years in all fields of Theoretical Physics and related mathematical disciplines and thorough knowledge in creating advanced eLearning content. The text is accompanied by an extensive collection of online material, in which the possibilities of the electronic medium are fully exploited, e.g. in the form of applets, 2D- and 3D-animations. - A collection of 74 problems with detailed step-by-step guidance towards the solutions. - A col...

  5. Two projects in theoretical neuroscience: A convolution-based metric for neural membrane potentials and a combinatorial connectionist semantic network method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Garrett Nolan

    In this work, I present two projects that both contribute to the aim of discovering how intelligence manifests in the brain. The first project is a method for analyzing recorded neural signals, which takes the form of a convolution-based metric on neural membrane potential recordings. Relying only on integral and algebraic operations, the metric compares the timing and number of spikes within recordings as well as the recordings' subthreshold features: summarizing differences in these with a single "distance" between the recordings. Like van Rossum's (2001) metric for spike trains, the metric is based on a convolution operation that it performs on the input data. The kernel used for the convolution is carefully chosen such that it produces a desirable frequency space response and, unlike van Rossum's kernel, causes the metric to be first order both in differences between nearby spike times and in differences between same-time membrane potential values: an important trait. The second project is a combinatorial syntax method for connectionist semantic network encoding. Combinatorial syntax has been a point on which those who support a symbol-processing view of intelligent processing and those who favor a connectionist view have had difficulty seeing eye-to-eye. Symbol-processing theorists have persuasively argued that combinatorial syntax is necessary for certain intelligent mental operations, such as reasoning by analogy. Connectionists have focused on the versatility and adaptability offered by self-organizing networks of simple processing units. With this project, I show that there is a way to reconcile the two perspectives and to ascribe a combinatorial syntax to a connectionist network. The critical principle is to interpret nodes, or units, in the connectionist network as bound integrations of the interpretations for nodes that they share links with. Nodes need not correspond exactly to neurons and may correspond instead to distributed sets, or assemblies, of

  6. Learning communities and overcoming poverty in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Santos Pitanga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Object: Brazil has implemented social programs to meet the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty and inequality. Despite the good results still there are ghettos and educational and social inequalities. Moreover Learning Communities are responding to these needs by promoting education based on successful actions scientifically proven of which promote educational change and social inclusion. The aim of this article is to highlight the characteristics of Learning Communities that allow overcoming poverty, and in this perspective, explain the implementation of the Learning Communities in Brazil and how, in this way, it is creating the conditions for effective overcoming give poverty and inequality in this country.Design / methodology: This article is based on documentary analysis of reports of the INCLUD-ED - the project on school education more scientific resources has been funded by the European Union, United Nations / ECLAC, Brazilian public agencies and websites of official institutions that promote Learning Communities in Brazil. Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics are also collected.Contributions and results: It highlights successful actions that contribute to overcoming poverty and social exclusion. Such actions are based on dialogic learning, democratic management and the formation of heterogeneous groups. It is observed that in Brazil are carrying out such actions and the ongoing expansion of the project in the country is creating the conditions for effective poverty reduction.Added value: This article reveals specific elements of overcoming poverty through education.

  7. Overcoming Learned Helplessness in Community College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roueche, John E.; Mink, Oscar G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research on the effects of repeated experiences of helplessness and on locus of control. Identifies conditions necessary for overcoming learned helplessness; i.e., the potential for learning to occur; consistent reinforcement; relevant, valued reinforcers; and favorable psychological situation. Recommends eight ways for teachers to…

  8. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  9. Overcoming Barriers in Working with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…

  10. Successful Writing: Five Roadblocks to Overcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kathleen P.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides essential strategies to be more successful in one of the major roles in academia: writing. Most academics struggle with roadblocks in their writing process. We are forever battling to complete research articles, manuscripts, grant proposals or other documents. The strategies and perspective shared here help overcome several…

  11. A SYSTEMIC VISION OF BIOLOGY: OVERCOMING LINEARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayer

    2005-07-01

    were used to build  a hipermedia  material.  This  technology  permit  overcomes a linear  communication, improving the  comprehension  of the network perspective.   The teachers  speeches revealed  their  conceptual  con- structions along the  course,  showed the development of the  competences  in identify  interconnection points  in the flow and chemical cycling of energy, compatible  with a systemic view of life.

  12. Classification of protein fold classes by knot theory and prediction of folds by neural networks: A combined theoretical and experimental approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramnarayan, K.; Bohr, Henrik; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2008-01-01

    We present different means of classifying protein structure. One is made rigorous by mathematical knot invariants that coincide reasonably well with ordinary graphical fold classification and another classification is by packing analysis. Furthermore when constructing our mathematical fold...... classifications, we utilize standard neural network methods for predicting protein fold classes from amino acid sequences. We also make an analysis of the redundancy of the structural classifications in relation to function and ligand binding. Finally we advocate the use of combining the measurement of the VA...

  13. Competition Analysis of the Multimedia Market and Market Entry illustrated of network companies. A theoretical analysis with the five forces approach and the transaction costs approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kürble, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Two of the main issues for firms concerning to the creation of new markets are: whether or not be a part of this process and if so, how to participate. This paper deals with this questions concerning to the development of multimedia markets for private households on the one side and networking companies on the other side. The first question will be answered by using the "five forces"-approach for the market for movies and the broadcasting market. The second question will be discussed by the t...

  14. Prediction of Multi-Target Networks of Neuroprotective Compounds with Entropy Indices and Synthesis, Assay, and Theoretical Study of New Asymmetric 1,2-Rasagiline Carbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Romero Durán

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a multi-target complex network, the links (Lij represent the interactions between the drug (di and the target (tj, characterized by different experimental measures (Ki, Km, IC50, etc. obtained in pharmacological assays under diverse boundary conditions (cj. In this work, we handle Shannon entropy measures for developing a model encompassing a multi-target network of neuroprotective/neurotoxic compounds reported in the CHEMBL database. The model predicts correctly >8300 experimental outcomes with Accuracy, Specificity, and Sensitivity above 80%–90% on training and external validation series. Indeed, the model can calculate different outcomes for >30 experimental measures in >400 different experimental protocolsin relation with >150 molecular and cellular targets on 11 different organisms (including human. Hereafter, we reported by the first time the synthesis, characterization, and experimental assays of a new series of chiral 1,2-rasagiline carbamate derivatives not reported in previous works. The experimental tests included: (1 assay in absence of neurotoxic agents; (2 in the presence of glutamate; and (3 in the presence of H2O2. Lastly, we used the new Assessing Links with Moving Averages (ALMA-entropy model to predict possible outcomes for the new compounds in a high number of pharmacological tests not carried out experimentally.

  15. The small and rural academic library leveraging resources and overcoming limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Davis Kendrick, Kaetrena

    2016-01-01

    Through the use of case studies, research, and practical interviews, The Small or Rural Academic Library: Leveraging Resources and Overcoming Limitations explores how academic librarians in such environments can keep pace with, create, and improve modern library practices and services, network with colleagues, and access continuing education and professional development opportunities.

  16. Overcoming barriers to development of cooperative medical decision support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Donna L; Cohen, Maurice E

    2012-01-01

    Attempts to automate the medical decision making process have been underway for the at least fifty years, beginning with data-based approaches that relied chiefly on statistically-based methods. Approaches expanded to include knowledge-based systems, both linear and non-linear neural networks, agent-based systems, and hybrid methods. While some of these models produced excellent results none have been used extensively in medical practice. In order to move these methods forward into practical use, a number of obstacles must be overcome, including validation of existing systems on large data sets, development of methods for including new knowledge as it becomes available, construction of a broad range of decision models, and development of non-intrusive methods that allow the physician to use these decision aids in conjunction with, not instead of, his or her own medical knowledge. None of these four requirements will come easily. A cooperative effort among researchers, including practicing MDs, is vital, particularly as more information on diseases and their contributing factors continues to expand resulting in more parameters than the human decision maker can process effectively. In this article some of the basic structures that are necessary to facilitate the use of an automated decision support system are discussed, along with potential methods for overcoming existing barriers.

  17. Spatio-temporal dependence of the signaling response in immune-receptor trafficking networks regulated by cell density: a theoretical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar García-Peñarrubia

    Full Text Available Cell signaling processes involve receptor trafficking through highly connected networks of interacting components. The binding of surface receptors to their specific ligands is a key factor for the control and triggering of signaling pathways. In most experimental systems, ligand concentration and cell density vary within a wide range of values. Dependence of the signal response on cell density is related with the extracellular volume available per cell. This dependence has previously been studied using non-spatial models which assume that signaling components are well mixed and uniformly distributed in a single compartment. In this paper, a mathematical model that shows the influence exerted by cell density on the spatio-temporal evolution of ligands, cell surface receptors, and intracellular signaling molecules is developed. To this end, partial differential equations were used to model ligand and receptor trafficking dynamics through the different domains of the whole system. This enabled us to analyze several interesting features involved with these systems, namely: a how the perturbation caused by the signaling response propagates through the system; b receptor internalization dynamics and how cell density affects the robustness of dose-response curves upon variation of the binding affinity; and c that enhanced correlations between ligand input and system response are obtained under conditions that result in larger perturbations of the equilibrium ligand + surface receptor [Please see text] ligand - receptor complex. Finally, the results are compared with those obtained by considering that the above components are well mixed in a single compartment.

  18. Barriers to women engaging in collective action to overcome sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Helena R M; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-12-01

    Over centuries women have fought hard to obtain increasing gender equality, but despite these successes absolute equality remains an elusive goal. Theoretically, women's numerical strength makes them well-placed to take effective collective action, and millions of women engage in feminist collective action every day. In this article, however, we argue that women also face barriers to engaging in feminist collective action; barriers that are associated with the social construction and experience of what it means to be a woman. Our review synthesizes sexism research under a contemporary collective action framework to clarify our current understanding of the literature and to offer novel theoretical explanations for why women might be discouraged from engaging in feminist collective action. Using the antecedents of collective action identified by van Zomeren, Postmes, and Spears' (2008) meta-analysis, we critically review the sexism literature to argue that women face challenges when it comes to (a) identifying with other women and feminists, (b) perceiving sexism and expressing group-based anger, and (c) recognizing the efficacy of collective action. We then outline a research agenda with a view to investigating ways of overcoming these barriers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Overcoming the Newtonian paradigm: the unfinished project of theoretical biology from a Schellingian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gare, Arran

    2013-09-01

    Defending Robert Rosen's claim that in every confrontation between physics and biology it is physics that has always had to give ground, it is shown that many of the most important advances in mathematics and physics over the last two centuries have followed from Schelling's demand for a new physics that could make the emergence of life intelligible. Consequently, while reductionism prevails in biology, many biophysicists are resolutely anti-reductionist. This history is used to identify and defend a fragmented but progressive tradition of anti-reductionist biomathematics. It is shown that the mathematico-physico-chemical morphology research program, the biosemiotics movement, and the relational biology of Rosen, although they have developed independently of each other, are built on and advance this anti-reductionist tradition of thought. It is suggested that understanding this history and its relationship to the broader history of post-Newtonian science could provide guidance for and justify both the integration of these strands and radically new work in post-reductionist biomathematics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Overcoming challenges to secure a renewable future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Rob; Philpott, Angie; Bown, Charles W.; Thompson, Robert; Dunderdale, Kathy

    2010-09-15

    Newfoundland and Labrador is on the brink of two extraordinary energy achievements: 1) becoming one of the world's only jurisdictions thermal generation almost entirely; and 2) making a huge contribution of renewable energy to North America. These achievements require the development of the 3,000 MW Lower Churchill Hydroelectric Project; however, the Project will not be developed without a business case to support it. This paper will highlight how the province, through its Energy Plan, has set the path forward for the future development of its renewable resources, including how it plans to overcome some of the challenges ahead.

  1. Overcoming barriers to membrane protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Roslyn M; Henderson, Peter J F; Iwata, So; Kunji, Edmund R S; Michel, Hartmut; Neutze, Richard; Newstead, Simon; Poolman, Bert; Tate, Christopher G; Vogel, Horst

    2011-04-01

    After decades of slow progress, the pace of research on membrane protein structures is beginning to quicken thanks to various improvements in technology, including protein engineering and microfocus X-ray diffraction. Here we review these developments and, where possible, highlight generic new approaches to solving membrane protein structures based on recent technological advances. Rational approaches to overcoming the bottlenecks in the field are urgently required as membrane proteins, which typically comprise ~30% of the proteomes of organisms, are dramatically under-represented in the structural database of the Protein Data Bank.

  2. Overcoming the isolation of disadvantaged housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    Disadvantaged social housing areas in Denmark are currently subject to more thorough physical refurbishments, aiming to overcome the isolated character of the housing estates. The ambition is to attract new users and residents by opening up the borders of the area and establish attractive, new...... penthouse flats, new urban functions within the area or spectacular new public spaces near it. In this paper the social impact of such transformations are analysed and discussed based on case-studies in 3 Danish areas. The analysis shows that especially everyday-route strategies adding new public functions...

  3. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-01

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  4. Overcome IMF crisis with idea and invention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeon Jung

    1998-01-15

    This book introduces the invention as a tool to overcome IMF crisis. These are the titles of the way to create invention and idea : what is idea? everyone can create something, have a confidence, this is patent, replace or change something, invention is not logical, challenge the normal law, throw away stereotype, movement of idea, original imagination, there are a lot of solutions, there is no expert, have a positive thought, why does inventor invent? necessity is invention of mother, three stage of idea and invention and imitation for invention.

  5. Game theoretic approaches for spectrum redistribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Fan

    2014-01-01

    This brief examines issues of spectrum allocation for the limited resources of radio spectrum. It uses a game-theoretic perspective, in which the nodes in the wireless network are rational and always pursue their own objectives. It provides a systematic study of the approaches that can guarantee the system's convergence at an equilibrium state, in which the system performance is optimal or sub-optimal. The author provides a short tutorial on game theory, explains game-theoretic channel allocation in clique and in multi-hop wireless networks and explores challenges in designing game-theoretic m

  6. Reshaping transport operations to overcome new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, F.; Blachet, L. [COGEMA Logistics, (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    After more than 30 years of Spent Fuel Nuclear Fuel (SFN) and High Level Waste (HLW) casks shipments to and from the COGEMA reprocessing factories in LA HAGUE, COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated a unique outstanding performance in transportation for the benefit of its international customers and has integrated all feed-back from past successful operations. While maintaining the highest safety and security records, the last 5 years have been a major challenge to overcome the increase in transport throughputs, regulatory requirements, specific customer demands and new environmental approach (both COGEMA-La Hague and COGEMA LOGISTICS have been certified ISO14001 since 2003). Improvements in procedures, equipments, controls, inspection and organization have been undertaken. Additional important logistics means such as cranes, lifting devices, spreaders were put in operations in the dedicated workshop of our road and maritime facilities as well as in our rail terminals. Thus COGEMA LOGISTICS has developed and improved important logistics means in the Cherbourg area for the loading and unloading operations of heavy casks (i.e. whose weight is between 25 and 120 tons) among three modes of freight (road, railway or maritime transportation). In Valognes, which is currently the most important railway terminal in the world for the transfer of nuclear materials, about 1200 transfers of heavy casks were performed in 2003. New transport equipment and assets were integrated successfully to answer the new requirements for the best interest of our customers. This paper will provide information about equipments and management system developed to overcome these challenges.

  7. Reshaping transport operations to overcome new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, F.; Blachet, L.

    2004-01-01

    After more than 30 years of Spent Fuel Nuclear Fuel (SFN) and High Level Waste (HLW) casks shipments to and from the COGEMA reprocessing factories in LA HAGUE, COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated a unique outstanding performance in transportation for the benefit of its international customers and has integrated all feed-back from past successful operations. While maintaining the highest safety and security records, the last 5 years have been a major challenge to overcome the increase in transport throughputs, regulatory requirements, specific customer demands and new environmental approach (both COGEMA-La Hague and COGEMA LOGISTICS have been certified ISO14001 since 2003). Improvements in procedures, equipments, controls, inspection and organization have been undertaken. Additional important logistics means such as cranes, lifting devices, spreaders were put in operations in the dedicated workshop of our road and maritime facilities as well as in our rail terminals. Thus COGEMA LOGISTICS has developed and improved important logistics means in the Cherbourg area for the loading and unloading operations of heavy casks (i.e. whose weight is between 25 and 120 tons) among three modes of freight (road, railway or maritime transportation). In Valognes, which is currently the most important railway terminal in the world for the transfer of nuclear materials, about 1200 transfers of heavy casks were performed in 2003. New transport equipment and assets were integrated successfully to answer the new requirements for the best interest of our customers. This paper will provide information about equipments and management system developed to overcome these challenges

  8. A theoretical framework for the associations between identity and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2017-11-01

    Identity research largely emerged from clinical observations. Decades of empirical work advanced the field in refining existing approaches and adding new approaches. Furthermore, the existence of linkages of identity with psychopathology is now well established. Unfortunately, both the directionality of effects between identity aspects and psychopathology symptoms, and the mechanisms underlying associations are unclear. In the present paper, we present a new framework to inspire hypothesis-driven empirical research to overcome this limitation. The framework has a basic resemblance to theoretical models for the study of personality and psychopathology, so we provide examples of how these might apply to the study of identity. Next, we explain that unique features of identity may come into play in individuals suffering from psychopathology that are mostly related to the content of one's identity. These include pros and cons of identifying with one's diagnostic label. Finally, inspired by Hermans' dialogical self theory and principles derived from Piaget's, Swann's and Kelly's work, we delineate a framework with identity at the core of an individual multidimensional space. In this space, psychopathology symptoms have a known distance (representing relevance) to one's identity, and individual multidimensional spaces are connected to those of other individuals in one's social network. We discuss methodological (quantitative and qualitative, idiographic and nomothetic) and statistical procedures (multilevel models and network models) to test the framework. Resulting evidence can boost the field of identity research in demonstrating its high practical relevance for the emergence and conservation of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Overcoming Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karobi Moitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle mechanism of protection of stem cells is through the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. These transporters serve as the guardians of the stem cell population in the body. Unfortunately these very same ABC efflux pumps afford protection to cancer stem cells in tumors, shielding them from the adverse effects of chemotherapy. A number of strategies to circumvent the function of these transporters in cancer stem cells are currently under investigation. These strategies include the development of competitive and allosteric modulators, nanoparticle mediated delivery of inhibitors, targeted transcriptional regulation of ABC transporters, miRNA mediated inhibition, and targeting of signaling pathways that modulate ABC transporters. The role of ABC transporters in cancer stem cells will be explored in this paper and strategies aimed at overcoming drug resistance caused by these particular transporters will also be discussed.

  10. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Repositioning in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhei Nishimura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning (DR is the process of identifying new indications for existing drugs. DR usually focuses on drugs that have cleared phase-I safety trials but has yet to show efficacy for the intended indication. Therefore, DR can probably skip the preclinical and phase-I study, which can reduce the cost throughout drug development. However, the expensive phase-II/III trials are required to establish efficacy. The obstacles to DR include identification of new indications with a high success rate in clinical studies, obtaining funding for clinical studies, patent protection, and approval systems. To tackle these obstacles, various approaches have been applied to DR worldwide. In this perspective, we provide representative examples of DR and discuss the ongoing efforts to overcome obstacles to DR in Japan.

  11. Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards overcoming poor readership and building reading culture of in schools. ... of this paper is to find strategies that can overcome poor readership in schools. ... Keywords: English First Additional Language, Writing Skills, Spelling Errors, ...

  12. Getting Embedded in Industry Networks Abroad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    (Hollensen, 2017). This research project aims to explain how the “incubator” can support the acquisition of lacking experiental knowledge and facilitate the process of getting embedded in markets or industrial networks abroad. Theoretical foundation This paper adopts an industrial network approach in line......Expanding to markets abroad is a vital opportunity to stabilize and/or expand a company’s revenues. Companies who suffer from small domestic markets try to overcome competitive pressures by entering new markets (Korsakine and Tvaronaviciene, 2012). In particular, the attention for SMEs to increase...... their activities abroad has turned to the potential of accessing emerging markets with faster growth like the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) in response to the saturation of domestic and European markets (Neupert, et al. 2006, Ulrich, et al., 2014). However, the challenges associated...

  13. Wireless Information-Theoretic Security in an Outdoor Topology with Obstacles: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagiuklas Tasos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Wireless Information-Theoretic Security (WITS scheme, which has been recently introduced as a robust physical layer-based security solution, especially for infrastructureless networks. An autonomic network of moving users was implemented via 802.11n nodes of an ad hoc network for an outdoor topology with obstacles. Obstructed-Line-of-Sight (OLOS and Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS propagation scenarios were examined. Low-speed user movement was considered, so that Doppler spread could be discarded. A transmitter and a legitimate receiver exchanged information in the presence of a moving eavesdropper. Average Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR values were acquired for both the main and the wiretap channel, and the Probability of Nonzero Secrecy Capacity was calculated based on theoretical formula. Experimental results validate theoretical findings stressing the importance of user location and mobility schemes on the robustness of Wireless Information-Theoretic Security and call for further theoretical analysis.

