WorldWideScience

Sample records for network output terminal

  1. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  2. World Input-Output Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  3. Location of terminals in a communications network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A method (400, 500) of identifying nodes in a communications network is disclosed, the nodes being for use in locating wireless terminals within the network based upon reports from the wireless terminals of transmissions received from the nodes. The method (400, 500) comprises prioritising......, a reference node. Also disclosed is a method (100, 200) for locating a plurality of wireless terminals in a communications network, the network comprising a plurality of network nodes at known locations, wherein the nodes emit wireless transmissions in an unsynchronised manner, such that a time difference...... exists between the emission time of corresponding transmissions from different nodes. The method comprises receiving reports from a plurality of wireless terminals of transmissions received from the network nodes (110, 210), selecting a subset of network nodes (120, 220) and identifying a plurality...

  4. Terminal-oriented computer-communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M.; Boorstyn, R. R.; Pickholtz, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Four examples of currently operating computer-communication networks are described in this tutorial paper. They include the TYMNET network, the GE Information Services network, the NASDAQ over-the-counter stock-quotation system, and the Computer Sciences Infonet. These networks all use programmable concentrators for combining a multiplicity of terminals. Included in the discussion for each network is a description of the overall network structure, the handling and transmission of messages, communication requirements, routing and reliability consideration where applicable, operating data and design specifications where available, and unique design features in the area of computer communications.

  5. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, C.; Jensen, T.N.; Ortega, R.; Wisniewski, R.

    The problem of output regulation for a class of hydraulic networks found in district heating systems is addressed in this brief. The results show that global asymptotic and semiglobal exponential output regulation is achievable using a set of decentralized proportional-integral controllers. The fact

  6. Advanced information processing system: Input/output network management software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Gail; Alger, Linda; Kemp, Alexander

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the software requirements and specifications for the Input/Output Network Management Services for the Advanced Information Processing System. This introduction and overview section is provided to briefly outline the overall architecture and software requirements of the AIPS system before discussing the details of the design requirements and specifications of the AIPS I/O Network Management software. A brief overview of the AIPS architecture followed by a more detailed description of the network architecture.

  7. Robust cooperative output regulation of heterogeneous Lur'e networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Fan; Trentelman, Harry L.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study robust cooperative output regulation problems for a directed network of Lur'e systems that consist of a nominal linear dynamics with an unknown static nonlinearity around it through negative feedback. We assume that the linear part of each agent is identical, but the

  8. Interpenetrating polymer networks from acetylene terminated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high temperature/high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of a novel class of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were investigated. These IPNs consist of a simple diacetylenic compound (aspartimide) blended with an acetylene terminated arylene ether oligomer. Various compositional blends were prepared and thermally cured to evaluate the effect of crosslink density on resin properties. The cured IPNs exhibited glass transition temperatures ranging from 197 to 254 C depending upon the composition and cure temperature. The solvent resistance, fracture toughness and coefficient of thermal expansion of the cured blends were related to the crosslink density. Isothermal aging of neat resin moldings, adhesive and composite specimens showed a postcure effect which resulted in improved elevated temperature properties. The chemistry, physical and mechanical properties of these materials will be discussed.

  9. Output Feedback Fractional-Order Nonsingular Terminal Sliding Mode Control of Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiawang; Gu, Linyi

    2014-01-01

    For the 4-DOF (degrees of freedom) trajectory tracking control problem of underwater remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in the presence of model uncertainties and external disturbances, a novel output feedback fractional-order nonsingular terminal sliding mode control (FO-NTSMC) technique is introduced in light of the equivalent output injection sliding mode observer (SMO) and TSMC principle and fractional calculus technology. The equivalent output injection SMO is applied to reconstruct the full states in finite time. Meanwhile, the FO-NTSMC algorithm, based on a new proposed fractional-order switching manifold, is designed to stabilize the tracking error to equilibrium points in finite time. The corresponding stability analysis of the closed-loop system is presented using the fractional-order version of the Lyapunov stability theory. Comparative numerical simulation results are presented and analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, it is noteworthy that the proposed output feedback FO-NTSMC technique can be used to control a broad range of nonlinear second-order dynamical systems in finite time. PMID:24983004

  10. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Vahid; Isacchini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  11. Output feedback control of a quadrotor UAV using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new nonlinear controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed using neural networks (NNs) and output feedback. The assumption on the availability of UAV dynamics is not always practical, especially in an outdoor environment. Therefore, in this work, an NN is introduced to learn the complete dynamics of the UAV online, including uncertain nonlinear terms like aerodynamic friction and blade flapping. Although a quadrotor UAV is underactuated, a novel NN virtual control input scheme is proposed which allows all six degrees of freedom (DOF) of the UAV to be controlled using only four control inputs. Furthermore, an NN observer is introduced to estimate the translational and angular velocities of the UAV, and an output feedback control law is developed in which only the position and the attitude of the UAV are considered measurable. It is shown using Lyapunov theory that the position, orientation, and velocity tracking errors, the virtual control and observer estimation errors, and the NN weight estimation errors for each NN are all semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded (SGUUB) in the presence of bounded disturbances and NN functional reconstruction errors while simultaneously relaxing the separation principle. The effectiveness of proposed output feedback control scheme is then demonstrated in the presence of unknown nonlinear dynamics and disturbances, and simulation results are included to demonstrate the theoretical conjecture.

  12. Neural Network Hydrological Modelling: Linear Output Activation Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahart, R. J.; Dawson, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    The power to represent non-linear hydrological processes is of paramount importance in neural network hydrological modelling operations. The accepted wisdom requires non-polynomial activation functions to be incorporated in the hidden units such that a single tier of hidden units can thereafter be used to provide a 'universal approximation' to whatever particular hydrological mechanism or function is of interest to the modeller. The user can select from a set of default activation functions, or in certain software packages, is able to define their own function - the most popular options being logistic, sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent. If a unit does not transform its inputs it is said to possess a 'linear activation function' and a combination of linear activation functions will produce a linear solution; whereas the use of non-linear activation functions will produce non-linear solutions in which the principle of superposition does not hold. For hidden units, speed of learning and network complexities are important issues. For the output units, it is desirable to select an activation function that is suited to the distribution of the target values: e.g. binary targets (logistic); categorical targets (softmax); continuous-valued targets with a bounded range (logistic / tanh); positive target values with no known upper bound (exponential; but beware of overflow); continuous-valued targets with no known bounds (linear). It is also standard practice in most hydrological applications to use the default software settings and to insert a set of identical non-linear activation functions in the hidden layer and output layer processing units. Mixed combinations have nevertheless been reported in several hydrological modelling papers and the full ramifications of such activities requires further investigation and assessment i.e. non-linear activation functions in the hidden units connected to linear or clipped-linear activation functions in the output unit. There are two

  13. Regular expressions for decoding of neural network outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Tobias; Leifert, Gundram; Grüning, Tobias; Labahn, Roger

    2016-07-01

    This article proposes a convenient tool for decoding the output of neural networks trained by Connectionist Temporal Classification (CTC) for handwritten text recognition. We use regular expressions to describe the complex structures expected in the writing. The corresponding finite automata are employed to build a decoder. We analyze theoretically which calculations are relevant and which can be avoided. A great speed-up results from an approximation. We conclude that the approximation most likely fails if the regular expression does not match the ground truth which is not harmful for many applications since the low probability will be even underestimated. The proposed decoder is very efficient compared to other decoding methods. The variety of applications reaches from information retrieval to full text recognition. We refer to applications where we integrated the proposed decoder successfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural network output feedback control of robot formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, Travis; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a combined kinematic/torque output feedback control law is developed for leader-follower-based formation control using backstepping to accommodate the dynamics of the robots and the formation in contrast with kinematic-based formation controllers. A neural network (NN) is introduced to approximate the dynamics of the follower and its leader using online weight tuning. Furthermore, a novel NN observer is designed to estimate the linear and angular velocities of both the follower robot and its leader. It is shown, by using the Lyapunov theory, that the errors for the entire formation are uniformly ultimately bounded while relaxing the separation principle. In addition, the stability of the formation in the presence of obstacles, is examined using Lyapunov methods, and by treating other robots in the formation as obstacles, collisions within the formation are prevented. Numerical results are provided to verify the theoretical conjectures.

  15. Neural network based adaptive output feedback control: Applications and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutay, Ali Turker

    Application of recently developed neural network based adaptive output feedback controllers to a diverse range of problems both in simulations and experiments is investigated in this thesis. The purpose is to evaluate the theory behind the development of these controllers numerically and experimentally, identify the needs for further development in practical applications, and to conduct further research in directions that are identified to ultimately enhance applicability of adaptive controllers to real world problems. We mainly focus our attention on adaptive controllers that augment existing fixed gain controllers. A recently developed approach holds great potential for successful implementations on real world applications due to its applicability to systems with minimal information concerning the plant model and the existing controller. In this thesis the formulation is extended to the multi-input multi-output case for distributed control of interconnected systems and successfully tested on a formation flight wind tunnel experiment. The command hedging method is formulated for the approach to further broaden the class of systems it can address by including systems with input nonlinearities. Also a formulation is adopted that allows the approach to be applied to non-minimum phase systems for which non-minimum phase characteristics are modeled with sufficient accuracy and treated properly in the design of the existing controller. It is shown that the approach can also be applied to augment nonlinear controllers under certain conditions and an example is presented where the nonlinear guidance law of a spinning projectile is augmented. Simulation results on a high fidelity 6 degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation code are presented. The thesis also presents a preliminary adaptive controller design for closed loop flight control with active flow actuators. Behavior of such actuators in dynamic flight conditions is not known. To test the adaptive controller design in

  16. VSAT networks - An overview. [Very Small Aperture Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggenti, Mark; Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the technology and constraints of very small aperture terminals (VSAT) networks, a special type of wide-area thin-route satellite network that represents a recent innovation in the field of satellite communications. VSAT network architectures suitable for both data and voice communications are studied in this paper. Several issues concerning the frequency of operations, that is, C-band versus Ku-band are examined, and trade-offs between nonspread spectrum and spread spectrum techniques, as well as modulation and multiple access schemes, are considered in detail. Link design examples are given to illustrate the performance of various types of VSAT networks.

  17. Intermodel freight terminals: marketing channels and telecommunication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Masurel, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the importance of modern telecommunications networks in combined transport marketing channels deployed for intermodal terminals. To develop a customer-based and broadly applicable framework for studying combined freight transport in Europe, the use of the marketing

  18. Age-dependent terminal declines in reproductive output in a wild bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Richardson, David S.; Burke, Terry; Komdeur, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In many iteroparous species individual fitness components, such as reproductive output, first increase with age and then decline during late-life. However, individuals differ greatly in reproductive lifespan, but reproductive declines may only occur in the period just before their death as a result

  19. Modelling and Prediction of Photovoltaic Power Output Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminmohammad Saberian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solar power modelling method using artificial neural networks (ANNs. Two neural network structures, namely, general regression neural network (GRNN feedforward back propagation (FFBP, have been used to model a photovoltaic panel output power and approximate the generated power. Both neural networks have four inputs and one output. The inputs are maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and irradiance; the output is the power. The data used in this paper started from January 1, 2006, until December 31, 2010. The five years of data were split into two parts: 2006–2008 and 2009-2010; the first part was used for training and the second part was used for testing the neural networks. A mathematical equation is used to estimate the generated power. At the end, both of these networks have shown good modelling performance; however, FFBP has shown a better performance comparing with GRNN.

  20. $\\mathcal{H}_{\\infty}$ almost output synchronization for heterogeneous networks without exchange of controller states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Meirong; Saberi, Ali; Grip, H°avard Fjær; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2015-01-01

    We consider the H∞ almost output synchronization and regulated output synchronization problem for heterogeneous directed networks with external disturbances where agents are introspective (i.e., agents have access to a part of their own states). A decentralized protocol is designed for each agent,

  1. Multi-input Multi-output Beta Wavelet Network: Modeling of Acoustic Units for Speech Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Chokri Ben Amar; Mourad Zaied; Ridha Ejbali

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel architecture of wavelet network called Multi-input Multi-output Wavelet Network MIMOWN as a generalization of the old architecture of wavelet network. This newel prototype was applied to speech recognition application especially to model acoustic unit of speech. The originality of our work is the proposal of MIMOWN to model acoustic unit of speech. This approach was proposed to overcome limitation of old wavelet network model. The use of the multi-input multi...

  2. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, Claudio; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Ortega, Romeo

    2014-01-01

    . The fact that the result is global and independent of the number of end users has the consequence that structural changes such as end-user addition and removal can be made in the network while maintaining the stability properties of the system. Furthermore, the decentralized nature of the control...

  3. Output regulation of large-scale hydraulic networks with minimal steady state power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafał; De Persis, Claudio; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network is examined. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, with an arbitrary number of end-users. The problem of output regulation is addressed along with a optimization criterion for the control. The fact that the

  4. Output Regulation of Large-Scale Hydraulic Networks with Minimal Steady State Power Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafal; De Persis, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network is examined. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, with an arbitrary number of end-users. The problem of output regulation is addressed along with a optimization criterion for the control. The fact...... that the system is overactuated is exploited for minimizing the steady state electrical power consumption of the pumps in the system, while output regulation is maintained. The proposed control actions are decentralized in order to make changes in the structure of the hydraulic network easy to implement....

  5. Artificial Neural Networks to Predict the Power Output of a PV Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lo Brano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates an adaptive approach based on different topologies of artificial neural networks (ANNs for the power energy output forecasting of photovoltaic (PV modules. The analysis of the PV module’s power output needed detailed local climate data, which was collected by a dedicated weather monitoring system. The Department of Energy, Information Engineering, and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (Italy has built up a weather monitoring system that worked together with a data acquisition system. The power output forecast is obtained using three different types of ANNs: a one hidden layer Multilayer perceptron (MLP, a recursive neural network (RNN, and a gamma memory (GM trained with the back propagation. In order to investigate the influence of climate variability on the electricity production, the ANNs were trained using weather data (air temperature, solar irradiance, and wind speed along with historical power output data available for the two test modules. The model validation was performed by comparing model predictions with power output data that were not used for the network's training. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the short-term power output forecasting problem and identified the best topology.

  6. Quaternion-based adaptive output feedback attitude control of spacecraft using Chebyshev neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An-Min; Dev Kumar, Krishna; Hou, Zeng-Guang

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the problem of output feedback attitude control of an uncertain spacecraft. Two robust adaptive output feedback controllers based on Chebyshev neural networks (CNN) termed adaptive neural networks (NN) controller-I and adaptive NN controller-II are proposed for the attitude tracking control of spacecraft. The four-parameter representations (quaternion) are employed to describe the spacecraft attitude for global representation without singularities. The nonlinear reduced-order observer is used to estimate the derivative of the spacecraft output, and the CNN is introduced to further improve the control performance through approximating the spacecraft attitude motion. The implementation of the basis functions of the CNN used in the proposed controllers depends only on the desired signals, and the smooth robust compensator using the hyperbolic tangent function is employed to counteract the CNN approximation errors and external disturbances. The adaptive NN controller-II can efficiently avoid the over-estimation problem (i.e., the bound of the CNNs output is much larger than that of the approximated unknown function, and hence, the control input may be very large) existing in the adaptive NN controller-I. Both adaptive output feedback controllers using CNN can guarantee that all signals in the resulting closed-loop system are uniformly ultimately bounded. For performance comparisons, the standard adaptive controller using the linear parameterization of spacecraft attitude motion is also developed. Simulation studies are presented to show the advantages of the proposed CNN-based output feedback approach over the standard adaptive output feedback approach.

  7. Quantized Synchronization of Chaotic Neural Networks With Scheduled Output Feedback Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ying; Cao, Jinde; Wen, Guanghui

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of master-slave chaotic neural networks with remote sensors, quantization process, and communication time delays is investigated. The information communication channel between the master chaotic neural network and slave chaotic neural network consists of several remote sensors, with each sensor able to access only partial knowledge of output information of the master neural network. At each sampling instants, each sensor updates its own measurement and only one sensor is scheduled to transmit its latest information to the controller's side in order to update the control inputs for the slave neural network. Thus, such communication process and control strategy are much more energy-saving comparing with the traditional point-to-point scheme. Sufficient conditions for output feedback control gain matrix, allowable length of sampling intervals, and upper bound of network-induced delays are derived to ensure the quantized synchronization of master-slave chaotic neural networks. Lastly, Chua's circuit system and 4-D Hopfield neural network are simulated to validate the effectiveness of the main results.In this paper, the synchronization problem of master-slave chaotic neural networks with remote sensors, quantization process, and communication time delays is investigated. The information communication channel between the master chaotic neural network and slave chaotic neural network consists of several remote sensors, with each sensor able to access only partial knowledge of output information of the master neural network. At each sampling instants, each sensor updates its own measurement and only one sensor is scheduled to transmit its latest information to the controller's side in order to update the control inputs for the slave neural network. Thus, such communication process and control strategy are much more energy-saving comparing with the traditional point-to-point scheme. Sufficient conditions for output feedback control

  8. Analysis of Terminal Server Architectures for Thin Clients in a High Assurance Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balmer, Steven R; Irvine, Cynthia E

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the architectural and security impact of using commercially available, popular terminal servers to support thin clients within the context of a high assurance multilevel network...

  9. Collaboration Networks in the Brazilian Scientific Output in Evolutionary Biology: 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Dirce M; Vanz, Samile A S; Stumpf, Ida R C

    2016-03-01

    This article analyzes the existing collaboration networks in the Brazilian scientific output in Evolutionary Biology, considering articles published during the period from 2000 to 2012 in journals indexed by Web of Science. The methodology integrates bibliometric techniques and Social Network Analysis resources to describe the growth of Brazilian scientific output and understand the levels, dynamics and structure of collaboration between authors, institutions and countries. The results unveil an enhancement and consolidation of collaborative relationships over time and suggest the existence of key institutions and authors, whose influence on research is expressed by the variety and intensity of the relationships established in the co-authorship of articles. International collaboration, present in more than half of the publications, is highly significant and unusual in Brazilian science. The situation indicates the internationalization of scientific output and the ability of the field to take part in the science produced by the international scientific community.

  10. Collaboration Networks in the Brazilian Scientific Output in Evolutionary Biology: 2000-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce M. Santin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the existing collaboration networks in the Brazilian scientific output in Evolutionary Biology, considering articles published during the period from 2000 to 2012 in journals indexed by Web of Science. The methodology integrates bibliometric techniques and Social Network Analysis resources to describe the growth of Brazilian scientific output and understand the levels, dynamics and structure of collaboration between authors, institutions and countries. The results unveil an enhancement and consolidation of collaborative relationships over time and suggest the existence of key institutions and authors, whose influence on research is expressed by the variety and intensity of the relationships established in the co-authorship of articles. International collaboration, present in more than half of the publications, is highly significant and unusual in Brazilian science. The situation indicates the internationalization of scientific output and the ability of the field to take part in the science produced by the international scientific community.

  11. Output synchronization for heterogeneous networks of introspective right-invertible agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Grip, H°avard Fjær

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the output synchronization problem for heterogeneous networks of right-invertible linear agents. We assume that all the agents are introspective, meaning that they have access to their own local measurements. Under this assumption, we then propose a decentralized control

  12. On the properties of input-to-output transformations in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olypher, Andrey; Vaillant, Jean

    2016-06-01

    Information processing in neuronal networks in certain important cases can be considered as maps of binary vectors, where ones (spikes) and zeros (no spikes) of input neurons are transformed into spikes and no spikes of output neurons. A simple but fundamental characteristic of such a map is how it transforms distances between input vectors into distances between output vectors. We advanced earlier known results by finding an exact solution to this problem for McCulloch-Pitts neurons. The obtained explicit formulas allow for detailed analysis of how the network connectivity and neuronal excitability affect the transformation of distances in neurons. As an application, we explored a simple model of information processing in the hippocampus, a brain area critically implicated in learning and memory. We found network connectivity and neuronal excitability parameter values that optimize discrimination between similar and distinct inputs. A decrease of neuronal excitability, which in biological neurons may be associated with decreased inhibition, impaired the optimality of discrimination.

  13. Comparison of multi-proxy data with past1000 model output over the Terminal Classic Period (800-1000 A.D.) on the Yucatan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, S.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Allen, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    The decline of the Mayan Civilization is thought to be caused by a series of droughts that affected the Yucatan Peninsula during the Terminal Classic Period (T.C.P.) 800-1000 AD. The goals of this study are two-fold: (a) to compare paleo-model simulations of the past 1000 years with a compilation of multiple proxies of changes in moisture conditions for the Yucatan Peninsula during the T.C.P. and (b) to use this comparison to inform the modeling of groundwater recharge in this region, with a focus on generating the daily climate data series needed as input to a groundwater recharge model. To achieve the first objective, we compiled a dataset of 5 proxies from seven locations across the Yucatan Peninsula, to be compared with temperature and precipitation output from the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4), which is part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) past1000 experiment. The proxy dataset includes oxygen isotopes from speleothems and gastropod/ostrocod shells (11 records); and sediment density, mineralogy, and magnetic susceptibility records from lake sediment cores (3 records). The proxy dataset is supplemented by a compilation of reconstructed temperatures using pollen and tree ring records for North America (archived in the PAGES2k global network data). Our preliminary analysis suggests that many of these datasets show evidence of drier and warmer climate on the Yucatan Peninsula around the T.C.P. when compared to modern conditions, although the amplitude and timing of individual warming and drying events varies between sites. This comparison with modeled output will ultimately be used to inform backward shift factors that will be input to a stochastic weather generator. These shift factors will be based on monthly changes in temperature and precipitation and applied to a modern daily climate time series for the Yucatan Peninsula to produce a daily climate time series for the T.C.P.

  14. Dynamic Output Feedback Control for Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Random Packet Dropout and Random Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqing Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the dynamic output feedback control for nonlinear networked control systems with both random packet dropout and random delay. Random packet dropout and random delay are modeled as two independent random variables. An observer-based dynamic output feedback controller is designed based upon the Lyapunov theory. The quantitative relationship of the dropout rate, transition probability matrix, and nonlinear level is derived by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita María Del Río-Chanona

    Full Text Available The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  16. Trends of the World Input and Output Network of Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Chanona, Rita María; Grujić, Jelena; Jeldtoft Jensen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The international trade naturally maps onto a complex networks. Theoretical analysis of this network gives valuable insights about the global economic system. Although different economic data sets have been investigated from the network perspective, little attention has been paid to its dynamical behaviour. Here we take the World Input Output Data set, which has values of the annual transactions between 40 different countries of 35 different sectors for the period of 15 years, and infer the time interdependence between countries and sectors. As a measure of interdependence we use correlations between various time series of the network characteristics. First we form 15 primary networks for each year of the data we have, where nodes are countries and links are annual exports from one country to the other. Then we calculate the strengths (weighted degree) and PageRank of each country in each of the 15 networks for 15 different years. This leads to sets of time series and by calculating the correlations between these we form a secondary network where the links are the positive correlations between different countries or sectors. Furthermore, we also form a secondary network where the links are negative correlations in order to study the competition between countries and sectors. By analysing this secondary network we obtain a clearer picture of the mutual influences between countries. As one might expect, we find that political and geographical circumstances play an important role. However, the derived correlation network reveals surprising aspects which are hidden in the primary network. Sometimes countries which belong to the same community in the original network are found to be competitors in the secondary networks. E.g. Spain and Portugal are always in the same trade flow community, nevertheless secondary network analysis reveal that they exhibit contrary time evolution.

  17. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shin; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  18. Transportation network with fluctuating input/output designed by the bio-inspired Physarum algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Watanabe

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose designing transportation network topology and traffic distribution under fluctuating conditions using a bio-inspired algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the adaptive behavior observed in an amoeba-like organism, plasmodial slime mold, more formally known as plasmodium of Physarum plycephalum. This organism forms a transportation network to distribute its protoplasm, the fluidic contents of its cell, throughout its large cell body. In this process, the diameter of the transportation tubes adapts to the flux of the protoplasm. The Physarum algorithm, which mimics this adaptive behavior, has been widely applied to complex problems, such as maze solving and designing the topology of railroad grids, under static conditions. However, in most situations, environmental conditions fluctuate; for example, in power grids, the consumption of electric power shows daily, weekly, and annual periodicity depending on the lifestyles or the business needs of the individual consumers. This paper studies the design of network topology and traffic distribution with oscillatory input and output traffic flows. The network topology proposed by the Physarum algorithm is controlled by a parameter of the adaptation process of the tubes. We observe various rich topologies such as complete mesh, partial mesh, Y-shaped, and V-shaped networks depending on this adaptation parameter and evaluate them on the basis of three performance functions: loss, cost, and vulnerability. Our results indicate that consideration of the oscillatory conditions and the phase-lags in the multiple outputs of the network is important: The building and/or maintenance cost of the network can be reduced by introducing the oscillating condition, and when the phase-lag among the outputs is large, the transportation loss can also be reduced. We use stability analysis to reveal how the system exhibits various topologies depending on the parameter.

  19. Improved methods in neural network-based adaptive output feedback control, with applications to flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nakwan

    Utilizing the universal approximation property of neural networks, we develop several novel approaches to neural network-based adaptive output feedback control of nonlinear systems, and illustrate these approaches for several flight control applications. In particular, we address the problem of non-affine systems and eliminate the fixed point assumption present in earlier work. All of the stability proofs are carried out in a form that eliminates an algebraic loop in the neural network implementation. An approximate input/output feedback linearizing controller is augmented with a neural network using input/output sequences of the uncertain system. These approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. All physical systems also have control position and rate limits, which may either deteriorate performance or cause instability for a sufficiently high control bandwidth. Here we apply a method for protecting an adaptive process from the effects of input saturation and time delays, known as "pseudo control hedging". This method was originally developed for the state feedback case, and we provide a stability analysis that extends its domain of applicability to the case of output feedback. The approach is illustrated by the design of a pitch-attitude flight control system for a linearized model of an R-50 experimental helicopter, and by the design of a pitch-rate control system for a 58-state model of a flexible aircraft consisting of rigid body dynamics coupled with actuator and flexible modes. A new approach to augmentation of an existing linear controller is introduced. It is especially useful when there is limited information concerning the plant model, and the existing controller. The approach is applied to the design of an adaptive autopilot for a guided munition. Design of a neural network adaptive control that ensures asymptotically stable tracking performance is also addressed.

  20. Semi-global regulation of output synchronization for heterogeneous networks of non-introspective, invertible agents subject to actuator saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Grip, H°avard Fjær; Saberi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the semi-global regulation of output synchronization problem for heterogeneous networks of invertible linear agents subject to actuator saturation. That is, we regulate the output of each agent according to an a priori specified reference model. The network communication

  1. Cooperative output regulation with application to multi-agent consensus under switching network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Youfeng; Huang, Jie

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the cooperative output regulation of linear multi-agent systems under switching network. The problem can be viewed as a generalization of the leader-following consensus problem of multi-agent systems. Due to the limited information exchanges of different subsystems, the problem cannot be solved by the decentralized approach and is not allowed to be solved by the centralized control. By devising a distributed observer network, we can solve the problem by both dynamic state feedback control and dynamic measurement output feedback control. As an application of our main result, we show that a special case of our results leads to the solution of the leader-following consensus problem of linear multi-agent systems.

  2. Modelling innovation performance of European regions using multi-output neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Petr; Henriques, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Regional innovation performance is an important indicator for decision-making regarding the implementation of policies intended to support innovation. However, patterns in regional innovation structures are becoming increasingly diverse, complex and nonlinear. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a model based on a multi-output neural network. Both intra- and inter-regional determinants of innovation performance are empirically investigated using data from the 4th and 5th Community Innovation Surveys of NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions. The results suggest that specific innovation strategies must be developed based on the current state of input attributes in the region. Thus, it is possible to develop appropriate strategies and targeted interventions to improve regional innovation performance. We demonstrate that support of entrepreneurship is an effective instrument of innovation policy. We also provide empirical support that both business and government R&D activity have a sigmoidal effect, implying that the most effective R&D support should be directed to regions with below-average and average R&D activity. We further show that the multi-output neural network outperforms traditional statistical and machine learning regression models. In general, therefore, it seems that the proposed model can effectively reflect both the multiple-output nature of innovation performance and the interdependency of the output attributes.

  3. Modelling innovation performance of European regions using multi-output neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hajek

    Full Text Available Regional innovation performance is an important indicator for decision-making regarding the implementation of policies intended to support innovation. However, patterns in regional innovation structures are becoming increasingly diverse, complex and nonlinear. To address these issues, this study aims to develop a model based on a multi-output neural network. Both intra- and inter-regional determinants of innovation performance are empirically investigated using data from the 4th and 5th Community Innovation Surveys of NUTS 2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics regions. The results suggest that specific innovation strategies must be developed based on the current state of input attributes in the region. Thus, it is possible to develop appropriate strategies and targeted interventions to improve regional innovation performance. We demonstrate that support of entrepreneurship is an effective instrument of innovation policy. We also provide empirical support that both business and government R&D activity have a sigmoidal effect, implying that the most effective R&D support should be directed to regions with below-average and average R&D activity. We further show that the multi-output neural network outperforms traditional statistical and machine learning regression models. In general, therefore, it seems that the proposed model can effectively reflect both the multiple-output nature of innovation performance and the interdependency of the output attributes.

  4. Network Patterns of Inventor Collaboration and Their Effects on Innovation Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Hur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine how the collaboration structure among inventors in an R and D organization affects its capability to create impactful innovations. Specifically, this study is focused on examining whether a certain type of network mechanism found in collaboration among inventors contributes more to enhancing the future impacts of collaboration outputs, which is represented by the forward citations of their patents. To this end, co-invention networks for R and D organizations are constructed from an inventor-patent database, and the three structural patterns are measured by using network analytic constructs, namely, structural holes, strength of ties, and centralization. The results show that the presence of structural holes and strong ties are positively associated with the increasing forward citations, and that decentralized collaboration has also a positive impact. The findings offer support for both structural hole and network closure perspectives on social capital, which have been considered contradictive in the literature.

  5. Spatial connections in regional climate model rainfall outputs at different temporal scales: Application of network theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufan, Ihsan; Sivakumar, Bellie; Woldemeskel, Fitsum M.; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Vu, Minh Tue; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall has always been a great challenge, and the impacts of climate change further complicate this issue. The present study employs the concepts of complex networks to study the spatial connections in rainfall, with emphasis on climate change and rainfall scaling. Rainfall outputs (during 1961-1990) from a regional climate model (i.e. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model that downscaled the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF ERA-40 reanalyses) over Southeast Asia are studied, and data corresponding to eight different temporal scales (6-hr, 12-hr, daily, 2-day, 4-day, weekly, biweekly, and monthly) are analyzed. Two network-based methods are applied to examine the connections in rainfall: clustering coefficient (a measure of the network's local density) and degree distribution (a measure of the network's spread). The influence of rainfall correlation threshold (T) on spatial connections is also investigated by considering seven different threshold levels (ranging from 0.5 to 0.8). The results indicate that: (1) rainfall networks corresponding to much coarser temporal scales exhibit properties similar to that of small-world networks, regardless of the threshold; (2) rainfall networks corresponding to much finer temporal scales may be classified as either small-world networks or scale-free networks, depending upon the threshold; and (3) rainfall spatial connections exhibit a transition phase at intermediate temporal scales, especially at high thresholds. These results suggest that the most appropriate model for studying spatial connections may often be different at different temporal scales, and that a combination of small-world and scale-free network models might be more appropriate for rainfall upscaling/downscaling across all scales, in the strict sense of scale-invariance. The results also suggest that spatial connections in the studied rainfall networks in Southeast Asia are

  6. Shaping the Output of Lumbar Flexor Motoneurons by Sacral Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, Meir; Anglister, Lili; Lev-Tov, Aharon

    2017-02-01

    The ability to improve motor function in spinal cord injury patients by reactivating spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) requires the elucidation of neurons and pathways involved in activation and modulation of spinal networks in accessible experimental models. Previously we reported on adrenoceptor-dependent sacral control of lumbar flexor motoneuron firing in newborn rats. The current work focuses on clarification of the circuitry and connectivity involved in this unique modulation and its potential use. Using surgical manipulations of the spinal gray and white matter, electrophysiological recordings, and confocal microscopy mapping, we found that methoxamine (METH) activation of sacral networks within the ventral aspect of S2 segments was sufficient to produce alternating rhythmic bursting (0.15-1 Hz) in lumbar flexor motoneurons. This lumbar rhythm depended on continuity of the ventral funiculus (VF) along the S2-L2 segments. Interrupting the VF abolished the rhythm and replaced it by slow unstable bursting. Calcium imaging of S1-S2 neurons, back-labeled via the VF, revealed that ∼40% responded to METH, mostly by rhythmic firing. All uncrossed projecting METH responders and ∼70% of crossed projecting METH responders fired with the concurrent ipsilateral motor output, while the rest (∼30%) fired with the contralateral motor output. We suggest that METH-activated sacral CPGs excite ventral clusters of sacral VF neurons to deliver the ascending drive required for direct rhythmic activation of lumbar flexor motoneurons. The capacity of noradrenergic-activated sacral CPGs to modulate the activity of lumbar networks via sacral VF neurons provides a novel way to recruit rostral lumbar motoneurons and modulate the output required to execute various motor behaviors. Spinal central pattern generators (CPGs) produce the rhythmic output required for coordinating stepping and stabilizing the body axis during movements. Electrical stimulation and exogenous drugs

  7. Transforming Input Into Output : How Downward Networking Mediates the Effect of External Networking on Organizational Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Petra; Schalk, Jelmer; Torenvlied, René

    2017-01-01

    One of the core assumptions of the open systems perspective is that management facilitates the technical flows that transform resources and demands into output, which ultimately affects the organization’s performance. This article sheds light on the managerial throughput hypothesis by testing the

  8. Cooperative Adaptive Output Regulation for Second-Order Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Jointly Connected Switching Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Huang, Jie

    2017-01-11

    This paper studies the cooperative global robust output regulation problem for a class of heterogeneous second-order nonlinear uncertain multiagent systems with jointly connected switching networks. The main contributions consist of the following three aspects. First, we generalize the result of the adaptive distributed observer from undirected jointly connected switching networks to directed jointly connected switching networks. Second, by performing a new coordinate and input transformation, we convert our problem into the cooperative global robust stabilization problem of a more complex augmented system via the distributed internal model principle. Third, we solve the stabilization problem by a distributed state feedback control law. Our result is illustrated by the leader-following consensus problem for a group of Van der Pol oscillators.

  9. Neural network-based optimal adaptive output feedback control of a helicopter UAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodland, David; Zargarzadeh, Hassan; Jagannathan, Sarangapani

    2013-07-01

    Helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are widely used for both military and civilian operations. Because the helicopter UAVs are underactuated nonlinear mechanical systems, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via an output feedback for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV, using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic and dynamic controllers and an NN observer. The online approximator-based dynamic controller learns the infinite-horizon Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation in continuous time and calculates the corresponding optimal control input by minimizing a cost function, forward-in-time, without using the value and policy iterations. Optimal tracking is accomplished by using a single NN utilized for the cost function approximation. The overall closed-loop system stability is demonstrated using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for trajectory tracking.

  10. Learning from adaptive neural network output feedback control of a unicycle-type mobile robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Wang, Qinghui; Liu, Fenglin; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-01

    This paper studies learning from adaptive neural network (NN) output feedback control of nonholonomic unicycle-type mobile robots. The major difficulties are caused by the unknown robot system dynamics and the unmeasurable states. To overcome these difficulties, a new adaptive control scheme is proposed including designing a new adaptive NN output feedback controller and two high-gain observers. It is shown that the stability of the closed-loop robot system and the convergence of tracking errors are guaranteed. The unknown robot system dynamics can be approximated by radial basis function NNs. When repeating same or similar control tasks, the learned knowledge can be recalled and reused to achieve guaranteed stability and better control performance, thereby avoiding the tremendous repeated training process of NNs. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geometry-invariant texture retrieval using a dual-output pulse-coupled neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Ma, Yide; Wang, Zhaobin; Yu, Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    This letter proposes a novel dual-output pulse coupled neural network model (DPCNN). The new model is applied to obtain a more stable texture description in the face of the geometric transformation. Time series, which are computed from output binary images of DPCNN, are employed as translation-, rotation-, scale-, and distortion-invariant texture features. In the experiments, DPCNN has been well tested by using Brodatz's album and the VisTex database. Several existing models are compared with the proposed DPCNN model. The experimental results, based on different testing data sets for images with different translations, orientations, scales, and affine transformations, show that our proposed model outperforms existing models in geometry-invariant texture retrieval. Furthermore, the robustness of DPCNN to noisy data is examined in the experiments.

  12. Local area network terminal management in support of stock point logistics integrated communications environment (SPLICE)

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Jerry D.

    1982-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the questions of user requirements, design considerations, and network environment for a local area network Terminal Management function in support of the Naval Supply Systems Command's Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE). Criteria are developed from this examination. They include process-process communication, virtual terminal, and user defined screen capabilities as well as a ne...

  13. In-Network Performance of Handheld Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2006-01-01

    are compared with the equivalent performance obtained in a live GSM network using data from the Abis network interface. This method does not require altering of the handsets and the testing uses normal calls in the network. The investigation is based on measurements with four different commercially available...

  14. Modeling and Output Feedback Control of Networked Control Systems with Both Time Delays; and Packet Dropouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of modeling and output feedback controller design for a class of discrete-time networked control systems (NCSs with time delays and packet dropouts. A Markovian jumping method is proposed to deal with random time delays and packet dropouts. Different from the previous studies on the issue, the characteristics of networked communication delays and packet dropouts can be truly reflected by the unified model; namely, both sensor-to-controller (S-C and controller-to-actuator (C-A time delays, and packet dropouts are modeled and their history behavior is described by multiple Markov chains. The resulting closed-loop system is described by a new Markovian jump linear system (MJLS with Markov delays model. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI method, sufficient conditions of the stochastic stability and output feedback controller design method for NCSs with random time delays and packet dropouts are presented. A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Adaptative synchronization in multi-output fractional-order complex dynamical networks and secure communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Machuca, Juan L.; Aguilar-López, Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    This work deals with the adaptative synchronization of complex dynamical networks with fractional-order nodes and its application in secure communications employing chaotic parameter modulation. The complex network is composed of multiple fractional-order systems with mismatch parameters and the coupling functions are given to realize the network synchronization. We introduce a fractional algebraic synchronizability condition (FASC) and a fractional algebraic identifiability condition (FAIC) which are used to know if the synchronization and parameters estimation problems can be solved. To overcome these problems, an adaptative synchronization methodology is designed; the strategy consists in proposing multiple receiver systems which tend to follow asymptotically the uncertain transmitters systems. The coupling functions and parameters of the receiver systems are adjusted continually according to a convenient sigmoid-like adaptative controller (SLAC), until the measurable output errors converge to zero, hence, synchronization between transmitter and receivers is achieved and message signals are recovered. Indeed, the stability analysis of the synchronization error is based on the fractional Lyapunov direct method. Finally, numerical results corroborate the satisfactory performance of the proposed scheme by means of the synchronization of a complex network consisting of several fractional-order unified chaotic systems.

  16. Social networking for language learners: Creating meaningful output with Web 2.0 tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Chartrand

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has the potential to provide language learners with vast resources of authentic written, audio, and video materials to supplement lessons. Educators can find a wide assortment of materials for learners to study in class or after class for independent learning and to encourage learner autonomy. More recently, however, the immense popularity of social networking websites has created new opportunities for language learners to interact in authentic ways that were previously difficult to achieve. Advances in technology mean that today, learners of a language can easily interact with their peers in meaningful practice that helps foster language acquisition and motivation. That is, tasks that make use of Web 2.0 interactivity can significantly raise students’ potential to generate meaningful output and stimulate their interest in language learning.

  17. Optimizing the Number of Cooperating Terminals for Energy Aware Task Computing in Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    It is generally accepted that energy consumption is a significant design constraint for mobile handheld systems, therefore motivations for methods optimizing the energy consumption making better use of the restricted battery resources are evident. A novel concept of distributed task computing...... is previously proposed (D2VS), where the overall idea of selective distribution of tasks among terminals is made. In this paper the optimal number of terminals for cooperative task computing in a wireless network will be investigated. The paper presents an energy model for the proposed scheme. Energy...... consumption of the terminals with respect to their workload and the overhead of distributing tasks among terminals are taken into account. The paper shows, that the number of cooperating terminals is in general limited to a few, though alternating with respect to the various system parameters....

  18. Adhoc Wireless Network Control: Energy Efficiency and Hidden Terminal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    transmitters can replenish their batteries. Two common examples are solar - paneled satellites (where the recharge process depends on the satellite’s exposure...to sunlight during its orbit and can be determined a priori with high confidence) and sensor networks [5] (which harvest solar or wind energy so that...of B(t), which implies E [B(t)|X(t)] = B̄, subtracting 2V E [ ∑L l=1 fl (γl(t)) ∣ ∣ ∣ X(t) ] from both sides and rearranging terms yields ∆(X(t))− 2V E

  19. A Context-Aware Adaptive Streaming Media Distribution System in a Heterogeneous Network with Multiple Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yepeng Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of streaming media transmission in a heterogeneous network from a multisource server to home multiple terminals. In wired network, the transmission performance is limited by network state (e.g., the bandwidth variation, jitter, and packet loss. In wireless network, the multiple user terminals can cause bandwidth competition. Thus, the streaming media distribution in a heterogeneous network becomes a severe challenge which is critical for QoS guarantee. In this paper, we propose a context-aware adaptive streaming media distribution system (CAASS, which implements the context-aware module to perceive the environment parameters and use the strategy analysis (SA module to deduce the most suitable service level. This approach is able to improve the video quality for guarantying streaming QoS. We formulate the optimization problem of QoS relationship with the environment parameters based on the QoS testing algorithm for IPTV in ITU-T G.1070. We evaluate the performance of the proposed CAASS through 12 types of experimental environments using a prototype system. Experimental results show that CAASS can dynamically adjust the service level according to the environment variation (e.g., network state and terminal performances and outperforms the existing streaming approaches in adaptive streaming media distribution according to peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR.

  20. 47 CFR 68.110 - Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and terminal equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility of the public switched telephone... Conditions on Use of Terminal Equipment § 68.110 Compatibility of the public switched telephone network and... maintain uninterrupted service. (c) Availability of inside wiring information. Any available technical...

  1. A Network Model to Describe the Terminal Differentiation of B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Méndez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal differentiation of B cells is an essential process for the humoral immune response in vertebrates and is achieved by the concerted action of several transcription factors in response to antigen recognition and extracellular signals provided by T-helper cells. While there is a wealth of experimental data regarding the molecular and cellular signals involved in this process, there is no general consensus regarding the structure and dynamical properties of the underlying regulatory network controlling this process. We developed a dynamical model of the regulatory network controlling terminal differentiation of B cells. The structure of the network was inferred from experimental data available in the literature, and its dynamical behavior was analyzed by modeling the network both as a discrete and a continuous dynamical systems. The steady states of these models are consistent with the patterns of activation reported for the Naive, GC, Mem, and PC cell types. Moreover, the models are able to describe the patterns of differentiation from the precursor Naive to any of the GC, Mem, or PC cell types in response to a specific set of extracellular signals. We simulated all possible single loss- and gain-of-function mutants, corroborating the importance of Pax5, Bcl6, Bach2, Irf4, and Blimp1 as key regulators of B cell differentiation process. The model is able to represent the directional nature of terminal B cell differentiation and qualitatively describes key differentiation events from a precursor cell to terminally differentiated B cells.

  2. Logical optical line terminal technologies towards flexible and highly reliable metro- and access-integrated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Satoru; Sato, Takehiro; Yamanaka, Naoaki

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, flexible and highly reliable metro and access integrated networks with network virtualization and software defined networking technologies will be presented. Logical optical line terminal (L-OLT) technologies and active optical distribution networks (ODNs) are the key to introduce flexibility and high reliability into the metro and access integrated networks. In the Elastic Lambda Aggregation Network (EλAN) project which was started in 2012, a concept of the programmable optical line terminal (P-OLT) has been proposed. A role of the P-OLT is providing multiple network services that have different protocols and quality of service requirements by single OLT box. Accommodated services will be Internet access, mobile front-haul/back-haul, data-center access, and leased line. L-OLTs are configured within the P-OLT box to support the functions required for each network service. Multiple P-OLTs and programmable optical network units (P-ONUs) are connected by the active ODN. Optical access paths which have flexible capacity are set on the ODN to provide network services from L-OLT to logical ONUs (L-ONUs). The L-OLT to L-ONU path on the active ODN provides a logical connection. Therefore, introducing virtualization technologies becomes possible. One example is moving an L-OLT from one P-OLT to another P-OLT like a virtual machine. This movement is called L-OLT migration. The L-OLT migration provides flexible and reliable network functions such as energy saving by aggregating L-OLTs to a limited number of P-OLTs, and network wide optical access path restoration. Other L-OLT virtualization technologies and experimental results will be also discussed in the paper.

  3. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  4. Dynamic Network Drivers of Seizure Generation, Propagation and Termination in Human Neocortical Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhati, Ankit N.; Davis, Kathryn A.; Oommen, Brian S.; Chen, Stephanie H.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Litt, Brian; Bassett, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The epileptic network is characterized by pathologic, seizure-generating ‘foci’ embedded in a web of structural and functional connections. Clinically, seizure foci are considered optimal targets for surgery. However, poor surgical outcome suggests a complex relationship between foci and the surrounding network that drives seizure dynamics. We developed a novel technique to objectively track seizure states from dynamic functional networks constructed from intracranial recordings. Each dynamical state captures unique patterns of network connections that indicate synchronized and desynchronized hubs of neural populations. Our approach suggests that seizures are generated when synchronous relationships near foci work in tandem with rapidly changing desynchronous relationships from the surrounding epileptic network. As seizures progress, topographical and geometrical changes in network connectivity strengthen and tighten synchronous connectivity near foci—a mechanism that may aid seizure termination. Collectively, our observations implicate distributed cortical structures in seizure generation, propagation and termination, and may have practical significance in determining which circuits to modulate with implantable devices. PMID:26680762

  5. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  6. Adaptive neural network output feedback control for stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown dead-zone and unmodeled dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Wang, Tong; Li, Yongming; Zhang, Huaguang

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the problem of adaptive neural network output feedback control for a class of stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems. The concerned systems have certain characteristics, such as unknown nonlinear uncertainties, unknown dead-zones, unmodeled dynamics and without the direct measurements of state variables. In this paper, the neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear uncertainties, and then by representing the dead-zone as a time-varying system with a bounded disturbance. An NN state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. Based on both backstepping design technique and a stochastic small-gain theorem, a robust adaptive NN output feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that all the variables involved in the closed-loop system are input-state-practically stable in probability, and also have robustness to the unmodeled dynamics. Meanwhile, the observer errors and the output of the system can be regulated to a small neighborhood of the origin by selecting appropriate design parameters. Simulation examples are also provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. A neural network based computational model to predict the output power of different types of photovoltaic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenBo Xiao

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduced an artificial neural network (ANN based computational model to predict the output power of three types of photovoltaic cells, mono-crystalline (mono-, multi-crystalline (multi-, and amorphous (amor- crystalline. The prediction results are very close to the experimental data, and were also influenced by numbers of hidden neurons. The order of the solar generation power output influenced by the external conditions from smallest to biggest is: multi-, mono-, and amor- crystalline silicon cells. In addition, the dependences of power prediction on the number of hidden neurons were studied. For multi- and amorphous crystalline cell, three or four hidden layer units resulted in the high correlation coefficient and low MSEs. For mono-crystalline cell, the best results were achieved at the hidden layer unit of 8.

  8. Adaptive Output Neural Network Control for a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems With Dead-Zone Nonlinearities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Bing; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive output neural network (NN) control for a class of stochastic nonaffine and nonlinear systems with actuator dead-zone inputs. First, based on the intermediate value theorem, a novel design scheme that converts the nonaffine system into the corresponding affine system is developed. In particular, the priori knowledge of the bound of the derivative of the nonaffine and nonlinear functions is removed; then, by employing NNs to approximate the appropriate nonlinear functions, the corresponding adaptive NN tracking controller with the adjustable parameter updated laws is designed through a backstepping technique. Furthermore, it is shown that all the closed-loop signals are bounded in probability, and the system output tracking error can converge to a small neighborhood in the sense of a mean quartic value. Finally, experimental simulations are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed adaptive NN tracking control method.

  9. A neural network based computational model to predict the output power of different types of photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, WenBo; Nazario, Gina; Wu, HuaMing; Zhang, HuaMing; Cheng, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we introduced an artificial neural network (ANN) based computational model to predict the output power of three types of photovoltaic cells, mono-crystalline (mono-), multi-crystalline (multi-), and amorphous (amor-) crystalline. The prediction results are very close to the experimental data, and were also influenced by numbers of hidden neurons. The order of the solar generation power output influenced by the external conditions from smallest to biggest is: multi-, mono-, and amor- crystalline silicon cells. In addition, the dependences of power prediction on the number of hidden neurons were studied. For multi- and amorphous crystalline cell, three or four hidden layer units resulted in the high correlation coefficient and low MSEs. For mono-crystalline cell, the best results were achieved at the hidden layer unit of 8.

  10. Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) Network Control Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the performance of the network control function for the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) very small aperture terminal (VSAT) full mesh network. This includes control of all operational activities such as acquisition, synchronization, timing and rain fade compensation as well as control of all communications activities such as on-demand integrated services (voice, video, and date) connects and disconnects Operations control is provided by an in-band orderwire carried in the baseboard processor (BBP) control burst, the orderwire burst, the reference burst, and the uplink traffic burst. Communication services are provided by demand assigned multiple access (DAMA) protocols. The ACTS implementation of DAMA protocols ensures both on-demand and integrated voice, video and data services. Communications services control is also provided by the in-band orderwire but uses only the reference burst and the uplink traffic burst. The performance of the ACTS network control functions have been successfully tested during on-orbit checkout and in various VSAT networks in day to day operations. This paper discusses the network operations and services control performance.

  11. Beamspace Multiple Input Multiple Output. Part II: Steerable Antennas in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    increases do not necessarily come from higher gain but rather from a good front -to- back ratio. The front -to- back ratio was the dominant factor because...registered trademark of Xerox Corporation. Released by D. E . Hurdsman, Head Applied Electromagnetics Branch Under authority of J. McGee, Head...input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems use multiple anten- nas and transceivers at both ends of a wireless link to utilize spatial

  12. Two neural network algorithms for designing optimal terminal controllers with open final time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Edward S.

    1992-01-01

    Multilayer neural networks, trained by the backpropagation through time algorithm (BPTT), have been used successfully as state-feedback controllers for nonlinear terminal control problems. Current BPTT techniques, however, are not able to deal systematically with open final-time situations such as minimum-time problems. Two approaches which extend BPTT to open final-time problems are presented. In the first, a neural network learns a mapping from initial-state to time-to-go. In the second, the optimal number of steps for each trial run is found using a line-search. Both methods are derived using Lagrange multiplier techniques. This theoretical framework is used to demonstrate that the derived algorithms are direct extensions of forward/backward sweep methods used in N-stage optimal control. The two algorithms are tested on a Zermelo problem and the resulting trajectories compare favorably to optimal control results.

  13. An Adaptive B-Spline Neural Network and Its Application in Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Mobile Satcom Antenna Inertially Stabilized Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Kai; Li, Gaoliang; Deng, Nianmao

    2017-01-01

    The mobile satcom antenna (MSA) enables a moving vehicle to communicate with a geostationary Earth orbit satellite. To realize continuous communication, the MSA should be aligned with the satellite in both sight and polarization all the time. Because of coupling effects, unknown disturbances, sensor noises and unmodeled dynamics existing in the system, the control system should have a strong adaptability. The significant features of terminal sliding mode control method are robustness and finite time convergence, but the robustness is related to the large switching control gain which is determined by uncertain issues and can lead to chattering phenomena. Neural networks can reduce the chattering and approximate nonlinear issues. In this work, a novel B-spline curve-based B-spline neural network (BSNN) is developed. The improved BSNN has the capability of shape changing and self-adaption. In addition, the output of the proposed BSNN is applied to approximate the nonlinear function in the system. The results of simulations and experiments are also compared with those of PID method, non-singularity fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) control and radial basis function (RBF) neural network-based NFTSM. It is shown that the proposed method has the best performance, with reliable control precision. PMID:28452931

  14. An Adaptive B-Spline Neural Network and Its Application in Terminal Sliding Mode Control for a Mobile Satcom Antenna Inertially Stabilized Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Kai; Li, Gaoliang; Deng, Nianmao

    2017-04-28

    The mobile satcom antenna (MSA) enables a moving vehicle to communicate with a geostationary Earth orbit satellite. To realize continuous communication, the MSA should be aligned with the satellite in both sight and polarization all the time. Because of coupling effects, unknown disturbances, sensor noises and unmodeled dynamics existing in the system, the control system should have a strong adaptability. The significant features of terminal sliding mode control method are robustness and finite time convergence, but the robustness is related to the large switching control gain which is determined by uncertain issues and can lead to chattering phenomena. Neural networks can reduce the chattering and approximate nonlinear issues. In this work, a novel B-spline curve-based B-spline neural network (BSNN) is developed. The improved BSNN has the capability of shape changing and self-adaption. In addition, the output of the proposed BSNN is applied to approximate the nonlinear function in the system. The results of simulations and experiments are also compared with those of PID method, non-singularity fast terminal sliding mode (NFTSM) control and radial basis function (RBF) neural network-based NFTSM. It is shown that the proposed method has the best performance, with reliable control precision.

  15. Intramural Purkinje cell network of sheep ventricles as the terminal pathway of conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Shonosuke; Yamamoto, Shoji; Andersen, Clark R; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyake, Fumihiko; James, Thomas N

    2009-01-01

    To identify the anatomical basis for cardiac electrical signal conduction, particularly seeking the intramural terminals of conduction pathway within the ventricles, sheep hearts were examined compared with human hearts utilizing the characteristic morphology of Purkinje cells as a histological marker. In 15 sheep and five human autopsies of noncardiac death, prevalence of Purkinje or Purkinje-type cells were histologically examined in the atrioventricular node, its distal conduction pathway, the interventricular septum, and the right- and left-ventricular free walls. Myocardial tissue cleavages were examined in the transmural sections (along cardiac base-to-apex axis) obtained from the septum and ventricular free walls. Serial histological sections through virtually the entirety of the septum in selected sheep were used as the basis of a three-dimensional reconstruction of the conduction pathway, particularly of the intramural Purkinje cell network. Purkinje cells were found within the mural myocardium of sheep ventricles whereas no intramural Purkinje-type cell was detected within the human ventricles. In the sheep septum, every intramural Purkinje cell composed a three-dimensional network throughout the mural myocardium, which proximally connected to the subendocardial extension of the bundle branches and distally formed an occasional junction with ordinary working myocytes. The Purkinje-cell network may participate in the ventricular excitation as the terminal conduction pathway. Individual connections among the Purkinje cells contain the links of through-wall orientation which would benefit the signal conduction crossing the architectural barriers by cleavages in sheep hearts. The myocardial architectural changes found in diseased hearts could disrupt the network links including those with transmural orientation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Study on New Smart Transformer Terminal Unit Based on ARM and GPRS Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution transformer is one of the most important power equipments in distribution network, whose running state exercises a great influence on the stability of the network. Transformer Terminal Unit (TTU is an effective device to monitor the running state of transformers in the distribution automation system. In this paper, we study a new smart TTU which uses ARM7 series chip as processor, equipped with ATT7022B based electric meter module and GPRS module for remote data transmission control. We focus on the corresponding hardware, software design and the measurement principle of harmonics of TTU. The new TTU can measure the electric parameters of the distribution transformer precisely. Taking advantage of the powerful ARM processor, it can analyze harmonic of the power line effectively. Due to the always-on-line feature of GPRS, TTU can achieve reliable communication with the remote terminal and the master station. Compared with other similar units, the new unit outperforms in terms of real-time, precision and reliability, which can fully meet with the high-speed development of distribution automation system.