  14. Study of a family that overcomes poverty issues: family resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángela Mattar Yunes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Generally, researches with families focus the difficulties and the negative aspects of family life by bringing up their maladjustments and failures. The interest in family resilience contributes to change this logic by demonstrating the healthy aspects of the family world. Nevertheless, the term resilience presents ideological controversies which are more severe when the discussion is about families and poverty. In order to diminish these contradictions this study adopted a systemic concept of resilience which refers to “those processes that make possible to overcome adversities”. A case study was realized with a low income family who lived in a “very poor” neighborhood in the deep south of Brazil. The methodological strategies to the formal investigation of the family were: life history of the family using the principles of reflexive interview, genograms and data analyses through the approach of the grounded theory. The results showed that the family lived a number of risk experiences such as adoption, privation of basic needs, migration and diseases. Among the indicators of their abilities of “overcoming adversities”, emerged the belief system as the core of the discourses. The family showed that they value the interpersonal relationships through intra and extra familiar interactions based in the patterns of help, learning, affection and solidarity. During the crisis the family gives meaning to the difficulties in order to maintaining the situation controlled through cohesion, open communication, mutual respect and getting support of the extended family/ social network. The pos-adversity period is perceived as benefic and transforming as the family feels stronger and with feelings of solidarity, which is a mark of this family. Their attitude in relation to the neighborhood is active in the sense of promoting the welfare of other families who live in the same social address. Would those above identified processes be adequate to

  15. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department successfully collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows for the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the State Committee for Scientific Research. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute and at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present, eight students are working towards their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)

  16. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research, yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five students are working for their Ph.D. or MSc degrees under supervision of the senior members from the Department. We continue our participation at the EC SOCRATES-ERASMUS educational programme which allows exchange of graduate students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the UK. (author)

  17. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet more formal problems are also considered. A detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various field is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular, members of our Department participate in the EC network, which stimulates the mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and up graduate teaching activity at our Institute as well as at other academic institution in Cracow. At present nine students are working on their Ph.D. degrees under the supervision of senior members of the Department. (author)

  18. Comparative Study on Theoretical and Machine Learning Methods for Acquiring Compressed Liquid Densities of 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea via Song and Mason Equation, Support Vector Machine, and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-Heptafluoropropane (R227ea is a good refrigerant that reduces greenhouse effects and ozone depletion. In practical applications, we usually have to know the compressed liquid densities at different temperatures and pressures. However, the measurement requires a series of complex apparatus and operations, wasting too much manpower and resources. To solve these problems, here, Song and Mason equation, support vector machine (SVM, and artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to develop theoretical and machine learning models, respectively, in order to predict the compressed liquid densities of R227ea with only the inputs of temperatures and pressures. Results show that compared with the Song and Mason equation, appropriate machine learning models trained with precise experimental samples have better predicted results, with lower root mean square errors (RMSEs (e.g., the RMSE of the SVM trained with data provided by Fedele et al. [1] is 0.11, while the RMSE of the Song and Mason equation is 196.26. Compared to advanced conventional measurements, knowledge-based machine learning models are proved to be more time-saving and user-friendly.

  19. Overcoming the Photovoltage Plateau in Large Bandgap Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Adharsh; Stoddard, Ryan J; Jo, Sae Byeok; Hillhouse, Hugh W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2018-05-09

    Development of large bandgap (1.80-1.85 eV E g ) perovskite is crucial for perovskite-perovskite tandem solar cells. However, the performance of 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskite solar cells (PVKSCs) are significantly lagging their counterparts in the 1.60-1.75 eV E g range. This is because the photovoltage ( V oc ) does not proportionally increase with E g due to lower optoelectronic quality of conventional (MA,FA,Cs)Pb(I,Br) 3 and results in a photovoltage plateau ( V oc limited to 80% of the theoretical limit for ∼1.8 eV E g ). Here, we incorporate phenylethylammonium (PEA) in a mixed-halide perovskite composition to solve the inherent material-level challenges in 1.80-1.85 eV E g perovskites. The amount of PEA incorporation governs the topography and optoelectronic properties of resultant films. Detailed structural and spectroscopic characterization reveal the characteristic trends in crystalline size, orientation, and charge carrier recombination dynamics and rationalize the origin of improved material quality with higher luminescence. With careful interface optimization, the improved material characteristics were translated to devices and V oc values of 1.30-1.35 V were achieved, which correspond to 85-87% of the theoretical limit. Using an optimal amount of PEA incorporation to balance the increase in V oc and the decrease in charge collection, a highest power conversion efficiency of 12.2% was realized. Our results clearly overcome the photovoltage plateau in the 1.80-1.85 eV E g range and represent the highest V oc achieved for mixed-halide PVKSCs. This study provides widely translatable insights, an important breakthrough, and a promising platform for next-generation perovskite tandems.

  20. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  1. THE NETWORKS IN TOURISM: A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-01-01

    The economic world in which tourism companies act today is in a continuous changing process. The most important factor of these changes is the globalization of their environment, both in economic, social, natural and cultural aspects. The tourism companies can benefit from the opportunities brought by globalization, but also could be menaced by the new context. How could react the companies to these changes in order to create and maintain long term competitive advantage for their business? I...

  2. Evaluative pressure overcomes perceptual load effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Alice; Autin, Frédérique; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2015-06-01

    Perceptual load has been found to be a powerful bottom-up determinant of distractibility, with high perceptual load preventing distraction by any irrelevant information. However, when under evaluative pressure, individuals exert top-down attentional control by giving greater weight to task-relevant features, making them more distractible from task-relevant distractors. One study tested whether the top-down modulation of attention under evaluative pressure overcomes the beneficial bottom-up effect of high perceptual load on distraction. Using a response-competition task, we replicated previous findings that high levels of perceptual load suppress task-relevant distractor response interference, but only for participants in a control condition. Participants under evaluative pressure (i.e., who believed their intelligence was assessed) showed interference from task-relevant distractor at all levels of perceptual load. This research challenges the assumptions of the perceptual load theory and sheds light on a neglected determinant of distractibility: the self-relevance of the performance situation in which attentional control is solicited.

  3. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweigard, R.J. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig.

  4. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  5. Overponderabilia: Overcoming Overthinking When Studying "Ourselves"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Tang Vangkilde

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a key methodological difficulty in conducting qualitative research close to home: the issue of overthinking. Whereas MALINOWSKI's concern regarding imponderabilia, i.e., the risk of not thinking about the subtle phenomena of everyday life, has long haunted ethnographers and qualitative researchers, not least those working "at home," we highlight an issue of overponderabilia, i.e., the risk of overthinking seemingly familiar statements and practices of the people studied. How do we, as qualitative researchers, study very well-known phenomena such as science, bureaucracy, management etc. without reading our own ideas and understandings into the deceptively familiar concepts and accounts of our research subjects? Pondering this issue is inevitably a central concern for the increasing number of qualitative researchers who study people who apparently talk, think and work in a way which is similar to their own. While previous answers or solutions to this issue first and foremost emphasize various means of reflexivity, this article presents the method of "mutual participatory observation" as a particular way of overcoming overthinking: a method which in situ invites our research subjects into our thinking. Thus, in the pursuit of an ever enhanced understanding, qualitative research becomes not so much a reflexive deciphering as an active debate; that is, a mutual induction of the differences between the qualitative researcher and the research subjects. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602281

  6. Developing an intervention to overcome procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otermin-Cristeta, Solange; Hautzinger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of this study was the development of a reliable intervention to overcome general procrastination orientated to college students, designed to be used in practical clinical work. The workshops involved six meetings based on behavioral and cognitive techniques, paradox intervention, and psychoeducation. 175 students participated voluntarily. Their procrastination levels were measured in a pretest, post-test, and a 3-month follow-up. After the first interview, the participants were randomly divided into three groups (Intervention A, Intervention B, and a control group with no intervention). There was a significant improvement after the intervention. After 3 months, the average score was still significantly lower than in the pretest, whereas the score of the control group remained unchanged. The participants in Workshop A scored significantly lower in the post-test than the ones in Workshop B. After 3 months, the participants in Workshop B scored significantly lower in the follow up. So both interventions resulted to be effective in reducing procrastination sustainably.

  7. Utilising artificial intelligence in software defined wireless sensor network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matlou, OG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Sensor Network (SDWSN) is realised by infusing Software Defined Network (SDN) model in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Reason for that is to overcome the challenges of WSN. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning...

  8. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  9. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  10. Challenges confronting female surgical leaders: overcoming the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Rena B; Souba, Wiley W; Thorndyke, Luanne E

    2006-05-15

    The number of women reaching top ranks in academic surgery is remarkably low. The purpose of this study was to identify: 1) barriers to becoming a female surgical leader; 2) key attributes that enable advancement and success; and 3) current leadership challenges faced as senior leaders. Semi-structured interviews of ten female surgical leaders queried the following dimensions: attributes for success, lessons learned, mistakes, key career steps, the role of mentoring, gender advantages/disadvantages, and challenges. Perseverance (60%) and drive (50%) were identified as critical success factors, as were good communication skills, a passion for scholarship, a stable home life and a positive outlook. Eighty percent identified discrimination or gender prejudice as a major obstacle in their careers. While 90% percent had mentors, 50% acknowledged that they had not been effectively mentored. Career advice included: develop broad career goals (50%); select a conducive environment (30%); find a mentor (60%); take personal responsibility (40%); organize time and achieve balance (40%); network (30%); create a niche (30%); pursue research (30%); publish (50%); speak in public (30%); and enjoy the process (30%). Being in a minority, being highly visible and being collaborative were identified as advantages. Obtaining buy-in and achieving consensus was the greatest leadership challenge reported. Female academic surgeons face challenges to career advancement. While these barriers are real, they can be overcome by resolve, commitment, and developing strong communication skills. These elements should be taken into consideration in designing career development programs for junior female surgical faculty.

  11. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Richard P. Bowers; Dr. Lynn Sparling; Bruce Buckheit; Daniel LoBue

    2012-05-31

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  12. Mid-Atlantic Wind - Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel F. Ancona III; Kathryn E. George; Lynn Sparling; Bruce C. Buckheit; Daniel LoBue; and Richard P. Bowers

    2012-06-29

    This study, supported by the US Department of Energy, Wind Powering America Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources and Chesapeake Bay Foundation, analyzed barriers to wind energy development in the Mid-Atlantic region along with options for overcoming or mitigating them. The Mid-Atlantic States including Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia, have excellent wind energy potential and growing demand for electricity, but only two utility-scale projects have been installed to date. Reasons for this apathetic development of wind resources were analyzed and quantified for four markets. Specific applications are: 1) Appalachian mountain ridgeline sites, 2) on coastal plains and peninsulas, 3) at shallow water sites in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, and 4) at deeper water sites off the Atlantic coast. Each market has distinctly different opportunities and barriers. The primary barriers to wind development described in this report can be grouped into four categories; state policy and regulatory issues, wind resource technical uncertainty, economic viability, and public interest in environmental issues. The properties of these typologies are not mutually independent and do interact. The report concluded that there are no insurmountable barriers to land-based wind energy projects and they could be economically viable today. Likewise potential sites in sheltered shallow waters in regional bay and sounds have been largely overlooked but could be viable currently. Offshore ocean-based applications face higher costs and technical and wind resource uncertainties. The ongoing research and development program, revision of state incentive policies, additional wind measurement efforts, transmission system expansion, environmental baseline studies and outreach to private developers and stakeholders are needed to reduce barriers to wind energy development.

  13. 2D MI-DRAGON: a new predictor for protein-ligands interactions and theoretic-experimental studies of US FDA drug-target network, oxoisoaporphine inhibitors for MAO-A and human parasite proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Prado, Francisco; García-Mera, Xerardo; Escobar, Manuel; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Yañez, Matilde; Riera-Fernandez, Pablo; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2011-12-01

    There are many pairs of possible Drug-Proteins Interactions that may take place or not (DPIs/nDPIs) between drugs with high affinity/non-affinity for different proteins. This fact makes expensive in terms of time and resources, for instance, the determination of all possible ligands-protein interactions for a single drug. In this sense, we can use Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) models to carry out rational DPIs prediction. Unfortunately, almost all QSAR models predict activity against only one target. To solve this problem we can develop multi-target QSAR (mt-QSAR) models. In this work, we introduce the technique 2D MI-DRAGON a new predictor for DPIs based on two different well-known software. We use the software MARCH-INSIDE (MI) to calculate 3D structural parameters for targets and the software DRAGON was used to calculated 2D molecular descriptors all drugs showing known DPIs present in the Drug Bank (US FDA benchmark dataset). Both classes of parameters were used as input of different Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to seek an accurate non-linear mt-QSAR predictor. The best ANN model found is a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with profile MLP 21:21-31-1:1. This MLP classifies correctly 303 out of 339 DPIs (Sensitivity = 89.38%) and 480 out of 510 nDPIs (Specificity = 94.12%), corresponding to training Accuracy = 92.23%. The validation of the model was carried out by means of external predicting series with Sensitivity = 92.18% (625/678 DPIs; Specificity = 90.12% (730/780 nDPIs) and Accuracy = 91.06%. 2D MI-DRAGON offers a good opportunity for fast-track calculation of all possible DPIs of one drug enabling us to re-construct large drug-target or DPIs Complex Networks (CNs). For instance, we reconstructed the CN of the US FDA benchmark dataset with 855 nodes 519 drugs+336 targets). We predicted CN with similar topology (observed and predicted values of average distance are equal to 6.7 vs. 6.6). These CNs can be used to explore

  14. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference values for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based on the laws of IPv4 growth, that is, the bulk growth and the finitely growing limit, it proposes a finite network model with a bulk growth. The model is said to be an S-curve network. Analysis demonstrates that the analytic method based on uniform distributions (i.e., Barabási-Albert method) is not suitable for the network. It develops an approximate method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual nodes, and uses this to calculate analytically the degree distribution and the scaling exponents. The analytical result agrees with the simulation well, obeying an approximately power-law form. This method can overcome a shortcoming of Barabási-Albert method commonly used in current network research. (general)

  15. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-12-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference values for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based on the laws of IPv4 growth, that is, the bulk growth and the finitely growing limit, it proposes a finite network model with a bulk growth. The model is said to be an S-curve network. Analysis demonstrates that the analytic method based on uniform distributions (i.e., Barabási-Albert method) is not suitable for the network. It develops an approximate method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual nodes, and uses this to calculate analytically the degree distribution and the scaling exponents. The analytical result agrees with the simulation well, obeying an approximately power-law form. This method can overcome a shortcoming of Barabási-Albert method commonly used in current network research.

  16. Interconnection policy: a theoretical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the theoretical foundations of interconnection policy. The requirement of an interconnection policy should not be taken for granted in all circumstances, even considering the issue of network externalities. On the other hand, when it is required, an encompassing interconnection policy is usually justified. We provide an overview of the theory on interconnection pricing that results in several different prescriptions depending on which problem the regulator aims to address. We also present a survey on the literature on two-way interconnection.

  17. Machine learning a theoretical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Balas K

    2014-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive introduction to computational learning theory. The author's uniform presentation of fundamental results and their applications offers AI researchers a theoretical perspective on the problems they study. The book presents tools for the analysis of probabilistic models of learning, tools that crisply classify what is and is not efficiently learnable. After a general introduction to Valiant's PAC paradigm and the important notion of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension, the author explores specific topics such as finite automata and neural networks. The presentation

  18. Towards understanding international migration determinants today: Theoretical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predojević-Despić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    significantly different from those which lead to their stabilization in time and space. Although differences in the income height, risks, employment possibilities, market expansion can all influence the continuation of spatial movement of population, new conditions which arise during migration begin to act as independent factors: development of migratory networks, institutionalized support to the development of trans-national activities, as well as changing the social context of work in countries of destination. Therefore, in the analysis of contemporary international migrations the necessity arises for a systematic approach, namely dynamic perspective of research - from recognition to a detailed insight in changeable trends and forms of contemporary migratory movements in the world. In addition, at the same time with the development of new markets, regional economies and technology centers, there has been a 'trans-national turnabout' in the last fifteen years or so in researching migrations, namely a significant development in the approach which stresses the relations which migrants maintain with their families, communities and cultures which are out of the country in which they migrated in. The final part of the paper calls for the requirement of the following: coordination of theoretical concepts with new social conditions, post-industrial world and global processes of transformations in which migrations have an important role; overcoming inadequate coordination and isolation in studying migrations within special scientific disciplines, as well as poor connections of certain aspects of migration study; research of the causes and consequences of migrations as an inseparable part of the general process of social development. .

  19. OVERCOMING THE ANTINOMIES OF HUMAN EXISTENCE: ONTOLOGY OF TRICKSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Danylova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to study the ontological status of a trickster character in “Panchatantra” and its receptions. Methodology. The author has used analytical methodology of C. Levi-Strauss, C. Jung’s theory of archetypes, and hermeneutical methodology. Theoretical basis and results. Perception of the world in the form of a narrative is inherent in the very specifics of the human thinking. Among the most famous literary narratives that structured cultural experience of different nations are the framed story “Panchatantra” and its receptions “Kalilah and Dimnah” and “Stefanit and Ihnilat”. The framework of the analyzed text is the story about two jackals Karataka and Damanaka, Lion, and Bull. “Panchatantra” is deeply rooted in the animal epos, which is based on the totemic myth. Myths were created by primitive thinking that sought to systematize the world, to give it order through binary oppositions. Their hard core is “Life – Death” opposition. A myth deals with oppositions and seeks to neutralize them. Thus, a myth serves as the logical tool to overcome the fundamental contradictions. This is carried out by introducing a mediator. Two poles, two extreme points are unambiguous; ambiguity “occurs” at an intermediate stage only. Shift from one point to another is impossible directly – for this we need a mediator. In the given narrative the binary opposition “Life – Death” is replaced by its metaphor – Bull and Lion, herbivore (metaphor for life and carnivore (metaphor for death. These oppositions are mediated by Jackal (Karataka&Damanaka that feeds on carrion and has a dual nature. A mediator, which overcomes or at least mitigates the binary opposition, is seen as a compromise between herbivores and carnivores that embody the antinomy of life and death. This mediator is a trickster – bipolar character (good and evil at the same time. A trickster freely acts in unordered world of Chaos without Life

  20. Department of Theoretical Physics - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Research activity of the Department of Theoretical Physics concerns theoretical high-energy and elementary particle physics, intermediate energy particle physics, theoretical nuclear physics, theory of nuclear matter, theory of quark-gluon plasma and of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, theoretical astrophysics and general physics. There is some emphasis on the phenomenological applications of the theoretical research yet the more formal problems are also considered. The detailed summary of the research projects and of the results obtained in various fields is given in the abstracts. Our Department actively collaborates with other Departments of the Institute as well as with several scientific institutions both in Poland and abroad. In particular members of our Department participate in the EC network which allows mobility of researchers. Several members of our Department have also participated in the research projects funded by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research (KBN). The complete list of grants is listed separately. Besides pure research, members of our Department are also involved in graduate and undergraduate teaching activity both at our Institute as well as at other academic institutions in Cracow. At present five PhD students are working for their degree under supervision of the senior members from the Department. In the last year we have completed our active participation in the educational TEMPUS programme funded by the European Communities. This programme has in particular allowed exchange of students between our Department and the Department of Physics of the University of Durham in the United Kingdom. In 1998 we joined the SOCRATES - ERASMUS project which will make it possible to continue this exchange. (author)

  1. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  2. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  3. Towards an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Control System Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolski, Ina; Rettberg, Achim

    To solve health problems with medical applications that use complex algorithms is a trend nowadays. It could also be a chance to help patients with critical problems caused from nerve irritations to overcome them and provide a better living situation. In this paper a system for monitoring and controlling the nerves from the intestine is described on a theoretical basis. The presented system could be applied to the irritable bowel syndrome. For control a neural network is used. The advantages for using a neural network for the control of irritable bowel syndrome are the adaptation and learning. These two aspects are important because the syndrome behavior varies from patient to patient and have also concerning the time a lot of variations with respect to each patient. The developed neural network is implemented and can be simulated. Therefore, it can be shown how the network monitor and control the nerves for individual input parameters.

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  5. Why Mondragon? Analyzing What Works in Overcoming Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Gisela; Santa Cruz, Ignacio; Rotger, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Research using the critical communicative methodology (CCM) aims to identify the elements that help overcome inequalities. Drawing on research on the Basque Mondragon Corporation (MC), the authors focus on two major elements such as, selecting research cases that have been shown to succeed in overcoming inequalities, and communicative data…

  6. Fear of Public Speaking: How Can I Overcome It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I overcome it? How can I overcome my fear of public speaking? Answers from Craig N. Sawchuk, Ph.D., L.P. Fear of public speaking is a common form of ... It can range from slight nervousness to paralyzing fear and panic. Many people with this fear avoid ...

  7. Psychotherapy Integration via Theoretical Unification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W. Tryon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful psychotherapy integration requires theoretical unification because psychotherapists can only be expected to treat patients with the same diagnoses similarly if they understand these disorders similarly and if they agree on the mechanisms by which effective treatments work. Tryon (in press has proposed a transtheoretic transdiagnostic psychotherapy based on an Applied Psychological Science (APS clinical orientation, founded on a BioPsychology Network explanatory system that provides sufficient theoretical unification to support meaningful psychotherapy integration. That proposal focused mainly on making a neuroscience argument. This article makes a different argument for theoretical unification and consequently psychotherapy integration. The strength of theories of psychotherapy, like all theory, is to focus on certain topics, goals, and methods. But this strength is also a weakness because it can blind one to alternative perspectives and thereby promote unnecessary competition among therapies. This article provides a broader perspective based on learning and memory that is consistent with the behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, pharmacologic, and Existential/Humanistic/Experiential clinical orientations. It thereby provides a basis for meaningful psychotherapy integration.

  8. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a survey of the studies done in the Theoretical Physics Division of the Nuclear Physics Institute; the subjects studied in theoretical nuclear physics were the few-nucleon problem, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, weak interactions, intermediate energy and high energy physics. In this last field, the subjects studied were field theory, group theory, symmetry and strong interactions [fr

  9. High-efficiency free-form condenser overcoming rotational symmetry limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñano, Juan C; Benítez, Pablo; Blen, José; Santamaría, Asunción

    2008-12-08

    Conventional condensers using rotational symmetric devices perform far from their theoretical limits when transferring optical power from sources such as arc lamps or halogen bulbs to the rectangular entrance of homogenizing prisms (target). We present a free-form condenser design (calculated with the SMS method) that overcomes the limitations inherent to rotational devices and can send to the target 1.8 times the power sent by an equivalent elliptical condenser for a 4:1 target aspect ratio and 1.5 times for 16:9 target and for practical values of target etendue.

  10. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac-autonomic control in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Herbert, Cornelia; Schmitt, Michael; Kübler, Andrea; Vögele, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an UG, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  11. Overcoming selfishness: reciprocity, inhibition, and cardiac autonomic control in the ultimatum game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSütterlin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory capacity, and performance in a motor response inhibition task predicted rejection of unfair offers in an ultimatum game, suggesting an important role of inhibitory processes in overcoming economic temptations and regulating behavior conforming to social norms of reciprocity and fairness. The role of parasympathetic activity as a physiological trait-marker predicting inter-individual differences in the rejection of unfair offers is discussed.

  12. Communication Theoretic Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kwang-Cheng; Huang, Shao-Lun; Zheng, Lizhong; Poor, H. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of the Internet and social networks invokes the generation of big data, which is proving to be useful in a number of applications. To deal with explosively growing amounts of data, data analytics has emerged as a critical technology related to computing, signal processing, and information networking. In this paper, a formalism is considered in which data is modeled as a generalized social network and communication theory and information theory are thereby extended to data analy...