  17. Universal and inductorless DC/DC converter for multi-output power supplies in sensor and actuator networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Sergio; Ciarpi, Gabriele

    2017-05-01

    This work proposes a universal and inductorless DC/DC converter that can be used for a wide input range, from few V to 60 V, to regulate output voltages from 5 V down to 1 V in Sensor and Actuator Network nodes. The proposed converter has been developed within the Athenis3D European project. It is composed by a cascade of multiple switching capacitor stages, with a proper skip-mode control to implement both step-down and step-up converting ratios, thus regulating all input sources to a voltage of about 6 V. These switching stages are further cascaded with linear regulators, which can provide stable output voltages down to 1 V. The multi-output regulator has been realized as a single-chip in a low-cost 0.35 μm CMOS technology. It is available as a naked die or in a ceramic package. The only needed external components are surface mount capacitors, which can be integrated on top of the naked chip die, creating a 3D structure, using trench capacitors embedded in a passive interposing layer. This way the size of the power management unit is further minimized. An advantage of the proposed converter is that it isn't optimized for a particular input voltage, therefore it can be used with no constant input power, like power harvesting systems (e.g. solar cells, wind and water turbines) and very disturbed power supplies.

  18. Effects of social network on production output of maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social is as a veritable factor for getting access to resources. Thus, the effect of social network on productivity of maize farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria was investigated. Primary data were collected from one hundred and fifty maize farmers using a multistage random sampling procedure. Data were analysed using ...

  19. Identifying and analyzing the most important factors in universities scientific output using neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohammadian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving to ideal research system is necessary to have policy and plan. The main aims of this research are knowledge extracted from the existing data gathered by the country research system. This Knowledge is prerequisite for science and technology policy. Population of the present descriptive research includes Universities of the Ministry of Science, Research & Technology. Data is extracted from database of monitoring of science and technology system. Classification algorithms Multilayer Preceptor neural network and neural network-based radius are used for data analysis. This research results showed that among the 15 indicators studied in this research, full-time faculty members, the number of theses, research funding and number of scholarships have more importance than other indicators. Among the four factors studied, the human resource factor is in the first place and has most importance in the scholarly productions. The education factor, financial factor and Structural factor is in the second to fourth rate.

  20. The Design of Data Transmission Terminal in Remote Warning Control System Based on CDMA 1X Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework of data transmission terminal in remote warning control system based on CDMA 1X network. According to the functional requirements of wireless broadband communication system, the hardware interfaces and software of the CDMA 1X data transmission terminal are designed detailedly and the system is implemented using wireless access and embedded development technologies. It has good applicability and portability so that various wireless data transmissions can be achieved by replacing the data source module.

  1. Forecasting Volatility in Indian Stock Market using Artificial Neural Network with Multiple Inputs and Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DattaChaudhuri, Tamal; Ghosh, Indranil

    2015-06-01

    Volatility in stock markets has been extensively studied in the applied finance literature. In this paper, Artificial Neural Network models based on various back propagation algorithms have been constructed to predict volatility in the Indian stock market through volatility of NIFTY returns and volatility of gold returns. This model considers India VIX, CBOE VIX, volatility of crude oil returns (CRUDESDR), volatility of DJIA returns (DJIASDR), volatility of DAX returns (DAXSDR), volatility of Hang Seng returns (HANGSDR) and volatility of Nikkei returns (NIKKEISDR) as predictor variables. Three sets of experiments have been performed over three time periods to judge the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. BMP-SMAD signalling output is highly regionalized in cardiovascular and lymphatic endothelial networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Karen; Staring, Michael W; Criem, Nathan; Maas, Elke; Schellinx, Niels; de Sousa Lopes, Susana M Chuva; Umans, Lieve; Zwijsen, An

    2016-10-10

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages. For this, we used the BRE::gfp BMP signalling reporter mouse in which the BMP response element (BRE) from the ID1-promotor, a SMAD1/5/9 target gene, drives the expression of GFP. A mosaic pattern of GFP was present in various angiogenic sprouting plexuses and in endocardium of cardiac cushions and trabeculae in the heart. High calibre veins seemed to be more BRE::gfp transcriptionally active than arteries, and ubiquitous activity was present in embryonic lymphatic vasculature. Postnatal lymphatic vessels showed however only discrete micro-domains of transcriptional activity. Dynamic shifts in transcriptional activity were also observed in the endocardium of the developing heart, with a general decrease in activity over time. Surprisingly, proliferative endothelial cells were almost never GFP-positive. Patches of transcriptional activity seemed to correlate with vasculature undergoing hemodynamic alterations. The BRE::gfp mouse allows to investigate selective context-dependent aspects of BMP-SMAD signalling. Our data reveals the highly dynamic nature of BMP-SMAD mediated transcriptional regulation in time and space throughout the vascular tree, supporting that BMP-SMAD signalling can be a source of phenotypic diversity in some, but not all, healthy endothelium. This knowledge can provide insight in vascular bed or organ-specific diseases and phenotypic heterogeneity within an

  3. Linear summation of outputs in a balanced network modelof motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eCapaday

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the nonlinearities of the the neural circuitry's elements, we would expect corticalcircuits to respond nonlinearly when activated. Surprisingly, when two points in the motorcortex are activated simultaneously, the EMG responses are the linear sum of the responsesevoked by each of the points activated separately. Additionally, the corticospinal transferfunction is close to linear, implying that the synaptic interactions in motor cortex must beeffectively linear. To account for this, here we develop a model of motor cortex composedof multiple interconnected points, each comprised of reciprocally connected excitatory andinhibitory neurons. We show how nonlinearities in neuronal transfer functions areeschewed by strong synaptic interactions within each point. Consequently, thesimultaneous activation of multiple points results in a linear summation of their respectiveoutputs. We also consider the effects of reduction of inhibition at a cortical point when oneor more surrounding points are active. The network response in this condition is linear overan approximately two to three fold decrease of inhibitory feedback strength. This resultsupports the idea that focal disinhibition allows linear coupling of motor cortical points togenerate movement related muscle activation patterns; albeit with a limitation on gaincontrol. The model also explains why neural activity does not spread as far out as the axonalconnectivity allows, whilst also explaining why distant cortical points can be, nonetheless,functionally coupled by focal disinhibition. Finally, we discuss the advantages that linearinteractions at the cortical level afford to motor command synthesis.

  4. Global network of embodied water flow by systems input-output simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanming; Chen, Guoqian; Xia, Xiaohua; Xu, Shiyun

    2012-09-01

    The global water resources network is simulated in the present work for the latest target year with statistical data available and with the most detailed data disaggregation. A top-down approach of systems inputoutput simulation is employed to track the embodied water flows associated with economic flows for the globalized economy in 2004. The numerical simulation provides a database of embodied water intensities for all economic commodities from 4928 producers, based on which the differences between direct and indirect water using efficiencies at the global scale are discussed. The direct and embodied water uses are analyzed at continental level. Besides, the commodity demand in terms of monetary expenditure and the water demand in terms of embodied water use are compared for the world as well as for three major water using regions, i.e., India, China, and the United States. Results show that food product contributes to a significant fraction for water demand, despite the value varies significantly with respect to the economic status of region.

  5. Track wear-and-tear cost by traffic class: Functional form, zero output levels and marginal cost pricing recovery on the French rail network

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry, Marc; Quinet, Emile

    2009-01-01

    We address the issue of the allocation of railway track maintenance (wear-and-tear) costs to traffic output classes and consider a very general function relating maintenance cost C to a set of technical production characteristics K used to produce traffic output vector T. We neglect other rail cost categories, such as traffic control and track renewal. The data base pertains to over 1500 sections of the French rail infrastructure in 1999, representing about 90% of the total network of 30000 k...

  6. Adaptive multi-node multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission for mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-10-02

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase.

  7. Adaptive Multi-Node Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MIMO) Transmission for Mobile Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo

    2013-01-01

    Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase. PMID:24152920

  8. Three-terminal ferroelectric synapse device with concurrent learning function for artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, Y.; Kaneko, Y.; Ueda, M.; Fujii, E. [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, Seika, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Morie, T. [Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu 808-0196 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) is demonstrated in a synapse device based on a ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistor (FeFET). STDP is a key of the learning functions observed in human brains, where the synaptic weight changes only depending on the spike timing of the pre- and post-neurons. The FeFET is composed of the stacked oxide materials with ZnO/Pr(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT)/SrRuO{sub 3}. In the FeFET, the channel conductance can be altered depending on the density of electrons induced by the polarization of PZT film, which can be controlled by applying the gate voltage in a non-volatile manner. Applying a pulse gate voltage enables the multi-valued modulation of the conductance, which is expected to be caused by a change in PZT polarization. This variation depends on the height and the duration of the pulse gate voltage. Utilizing these characteristics, symmetric and asymmetric STDP learning functions are successfully implemented in the FeFET-based synapse device by applying the non-linear pulse gate voltage generated from a set of two pulses in a sampling circuit, in which the two pulses correspond to the spikes from the pre- and post-neurons. The three-terminal structure of the synapse device enables the concurrent learning, in which the weight update can be performed without canceling signal transmission among neurons, while the neural networks using the previously reported two-terminal synapse devices need to stop signal transmission for learning.

  9. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-terminated polyurethane/polyurethane interpenetrating polymer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C J; Hsieh, K H; Ho, K S; Hsieh, T T

    1997-02-01

    The interpenetrating polymer networks (INPs) of polyurethane (PU) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (MEHA)-terminated polyurethane (HPU) were prepared by solution polymerization. PU prepolymer was synthesized from 4,4-diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) and poly(propylene oxide) glycol (PPG). HPU prepolymer was synthesized from MDI, poly(tetramethylene oxide) glycol and HEMA. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the resultant IPN membranes have good compatibility between their constituents. As the HPU content increased, the tensile strength of the IPNs first increased and then decreased. For the highest tensile strength, the optimum HPU content was about 25 wt %. The value of surface tension of IPNs varied from 44.4 to 50.5 dyne/cm, and polarity ranged from 0.59 to 0.91. The relative index of platelet adhesion (RIPA) of the IPN membranes was measured by the dynamic thrombosis test at constant shaking speed and temperature. By the criteria of this test, the IPN membranes with HPU content of about 25 wt% to the minimum platelet adhesion. When measured by the angular dependent ESCA technique on the surface of IPN samples, the variation in the RIPA correlated to the change in the surface soft segment to hard segment ratio. Higher HPU content resulted in more migration of soft segments toward the surface. The platelet adhesion was observed to be minimized when the surface O/N ratio was around 12.

  10. Interpenetrating polymer networks based on cyanate ester and fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly soluble fluorinated ethynyl-terminated imide (FETI oligomers were prepared via a conventional one-step method in m-cresol, using 4, 4′-(hexafluoroisopropylidene diphthalic anhydride and 2, 2′-bis(trifluoromethyl benzidine as the monomers, and ethynylphthalic anhydride as the end-capper; then interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN were formulated from FETI oligomers and bisphenol A dicyanate ester (BADCy through a solvent-free procedure, and their thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties were fully characterized. The curing mechanism was studied by model reactions using nitrogen nuclear magnetic resonance. As evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and rheological measurements, the FETI/BADCy blends exhibited lower curing temperature and shorter gelation time in comparison with pure BADCy due to the catalytic effects of ethynyl and residue amic acid groups. The properties of IPNs were fully compared with those of polycyanurate, and the results revealed that the incorporation of FETI into cyanate ester resins could significantly improve the toughness, glass transition temperatures, mechanical and dielectric properties of the resultant IPNs.

  11. Sensitivity Analysis of the Artificial Neural Network Outputs in Friction Stir Lap Joining of Aluminum to Brass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Shojaeefard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Mg and CuZn34 alloys were lap joined using friction stir welding while the aluminum alloy sheet was placed on the CuZn34. In addition, the mechanical properties of each sample were characterized using shear tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to probe chemical compositions. An artificial neural network model was developed to simulate the correlation between the Friction Stir Lap Welding (FSLW parameters and mechanical properties. Subsequently, a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of each input parameter on the output in terms of magnitude and direction. Four methods, namely, the “PaD” method, the “Weights” method, the “Profile” method, and the “backward stepwise” method, which can give the relative contribution and/or the contribution profile of the input factors, were compared. The PaD method, giving the most complete results, was found to be the most useful, followed by the Profile method that gave the contribution profile of the input variables.

  12. An Artificial Neural Network Compensated Output Feedback Power-Level Control for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Dong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs could be beneficial in providing electricity power safely and also be viable for applications such as seawater desalination and heat production. Due to its inherent safety features, the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR has been seen as one of the best candidates for building SMR-based nuclear power plants. Since the MHTGR dynamics display high nonlinearity and parameter uncertainty, it is necessary to develop a nonlinear adaptive power-level control law which is not only beneficial to the safe, stable, efficient and autonomous operation of the MHTGR, but also easy to implement practically. In this paper, based on the concept of shifted-ectropy and the physically-based control design approach, it is proved theoretically that the simple proportional-differential (PD output-feedback power-level control can provide asymptotic closed-loop stability. Then, based on the strong approximation capability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP artificial neural network (ANN, a compensator is established to suppress the negative influence caused by system parameter uncertainty. It is also proved that the MLP-compensated PD power-level control law constituted by an experientially-tuned PD regulator and this MLP-based compensator can guarantee bounded closed-loop stability. Numerical simulation results not only verify the theoretical results, but also illustrate the high performance of this MLP-compensated PD power-level controller in suppressing the oscillation of process variables caused by system parameter uncertainty.

  13. Ecological network analysis of an urban metabolic system based on input-output tables: model development and case study for Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Fath, Brian D; Liu, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Liu, Gengyuan; Su, Meirong

    2014-01-15

    If cities are considered as "superorganisms", then disorders of their metabolic processes cause something analogous to an "urban disease". It is therefore helpful to identify the causes of such disorders by analyzing the inner mechanisms that control urban metabolic processes. Combining input-output analysis with ecological network analysis lets researchers study the functional relationships and hierarchy of the urban metabolic processes, thereby providing direct support for the analysis of urban disease. In this paper, using Beijing as an example, we develop a model of an urban metabolic system that accounts for the intensity of the embodied ecological elements using monetary input-output tables from 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, and use this data to compile the corresponding physical input-output tables. This approach described the various flows of ecological elements through urban metabolic processes and let us build an ecological network model with 32 components. Then, using two methods from ecological network analysis (flow analysis and utility analysis), we quantitatively analyzed the physical input-output relationships among urban components, determined the ecological hierarchy of the components of the metabolic system, and determined the distribution of advantage-dominated and disadvantage-dominated relationships, thereby providing scientific support to guide restructuring of the urban metabolic system in an effort to prevent or cure urban "diseases". © 2013.

  14. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Xing

    Full Text Available The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  15. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lizhi

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization.

  16. Analysis of inter-country input-output table based on citation network: How to measure the competition and collaboration between industrial sectors on the global value chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The input-output table is comprehensive and detailed in describing the national economic system with complex economic relationships, which embodies information of supply and demand among industrial sectors. This paper aims to scale the degree of competition/collaboration on the global value chain from the perspective of econophysics. Global Industrial Strongest Relevant Network models were established by extracting the strongest and most immediate industrial relevance in the global economic system with inter-country input-output tables and then transformed into Global Industrial Resource Competition Network/Global Industrial Production Collaboration Network models embodying the competitive/collaborative relationships based on bibliographic coupling/co-citation approach. Three indicators well suited for these two kinds of weighted and non-directed networks with self-loops were introduced, including unit weight for competitive/collaborative power, disparity in the weight for competitive/collaborative amplitude and weighted clustering coefficient for competitive/collaborative intensity. Finally, these models and indicators were further applied to empirically analyze the function of sectors in the latest World Input-Output Database, to reveal inter-sector competitive/collaborative status during the economic globalization. PMID:28873432

  17. Comparison of Urine Output among Patients Treated with More Intensive Versus Less Intensive RRT: Results from the Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Causland, Finnian R; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Betensky, Rebecca A; Palevsky, Paul M; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2016-08-08

    Intensive RRT may have adverse effects that account for the absence of benefit observed in randomized trials of more intensive versus less intensive RRT. We wished to determine the association of more intensive RRT with changes in urine output as a marker of worsening residual renal function in critically ill patients with severe AKI. The Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study (n=1124) was a multicenter trial that randomized critically ill patients requiring initiation of RRT to more intensive (hemodialysis or sustained low-efficiency dialysis six times per week or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 35 ml/kg per hour) versus less intensive (hemodialysis or sustained low-efficiency dialysis three times per week or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 20 ml/kg per hour) RRT. Mixed linear regression models were fit to estimate the association of RRT intensity with change in daily urine output in survivors through day 7 (n=871); Cox regression models were fit to determine the association of RRT intensity with time to ≥50% decline in urine output in all patients through day 28. Mean age of participants was 60±15 years old, 72% were men, and 30% were diabetic. In unadjusted models, among patients who survived ≥7 days, mean urine output was, on average, 31.7 ml/d higher (95% confidence interval, 8.2 to 55.2 ml/d) for the less intensive group compared with the more intensive group (P=0.01). More intensive RRT was associated with 29% greater unadjusted risk of decline in urine output of ≥50% (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.51). More intensive versus less intensive RRT is associated with a greater reduction in urine output during the first 7 days of therapy and a greater risk of developing a decline in urine output of ≥50% in critically ill patients with severe AKI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. A Flexible Terminal Approach to Sampled-Data Exponentially Synchronization of Markovian Neural Networks With Time-Varying Delayed Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Park, Ju H; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Shen, Hao

    2017-08-02

    This paper investigates the problem of sampled-data (SD) exponentially synchronization for a class of Markovian neural networks with time-varying delayed signals. Based on the tunable parameter and convex combination computational method, a new approach named flexible terminal approach is proposed to reduce the conservatism of delay-dependent synchronization criteria. The SD subject to stochastic sampling period is introduced to exhibit the general phenomena of reality. Novel exponential synchronization criterion are derived by utilizing uniform Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and suitable integral inequality. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the usefulness and advantages of the proposed design procedure.

  19. Developing the Reconfiguration Method to Increase Life Expectancy of Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network in Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurenoks Aleksejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays control and management logistics solutions that are used in terminals apply sensor based technologies to identify and localize containers in the yard. Nevertheless, because of the limits in the existing sensor technical specification, the position of nodes is still affected by some errors or sometimes it cannot be determined in real-time systems due to battery fall.

  20. Accuracy assessment of the scalar network analyzer using sliding termination techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bent; Engen, Glenn F.; Guldbrandsen, Birthe

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of phase response the major, if not the primary, sources of error in the scalar network analyzer are the imperfect directivity, etc., associated with its internal and frequently inaccessible test set or measurement network. An explicit expression is obtained for this error in terms...

  1. Communication method for high density wireless networks, terminal, cluster master device, central node, and system therefor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; van Hoesel, L.F.W.; Bijwaard, D.

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale wireless sensor and actuator networks(LWSANs) are networks that consist of many sensor and/or actuator devices (i.e. >1,000 devices). These sensor and/or actuator devices (also called nodes) communicate wirelessly to deliver their sensor readings to one or more gateway devices in the

  2. Networked Guidance and Control for Mobile Multi-Agent Systems: A Multi-Terminal (Network) Information Theoretic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    Each state of the FSM corresponds to a discrete memoryless channel ( DMC ). At each channel use, information is transmitted from the encoder to the...channel output according to the DMC selected by the current FSM state. This class of channels is denoted as Action Dependent Switching Channel, or ADS...Lloyd-Max algorithm that is guaranteed to converge globally to a locally optimal solution. The iterative method converges to an optimal solution in

  3. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We

  4. Bidirectional multi-optical line terminals incorporated converged WSN-PON network using M/M/1 queuing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Love; Sharma, Vishal; Singh, Amarpal

    2017-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have an assortment of application areas, for instance, civil, military, and video surveillance with restricted power resources and transmission link. To accommodate the massive traffic load in hefty sensor networks is another key issue. Subsequently, there is a necessity to backhaul the sensed information of such networks and prolong the transmission link to access the distinct receivers. Passive Optical Network (PON), a next-generation access technology, comes out as a suitable candidate for the convergence of the sensed data to the core system. The earlier demonstrated work with single-OLT-PON introduces an overloaded buffer akin to video surveillance scenarios. In this paper, to combine the bandwidth potential of PONs with the mobility capability of WSNs, the viability for the convergence of PONs and WSNs incorporating multi-optical line terminals is demonstrated to handle the overloaded OLTs. The existing M/M/1 queue theory with interleaving polling with adaptive cycle time as dynamic bandwidth algorithm is used to shun the probability of packets clash. Further, the proposed multi-sink WSN and multi-OLT PON converged structure is investigated in bidirectional mode analytically and through computer simulations. The observations establish the proposed structure competent to accommodate the colossal data traffic through less time consumption.

  5. Local Area Network Terminal Management in Support of Stock Point Logistics Integrated Communications Environment (SPLICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    academically justifiable, there remained the co.cern that to stray t3o far fros the realities of the Naval Supply System woula -esult i an academic...lesire to produce a recommendation for the near future, and there- fore embraces the reality of the SPLICE environment mor - than the generic TM model...modlal presented in Chapter iV. F. REINHART MID ARANA rN In Reference I (p. 55), th- iathors proposed a TI approach based upon a " Vitual terminal" manag

  6. Comparison of Urine Output among Patients Treated with More Intensive Versus Less Intensive RRT: Results from the Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Palevsky, Paul M.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Intensive RRT may have adverse effects that account for the absence of benefit observed in randomized trials of more intensive versus less intensive RRT. We wished to determine the association of more intensive RRT with changes in urine output as a marker of worsening residual renal function in critically ill patients with severe AKI. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Acute Renal Failure Trial Network Study (n=1124) was a multicenter trial that randomized critically ill patients requiring initiation of RRT to more intensive (hemodialysis or sustained low–efficiency dialysis six times per week or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 35 ml/kg per hour) versus less intensive (hemodialysis or sustained low–efficiency dialysis three times per week or continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration at 20 ml/kg per hour) RRT. Mixed linear regression models were fit to estimate the association of RRT intensity with change in daily urine output in survivors through day 7 (n=871); Cox regression models were fit to determine the association of RRT intensity with time to ≥50% decline in urine output in all patients through day 28. Results Mean age of participants was 60±15 years old, 72% were men, and 30% were diabetic. In unadjusted models, among patients who survived ≥7 days, mean urine output was, on average, 31.7 ml/d higher (95% confidence interval, 8.2 to 55.2 ml/d) for the less intensive group compared with the more intensive group (P=0.01). More intensive RRT was associated with 29% greater unadjusted risk of decline in urine output of ≥50% (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.51). Conclusions More intensive versus less intensive RRT is associated with a greater reduction in urine output during the first 7 days of therapy and a greater risk of developing a decline in urine output of ≥50% in critically ill patients with severe AKI. PMID:27449661

  7. External drift kriging of NOx concentrations with dispersion model output in a reduced air quality monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.; Stein, A.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Velders, G.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the mid nineteen eighties the Dutch NOx air quality monitoring network was reduced from 73 to 32 rural and city background stations, leading to higher spatial uncertainties. In this study, several other sources of information are being used to help reduce uncertainties in parameter estimation and

  8. Large File Transfers from Space Using Multiple Ground Terminals and Delay-Tolerant Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Paulsen, Phillip; Stewart, Dave; Eddy, Wesley; McKim, James; Taylor, John; Lynch, Scott; Heberle, Jay; Northam, James; Jackson, Chris; hide

    2010-01-01

    We use Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to break control loops between space-ground communication links and ground-ground communication links to increase overall file delivery efficiency, as well as to enable large files to be proactively fragmented and received across multiple ground stations. DTN proactive fragmentation and reactive fragmentation were demonstrated from the UK-DMC satellite using two independent ground stations. The files were reassembled at a bundle agent, located at Glenn Research Center in Cleveland Ohio. The first space-based demonstration of this occurred on September 30 and October 1, 2009. This paper details those experiments. Communication, delay-tolerant networking, DTN, satellite, Internet, protocols, bundle, IP, TCP.

  9. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  10. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the

  11. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  12. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Pamučar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM, negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone.

  13. A self-healing evaluation model for dedicated protection optical fiber sensor networks using All-terminal reliability function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dagong; Chen, Jing; Yan, Yingzhan; Zhang, Hongxia; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo

    2017-12-01

    With the increase of the number of sensors and nodes, the existing self-healing evaluation models for large-scale optical fiber sensor networks (OFSNs) have become insufficient to evaluate their self-healing capability. Here, we propose a self-healing evaluation model using the All-terminal reliability function for OFSNs. On the basis of this model, we establish equations for loop topology using the state enumeration method, and for more complicated star-ring and double-loop topologies, using both state enumeration method and Monte-Carlo method. In our self-healing evaluation model, the self-healing capability is a function of the number of the sensors (N) and the working probability of link fibers (p). We have conducted a comparative study on the effects of these two factors on the self-healing capability among these network topologies. The results show that with the increase of N or the decrease of p, the self-healing capability of the all topologies declines, and the star-ring topology displays the best self-healing capability.

  14. Planning the City Logistics Terminal Location by Applying the Green p-Median Model and Type-2 Neurofuzzy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamučar, Dragan; Vasin, Ljubislav; Atanasković, Predrag; Miličić, Milica

    2016-01-01

    The paper herein presents green p-median problem (GMP) which uses the adaptive type-2 neural network for the processing of environmental and sociological parameters including costs of logistics operators and demonstrates the influence of these parameters on planning the location for the city logistics terminal (CLT) within the discrete network. CLT shows direct effects on increment of traffic volume especially in urban areas, which further results in negative environmental effects such as air pollution and noise as well as increased number of urban populations suffering from bronchitis, asthma, and similar respiratory infections. By applying the green p-median model (GMM), negative effects on environment and health in urban areas caused by delivery vehicles may be reduced to minimum. This model creates real possibilities for making the proper investment decisions so as profitable investments may be realized in the field of transport infrastructure. The paper herein also includes testing of GMM in real conditions on four CLT locations in Belgrade City zone. PMID:27195005

  15. Lipid carbonyl groups terminate the hydrogen bond network of membrane-bound water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Backus, Ellen H G; Hsieh, Cho-Shuen; Sulpizi, Marialore; Bonn, Mischa; Nagata, Yuki

    2015-11-19

    We present a combined experimental sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations study to clarify the structure and orientation of water at zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid and amine N-oxide (AO) surfactant monolayers. Simulated O-H stretch SFG spectra of water show good agreement with the experimental data. The SFG response at the PC interface exhibits positive peaks, whereas both negative and positive bands are present for the similar zwitterionic AO interface. The positive peaks at the water/PC interface are attributed to water interacting with the lipid carbonyl groups, which act as efficient hydrogen bond acceptors. This allows the water hydrogen bond network to reach, with its (up-oriented) O-H groups, into the headgroup of the lipid, a mechanism not available for water underneath the AO surfactant. This highlights the role of the lipid carbonyl group in the interfacial water structure at the membrane interface, namely, stabilizing the water hydrogen bond network.

  16. Use of Bayesian networks classifiers for long-term mean wind turbine energy output estimation at a potential wind energy conversion site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Electronics and Automatics Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Matias, J.M. [Department of Statistics, University of Vigo, Lagoas Marcosende, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Due to the interannual variability of wind speed a feasibility analysis for the installation of a Wind Energy Conversion System at a particular site requires estimation of the long-term mean wind turbine energy output. A method is proposed in this paper which, based on probabilistic Bayesian networks (BNs), enables estimation of the long-term mean wind speed histogram for a site where few measurements of the wind resource are available. For this purpose, the proposed method allows the use of multiple reference stations with a long history of wind speed and wind direction measurements. That is to say, the model that is proposed in this paper is able to involve and make use of regional information about the wind resource. With the estimated long-term wind speed histogram and the power curve of a wind turbine it is possible to use the method of bins to determine the long-term mean energy output for that wind turbine. The intelligent system employed, the knowledgebase of which is a joint probability function of all the model variables, uses efficient calculation techniques for conditional probabilities to perform the reasoning. This enables automatic model learning and inference to be performed efficiently based on the available evidence. The proposed model is applied in this paper to wind speeds and wind directions recorded at four weather stations located in the Canary Islands (Spain). Ten years of mean hourly wind speed and direction data are available for these stations. One of the conclusions reached is that the BN with three reference stations gave fewer errors between the real and estimated long-term mean wind turbine energy output than when using two measure-correlate-predict algorithms which were evaluated and which use a linear regression between the candidate station and one reference station. (author)

  17. Distributed Adaptive Neural Network Output Tracking of Leader-Following High-Order Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed output tracking consensus control for a class of high-order stochastic nonlinear multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone under a directed graph topology. The adaptive neural networks are used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and a new inequality is used to deal with the completely unknown dead-zone input. Then, we design the controllers based on backstepping method and the dynamic surface control technique. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of semiglobally uniform ultimate boundedness and the tracking errors between the leader and the followers approach to a small residual set based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed techniques.

  18. An enhanced SOCP-based method for feeder load balancing using the multi-terminal soft open point in active distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Haoran; Wang, Chengshan; Li, Peng; Zhao, Jinli; Song, Guanyu; Ding, Fei; Wu, Jianzhong

    2017-09-01

    The integration of distributed generators (DGs) exacerbates the feeder power flow fluctuation and load unbalanced condition in active distribution networks (ADNs). The unbalanced feeder load causes inefficient use of network assets and network congestion during system operation. The flexible interconnection based on the multi-terminal soft open point (SOP) significantly benefits the operation of ADNs. The multi-terminal SOP, which is a controllable power electronic device installed to replace the normally open point, provides accurate active and reactive power flow control to enable the flexible connection of feeders. An enhanced SOCP-based method for feeder load balancing using the multi-terminal SOP is proposed in this paper. By regulating the operation of the multi-terminal SOP, the proposed method can mitigate the unbalanced condition of feeder load and simultaneously reduce the power losses of ADNs. Then, the original non-convex model is converted into a second-order cone programming (SOCP) model using convex relaxation. To tighten the SOCP relaxation and improve the computation efficiency, an enhanced SOCP-based approach is developed to solve the proposed model. Finally, case studies are performed on the modified IEEE 33-node system to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  19. A hybrid approach to monthly streamflow forecasting: Integrating hydrological model outputs into a Bayesian artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Greer B.; Gibbs, Matthew S.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Maier, Holger R.

    2016-09-01

    Monthly streamflow forecasts are needed to support water resources decision making in the South East of South Australia, where baseflow represents a significant proportion of the total streamflow and soil moisture and groundwater are important predictors of runoff. To address this requirement, the utility of a hybrid monthly streamflow forecasting approach is explored, whereby simulated soil moisture from the GR4J conceptual rainfall-runoff model is used to represent initial catchment conditions in a Bayesian artificial neural network (ANN) statistical forecasting model. To assess the performance of this hybrid forecasting method, a comparison is undertaken of the relative performances of the Bayesian ANN, the GR4J conceptual model and the hybrid streamflow forecasting approach for producing 1-month ahead streamflow forecasts at three key locations in the South East of South Australia. Particular attention is paid to the quantification of uncertainty in each of the forecast models and the potential for reducing forecast uncertainty by using the hybrid approach is considered. Case study results suggest that the hybrid models developed in this study are able to take advantage of the complementary strengths of both the ANN models and the GR4J conceptual models. This was particularly the case when forecasting high flows, where the hybrid models were shown to outperform the two individual modelling approaches in terms of the accuracy of the median forecasts, as well as reliability and resolution of the forecast distributions. In addition, the forecast distributions generated by the hybrid models were up to 8 times more precise than those based on climatology; thus, providing a significant improvement on the information currently available to decision makers.

  20. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  1. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eMiceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for normal topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  2. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    1996-01-01

    A line driver comprising: an input terminal for receiving an input signal, an output terminal for connecting a load, a first and a second transconductance-controlled transconductor having substantially equal transconductances, each transconductor having a non-inverting input, an inverting input, an

  3. Mobile termination and mobile penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Sjaak; Jeon, Doh-Shin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study how access pricing affects network competition when subscription demand is elastic and each network uses non-linear prices and can apply termination-based price discrimination. In the case of a fixed per minute termination charge, we find that a reduction of the termination charge below cost has two oppos- ing effects: it softens competition but helps to internalize network externalities. The former reduces mobile penetration while the latter boosts it. We find that fi...

  4. Down-sizing of neuronal network activity and density of presynaptic terminals by pathological acidosis are efficiently prevented by Diminazene Aceturate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Roberta; Chaabane, Linda; Biffi, Emilia; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Amadio, Stefano; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Mazzocchi, Nausicaa; Comi, Giancarlo; Bianchi, Veronica; Taverna, Stefano; Forti, Lia; D'Adamo, Patrizia; Martino, Gianvito; Menegon, Andrea; Muzio, Luca

    2015-03-01

    Local acidosis is associated with neuro-inflammation and can have significant effects in several neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, brain ischemia, spinal cord injury and epilepsy. Despite local acidosis has been implicated in numerous pathological functions, very little is known about the modulatory effects of pathological acidosis on the activity of neuronal networks and on synaptic structural properties. Using non-invasive MRI spectroscopy we revealed protracted extracellular acidosis in the CNS of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) affected mice. By multi-unit recording in cortical neurons, we established that acidosis affects network activity, down-sizing firing and bursting behaviors as well as amplitudes. Furthermore, a protracted acidosis reduced the number of presynaptic terminals, while it did not affect the postsynaptic compartment. Application of the diarylamidine Diminazene Aceturate (DA) during acidosis significantly reverted both the loss of neuronal firing and bursting and the reduction of presynaptic terminals. Finally, in vivo DA delivery ameliorated the clinical disease course of EAE mice, reducing demyelination and axonal damage. DA is known to block acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are proton-gated, voltage-insensitive, Na(+) permeable channels principally expressed by peripheral and central nervous system neurons. Our data suggest that ASICs activation during acidosis modulates network electrical activity and exacerbates neuro-degeneration in EAE mice. Therefore pharmacological modulation of ASICs in neuroinflammatory diseases could represent a new promising strategy for future therapies aimed at neuro-protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The C-terminal domains of NF-H and NF-M subunits maintain axonal neurofilament content by blocking turnover of the stationary neurofilament network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala V Rao

    Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.

  6. Comsat's TDMA traffic terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Bogaert, W. M.

    1985-06-01

    Comsat has installed two traffic terminals in the Etam earth-station and is currently installing a third in the new Roaring Creek earth-station to access the Intelsat TDMA network. This paper describes the Comsat TDMA traffic terminal equipment from the supergroup interface to the antenna. Comsat's 1: N redundancy approach for terrestrial interface equipment and DSI unit back-up is described as well as electrical path length, amplitude and group delay equalization techniques, special on-line RF monitoring and failure reporting facilities and the operation and maintenance center which can operate and perform diagnostic testing on up to four traffic terminals from a central location.

  7. TERMINATION OF THE DRUM MILLS’ ENGINE CAPACITY BY USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH SUBORDINATE INPUT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora HRISTOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A successful experiment has been done to train the neural network to determine the drum mills’ engine capacity by using the program „QwikNet 2.23”. As a result we get a trained neural network with a maximum error of 1.00619.10-5 which can be used for assessing the capacity of the electric motors of drum mills and can be considered an accurate mathematical model

  8. The functional role of post-movement beta oscillations in motor termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Kurz, Max J; Gehringer, James E; Wilson, Tony W

    2017-03-24

    Shortly after movement termination, there is a strong increase or resynchronization of the beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) across the sensorimotor network of humans, known as the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). This response has been associated with active inhibition of the motor network following the completion of a movement, sensory afferentation of the sensorimotor cortices, and other functions. However, studies that have directly probed the role of the PMBR in movement execution have reported mixed results, possibly due to differences in the amount of total motor output and/or movement complexity. Herein, we used magnetoencephalography during an isometric-force control task to examine whether alterations in the timing of motor termination demands modulate the PMBR, independent of differences in the motor output itself. Briefly, we manipulated the amount of time between the cue to initiate the force and the cue to terminate the force, such that participants were either forced to terminate quickly or slowly. We also performed a control experiment to test for temporal predictability effects. Our results indicated that the PMBR was stronger immediately following movement termination in the prefrontal cortices, supplementary motor area, left postcentral gyrus, paracentral lobule, and parietal cortex when participants were forced to terminate more quickly. These results were not attributable to the temporal predictability of each condition. These findings support the notion that the PMBR response at least partially serves motor inhibition, independent of the parameters within the motor output itself, and that particular nodes of the motor network may be differentially modulated by motor termination.

  9. 47 CFR 25.134 - Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. 25.134 Section 25.134 Telecommunication... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.134 Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. (a)(1) VSAT networks operating in the 12/14 GHz...

  10. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Teixeira Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For achieving the European renewable electricity targets, a significant contribution is foreseen to come from offshore wind energy. Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is desirable for several reasons. This article investigates a nine-node DC grid connecting three northern European countries — namely UK, The Netherlands and Germany. The power-flow control inside the multi-terminal DC grid based on voltage-source converters is achieved through a novel method, called distributed voltage control (DVC. In this method, an optimal power flow (OPF is solved in order to minimize the transmission losses in the network. The main contribution of the paper is the utilization of a genetic algorithm (GA to solve the OPF problem while maintaining an N-1 security constraint. After describing main DC network component models, several case studies illustrate the dynamic behavior of the proposed control method.

  11. An application of neural networks in microeconomics: input-output mapping in a power generation subsector of the US electricity industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erbas, B.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the artificial neural networks in economics and business goes back to 1950s, while the major bulk of the applications have been developed in more recent years. Reviewing this literature indicates that the field of business benefits from the neural networks in a wide spectrum from

  12. Embedding global barrier and collective in torus network with each node combining input from receivers according to class map for output to senders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Senger, Robert M; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E

    2013-08-27

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a global barrier and global interrupt network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. The computer system includes a multitude of nodes. In one embodiment, the method comprises taking inputs from a set of receivers of the nodes, dividing the inputs from the receivers into a plurality of classes, combining the inputs of each of the classes to obtain a result, and sending said result to a set of senders of the nodes. Embodiments of the invention provide a method, system and computer program product for embedding a collective network in a parallel computer system organized as a torus network. In one embodiment, the method comprises adding to a torus network a central collective logic to route messages among at least a group of nodes in a tree structure.

  13. Terminal Antennas in ACE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martinez-Vazquez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The ACE Network of Excellence was a European Commission funded Network of Excellence, which lasted from 2004 to 2007. One of the activities performed by this Network was in the frame of terminal antennas. In this activity, three aspects were covered in three projects: Small antenna technologies, small terminal antenna technologies and benchmarking of small terminal antennas measurement facilities. The overall aim was to identify the newest trends in antenna design and measurement for personal communications devices, and suggest novel solutions and design methodologies for various applications. The results of this work are presented in this paper.

  14. The Continuous Generation of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles during the Passage of the Solar Terminator, Observed with a Densely-Clustered Network of GPS Receivers in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhari, S. M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Abdullah, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Otsuka, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    Equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) are three-dimensional structures of depleted plasma density that are often observed in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. They are initiated near the magnetic dip equator, in the bottomside of the F layer, and develop with time, upward in altitude and poleward in latitude (into both hemispheres), taking the form of longitudinally-narrow, vertically-extended wedges that penetrate deep into the topside of the F layer. Moreover, these structures drift zonally as they evolve in time. Much of what is not yet known about EPBs stems from our inability (1) to capture spatial descriptions of these structures, and (2) to monitor their evolution as a function of time. An objective of this presentation is to report the existence and availability of total electron content (TEC) data from densely-clustered networks of GPS receivers that are capable of providing time-continuous descriptions of EPBs with both high spatial resolution and broad geographical coverage. The networks include the Malaysia Real-Time Kinematics GNSS Network (MyRTKnet), Sumatera GPS Array (SUGAR) network and International GNSS Service (IGS) located in Southeast Asia (SEA). These networks contain 127 GPS receivers with average spacing of about 50 to 100 km. With the ability to resolve space-time ambiguities, we are able to follow the temporal evolution of EPB structures over an extended longitude sector (90 to 120 degrees, East longitude). We will present results from a case study (April 5, 2011) in which 16 EPBs were detected in longitude and tracked in time. We show, for the first time, that the births of 10 out of 16 observed EPBs coincided with the time of passage of the solar terminator across the longitude of birth. The distance between birth locations varied between 100 and 550 km with 10-minute interval. These EPBs were found to persist for 50 minutes to 7 hours, while drifting eastward at a speed of 92 to 150 ms-1. The finding that as many as 16 EPBs can be

  15. One watt gallium arsenide class-E power amplifier with a thin-film bulk acoustic resonator filter embedded in the output network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Holzer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of a class-E power amplifier (PA and a thin-film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR filter is shown to provide high power added efficiency in addition to superior out-of-band spectrum suppression. A discrete gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor is implemented to operate as a class-E amplifier from 2496 to 2690 MHz. The ACPF7041 compact bandpass FBAR filter is incorporated to replace the resonant LC tank in a traditional class-E PA. To reduce drain voltage stress, the supply choke is replaced by a finite inductance. The fabricated PA provides up to 1 W of output power with a peak power added efficiency (PAE of 58%. The improved out-of-band spectrum filtering is compared to a traditional class-E with discrete LC resonant filtering. Such PAs can be combined with linearisation techniques to reduce out-of-band emissions.

  16. Terminating supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendosky, Alytia A; Hopwood, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    The focus of this paper is on the termination of clinical supervision. Although clinical supervision is considered the backbone of most mental health training programs, it gets relatively little theoretical or empirical attention. The termination of supervision has received even less attention. In this paper, we describe an approach to terminating supervision in our treatment team, which integrates intensive assessment with a relational perspective in a clinical science training program (Levendosky & Hopwood, 2016). We describe our established conceptual framework, review empirical evidence, and provide verbatim examples from final supervision meetings on our team to elaborate the importance of conceptualizing individual differences across trainees and parallels between supervision and psychotherapy dynamics. We conclude by emphasizing the need for research on supervision in general and supervision termination in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. EVA reactive blending with Si-H terminated polysiloxane by carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction: From compatibilised blends to crosslinking networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, J.; Bounor-Legare, V.; Alcouffe, P. [Universite de Lyon, 69003 Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5223, Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, 15 Boulevard Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Cassagnau, P., E-mail: philippe.cassagnau@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, 69003 Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, CNRS UMR5223, Ingenierie des Materiaux Polymeres, 15 Boulevard Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France)

    2012-10-15

    A new and original method based on carbonyl hydrosilylation was developed to prepare ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/polysiloxane polymer blends. This focused on the addition of hydrogenosilane groups (SiH) from polysiloxane to the carbonyl groups of EVA. The influence of the nature of the polysiloxane on blend properties was investigated by rheology and scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of a low viscosity polysiloxane with a high viscosity EVA matrix produced a two-phase morphology. The occurrence of the hydrosilylation reaction at the EVA/polysiloxane interface promoted a homogenisation of the blend depending on the molar ratio SiH/vinyl acetate groups, [SiH]/[VA], and the viscosity ratio of the blend. Two distinct behaviours were observed. The formation of a crosslinked network under shear was obtained for a low viscosity ratio between polysiloxane and EVA ({lambda}{sub polysiloxane/EVA} = 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}) with a high concentration of SiH groups ([SiH]/[VA] = 0.5), while the formation of a compatibilised blend was observed for high molar mass polysiloxanes (Mn > 15,000 g mol{sup -1}) with a low concentration of SiH ([SiH]/[VA] < 4.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbonyl hydrosilylation reaction was found to enhance EVA/polysiloxane immiscible blends. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EVA crosslinking was obtained with a low molar mass polysiloxane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EVA compatibilisation was obtained with a high molar mass polysiloxane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shear rate was found to improve the hydrosilylation reaction at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-phase morphology of the blends was observed after reaction with fine polysiloxane nodules.

  18. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  19. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  20. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  1. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  2. The Input-Output Relationship of the Cholinergic Basal Forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Gielow

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons influence cortical state, plasticity, learning, and attention. They collectively innervate the entire cerebral cortex, differentially controlling acetylcholine efflux across different cortical areas and timescales. Such control might be achieved by differential inputs driving separable cholinergic outputs, although no input-output relationship on a brain-wide level has ever been demonstrated. Here, we identify input neurons to cholinergic cells projecting to specific cortical regions by infecting cholinergic axon terminals with a monosynaptically restricted viral tracer. This approach revealed several circuit motifs, such as central amygdala neurons synapsing onto basolateral amygdala-projecting cholinergic neurons or strong somatosensory cortical input to motor cortex-projecting cholinergic neurons. The presence of input cells in the parasympathetic midbrain nuclei contacting frontally projecting cholinergic neurons suggest that the network regulating the inner eye muscles are additionally regulating cortical state via acetylcholine efflux. This dataset enables future circuit-level experiments to identify drivers of known cortical cholinergic functions.

  3. Terminal Ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the important issues of terminal ballistics in a comprehensive way combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. The first chapter reviews the experimental equipment which are used for ballistic tests and the diagnostics for material characterization under impulsive loading conditions. The second chapter covers essential features of the codes which are used for terminal ballistics such as the Euler vs. Lagrange schemes and meshing techniques, as well as the most popular material models. The third chapter, devoted to the penetration mechanics of rigid penetrators, brings the update of modeling in this field. The fourth chapter deals with plate perforation and the fifth chapter deals with the penetration mechanics of shaped charge jets and eroding long rods. The last two chapters discuss several techniques for the disruption and defeating of the main threats in armor design. Throughout the book the authors demonstrate the advantages of numerical simulations in unde...

  4. Computation of Locational and Hourly Maximum Output of a Distributed Generator Connected to a Distribution Feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Hanai, Yuji; Hosokawa, Shinpei; Kobayashi, Naoki

    Recently, the total number of distributed generation such as photovoltaic generation system and wind turbine generation system connected to distribution network is drastically increased. Distributed generation utilizing renewable energy can reduce the distribution loss and emission of CO2. However the distribution network with the distributed generators must be operated keeping reliability of power supply and power quality. In this paper, the authors propose a computation method to determine the maximum output of a distributed generator under the operational constrains ((1) voltage limit, (2) line current capacity, and (3) no reverse flow to bank) at arbitrary connection point and hourly period. In the proposed method, three-phase iterative load flow calculation is applied to evaluate the above operational constraints. Three-phase iterative load flow calculation has two simple procedures: (Procedure1) addition of load currents from terminal node of feeder to root one, and (Procedure2) subtraction of voltage drop from root node of feeder to terminal one. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical simulations are accomplished for a distribution system model. Furthermore, characteristics of locational and hourly maximum output of distributed generator connected to distribution feeder are analyzed by several numerical examples.

  5. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  6. Terminal ballistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Zvi

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively discusses essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data, numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added: one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.

  7. A Review of Communications Protocol for Intelligent Remote Terminal Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ruddin Ab. Ghani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed all the possible interfacing communication protocols for remote terminal unit (RTU. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA system is a central station that can communicate with other network using the protocol. Fundamentally, the architectures of all networks are based on the seven layers of open system interconnection (OSI and International Standard Organization (ISO. The objective of designing the protocols is to check the status of all the input and output field devices and send the report according to that status. The corresponding protocol and communication parameters between the connecting devices will be included in designing a complex SCADA system. The available protocols to develop the communication of RTU are Modbus/ASCII, distributed network protocol (DNP3, controller area network (CAN, International Electro-technical Commission (IEC 60870, transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP.

  8. Linking Simulation with Formal Verification and Modeling of Wireless Sensor Network in TLA+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyna, Jerzy

    In this paper, we present the results of the simulation of a wireless sensor network based on the flooding technique and SPIN protocols. The wireless sensor network was specified and verified by means of the TLA+ specification language [1]. For a model of wireless sensor network built this way simulation was carried with the help of specially constructed software tools. The obtained results allow us to predict the behaviour of the wireless sensor network in various topologies and spatial densities. Visualization of the output data enable precise examination of some phenomenas in wireless sensor networks, such as a hidden terminal, etc.

  9. Pareto evolution of gene networks: an algorithm to optimize multiple fitness objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, Aryeh; Francois, Paul; Siggia, Eric D

    2012-10-01

    The computational evolution of gene networks functions like a forward genetic screen to generate, without preconceptions, all networks that can be assembled from a defined list of parts to implement a given function. Frequently networks are subject to multiple design criteria that cannot all be optimized simultaneously. To explore how these tradeoffs interact with evolution, we implement Pareto optimization in the context of gene network evolution. In response to a temporal pulse of a signal, we evolve networks whose output turns on slowly after the pulse begins, and shuts down rapidly when the pulse terminates. The best performing networks under our conditions do not fall into categories such as feed forward and negative feedback that also encode the input-output relation we used for selection. Pareto evolution can more efficiently search the space of networks than optimization based on a single ad hoc combination of the design criteria.

  10. Moment of the Legal Termination of the Organization and/or Carrying out Gambling Which is Carried Out in the Information Communication Network Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris R. Avetisyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both for the legal doctrine, and for law enforcement the category "moment of the termination of a crime" is determined by the general concept of the moment of legal completion of criminal encroachment. In article the content of this category for the organization and carrying out the gamblings which are carried out on the Internet is specified. In the conclusion author concluds that the moment of the termination of the organization and carrying out gamblings out of a gambling zone should be regarded as an independent objective sign.

  11. CMAQv502 Base AQS Hourly site compare output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly AQS hourly site compare output files for the CMAQv502 Base simulation. Monthly files contain hourly paired model/ob data for the AQS network. These data were...

  12. Site compare scripts and output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Monthly site compare scripts and output used to generate the model/ob plots and statistics in the manuscript. The AQS hourly site compare output files are not...

  13. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 16. SATNET Development and Operation, Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance, Internet Development, Mobile Access Terminal Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    interfering with Etam and Goonhilly Satellite IMPs. After the speech demonstration, the Goonhilly transmitter had settled down, and we uncrosspatched...described below. 4 V Report No. 4342 Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. With the installation of the PSP terminals at Etam and Goonhilly and with the...at Clarksburg agrees with data measured simultaneously by Comsat personnel. We also enabled the function at Etam to examine its data, but until the

  14. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  15. Linearised model for PV panel power output variation with changes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... This equivalent resistance represents the load seen at the PV panel terminals. It is dependent on the actual power drawn by the system and the interfacing converter between the PV panels and the load. Thus it is a function of the converter duty ratio and load characteristics. Due to the disturbance, output ...

  16. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teixeira Pinto, R; Fragoso Roigues, S; Wiggelinkhuizen, E; Scherrer, R; Bauer, P; Pierik, P

    .... Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is desirable for several reasons...

  17. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0......Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...

  18. Termination Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce McCarl; Dhazn Gillig

    2004-01-07

    agricultural sequestration estimates were developed in conjunction with personnel at Colorado State University using CENTURY and analyses can operate under the use of agricultural soil carbon data from either the EPIC or CENTURY models. (4) A major effort was devoted to understanding the possible role and applicable actions from agriculture. Papers have been drafted from this as follows and are in the process of being finalized for publication. Lee, H.C., and B.A. McCarl, ''U.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration Over Time: An Economic Exploration,'' 2004. Lee, H.C., B.A. McCarl, and D. Gillig, ''The Dynamic Competitiveness of U.S. Agricultural and Forest Carbon Sequestration,'' 2004. (5) Results have been presented in front of a number of scientific and policy bodies. These include the CASMGS, Non CO2 Network, Energy Modeling Forum on the science side and the Government of Japan, the Council of Economic Advisors , DOE, USDA and EPA on the policy side. Input has also been provided to the IPCC design of the fourth assessment report. (6) Work was done with EPA and EIA to update the biofuel data and assumptions resulting in some now emerging results showing the criticality of biofuel assumptions.

  19. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  20. Serial Input Output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  1. Operation and Power Flow Control of Multi-Terminal DC Networks for Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Farms Using Genetic Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira Pinto, R.; Fragoso Rodrigues, S.; Wiggelinkhuizen, E.; Scherrer, R.; Bauer, P.; Pierik, P.

    2012-01-01

    For achieving the European renewable electricity targets, a significant contribution is foreseen to come from offshore wind energy. Considering the large scale of the future planned offshore wind farms and the increasing distances to shore, grid integration through a transnational DC network is

  2. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  3. Multi-Rate Secure Processor Terminal Architecture Study. Volume 1. Terminal Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    PROM via the D-bus. Outputs from the ALU pass over the Y-bus to either the MAR, MPR, the memory data write register (MDW), the data output port or the...Terminal Controller is contained in Volume II (classified) of this report. 3.5 Mechanical Packaging Concept The mechanical packaging aproach for the...primarily used to route data outputs from the ALU. There are four program selectable receivers on the Y Bus. 1. The Memory Data Write Register 2. The

  4. Intermodal freight terminals : terminal business planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart W.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for existing- and newly proposedinter-modal freight terminals in their business planning process. This framework is importantfor constructing- and improving the central terminal service portfolio of handling (loading,discharging, and

  5. Is Lake Tahoe Terminal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, R. N.; Reuter, J.; Heyvaert, A.; Lewis, J.; Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, G.; Thorne, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Tahoe, an iconic ultra-oligotrophic lake in the central Sierra Nevada, has been studied intensively since 1968, with the goal of understanding and ultimately controlling its eutrophication and loss of clarity. Research on the lake has included a) periodic profiles of primary productivity, nutrients, temperature, and plankton; b) Secchi depth; c) nutrient limitation experiments; d) analysis of sediment cores; e) radiocarbon dating of underwater in-place tree stumps; g) analysis of long-term temperature trends. Work in its watershed has included a) monitoring of stream discharge, sediment and nutrients at up to 20 stream gaging stations; b) monitoring of urban runoff water quality at selected sites; c) development of a GIS data base, including soils, vegetation, and land use. Based on these studies, we know that a) primary productivity in the lake is limited by phosphorus, and continues to increase; b) the loss of clarity continues, but at a declining rate; c) the lake has been warming since 1970, and its resistance to deep mixing is increasing; d) historically the lake level drops below the outlet elevation about one year in seven; e) 6300 to 4300 yrs BP lake level was below the present outlet elevation long enough for large trees to grow; f) the date of the peak snowmelt runoff is shifting toward earlier dates; g) after accounting for annual runoff, loads of nutrients and suspended sediment have declined significantly in some basin streams since 1980. Downscaled outputs from GCM climatic models have recently been used to drive hydrologic models and a lake clarity model, projecting future trends in the lake and watersheds. Results show a) the temperature and thermal stability will likely continue to increase, with deep mixing shutting down in the latter half of this century; b) the lake may drop below the outlet for an extended period beginning about 2085; c) the annual snowpack will continue to decline, with earlier snowmelt and shift from snowfall to rain; d

  6. pawg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data is good as of...