  13. Overcoming weak intrinsic depolarizing resonances with energy-jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alessi, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In the recent polarized proton runs in the AGS, a 5% partial snake was used successfully to overcome the imperfection depolarizing resonances. Polarized proton beam was accelerated up to the required RHIC injection energy of 25 GeV. However, significant amount of polarization was lost at 0+ν y , 12+ν y and 36+ν y , which is believed to be partially due to the coupling resonances. To overcome the coupling resonance, an energy-jump was generated by rapidly changing the beam circumference using the powerful AGS rf system. It clearly demonstrates that the novel energy-jump method can successfully overcome coupling resonances and weak intrinsic resonances

  14. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  15. Network coding at different layers in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on how to apply network coding at different layers in wireless networks – including MAC, routing, and TCP – with special focus on cognitive radio networks. It discusses how to select parameters in network coding (e.g., coding field, number of packets involved, and redundant information ration) in order to be suitable for the varying wireless environments. The book explores how to deploy network coding in MAC to improve network performance and examines joint network coding with opportunistic routing to improve the successful rate of routing. In regards to TCP and network coding, the text considers transport layer protocol working with network coding to overcome the transmission error rate, particularly with how to use the ACK feedback of TCP to enhance the efficiency of network coding. The book pertains to researchers and postgraduate students, especially whose interests are in opportunistic routing and TCP in cognitive radio networks.

  16. Summary on Theoretical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Soffer, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    During the five days of this conference a very dense scientific program has enlighted our research fields, with the presentation of large number of interesting lectures. I will try to summarize the theoretical aspects of some of these new results.

  17. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The studies in 1977 are reviewed. In theoretical nuclear physics: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics; in elementary particle physics: field theory, strong interactions dynamics, nucleon-nucleon interactions, new particles, current algebra, symmetries and quarks are studied [fr

  18. Theoretical physics division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Research activities of the theoretical physics division for 1979 are described. Short summaries are given of specific research work in the following fields: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, elementary particles [fr

  19. A Theoretical Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    L-rhamnose and L-fucose: A Theoretical Approach ... L-ramnose and L-fucose, by means of the Monte Carlo conformational search method. The energy of the conformers ..... which indicates an increased probability for the occurrence of.

  20. Overcoming Residents Opportunity Apathy in Danish Social Housing Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how various technologies can support democratic collaboration in the social housing sector in Denmark, and help overcome opportunity apathy. I exemplify the discussion with an ongoing process of strategy development, in a Danish housing organization....

  1. Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Overcoming Family Planning Challenges in Africa: Toward Meeting. Unmet Need ... The challenges posed are greater in ... Gaps in meeting women's needs persist especially ..... WHO. Everybody's business: Strengthening health systems to.

  2. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug–target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  3. Common neighbours and the local-community-paradigm for topological link prediction in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, Simone; Thomas, Josephine Maria; Durán, Claudio; Vittorio Cannistraci, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    Bipartite networks are powerful descriptions of complex systems characterized by two different classes of nodes and connections allowed only across but not within the two classes. Unveiling physical principles, building theories and suggesting physical models to predict bipartite links such as product-consumer connections in recommendation systems or drug-target interactions in molecular networks can provide priceless information to improve e-commerce or to accelerate pharmaceutical research. The prediction of nonobserved connections starting from those already present in the topology of a network is known as the link-prediction problem. It represents an important subject both in many-body interaction theory in physics and in new algorithms for applied tools in computer science. The rationale is that the existing connectivity structure of a network can suggest where new connections can appear with higher likelihood in an evolving network, or where nonobserved connections are missing in a partially known network. Surprisingly, current complex network theory presents a theoretical bottle-neck: a general framework for local-based link prediction directly in the bipartite domain is missing. Here, we overcome this theoretical obstacle and present a formal definition of common neighbour index and local-community-paradigm (LCP) for bipartite networks. As a consequence, we are able to introduce the first node-neighbourhood-based and LCP-based models for topological link prediction that utilize the bipartite domain. We performed link prediction evaluations in several networks of different size and of disparate origin, including technological, social and biological systems. Our models significantly improve topological prediction in many bipartite networks because they exploit local physical driving-forces that participate in the formation and organization of many real-world bipartite networks. Furthermore, we present a local-based formalism that allows to intuitively

  4. Theoretical microbial ecology without species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics. This formalism allows approaching the species problem from the opposite direction. While the classical models treat a world of imperfectly clustered organism types as a perturbation around well-clustered species, the presented approach allows gradually adding structure to a fully disordered background. The relevance of this theoretical construct for describing highly diverse natural ecosystems is discussed.

  5. Trimming of mammalian transcriptional networks using network component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao James C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Network Component Analysis (NCA has been used to deduce the activities of transcription factors (TFs from gene expression data and the TF-gene binding relationship. However, the TF-gene interaction varies in different environmental conditions and tissues, but such information is rarely available and cannot be predicted simply by motif analysis. Thus, it is beneficial to identify key TF-gene interactions under the experimental condition based on transcriptome data. Such information would be useful in identifying key regulatory pathways and gene markers of TFs in further studies. Results We developed an algorithm to trim network connectivity such that the important regulatory interactions between the TFs and the genes were retained and the regulatory signals were deduced. Theoretical studies demonstrated that the regulatory signals were accurately reconstructed even in the case where only three independent transcriptome datasets were available. At least 80% of the main target genes were correctly predicted in the extreme condition of high noise level and small number of datasets. Our algorithm was tested with transcriptome data taken from mice under rapamycin treatment. The initial network topology from the literature contains 70 TFs, 778 genes, and 1423 edges between the TFs and genes. Our method retained 1074 edges (i.e. 75% of the original edge number and identified 17 TFs as being significantly perturbed under the experimental condition. Twelve of these TFs are involved in MAPK signaling or myeloid leukemia pathways defined in the KEGG database, or are known to physically interact with each other. Additionally, four of these TFs, which are Hif1a, Cebpb, Nfkb1, and Atf1, are known targets of rapamycin. Furthermore, the trimmed network was able to predict Eno1 as an important target of Hif1a; this key interaction could not be detected without trimming the regulatory network. Conclusions The advantage of our new algorithm

  6. Balancing act: Government roles in an energy conservation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, A.; Kourula, A.; Levitt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Government-led interorganizational alliance networks present a sensible opportunity to overcome many societal challenges through collaborative governance. In particular, few researchers have studied alliance networks in the field of energy conservation in commercial buildings—a sector with unique

  7. Developing a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, Ricardo N; Dolovich, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Thabane, Lehana

    2014-01-01

    Applying existing theories to research, in the form of a theoretical framework, is necessary to advance knowledge from what is already known toward the next steps to be taken. This article proposes a guide on how to develop a theoretical framework for complex community-based interventions using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as an example. Developing a theoretical framework starts with identifying the intervention's essential elements. Subsequent steps include the following: (a) identifying and defining the different variables (independent, dependent, mediating/intervening, moderating, and control); (b) postulating mechanisms how the independent variables will lead to the dependent variables; (c) identifying existing theoretical models supporting the theoretical framework under development; (d) scripting the theoretical framework into a figure or sets of statements as a series of hypotheses, if/then logic statements, or a visual model; (e) content and face validation of the theoretical framework; and (f) revising the theoretical framework. In our example, we combined the "diffusion of innovation theory" and the "health belief model" to develop our framework. Using the Cardiovascular Health Awareness Program as the model, we demonstrated a stepwise process of developing a theoretical framework. The challenges encountered are described, and an overview of the strategies employed to overcome these challenges is presented.

  8. Towards A Theoretical Biology: Reminiscences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    engaged in since the start of my career at the University of Chicago. Theoretical biology was ... research on theoretical problems in biology. Waddington, an ... aimed at stimulating the development of such a theoretical biology. The role the ...

  9. Cognitive wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This brief examines the current research in cognitive wireless networks (CWNs). Along with a review of challenges in CWNs, this brief presents novel theoretical studies and architecture models for CWNs, advances in the cognitive information awareness and delivery, and intelligent resource management technologies. The brief presents the motivations and concepts of CWNs, including theoretical studies of temporal and geographic distribution entropy as well as cognitive information metrics. A new architecture model of CWNs is proposed with theoretical, functional and deployment architectures suppo

  10. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  11. Addressing and overcoming barriers for energy savings in business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Kasper

    Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome these barr......Energy savings are generally viewed as an effective way to cut GHG emissions, as there are huge potentials for improvements because of several barriers and constraining factors for implementing otherwise profitable solutions. Several different polity tools have been applied to overcome...

  12. The facilitation by church leaders in overcoming resistance to change.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Little has been done to address the issue of how to overcome resistance to change in a change effort in the church world. “How to overcome resistance to change?” is a question that requires serious consideration among church leaders. Church leaders continue to act in ways that produce resistance to change and ultimately failed change efforts. These actions on the part of church leaders often strengthen and reinforce the sources of resistance to change, making it very difficult for change to b...

  13. Network connectivity value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-04-21

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Network Formation under the Threat of Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    The studies in this thesis are focused on the impact the presence of a network disruptor has on network formation models. In particular, we build two theoretical models to study the effect of network disruption on network formation and test the effect network disruption has on equilibrium selection

  15. Smart Companies, Inspiring the Future: A Theoretical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Echazarreta Soler, Carmen; Costa Marcé, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The economic and financial global crises have accelerated the search for alternative business models. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of smart companies capable of overcoming the shortcomings of the current economic system. After conducting a theoretical review of the main studies related to this area, we conclude that there is a need for smart companies championed by leaders who promote the use of information technologies and communication as means...

  16. Towards a theoretical framework for analysing organisational processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Robson Silva

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss how a theoretical framework can be build to analyse socialprocesses of transformation, making the link between macro and micro processes, inwhich this dichotomy can be overcome. The aim of this theoretical framework is toaccount for the transformation in societal...... characteristics and changes in actors' strategiesat micro level, in a way that links macro changes and micro processes - the cognitivestructures of the individual and social structures of the society. In order to build this framework, I draw from the figuration sociology of Norbert Elias, the praxeologia of...

  17. The Photograph as Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by actor-network theory (ANT), this article develops a theoretical framework to grasp the dynamic visual work of memory. It introduces three sensitizing concepts of actor-network methodology, namely entanglement, relationality and traceability, and operationalizes them in a methodological...

  18. Compendium of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Armin

    2006-01-01

    Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, and Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics comprise the canonical undergraduate curriculum of theoretical physics. In Compendium of Theoretical Physics, Armin Wachter and Henning Hoeber offer a concise, rigorous and structured overview that will be invaluable for students preparing for their qualifying examinations, readers needing a supplement to standard textbooks, and research or industrial physicists seeking a bridge between extensive textbooks and formula books. The authors take an axiomatic-deductive approach to each topic, starting the discussion of each theory with its fundamental equations. By subsequently deriving the various physical relationships and laws in logical rather than chronological order, and by using a consistent presentation and notation throughout, they emphasize the connections between the individual theories. The reader’s understanding is then reinforced with exercises, solutions and topic summaries. Unique Features: Every topic is ...

  19. Concluding theoretical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1986-01-01

    My task in this talk is to review the happenings of this workshop from a theoretical perspective, and to emphasize lines for possible future research. My remarks are organized into a theoretical overview of the what, why, (mainly the hierarchy problem) how, (supersymmetry must be broken: softly or spontaneously, and if the latter, by means of a new U tilde(1) gauge group or through the chiral superfields) when (how heavy are supersymmetric partner particles in different types of theories) and where (can one find evidence for) supersymmetry. In the last part are discussed various ongoing and future searches for photinos γ tilde, gravitinos G tilde, the U vector boson, shiggses H tilde, squarks q tilde and sleptons l tilde, gluinos g tilde, winos W tilde and other gauginos, as well as hunts for indirect effects of supersymmetry, such as for example in baryon decay. Finally there is a little message of encouragement to our experimental colleagues, based on historical precedent. (orig.)

  20. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald

    2017-01-01

    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  1. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Zhu, Jiajie; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  2. Silicene: Recent theoretical advances

    KAUST Repository

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.

    2016-04-14

    Silicene is a two-dimensional allotrope of silicon with a puckered hexagonal structure closely related to the structure of graphene and that has been predicted to be stable. To date, it has been successfully grown in solution (functionalized) and on substrates. The goal of this review is to provide a summary of recent theoretical advances in the properties of both free-standing silicene as well as in interaction with molecules and substrates, and of proposed device applications.

  3. MARKETING MIX THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of article is to analyze marketing mix theoretical aspects. The article discusses that marketing mix is one of the main objectives of the marketing mix elements for setting objectives and marketing budget measures. The importance of each element depends not only on the company and its activities, but also on the competition and time. All marketing elements are interrelated and should be seen in the whole of their actions. Some items may have greater importance than others; it depends main...

  4. Robustness - theoretical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Rizzuto, Enrico; Faber, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    More frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure combined with increased requirements to efficiency in design and execution followed by increased risk of human errors has made the need of requirements to robustness of new struct...... of this fact sheet is to describe a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  5. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1990-05-01

    This report discusses progress on theoretical high energy physics at Columbia University in New York City. Some of the topics covered are: Chern-Simons gauge field theories; dynamical fermion QCD calculations; lattice gauge theory; the standard model of weak and electromagnetic interactions; Boson-fermion model of cuprate superconductors; S-channel theory of superconductivity and axial anomaly and its relation to spin in the parton model

  6. 3. Theoretical Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the period September 1980 - Aug 1981, the studies in theoretical physics divisions have been compiled under the following headings: in nuclear physics, nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and intermediate energies; in particle physics, NN and NantiN interactions, dual topological unitarization, quark model and quantum chromodynamics, classical and quantum field theories, non linear integrable equations and topological preons and Grand unified theories. A list of publications, lectures and meetings is included [fr

  7. Evaluation of different methods to overcome in vitro seed dormancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Seeds from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) present dormancy imposed by the seed-coat. The present study aimed to evaluate some methods to overcome dormancy of seeds from P. edulis grown under in vitro conditions. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme ...

  8. Overcoming The Problem Of English Sound System Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper tries to examine important issues in teaching phonetics. These are the interference problem that can affect one's speech during communication and how the teacher through the use of appropriate techniques and methods can assist the second language learner overcome these problems. Journal of Technology ...

  9. Objections to tubal sterilization: what reversibility can and cannot overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, R N

    1980-09-01

    In a study of 1074 women, 696 and 338 subjects would not seriously consider permanent and hypothetically reversible sterilization, respectively; they were asked to explain their feelings. The reason accounting for most objections to permanent sterilization (65%) was irreversibility and of the subjects who would not consider reversible sterilization or were unsure, 42.7% attributed their principal objection to unnecessary surgery, a factor at least currently intrinsic to the procedure and not readily overcome by education. Many of the remaining objections to both permanent and reversible sterilization may be amenable to change either through education or financial subsidies. In response to a question concerning female attractiveness subsequent to permanent sterilization, 3% of the sample felt attractiveness would decrease and 17.5% were unsure of the surgery's effect. Unsure responses were largely negative in character. This issue is important because of its relationship to intention to undergo sterilization. Upon consideration of reversible sterilization, negative and unsure responses significantly declined, even on the part of those women whose friends have had a poor experience with currently available procedures. Thus, whereas the option of reversibility cannot overcome objections to surgery, it does overcome those regarding permanency; moreover, the "temporary" character it bestows upon surgical sterilization appears to help certain individuals overcome their fears of losing their physical appeal as a result of such procedures.

  10. Overcoming Jealousy: An Experiential Analysis of Common Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrell, James J.; Richards, Anne C.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated key aspects of the experience of jealousy through the recorded experiences of a study group consisting of three males and three females. Results indicated that jealousy is a complex experience which may be accompanied by a variety of negative feelings. Provides suggestions for overcoming jealousy. (RC)

  11. Dos Hermanas Chicanas: Overcoming Barriers to Professional Advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises

    2007-01-01

    Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…

  12. Overcoming Branding Barriers in Nonprofit, Private Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyr, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this Delphi study was to explore the views of experts in the field of nonprofit private colleges and universities in the United States to define branding and identify current barriers to branding, to discover how those barriers can be overcome, and to determine what barriers to branding are likely to occur 5 years in the…

  13. Overcoming family planning challenges in Africa: toward meeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcoming family planning challenges in Africa: toward meeting unmet need and scaling up service delivery. Andrzej Kulczycki. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Technology Adoption in Higher Education: Overcoming Anxiety through Faculty Bootcamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terri; Wisniewski, Mary Ann; Kuhlemeyer, Greg; Isaacs, Gerald; Krzykowski, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance to design and teach online courses in higher education is often attributed to technology anxiety in faculty. This article documents a faculty development model that has successfully helped faculty overcome this obstacle. "Bootcamps," faculty development programs held at Carroll University in Waukesha, WI, were specifically and…

  15. Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. 26 octobre 2017. Together with our partners the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Azrieli Foundation and the Israel Science Foundation we are pleased to announce the recipients of the Joint Canada-Israel ...

  16. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  17. Theoretical developments in SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M. [University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-01-15

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry. (orig.)

  18. Theoretical Developments in SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, M.

    2009-01-01

    I am proud that I was personally acquainted with Julius Wess. We first met in 1999 when I was working on the Yuri Golfand Memorial Volume (The Many Faces of the Superworld, World Scientific, Singapore, 2000). I invited him to contribute, and he accepted this invitation with enthusiasm. After that, we met many times, mostly at various conferences in Germany and elsewhere. I was lucky to discuss with Julius questions of theoretical physics, and hear his recollections on how supersymmetry was born. In physics Julius was a visionary, who paved the way to generations of followers. In everyday life he was a kind and modest person, always ready to extend a helping hand to people who were in need of his help. I remember him telling me how concerned he was about the fate of theoretical physicists in Eastern Europe after the demise of communism. His ties with Israeli physicists bore a special character. I am honored by the opportunity to contribute an article to the Julius Wess Memorial Volume. I will review theoretical developments of the recent years in non-perturbative supersymmetry.

  19. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  20. A sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    ” semiotic networks across hierarchical levels and for relating the different emergent codes in living systems. I consider this an important part of the work because there I define some of the main concepts that will help me to analyse different codes and semiotic processes in living systems in order...... to exemplify what is the relevance of a sign-theoretic approach to biotechnology. In particular, I introduce the notion of digital-analogical consensus as a semiotic pattern for the creation of complex logical products that constitute specific signs. The chapter ends with some examples of conspicuous semiotic...... to exemplify how a semiotic approach can be of help when organising the knowledge that can lead us to understanding the relevance, the role and the position of signal transduction networks in relation to the larger semiotic networks in which they function, i.e.: in the hierarchical formal processes of mapping...

  1. Multifractal analysis of complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dan-Ling; Yu Zu-Guo; Anh V

    2012-01-01

    Complex networks have recently attracted much attention in diverse areas of science and technology. Many networks such as the WWW and biological networks are known to display spatial heterogeneity which can be characterized by their fractal dimensions. Multifractal analysis is a useful way to systematically describe the spatial heterogeneity of both theoretical and experimental fractal patterns. In this paper, we introduce a new box-covering algorithm for multifractal analysis of complex networks. This algorithm is used to calculate the generalized fractal dimensions D q of some theoretical networks, namely scale-free networks, small world networks, and random networks, and one kind of real network, namely protein—protein interaction networks of different species. Our numerical results indicate the existence of multifractality in scale-free networks and protein—protein interaction networks, while the multifractal behavior is not clear-cut for small world networks and random networks. The possible variation of D q due to changes in the parameters of the theoretical network models is also discussed. (general)

  2. Correlation Networks from Flows. The Case of Forced and Time-Dependent Advection-Diffusion Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov Tupikina

    Full Text Available Complex network theory provides an elegant and powerful framework to statistically investigate different types of systems such as society, brain or the structure of local and long-range dynamical interrelationships in the climate system. Network links in climate networks typically imply information, mass or energy exchange. However, the specific connection between oceanic or atmospheric flows and the climate network's structure is still unclear. We propose a theoretical approach for verifying relations between the correlation matrix and the climate network measures, generalizing previous studies and overcoming the restriction to stationary flows. Our methods are developed for correlations of a scalar quantity (temperature, for example which satisfies an advection-diffusion dynamics in the presence of forcing and dissipation. Our approach reveals that correlation networks are not sensitive to steady sources and sinks and the profound impact of the signal decay rate on the network topology. We illustrate our results with calculations of degree and clustering for a meandering flow resembling a geophysical ocean jet.

  3. WDM networking on a European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnis, Noel; Limal, Emmanuel; Hjelme, Dag R.

    1998-01-01

    Four different topological approaches to designing a pan-European optical network are discussed. For such an ultra-high capacity large-scale network, it is necessary to overcome physical path length limitations and to limit Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) complexity.......Four different topological approaches to designing a pan-European optical network are discussed. For such an ultra-high capacity large-scale network, it is necessary to overcome physical path length limitations and to limit Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) complexity....

  4. Linear approximation model network and its formation via ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To overcome the deficiency of `local model network' (LMN) techniques, an alternative `linear approximation model' (LAM) network approach is proposed. Such a network models a nonlinear or practical system with multiple linear models fitted along operating trajectories, where individual models are simply networked ...

  5. TYPICAL BANKING CRISES INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND WAYS TO OVERCOME THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available International financial environment is characterized as consisting of free trade and especially from the free movement of the capital on the financial markets, so very favourable, which also led to the rapid development of global financial markets. We lack the ability to keep the peace (silence for to counter the excesses of the financial markets. Without this ability, the global economy is exposed to the collapse. Financial capital enjoys a privileged position. He is more mobile than other factors of production and even more mobile than direct investment. Yet crises must be overcome. To support the arguments of this paper, we use a flexible methodology, starting from simple to complex, from theoretical to practical, from principle, to particularly, adding, specialty practice examples, from the international sphere, convinced that work-international banking must be healthy, able to generate profitable and dynamic business environments, safe for entrepreneurs and bankers, but also ordinary people.

  6. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  7. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  8. Review of theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Nowadays the 'experimental' charge densities are produced with convincing error estimates due to new methods and techniques. In addition the accuracy of those experiments means that r.m.s. radii are known within a few hundredths of a fermi. Because of that accuracy the theorists are left far behind. In order to show which theoretical possiblities exist at the moment we will discuss the single particle shell model and the Hartree-Fock or mean field approximation. Corrections to the mean field approximation are described. Finally, some examples and conclusions are presented. (KBE)

  9. Information theoretic preattentive saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Employing an information theoretic operational definition of bottom-up attention from the field of computational visual perception a very general expression for saliency is provided. As opposed to many of the current approaches to determining a saliency map there is no need for an explicit data...... of which features, image information is described. We illustrate our result by determining a few specific saliency maps based on particular choices of features. One of them makes the link with the mapping underlying well-known Harris interest points, which is a result recently obtained in isolation...