  8. pail Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  19. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This Excel 2010 file includes all terminated HUD Multifamily insured mortgages. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the time the mortgage was terminated. The data...

  20. kpub Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

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    Data.gov (United States)

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  17. kjst Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kgup Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. padl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. klit Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. kalb Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. kact Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kink Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. kshv Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  5. pajn Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. kpna Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  7. ktph Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  8. ksux Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  9. kcon Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  10. khio Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  11. konp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  12. kpnc Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  13. kmlu Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  14. kgsp Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  15. kgpt Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  16. kflo Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  17. keri Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  18. kcid Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  19. ksaf Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  20. kcvg Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  1. ptya Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  2. katl Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  3. kmth Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  4. Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ya Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.

  5. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  6. Intermodal freight terminals : terminal business planning

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Bart W Wiegmans

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to provide a framework for existing- and newly proposedinter-modal freight terminals in their business planning process. This framework is importantfor constructing- and improving the central terminal service portfolio of handling (loading,discharging, and transhipping) and storage of containerised cargo. Supportive activities (e.g. administration, customs) are taken into account as well.In particular, its aim is to investigate whether business planning offer...

  7. Blocking performance of a burst-outputted model considering different service rates and different output port-selected probabilities in an optical burst switching core node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Changyue, Jiana; He, Tingting; Mao, Tengyue; Yu, Jianwei; Lei, Bo

    2013-04-01

    In an optical burst switching core node, each output port is equipped with a different network interface unit that can provide a specific data rate. Bursts will use different probabilities of select output ports, which is in accordance to the path-length metric-based routing optimal algorithm and wavelength resource situation. Previous studies ignore this issue. We establish a burst-outputted model considering the different service rate of output ports and different port-selected probabilities. We calculate burst-blocking probability and analyze the relationship between service rate and output-port-selected probability in detail.

  8. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  9. 29 CFR 4043.24 - Termination or partial termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Termination or partial termination. 4043.24 Section 4043.24....24 Termination or partial termination. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs when the Secretary of the Treasury determines that there has been a termination or partial termination of a plan...

  10. Research on information security system of waste terminal disposal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Ziying; Guo, Jing; Guo, Yajuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Informatization has penetrated the whole process of production and operation of electric power enterprises. It not only improves the level of lean management and quality service, but also faces severe security risks. The internal network terminal is the outermost layer and the most vulnerable node of the inner network boundary. It has the characteristics of wide distribution, long depth and large quantity. The user and operation and maintenance personnel technical level and security awareness is uneven, which led to the internal network terminal is the weakest link in information security. Through the implementation of security of management, technology and physics, we should establish an internal network terminal security protection system, so as to fully protect the internal network terminal information security.

  11. Research management and research output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Bosch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A study was conducted at two merged South African higher education institutions to determine which management factors, as identified in a literature study as well as through a factor analysis of survey data, were predictive of the dependent variable 'research output'. Problem investigated: Research output contributes to creating sustainability of knowledge of management sciences and therefore the active management of research is in the interest of progressive universities. Research management related activities are usually associated with measurable targets, detailed plans, rigorous evaluation and decisive action - all of which are observable (perhaps programmable behaviour also referred to as tangible factors. Authors argue that the tangible factors of any successful institution can be copied, technology can be bought, and in theory you should have an instantly thriving research institution. It is, however, clear that although many institutions have exactly the same technology and structure as their successful competitors, they still fail to succeed in increasing research output. Design and Research methodology or approach: A survey was distributed to n=411 and yielded a 49.6% response rate. A confirmatory reliability analysis as well as a factor analysis was conducted. Findings/implications: The empirical model that was derived through a factor analysis strengthens the argument that both tangible and intangible factors exist in a research environment. Tangible and intangible factors play a different role in predicting research output. The tangible factors are predictors of research output for non-research-active academics. The theoretical research output prediction model highlights predictors such as 'professional activities' and 'individual skills and competence' for specific groupings. The theoretical model indicates that the factors that predict research output are largely intrinsic to a researcher but could also be supported by

  12. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  13. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  14. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  15. Organizational Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2011-01-01

    that a firm's percentage of unwanted customers decreases significantly as acceptance of termination increases, if the firm's definition of unwanted customers is well understood, and if a firm has clear termination routines. In addition, general focus on profitability and external constraints on relationship...

  16. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan

    2015-04-01

    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system.

  17. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. II - Macular neural network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Cutler, Lynn; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted reconstructions of small parts of the macular neural network show how the nerve terminals and receptive fields are organized in 3-dimensional space. This biological neural network is anatomically organized for parallel distributed processing of information. Processing appears to be more complex than in computer-based neural network, because spatiotemporal factors figure into synaptic weighting. Serial reconstruction data show anatomical arrangements which suggest that (1) assemblies of cells analyze and distribute information with inbuilt redundancy, to improve reliability; (2) feedforward/feedback loops provide the capacity for presynaptic modulation of output during processing; (3) constrained randomness in connectivities contributes to adaptability; and (4) local variations in network complexity permit differing analyses of incoming signals to take place simultaneously. The last inference suggests that there may be segregation of information flow to central stations subserving particular functions.

  18. Multiresolution Time-Domain Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines Terminated in Linear Loads

    OpenAIRE

    Zongliang Tong; Lei Sun; Ying Li; Luis Diaz Angulo; Salvador Gonzalez Garcia; Jianshu Luo

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives a multiresolution time-domain (MRTD) scheme for the multiconductor transmission line (MTL) equations based on Daubechies’ scaling functions. The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general description of the termination networks. For the linear load terminations, a method incorporating the terminal constraints is proposed to work out the scheme at and close to the terminations. The MRTD scheme is implemented with different basis fun...

  19. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  20. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  1. Phonological Learning with Output-Driven Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an output-driven map formally characterizes an intuitive notion about phonology: that disparities between the input and the output are introduced only to the extent necessary to satisfy restrictions on outputs. When all of the grammars definable in a phonological system are output-driven, the implied structure provides significant…

  2. Terminated Multifamily Mortgages Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes all terminated HUD Multifamily mortgages except those from the Hospital Mortgage Insurance Program. It includes the Holder and Servicer at the...

  3. Antecedents of Customer Relationship Termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    relationships as a managerial task. This paper contributes by (1) developing a conceptualization of relationship termination competence and (2) analyzing its antecedents. The empirical results identify termination acceptance, definition non-customers, organizational relationship termination routines...

  4. Public Safety Broadband Network Architecture Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    through roaming agreements o Clearinghouse IP eXchange o Satellite hub station o VSAT terminals o Transport network (backhaul) o Lawful intercept...Mobile Network VPN Virtual Private Network VQiPS Video Quality in Public Safety VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal WAN Wide Area Network Wi-Fi

  5. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  6. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  7. Improved Two-Terminal Silicon Functional Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A.; Aceves, M.

    The modelling of two-terminal silicon-based multi-layered functional photosensor that operates at low-voltage bias is presented. The devices developed do not require external active electronic components (transistors, microminiature circuits, etc) to execute their functions. Neither to transform analogue input optical signals to digital output form that is very important for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  8. MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation with a Novel Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional conductive method, where antennas on the device under test (DUT) are disconnected from antenna ports and replaced with radio frequency (RF) coaxial cables, has been dominantly utilized in industry to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. However, direct RF...

  9. Development of a terminal voltage stabilization system for the FOTIA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The low pass filter circuit conditions the signal by eliminating noise and high frequency component. This also helps in correcting the effect on output signal from GVM due to change in its rotational speed. In GVM control mode, the TVS controller generates an error signal by comparing the terminal voltage reading from the ...

  10. RC Oscillators with Two Operational Amplifiers with Precision Phase Shift between Two Outputs

    OpenAIRE

    Horsky, P.

    1996-01-01

    In some instruments oscillator with precision 90° phase shift of output signals is needed. In this article a new type of RC oscillators with precision 90° phase shift between two low impedance output signals is described. This phase shift does not depend on tolerances of RC networks used.

  11. Tabu Search Algorithm to Solve the Intermodal Terminal Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Karimi∗

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of appropriate terminals is effective as the main gate entrance to international, national and local transportation network for economic performance, traffic safety and reduction of environmental pollution. This paper focuses on intermodal terminal location problem. The main objective of this problem is to determine which of the terminals of a set of candidate terminals should be opened such that the total cost be minimized. In this problem, demands of customers will ship directly (without the use of terminals between the origin and destination of customers, or intermodaly (by using two terminals or even by combination of both methods. Since this problem is NP-hard, metaheuristics algorithms such as tabu search (TS is used to solve it. The algorithm is compared with greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP on instance of this problem. Results show the efficiency of TS in comparision with GRASP.

  12. Combined Quarterly Technical Report Number 27. SATNET Development and Operation, Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance, Internet Operations and Maintenance, Mobile Access Terminal Network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP for VAX-UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    ARPANET was created at DCEC, and the circuit between the DCEC gateway and the Etam Satellite IMP was made operational. As part of the upgrading of all...Packet Satellite Project (PSP) terminals in SATNET, we supported COMSAT in replacing the PSP terminals at Etam , Goonhilly, and Tanum with 2nd...include a 50 Kb/s terrestrial circuit between the Etam Satellite IMP and the SDAC ARPANET IMP, a 9.6 Kb/s terrestrial circuit between the Goonhilly

  13. Termination factor Rho: From the control of pervasive transcription to cell fate determination in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Pierre; Repoila, Francis; Bardowski, Jacek; Aymerich, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotes, RNA species originating from pervasive transcription are regulators of various cellular processes, from the expression of individual genes to the control of cellular development and oncogenesis. In prokaryotes, the function of pervasive transcription and its output on cell physiology is still unknown. Most bacteria possess termination factor Rho, which represses pervasive, mostly antisense, transcription. Here, we investigate the biological significance of Rho-controlled transcription in the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Rho inactivation strongly affected gene expression in B. subtilis, as assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of a rho–null mutant during exponential growth in rich medium. Subsequent physiological analyses demonstrated that a considerable part of Rho-controlled transcription is connected to balanced regulation of three mutually exclusive differentiation programs: cell motility, biofilm formation, and sporulation. In the absence of Rho, several up-regulated sense and antisense transcripts affect key structural and regulatory elements of these differentiation programs, thereby suppressing motility and biofilm formation and stimulating sporulation. We dissected how Rho is involved in the activity of the cell fate decision-making network, centered on the master regulator Spo0A. We also revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of Spo0A activation through Rho-dependent intragenic transcription termination of the protein kinase kinB gene. Altogether, our findings indicate that distinct Rho-controlled transcripts are functional and constitute a previously unknown built-in module for the control of cell differentiation in B. subtilis. In a broader context, our results highlight the recruitment of the termination factor Rho, for which the conserved biological role is probably to repress pervasive transcription, in highly integrated, bacterium-specific, regulatory networks. PMID:28723971

  14. Coal terminal guide 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    IBJ`s third edition of its annual guide to the world`s multi-user coal terminals includes comprehensive details of terminals in 44 countries. The guide sets out information for rapid and easy reference comprising contact, full address and communication details as well as berth dimensions and constraints, loading equipment and daily loading rate, annual loading capacity, daily discharge rate, annual discharge capacity, annual throughput capacity, storage facilities, stockyard capacity and equipment, processing facilities and so on. All information has been compiled from specific questionnaires and is presented alphabetically in country order.

  15. Windows Terminal Servers Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiec, Sebastian; Gaspar, Ricardo; Smith, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Windows Terminal Servers provide application gateways for various parts of the CERN accelerator complex, used by hundreds of CERN users every day. The combination of new tools such as Puppet, HAProxy and Microsoft System Center suite enable automation of provisioning workflows to provide a terminal server infrastructure that can scale up and down in an automated manner. The orchestration does not only reduce the time and effort necessary to deploy new instances, but also facilitates operations such as patching, analysis and recreation of compromised nodes as well as catering for workload peaks.

  16. EXTREME AND TERMINAL STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Author brings modern conception of extreme and terminal states, their types, likenesses and differences, etiology, key common chains of pathogenesis, principles and methods of their treatment. Pathophysiological data on one of extreme states — collapse — is described in details. Next publications will present the data on shock and coma.Key words: extreme and terminal states, vicious circle of pathogenesis, extreme regulation, principles of treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:74-80

  17. Electrical termination techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, W. E.; Schleicher, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    A technical review of high reliability electrical terminations for electronic equipment was made. Seven techniques were selected from this review for further investigation, experimental work, and preliminary testing. From the preliminary test results, four techniques were selected for final testing and evaluation. These four were: (1) induction soldering, (2) wire wrap, (3) percussive arc welding, and (4) resistance welding. Of these four, induction soldering was selected as the best technique in terms of minimizing operator errors, controlling temperature and time, minimizing joint contamination, and ultimately producing a reliable, uniform, and reusable electrical termination.

  18. Terminal oxidases of cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S E; Schlarb-Ridley, B G; Bendall, D S; Howe, C J

    2005-08-01

    The respiratory chain of cyanobacteria appears to be branched rather than linear; furthermore, respiratory and photosynthetic electron-transfer chains co-exist in the thylakoid membrane and even share components. This review will focus on the three types of terminal respiratory oxidases identified so far on a genetic level in cyanobacteria: aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase, cytochrome bd-quinol oxidase and the alternative respiratory terminal oxidase. We summarize here their genetic, biochemical and biophysical characterization to date and discuss their interactions with electron donors as well as their physiological roles.

  19. Control design for a wind turbine-generator using output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, S. H.; Murdoch, A.; Winkelman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and approach to control design for a large horizontal axis wind turbine (WT) generator are presented. The control design is based on a suboptimal output regulator which allows coordinated control of WT blade pitch angle and field voltage for the purposes of regulating electrical power and terminal voltage. Results of detailed non-linear simulation tests of this controller are shown.

  20. Mathematics and the Heart: Understanding Cardiac Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champanerkar, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates a biological application of the concepts of relative change and area under a curve, from mathematics. We study two biological measures "relative change in cardiac output" and "cardiac output", which are predictors of heart blockages and other related ailments. Cardiac output refers to the quantity of…

  1. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  2. Settings for Terminal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corless, Inge B.

    1988-01-01

    Examines topics related to delivery of terminal care services: ability of various hospice programs to survive financially, contributions of various models of hospice care, impact of Medicare legislation on hospice movement, demonstration of unique hospice intervention, integration of spiritual care into hospice, and role of hospice in care of…

  3. Termination of protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M F; Stansfield, I

    1994-05-01

    One of three mRNA codons--UAA, UAG and UGA--is used to signal to the elongating ribosome that translation should be terminated at this point. Upon the arrival of the stop codon at the ribosomal acceptor(A)-site, a protein release factor (RF) binds to the ribosome resulting in the peptidyl transferase centre of the ribosome switching to a hydrolytic function to remove the completed polypeptide chain from the peptidyl-tRNA bound at the adjacent ribosomal peptidyl(P)-site. In this review recent advances in our understanding of the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli will be summarised, paying particular attention to the roles of 16S ribosomal RNA and the release factors RF-1, RF-2 and RF-3 in stop codon recognition. Our understanding of the translation termination process in eukaryotes is much more rudimentary with the identity of the single eukaryotic release factor (eRF) still remaining elusive. Finally, several examples of how the termination mechanism can be subverted either to expand the genetic code (e.g. selenocysteine insertion at UGA codons) or to regulate the expression of mammalian retroviral or plant viral genomes will be discussed.

  4. Making Wireless Terminals Simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Popovski, Petar; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The exponential growth of user demands and the limitations of 3G systems have brought researchers and industry to propose solutions for the next generation. Among the requirements are higher bit rates and cheaper deployment. In this paper we focus on a terminal complexity problem related to channel...

  5. Electric Vehicles Charging Scheduling Strategy Considering the Uncertainty of Photovoltaic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangxiang; Su, Su; Yue, Yunli; Wang, Wei; He, Luobin; Li, Hao; Ota, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    The rapid development of electric vehicles and distributed generation bring new challenges to security and economic operation of the power system, so the collaborative research of the EVs and the distributed generation have important significance in distribution network. Under this background, an EVs charging scheduling strategy considering the uncertainty of photovoltaic(PV) output is proposed. The characteristics of EVs charging are analysed first. A PV output prediction method is proposed with a PV database then. On this basis, an EVs charging scheduling strategy is proposed with the goal to satisfy EVs users’ charging willingness and decrease the power loss in distribution network. The case study proves that the proposed PV output prediction method can predict the PV output accurately and the EVs charging scheduling strategy can reduce the power loss and stabilize the fluctuation of the load in distributed network.

  6. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  7. The Simulation and Study of the Operating System Efficiency Improvement of a Container Terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Di; Wu Shuang; Sun Gui Zhi

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of Chinese container terminal throughput, each container terminal increasingly pays attention to the operational efficiency of storage yard. In this paper, aim at the problem of excessive containers relocation assignments to establish the slotting optimization allocation model, and verify the validity of the model by using Matlab; Using tandem queuing network modeling to build model of the container terminal operating system,and simulate the container terminal logisti...

  8. Dynamic coupling design for nonlinear output agreement and time-varying flow control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buerger, Mathias; De Persis, Claudio

    This paper studies the problem of output agreement in networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances, using dynamic diffusive couplings. Necessary conditions are derived for general networks of nonlinear systems, and these conditions are explicitly interpreted as conditions

  9. Specifying Orchestrating Capability in Network Organization and Interfirm Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull

    implements its blue ocean strategy through purposively build multi-level networks, i.e. an intra network organization and interfirm innovation networks. In order to get more innovation output from external and internal networks, orchestration capability is needed and should be applied both externally...

  10. Ice age terminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-09

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  11. Equilibrium and Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a reduction of the termination problem for a Turing machine (in the simplified form of the Post correspondence problem to the problem of determining whether a continuous-time Markov chain presented as a set of Kappa graph-rewriting rules has an equilibrium. It follows that the problem of whether a computable CTMC is dissipative (ie does not have an equilibrium is undecidable.

  12. Coal terminal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    Malaysia is building the necessary infrastructure to cope with an increasing demand for electricity. Its restructured energy policy has led to construction of the 2,100 MW Manjung coal-fired power plant in the state of Perak, for which coal has to be imported via the new Lekiv Bulk Terminal (LBT) adjacent to the plant. Contracts for the LBC and the TNBJ coal stockyard were awarded to the Koch Consortium. The article describes equipment for handling and storing coal. 4 photos.

  13. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    OpenAIRE

    Yongsheng Xu; Guowu Yang; Zhengwei Chang; Desheng Zheng; Wensheng Guo

    2014-01-01

    Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE) is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE) and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC), Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC), Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC), and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC). SMC, NMC, and FMC have been...

  14. Output order in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lydia; Ward, Geoff

    2007-07-01

    In two experiments, we examined the effect of output order in immediate serial recall (ISR). In Experiment 1, three groups of participants saw lists of eight words and wrote down the words in the rows corresponding to their serial positions in an eight-row response grid. One group was precued to respond in forward order, a second group was precued to respond in any order, and a third group was postcued for response order. There were significant effects of output order, but not of cue type. Relative to the forward output order, the free output order led to enhanced recency and diminished primacy, with superior performance for words output early in recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 2 using six-item lists, which further suggests that output order plays an important role in the primacy effect in ISR and that the recency items are most highly accessible at recall.

  15. Cointegration of output, capital, labor, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kã¼mmel, R.

    2008-11-01

    Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.

  16. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. High output piezo/triboelectric hybrid generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric...

  18. Electrical gating and rectification in graphene three-terminal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Händel, B. [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); FG Festkörperelektronik, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Hähnlein, B. [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Göckeritz, R. [FG Nanostrukturierte Materialien, Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schwierz, F. [FG Festkörperelektronik, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Pezoldt, J., E-mail: joerg.pezoldt@tu-ilmenau.de [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Graphene was grown on semiinsulating silicon carbide at 1800 °C and atmospheric argon pressure. The all carbon T- and Y-shape three terminal junction devices were fabricated using electron beam lithography. All devices featured the negative rectification effect. The exact properties of the devices like the curvature of the output voltage response can be tuned by changing the branch width in the T- and Y-shape devices. Beside the rectification a switching behavior is demonstrated with the same three terminal junctions.

  19. The Ethics of Terminal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agich, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Need for a critical and analytical approach to ethics of terminal care is suggested by considering a series of unexamined questions regarding justification of terminal care. If terminal care is a moral and ethical enterprise, such considerations must be given a more prominent place in discussions of the hospice movement. (Author)

  20. Universal Voltage Conveyor and its Novel Dual-Output Fully-Cascadable VM APF Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Herencsar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a novel realization of a voltage-mode (VM first-order all-pass filter (APF with attractive features. The proposed circuit employs a single readily available six-terminal active device called as universal voltage conveyor (UVC and only grounded passive components, which predict its easy monolithic integration with desired circuit simplicity. The auxiliary voltage input (W and output (ZP, ZN terminals of the device fully ensure easy cascadability of VM APF, since the input and output terminal impedances are theoretically infinitely high and zero, respectively. Moreover, thanks to mutually inverse outputs of the UVC, the proposed filter simultaneously provides both inverting and non-inverting outputs from the same configuration. All of these features make the UVC a unique active device currently available in the literature. The behavior of the filter was experimentally measured using the readily available UVC-N1C 0520 chip, which was produced in cooperation with ON Semiconductor Czech Republic, Ltd.

  1. Loss and terminal illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, J Q

    1985-06-01

    The experience of terminal illness can best be viewed as a situation of multiple losses involving the dying person, family members and friends, and the health care providers engaged in offering services to them. It is a major transition during which the central participants must cope with the personal meanings of the forthcoming death as well as other losses brought about by the disease process, medical treatments, and the need to provide care for the dying person. How families adapt to the stresses and changes imposed by the experience of living with dying depends on their previous experiences with death, their established patterns of communication about serious matters, and their decision-making practices. Some individuals and families are at greater risk than others for developing maladaptive responses and behaviors during and after the experience of terminal illness. Risk factors to be considered in making hypotheses about the potential for maladaptive reactions include the strength of the attachment to the dying person, uncontrollable and distressing symptoms, and coping limitations associated with age and other factors contributing to increased vulnerability to the demands of continuous change. Working effectively with different kinds of families during the transition of terminal illness can best be accomplished within a conceptual framework built upon knowledge about people undergoing change. The concept of safe conduct can serve as an overall guide for the creation of nursing services designed to offer personalized care and accessibility of professional help at times of maximum need by the family. Assisting dying patients and their families toward the achievement of their personal goals is fundamental to the idea of safe conduct. The delivery of nursing care in terminal illness requires an orientation to assessment as an ongoing process that makes use of knowledge about disease processes, medical treatments, individual and group adaptations to loss, risk

  2. NetAcet: prediction of N-terminal acetylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiemer, Lars; Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Blom, Nikolaj

    2005-01-01

    Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N-acetylation for ......Summary: We present here a neural network based method for prediction of N-terminal acetylation-by far the most abundant post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The method was developed on a yeast dataset for N-acetyltransferase A (NatA) acetylation, which is the type of N...

  3. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  4. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  5. Probability output modeling for support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Xiao, Xiaoling; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we propose an approach to model the posterior probability output of multi-class SVMs. The sigmoid function is used to estimate the posterior probability output in binary classification. This approach modeling the posterior probability output of multi-class SVMs is achieved by directly solving the equations that are based on the combination of the probability outputs of binary classifiers using the Bayes's rule. The differences and different weights among these two-class SVM classifiers, based on the posterior probability, are considered and given for the combination of the probability outputs among these two-class SVM classifiers in this method. The comparative experiment results show that our method achieves the better classification precision and the better probability distribution of the posterior probability than the pairwise couping method and the Hastie's optimization method.

  6. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  7. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed.

  8. Measuring Potential Output and Output Gap and Macroeconomic Policy: The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica E. Njuguna; Stephen N. Karingi; Mwangi S. Kimenyi

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the level of an economy.s potential output and output gap are essential in identifying a sustainable non-inflationary growth and assessing appropriate macroeconomic policies. The estimation of potential output helps to determine the pace of sustainable growth while output gap estimates provide a key benchmark against which to assess inflationary or disinflationary pressures suggesting when to tighten or ease monetary policies. These measures also help to provide a gauge in the deter...

  9. Single-Input Six-Output Voltage-Mode Filter Using Universal Voltage Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarcik, Martin; Vrba, Kamil

    In this letter a new structure of multifunctional frequency filter using a universal voltage conveyor (UVC) is presented. The multifunctional circuit can realize a low-pass, high-pass and band-pass filter. All types of frequency filter can be realized as inverting or non-inverting. Advantages of the proposed structure are the independent control of the quality factor at the cut-off frequency and the low output impedance of output terminals. The computer simulations and measuring of particular frequency filters are depicted.

  10. Frequency domain model for analysis of paralleled, series-output-connected Mapham inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.; Button, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    The Mapham resonant inverter is characterized as a two-port network driven by a selected periodic voltage. The two-port model is then used to model a pair of Mapham inverters connected in series and employing phasor voltage regulation. It is shown that the model is useful for predicting power output in paralleled inverter units, and for predicting harmonic current output of inverter pairs, using standard power flow techniques. Some examples are compared to data obtained from testing hardware inverters.

  11. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  12. Multiresolution Time-Domain Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines Terminated in Linear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongliang Tong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives a multiresolution time-domain (MRTD scheme for the multiconductor transmission line (MTL equations based on Daubechies’ scaling functions. The terminations are characterized by a state-variable formulation which allows a general description of the termination networks. For the linear load terminations, a method incorporating the terminal constraints is proposed to work out the scheme at and close to the terminations. The MRTD scheme is implemented with different basis functions for linear components including resistances, inductances, and capacitances. Numerical results show that the MRTD schemes obtain a more stable result than the conventional finite difference time-domain (FDTD method with a coarse space step.

  13. The Simulation and Study of the Operating System Efficiency Improvement of a Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Di

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid expansion of Chinese container terminal throughput, each container terminal increasingly pays attention to the operational efficiency of storage yard. In this paper, aim at the problem of excessive containers relocation assignments to establish the slotting optimization allocation model, and verify the validity of the model by using Matlab; Using tandem queuing network modeling to build model of the container terminal operating system,and simulate the container terminal logistics system by Witness. It can provide a reference for efficiency improvement of the container terminal operating system.

  14. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  15. Time-Response Functions of Mechanical Networks with Inerters and Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Makris, Nicos

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives the causal time-response functions of three-parameter mechanical networks that have been reported in the literature and involve the inerter-a two-node element in which the force-output is proportional to the relative acceleration of its end-nodes. This two-terminal device is the mechanical analogue of the capacitor in a force-current/velocity-voltage analogy. The paper shows that all frequency-response functions that exhibit singularities along the real frequency axis need ...

  16. 77 FR 38817 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct...