  10. Theoretical high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses theoretical research in high energy physics at Columbia University. Some of the research topics discussed are: quantum chromodynamics with dynamical fermions; lattice gauge theory; scattering of neutrinos by photons; atomic physics constraints on the properties of ultralight-ultraweak gauge bosons; black holes; Chern- Simons physics; S-channel theory of superconductivity; charged boson system; gluon-gluon interactions; high energy scattering in the presence of instantons; anyon physics; causality constraints on primordial magnetic manopoles; charged black holes with scalar hair; properties of Chern-Aimona-Higgs solitons; and extended inflationary universe

  11. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  12. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  13. Social exchange : Relations and networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network

  14. Social exchange: Relations and networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper, I review the literature on social exchange networks, with specific attention to theoretical and experimental research. I indicate how social exchange theory is rooted in general social theory and mention a few of its main links to social network analysis and empirical network research. The paper provides an accessible entry into the literature on social exchange.

  15. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  16. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  17. Theoretical physics. Quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    From the first in two comprehensive volumes appeared Theoretical Physics of the author by this after Mechanics and Electrodynamics also Quantum mechanics appears as thinner single volume. First the illustrative approach via wave mechanics is reproduced. The more abstract Hilbert-space formulation introduces the author later by postulates, which are because of the preceding wave mechanics sufficiently plausible. All concepts of quantum mechanics, which contradict often to the intuitive understanding formed by macroscopic experiences, are extensively discussed and made by means of many examples as well as problems - in the largest part provided with solutions - understandable. To the interpretation of quantum mechanics an extensive special chapter is dedicated. this book arose from courses on theoretical physics, which the author has held at the Heinrich-Heine University in Duesseldorf, and was in numerous repetitions fitted to the requirement of the studyings. it is so designed that it is also after the study suited as reference book or for the renewing. All problems are very thoroughly and such extensively studied that each step is separately reproducible. About motivation and good understandability is cared much

  18. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  19. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  20. Namaste (counterbalancing) technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Kapil S; Bachhav, Manoj; Shrotriya, Raghav

    2015-01-01

    Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG) which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome this menace of warping. We present the data of 51 patients of rhinoplasty done using CCG with counterbalancing technique over a period of 4 years. No evidence of warping was found in any patient up to a maximum follow-up period of 4 years. Counterbalancing is a useful technique to overcome the problem of warping. It gives liberty to utilize even unbalanced cartilage safely to provide desired shape and use the cartilage without any wastage.

  1. Namaste (counterbalancing technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil S Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome this menace of warping. Materials and Methods: We present the data of 51 patients of rhinoplasty done using CCG with counterbalancing technique over a period of 4 years. Results: No evidence of warping was found in any patient up to a maximum follow-up period of 4 years. Conclusion: Counterbalancing is a useful technique to overcome the problem of warping. It gives liberty to utilize even unbalanced cartilage safely to provide desired shape and use the cartilage without any wastage.

  2. Overcoming obstacles against effective solar lighting interventions in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Basing on our devised World Bank’s ‘Design Principles’ for effective renewable energy projects in developing countries and an in-depth analysis of our two solar lighting projects in Bangladesh and India, this paper explores three key obstacles that constrain poor people from obtaining solar lighting: financial exclusion, weak governance, and passive NGO and customer participation. The low take-up rate has a social and psychological impact. This paper recommends creating easy access to credit, establishing a robust complaint system, and developing strategic partnership to overcome the obstacles. - Research Highlights: ► To provide a critical analysis of the World Bank's 'Design Principles' for renewable energy policies in developing countries. ► To explain why some solar lighting projects do not work and how the barriers can be overcome. ► To highlight the roles of poverty, governance and technical support in solar lighting design.

  3. Sesquiterpenes with TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The ability of TRAIL to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapy. In search of bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance from natural resources, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionations of the extract of Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene compounds (1-5). 11α,13-dihydroxanthinin (2) and 11α,13-dihydroxanthuminol (3) were first isolated from natural resources and xanthinosin (1), desacetylxanthanol (4), and lasidiol p-methoxybenzoate (5) were known compounds. All compounds (1-5) showed potent TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 8, 20, 20, 16, and 16 μM, respectively, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Compounds 1 and 5 enhanced the levels of apoptosis inducing proteins DR4, DR5, p53, CHOP, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 and also decreased the levels of cell survival protein Bcl-2 in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 also enhanced the levels of DR4 and DR5 proteins in a time-dependent manner. Thus, compounds 1 and 5 were found to induce both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Compound 1 also exhibit TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity in DLD1, DU145, HeLa, and MCF7 cells but did not decrease viability in non-cancer HEK293 cells up to 8 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comment: Kidney exchange to overcome financial barriers to kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, L.S.; Jindal, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rees et al. have shown the feasibility of global kidney exchange (GKE) to overcome financial cost and address the current shortage of organs for transplantation. Wiseman and Gill, question their interpretation of definition of "financial incompatibility". The authors1 do not factor in the well documented cognitive and emotional aspects of kidney transplantation. Particularly, relevant to kidney transplantation is how patients calculate risk and the emotional turmoil characterised by anxiety a...

  5. Namaste (counterbalancing) technique: Overcoming warping in costal cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Kapil S Agrawal; Manoj Bachhav; Raghav Shrotriya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Indian noses are broader and lack projection as compared to other populations, hence very often need augmentation, that too by large volume. Costal cartilage remains the material of choice in large volume augmentations and repair of complex primary and secondary nasal deformities. One major disadvantage of costal cartilage grafts (CCG) which offsets all other advantages is the tendency to warp and become distorted over a period of time. We propose a simple technique to overcome th...

  6. Fear of examinations and educational factors of its overcoming

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonas, Algimantas; Merkys, Gediminas

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on the carried out scientific researches' data of late decades, tries to reveal die actuality of the phenomenon of exam fear and opportunities of solving this problem. In this article there is analyzed an actual exam fear phenomenon characteristic of different aged students from various countries and social classes. Exam fear is presented as a constituent part of the complicated phenomenon of school fear, emphasizing educational factors of its overcoming. Exam fear is also...

  7. Debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This book records debate point and topic presentation of debate on science and technology promotion for overcoming economic difficulties which lists opening greeting, topic presentation such as innovation of national science technology system, sufficient supply and demand of science and engineering personnel, invigoration of technology research of corporation and general debate. This debate was held by the Policy Board of democratic and liberal party on 22 May 1990 in Press center.

  8. vhv supply networks, problems of network structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbault, J

    1966-04-01

    The present and future power requirements of the Paris area and the structure of the existing networks are discussed. The various limitations that will have to be allowed for to lay down the structure of a regional transmission network leading in the power of the large national transmission network to within the Paris built up area are described. The theoretical solution that has been adopted, and the features of its final achievement, which is planned for about the year 2000, and the intermediate stages are given. The problem of the structure of the National Power Transmission network which is to supply the regional network was studied. To solve this problem, a 730 kV voltage network will have to be introduced.

  9. Novel Holistic Approaches for Overcoming Therapy Resistance in Pancreatic and Colon Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, such as of the colon and pancreas, are highly resistant to both standard and targeted therapeutics. Therapy-resistant and heterogeneous GI cancers harbor highly complex signaling networks (the resistome) that resist apoptotic programming. Commonly used gemcitabine or platinum-based regimens fail to induce meaningful (i.e. disease-reversing) perturbations in the resistome, resulting in high rates of treatment failure. The GI cancer resistance networks are, in part, due to interactions between parallel signaling and aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) that collectively promote the development and survival of drug-resistant cancer stem cells with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics. The lack of understanding of the resistance networks associated with this subpopulation of cells as well as reductionist, single protein-/pathway-targeted approaches have made 'effective drug design' a difficult task. We propose that the successful design of novel therapeutic regimens to target drug-resistant GI tumors is only possible if network-based drug avenues and agents, in particular 'natural agents' with no known toxicity, are correctly identified. Natural agents (dietary agents or their synthetic derivatives) can individually alter miRNA profiles, suppress EMT pathways and eliminate cancer stem-like cells that derive from pancreatic cancer and colon cancer, by partially targeting multiple yet meaningful networks within the GI cancer resistome. However, the efficacy of these agents as combinations (e.g. consumed in the diet) against this resistome has never been studied. This short review article provides an overview of the different challenges involved in the understanding of the GI resistome, and how novel computational biology can help in the design of effective therapies to overcome resistance. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effectiveness of Partition and Graph Theoretic Clustering Algorithms for Multiple Source Partial Discharge Pattern Classification Using Probabilistic Neural Network and Its Adaptive Version: A Critique Based on Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial discharge (PD is a major cause of failure of power apparatus and hence its measurement and analysis have emerged as a vital field in assessing the condition of the insulation system. Several efforts have been undertaken by researchers to classify PD pulses utilizing artificial intelligence techniques. Recently, the focus has shifted to the identification of multiple sources of PD since it is often encountered in real-time measurements. Studies have indicated that classification of multi-source PD becomes difficult with the degree of overlap and that several techniques such as mixed Weibull functions, neural networks, and wavelet transformation have been attempted with limited success. Since digital PD acquisition systems record data for a substantial period, the database becomes large, posing considerable difficulties during classification. This research work aims firstly at analyzing aspects concerning classification capability during the discrimination of multisource PD patterns. Secondly, it attempts at extending the previous work of the authors in utilizing the novel approach of probabilistic neural network versions for classifying moderate sets of PD sources to that of large sets. The third focus is on comparing the ability of partition-based algorithms, namely, the labelled (learning vector quantization and unlabelled (K-means versions, with that of a novel hypergraph-based clustering method in providing parsimonious sets of centers during classification.

  11. Overcoming violence - a basic task of Christian churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article � based on the second of two keynote lectures at a conference on violence � the view is developed that the task of the church with respect to violence consists mainly in overcoming violence. In the first part of the article dealing with the basic tasks of the church it is argued that the task to overcome violence is close to the essence of the church. The point of departure is taken in Article 7 of the Augsburg Confession, which understands the church as the �communion of saints� and names the pure proclamation of the gospel and the right administration of the sacraments as the two characteristics of the church. The Christian message that the church has to proclaim the gospel entails a preferential option for nonviolence that includes the responsibility to put an end to existing violence. In the second part of the article attention is given to the implications the basic task of the church in overcoming violence holds for the practice of the church. It is argued that the starting point is that the church has to proclaim the gospel of peace and as a community of faith become a community of peace herself. Some of the most important practical consequences the proclamation of the gospel of peace has for the church as a community of action, for her work in education, for her promotion of justice and for her solidarity with those in need, are discussed.

  12. THE STRATEGY OF EMPOWERMENT BASED ON ESQ POWER: A SOCIAL INNOVATION IN THE POVERTY OVERCOMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peribadi Peribadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop an innovation of empowerment strategy on ESQ Power – Based. It was designed through a phenomenology deductive, a case study and the methodof research and development or the procedure of member check. The three of them were used eclectically in order to design an ideal formulation. The research findings indicated that the actors and actresses of poverty overcoming in Kendari City have not had the emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence yet as ESQ Power. As a result, they were not optimal in performing their duties, roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the urgency of empowerment paradigm on ESQ Power – Based that has been formulated and validated by the skillful validator must be used in the future to increase the sense of responsibility of the actor network in overcoming the pauperization and poverty. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan sebuah inovasi strategi pemberdayaan berbasis ESQ Power. Hal itu dirancang melalui deduksi fenomenologis, studi kasus serta metode penelitian dan pengembangan atau prosedur member check. Ketiganya digunakan secara eklektik untuk merancang formulasi ideal. Temuan penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aktor dan aktris penanggulangan kemiskinan di Kota Kendari belum memiliki kecerdasan emosional dan kecerdasan spiritual sebagai ESQ Power. Akibatnya, mereka tidak optimal dalam menjalankan tugas, peran dan tanggung jawabnya. Oleh karena itu, urgensi paradigma pemberdayaan berbasis ESQ Power yang telah dirumuskan dan divalidasi oleh validator ahli tersebut harus mulai digunakan ke depan untuk meningkatkan rasa tanggung jawab jaringan aktor dalam mengatasi pemiskinan dan kemiskinan.

  13. An Asynchronous Recurrent Network of Cellular Automaton-Based Neurons and Its Reproduction of Spiking Neural Network Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takashi; Torikai, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Modeling and implementation approaches for the reproduction of input-output relationships in biological nervous tissues contribute to the development of engineering and clinical applications. However, because of high nonlinearity, the traditional modeling and implementation approaches encounter difficulties in terms of generalization ability (i.e., performance when reproducing an unknown data set) and computational resources (i.e., computation time and circuit elements). To overcome these difficulties, asynchronous cellular automaton-based neuron (ACAN) models, which are described as special kinds of cellular automata that can be implemented as small asynchronous sequential logic circuits have been proposed. This paper presents a novel type of such ACAN and a theoretical analysis of its excitability. This paper also presents a novel network of such neurons, which can mimic input-output relationships of biological and nonlinear ordinary differential equation model neural networks. Numerical analyses confirm that the presented network has a higher generalization ability than other major modeling and implementation approaches. In addition, Field-Programmable Gate Array-implementations confirm that the presented network requires lower computational resources.

  14. Public management and policy networks: foundations of a network approach to governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this article we address the elaboratlon of the central concepts of a theory of networks and of network management. We suggest that the network approach builds on several theoretical traditions After this we clarify the theoretical concepts and axioms of the policy

  15. Chromosomocentric approach to overcoming difficulties in implementation of international project Human Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Archakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The international project Human Proteome (PHP, being a logical continuation of the project Human Genome, was started on September 23, 2010. In correspondence with the genocentric approach, the PHP aim is to prepare a catalogue of all human proteins and to decipher a network of their interactions. The PHP implementation difficulties arise because the research subject itself – proteome – is much more complicated than genome. The major problem is the insufficient sensitivity of proteome methods that does not allow detecting low- and ultralow-copy proteins. Bad reproducibility of proteome methods and the lack of so-called “gold standard” is the second major complicacy in PHP implementation. The third problem is the dynamic character of proteome, its instabili­ty in time. The paper deals with possible variants of overcoming these complicacies, preventing from successful implementation of PHP.

  16. Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...

  17. Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...

  18. Theoretical Molecular Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Scherer, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    "Theoretical Molecular Biophysics" is an advanced study book for students, shortly before or after completing undergraduate studies, in physics, chemistry or biology. It provides the tools for an understanding of elementary processes in biology, such as photosynthesis on a molecular level. A basic knowledge in mechanics, electrostatics, quantum theory and statistical physics is desirable. The reader will be exposed to basic concepts in modern biophysics such as entropic forces, phase separation, potentials of mean force, proton and electron transfer, heterogeneous reactions coherent and incoherent energy transfer as well as molecular motors. Basic concepts such as phase transitions of biopolymers, electrostatics, protonation equilibria, ion transport, radiationless transitions as well as energy- and electron transfer are discussed within the frame of simple models.

  19. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical physics program in the Physics Division at ORNL involves research in both nuclear and atomic physics. In nuclear physics there is extensive activity in the fields of direct nuclear reactions with light- and heavy-ion projectiles, the structure of nuclei far from stability and at elevated temperatures, and the microscopic and macroscopic description of heavy-ion dynamics, including the behavior of nuclear molecules and supernuclei. New research efforts in relativistic nuclear collisions and in the study of quark-gluon plasma have continued to grow this year. The atomic theory program deals with a variety of ionization, multiple-vacancy production, and charge-exchange processes. Many of the problems are selected because of their relevance to the magnetic fusion energy program. In addition, there is a joint atomic-nuclear theory effort to study positron production during the collision of two high-Z numbers, i.e., U+U. A new Distinguished Scientist program, sponsored jointly by the University of Tennessee and ORNL, has been initiated. Among the first appointments is G.F. Bertsch in theoretical physics. As a result of this appointment, Bertsch and an associated group of four theorists split their time between UT and ORNL. In addition, the State of Tennessee has established a significant budget to support the visits of outstanding scientists to the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research at ORNL. This budget should permit a significant improvement in the visitor program at ORNL. Finally, the Laboratory awarded a Wigner post-doctoral Appointment to a theorist who will work in the theory group of the Physics Division

  20. Marketing communications model for innovation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago João Freitas Correia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Innovation is an increasingly relevant concept for the success of any organization, but it also represents a set of internal and external considerations, barriers and challenges to overcome. Along the concept of innovation, new paradigms emerge such as open innovation and co-creation that are simultaneously innovation modifiers and intensifiers in organizations, promoting organizational openness and stakeholder integration within the value creation process. Innovation networks composed by a multiplicity of agents in co-creative work perform as innovation mechanisms to face the increasingly complexity of products, services and markets. Technology, especially the Internet, is an enabler of all process among organizations supported by co-creative platforms for innovation. The definition of marketing communication strategies that promote motivation and involvement of all stakeholders in synergic creation and external promotion is the central aspect of this research. The implementation of the projects is performed by participative workshops with stakeholders from Madan Parque through IDEAS(REVOLUTION methodology and the operational model LinkUp parameterized for the project. The project is divided into the first part, the theoretical framework, and the second part where a model is developed for the marketing communication strategies that appeal to the Madan Parque case study. Keywords: Marketing Communication; Open Innovation, Technology; Innovation Networks; Incubator; Co-Creation.

  1. Networks, Micro Small Enterprises (MSE'S) and Performance: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Networks, Micro Small Enterprises (MSE'S) and Performance: the Case of Kenya. ... It adopts the network perspective theoretical approach. Empirically, the ... entrepreneurial personal network as a copying strategy in the process of global

  2. Species richness in soil bacterial communities: a proposed approach to overcome sample size bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2008-09-01

    Estimates of species richness based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries are increasingly utilized to gauge the level of bacterial diversity within various ecosystems. However, previous studies have indicated that regardless of the utilized approach, species richness estimates obtained are dependent on the size of the analyzed clone libraries. We here propose an approach to overcome sample size bias in species richness estimates in complex microbial communities. Parametric (Maximum likelihood-based and rarefaction curve-based) and non-parametric approaches were used to estimate species richness in a library of 13,001 near full-length 16S rRNA clones derived from soil, as well as in multiple subsets of the original library. Species richness estimates obtained increased with the increase in library size. To obtain a sample size-unbiased estimate of species richness, we calculated the theoretical clone library sizes required to encounter the estimated species richness at various clone library sizes, used curve fitting to determine the theoretical clone library size required to encounter the "true" species richness, and subsequently determined the corresponding sample size-unbiased species richness value. Using this approach, sample size-unbiased estimates of 17,230, 15,571, and 33,912 were obtained for the ML-based, rarefaction curve-based, and ACE-1 estimators, respectively, compared to bias-uncorrected values of 15,009, 11,913, and 20,909.

  3. The model of social crypto-network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марк Миколайович Орел

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the theoretical model of social network with the enhanced mechanism of privacy policy. It covers the problems arising in the process of implementing the mentioned type of network. There are presented the methods of solving problems arising in the process of building the social network with privacy policy. It was built a theoretical model of social networks with enhanced information protection methods based on information and communication blocks

  4. Conceptual and methodological biases in network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Ehud

    2009-10-01

    Many natural and biological phenomena can be depicted as networks. Theoretical and empirical analyses of networks have become prevalent. I discuss theoretical biases involved in the delineation of biological networks. The network perspective is shown to dissolve the distinction between regulatory architecture and regulatory state, consistent with the theoretical impossibility of distinguishing a priori between "program" and "data." The evolutionary significance of the dynamics of trans-generational and interorganism regulatory networks is explored and implications are presented for understanding the evolution of the biological categories development-heredity, plasticity-evolvability, and epigenetic-genetic.

  5. Game-theoretic interference coordination approaches for dynamic spectrum access

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Written by experts in the field, this book is based on recent research findings in dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radio networks. It establishes a game-theoretic framework and presents cutting-edge technologies for distributed interference coordination. With game-theoretic formulation and the designed distributed learning algorithms, it provides insights into the interactions between multiple decision-makers and the converging stable states. Researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of cognitive radio networks will benefit from the book, which provides valuable information, useful methods and practical algorithms for use in emerging 5G wireless communication.

  6. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  7. Statistical mechanics of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rubi, Miguel; Diaz-Guilera, Albert

    2003-01-01

    Networks can provide a useful model and graphic image useful for the description of a wide variety of web-like structures in the physical and man-made realms, e.g. protein networks, food webs and the Internet. The contributions gathered in the present volume provide both an introduction to, and an overview of, the multifaceted phenomenology of complex networks. Statistical Mechanics of Complex Networks also provides a state-of-the-art picture of current theoretical methods and approaches.

  8. Socio-theoretic Accounts of IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Jones, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    A long-standing debate in the IS literature concerns the relationship between technology and organization. Does technology cause effects in organizations, or is it humans that determine how technology is used? Many socio-theoretic accounts of a middle way between the extremes of technological...... confusion. This paper argues that neither structuration theory nor actor network theory offers a particularly convincing account of the interaction of humans and machines, and that their different accounts of agency make them hard to integrate in any meaningful way. Comparing the two theories and their use...

  9. Tourism-planning network knowledge dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the characteristics and functions of tourism networks as a first step in understanding how networks facilitate and reproduce knowledge. A framework to progress understandings of knowledge dynamics in tourism networks is presented that includes four key dimensions: context......, network agents, network boundaries and network resources. A case study of the development of the Next Generation Tourism Handbook (Queensland, Australia), a policy initiative that sought to bring tourism and land use planning knowledge closer together is presented. The case study illustrates...... that the tourism policy and land use planning networks operate in very different spheres and that context, network agents, network boundaries and network resources have a significant influence not only on knowledge dynamics but also on the capacity of network agents to overcome barriers to learning and to innovate....

  10. Theoretical Approaches to Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Zyga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dealing with stress requires conscious effort, it cannot be perceived as equal to individual's spontaneous reactions. The intentional management of stress must not be confused withdefense mechanisms. Coping differs from adjustment in that the latter is more general, has a broader meaning and includes diverse ways of facing a difficulty.Aim: An exploration of the definition of the term "coping", the function of the coping process as well as its differentiation from other similar meanings through a literature review.Methodology: Three theoretical approaches of coping are introduced; the psychoanalytic approach; approaching by characteristics; and the Lazarus and Folkman interactive model.Results: The strategic methods of the coping approaches are described and the article ends with a review of the approaches including the functioning of the stress-coping process , the classificationtypes of coping strategies in stress-inducing situations and with a criticism of coping approaches.Conclusions: The comparison of coping in different situations is difficult, if not impossible. The coping process is a slow process, so an individual may select one method of coping under one set ofcircumstances and a different strategy at some other time. Such selection of strategies takes place as the situation changes.

  11. Theoretical disagreement about law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the dominant direction of the study of legal phenomena, legal positivism has suffered criticisms above all from representatives of natural law. Nevertheless, the most complex criticism of legal positivism came from Ronald Dworkin. With the methodological criticism he formed in 'Law's Empire', Dworkin attacked the sole foundations of legal positivism and his main methodological assumptions. Quoting the first postulate of positivism, which understands the law as a fact, Dworkin claims that, if this comprehension is correct, there could be no dispute among jurists concerning the law, except if some of them make an empirical mistake while establishing facts. Since this is not the case, Dworkin proves that this is actually a theoretical disagreement which does not represent a disagreement about the law itself, but about its morality. On these grounds, he rejects the idea of law as a fact and claims that the law is an interpretive notion, which means that disagreements within jurisprudence are most frequently interpretative disagreements over criteria of legality, and not empirical disagreements over historic and social facts.

  12. Recognizing and overcoming challenges of couple interview research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Ruth M; Slaymaker, Emma; Cleland, John

    2013-10-01

    In this article we discuss some methodological and ethical challenges we faced when conducting a couple-based study on men's role in contraceptive switching, and how we overcame them. The challenges we discuss include recruiting couples with a range of experiences, ensuring informed consent of participants, maintaining confidentiality within interviews, and participants discussing interview content between interviews. As appropriate, we have drawn on study participants' views of these challenges. We conclude that although couple research poses challenges, they can be overcome or minimized, and that for certain research questions this methodology is well worth using.

  13. Overcoming the Law of the Hidden in Cyberinfrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucksch, Alexander; Das, Abhiram; Schneider, Hannah; Merchant, Nirav; Weitz, Joshua S

    2017-02-01

    Cyberinfrastructure projects (CIPs) are complex, integrated systems that require interaction and organization amongst user, developer, hardware, technical infrastructure, and funding resources. Nevertheless, CIP usability, functionality, and growth do not scale with the sum of these resources. Instead, growth and efficient usage of CIPs require access to 'hidden' resources. These include technical resources within CIPs as well as social and functional interactions among stakeholders. We identify approaches to overcome resource limitations following the conceptual basis of Liebig's Law of the Minimum. In so doing, we recommend practical steps towards efficient and scaleable resource use, taking the iPlant/CyVerse CIP as an example. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kaiserski; Dan Lloyd

    2012-02-28

    The funds allocated through the Wind Powering America (WPA) grant were utilized by the State of Montana to support broad outreach activities communicating the benefits and opportunities of increased wind energy and transmission development. The challenges to increased wind development were also clearly communicated with the understanding that a clearer comprehension of the challenges would be beneficial in overcoming the obstacles to further development. The ultimate purpose of these activities was to foster the increased development of Montana's rich wind resources through increased public acceptance and wider dissemination of technical resources.

  15. Wind energy: Overcoming inadequate wind and modeling uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Vivek

    2010-09-15

    'Green Energy' is the call of the day, and significance of Wind Energy can never be overemphasized. But the key question here is - What if the wind resources are inadequate? Studies reveal that the probability of finding favorable wind at a given place on land is only 15%. Moreover, there are inherent uncertainties associated with wind business. Can we overcome inadequate wind resources? Can we scientifically quantify uncertainty and model it to make business sense? This paper proposes a solution, by way of break-through Wind Technologies, combined with advanced tools for Financial Modeling, enabling vital business decisions.

  16. Enhancing social networks: a qualitative study of health and social care practice in UK mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Martin; Reidy, Hannah; Ansari, David; Stevens, Martin; Morris, David

    2015-03-01

    People with severe mental health problems such as psychosis have access to less social capital, defined as resources within social networks, than members of the general population. However, a lack of theoretically and empirically informed models hampers the development of social interventions which seek to enhance an individual's social networks. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study, which used ethnographic field methods in six sites in England to investigate how workers helped people recovering from psychosis to enhance their social networks. This study drew upon practice wisdom and lived experience to provide data for intervention modelling. Data were collected from 73 practitioners and 51 people who used their services in two phases. Data were selected and coded using a grounded theory approach to depict the key themes that appeared to underpin the generation of social capital within networks. Findings are presented in four over-arching themes - worker skills, attitudes and roles; connecting people processes; role of the agency; and barriers to network development. The sub-themes which were identified included worker attitudes; person-centred approach; equality of worker-individual relationship; goal setting; creating new networks and relationships; engagement through activities; practical support; existing relationships; the individual taking responsibility; identifying and overcoming barriers; and moving on. Themes were consistent with recovery models used within mental health services and will provide the basis for the development of an intervention model to enhance individuals' access to social capital within networks. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will test the hypothesis that social cohesion is a critical factor in ... to community members, and ethnographic social network analysis, to help map ... to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  18. Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William P., Jr.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2013-09-01

    The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice.

  19. Overcoming the Invisibility of Metrology: A Reading Measurement Network for Education and the Social Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, William P Jr; Stenner, A Jackson

    2013-01-01

    The public and researchers in psychology and the social sciences are largely unaware of the huge resources invested in metrology and standards in science and commerce, for understandable reasons, but with unfortunate consequences. Measurement quality varies widely in fields lacking uniform standards, making it impossible to coordinate local behaviours and decisions in tune with individually observed instrument readings. However, recent developments in reading measurement have effectively instituted metrological traceability methods within elementary and secondary English and Spanish language reading education in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia. Given established patterns in the history of science, it may be reasonable to expect that widespread routine reproduction of controlled effects expressed in uniform units in the social sciences may lead to significant developments in theory and practice

  20. Competing intramolecular N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds and extended intermolecular network in 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(2-methyl-4-oxopentan-2-yl) thiourea analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Aamer, E-mail: aamersaeed@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khurshid, Asma [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Jasinski, Jerry P. [Department of Chemistry, Keene State College, 229 Main Street Keene, NH 03435-2001 (United States); Pozzi, C. Gustavo; Fantoni, Adolfo C. [Instituto de Física La Plata, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 49 y 115, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Erben, Mauricio F., E-mail: erben@quimica.unlp.edu.ar [CEQUINOR (UNLP, CONICET-CCT La Plata), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 962, (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-03-18

    Highlights: • Two distinct N-H⋯O=C intramolecular competing hydrogen bonds are feasible in the title molecule. • Crystal structures and vibrational properties were determined. • The C=O and C=S double bonds of the acyl-thiourea group are mutually oriented in opposite directions. • A strong hyperconjugative lpO1 → σ{sup ∗}(N2-H) remote interaction was detected. • Topological analysis reveals a Cl⋯N interaction playing a relevant role in crystal packing. - Abstract: The synthesis of a novel 1-acyl-thiourea species (C{sub 14}H{sub 17}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}SCl), has been tailored in such a way that two distinct N-H⋯O=C intramolecular competing hydrogen bonds are feasible. The X-ray structure analysis as well as the vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) data reveal that the S conformation is preferred, with the C=O and C=S bonds of the acyl-thiourea group pointing in opposite directions. The preference for the intramolecular N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bond within the -C(O)NHC(S)NH- core is confirmed. The Natural Bond Orbital and the Atom in Molecule approaches demonstrate that a strong hyperconjugative lpO → σ{sup ∗}(N-H) remote interaction between the acyl and the thioamide N-H groups is responsible for the stabilization of the S conformation. Intermolecular interactions have been characterized in the periodic system electron density and the topological analysis reveals the presence of an extended intermolecular network in the crystal, including a Cl⋯N interaction playing a relevant role in crystal packing.

  1. Theoretical Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N.G.

    1979-04-01

    This report presents highlights of activities in the Theoretical (T) Division from October 1976-January 1979. The report is divided into three parts. Part I presents an overview of the Division: its unique function at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and within the scientific community as a whole; the organization of personnel; the main areas of research; and a survey of recent T-Division initiatives. This overview is followed by a survey of the 13 groups within the Division, their main responsibilities, interests, and expertise, consulting activities, and recent scientific accomplisments. The remainder of the report, Parts II and III, is devoted to articles on selected research activities. Recent efforts on topics of immediate interest to energy and weapons programs at LASL and elsewhere are described in Part II, Major National Programs. Separate articles present T-Divison contributions to weapons research, reactor safety and reactor physics research, fusion research, laser isotope separation, and other energy research. Each article is a compilation of independent projects within T Division, all related to but addressing different aspects of the major program. Part III is organized by subject discipline, and describes recent scientific advances of fundamental interest. An introduction, defining the scope and general nature of T-Division efforts within a given discipline, is followed by articles on the research topics selected. The reporting is done by the scientists involved in the research, and an attempt is made to communicate to a general audience. Some data are given incidentally; more technical presentations of the research accomplished may be found among the 47 pages of references. 110 figures, 5 tables

  2. TAD- THEORETICAL AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowman, J.

    1994-01-01

    This theoretical aerodynamics program, TAD, was developed to predict the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles with sounding rocket configurations. These slender, axisymmetric finned vehicle configurations have a wide range of aeronautical applications from rockets to high speed armament. Over a given range of Mach numbers, TAD will compute the normal force coefficient derivative, the center-of-pressure, the roll forcing moment coefficient derivative, the roll damping moment coefficient derivative, and the pitch damping moment coefficient derivative of a sounding rocket configured vehicle. The vehicle may consist of a sharp pointed nose of cone or tangent ogive shape, up to nine other body divisions of conical shoulder, conical boattail, or circular cylinder shape, and fins of trapezoid planform shape with constant cross section and either three or four fins per fin set. The characteristics computed by TAD have been shown to be accurate to within ten percent of experimental data in the supersonic region. The TAD program calculates the characteristics of separate portions of the vehicle, calculates the interference between separate portions of the vehicle, and then combines the results to form a total vehicle solution. Also, TAD can be used to calculate the characteristics of the body or fins separately as an aid in the design process. Input to the TAD program consists of simple descriptions of the body and fin geometries and the Mach range of interest. Output includes the aerodynamic characteristics of the total vehicle, or user-selected portions, at specified points over the mach range. The TAD program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 360 computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 123K of 8 bit bytes. The TAD program was originally developed in 1967 and last updated in 1972.

  3. Overcoming Learning Aversion in Evaluating and Managing Uncertain Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2015-10-01

    Decision biases can distort cost-benefit evaluations of uncertain risks, leading to risk management policy decisions with predictably high retrospective regret. We argue that well-documented decision biases encourage learning aversion, or predictably suboptimal learning and premature decision making in the face of high uncertainty about the costs, risks, and benefits of proposed changes. Biases such as narrow framing, overconfidence, confirmation bias, optimism bias, ambiguity aversion, and hyperbolic discounting of the immediate costs and delayed benefits of learning, contribute to deficient individual and group learning, avoidance of information seeking, underestimation of the value of further information, and hence needlessly inaccurate risk-cost-benefit estimates and suboptimal risk management decisions. In practice, such biases can create predictable regret in selection of potential risk-reducing regulations. Low-regret learning strategies based on computational reinforcement learning models can potentially overcome some of these suboptimal decision processes by replacing aversion to uncertain probabilities with actions calculated to balance exploration (deliberate experimentation and uncertainty reduction) and exploitation (taking actions to maximize the sum of expected immediate reward, expected discounted future reward, and value of information). We discuss the proposed framework for understanding and overcoming learning aversion and for implementing low-regret learning strategies using regulation of air pollutants with uncertain health effects as an example. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. EXPERIENCES OF OVERCOMING THE MASTER PRIMARY TO USE THE GEOGEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luz Fuentes-Pérez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the experience of two researchers in overcoming 15 primary teachers, was used for this purpose a postgraduate course, in order to be trained so that they can use the dynamic geometry software Geogebra in the process of learning that develop in their classrooms. It is an investigation that used the systematization of experiences as a methodology and as research methods participant observation to get to know the moods and difficulties of trainees during class activities, group interview to gather data on participants in the course and with directors of primary education to meet the expectations and results related to the improvement and implementation of PNI for the views after some of the educational activities considered relevant. The results show as advances are obtained in overcoming teachers to use Geogebra and mention some lessons that emerge from the systematization about conception must have a course which is intended to prepare teachers who are not digital natives use the software mentioned.

  5. Border detection in complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Viana, Matheus Palhares; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2009-01-01

    One important issue implied by the finite nature of real-world networks regards the identification of their more external (border) and internal nodes. The present work proposes a formal and objective definition of these properties, founded on the recently introduced concept of node diversity. It is shown that this feature does not exhibit any relevant correlation with several well-established complex networks measurements. A methodology for the identification of the borders of complex networks is described and illustrated with respect to theoretical (geographical and knitted networks) as well as real-world networks (urban and word association networks), yielding interesting results and insights in both cases.

  6. Multi-equilibrium property of metabolic networks: SSI module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Luonan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Revealing the multi-equilibrium property of a metabolic network is a fundamental and important topic in systems biology. Due to the complexity of the metabolic network, it is generally a difficult task to study the problem as a whole from both analytical and numerical viewpoint. On the other hand, the structure-oriented modularization idea is a good choice to overcome such a difficulty, i.e. decomposing the network into several basic building blocks and then studying the whole network through investigating the dynamical characteristics of the basic building blocks and their interactions. Single substrate and single product with inhibition (SSI metabolic module is one type of the basic building blocks of metabolic networks, and its multi-equilibrium property has important influence on that of the whole metabolic networks. Results In this paper, we describe what the SSI metabolic module is, characterize the rates of the metabolic reactions by Hill kinetics and give a unified model for SSI modules by using a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations with multi-variables. Specifically, a sufficient and necessary condition is first given to describe the injectivity of a class of nonlinear systems, and then, the sufficient condition is used to study the multi-equilibrium property of SSI modules. As a main theoretical result, for the SSI modules in which each reaction has no more than one inhibitor, a sufficient condition is derived to rule out multiple equilibria, i.e. the Jacobian matrix of its rate function is nonsingular everywhere. Conclusions In summary, we describe SSI modules and give a general modeling framework based on Hill kinetics, and provide a sufficient condition for ruling out multiple equilibria of a key type of SSI module.

  7. OVERCOMING THE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES: PARABLE AS A MEANS OF INTERCULTURAL DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article attempts to investigate the ways to overcome negative after-effects of intercultural communication. Methodology and theoretical results: To avoid the negative after-effects of intercultural communication caused by the clash of different reality tunnels, it is necessary to go beyond the framework of the specific symbolical territory, which is seen as the only true reality. Expanding the horizons of life, going beyond the boundaries of a personal reality tunnel can be achieved, in particular, by using parables. Acquaintance with parables helps to extend the set of the world perception models and to change the positions of the communication process participants. Parables act as intermediaries between people of different cultures and mentalities. Owing to its archetypical form, parable becomes one of the most popular narratives illustrating deep and multi-faceted truths that sometimes cannot be expressed by any other way. Parable serves as an open and flexible model of the world and a model of an individual "I self". This model helps people to constitute themselves as a part of their world. Parable requires to reject its interpretation in the oppositions inherent in a given culture and to reconsider the very way of understanding. Rejection of the oppositions provides the possibility of perceiving the world as integrity, unity in diversity, helps to overcome one-sided picture of the inner world of a man and his life in society. Understanding of a parable works towards changing personal position, and human creative nature is actualized. Conclusion: Parables uniquely reflect the real world and contribute to personal understanding of reality. Parables are successfully transplanted into different cultures operating as heritage of a culture-recipient and as a connecting link, which optimizes an intercultural dialogue.

  8. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Schmaltz, Martin [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Katz, Emmanuel [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Rebbi, Claudio [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Glashow, Sheldon [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Brower, Richard [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Pi, So-Young [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  9. Topics in Theoretical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Andrew; Schmaltz, Martin; Katz, Emmanuel; Rebbi, Claudio; Glashow, Sheldon; Brower, Richard; Pi, So-Young

    2016-01-01

    This award supported a broadly based research effort in theoretical particle physics, including research aimed at uncovering the laws of nature at short (subatomic) and long (cosmological) distances. These theoretical developments apply to experiments in laboratories such as CERN, the facility that operates the Large Hadron Collider outside Geneva, as well as to cosmological investigations done using telescopes and satellites. The results reported here apply to physics beyond the so-called Standard Model of particle physics; physics of high energy collisions such as those observed at the Large Hadron Collider; theoretical and mathematical tools and frameworks for describing the laws of nature at short distances; cosmology and astrophysics; and analytic and computational methods to solve theories of short distance physics. Some specific research accomplishments include + Theories of the electroweak interactions, the forces that give rise to many forms of radioactive decay; + Physics of the recently discovered Higgs boson. + Models and phenomenology of dark matter, the mysterious component of the universe, that has so far been detected only by its gravitational effects. + High energy particles in astrophysics and cosmology. + Algorithmic research and Computational methods for physics of and beyond the Standard Model. + Theory and applications of relativity and its possible limitations. + Topological effects in field theory and cosmology. + Conformally invariant systems and AdS/CFT. This award also supported significant training of students and postdoctoral fellows to lead the research effort in particle theory for the coming decades. These students and fellows worked closely with other members of the group as well as theoretical and experimental colleagues throughout the physics community. Many of the research projects funded by this grant arose in response to recently obtained experimental results in the areas of particle physics and cosmology. We describe a few of

  10. Information-theoretic metamodel of organizational evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Alfredo

    2011-12-01

    Social organizations are abstractly modeled by holarchies---self-similar connected networks---and intelligent complex adaptive multiagent systems---large networks of autonomous reasoning agents interacting via scaled processes. However, little is known of how information shapes evolution in such organizations, a gap that can lead to misleading analytics. The research problem addressed in this study was the ineffective manner in which classical model-predict-control methods used in business analytics attempt to define organization evolution. The purpose of the study was to construct an effective metamodel for organization evolution based on a proposed complex adaptive structure---the info-holarchy. Theoretical foundations of this study were holarchies, complex adaptive systems, evolutionary theory, and quantum mechanics, among other recently developed physical and information theories. Research questions addressed how information evolution patterns gleamed from the study's inductive metamodel more aptly explained volatility in organization. In this study, a hybrid grounded theory based on abstract inductive extensions of information theories was utilized as the research methodology. An overarching heuristic metamodel was framed from the theoretical analysis of the properties of these extension theories and applied to business, neural, and computational entities. This metamodel resulted in the synthesis of a metaphor for, and generalization of organization evolution, serving as the recommended and appropriate analytical tool to view business dynamics for future applications. This study may manifest positive social change through a fundamental understanding of complexity in business from general information theories, resulting in more effective management.

  11. Overcoming the Challenges of siRNA Delivery: Nanoparticle Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajari, Neda; Mansoori, Behzad; Davudian, Sadaf; Mohammadi, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Despite therapeutics based on siRNA have an immense potential for the treatment of incurable diseases such as cancers. However, the in vivo utilization of siRNA and also the delivery of this agent to the target site is one of the most controversial challenges. The helpful assistance by nanoparticles can improve stable delivery and also enhance efficacy. More nanoparticle-based siRNA therapeutics is expected to become available in the near future. The search strategy followed the guidelines of the Centre of Reviews and Dissemination. The studies were identified from seven databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premiere, CINAHL, Medline Ovid, Eric and Cochrane Library). Studies was selected based on titles, abstracts and full texts. One hundred twenty nine papers were included in the review. These papers defined hurdles in RNAi delivery and also strategies to overcome these hurdles. This review discussed the existing hurdles for systemic administration of siRNA as therapeutic agents and highlights the various strategies to overcome these hurdles, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric nanoparticles, and we also briefly reviewed chemical modification. Delivery of siRNA to the target site is the biggest challenge for its application in the clinic. The findings of this review confirmed by encapsulation siRNA in the nanoparticles can overcome these challenges. The rapid progress in nanotechnology has enabled the development of effective nanoparticles as the carrier for siRNA delivery. However, our data about siRNA-based therapeutics and also nanomedicine are still limited. More clinical data needs to be completely understood in the benefits and drawbacks of siRNA-based therapeutics. Prospective studies must pay attention to the in vivo safety profiles of the different delivery systems, including uninvited immune system stimulation and cytotoxicity. In essence, the development of nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable delivery systems for

  12. International network competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tangerås, Thomas P.; Tåg, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    We analyse network competition in a market with international calls. National regulatory agencies (NRAs) have incentives to set regulated termination rates above marginal cost to extract rent from international call termination. International network ownership and deregulation are alternatives to combat the incentives of NRAs to distort termination rates. We provide conditions under which each of these policies increase efficiency and aggregate welfare. Our findings provide theoretical suppor...

  13. Artificial neural network modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    This book covers theoretical aspects as well as recent innovative applications of Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) in natural, environmental, biological, social, industrial and automated systems. It presents recent results of ANNs in modelling small, large and complex systems under three categories, namely, 1) Networks, Structure Optimisation, Robustness and Stochasticity 2) Advances in Modelling Biological and Environmental Systems and 3) Advances in Modelling Social and Economic Systems. The book aims at serving undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in ANN computational modelling. .

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Marvin, E-mail: marvin.kant@tu-berlin.de [Department of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-13

    The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-)design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a) actors, (b) resources, (c) institutional settings, and (d) the coordination of the support system.

  15. Overcoming tumor resistance by heterologous adeno-poxvirus combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Vähä-Koskela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful cancer control relies on overcoming resistance to cell death and on activation of host antitumor immunity. Oncolytic viruses are particularly attractive in this regard, as they lyse infected tumor cells and trigger robust immune responses during the infection. However, repeated injections of the same virus promote antiviral rather than antitumor immunity and tumors may mount innate antiviral defenses to restrict oncolytic virus replication. In this article, we have explored if alternating the therapy virus could circumvent these problems. We demonstrate in two virus-resistant animal models a substantial delay in antiviral immune- and innate cellular response induction by alternating injections of two immunologically distinct oncolytic viruses, adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Our results are in support of clinical development of heterologous adeno-/vaccinia virus therapy of cancer.

  16. How insects overcome two-component plant chemical defence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pentzold, Stefan; Zagrobelny, Mika; Rook, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Insect herbivory is often restricted by glucosylated plant chemical defence compounds that are activated by plant β-glucosidases to release toxic aglucones upon plant tissue damage. Such two-component plant defences are widespread in the plant kingdom and examples of these classes of compounds...... are alkaloid, benzoxazinoid, cyanogenic and iridoid glucosides as well as glucosinolates and salicinoids. Conversely, many insects have evolved a diversity of counteradaptations to overcome this type of constitutive chemical defence. Here we discuss that such counter-adaptations occur at different time points......, before and during feeding as well as during digestion, and at several levels such as the insects’ feeding behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Insect adaptations frequently circumvent or counteract the activity of the plant β-glucosidases, bioactivating enzymes that are a key element in the plant’s two...