  17. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  18. Adaptive output feedback control of flexible systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bong-Jun

    Neural network-based adaptive output feedback approaches that augment a linear control design are described in this thesis, and emphasis is placed on their real-time implementation with flexible systems. Two different control architectures that are robust to parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics are presented. The unmodelled effects can consist of minimum phase internal dynamics of the system together with external disturbance process. Within this context, adaptive compensation for external disturbances is addressed. In the first approach, internal model-following control, adaptive elements are designed using feedback inversion. The effect of an actuator limit is treated using control hedging, and the effect of other actuation nonlinearities, such as dead zone and backlash, is mitigated by a disturbance observer-based control design. The effectiveness of the approach is illustrated through simulation and experimental testing with a three-disk torsional system, which is subjected to control voltage limit and stiction. While the internal model-following control is limited to minimum phase systems, the second approach, external model-following control, does not involve feedback linearization and can be applied to non-minimum phase systems. The unstable zero dynamics are assumed to have been modelled in the design of the existing linear controller. The laboratory tests for this method include a three-disk torsional pendulum, an inverted pendulum, and a flexible-base robot manipulator. The external model-following control architecture is further extended in three ways. The first extension is an approach for control of multivariable nonlinear systems. The second extension is a decentralized adaptive control approach for large-scale interconnected systems. The third extension is to make use of an adaptive observer to augment a linear observer-based controller. In this extension, augmenting terms for the adaptive observer can be used to achieve adaptation in

  19. Enhanced output entanglement with reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Bo

    2017-11-01

    We study the output entanglement in a three-mode optomechanical system via reservoir engineering by shifting the center frequency of filter function away from resonant frequency. We find the bandwidth of the filter function can suppress the entanglement in the vicinity of resonant frequency of the system, while the entanglement will become strong if the center frequency departs from the resonant frequency. We obtain the approximate analytical expressions of the output entanglement, from which we give the optimal center frequency at which the entanglement takes the maximum. Furthermore, we study the effects of time delay between the two output fields on the output entanglement, and obtain the optimal time delay for the case of large filter bandwidth.

  20. Output filters for AC adjustable speed drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Hanigovszki, Norbert; Landkildehus, Jorn, Jorn

    2007-01-01

    The standard industrial solution for adjustable speed drives (ASD) is the use of induction motors (IM) fed by voltage-source inverters (VSI). The inverter generates a pulsewidth modulated (PWM) voltage, with dv/dt values of about 6 kV/¿s or even more. In three-leg inverters for three......-phase applications the occurrence of common-mode (CM) voltage is inherent due to asymmetrical output pulses [1]. Consequently, several secondary effects arise at the inverter's output: high-frequency conducted and radiated emissions, leakage current, motor insulation stress due to wave reflection [2], bearing stress...... due to bearing currents, acoustic switching noise. Depending on the specific application, the mitigation of some of these effects (or all) might be necessary. The common solution for mitigating the secondary effects at the output of PWM-VSI is the use of output filters [3],[5],[6]. Several types...

  1. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  2. Inhibition of human pancreatic and biliary output but not intestinal motility by physiological intraileal lipid loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Jutta; Holst, Jens Juul; Layer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Lipid perfusion into the distal ileal lumen at supraphysiological loads inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastrointestinal motility in humans. In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of physiological postprandial intraileal lipid concentrations on endogenously stimulated....... Physiological postprandial ileal lipid concentrations dose dependently inhibited human digestive pancreatic protease and bile acid output, but not intestinal motor activity. Thus physiological postprandial ileal nutrient exposure may be of importance for the termination of digestive secretory responses...

  3. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  4. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  5. Scalable Hierarchical Network Management System for Displaying Network Information in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jude (Inventor); Schlecht, Leslie (Inventor); McCabe, James D. (Inventor); LeKashman, John Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A network management system has SNMP agents distributed at one or more sites, an input output module at each site, and a server module located at a selected site for communicating with input output modules, each of which is configured for both SNMP and HNMP communications. The server module is configured exclusively for HNMP communications, and it communicates with each input output module according to the HNMP. Non-iconified, informationally complete views are provided of network elements to aid in network management.

  6. Stochastic Pooling Networks

    OpenAIRE

    McDonnell, Mark D; Amblard, Pierre-Olivier; Stocks, Nigel G.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce and define the concept of a stochastic pooling network (SPN), as a model for sensor systems where redundancy and two forms of 'noise' -- lossy compression and randomness -- interact in surprising ways. Our approach to analyzing SPNs is information theoretic. We define an SPN as a network with multiple nodes that each produce noisy and compressed measurements of the same information. An SPN must combine all these measurements into a single further compressed network output, in a w...

  7. Terminal Satisfiability in GSTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized symbolic trajectory evaluation (GSTE is an extension of symbolic trajectory evaluation (STE and a method of model checking. GSTE specifications are given as assertion graphs. There are four efficient methods to verify whether a circuit model obeys an assertion graph in GSTE, Model Checking Strong Satisfiability (SMC, Model Checking Normal Satisfiability (NMC, Model Checking Fair Satisfiability (FMC, and Model Checking Terminal Satisfiability (TMC. SMC, NMC, and FMC have been proved and applied in industry, but TMC has not. This paper gives a six-tuple definition and presents a new algorithm for TMC. Based on these, we prove that our algorithm is sound and complete. It solves the SMC’s limitation (resulting in false negative without extending from finite specification to infinite specification. At last, a case of using TMC to verify a realistic hardware circuit round-robin arbiter is achieved. Avoiding verifying the undesired paths which are not related to the specifications, TMC makes it possible to reduce the computational complexity, and the experimental results suggest that the time cost by SMC is 3.14× with TMC in the case.

  8. Acetylene-Terminated Polyimide Siloxanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair, Terry L.; Maudgal, Shubba

    1987-01-01

    Siloxane-containing addition polyimides yield toughened high-temperature adhesives and matrix resins. Addition polyimide made by reaction of aromatic tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride with aromatic diamine in presence of ethynyl-substituted aromatic monoamine. Acetylene-terminated siloxane imide cured by heating to yield acetylene-terminated polyimide siloxane.

  9. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  10. 78 FR 16476 - Notice for Termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE Standard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... chosen provider inside or outside the network, and would have access to disease specific educational... of the Secretary Notice for Termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE... Activity, DoD. ACTION: Notice for termination of a Disease Management Demonstration Project for TRICARE...

  11. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  12. MOBILE MULTIMEDIA TERMINAL IN TRANSFUSION PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Meža

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the administrative errors in the transfusion chain between the blood donor and the patient, transfusion errors still occur. Usually, they are caused by the misidentifications of the patient, his blood samples and respective blood components. A reliable identification can only be reached by an appropriate informatization of the whole process by implementation of information networks and communication technologies.Methods. An information system covering all modern standards of safety and enabling integrity of patient records as well as faster and efficient transfusion was prepared. The system is enabling the rational use of the blood as well as assuring the obligatory haemoviligilance, as foreseen by the current law. The whole system is modular, consisting of terminals, supportive equipment, networking systems and servers. Additional hardware are the electronic code bar readers. Mobile terminals (Palm Pocket PCs are wirelessly connected to the data network using the IEEE 802.11b WLAN technology in a wireless connection. All elements are included into the communication network with the servers contain data bases of blood donors, blood components and the patients; they execute the algorithms of the blood transfusion process support and enable the authentication. At the same time they enable the corresponding interfaces adapted to the users and terminals. For the connection of elements, corresponding interfaces are used.Results. The application is supporting the whole system of ordering, issuing and transfusion of a blood component. Its main characteristics are the bar-coded wristband for patient identification, coding of the blood samples with the same bar code that is unmistakably connected with the patient, and electronic ordering of blood component via a handheld device at the patient’s side. By means of which identity of the patient and the blood component can be matched right before the intended transfusion. Similarly, the

  13. Adaptive Neural Control for a Class of Outputs Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an adaptive neural control for a class of outputs time-delay nonlinear systems with perturbed or no. Based on RBF neural networks, the radius basis function (RBF neural networks is employed to estimate the unknown continuous functions. The proposed control guarantees that all closed-loop signals remain bounded. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  14. Energy efficient design for MIMO two-way AF multiple relay networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper studies the energy efficient transmission and the power allocation problem for multiple two-way relay networks equipped with multi-input multi-output antennas where each relay employs an amplify-and-forward strategy. The goal is to minimize the total power consumption without degrading the quality of service of the terminals. In our analysis, we start by deriving closed-form expressions of the optimal powers allocated to terminals. We then employ a strong optimization tool based on the particle swarm optimization technique to find the optimal power allocated at each relay antenna. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of the proposed scheme and show that it achieves a sub-optimal solution very close to the optimal one.

  15. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  16. Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Using a Single LC Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Lim, Sok Wei; Gao, Feng

    2007-01-01

    Three-level Z-source inverters are recent single-stage topological solutions proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with all favorable advantages of three-level switching retained. Despite their effectiveness in achieving voltage buck-boost conversion, existing three-level Z-source inverters use...... three-level Z-source inverters, whose output voltage can be stepped down or up using only a single LC impedance network connected between the dc input source and either a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) or dc-link cascaded inverter circuitry. Through careful design of their modulation scheme, both inverters...... can function with the minimum of six device commutations per half carrier cycle (similar to that needed by a traditional buck three-level NPC inverter), while producing the correct volt-sec average and inductive voltage boosting at their ac output terminals. Physically, the designed modulation scheme...

  17. Near continuous cardiac output by thermodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J R; Johnson, R W; Yan, J Y; Verdouw, P D

    1997-07-01

    A new thermodilution method for frequent (near continuous) estimation of cardiac output, without manual injection of fluid into the blood, was tested. The method utilizes a pulmonary artery catheter equipped with a fluid filled heat exchanger. The technique is based on cyclic cooling of the blood in the right atrium and measurement of the temperature changes in the pulmonary artery. Using this technique, a new estimate of cardiac output can be obtained every 32 s. Cardiac output estimates, obtained for a running mean of three measurements with this method, were compared to the mean of three conventional thermodilution measurements. The measurements were obtained during short periods of stable respiration and circulation. In six pigs, we made 46 paired measurements of conventional thermodilution (TD) and near continuous (TDc) thermodilution. The cardiac output (COTD) ranged from 2.4-13.7 l/min (mean 5.4 l/min). The best linear fit through the paired data points was COTDc = -0.57 + 1.01 COTD. The mean difference between the methods was -0.50 l/min (S.D. = 0.39). The mean coefficient of variation of repeated measurements with the near continuous thermodilution was 3.6%. Considering changes of more than 0.25 l/min to be significant, all changes in cardiac output measured by conventional thermodilution were followed by the running mean of three near continuous thermodilution estimates. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the new method to monitor cardiac output, and to detect all changes greater than 0.25 l/min.

  18. Ports and Terminals : Planning and Functional Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenveld, R.; Velsink, H.

    1993-01-01

    1. Maritime transport, means and commodities 3. Principles of integrated port planning 4. Planning and design of a port's water areas 5. Port terminals - introduction 6. Conventional general cargo terminals 7. Container terminals 8. Oil & liquid gas terminals 9. Dry bulk cargo terminals 10. Fishery

  19. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  20. a mathematical model for predicting output in an oilfield in the niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    6], developed. Multicyclic ... oil and gas producing industry in Nigeria for two years. The framework of this study was the identification of .... [4] Zhu, S.C and Zhao, X “Application of Artificial Neural. Network in the Prediction of Output in Oilfield,”.

  1. 26 CFR 1.141-7 - Special rules for output facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transmission network, the use of aggregate load and load share ratios in a manner consistent with the... business use. (h) Allocations of output facilities and systems—(1) Facts and circumstances analysis... an electric generating facility of a size sufficient to take advantage of the economies of scale. H...

  2. SATNET Development and Operation. Pluribus Satellite IMP Development, Remote Site Maintenance. Internet Development. Mobile Access Terminal Network, TCP for the HP3000, TCP-TAC, TCP for VAX-UNIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    0111 8.6.6 Timeouts.. ... c..ec. * e c c cc.c c. cc...0 . ... 111l 8.7 Transmission Control Protocolo .0*00*0. *0.. .. 0,,,. 112 8.7.1 Connection...for the development of a low-cost Wideband Packet Satellite Network Node. The underlying attraction of this approach is its use of existing familiar ...attempting to develop novel approaches to the solution of these problems. These staff members must, of course, be fully familiar with the current methods

  3. A study of potential output and output gap in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Adamec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic cycle is of enormous importance for monitoring economic output and explaining price and wage inflation. It provides essential information for shaping economic and monetary policy of central authorities. Several methods are currently available to estimate potential output and output gap. In the current study, methods of Hodrick-Prescott filter and Cobb-Douglas production function were implemented to estimate potential output, which cannot be empirically observed. For the purpose of comparing the above methods, quarterly and annual time series of real GDP, labour and gross fixed capital starting in 1996 were used for estimation of the output gap. Relative contributions of labour, fixed capital formation and technology improvement factor towards growth of potential output were quantified for the studied series. The Cobb-Douglas production function appears to be superior to Hodrick-Prescott filter in providing quality estimates of potential output. Hodrick-Prescott filter allows estimation of potential output; nevertheless, it fails to identify components of cyclic behaviour of economic activity. Cobb-Douglas production function describes level of potential product assuming average utilization of production factors. A detailed analysis of components of economic growth in the observed period is provided.

  4. Optimal Output of Distributed Generation Based On Complex Power Increment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Bao, H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to meet the growing demand for electricity and improve the cleanliness of power generation, new energy generation, represented by wind power generation, photovoltaic power generation, etc has been widely used. The new energy power generation access to distribution network in the form of distributed generation, consumed by local load. However, with the increase of the scale of distribution generation access to the network, the optimization of its power output is becoming more and more prominent, which needs further study. Classical optimization methods often use extended sensitivity method to obtain the relationship between different power generators, but ignore the coupling parameter between nodes makes the results are not accurate; heuristic algorithm also has defects such as slow calculation speed, uncertain outcomes. This article proposes a method called complex power increment, the essence of this method is the analysis of the power grid under steady power flow. After analyzing the results we can obtain the complex scaling function equation between the power supplies, the coefficient of the equation is based on the impedance parameter of the network, so the description of the relation of variables to the coefficients is more precise Thus, the method can accurately describe the power increment relationship, and can obtain the power optimization scheme more accurately and quickly than the extended sensitivity method and heuristic method.

  5. 75 FR 61165 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  6. 76 FR 38407 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for ] terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  7. 77 FR 5262 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement (DE) mortgagees...

  8. 76 FR 53148 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... advised the extended procedures for terminating Underwriting Authority of Direct Endorsement mortgagees...

  9. Networks and transaction costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Christian H.C.A.; Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne

    -multiple output stochastic Ray production function to generate relative shadow prices of three inputs and two outputs traded by farms. At a second stage a structural equation system is derived from the first order conditions of farm’s profit maximization to estimate simultaneously the of commodity specific...... transaction cost functions for all traded farm inputs and outputs. Estimation results based on a sample of 315 Polish farms imply a significant influence of social network structures on farm’s transaction costs. Moreover, estimated transaction costs correspond to a reasonable amount of farm specific shadow...... prices....

  10. Mechanisms of DNA replication termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, James M; Walter, Johannes C

    2017-08-01

    Genome duplication is carried out by pairs of replication forks that assemble at origins of replication and then move in opposite directions. DNA replication ends when converging replication forks meet. During this process, which is known as replication termination, DNA synthesis is completed, the replication machinery is disassembled and daughter molecules are resolved. In this Review, we outline the steps that are likely to be common to replication termination in most organisms, namely, fork convergence, synthesis completion, replisome disassembly and decatenation. We briefly review the mechanism of termination in the bacterium Escherichia coli and in simian virus 40 (SV40) and also focus on recent advances in eukaryotic replication termination. In particular, we discuss the recently discovered E3 ubiquitin ligases that control replisome disassembly in yeast and higher eukaryotes, and how their activity is regulated to avoid genome instability.

  11. Using artificial neural network approach for modelling rainfall–runoff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven techniques, the artificial neural .... inputs from the environment), one or more inter- mediate layers and an output layer (producing the ... three-layer learning network consisting of an input layer, a hidden layer and an output layer as illus-.

  12. Meting Output Onderzoek FSW/EUR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Koster (Willem); M.J. van Meeteren (Masja); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBinnen de universiteiten wordt het onderzoeksbeleid in toenemende mate ‘gerationaliseerd’. Dit houdt onder meer in dat de input aan menskracht en budgetten sterker afhankelijk wordt gemaakt van de output. Bestuurders sluizen dan meer middelen naar mensen en groepen die betere

  13. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    based farmers are family size, land size, age, livestock holding and dependency ratio. The study recommends that policy ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of East Shewa and West Arsi .... the variables into its natural logarithm form.The model estimation resultwas ...

  14. Research Output, Socialization, and the Biglan Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Bean, John P.

    1981-01-01

    A test of the Biglan model of faculty subcultures using measures of research output and tests of the model controlling for the effects of faculty socialization are described. The Biglan model is found to be valid, and the distinctiveness of the Biglan groups appears to increase with the socialization of faculty into subject areas. (Author/MLW)

  15. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  16. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exerci...

  17. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  18. Fast output-sensitive matrix multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  19. Output Dynamics, Technology, and Public Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte Bom, P.R.; Heijdra, B.J.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic output effects of public infrastructure investment in a small open economy. We develop an overlapping generations model that includes a production externality of public capital and a wealth effect on labor supply. Public capital enters the firm's production function

  20. THE MALARIA BURDEN AND AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    This being the case, the government is advised to make the rural areas, where majority of farmers reside, a priority in its malaria control efforts. Key Words: Malaria burden; Nigerian agricultural output; and malaria control efforts. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is a serious problem in Africa (Gallup and Sachs, 2001; Shepard, et al,.

  1. Income distributions in input-output models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, Albert E.; Serrano, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of income distribution (ID) has traditionally been of prime importance for economists and policy-makers. However, the standard input-output (I-O) model is not particularly well equipped for studying current issues such as the consequences of decreasing access to primary inputs or the

  2. Flight Termination Systems Commonality Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    EFI exploding foil initiator EFTR enhanced flight termination receiver EFTS enhanced flight termination system ELS equivalent level of safety EMC ...account shielding effectiveness of the vehicle. 3.3.13 Other Environments An FTS component shall satisfy all of its performance requirements and not...solid-state power transfer switches, and arm-and-enable circuits. 3.9.6 Circuit Isolation, Shielding , and Grounding The circuitry of an FTS

  3. Output-sensitive 3D line integral convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We propose an output-sensitive visualization method for 3D line integral convolution (LIC) whose rendering speed is largely independent of the data set size and mostly governed by the complexity of the output on the image plane. Our approach of view-dependent visualization tightly links the LIC generation with the volume rendering of the LIC result in order to avoid the computation of unnecessary LIC points: early-ray termination and empty-space leaping techniques are used to skip the computation of the LIC integral in a lazy-evaluation approach; both ray casting and texture slicing can be used as volume-rendering techniques. The input noise is modeled in object space to allow for temporal coherence under object and camera motion. Different noise models are discussed, covering dense representations based on filtered white noise all the way to sparse representations similar to oriented LIC. Aliasing artifacts are avoided by frequency control over the 3D noise and by employing a 3D variant of MIPmapping. A range of illumination models is applied to the LIC streamlines: different codimension-2 lighting models and a novel gradient-based illumination model that relies on precomputed gradients and does not require any direct calculation of gradients after the LIC integral is evaluated. We discuss the issue of proper sampling of the LIC and volume-rendering integrals by employing a frequency-space analysis of the noise model and the precomputed gradients. Finally, we demonstrate that our visualization approach lends itself to a fast graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation that supports both steady and unsteady flow. Therefore, this 3D LIC method allows users to interactively explore 3D flow by means of high-quality, view-dependent, and adaptive LIC volume visualization. Applications to flow visualization in combination with feature extraction and focus-and-context visualization are described, a comparison to previous methods is provided, and a detailed performance

  4. EPICS Input/Output Controller (IOC) application developer`s guide. APS Release 3.12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    1994-11-01

    This document describes the core software that resides in an Input/Output Controller (IOC), one of the major components of EPICS. The basic components are: (OPI) Operator Interface; this is a UNIX based workstation which can run various EPICS tools; (IOC) Input/Output Controller; this is a VME/VXI based chassis containing a Motorola 68xxx processor, various I/O modules, and VME modules that provide access to other I/O buses such as GPIB, (LAN), Local Area Network; and this is the communication network which allows the IOCs and OPIs to communicate. Epics provides a software component, Channel Access, which provides network transparent communication between a Channel Access client and an arbitrary number of Channel Access servers.

  5. Program Aids Simulation Of Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program NETS - Tool for Development and Evaluation of Neural Networks - provides simulation of neural-network algorithms plus software environment for development of such algorithms. Enables user to customize patterns of connections between layers of network, and provides features for saving weight values of network, providing for more precise control over learning process. Consists of translating problem into format using input/output pairs, designing network configuration for problem, and finally training network with input/output pairs until acceptable error reached. Written in C.

  6. Videodensitometric Methods for Cardiac Output Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Mischi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac output is often measured by indicator dilution techniques, usually based on dye or cold saline injections. Developments of more stable ultrasound contrast agents (UCA are leading to new noninvasive indicator dilution methods. However, several problems concerning the interpretation of dilution curves as detected by ultrasound transducers have arisen. This paper presents a method for blood flow measurements based on UCA dilution. Dilution curves are determined by real-time densitometric analysis of the video output of an ultrasound scanner and are automatically fitted by the Local Density Random Walk model. A new fitting algorithm based on multiple linear regression is developed. Calibration, that is, the relation between videodensity and UCA concentration, is modelled by in vitro experimentation. The flow measurement system is validated by in vitro perfusion of SonoVue contrast agent. The results show an accurate dilution curve fit and flow estimation with determination coefficient larger than 0.95 and 0.99, respectively.

  7. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia TITAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allows for a particular analysis. An empirical analysis is performed with regard to the behaviour of the output gap for different countries over time. The results obtained allow for relevant comparisons and highlight the usefulness of this indicator as a tool in the study of business cycles.

  8. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...... government, civil society, timber industry and local communities and thus provides important contributions to the existing logic within the field of tropical forest governance....

  9. A Statistical Representation of Pyrotechnic Igniter Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuyue; Cooper, Marcia

    2017-06-01

    The output of simplified pyrotechnic igniters for research investigations is statistically characterized by monitoring the post-ignition external flow field with Schlieren imaging. Unique to this work is a detailed quantification of all measurable manufacturing parameters (e.g., bridgewire length, charge cavity dimensions, powder bed density) and associated shock-motion variability in the tested igniters. To demonstrate experimental precision of the recorded Schlieren images and developed image processing methodologies, commercial exploding bridgewires using wires of different parameters were tested. Finally, a statistically-significant population of manufactured igniters were tested within the Schlieren arrangement resulting in a characterization of the nominal output. Comparisons between the variances measured throughout the manufacturing processes and the calculated output variance provide insight into the critical device phenomena that dominate performance. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Improving the quality of palliative and terminal care in the hospital by a network of palliative care nurse champions: the study protocol of the PalTeC-H project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkamp, Frederika E; van Zuylen, Lia; van der Maas, Paul J; van Dijk, Helma; van der Rijt, Carin C D; van der Heide, Agnes

    2013-03-25

    The quality of care of patients dying in the hospital is often judged as insufficient. This article describes the protocol of a study to assess the quality of care of the dying patient and the contribution of an intervention targeted on staff nurses of inpatient wards of a large university hospital in the Netherlands. We designed a controlled before and after study. The intervention is the establishment of a network for palliative care nurse champions, aiming to improve the quality of hospital end-of-life care. Assessments are performed among bereaved relatives, nurses and physicians on seven wards before and after introduction of the intervention and on 11 control wards where the intervention is not applied. We focus on care provided during the last three days of life, covered in global ratings of the quality of life in the last three days of life and the quality of dying, and various secondary endpoints of treatment and care affecting quality of life and dying. With this study we aim to improve the understanding of and attention for patients' needs, and the quality of care in the dying phase in the hospital and measure the impact of a quality improvement intervention targeted at nurses.

  11. Dissipation, Voltage Profile and Levy Dragon in a Special Ladder Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.

    2009-01-01

    A ladder network constructed by an elementary two-terminal network consisting of a parallel resistor-inductor block in series with a parallel resistor-capacitor block sometimes is said to have a non-dispersive dissipative response. This special ladder network is created iteratively by replacing the elementary two-terminal network in place of the…

  12. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  13. SIRKULASI TERMINAL PENUMPANG KAPAL LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsa Purnama Sari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilayah Indonesia yang terdiri dari pulau dan perairan menjadikan angkutan laut menjadi salah satu sarana transportasi yang cukup efektif di negara ini. Daya angkut yang besar dan beragam serta biaya yang lebih murah dengan jarak jangkauan yang luas, membuat sarana ini banyak diminati oleh masyarakat sekaligus juga merupakan pendukung utama perkembangan kehidupan sosial budaya dan roda perekonomian. Untuk mendukung proses transportasi laut ini perlu sarana berupa pelabuhan. Pelabuhan dalam melakukan pelayanan terhadap kapal memiliki beberapa fasilitas pokok dan penunjang yang wajib dimiliki. Salah satunya adalah terminal penumpang kapal laut dengan berbagai kegiatan di dalamnya untuk kedatangan maupun keberangkatan. Masalah ketidaknyamanan dalam berkegiatan, jauhnya akses sirkulasi antara satu kegiatan dengan kegiatan kegiatan embarkasi dan debarkasi yang tidak teratur, pembagian jalur sirkulasi penumpang dan pengantar penumpang yang tidak jelas seringkali muncul akibat sirkulasi yang tidak direncanakan dengan baik pada terminal penumpang kapal laut. Bahkan tidak jarang dapat menimbulkan adanya calo tiket hingga adanya penumpang tanpa tiket yang dapat masuk ke dalam kapal hingga kapal berlayar. Perencanaan sebuah sirkulasi yang tepat pada terminal penumpang kapal laut memerlukan kajian terhadap unsur-unsur sirkulasi seperti pencapaian, pola sirkulasi, jalur sirkulasi, serta bentuk ruang sirkulasi. Kajian unsur-unsur ini selanjutnya diselidiki melalui penelusuran masalah dengan analisis deskriptif melalui penggambaran objek penelitian yang terdapat pada Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan International Yokohama, Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Kobe dan Terminal Penumpang Pelabuhan Osanbashi Hall   As one of the largest archipelago country, sea transportation acts as one of the most effective means of transportation in Indonesia. Large and diverse carrying capacity, lower cost with wide range of distances, are factors which making sea

  14. Terminal Disease: A Biolaw Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rivas García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous and varied pathologies that can lead to a state of terminal illness, provoking numerous bioethical dilemmas that are inherent and specific to each circumstance. The objective of the present work has been to provide a current and useful analysis that can help to understand the main bioethical problems, from the perspective of biolaw that must be solved in the inevitable path towards the end of life that any terminal illness implies. The methodology used included a study of bibliographic documentation in the main databases of interest in bioethics. It can be concluded that the biolaw is a very useful tool that helps health care professionals and relatives when it comes to the analysis and decision making regarding a terminal illness. Independently of medical practice based on protocols and scientific knowledge, it is necessary to ensure that not everything that can legally be carried out is accepted in the field of biolaw.

  15. Location of Urban Logistic Terminals as Hub Location Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Pašagić Škrinjar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problems of locating urban logistic terminals are studied as hub location problems that due to a large number of potential nodes in big cities belong to hard non-polynomial problems, the so-called NP-problems. The hub location problems have found wide application in physical planning of transport and telecommunication systems, especially systems of fast delivery, networks of logistic and distribution centres and cargo traffic terminals of the big cities, etc. The paper defines single and multiple allocations and studies the numerical examples. The capacitated single allocation hub location problems have been studied, with the provision of a mathematical model of selecting the location for the hubs on the network. The paper also presents the differences in the possibilities of implementing the exact and heuristic methods to solve the actual location problems of big dimensions i.e. hub problems of the big cities.