  17. Genecialist manifesto: overcoming the “class struggle” in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Kentaro Iwata Division of Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Abstract: Generalists and specialists are often considered two completely distinct species, which culminates in the establishment of a concept of dichotomy. However, these dichotomy can at times fuel tension and even erupt into open conflict. In order to resolve this issue, the author herein proposes the concept of a “genecialist.” The genecialist refers to a hybrid comprising elements inherent to both generalists and specialists. This potentially overcomes the multitude of issues associated with both generalists and specialists in the practical aspects of medicine. The coalescence of these two contrarieties may hold the key to improving the future of health care. Mediating and integrating both categories into one consolidated entity carries the potential to stem the tide of class warfare between generalists and specialists. Keywords: genecialist, aufheben, generalist, specialist, asymmetry

  18. Overcoming Learning Time And Space Constraints Through Technological Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Zarei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today the use of technological tools has become an evolution in language learning and language acquisition. Many instructors and lecturers believe that integrating Web-based learning tools into language courses allows pupils to become active learners during learning process. This study investigate how the Learning Management Blog (LMB overcomes the learning time and space constraints that contribute to students’ language learning and language acquisition processes. The participants were 30 ESL students at National University of Malaysia. A qualitative approach comprising an open-ended questionnaire and a semi-structured interview was used to collect data. The results of the study revealed that the students’ language learning and acquisition processes were enhanced. The students did not face any learning time and space limitations while being engaged in the learning process via the LMB. They learned and acquired knowledge using the language learning materials and forum at anytime and anywhere. Keywords: learning time, learning space, learning management blog

  19. [Pain and Christianity. A symbol for overcoming pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markschies, C

    2007-08-01

    Pain and Christianity appear to belong together: Christ's pain stands at the centre of God's healing; his pain leads to the salvation of mankind. We can learn from Jesus' example how to bear suffering and pain. In early Christian times, the belief that Jesus Christ suffered pain on the cross was usually not accepted. In line with the "apathy axiom", freedom from emotion was something to strive for at that time. Only after the acceptance of Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire in 380 AD did the pain of Christ again stand in the centre of the Christian doctrine of salvation. The memory of the fact that Jesus himself had to undergo the worst pain can still help people to overcome their pain and comfort them.

  20. Overcoming Gender Stereotypes & Improving Learning through the Participation of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on how the daily participation of the "Other Women" women without an academic background or from cultural and ethnic minorities contributes to overcoming sexist stereotypes. The study demonstrates that their participation in instrumental learning activities transforms stereotypical beliefs about the skills of women without academic education, immigrant women, or those from cultural minorities. It can also be observed that their participation in decision-making spaces and in learning activities promotes student learning. In short, this study demonstrates that we need to include the "Other Women" into our diverse schools to progress towards the achievement of gender equity in education and society, and to create more positive learning experiences for all children.

  1. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Marvin

    2017-01-01

    The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-)design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a) actors, (b) resources, (c) institutional settings, and (d) the coordination of the support system.

  2. Supermolecular drug challenge to overcome drug resistance in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yasuhiko; Eshita, Yuki; Ji, Rui-Cheng; Kobayashi, Takashi; Onishi, Masayasu; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun; Kubota, Naoji

    2018-06-04

    Overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells can be accomplished using drug delivery systems in large-molecular-weight ATP-binding cassette transporters before entry into phagolysosomes and by particle-cell-surface interactions. However, these hypotheses do not address the intratumoral heterogeneity in cancer. Anti-MDR must be related to alterations of drug targets, expression of detoxification, as well as altered proliferation. In this study, it is shown that the excellent efficacy and sustainability of anti-MDR is due to a stable ES complex because of the allosteric facilities of artificial enzymes when they are used as supramolecular complexes. The allosteric effect of supermolecular drugs can be explained by the induced-fit model and can provide stable feedback control systems through the loop transfer function of the Hill equation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Overcoming barriers to public understanding of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, M.; Hall, S.

    1987-01-01

    Communication with the public to promote public understanding of, and participation in, nuclear waste issues is crucial. However, such communication with the public is falling short. One of the major reasons for this failure is that the public feels it cannot trust the motivations or actions of USDOE. The biggest barrier to public involvement in nuclear waste issues is the lack of trust in those who invite us to be involved. Many methods could be employed to increase communication and public involvement in complex and technical nuclear matters. This paper discusses the authors' observations of how USDOE's loss of credibility has affected the high-level nuclear waste repository siting process and suggests methods to overcome this primary barrier

  4. Bacterial resistance to silver nanoparticles and how to overcome it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panáček, Aleš; Kvítek, Libor; Smékalová, Monika; Večeřová, Renata; Kolář, Milan; Röderová, Magdalena; Dyčka, Filip; Šebela, Marek; Prucek, Robert; Tomanec, Ondřej; Zbořil, Radek

    2018-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have already been successfully applied in various biomedical and antimicrobial technologies and products used in everyday life. Although bacterial resistance to antibiotics has been extensively discussed in the literature, the possible development of resistance to silver nanoparticles has not been fully explored. We report that the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli 013, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 3955 and E. coli CCM 3954 can develop resistance to silver nanoparticles after repeated exposure. The resistance stems from the production of the adhesive flagellum protein flagellin, which triggers the aggregation of the nanoparticles. This resistance evolves without any genetic changes; only phenotypic change is needed to reduce the nanoparticles' colloidal stability and thus eliminate their antibacterial activity. The resistance mechanism cannot be overcome by additional stabilization of silver nanoparticles using surfactants or polymers. It is, however, strongly suppressed by inhibiting flagellin production with pomegranate rind extract.

  5. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  6. Techniques for overcoming community resistance to family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1968-01-01

    Methods of overcoming resistance to publicly subsidized family planning programs are discussed. The main sources of opposition include groups that oppose family planning for moral reasons, and those who object to the spending of government funds to provide services and information. Such opposition can be weakened by indicating that family planning clinics fulf: 11 important medical needs. Presenting social justification for family planning can help to lower oppostion. In order to secure participation in the programs by low income groups it is essential to have community leaders involved in policy decisions and to use indigenous community paraprofessionals in the clinics. A coalition of representatives of the poor community and the health and welfare system, aided by the community organization, can lead to an effective family planning program.

  7. Overcoming preexisting humoral immunity to AAV using capsid decoys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingozzi, Federico; Anguela, Xavier M; Pavani, Giulia; Chen, Yifeng; Davidson, Robert J; Hui, Daniel J; Yazicioglu, Mustafa; Elkouby, Liron; Hinderer, Christian J; Faella, Armida; Howard, Carolann; Tai, Alex; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Zhou, Shangzhen; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Wright, John Fraser; High, Katherine A

    2013-07-17

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors delivered through the systemic circulation successfully transduce various target tissues in animal models. However, similar attempts in humans have been hampered by the high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to AAV, which completely block vector transduction. We show in both mouse and nonhuman primate models that addition of empty capsid to the final vector formulation can, in a dose-dependent manner, adsorb these antibodies, even at high titers, thus overcoming their inhibitory effect. To further enhance the safety of the approach, we mutated the receptor binding site of AAV2 to generate an empty capsid mutant that can adsorb antibodies but cannot enter a target cell. Our work suggests that optimizing the ratio of full/empty capsids in the final formulation of vector, based on a patient's anti-AAV titers, will maximize the efficacy of gene transfer after systemic vector delivery.

  8. 'Hidden poverty' of teachers: Status, consequences and overcoming strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of reduced financial and other possibilities in the period of social transition are reflected on the quality of life and work of teachers, and thereby indirectly on education of pupils as well. Aims: (1 to determine teachers' estimation of their own financial status and subjective perception of teachers' poverty; (2 to examine in which way the personal perception of poverty of teachers is linked with the quality of their engagement in curricular and extracurricular activities; (3 to examine which economic and psychological strategies teachers use in overcoming stress because of the lower financial status; (4 to examine whether there are differences between teachers with regard to socio-demographic variables and the previously established goals. Sample consists of 141 teachers of music and general education schools in Belgrade and the interior of the country. Method: research is explorative and uses qualitative and psychometric methods of analysis. Results point out to the structure of 'hidden poverty' of teachers: average and poor financial status, financial and logistic support of the extended family, additional job, unfulfilled financial expectations regarding the educational status and ungratified higher needs. Teachers estimate that real poverty of educational system and 'hidden poverty' of teachers are reflected on the quality of certain aspects of educational process as a whole and in certain elements: teacher's personal life and work motivation, authority in school, quality of teacher's engagement in tuition and the possibility of professional specialization. Teachers use financial and psychological strategies for overcoming stress that can be determined as: moralist compensatory, evasive, inappropriate, emotional, relying on family and friendly supportive systems and activist. Conclusion: primarily subjective and spiritual impoverishment of the stratum of highly educated people, who are, in addition to this, the bearers

  9. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATIONAL SERVICES REGIONAL MARKET EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Korabejnikov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities and priorities of the informational services regional market formation as a part of network model of the economic development are described in this article. The authors present the classification of the factors which have an influence on the effectiveness of the informational services regional market development. Theoretical aspects of the informational services regional market effective development are shown.

  10. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Public Engagement through a Multi-Institution Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, K. F.; Weiss, M.; Garlick, S.

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that public engagement with science (PES) can enhance the relevance and impact of science on society. At the same time, advances in our understanding of public engagement suggest that greater skills, resources, and time horizons are often required to create effective programs. Consequently, despite a proliferation of training programs, many scientists still face the challenge of balancing the demands of public engagement with the requirements of their disciplinary research. Novel institutions are emerging that bring together interdisciplinary networks of principle investigators with PES practitioners to overcome barriers to effective and sustained public engagement in the environmental sciences. We will use the Science Policy Exchange (SPE), a consortium housed at the Harvard Forest, Harvard University, to illustrate how PIs and PES practitioners can collaborate to design public engagement processes, conduct policy-relevant scientific syntheses, and implement science communication strategies. Results from two SPE case studies demonstrate how multi-institutional consortia can help scientists overcome barriers such as lack of knowledge of evidence-based PES approaches, limits on time and funding to implement PES projects, and the need to integrate PES activities with research. The case studies also show how SPE strives to achieve credibility, saliency, and legitimacy in different public policy contexts: (1) engagement between scientists and local stakeholders to develop scenarios of landscape change; and (2) engagement between scientists and policy makers to understand the relationship between power plant emission standards, and air quality, human health and ecosystem function. The presentation will conclude with examples of how SPE programs have led to institutional change (staffing and budget), cultural change (attitudes and expectations of senior leaders), and research change (development of research questions, funding proposals

  12. Mental health care for irregular migrants in Europe: Barriers and how they are overcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straßmayr Christa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irregular migrants (IMs are exposed to a wide range of risk factors for developing mental health problems. However, little is known about whether and how they receive mental health care across European countries. The aims of this study were (1 to identify barriers to mental health care for IMs, and (2 to explore ways by which these barriers are overcome in practice. Methods Data from semi-structured interviews with 25 experts in the field of mental health care for IMs in the capital cities of 14 European countries were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Experts reported a range of barriers to mental health care for IMs. These include the absence of legal entitlements to health care in some countries or a lack of awareness of such entitlements, administrative obstacles, a shortage of culturally sensitive care, the complexity of the social needs of IMs, and their fear of being reported and deported. These barriers can be partly overcome by networks of committed professionals and supportive services. NGOs have become important initial points of contact for IMs, providing mental health care themselves or referring IMs to other suitable services. However, these services are often confronted with the ethical dilemma of either acting according to the legislation and institutional rules or providing care for humanitarian reasons, which involves the risk of acting illegally and providing care without authorisation. Conclusions Even in countries where access to health care is legally possible for IMs, various other barriers remain. Some of these are common to all migrants, whilst others are specific for IMs. Attempts at improving mental health care for IMs should consider barriers beyond legal entitlement, including communicating information about entitlement to mental health care professionals and patients, providing culturally sensitive care and ensuring sufficient resources.

  13. The power of theoretical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligood, Martha Raile

    2011-10-01

    Nursing theoretical knowledge has demonstrated powerful contributions to education, research, administration and professional practice for guiding nursing thought and action. That knowledge has shifted the primary focus of the nurse from nursing functions to the person. Theoretical views of the person raise new questions, create new approaches and instruments for nursing research, and expand nursing scholarship throughout the world.

  14. Mathematical challenges from theoretical/computational chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The committee believes that this report has relevance and potentially valuable suggestions for a wide range of readers. Target audiences include: graduate departments in the mathematical and chemical sciences; federal and private agencies that fund research in the mathematical and chemical sciences; selected industrial and government research and development laboratories; developers of software and hardware for computational chemistry; and selected individual researchers. Chapter 2 of this report covers some history of computational chemistry for the nonspecialist, while Chapter 3 illustrates the fruits of some past successful cross-fertilization between mathematical scientists and computational/theoretical chemists. In Chapter 4 the committee has assembled a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of research opportunities. Most of these are descriptions of important open problems in computational/theoretical chemistry that could gain much from the efforts of innovative mathematical scientists, written so as to be accessible introductions to the nonspecialist. Chapter 5 is an assessment, necessarily subjective, of cultural differences that must be overcome if collaborative work is to be encouraged between the mathematical and the chemical communities. Finally, the report ends with a brief list of conclusions and recommendations that, if followed, could promote accelerated progress at this interface. Recognizing that bothersome language issues can inhibit prospects for collaborative research at the interface between distinctive disciplines, the committee has attempted throughout to maintain an accessible style, in part by using illustrative boxes, and has included at the end of the report a glossary of technical terms that may be familiar to only a subset of the target audiences listed above.

  15. Computer Network Attack Versus Operational Maneuver from the Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herdegen, Dale

    2000-01-01

    ...) vulnerable to computer network attack (CNA). Mission command and control can reduce the impact of the loss of command and control, but it can not overcome the vast and complex array of threats...

  16. Wireless mesh networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinheng

    2008-01-01

    Wireless telemedicine using GSM and GPRS technologies can only provide low bandwidth connections, which makes it difficult to transmit images and video. Satellite or 3G wireless transmission provides greater bandwidth, but the running costs are high. Wireless networks (WLANs) appear promising, since they can supply high bandwidth at low cost. However, the WLAN technology has limitations, such as coverage. A new wireless networking technology named the wireless mesh network (WMN) overcomes some of the limitations of the WLAN. A WMN combines the characteristics of both a WLAN and ad hoc networks, thus forming an intelligent, large scale and broadband wireless network. These features are attractive for telemedicine and telecare because of the ability to provide data, voice and video communications over a large area. One successful wireless telemedicine project which uses wireless mesh technology is the Emergency Room Link (ER-LINK) in Tucson, Arizona, USA. There are three key characteristics of a WMN: self-organization, including self-management and self-healing; dynamic changes in network topology; and scalability. What we may now see is a shift from mobile communication and satellite systems for wireless telemedicine to the use of wireless networks based on mesh technology, since the latter are very attractive in terms of cost, reliability and speed.

  17. Anticipatory Cognitive Systems: a Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenzi, Graziano

    This paper deals with the problem of understanding anticipation in biological and cognitive systems. It is argued that a physical theory can be considered as biologically plausible only if it incorporates the ability to describe systems which exhibit anticipatory behaviors. The paper introduces a cognitive level description of anticipation and provides a simple theoretical characterization of anticipatory systems on this level. Specifically, a simple model of a formal anticipatory neuron and a model (i.e. the τ-mirror architecture) of an anticipatory neural network which is based on the former are introduced and discussed. The basic feature of this architecture is that a part of the network learns to represent the behavior of the other part over time, thus constructing an implicit model of its own functioning. As a consequence, the network is capable of self-representation; anticipation, on a oscopic level, is nothing but a consequence of anticipation on a microscopic level. Some learning algorithms are also discussed together with related experimental tasks and possible integrations. The outcome of the paper is a formal characterization of anticipation in cognitive systems which aims at being incorporated in a comprehensive and more general physical theory.

  18. A distribution network review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)

  19. A distribution network review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairbairn, R.J.; Maunder, D.; Kenyon, P.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study reviewing the distribution network in England, Scotland and Wales to evaluate its ability to accommodate more embedded generation from both fossil fuel and renewable energy sources. The background to the study is traced, and descriptions of the existing electricity supply system, the licence conditions relating to embedded generation, and the effects of the Review of Electricity Trading Arrangements are given. The ability of the UK distribution networks to accept embedded generation is examined, and technical benefits/drawbacks arising from embedded generation, and the potential for uptake of embedded generation technologies are considered. The distribution network capacity and the potential uptake of embedded generation are compared, and possible solutions to overcome obstacles are suggested. (UK)

  20. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Crista Marie

    Scientific discovery is at the heart of solving many of the problems facing contemporary society. Scientists are retiring at rates that exceed the numbers of new scientists. Unfortunately, scientific careers still appear to be outside the reach of most individuals with learning disabilities. The purpose of this research was to better understand the methods by which successful learning disabled scientists have overcome the barriers and challenges associated with their learning disabilities in their preparation and performance as scientists. This narrative inquiry involved the researcher writing the life stories of four scientists. These life stories were generated from extensive interviews in which each of the scientists recounted their life histories. The researcher used narrative analysis to "make sense" of these learning disabled scientists' life stories. The narrative analysis required the researcher to identify and describe emergent themes characterizing each scientist's life. A cross-case analysis was then performed to uncover commonalities and differences in the lives of these four individuals. Results of the cross-case analysis revealed that all four scientists had a passion for science that emerged at an early age, which, with strong drive and determination, drove these individuals to succeed in spite of the many obstacles arising from their learning disabilities. The analysis also revealed that these scientists chose careers based on their strengths; they actively sought mentors to guide them in their preparation as scientists; and they developed coping techniques to overcome difficulties and succeed. The cross-case analysis also revealed differences in the degree to which each scientist accepted his or her learning disability. While some demonstrated inferior feelings about their successes as scientists, still other individuals revealed feelings of having superior abilities in areas such as visualization and working with people. These individuals revealed

  1. Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbafieri, Meri

    2013-04-01

    Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to

  2. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Howard; Venkatesan, Sivarama

    2012-01-01

    As the theoretical foundations of multiple-antenna techniques evolve and as these multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques become essential for providing high data rates in wireless systems, there is a growing need to understand the performance limits of MIMO in practical networks. To address this need, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks presents a systematic description of MIMO technology classes and a framework for MIMO system design that takes into account the essential physical-layer features of practical cellular networks. In contrast to works that focus on the theoretical performance of abstract MIMO channels, MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks emphasizes the practical performance of realistic MIMO systems. A unified set of system simulation results highlights relative performance gains of different MIMO techniques and provides insights into how best to use multiple antennas in cellular networks under various conditions. MIMO Communication for Cellular Networks describes single-user,...

  3. Overcoming Innocents' Naiveté: Pre-interrogation Decision-making Among Innocent Suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Kyle C; Alberts, Kimberly M; Franks, Andrew S; Hawkins, Ian

    2016-07-01

    Suspects, especially innocent ones, are highly susceptible to waiving their interrogation rights. This research tested the ability of two strategies to overcome innocent suspects' willingness to waive their rights. One strategy was based on the social influence of scarcity (i.e., not constraining the pre-interrogation time limit). The other strategy focused on disrupting individuals' cognitive fluency during the decision-making process (i.e., violating their induced expectation of offering a waiver). Disrupting innocent individuals' cognitive fluency increased their willingness to invoke their rights and, notably, was not qualified by interactions with any other factors. However, scarcity did not influence individuals' pre-interrogation decision-making. Results also further established the association between innocent individuals' naïve mindset and their willingness to waive their rights - specifically, innocents' willingness to waive their rights increased with the strength of their just world beliefs. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. The importance and benefit of reforming pre-interrogation protocols using fair and feasible strategies that would disrupt suspects' cognitive fluency are emphasized. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, K. L.; Shen, L.; Schulz, S. A.; Zheng, X.; Upham, J.; Deng, X.; Altug, H.; Vakakis, A. F.; Boyd, R. W.

    2017-06-01

    A century-old tenet in physics and engineering asserts that any type of system, having bandwidth Δω, can interact with a wave over only a constrained time period Δt inversely proportional to the bandwidth (Δt·Δω ~ 2π). This law severely limits the generic capabilities of all types of resonant and wave-guiding systems in photonics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics, acoustics, continuum mechanics, and atomic and optical physics but is thought to be completely fundamental, arising from basic Fourier reciprocity. We propose that this “fundamental” limit can be overcome in systems where Lorentz reciprocity is broken. As a system becomes more asymmetric in its transport properties, the degree to which the limit can be surpassed becomes greater. By way of example, we theoretically demonstrate how, in an astutely designed magnetized semiconductor heterostructure, the above limit can be exceeded by orders of magnitude by using realistic material parameters. Our findings revise prevailing paradigms for linear, time-invariant resonant systems, challenging the doctrine that high-quality resonances must invariably be narrowband and providing the possibility of developing devices with unprecedentedly high time-bandwidth performance.

  5. Designing Caregiver-Implemented Shared-Reading Interventions to Overcome Implementation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica R.; Damschroder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study presents an application of the theoretical domains framework (TDF; Michie et al., 2005), an integrative framework drawing on behavior-change theories, to speech-language pathology. Methods A multistep procedure was used to identify barriers affecting caregivers' implementation of shared-reading interventions with their children with language impairment (LI). The authors examined caregiver-level data corresponding to implementation issues from two randomized controlled trials and mapped these to domains in the TDF as well as empirically validated behavior-change techniques. Results Four barriers to implementation were identified as potentially affecting caregivers' implementation: time pressures, reading difficulties, discomfort with reading, and lack of awareness of benefits. These were mapped to 3 TDF domains: intentions, beliefs about capabilities, and skills. In turn, 4 behavior-change techniques were identified as potential vehicles for affecting these domains: reward, feedback, model, and encourage. An ongoing study is described that is determining the effects of these techniques for improving caregivers' implementation of a shared-reading intervention. Conclusions A description of the steps to identifying barriers to implementation, in conjunction with an ongoing experiment that will explicitly determine whether behavior-change techniques affect these barriers, provides a model for how implementation science can be used to identify and overcome implementation barriers in the treatment of communication disorders. PMID:26262941

  6. Family constellation as a treatment for overcoming the consequences of violence on victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnčić Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the implementation of family constellations by Bert Hellinger in work with clients with special emphasis on victims of physical and sexual violence. Although extremely popular in Europe and the world it has not been presented in Serbian scientific literature. As the approach has been developed in Germany as an answer to the situation where a significant part of population was a victim or perpetrator of violence during the Second World War causing suffering not only to them, but also to their offsprings, it offers a special contribution to the work with victims of violence. The aims of the paper are the presentation and analysis of the implementation of family constellations by Bert Hellinger and their effects generally in work with clients as well as with victims of physical and sexual violence. The technique of family constellations based on systemic and phenomenological approach is presented and discussed. Work is in the group, where participants form the circle and person who seeks problem resolution invites representatives - persons who are crucial for problem solution previously agreed with constellation facilitator - constellator. The constellator communicate with the representatives, encouraging them to express feelings, sensations and movement that will facilitate progress towards finding the optimal solution. The basic theoretical concepts are also analysed, including two types of conscience (individual and family, three basic principles of orders of love (principle of equal right to belong, principle of balance between giving and taking and principle of order and three levels of the soul (individual, family and great soul. The approach to overcoming consequences of violence on victims of physical violence and incest through symbolic interconnecting with the perpetrator is analysed. When it is applied to violence the victim has an opportunity to get a more comprehensive understanding and to experience an

  7. Theoretical chemistry advances and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Advances and Perspectives, Volume 5 covers articles concerning all aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the mean spherical approximation for simple electrolyte solutions; the representation of lattice sums as Mellin-transformed products of theta functions; and the evaluation of two-dimensional lattice sums by number theoretic means. The text also describes an application of contour integration; a lattice model of quantum fluid; as well as the computational aspects of chemical equilibrium in complex systems. Chemists and physicists will find the book usef

  8. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David; Bill, Roslyn M; Jawhari, Anass; Rothnie, Alice J

    2016-06-15

    Membrane proteins account for a third of the eukaryotic proteome, but are greatly under-represented in the Protein Data Bank. Unfortunately, recent technological advances in X-ray crystallography and EM cannot account for the poor solubility and stability of membrane protein samples. A limitation of conventional detergent-based methods is that detergent molecules destabilize membrane proteins, leading to their aggregation. The use of orthologues, mutants and fusion tags has helped improve protein stability, but at the expense of not working with the sequence of interest. Novel detergents such as glucose neopentyl glycol (GNG), maltose neopentyl glycol (MNG) and calixarene-based detergents can improve protein stability without compromising their solubilizing properties. Styrene maleic acid lipid particles (SMALPs) focus on retaining the native lipid bilayer of a membrane protein during purification and biophysical analysis. Overcoming bottlenecks in the membrane protein structural biology pipeline, primarily by maintaining protein stability, will facilitate the elucidation of many more membrane protein structures in the near future. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Strategies for Overcoming Resistance in Tumours Harboring BRAF Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourah Mohammad Obaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to previously effective treatments has been a challenge for health care providers and a fear for patients undergoing cancer therapy. This is an unfortunately frequent occurrence for patients undergoing targeted therapy for tumours harboring the activating V600E mutation of the BRAF gene. Since the initial identification of the BRAF mutation in 2002, a series of small molecular inhibitors that target the BRAFV600E have been developed, but intrinsic and acquired resistance to these drugs has presented an ongoing challenge. More recently, improvements in therapy have been achieved by combining the use of BRAF inhibitors with other drugs, such as inhibitors of the downstream effector mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK. Despite improved success in response rates and in delaying resistance using combination therapy, ultimately, the acquisition of resistance remains a concern. Recent research articles have shed light on some of the underlying mechanisms of this resistance and have proposed numerous strategies that might be employed to overcome or avoid resistance to targeted therapies. This review will explore some of the resistance mechanisms, compare what is known in melanoma cancer to colorectal cancer, and discuss strategies under development to manage the development of resistance.

  10. Overcoming multicollinearity in multiple regression using correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainodin, H. J.; Yap, S. J.

    2013-09-01

    Multicollinearity happens when there are high correlations among independent variables. In this case, it would be difficult to distinguish between the contributions of these independent variables to that of the dependent variable as they may compete to explain much of the similar variance. Besides, the problem of multicollinearity also violates the assumption of multiple regression: that there is no collinearity among the possible independent variables. Thus, an alternative approach is introduced in overcoming the multicollinearity problem in achieving a well represented model eventually. This approach is accomplished by removing the multicollinearity source variables on the basis of the correlation coefficient values based on full correlation matrix. Using the full correlation matrix can facilitate the implementation of Excel function in removing the multicollinearity source variables. It is found that this procedure is easier and time-saving especially when dealing with greater number of independent variables in a model and a large number of all possible models. Hence, in this paper detailed insight of the procedure is shown, compared and implemented.

  11. Overcoming complexities: Damage detection using dictionary learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguri, K. Supreet; Melville, Joseph; Deemer, Chris; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    For in situ damage detection, guided wave structural health monitoring systems have been widely researched due to their ability to evaluate large areas and their ability detect many types of damage. These systems often evaluate structural health by recording initial baseline measurements from a pristine (i.e., undamaged) test structure and then comparing later measurements with that baseline. Yet, it is not always feasible to have a pristine baseline. As an alternative, substituting the baseline with data from a surrogate (nearly identical and pristine) structure is a logical option. While effective in some circumstance, surrogate data is often still a poor substitute for pristine baseline measurements due to minor differences between the structures. To overcome this challenge, we present a dictionary learning framework to adapt surrogate baseline data to better represent an undamaged test structure. We compare the performance of our framework with two other surrogate-based damage detection strategies: (1) using raw surrogate data for comparison and (2) using sparse wavenumber analysis, a precursor to our framework for improving the surrogate data. We apply our framework to guided wave data from two 108 mm by 108 mm aluminum plates. With 20 measurements, we show that our dictionary learning framework achieves a 98% accuracy, raw surrogate data achieves a 92% accuracy, and sparse wavenumber analysis achieves a 57% accuracy.

  12. The telephone effect: Overcoming initiation deficits in two settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Kayci L; Keesler, Michael E; Williams, Kelli S; Charles, Jeremy Y; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-04-19

    Disorders of motivation substantially impair an individual's ability to communicate with their families, therapists, and doctors. One method of overcoming initiation deficits is by utilizing the telephone effect, which is the ability for individuals with severe motivation deficits to communicate more readily when speaking on a telephone. However, little is available in the extant literature on how this effect works or how best to integrate this into patient care. This article aims to provide the first report of a proposed mechanism underlying the telephone effect and the first published procedures for eliciting this effect. This is largely a review article that also contains descriptions of clinical procedures for eliciting the telephone effect with 2 patient populations: acute inpatients following brain injury and dementia residents. A case vignette is also provided. We propose that the telephone effect is the result of an interaction between the patient and environment, and occurs because of Gibson's (1979) law of affordances. The use of this theory provides an explanation of the behaviors often observed when attempting to elicit this effect (i.e., disruption of the effect when using a cellular phone). Moreover, we argue that this can, and does, apply to social interactions as well. The telephone effect is an understudied phenomenon that provides a means of improving care for individuals with disorders of motivation. Future directions include systematic research into the telephone effect and further investigation of the mechanism underlying this effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Strategies to potentiate antimicrobial photoinactivation by overcoming resistant phenotypes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, D. Mariano A.; Haynes, Mark H; Ball, Anthony R.; Dai, D. Tianhong; Astrakas, Christos; Kelso, Michael J; Hamblin, Michael R; Tegos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional antimicrobial strategies have become increasingly ineffective due to the emergence of multidrug resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. The need to overcome these deficiencies has triggered the exploration of alternative treatments and unconventional approaches towards controlling microbial infections. Photodynamic therapy was originally established as an anti-cancer modality and is currently used in the treatment of age related macular degeneration. The concept of photodynamic inactivation requires cell exposure to light energy, typically wavelengths in the visible region that causes the excitation of photosensitizer molecules either exogenous or endogenous, which results in the production of reactive oxygen species. ROS produce cell inactivation and death through modification of intracellular components. The versatile characteristics of PDT prompted its investigation as an anti-infective discovery platform. Advances in understanding of microbial physiology have shed light on a series of pathways, and phenotypes that serve as putative targets for antimicrobial drug discovery. Investigations of these phenotypic elements in concert with PDT have been reported focused on multidrug efflux systems, biofilms, virulence and pathogenesis determinants. In many instances the results are promising but only preliminary and require further investigation. This review discusses the different antimicrobial PDT strategies and highlights the need for highly informative and comprehensive discovery approaches. PMID:22242675

  14. Overcoming PV grid issues in the urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehara, T.

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at grid issues in urban photovoltaic electricity and how to overcome them. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the goal of mainstreaming PV systems in the urban environment. In this report, PV grid interconnection issues and countermeasures based on the latest studies are identified and summarised. Appropriate and understandable information is provided for all possible stakeholders. Possible impacts and benefits of PV grid interconnection are identified, technical measures designed to eliminate negative impacts and enhance possible benefits are presented. The status of research and demonstration projects is introduced and the latest outcomes are summarised. Recommendations and conclusions based on the review process are summarised and presented.

  15. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Methods for overcoming dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a phenomenon observed in several tropical species. This condition causes low and non-uniform germination. The present study was designed to identify an efficient method of breaking seed dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum. Seeds of four mother plants were subjected to the following treatments: immersion in sulfuric acid for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 min and scarification on 150-grit sandpaper. Seeds were sown on substrate containing sand and sawdust (1:1. It was evaluate the days to onset seedlings emergence, seedlings emergence (SE, emergence speed index (ESI, germination (G, hard seeds (HS, dead seeds (DS, dormant seeds (DMS, abnormal seedlings (AS and dry mass of aerial part (DMAP and roots (DMR. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds for each treatment. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Significant differences among treatments were observed for ESI, SE, G, HS, DMAP and DMR. Highest HS was observed in control treatment (85%. Highest G was observed in seeds scarified with sulfuric acid for 10 min (82% and 12 min (74%. These treatments also showed highest ESI, DMAP and DMR, indicating that these scarification treatments were the most efficient in overcoming dormancy.

  17. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes, physical scarification with hot water at 60°, 70°, 80°and 90° C for one minute, imbibition in distilled water for 24, 48 and 72 hours, oven heating at 65° C for 1, 2, 3 and 4 hours, and a control treatment. Each treatment included four replicates of 25 seeds, using a completely randomized experimental design, and means were compared by the Scott-Knott test at the 5% probability level. Assessed parameters included emergence percentage, emergence rate index, dry matter and length of plants. The most recommended treatments were mechanical scarification, immersion in sulfuric acid for 5, 10 and 15 minutes and immersion in distilled water for 48 hours.

  18. Dormancy overcome and seedling quality of pecan in nursery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tales Poletto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the efficiency of methods to overcome seed dormancy in different storage periods in the production of pecan seedlings. Seeds were submitted to the following treatments: T1, T4 and T7 - control treatments (seeds with no treatment, stored at room temperature for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, T2, T5 and T8 - stratification (seeds were distributed in boxes with wet sand maintained at a temperature of 4°C for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, T3, T6 and T9 - scarification + stratification (seeds scarified with sandpaper n.80 and stratified by 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, in completely random experimental design. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, full emergence and emergence speed index (ESI were evaluated after 14 weeks of sowing. The best development of pecan 'plants, their emergence, and ESI were observed in the stratification treatment for 90 day as well as in the scarification + stratification treatment for 90 day. Storing seeds in uncontrolled environment reduced their viability.

  19. Overcoming recruitment challenges in palliative care clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Thomas W; Lodato, Jordan E; Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P

    2013-11-01

    Palliative care is increasingly viewed as a necessary component of cancer care, especially for patients with advanced disease. Rigorous clinical trials are thus needed to build the palliative care evidence base, but clinical research-especially participant recruitment-is difficult. Major barriers include (1) patient factors, (2) "gatekeeping," and (3) ethical concerns. Here we discuss an approach to overcoming these barriers, using the Palliative Care Trial (PCT) as a case study. The PCT was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) of different service delivery models to improve pain control in the palliative setting. It used a recruitment protocol that fused evidence-based strategies with principles of "social marketing," an approach involving the systematic application of marketing techniques. Main components included (1) an inclusive triage algorithm, (2) information booklets targeting particular stakeholders, (3) a specialized recruitment nurse, and (4) standardization of wording across all study communications. From an eligible pool of 607 patients, the PCT enrolled 461 patients over 26 months. Twenty percent of patients referred to the palliative care service were enrolled (76% of those eligible after screening). Several common barriers were minimized; among those who declined participation, family disinterest was uncommon (5%), as was the perception of burden imposed (4%). Challenges to clinical trial recruitment in palliative care are significant but not insurmountable. A carefully crafted recruitment and retention protocol can be effective. Our experience with designing and deploying a social-marketing-based protocol shows the benefits of such an approach.

  20. Biodiesel Production From Algae to Overcome the Energy Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of energy sources has reached at the level that whole world is relying on it. Being the major source of energy, fuels are considered the most important. The fear of diminishing the available sources thirst towards biofuel production has increased during last decades. Considering the food problems, algae gain the most attention to be used as biofuel producers. The use of crop and food-producing plants will never be a best fit into the priorities for biofuel production as they will disturb the food needs. Different types of algae having the different production abilities. Normally algae have 20%–80% oil contents that could be converted into different types of fuels such as kerosene oil and biodiesel. The diesel production from algae is economical and easy. Different species such as tribonema, ulothrix and euglena have good potential for biodiesel production. Gene technology can be used to enhance the production of oil and biodiesel contents and stability of algae. By increasing the genetic expressions, we can find the ways to achieve the required biofuel amounts easily and continuously to overcome the fuels deficiency. The present review article focusses on the role of algae as a possible substitute for fossil fuel as an ideal biofuel reactant.

  1. Overcoming the Social Stigma on Mood Disorders with Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavormina, Romina; Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria

    2017-09-01

    In our society, the social stigma against people who suffer from mood disorders is a very powerful factor that negatively affects the healing of patient. He is often isolated from the others for the fear of being judged "fool, crazy or dangerous" or discriminated and emarginated for his mental health problem. For this reason, a cornerstone of mood disorder rehabilitation is the bringing out of the patient from his isolation, the reintegration of the user in the social context with the increase and the improvement in the quality of interpersonal relationships in the family and in the external context. The method used in our project is the dance-therapy one. In particular dancing the "Bachata" becomes a rehabilitation tool to express emotions through the body and to open to the world, on the territory, overcoming the fear of being judged by others, and of the prejudice and the social stigma about mental illness. The strength and cohesion of the rehabilitation group has given to the patients the opportunity to believe in their own abilities, to accept themselves with their difficulties and to improve the relationship with their body in relation to each other.

  2. Rapid parallel evolution overcomes global honey bee parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddie, Melissa; Büchler, Ralph; Dahle, Bjørn; Kovacic, Marin; Le Conte, Yves; Locke, Barbara; de Miranda, Joachim R; Mondet, Fanny; Neumann, Peter

    2018-05-16

    In eusocial insect colonies nestmates cooperate to combat parasites, a trait called social immunity. However, social immunity failed for Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) when the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor switched hosts from Eastern honey bees (Apis cerana). This mite has since become the most severe threat to A. mellifera world-wide. Despite this, some isolated A. mellifera populations are known to survive infestations by means of natural selection, largely by supressing mite reproduction, but the underlying mechanisms of this are poorly understood. Here, we show that a cost-effective social immunity mechanism has evolved rapidly and independently in four naturally V. destructor-surviving A. mellifera populations. Worker bees of all four 'surviving' populations uncapped/recapped worker brood cells more frequently and targeted mite-infested cells more effectively than workers in local susceptible colonies. Direct experiments confirmed the ability of uncapping/recapping to reduce mite reproductive success without sacrificing nestmates. Our results provide striking evidence that honey bees can overcome exotic parasites with simple qualitative and quantitative adaptive shifts in behaviour. Due to rapid, parallel evolution in four host populations this appears to be a key mechanism explaining survival of mite infested colonies.

  3. Will new antimicrobials overcome resistance among Gram-negatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Ginocchio, Francesca; Mikulska, Małgorzata; Taramasso, Lucia; Giacobbe, Daniele Roberto

    2011-10-01

    The spread of resistance among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria represents a growing challenge for the development of new antimicrobials. The pace of antibiotic drug development has slowed during the last decade and, especially for Gram-negatives, clinicians are facing a dramatic shortage in the availability of therapeutic options to face the emergency of the resistance problem throughout the world. In this alarming scenario, although there is a shortage of compounds reaching the market in the near future, antibiotic discovery remains one of the keys to successfully stem and maybe overcome the tide of resistance. Analogs of already known compounds and new agents belonging to completely new classes of antimicrobials are in early stages of development. Novel and promising anti-Gram-negative antimicrobials belong both to old (cephalosporins, carbapenems, β-lactamase inhibitors, monobactams, aminoglycosides, polymyxin analogues and tetracycline) and completely new antibacterial classes (boron-containing antibacterial protein synthesis inhibitors, bis-indoles, outer membrane synthesis inhibitors, antibiotics targeting novel sites of the 50S ribosomal subunit and antimicrobial peptides). However, all of these compounds are still far from being introduced into clinical practice. Therefore, infection control policies and optimization in the use of already existing molecules are still the most effective approaches to reduce the spread of resistance and preserve the activity of antimicrobials.

  4. Overcoming the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ook; Gong, Sung Jin

    2004-02-01

    The Confucian tradition still dictates the behavior of many people in East Asian countries such as South Korea. Even in e-mail communication, people try their best to show signs of respect which is required by the Confucian tradition. This psychological barrier can be detrimental to the development of democracy as people are educated not to challenge opinions of elders or bosses. After a long military dictatorship, South Korea has emerged as a newly democratized nation where the Confucian tradition is less emphasized. However, this tradition dies hard, and citizens are still afraid of offending government officials who have the power to affect lives of citizens. In light of creating a more democratic society, the e-government project has been implemented, and one of the features of cyber-government is to give citizens a place in cyberspace to express their concerns. Even though citizens have to use their real names, it is found that those who wrote messages in the bulletin board of the city of Seoul government's web pages tend not to use terms that are often used in e-mails for the purpose of expressing respect. A survey was conducted, and results show that people were able to overcome the Confucian psychological barrier in government cyberspace. Self-efficacy is proposed to explain this phenomenon.

  5. Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Magajna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves several processes, the most salient being visual observation and deductive argumentation. These two processes are interwoven, but often poor observation hinders deductive argumentation. In the present article, we consider the possibility of overcoming the obstacle of a student’s poor observation by making use of computer-aided observation with appropriate software. We present the results of two small-scale research projects, both of which indicate that students are able to work out considerably more deductions if computer-aided observation is used. Not all students use computer-aided observation effectively in proving tasks: some find an exhaustive computer-provided list of properties confusing and are not able to choose the properties that are relevant to the task.

  6. A Salmonella nanoparticle mimic overcomes multidrug resistance in tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Lubo, Regino; Zhang, Yuanwei; Zhao, Liang; Rossi, Kyle; Wu, Xiang; Zou, Yekui; Castillo, Antonio; Leonard, Jack; Bortell, Rita; Greiner, Dale L; Shultz, Leonard D; Han, Gang; McCormick, Beth A

    2016-07-25

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen that also selectively grows in tumours and functionally decreases P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a multidrug resistance transporter. Here we report that the Salmonella type III secretion effector, SipA, is responsible for P-gp modulation through a pathway involving caspase-3. Mimicking the ability of Salmonella to reverse multidrug resistance, we constructed a gold nanoparticle system packaged with a SipA corona, and found this bacterial mimic not only accumulates in tumours but also reduces P-gp at a SipA dose significantly lower than free SipA. Moreover, the Salmonella nanoparticle mimic suppresses tumour growth with a concomitant reduction in P-gp when used with an existing chemotherapeutic drug (that is, doxorubicin). On the basis of our finding that the SipA Salmonella effector is fundamental for functionally decreasing P-gp, we engineered a nanoparticle mimic that both overcomes multidrug resistance in cancer cells and increases tumour sensitivity to conventional chemotherapeutics.

  7. Overcoming Barriers to Successfully Commercializing Carbon Dioxide Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The successful transition to a low-carbon economy hinges on innovative solutions and collaborative action on a global scale. Sustainable entrepreneurship is thereby recognized as a key driver in the creation and transformation of ecologically and socially sustainable economic systems. The purpose of this article is to contribute to this topic by understanding commercialization barriers for strong sustainability-oriented new technology ventures and to derive recommendations to overcome them. A qualitative multilevel approach is applied to identify barriers and drivers within the internal dynamic capabilities of the organization and within the organization’s external stakeholders. A model of barriers has been developed based on semi-structured interviews with new carbon dioxide utilization ventures and associated industry players in Canada, the USA, and the European Economic Area. Resulting recommendations to facilitate the (re-design of a dedicated support system are proposed on four levels: (a actors, (b resources, (c institutional settings, and (d the coordination of the support system.

  8. Methods to overcome dormancy in tree tomato (Solanum betaceum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kosera Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum is a poorly known species that has fruits with great economic potential, as it can be consumed in natura or industrialized. However, for reaching this potential, it is necessary the development of technologies for seedlings production. The propagation of this species is mainly done by seeds, but the seed germination process is usually slow, especially under stress conditions. This study aimed at verifying whether tree tomato seeds have dormancy and which is the best method to obtain fast and uniform germination. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (methods to overcome dormancy x light, with four replications of 50 or 60 seeds, depending on the production cycle. The methods tested were cold stratification, hydropriming, priming with GA3 solution and control, with or without light. Seed germination and germination rate index, as well as the beginning and average time of germination, were also evaluated. The use of GA3 at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 or 300 mg L-1 is recommended to the germination of tree tomato seeds.

  9. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  10. Theoretical tools for B physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannel, T.

    2006-01-01

    In this talk I try to give an overview over the theoretical tools used to compute observables in B physics. The main focus is the developments in the 1/m Expansion in semileptonic and nonleptonic decays. (author)

  11. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  12. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  13. Theoretical Linguistics And Multilingualism Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KATEVG

    This paper tries to construct a bridge between the concerns of theoretical ... released the legendary song with the singular bridge over forty years ago): .... Another set of cases concerns the frozen forms pass and fail, which occur without any.

  14. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  15. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-02-02

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  16. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity: graph theoretical analysis of an EEG neural mass model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponten, S.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between structural network properties and both synchronization strength and functional characteristics in a combined neural mass and graph theoretical model of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Thirty-two neural mass models (NMMs), each representing the lump activity

  17. Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus

    2010-01-01

    The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...