  16. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Safak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  17. Transcoding-Based Error-Resilient Video Adaptation for 3G Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminsoy, Sertac; Dogan, Safak; Kondoz, Ahmet M.

    2007-12-01

    Transcoding is an effective method to provide video adaptation for heterogeneous internetwork video access and communication environments, which require the tailoring (i.e., repurposing) of coded video properties to channel conditions, terminal capabilities, and user preferences. This paper presents a video transcoding system that is capable of applying a suite of error resilience tools on the input compressed video streams while controlling the output rates to provide robust communications over error-prone and bandwidth-limited 3G wireless networks. The transcoder is also designed to employ a new adaptive intra-refresh algorithm, which is responsive to the detected scene activity inherently embedded into the video content and the reported time-varying channel error conditions of the wireless network. Comprehensive computer simulations demonstrate significant improvements in the received video quality performances using the new transcoding architecture without an extra computational cost.

  18. Avi Sorting Network

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Bansal; Kamal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Sorting network is an abstract mathematical modelwhich can be used as a multiple-input, multiple-output switchingnetwork to sort the data in ascending or descending order [1].Sorting has been one of the most critical applications on parallelcomputing machines. Many classic textbooks on algorithms likeThomas H. Cormen, therefore consider this problem in greatdetail and list many sorting network for this purpose [2]. Thereare many sorting algorithms as the Bubble / Insertion sorter,Odd-Even sor...

  19. A unifying view of synchronization for data assimilation in complex nonlinear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Shirman, Sasha; Breen, Daniel; Kadakia, Nirag; Rey, Daniel; Armstrong, Eve; Margoliash, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Networks of nonlinear systems contain unknown parameters and dynamical degrees of freedom that may not be observable with existing instruments. From observable state variables, we want to estimate the connectivity of a model of such a network and determine the full state of the model at the termination of a temporal observation window during which measurements transfer information to a model of the network. The model state at the termination of a measurement window acts as an initial condition for predicting the future behavior of the network. This allows the validation (or invalidation) of the model as a representation of the dynamical processes producing the observations. Once the model has been tested against new data, it may be utilized as a predictor of responses to innovative stimuli or forcing. We describe a general framework for the tasks involved in the "inverse" problem of determining properties of a model built to represent measured output from physical, biological, or other processes when the measurements are noisy, the model has errors, and the state of the model is unknown when measurements begin. This framework is called statistical data assimilation and is the best one can do in estimating model properties through the use of the conditional probability distributions of the model state variables, conditioned on observations. There is a very broad arena of applications of the methods described. These include numerical weather prediction, properties of nonlinear electrical circuitry, and determining the biophysical properties of functional networks of neurons. Illustrative examples will be given of (1) estimating the connectivity among neurons with known dynamics in a network of unknown connectivity, and (2) estimating the biophysical properties of individual neurons in vitro taken from a functional network underlying vocalization in songbirds.

  20. Network resiliency through memory health monitoring and proactive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Cher, Chen-Yong; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.

    2017-11-21

    A method for managing a network queue memory includes receiving sensor information about the network queue memory, predicting a memory failure in the network queue memory based on the sensor information, and outputting a notification through a plurality of nodes forming a network and using the network queue memory, the notification configuring communications between the nodes.

  1. Sistem Pengelolaan Terminal Mangkang Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sushernawan, Prasetya; Sulistyowati; Fitriyah

    2014-01-01

    This study, entitled "SYSTEM MANAGEMENT TERMINAL CITY MangkangSemarang". Terminal Mangkang a master terminal type A that is in the province of CentralJava is managed by Dishubkominfo. Terminal is a facility for public service units, as publicfacilities, the terminal should be able to provide services to the community as well as possible.So that they can be expected to contribute the maximum to PAD (the original income) withoutcompromising service to the community.Formulation of the problem in...

  2. The covering method for the solution of terminal control problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chetverikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for solving the terminal control problem for dynamical systems is formulated. This problem is to determine a program trajectory and a program control that takes the system from a given initial state to a given final state. The method is based on the addition of equations with control derivative to the source system and reformulation of the problem in the boundary value problem for the augmented system E. Additional equations must be chosen so as to satisfy the following conditions. There is a surjective map (covering from the phase space E to the phase space of some dynamical system Y. The covering takes solutions of E to solutions of Y. Boundary conditions in the final moment are mapped to the boundary conditions on the solutions of Y. Any solution of Y satisfies the boundary conditions in the initial moment. Then the solution of the terminal control problem is as the solution of two Cauchy problems for dynamical systems E and Y. Augmented system E satisfying mentioned properties is called r-closure of the terminal control problem. It is shown that this approach generalizes the well-known method for solving the terminal control problem for flat systems. A flat system is a system whose solutions are uniquely determined by a certain set of functions of time (flat output. The mentioned well-known method is based on polynomial dependence of flat output of time and do not take into account constraints on the system.It is proved that for an arbitrary flat system r-closure can be chosen any determined system of ordinary differential equations of the corresponding order. It is showed how to construct a covering with the above-mentioned properties using the general solution of this system. The properties of the covering are proved only locally, i.e. when the initial time is close to the final time, and the initial conditions are close the final conditions. But this covering may be applicable to other terminal problems with the same final

  3. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  4. 5G Terminals with Multi-Streaming Features for Real-Time Mobile Broadband Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shuminoski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel QoS framework on the network layer for 5G terminals with vertical multi-homing and multi-streaming capabilities by using radio networks aggregation. The proposed framework is leading to high performance utility networks with QoS provisioning for real-time multimedia services by achieving low packet delays, stochastic queuing network stability and highest mobile broadband capabilities i.e. bitrates. The proposed QoS algorithm is implemented within the mobile terminals on one side, and in dedicated proxy servers on mobile core network side. It is based on Lyapunov optimization techniques and it is targeted to handle simultaneously multiple multimedia service flows via multiple radio network interfaces in parallel.

  5. Getting a Suitable Terminal Cost and Maximizing the Terminal Region for MPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The model predictive control (MPC subject to control and state constraint is studied. Given a terminal cost, a terminal region is obtained through iterative estimation by using support vector machine (SVM. It is proved that the obtained terminal region is the largest terminal region when the terminal cost is given. The relationships between terminal cost and terminal region and between terminal cost and total cost are discussed, respectively. Based on these relationships, a simple method to get a suitable terminal cost is proposed and it can be adjusted according to our need. Finally, some experiment results are presented.

  6. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  7. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  8. SPRINT spray intercooling augments LM6000 output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David

    1998-09-01

    By injecting water between the low pressure and high pressure compressors of an aeroderivative gas turbine, GE-IAD engineers have demonstrated that a 9 per cent increase in output accompanied by reduced life cycle costs can be achieved. Designated the SPRINT system, uprated LM 6000 units with augmented efficiency have been introduced to the market. The first two production units, both supplied to Southern Electric Power Generation in England for mid-merit independent power generation plants at Chickerell in Dorset and Burghfield in Berkshire, have each clocked in excess of 500 operating hours since start-up in early April 1998. MPS visited the Chickerell installation in late July 1998. (UK)

  9. Modelling Waste Output from Trout Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, J. O.; From, J.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    The aim of waste modelling in aquaculture is to provide tools for simulating input, transformation, output and subsidiary degradation in recipients of organic compounds, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The direct purpose of this modelling is to make it possible for caretakers and water authorities...... to calculate waste discharge from existing and planned aquaculture activities. A special purpose is simulating outcome of waste water treatment and altered feeding programmes. Different submodels must be applied for P, N, and organics, as well as for the different phases of food and waste treatment. Altogether...

  10. INVESTIGATING MACROECONOMIC STABILITY USING THE OUTPUT GAP

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia TITAN; Vladimir GEORGESCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to illustrate the importance of the output gap in analysing macroeconomic stability in general and business cycle dynamics in particular. Ten EU countries are considered, with five old members and five new members. For all ten countries the data for the period 1999-2014 is used, but for four countries, namely France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Spain additional data is available that goes back to 1965, such that the whole period 1965-2014 is covered, which allo...

  11. New offshore terminal for Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-15

    W. Halcrow and Partners will design and supervise construction of the second phase of Corporacion Estatal Petrolera Ecuatoriana's offshore tanker terminal for the export of refined products from its 65,000 bbl/day Esmeraldas refinery, which will be expanded to 130,000 bbl/day. Ewbank and Partners Ltd. will handle mechanical and electrical engineering of the terminal. Halcrow also designed and built the first stage of the terminal, which comprised a four-hose seabed manifold 4 km offshore in water depths of 16 m and which became operational in Nov. 1977 with capacity to handle tankers up to 20,000 dwt and with pipeline connection to the Esmeradas refinery. The seabed manifold will be replaced by a two-berth sea island terminal to handle tankers up to 50,000 dwt; a contract for this has been signed. Future plans call for a two-berth central loading platform, separate berthing and mooring dolphins, an accommodation platform, and auxiliary services. The main structure will be a steel-piled jacket design interconnected by steel access bridges. The additional works should be completed by the end of 1981.

  12. The impact of 'terminator' technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, B.; Meer, van der I.J.M.; Louwaars, N.; Beekwilder, J.; Eaton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic use-restriction technologies enable the developers of transgenic plants or animals to protect their variety or breed from unauthorized use in a biological way. The use of 'terminator technology' can have different impacts on farmers and breeders. If the technology is effective, it impacts on

  13. What Determines Joint Venture Termination?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Joint venture (JV) research continues to flourish as researchers seek to advance our understanding of why so many JVs fail. Cui and Kumar (this issue) take a contingency approach to explain how and why business relatedness may provide new insights as to what determines JV termination...

  14. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the problem...

  15. Development of a 402.5 MHz 140 kW Inductive Output Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Lawrence Ives; Michael Read, Robert Jackson

    2012-05-09

    This report contains the results of Phase I of an SBIR to develop a Pulsed Inductive Output Tube (IOT) with 140 kW at 400 MHz for powering H-proton beams. A number of sources, including single beam and multiple beam klystrons, can provide this power, but the IOT provides higher efficiency. Efficiencies exceeding 70% are routinely achieved. The gain is typically limited to approximately 24 dB; however, the availability of highly efficient, solid state drivers reduces the significance of this limitation, particularly at lower frequencies. This program initially focused on developing a 402 MHz IOT; however, the DOE requirement for this device was terminated during the program. The SBIR effort was refocused on improving the IOT design codes to more accurately simulate the time dependent behavior of the input cavity, electron gun, output cavity, and collector. Significant improvement was achieved in modeling capability and simulation accuracy.

  16. 26 CFR 1.411(d)-2 - Termination or partial termination; discontinuance of contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination or partial termination... Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.411(d)-2 Termination or partial termination; discontinuance of contributions. (a... such plan is not a qualified trust) unless the plan provides that— (i) Upon the termination or partial...

  17. On Demand Realization of Input and Output Resistances of MOSFET Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meena; Roy, Sanjay; Singh, B. P.

    2011-12-01

    A novel circuit to realize both very high positive as well as negative resistances at its input and output terminals of the MOSFET amplifier is presented. The floating admittance matrix (FAM) approach is one of the neat methods of mathematical modeling of electronic devices and its uses in circuits. The zero sum property of the floating admittance matrix provides a check to the worker to proceed further or to reobserve the first equation itself. All transfer functions are represented as cofactors of the floating admittance matrix of the circuit.

  18. Terminal decline in motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert S; Segawa, Eisuke; Buchman, Aron S; Boyle, Patricia A; Hizel, Loren P; Bennett, David A

    2012-12-01

    The study aim was to test the hypothesis that motor function undergoes accelerated decline proximate to death. As part of a longitudinal clinical-pathologic study, 124 older Roman Catholic nuns, priests, and monks completed at least 7 annual clinical evaluations, died, and underwent brain autopsy and uniform neuropathologic examination. Each evaluation included administration of 11 motor tests and 19 cognitive tests from which global measures of motor and cognitive function were derived. The global motor measure (baseline M = 0.82, SD = 0.21) declined a mean 0.024 unit per year (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.032, -0.016) until a mean of 2.46 years (95% CI: -2.870, -2.108) before death when rate of decline increased nearly fivefold to -0.117 unit per year (95% CI: -0.140, -0.097). The global cognitive measure (baseline M = 0.07, SD = 0.45) declined a mean of 0.027-unit per year (95% CI: -0.041, -0.014) until a mean of 2.76 years (95% CI: -3.157, -2.372) before death when rate of decline increased more than 13-fold to -0.371 unit per year (95% CI: -0.443, -0.306). Onset of terminal motor decline was highly correlated with onset of terminal cognitive decline (r = .94, 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99), but rates of motor and cognitive change were not strongly correlated (preterminal r = .20, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.38; terminal r = .34, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.62). Higher level of plaques and tangles was associated with earlier onset of terminal decline in motor function, but no pathologic measures were associated with rate of preterminal or terminal motor decline. The results demonstrate that motor and cognitive functions both undergo a period of accelerated decline in the last few years of life. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Network Neutrality : A Survey of the Economic Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the small but growing economic literature on network neutrality. It considers a number of possible departures from network neutrality, in particular termination fees, second-degree price discrimination, and vertical foreclosure.

  20. Topological generalizations of network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, N.; Itzkovitz, S.; Milo, R.; Alon, U.

    2004-09-01

    Biological and technological networks contain patterns, termed network motifs, which occur far more often than in randomized networks. Network motifs were suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out key functions in the network. It is of interest to understand how network motifs combine to form larger structures. To address this, we present a systematic approach to define “motif generalizations”: families of motifs of different sizes that share a common architectural theme. To define motif generalizations, we first define “roles” in a subgraph according to structural equivalence. For example, the feedforward loop triad—a motif in transcription, neuronal, and some electronic networks—has three roles: an input node, an output node, and an internal node. The roles are used to define possible generalizations of the motif. The feedforward loop can have three simple generalizations, based on replicating each of the three roles and their connections. We present algorithms for efficiently detecting motif generalizations. We find that the transcription networks of bacteria and yeast display only one of the three generalizations, the multi-output feedforward generalization. In contrast, the neuronal network of C. elegans mainly displays the multi-input generalization. Forward-logic electronic circuits display a multi-input, multi-output hybrid. Thus, networks which share a common motif can have very different generalizations of that motif. Using mathematical modeling, we describe the information processing functions of the different motif generalizations in transcription, neuronal, and electronic networks.

  1. Determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study: implications for exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Madsen, Stine Mann; di Vecchia, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The output power of a mobile phone is directly related to its radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field strength, and may theoretically vary substantially in different networks and phone use circumstances due to power control technologies. To improve indices of RF exposure...... for epidemiological studies, we assessed determinants of mobile phone output power in a multinational study. METHODS: More than 500 volunteers in 12 countries used Global System for Mobile communications software-modified phones (GSM SMPs) for approximately 1 month each. The SMPs recorded date, time, and duration...... of each call, and the frequency band and output power at fixed sampling intervals throughout each call. Questionnaires provided information on the typical circumstances of an individual's phone use. Linear regression models were used to analyse the influence of possible explanatory variables...

  2. Adaptive Output-Feedback Neural Control of Switched Uncertain Nonlinear Systems With Average Dwell Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the problem of adaptive neural tracking control via output-feedback for a class of switched uncertain nonlinear systems without the measurements of the system states. The unknown control signals are approximated directly by neural networks. A novel adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is set up by exploiting the average dwell time method and backstepping. A switched filter and different update laws are designed to reduce the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer and a common update law for all subsystems. The proposed controllers of subsystems guarantee that all closed-loop signals remain bounded under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, while the output tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. As an application of the proposed design method, adaptive output feedback neural tracking controllers for a mass-spring-damper system are constructed.

  3. Models of network reliability analysis, combinatorics, and Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya B

    2009-01-01

    Unique in its approach, Models of Network Reliability: Analysis, Combinatorics, and Monte Carlo provides a brief introduction to Monte Carlo methods along with a concise exposition of reliability theory ideas. From there, the text investigates a collection of principal network reliability models, such as terminal connectivity for networks with unreliable edges and/or nodes, network lifetime distribution in the process of its destruction, network stationary behavior for renewable components, importance measures of network elements, reliability gradient, and network optimal reliability synthesis

  4. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  5. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  6. Ocean wave forecasting using recurrent neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; Prabaharan, N.

    to the biological neurons, works on the input and output passing through a hidden layer. The ANN used here is a data- oriented modeling technique to find relations between input and output patterns by self learning and without any fixed mathematical form assumed... = 1/p ? Ep (2) Where, Ep = ? ? (Tk ?Ok)2 (3) p is the total number of training patterns; Tk is the actual output and Ok is the predicted output at kth output node. In the learning process of backpropagation neural network...

  7. Composition of agarose substrate affects behavioral output of Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi Aristomenis Apostolopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the Drosophila larva has evolved into a simple model organism offering the opportunity to integrate molecular genetics with systems neuroscience. This led to a detailed understanding of the functional neuronal networks for a number of sensory functions and behaviors including olfaction, vision, gustation and learning and memory. Typically, behavioral assays in use exploit simple Petri dish setups with either agarose or agar as a substrate. However, neither the quality nor the concentration of the substrate is generally standardized across these experiments and there is no data available on how larval behavior is affected by such different substrates. Here, we have investigated the effects of different agarose concentrations on several larval behaviors. We demonstrate that agarose concentration is an important parameter, which affects all behaviors tested: preference, feeding, learning and locomotion. Larvae can discriminate between different agarose concentrations, they feed differently on them, they can learn to associate an agarose concentration with an odor stimulus and crawl faster on a substrate of higher agarose concentration. Additionally, we have investigated the effect of agarose concentration on three quinine based behaviors: preference, feeding and learning. We show that in all cases examined the behavioral output changes in an agarose concentration-dependent manner. Our results suggest that comparisons between experiments performed on substrates differing in agarose concentration should be done with caution. It should be taken into consideration that the agarose concentration can affect the behavioral output and thereby the experimental outcomes per se potentially due to an increased escape response on more rigid substrates.

  8. Analytical methods and simulation models to assess innovative operational measures and technologies for rail port terminals: the case of Valencia Principe Felipe terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, S.

    2016-07-01

    The topic of freight transport by rail is a complex theme and, in recent years, a main issue of European policy. The legislation evolution and the White Paper 2011 have demonstrated the European intention to re-launch this sector. The challenge is to promote the intermodal transport system to the detriment of road freight transport. In this context intermodal freight terminals, play a primary role for the supply chain, they are the connection point between the various transport nodes and the nodal points where the freight are handled, stored and transferred between different modes to final customer. To achieve the purpose, it is strengthen the improvement of existing intermodal freight terminals and the development of innovative intermodal freight terminals towards higher performance (ERRAC, 2012). Many terminal performances improvements have been proposed and sometime experimented. They are normally basing on combinations of operational measures and innovative technologies (e.g. automatic horizontal and parallel storage and handling, automated gate and sensors for tracking systems data exchange) tested in various terminals, with often-contradictory results. The research work described in this paper (developed within the Capacity4Rail EU project) focusses on the assessment of effects that these innovations can have in the intermodal freight terminals combined in various alternative consistent effective scenarios. The methodological framework setup to assess these innovations is basing on a combination of analytical methods based on sequential algorithms and discrete events simulation models. The output of this assessment method are key performance indicators (KPIs) selected according to terminals typologies and related to different aspects (e.g. management, operation and organization). The present paper illustrates the application of the methodological framework, tuned on the operation of various intermodal terminals, for the validation on today operation and the

  9. Output rate of atom lasers in a Raman-type output-coupling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2000-07-01

    We present a theory to derive the output rate of an atom laser consisting of an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic trap and two additional rf fields transferring trapped atoms to a repelled Zeeman sublevel via an intermediate untrapped Zeeman sublevel. We explicitly obtain the dependence of the output rate Γout on various characteristic parameters such as a coupling parameter (the Rabi frequency), the atom number density in the center of the condensate, and the strength of the atom-atom interaction.

  10. BAM learning of nonlinearly separable tasks by using an asymmetrical output function and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Sylvain; Boukadoum, Mounir; Amiri, Mahmood

    2009-08-01

    Most bidirectional associative memory (BAM) networks use a symmetrical output function for dual fixed-point behavior. In this paper, we show that by introducing an asymmetry parameter into a recently introduced chaotic BAM output function, prior knowledge can be used to momentarily disable desired attractors from memory, hence biasing the search space to improve recall performance. This property allows control of chaotic wandering, favoring given subspaces over others. In addition, reinforcement learning can then enable a dual BAM architecture to store and recall nonlinearly separable patterns. Our results allow the same BAM framework to model three different types of learning: supervised, reinforcement, and unsupervised. This ability is very promising from the cognitive modeling viewpoint. The new BAM model is also useful from an engineering perspective; our simulations results reveal a notable overall increase in BAM learning and recall performances when using a hybrid model with the general regression neural network (GRNN).

  11. Analysis of neural networks through base functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, B.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Spaanenburg, L.

    Problem statement. Despite their success-story, neural networks have one major disadvantage compared to other techniques: the inability to explain comprehensively how a trained neural network reaches its output; neural networks are not only (incorrectly) seen as a "magic tool" but possibly even more

  12. A Model of Network Porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-09

    standpoint remains more of an art than a science . Even when well executed, the ongoing evolution of the network may violate initial, security-critical design...from a security standpoint remains more of an art than a science . Even when well executed, the ongoing evolution of the network may violate initial...is outside the scope of this paper. As such, we focus on event probabilities. The output of the network porosity model is a stream of timestamped

  13. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  14. Design of laser diode stable output system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Cao, Rui-ming

    2008-03-01

    High-stability output's system of laser diode is introduced in this paper. The system which is based on the MCU of MSP430 has been designed light power feedback loop and coller of TEC. It includes stable current, protecting circuit, light power feedback loop, temperature controlling, power display and so on. It is also able to control and show the power at the real time. The power could be set by botton too. The software of slow start up, slow close and the protecting relay are adopted by MCU. DRV592 is introduced as PWM driver to control the current of TEC. The duty cycle is generate by MCU. In order to control temperature, it is changed to influence the current of TEC. The power that is sampled by photodiode which is integrated in the laser diode is controlled by the micro-processing. The laser is monitored by voltage control circuit and current control circuit at the real time.

  15. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  16. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  17. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  18. Achromatic waveguide input/output coupler design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, K E; Morris, G M

    1991-03-20

    An investigation into methods for achromatizing the coupling angle characteristics of waveguide input/output couplers is described. The basic approach involves correcting the inherent angular dispersion of conventional waveguide couplers with a diffraction grating. Two configurations are analyzed in detail: a hybrid prism/grating coupler and a double grating coupler. Expressions are derived for values of the grating parameters that produce achromatic coupling. A method is also presented to predict the achromatic wavelength range and maximize it with the available degrees of freedom. For a coupling angle tolerance of 0.005 degrees , it is found that with double grating couplers achromatic wavelength ranges of the order of 10 nm can be obtained, and that with prism/grating couplers this range can be as large as 200 nm.

  19. Complexity of Terminating Preference Elicitation

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    Complexity theory is a useful tool to study computational issues surrounding the elicitation of preferences, as well as the strategic manipulation of elections aggregating together preferences of multiple agents. We study here the complexity of determining when we can terminate eliciting preferences, and prove that the complexity depends on the elicitation strategy. We show, for instance, that it may be better from a computational perspective to elicit all preferences from one agent at a time...

  20. Alternative output measurement for the US retail trade sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, M.P.; Inklaar, R.; van Ark, H.H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental alternative estimate of real output in retail trade, based on double deflated margins might be a viable methodology for measuring retail trade output, but important data issues need to be resolved and further research is necessary.

  1. Fin-and-tube condenser performance evaluation using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ling-Xiao [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [China R and D Center, Carrier Corporation, No. 3239 Shen Jiang Road, Shanghai 201206 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The paper presents neural network approach to performance evaluation of the fin-and-tube air-cooled condensers which are widely used in air-conditioning and refrigeration systems. Inputs of the neural network include refrigerant and air-flow rates, refrigerant inlet temperature and saturated temperature, and entering air dry-bulb temperature. Outputs of the neural network consist of the heating capacity and the pressure drops on both refrigerant and air sides. The multi-input multi-output (MIMO) neural network is separated into multi-input single-output (MISO) neural networks for training. Afterwards, the trained MISO neural networks are combined into a MIMO neural network, which indicates that the number of training data sets is determined by the biggest MISO neural network not the whole MIMO network. Compared with a validated first-principle model, the standard deviations of neural network models are less than 1.9%, and all errors fall into {+-}5%. (author)

  2. High Octane Fuel: Terminal Backgrounder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Kristi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy sponsored a scoping study to assess the potential of ethanol-based high octane fuel (HOF) to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. When the HOF blend is made with 25%-40% ethanol by volume, this energy efficiency improvement is potentially sufficient to offset the reduced vehicle range often associated with the decreased volumetric energy density of ethanol. The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of the fuel supply chain to accommodate more ethanol at fuel terminals. Fuel terminals are midstream in the transportation fuel supply chain and serve to store and distribute fuels to end users. While there are no technical issues to storing more ethanol at fuel terminals, there are several factors that could impact the ability to deploy more ethanol. The most significant of these issues include the availability of land to add more infrastructure and accommodate more truck traffic for ethanol deliveries as well as a lengthy permitting process to erect more tanks.

  3. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lixon, Benoit [A.D.E Consulting Services, Rue de Clairvaux, 40/101, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, Paul J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Hamaide, Bertrand [Faculty of Economics, Social and Political Sciences, Facultes Universitaires Saint-Louis, 43 boulevard du jardin botanique, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  4. Study of 2-input 2-output Blind Signal Separation by Output Decorrelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Davidek

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The simulations and experiments representing the initial study of the output decorrelation approach to blind signal separation are presented in this paper. The definition of performance indexes for the evaluation and comparison of different algorithms are proposed. Two algorithms are compared. Some first results of real experiments are discussed.

  5. k36u Terminal Aerodrome Forecast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TAF (terminal aerodrome forecast or terminal area forecast) is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs are...

  6. THE FORMALIZATION PROCESS OF CARGO TERMINAL OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Shramenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical formalization of operation process for a terminal complex is proposed and a model taking into account characteristics of a freight terminal and all the possible states of a system is developed.

  7. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the mainquestion is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often, an output distance function is used,where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one outputquantity as the dependent variable,...

  8. Waste treatment in physical input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, E

    2005-01-01

    When compared to monetary input-output tables (MIOTs), a distinctive feature of physical input-output tables (PIOTs) is that they include the generation of waste as part of a consistent accounting framework. As a consequence, however, physical input-output analysis thus requires that the treatment

  9. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  10. Substrate integrated waveguide filter showing improved stopband performance and fractional bandwidth using different input/output topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Puja; Mudiganti, Jagadish Chandra

    2017-11-01

    In this work bandpass filter based on SIW technology with an adequate fractional bandwidth as well as refinement in the stopband performance is presented. Its application lies with the receiver filter working in the Ka band used mainly in the ground terminal for satellite communication. Additionally analysis of divergent input/output arrangement is also demonstrated. Three SIW filter having a varying passband from 19.2GHz -21.2GHz depending on the input/output are synthesized on a planar substrate having height of 0.508mm RT/duroid 6002 using periodically arranged metal via holes through a regulated PCB process. Simulated outputs has a in-band insertion loss 0.9dB and the improved stopband attenuation within the frequency range of 29.5GHz – 31GHz is around 45 dB. It is observed that the experimented results coincide completely with the results simulated in HFSS/CST.

  11. Cascaded logic gates in nanophotonic plasmon networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Zhuoxian; Tian, Xiaorui; Käll, Mikael; Xu, Hongxing

    2011-01-01

    ... integrated logic units and cascade devices have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that a plasmonic binary NOR gate, a 'universal logic gate', can be realized through cascaded OR and NOT gates in four-terminal plasmonic nanowire networks...