  18. Nonlinear problems in theoretical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranada, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains the lecture notes and review talks delivered at the 9th GIFT international seminar on theoretical physics on the general subject 'Nonlinear Problems in Theoretical Physics'. Mist contributions deal with recent developments in the theory of the spectral transformation and solitons, but there are also articles from the field of transport theory and plasma physics and an unconventional view of classical and quantum electrodynamics. All contributions to this volume will appear under their corresponding subject categories. (HJ)

  19. Team Resilience as a Second-Order Emergent State: A Theoretical Model and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Bowers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resilience has been recognized as an important phenomenon for understanding how individuals overcome difficult situations. However, it is not only individuals who face difficulties; it is not uncommon for teams to experience adversity. When they do, they must be able to overcome these challenges without performance decrements.This manuscript represents a theoretical model that might be helpful in conceptualizing this important construct. Specifically, it describes team resilience as a second-order emergent state. We also include research propositions that follow from the model.

  20. Phylogeny of metabolic networks: A spectral graph theoretical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-29

    Sep 29, 2015 ... A divergence measure on spectral densities is used to quantify the distances ..... We have downloaded the list of enzymes of the 79 complete- ly sequenced ... dataset. They have excluded currency metabolites to make.

  1. Theoretical Guidelines for the Utilization of Instructional Social Networking Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakin, Ilker; Tinmaz, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    In the past 10 years, the internet has been transformed, along with the emergence of interaction and communication technologies. Indeed, there has been an emerging movement in the interaction and communication technologies. More specifically, the growth of Web 2.0 technologies has acted as a catalyst for change in the disciplines of education. The…

  2. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-30

    suggest experimental tests and provide direction for physiological studies. 14 SU~la TIPO ~IS- NIJUMS Of PAGIS 17. @1d-ftA ITY CLASSIPtCATICON...mancte suditioned inhibition of the rabbit’s nictitating membrane response, CI tasks require the active suppression of CRs in the Bull . Psychon. Soc., 20... Bull ., 84 (1977) encephalon and mesencephalon26. 690-711. Several lines of evidence suggest that the septal and 8 Evans,J.A.C. and Thornton, E.W

  3. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks in the Theoretical Investigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANN) based fault diagnostic system (FDS) for the location of fault on transmission lines. The principal functions of this diagnostic system are: detection of fault occurrence, identification of faulted sections and classification of faults into types.

  4. A quantum theoretical approach to information processing in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona da Fonseca, José; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Suarez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Simões da Fonseca, José

    2000-05-01

    A reinterpretation of experimental data on learning was used to formulate a law on data acquisition similar to the Hamiltonian of a mechanical system. A matrix of costs in decision making specifies values attributable to a barrier that opposed to hypothesis formation about decision making. The interpretation of the encoding costs as frequencies of oscillatory phenomena leads to a quantum paradigm based in the models of photoelectric effect as well as of a particle against a potential barrier. Cognitive processes are envisaged as complex phenomena represented by structures linked by valence bounds. This metaphor is used to find some prerequisites to certain types of conscious experience as well as to find an explanation for some pathological distortions of cognitive operations as they are represented in the context of the isolobal model. Those quantum phenomena are understood as representing an analogue programming for specific special purpose computations. The formation of complex chemical structures within the context of isolobal theory is understood as an analog quantum paradigm for complex cognitive computations.

  5. Dynamic behaviors in directed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Min; Kim, Beom Jun

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the abundance of directed synaptic couplings in a real biological neuronal network, we investigate the synchronization behavior of the Hodgkin-Huxley model in a directed network. We start from the standard model of the Watts-Strogatz undirected network and then change undirected edges to directed arcs with a given probability, still preserving the connectivity of the network. A generalized clustering coefficient for directed networks is defined and used to investigate the interplay between the synchronization behavior and underlying structural properties of directed networks. We observe that the directedness of complex networks plays an important role in emerging dynamical behaviors, which is also confirmed by a numerical study of the sociological game theoretic voter model on directed networks

  6. Studies in Theoretical and Applied Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pratesi, Monica; Ruiz-Gazen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This book includes a wide selection of the papers presented at the 48th Scientific Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society (SIS2016), held in Salerno on 8-10 June 2016. Covering a wide variety of topics ranging from modern data sources and survey design issues to measuring sustainable development, it provides a comprehensive overview of the current Italian scientific research in the fields of open data and big data in public administration and official statistics, survey sampling, ordinal and symbolic data, statistical models and methods for network data, time series forecasting, spatial analysis, environmental statistics, economic and financial data analysis, statistics in the education system, and sustainable development. Intended for researchers interested in theoretical and empirical issues, this volume provides interesting starting points for further research.

  7. Perfluoropolyether-Impregnated Mesoporous Alumina Composites Overcome the Dewetting-Tribological Properties Trade-Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthu, Sriharitha; Hoffmann, Patrik

    2018-03-28

    Conventional omniphobic surfaces suffer from wear-sensitivity due to soft apolar coatings or substrates and protruding surface features that are eroded even for mild abrasion treatments, leading to the loss of dewetting properties after wear. Evidently, there was a trade-off between dewetting and tribological properties. Here, we show the establishment of self-healing slippery properties post severe abrasion by utilizing perfluoropolyether-impregnated mesoporous Al 2 O 3 (MPA) composites. The hard polar alumina matrix provides the optimal tribological properties, and the liquid lubricant in the porous network contributes to both tribological and self-healing dewetting properties. These composites sustained normal pressures up to 350 MPa during reciprocating sliding contacts. The severely abraded surfaces are capable of self-replenishing in ambient environment, driven by capillarity and surface diffusion processes, and regained their slippery properties toward water and hexadecane after 15 h of self-healing. Eventually, a dewetting-tribology diagram has been introduced to show different regimes, namely-optimal slippery properties, optimal tribological properties, and a mixed regime). We found out that the microstructural expression [Formula: see text] is a robust guiding tool to predict the regime of interest. This dewetting-tribological diagram may be marked as an inception to designing abrasion-resistant slippery liquid impregnated composites for overcoming the dewetting tribological properties trade-off. Such surfaces may potentially find applications in paint industries and as anti-icing surfaces.

  8. Enzyme decorated drug carriers: Targeted swords to cleave and overcome the mucus barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Claudia; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2018-01-15

    The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium. Thereby these enzymes hydrolyze peptide bonds of mucus glycoproteins forming tiny holes or passages through the mucus. In various in vitro and in vivo studies MECS proved to be superior in their mucus permeating properties over nanocarriers without enzyme decoration. PAP decorated nanoparticles, for instance, remained 3h after oral administration to an even 2.5-fold higher extend in rat small intestine than the corresponding undecorated nanoparticles permeating the intestinal mucus gel layer to a much lower degree. As MECS break up the mucus network only locally without destroying its overall protective barrier function, even long term treatments with such systems seem feasible. Within this review article we address different drug carrier systems decorated with various types of enzymes, their particular pros and cons and potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeted multidrug delivery system to overcome chemoresistance in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Tang,1 Fariborz Soroush,1 Zhaohui Tong,2 Mohammad F Kiani,1 Bin Wang1,3 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Widener University, Chester, PA, USA Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in breast cancer patients to reduce tumor size. However, most anticancer agents cannot differentiate between cancerous and normal cells, resulting in severe systemic toxicity. In addition, acquired drug resistance during the chemotherapy treatment further decreases treatment efficacy. With the proper treatment strategy, nanodrug carriers, such as liposomes/immunoliposomes, may be able to reduce undesired side effects of chemotherapy, to overcome the acquired multidrug resistance, and to further improve the treatment efficacy. In this study, a novel combinational targeted drug delivery system was developed by encapsulating antiangiogenesis drug bevacizumab into liposomes and encapsulating chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX into immunoliposomes where the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 antibody was used as a targeting ligand. This novel combinational system was tested in vitro using a HER2 positive and multidrug resistant breast cancer cell line (BT-474/MDR, and in vivo using a xenograft mouse tumor model. In vitro cell culture experiments show that immunoliposome delivery led to a high cell nucleus accumulation of DOX, whereas free DOX was observed mostly near the cell membrane and in cytoplasm due to the action of P-gp. Combining liposomal bevacizumab with immunoliposomal DOX achieved the best tumor growth inhibition and the lowest toxicity. Tumor size decreased steadily within a 60-day observation period indicating a potential synergistic effect between DOX and bevacizumab through the targeted delivery. Our findings clearly indicate that tumor growth was significantly

  10. The return to keynesianism in overcoming cyclical fluctuations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praščević Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems faced by the American economy in the second half of 2007, which intensified in 2008, have once again asked economic science, and even more so economic policy, questions relating to business cycles - the reasons for cyclical fluctuations, the character of business cycles and, naturally, economic policy measures that can be implemented to alleviate and overcome an economic recession. Since the 1970s, business cycle theories have been intensively developed - ranging from monetary theories, developed within monetarism and the first phase of New Classical Macroeconomics, to the real business cycle theory of New Classical Macroeconomics. Consequently, the triggers for the beginning of a cycle can be monetary (monetary theories or real in the form of technological shocks (real business cycles. In essence economic policy conducted since the 1970s, has rejected the Keynesian explanations of the functioning of the economic system, and thus the policy of aggregate demand management. However, the measures that are now being implemented in the USA point to a return to Keynesianism. This refers, above all, to attempts to compensate for the inefficiency of monetary policy with fiscal expansion. All three psychological propensities (propensity to consume, propensity to invest and liquidity preference in Keynes's theory and applied in Keynesian economic policy, are still the significant determinants of monetary and fiscal policies. The return to Keynesianism points to the depth of the crisis faced by the USA, but also confirms the vitality of Keynesian economics and affirms the view that - although Keynes wished to present his theory as being "general" - it is actually the theory of economic depression.

  11. Overcoming equifinality: Leveraging long time series for stream metabolism estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, Alison; Hall, Robert O.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Arroita, Maite

    2018-01-01

    The foundational ecosystem processes of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) cannot be measured directly but can be modeled in aquatic ecosystems from subdaily patterns of oxygen (O2) concentrations. Because rivers and streams constantly exchange O2 with the atmosphere, models must either use empirical estimates of the gas exchange rate coefficient (K600) or solve for all three parameters (GPP, ER, and K600) simultaneously. Empirical measurements of K600 require substantial field work and can still be inaccurate. Three-parameter models have suffered from equifinality, where good fits to O2 data are achieved by many different parameter values, some unrealistic. We developed a new three-parameter, multiday model that ensures similar values for K600 among days with similar physical conditions (e.g., discharge). Our new model overcomes the equifinality problem by (1) flexibly relating K600 to discharge while permitting moderate daily deviations and (2) avoiding the oft-violated assumption that residuals in O2 predictions are uncorrelated. We implemented this hierarchical state-space model and several competitor models in an open-source R package, streamMetabolizer. We then tested the models against both simulated and field data. Our new model reduces error by as much as 70% in daily estimates of K600, GPP, and ER. Further, accuracy benefits of multiday data sets require as few as 3 days of data. This approach facilitates more accurate metabolism estimates for more streams and days, enabling researchers to better quantify carbon fluxes, compare streams by their metabolic regimes, and investigate controls on aquatic activity.

  12. EAP-Based Authentication for Ad Hoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bhakti, Muhammad Agni Catur; Abdullah, Azween; Jung, Low Tan

    2007-01-01

    Wireless network has been deployed worldwide, but some security issues in wireless network might haveprevented its further acceptance. One of the solutions to overcome the limitation of wireless network security isthe IEEE 802.1X specification, a mechanism for port-based network access control, which is based onExtensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). It is an authentication framework that can support multipleauthentication methods. EAP can run over many types of data-link layer and it is fl...

  13. Control Theoretical Expression of Quantum Systems And Lower Bound of Finite Horizon Quantum Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    We provide a control theoretical method for a computational lower bound of quantum algorithms based on quantum walks of a finite time horizon. It is shown that given a quantum network, there exists a control theoretical expression of the quantum system and the transition probability of the quantum walk is related to a norm of the associated transfer function.

  14. Game theory in communication networks cooperative resolution of interactive networking scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniou, Josephina

    2012-01-01

    A mathematical tool for scientists and researchers who work with computer and communication networks, Game Theory in Communication Networks: Cooperative Resolution of Interactive Networking Scenarios addresses the question of how to promote cooperative behavior in interactive situations between heterogeneous entities in communication networking scenarios. It explores network design and management from a theoretical perspective, using game theory and graph theory to analyze strategic situations and demonstrate profitable behaviors of the cooperative entities. The book promotes the use of Game T

  15. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  17. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  18. Jumping Hurdles: Peptides Able To Overcome Biological Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Macarena; Teixidó, Meritxell; Giralt, Ernest

    2017-08-15

    diketoperazines (DKPs), (N-MePhe) n , or (PhPro) n . On the other hand, we have investigated BBB-shuttles that utilize active transport mechanisms such as SGV, THRre, or MiniAp-4. For the development of both groups, we have explored several approaches, such as the use of peptide libraries, both chemical and phage display, or hit-to-lead optimization processes. In this Account, we describe, in chronologic order, our contribution to the development of peptides able to overcome various biological barriers and our efforts to understand the mechanisms that they display. In addition, the potential use of both CPPs and BBB-shuttles to improve the transport of promising therapeutic compounds is described.

  19. Theoretical behaviorism meets embodied cognition : Two theoretical analyses of behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to do three things: First, to provide a review of John Staddon's book Adaptive dynamics: The theoretical analysis of behavior. Second, to compare Staddon's behaviorist view with current ideas on embodied cognition. Third, to use this comparison to explicate some outlines for a

  20. The Evaluation of Techniques for Overcoming with the Stress in a Physician Group

    OpenAIRE

    Humman Sen; Mehmet Toygar; Turker Turker; Nurhan Ince; Harun Tugcu; Halit Keskin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was made in order to determine the methods of overcoming with stress of the specialist physicians. Material-Method: Our study is a descriptive study. In the study, the scale of overcoming with stress was applied to the 100 specialist physicians who working in 5 different health care institutions in and around the Istanbul in 2009. Results: The scores that the participants takes from sub-categories of scales of overcoming with stress types were measured respectively as; 2...

  1. Theoretical mechanics for sixth forms

    CERN Document Server

    Plumpton, C

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical Mechanics for Sixth Forms, Second Edition is a 14-chapter book that begins by elucidating the nature of theoretical mechanics. The book then describes the statics of a particle in illustration of the techniques of handling vector quantities. Subsequent chapters focus on the principle of moments, parallel forces and centers of gravity; and the application of Newton's second law to the dynamics of a particle and the ideas of work and energy, impulse and momentum, and power. The concept of friction is also explained. This volume concludes with chapters concerning motion in a circle an

  2. Mechanics lectures on theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerfeld, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm

    1952-01-01

    Mechanics: Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Volume I covers a general course on theoretical physics. The book discusses the mechanics of a particle; the mechanics of systems; the principle of virtual work; and d'alembert's principle. The text also describes oscillation problems; the kinematics, statics, and dynamics of a rigid body; the theory of relative motion; and the integral variational principles of mechanics. Lagrange's equations for generalized coordinates and the theory of Hamilton are also considered. Physicists, mathematicians, and students taking Physics courses will find the book

  3. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, although...... the importance of robustness for structural design is widely recognized the code requirements are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines...

  4. Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.

    2012-01-01

    In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.

  5. Urban Green Network Design: Defining green network from an urban planning perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Tulisi

    2017-01-01

    From the theoretical context of Smart City various studies have emerged that adopt an analytical approach and description of urban phenomena based on the principles of “network design”; this line of research uses the network systems theory to define the principles that regulate the relationships among the various elements of urban sub-systems in order to optimize their functionality. From the same theoretical basis, urban greenspaces have also been studied as networks, by means of the creatio...

  6. Stages of neuronal network formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woiterski, Lydia; Käs, Josef A; Claudepierre, Thomas; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Graph theoretical approaches have become a powerful tool for investigating the architecture and dynamics of complex networks. The topology of network graphs revealed small-world properties for very different real systems among these neuronal networks. In this study, we observed the early development of mouse retinal ganglion cell (RGC) networks in vitro using time-lapse video microscopy. By means of a time-resolved graph theoretical analysis of the connectivity, shortest path length and the edge length, we were able to discover the different stages during the network formation. Starting from single cells, at the first stage neurons connected to each other ending up in a network with maximum complexity. In the further course, we observed a simplification of the network which manifested in a change of relevant network parameters such as the minimization of the path length. Moreover, we found that RGC networks self-organized as small-world networks at both stages; however, the optimization occurred only in the second stage. (paper)

  7. A balanced memory network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Roudi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how working memory--the ability to store information at intermediate timescales, like tens of seconds--is implemented in realistic neuronal networks. The most likely candidate mechanism is the attractor network, and a great deal of effort has gone toward investigating it theoretically. Yet, despite almost a quarter century of intense work, attractor networks are not fully understood. In particular, there are still two unanswered questions. First, how is it that attractor networks exhibit irregular firing, as is observed experimentally during working memory tasks? And second, how many memories can be stored under biologically realistic conditions? Here we answer both questions by studying an attractor neural network in which inhibition and excitation balance each other. Using mean-field analysis, we derive a three-variable description of attractor networks. From this description it follows that irregular firing can exist only if the number of neurons involved in a memory is large. The same mean-field analysis also shows that the number of memories that can be stored in a network scales with the number of excitatory connections, a result that has been suggested for simple models but never shown for realistic ones. Both of these predictions are verified using simulations with large networks of spiking neurons.

  8. Networks and network analysis for defence and security

    CERN Document Server

    Masys, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Networks and Network Analysis for Defence and Security discusses relevant theoretical frameworks and applications of network analysis in support of the defence and security domains. This book details real world applications of network analysis to support defence and security. Shocks to regional, national and global systems stemming from natural hazards, acts of armed violence, terrorism and serious and organized crime have significant defence and security implications. Today, nations face an uncertain and complex security landscape in which threats impact/target the physical, social, economic

  9. Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Mehler, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    For over a decade, complex networks have steadily grown as an important tool across a broad array of academic disciplines, with applications ranging from physics to social media. A tightly organized collection of carefully-selected papers on the subject, Towards an Information Theory of Complex Networks: Statistical Methods and Applications presents theoretical and practical results about information-theoretic and statistical models of complex networks in the natural sciences and humanities. The book's major goal is to advocate and promote a combination of graph-theoretic, information-theoreti

  10. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Tretyakov, Sergei A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff-Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices.

  11. Overcoming thermal noise in non-volatile spin wave logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sourav; Nikonov, Dmitri; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian; Naeemi, Azad

    Spin waves are propagating disturbances in magnetically ordered materials. To compete as a promising candidate for beyond-CMOS application, the all-magnon based computing system must undergo the essential steps of careful selection of materials and demonstrate robustness with respect to thermal noise/variability. Here, we identify suitable materials and investigate two viable options for translating the theoretical idea of phase-dependent switching of the spin wave detector to a practical realization of a thermally reliable magnonic device by - (a) using the built-in strain in the ME cell, arising from the lattice mismatch and/or thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between the film and the substrate, for compensation of the demagnetization, and (b) using an exchange-spring structure that exhibits a strong exchange-coupling between the ME cell and PMA SWB and provides a modification of the energy landscape of the ME cell magnet. A high switching success and error-free logic functionality can be ensured if the amplitude of the detected spin wave () remains higher than a threshold value of around 6°C and the detected phase falls within the window from 280°C through 0 to 20°C or from 100°C to 200°C with a maximum allowable ϕ range of around 100°C.

  12. Overcoming black body radiation limit in free space: metamaterial superemitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovski, Stanislav I; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A

    2016-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the power spectral density of thermal radiation at a specific wavelength produced by a body of finite dimensions set up in free space under a fixed temperature could be made theoretically arbitrary high, if one could realize double negative metamaterials with arbitrary small loss and arbitrary high absolute values of permittivity and permeability (at a given frequency). This result refutes the widespread belief that Planck’s law itself sets a hard upper limit on the spectral density of power emitted by a finite macroscopic body whose size is much greater than the wavelength. Here we propose a physical realization of a metamaterial emitter whose spectral emissivity can be greater than that of the ideal black body under the same conditions. Due to the reciprocity between the heat emission and absorption processes such cooled down superemitter also acts as an optimal sink for the thermal radiation—the ‘thermal black hole’—which outperforms Kirchhoff–Planck’s black body which can absorb only the rays directly incident on its surface. The results may open a possibility to realize narrowband super-Planckian thermal radiators and absorbers for future thermo-photovoltaic systems and other devices. (paper)

  13. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  14. Networks and Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    determined by the density and size of trading networks. In the empirical part of the paper we apply a two stage procedure to estimate the impact of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs observed for different input and output markets. At a first stage we estimate a multiple input......Based on the well-known fact that social networks can provide effective mechanisms that help to increase the trust level between two trade partners, we apply a simple game-theoretical framework to derive transaction costs as a high risk of opportunistic behavior in a repeated trade relation...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...

  15. Data, Methods, and Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannagan, Rebecca J.; Schneider, Monica C.; Greenlee, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Within the subfields of political psychology and the study of gender, the introduction of new data collection efforts, methodologies, and theoretical approaches are transforming our understandings of these two fields and the places at which they intersect. In this article we present an overview of the research that was presented at a National…

  16. Theoretical analysis of rolled joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for theoretically analysing the case of an externally restrained sandwich joint formed by a hypothetical uniform hydrostatic expansion process is outlined. Reference is made to a computer program based on this theory. Results illustrating the effect of major joint variables on residual contact pressure are presented and analysed. The applicability and limitations of this theory are discussed. (author)

  17. Theoretical Framework for Robustness Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for evaluation of robustness of structural systems, incl. bridges and buildings. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages’. However, althou...

  18. Supercomputer requirements for theoretical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.B.; Hay, P.J.; Galbraith, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Many problems important to the theoretical chemist would, if implemented in their full complexity, strain the capabilities of today's most powerful computers. Several such problems are now being implemented on the CRAY-1 computer at Los Alamos. Examples of these problems are taken from the fields of molecular electronic structure calculations, quantum reactive scattering calculations, and quantum optics. 12 figures

  19. Theoretical models of DNA flexibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dršata, Tomáš; Lankaš, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2013), s. 355-363 ISSN 1759-0876 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics simulations * base pair level * indirect readout Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.041, year: 2013

  20. Infantilism: Theoretical Construct and Operationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelnikova, Y. V.; Khmeleva, N. L.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define and operationalize the construct of infantilism. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. Age and content criteria are analyzed for childhood and adulthood. Infantile traits in an adult are described. Results: The characteristics of adult infantilism in the modern world are defined,…