  12. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii

  13. Comparison of a spiking neural network and an MLP for robust identification of generator dynamics in a multimachine power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cameron; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar; Mitra, Pinaki

    2009-01-01

    The application of a spiking neural network (SNN) and a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) for online identification of generator dynamics in a multimachine power system are compared in this paper. An integrate-and-fire model of an SNN which communicates information via the inter-spike interval is applied. The neural network identifiers are used to predict the speed and terminal voltage deviations one time-step ahead of generators in a multimachine power system. The SNN is developed in two steps: (i) neuron centers determined by offline k-means clustering and (ii) output weights obtained by online training. The sensitivity of the SNN to the neuron centers determined in the first step is evaluated on generators of different ratings and parameters. Performances of the SNN and MLP are compared to evaluate robustness on the identification of generator dynamics under small and large disturbances, and to illustrate that SNNs are capable of learning nonlinear dynamics of complex systems.

  14. Adaptive Terminal Sliding Mode Control of Electromagnetic Spacecraft Formation Flying in Near-Earth Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingrui Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive terminal sliding mode control for six-degree-of-freedom electromagnetic spacecraft formation flying (EMFF in near-Earth orbits is presented. By using terminal sliding mode (TSM technique, the output tracking error can converge to zero in finite time, and strong robustness with respect to disturbance forces can be guaranteed. Based on a rotated frame Fr and the adaptive TSM controller, the special magnetic moment of the steerable magnetic dipole is computed. The angular momentum management strategy (AMM is implemented in a periodically switching fashion, by which the angular momentum buildup was limited. Illustrative simulations of EMFF are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  15. 29 CFR 402.5 - Terminal reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organization at the time of its termination or loss of reporting identity and, together with a copy thereof... such termination or loss of reporting identity, as the case may be. (b) Labor organizations which... other form of termination of its existence as a labor organization, or which loses its identity as a...

  16. Kajian Kinerja Terminal Batu Ampar Kota Balikpapan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randha Alief Chikita

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan is the only type A passenger terminal in Balikpapan City. The purpose of this study is to determine the operational performance of the terminal at this time and also to determine the level of service in the terminal. The results of this study indicate that for FIFO queue discipline analysis on AKDP and AKAP bus lines, it is known that ρ <1 means that there is currently no queue in the terminal. For the analysis of terminal facilities it is known that there are still some terminal facilities that are not yet available from the main facilities and supporting facilities, therefore the need for additional facilities in order to meet the standard of passenger terminal type A. In the next 15 years analysis for traffic intensity value is approaching 1 which means in the future will cause the queue in the terminal, so it is necessary for the improvement of terminal performance. For the service performance with IPA method there are 35 variables that there are 7 variables that enter in quadrant I. In the next step to do analysis to know the priority of handling by using QFD method. Keywords: Batu Ampar Terminal Balikpapan, IPA, terminal performance, QFD

  17. 42 CFR 460.54 - Termination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination procedures. 460.54 Section 460.54 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... ELDERLY (PACE) Sanctions, Enforcement Actions, and Termination § 460.54 Termination procedures. (a) Except...

  18. Is the adult Sertoli cell terminally differentiated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Stanton, Peter G; Meachem, Sarah J

    2012-07-01

    New data have challenged the convention that the adult Sertoli cell population is fixed and unmodifiable. The Sertoli cell has two distinct functions: 1) formation of the seminiferous cords and 2) provision of nutritional and structural support to developing germ cells. For these to occur successfully, Sertoli cells must undergo many maturational changes between fetal and adult life, the main switches occurring around puberty, including the loss of proliferative activity and the formation of the blood-testis barrier. Follicle-stimulating hormone plays a key role in promoting Sertoli cell proliferation, while thyroid hormone inhibits proliferative activity in early postnatal life. Together these regulate the Sertoli-germ cell complement and sperm output in adulthood. By puberty, the Sertoli cell population is considered to be stable and unmodifiable by hormones. But there is mounting evidence that the size of the adult Sertoli cell population and its maturational status is modifiable by hormones and that Sertoli cells can gain proliferative ability in the spermatogenically disrupted hamster and human model. This new information demonstrates that the adult Sertoli cell population, at least in the settings of testicular regression in the hamster and impaired fertility in humans in vivo and from mice and men in vitro, is not a terminally differentiated population. Data from the hamster now show that the adult Sertoli cell population size is regulated by hormones. This creates exciting prospects for basic and clinical research in testis biology. The potential to replenish an adult Sertoli-germ cell complement to normal in a setting of infertility may now be realized.

  19. From biological neural networks to thinking machines: Transitioning biological organizational principles to computer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1991-01-01

    The three-dimensional organization of the vestibular macula is under study by computer assisted reconstruction and simulation methods as a model for more complex neural systems. One goal of this research is to transition knowledge of biological neural network architecture and functioning to computer technology, to contribute to the development of thinking computers. Maculas are organized as weighted neural networks for parallel distributed processing of information. The network is characterized by non-linearity of its terminal/receptive fields. Wiring appears to develop through constrained randomness. A further property is the presence of two main circuits, highly channeled and distributed modifying, that are connected through feedforward-feedback collaterals and biasing subcircuit. Computer simulations demonstrate that differences in geometry of the feedback (afferent) collaterals affects the timing and the magnitude of voltage changes delivered to the spike initiation zone. Feedforward (efferent) collaterals act as voltage followers and likely inhibit neurons of the distributed modifying circuit. These results illustrate the importance of feedforward-feedback loops, of timing, and of inhibition in refining neural network output. They also suggest that it is the distributed modifying network that is most involved in adaptation, memory, and learning. Tests of macular adaptation, through hyper- and microgravitational studies, support this hypothesis since synapses in the distributed modifying circuit, but not the channeled circuit, are altered. Transitioning knowledge of biological systems to computer technology, however, remains problematical.

  20. Hidden neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Riis, Søren Kamaric

    1999-01-01

    A general framework for hybrids of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and neural networks (NNs) called hidden neural networks (HNNs) is described. The article begins by reviewing standard HMMs and estimation by conditional maximum likelihood, which is used by the HNN. In the HNN, the usual HMM probability...... parameters are replaced by the outputs of state-specific neural networks. As opposed to many other hybrids, the HNN is normalized globally and therefore has a valid probabilistic interpretation. All parameters in the HNN are estimated simultaneously according to the discriminative conditional maximum...... likelihood criterion. The HNN can be viewed as an undirected probabilistic independence network (a graphical model), where the neural networks provide a compact representation of the clique functions. An evaluation of the HNN on the task of recognizing broad phoneme classes in the TIMIT database shows clear...

  1. Maximum Output Power Tracking of Wind Turbine Using Intelligent Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mauridhi Hery Purnomo; Mochamad Ashari; Muldi Yuhendri

    2011-01-01

    The output power of wind turbine is determined by wind speed. The Output power can be adjusted by controlling the generator speed and pitch angle of wind turbine. When the wind speed below the wind turbine rated, the output power of generator can be maximized by controlling the generator speed at point of maximum power coefficient. When the wind speed above the wind turbine rated, output power of wind turbine will exceed the power generators rated. In this condition, the output power of wind ...

  2. The Acute Effect of Loperamide on Ileostomy Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Katrine; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    High stoma output is a common problem in patients with ileostomy and can lead to dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The first drug of choice to reduce stoma output is often loperamide. The aim was to assess the acute effect of loperamide on (a) ileostomy output in g/day, (b) gastrointestinal...... stoma output and noted food and fluid intake over 48 hr and swallowed a capsule with radiopaque markers for the determination of gastrointestinal transit time over 24 hr. At the end of the study, patients were asked to report their treatment sequence. Ileostomy output was significantly reduced during...

  3. Research on optical access network remote management technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wayne; Zou, Chen; Luo, Wenyi

    2008-11-01

    This paper goal is to provide a framework for the remote configuration and management of services for PON (Passive Optical Network) access and fiber access. Also it defines how Auto-Configuration Servers (ACS) in the network can remotely configure, troubleshoot and manage a Passive Optical Network (PON) optical network termination (ONT) with layer 3 capabilities using the CPE WAN management protocol, TR-069.

  4. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical

  5. Multi-Terminal DC Networks : System Integration, Dynamics and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira Pinto, R.

    2014-01-01

    When large amounts of electricity need to be transported for long distances, or when underground or submarine cables are involved, using direct current high-voltage transmission systems is more efficient and cost effective than using traditional high-voltage alternating current transmission.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Power Output in Aged Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Murugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the power output on effect of tower height with same diameter of rotor was conducted in a wind turbine site. As the wind acceleration is varying with height, 3 levels were selected according to the availability of tower. The responses of power output with respect to variation of wind speed are changing for the tower heights of 30, 40, and 50 m. The study showed that the actual ideal power output and measured real power output follow the same trend within range of operating wind speed. The empirical model used for calculation of actual ideal power output was compared with real power output and the overall concepts in power output also had been analysed.

  7. Methods and apparatus for determining cardiac output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Richard J. (Inventor); Mukkamala, Ramakrishna (Inventor); Sherman, Derin A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for determining a dynamical property of the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree using long time scale information, i.e., information obtained from measurements over time scales greater than a single cardiac cycle. In one aspect, the invention provides a method and apparatus for monitoring cardiac output (CO) from a single blood pressure signal measurement obtained at any site in the systemic or pulmonary arterial tree or from any related measurement including, for example, fingertip photoplethysmography.According to the method the time constant of the arterial tree, defined to be the product of the total peripheral resistance (TPR) and the nearly constant arterial compliance, is determined by analyzing the long time scale variations (greater than a single cardiac cycle) in any of these blood pressure signals. Then, according to Ohm's law, a value proportional to CO may be determined from the ratio of the blood pressure signal to the estimated time constant. The proportional CO values derived from this method may be calibrated to absolute CO, if desired, with a single, absolute measure of CO (e.g., thermodilution). The present invention may be applied to invasive radial arterial blood pressure or pulmonary arterial blood pressure signals which are routinely measured in intensive care units and surgical suites or to noninvasively measured peripheral arterial blood pressure signals or related noninvasively measured signals in order to facilitate the clinical monitoring of CO as well as TPR.

  8. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  9. Optimizing power output by varying repetition tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Riana R; Sforzo, Gary A; King, Deborah L

    2011-11-01

    The effects of varying interrepetition rest and eccentric velocity on power output (PO) and the number of repetitions performed during a bench press set were examined in 24 college-aged resistance trained men. On 6 separate occasions, subjects performed a set of bench press at 80% 1 repetition maximum until volitional fatigue. For each of the 6 repetition tempo trials, the bench press set was paced by metronome to a unique repetition tempo involving a combination of the following: interrepetition rest of 0 or 4 seconds; eccentric velocity of 1 or 4 seconds and bottom rest of 0 or 3 seconds. The velocity of concentric contraction was maximal during all 6 tempo trials. During each trial, video data were captured to determine PO variables and number of successful repetitions completed at each tempo. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed tempos with a fast eccentric phase (1 second), and no bottom rest produced significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) PO and repetitions than tempos involving slower eccentric velocity (4 seconds) or greater bottom rest (4 seconds). This combination of greater repetitions and PO resulted in a greater volume of work. Varying interrepetition rest (1 or 4 seconds) did not significantly affect PO or repetitions. The results of this study support the use of fast eccentric speed and no bottom rest during acute performance testing to maximize PO and number of repetitions during a set of bench press.

  10. 76 FR 22119 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Credit Watch Termination Initiative; Termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval.... SUMMARY: This notice advises of the cause and effect of termination of Direct Endorsement (DE) Approval... Endorsement mortgagees. Termination of Direct Endorsement Approval: Approval of a DE mortgagee by HUD/FHA...

  11. Technical Topic 3.2.2.d Bayesian and Non-Parametric Statistics: Integration of Neural Networks with Bayesian Networks for Data Fusion and Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    foundations for, integration of predictive neural networks into Bayesian networks as a means of generating probability distribution functions and...using a neural network and secondly, fusing this and other types of sensor output into a single probabilistic evaluation of multiple sensor outputs...Integration of Neural Networks with Bayesian Networks for Data Fusion and Predictive Modeling The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this

  12. Application and design of inexpensive small earth terminals for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Sharifi, M.; Pourmand, B.

    Different applications of miniearth terminals (MET) for various satellite communication networks are discussed, and then the steps that must be taken to design a reliable satellite system using METs are specified. The main emphasis of the paper is on the various applications of the METs, selection of access method, modulation scheme, power requirement, and performance analysis. Depending on the application, the miniearth terminals may be designed to be used in the networks with any of the following access techniques: SCPC, MC-TDMA, TDM, satellite switch TDMA, random multiple access or some forms of hybrid demand assignment multiple access methods constituted of frequency time or spatial separation.

  13. Cpeb4-mediated translational regulatory circuitry controls terminal erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2014-09-29

    While we have considerable understanding of the transcriptional networks controlling mammalian cell differentiation, our knowledge of posttranscriptional regulatory events is very limited. Using differentiation of primary erythroid cells as a model, we show that the sequence-specific mRNA-binding protein Cpeb4 is strongly induced by the erythroid-important transcription factors Gata1 and Tal1 and is essential for terminal erythropoiesis. By interacting with the translation initiation factor eIF3, Cpeb4 represses the translation of a large set of mRNAs, including its own mRNA. Thus, transcriptional induction and translational repression combine to form a negative feedback loop to control Cpeb4 protein levels within a specific range that is required for terminal erythropoiesis. Our study provides an example of how translational control is integrated with transcriptional regulation to precisely control gene expression during mammalian cell differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  15. Compact private hubs for corporate VSAT networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Tom M.; Subbarayan, Ravi

    Satellite communications has played a significant role in making information networks a strategic corporate asset. Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks, in particular, have special appeal for the corporate network user community because of unique advantages in cost, operations, and user control. The recent rapid proliferation of these networks in a multitude of market segments, as diverse as retail and financial services, is evidence of their wide acceptance for business communications.

  16. DeepSkeleton: Learning Multi-Task Scale-Associated Deep Side Outputs for Object Skeleton Extraction in Natural Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Bai, Xiang; Yuille, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Object skeletons are useful for object representation and object detection. They are complementary to the object contour, and provide extra information, such as how object scale (thickness) varies among object parts. But object skeleton extraction from natural images is very challenging, because it requires the extractor to be able to capture both local and non-local image context in order to determine the scale of each skeleton pixel. In this paper, we present a novel fully convolutional network with multiple scale-associated side outputs to address this problem. By observing the relationship between the receptive field sizes of the different layers in the network and the skeleton scales they can capture, we introduce two scale-associated side outputs to each stage of the network. The network is trained by multi-task learning, where one task is skeleton localization to classify whether a pixel is a skeleton pixel or not, and the other is skeleton scale prediction to regress the scale of each skeleton pixel. Supervision is imposed at different stages by guiding the scale-associated side outputs toward the groundtruth skeletons at the appropriate scales. The responses of the multiple scale-associated side outputs are then fused in a scale-specific way to detect skeleton pixels using multiple scales effectively. Our method achieves promising results on two skeleton extraction datasets, and significantly outperforms other competitors. Additionally, the usefulness of the obtained skeletons and scales (thickness) are verified on two object detection applications: Foreground object segmentation and object proposal detection.

  17. Distinct development of the glycinergic terminals in the ventral and dorsal horns of the mouse cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Masanobu; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Kim, Jeongtae; Kobayashi, Shiori; Kosaka, Yoshinori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Matsushita, Masayuki; Okabe, Akihito; Takayama, Chitoshi

    2017-02-20

    In the spinal cord, glycine and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) are inhibitory neurotransmitters. However, the ontogeny of the glycinergic network remains unclear. To address this point, we examined the developmental formation of glycinergic terminals by immunohistochemistry for glycine transporter 2 (GlyT2), a marker of glycinergic terminals, in developing mouse cervical spinal cord. Furthermore, the developmental localization of GlyT2 was compared with that of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker of GABAergic terminals, and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), a marker of inhibitory terminals, by single and double immunolabeling. GlyT2-positive dots (glycinergic terminals) were first detected in the marginal zone on embryonic day 14 (E14). In the ventral horn, they were detected at E16 and increased in observed density during postnatal development. Until postnatal day 7 (P7), GAD-positive dots (GABAergic terminals) were dominant and GlyT2 immunolabeling was localized at GAD-positive dots. During the second postnatal week, GABAergic terminals markedly decreased and glycinergic terminals became dominant. In the dorsal horn, glycinergic terminals were detected at P0 in lamina IV and P7 in lamina III and developmentally increased. GlyT2 was also localized at GAD-positive dots, and colocalizing dots were dominant at P21. VGAT-positive dots (inhibitory terminals) continued to increase until P21. These results suggest that GABAergic terminals first appear during embryonic development and may often change to colocalizing terminals throughout the gray matter during development. The colocalizing terminals may remain in the dorsal horn, whereas in the ventral horn, colocalizing terminals may give rise to glycinergic terminals. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fuzzy-Logic Based Detection and Characterization of Junctions and Terminations in Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojević, Miroslav; Smal, Ihor; Meijering, Erik

    2016-04-01

    Digital reconstruction of neuronal cell morphology is an important step toward understanding the functionality of neuronal networks. Neurons are tree-like structures whose description depends critically on the junctions and terminations, collectively called critical points, making the correct localization and identification of these points a crucial task in the reconstruction process. Here we present a fully automatic method for the integrated detection and characterization of both types of critical points in fluorescence microscopy images of neurons. In view of the majority of our current studies, which are based on cultured neurons, we describe and evaluate the method for application to two-dimensional (2D) images. The method relies on directional filtering and angular profile analysis to extract essential features about the main streamlines at any location in an image, and employs fuzzy logic with carefully designed rules to reason about the feature values in order to make well-informed decisions about the presence of a critical point and its type. Experiments on simulated as well as real images of neurons demonstrate the detection performance of our method. A comparison with the output of two existing neuron reconstruction methods reveals that our method achieves substantially higher detection rates and could provide beneficial information to the reconstruction process.

  19. Output Tracking Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Fliess Functional Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The output tracking problem is investigated for a nonlinear affine system with multiple modes of continuous control inputs. We convert the family of nonlinear affine systems under consideration into a switched hybrid system by introducing a multiple-valued logic variable. The Fliess functional expansion is adopted to express the input and output relationship of the switched hybrid system. The optimal switching control is determined for a multiple-step output tracking performance index. The proposed approach is applied to a multitarget tracking problem for a flight vehicle aiming for one real target with several decoys flying around it in the terminal guidance course. These decoys appear as apparent targets and have to be distinguished with the approaching of the flight vehicle. The guidance problem of one flight vehicle versus multiple apparent targets should be considered if no large miss distance might be caused due to the limitation of the flight vehicle maneuverability. The target orientation at each time interval is determined. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  1. System and Network Security Acronyms and Abbreviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Systems Agency DLL dynamic link library DMA direct memory access DMZ demilitarized zone DN distinguished name DN domain name DNP Distributed...NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System NetBT NetBIOS over TCP/IP NFAT network forensic analysis tool NFC near field communication NFS network file...Software Reference Library NSS Network Security Services NSTB National SCADA Test Bed NSTISSC National Security Telecommunications and Information

  2. Joint Design and Pricing of Intermodal Port - Hinterland Network Services: Considering Economies of Scale and Service Time Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Ypsilantis (Panagiotis); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractMaritime container terminal operating companies have extended their role from node operators to that of multimodal transport network operators. They have extended the gates of their seaport terminals to the gates of inland terminals in their network by means of frequent services of high

  3. A multi-GHz chaotic optoelectronic oscillator based on laser terminal voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. Y., E-mail: cychang@gatech.edu [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, Georgia Tech Lorraine, 2 Rue Marconi, F-57070 Metz (France); Choi, Daeyoung; Locquet, A., E-mail: alexandre@gatech.edu; Wishon, Michael J.; Citrin, D. S., E-mail: david.citrin@ece.gatech.edu [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech-CNRS, Georgia Tech Lorraine, 2 Rue Marconi, F-57070 Metz (France); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Merghem, K.; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Martinez, A. [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Lelarge, François [Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, CNRS, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); III-V Lab, A Joint Laboratory of Alcatel Lucent Bell Labs and Thales Research and Technology and CEA-LETI, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2016-05-09

    A multi-GHz chaotic optoelectronic oscillator based on an external cavity semiconductor laser (ECL) is demonstrated. Unlike the standard optoelectronic oscillators for microwave applications, we do not employ the dynamic light output incident on a photodiode to generate the microwave signal, but instead generate the microwave signal directly by measuring the terminal voltage V(t) of the laser diode of the ECL under constant-current operation, thus obviating the photodiode entirely.

  4. DNA Memory and Input/Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    There are also Linux downloads for an SBW broker, the Metatool agent, and the NOM agent that handles providing an SBML file to Metatool. It is also...Model ( NOM ) and MetaToolSBW, a network analysis tool. These help to develop a pipeline from genome sequence and annotation to metabolic and genetic...4.8E+005 3.1E+005 4.2E+ 004 2E+005 1.3E+005 5.6E+ 004 49.5 50 50.5 51 51.5 52 52.5 485.5 486 486.5 487 487.5 488 488.5 489 489.5 490 490.5 rt m /z

  5. Ship Benchmark Shaft and Engine Gain FDI Using Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2002-01-01

    This paper concerns fault detection and isolation based on neural network modeling. A neural network is trained to recognize the input-output behavior of a nonlinear plant, and faults are detected if the output estimated by the network differs from the measured plant output by more than a specified...... threshold value. In the paper a method for determining this threshold based on the neural network model is proposed, which can be used for a design strategy to handle residual sensitivity to input variations. The proposed method is used for successful FDI of a diesel engine gain fault in a ship propulsion...

  6. A Study on the Efficiency of Container Terminals in Korea and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Bin Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to derive implications required for efficiency improvement and management level enhancement by selecting container terminals within major large ports of Korea and China as comparison units, evaluating their relative efficiencies and analyzing the trend of changes in their efficiencies. Since the scope of comparison subjects has been narrowed down to container terminals unlike previous studies, it is expected that the study results would have significant meaning due to the fact that it would be possible to compare and analyze in more detail. To achieve the objective, 30 major container terminals in both countries are selected, input and output variables are defined for each terminal and the DEA (data envelopment analysis model is used to conduct an analysis. The results show that the efficiency of major terminals in Korea (CCR: 0.815, BCC: 0.886 showed similar efficiency with China's terminals (CCR: 0.817, BCC: 0.887. While previous studies conclude that the efficiency of ports in Korea is far lower than that of ports in China.

  7. Modelflow underestimates cardiac output in heat-stressed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, Manabu; Wilson, Thad E; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    An estimation of cardiac output can be obtained from arterial pressure waveforms using the Modelflow method. However, whether the assumptions associated with Modelflow calculations are accurate during whole body heating is unknown. This project tested the hypothesis that cardiac output obtained via...... Modelflow accurately tracks thermodilution-derived cardiac outputs during whole body heat stress. Acute changes of cardiac output were accomplished via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermic and heat-stressed conditions. In nine healthy normotensive subjects, arterial pressure was measured...... via brachial artery cannulation and the volume-clamp method of the Finometer. Cardiac output was estimated from both pressure waveforms using the Modeflow method. In normothermic conditions, cardiac outputs estimated via Modelflow (arterial cannulation: 6.1 ± 1.0 l/min; Finometer 6.3 ± 1.3 l/min) were...

  8. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  9. Adaptive Neural Output Feedback Control for Uncertain Robot Manipulators with Input Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators with input saturation using the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN and disturbance observer. First, the RBFNN is used to approximate the system uncertainty, and the unknown approximation error of the RBFNN and the time-varying unknown external disturbance of robot manipulators are integrated as a compounded disturbance. Then, the state observer and the disturbance observer are proposed to estimate the unmeasured system state and the unknown compounded disturbance based on RBFNN. At the same time, the adaptation technique is employed to tackle the control input saturation problem. Utilizing the estimate outputs of the RBFNN, the state observer, and the disturbance observer, the adaptive neural output feedback control scheme is developed for robot manipulators using the backstepping technique. The convergence of all closed-loop signals is rigorously proved via Lyapunov analysis and the asymptotically convergent tracking error is obtained under the integrated effect of the system uncertainty, the unmeasured system state, the unknown external disturbance, and the input saturation. Finally, numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive neural output feedback control scheme for uncertain robot manipulators.

  10. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  11. Stock Returns and Output Growth in Emerging and Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies the correlation between output growth and lagged stock returns in a panel of emerging market economies and advanced economies. It finds that the correlation is as strong in emerging market economies as in advanced economies. Asset prices therefore contain valuable information to forecast output also in emerging market economies. Moreover, the paper finds that the strength of the correlation between output growth and lagged stock returns is significantly related to a number ...

  12. Gambling with video lottery terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, J P; Mazer, D B

    2001-09-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 7 persons who had significant involvements with video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling, and themes associated with different phases of the gambling experience were identified. The preinvolvement phase was characterized by lack of meaningful relationships, problematic relationships, and feelings of loss. Early involvement reflected attempts to "fill the void" and the casual innocence of initial VLT playing. The deepening involvement phase indicated themes of the language of relationship, for example, focused engagement, emotional highs and lows, and the escape and competition offered by gambling. Ending involvement themes included the emotional difficulty of quitting and strategies used to break the habit. Implications of these results for models of addiction and for the treatment of gambling problems are explored.

  13. Over the Air Testing of MIMO Capable Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei

    This thesis focuses on multi-probe anechoic chamber testing, which is a promising over the air (OTA) testing method to evaluate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals. With MIMO technology being adopted by new wireless technologies, mobile manufacturers and cellular operators need...... standard test methods to evaluate MIMO device performance. Due to its capability to reproduce radio multipath environments in a shielded laboratory, the multi-probe anechoic chamber method has attracted great research attention. This thesis addresses various aspects related to OTA testing of MIMO capable...... synthesis (PFS) technique is proposed to reproduce geometry-based stochastic channel models (GBSMs) in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. Plane wave synthesis technique for channel emulation purpose is investigated theoretically and experimentally in the thesis as well. The required number of probes...

  14. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, M.; Wise, M.; Mohammed, A.

    2013-04-01

    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output. Catalogue identifier: AEOQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19165 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6300592 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer capable of running Mathematica. Operating system: Any capable of running Mathematica. Tested on Linux, Mac, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: Recommended 2 Gigabytes or more. Supplementary material: Additional test data files are available. Classification: 1.7, 14. Nature of problem: Find a way to quickly and thoroughly analyze the output of a MESA run, including all the profiles, and have an efficient method to produce graphical representations of the data. Solution method: We created two scripts (to be run consecutively). The first one downloads all the data from a MESA run and organizes the profiles in order of age. All the files are saved as tables or arrays of tables which can then be accessed very quickly by Mathematica. The second script uses the Manipulate function to create a graphical interface which allows the user to choose what to plot from a set of menus and buttons. The information shown is updated in real time. The user can access very quickly all the data from the run under examination and visualize it with plots and tables. Unusual features: Moving the

  15. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  16. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  17. NACP Regional: Supplemental Gridded Observations, Biosphere and Inverse Model Outputs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains standardized gridded observation data, terrestrial biospheric model output, and inverse model simulations that were compiled but not...

  18. Global output gap and domestic inflation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chengsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether globalization has led to greater sensitivity of Chinese consumer price inflation to the global output gap. The empirical analysis uses quarterly data over the period 1995-2012. The global output gap is measured by weighted output gap of China’s top eighteen trading partners. Estimating Phillips curve models and vector autoregressive models, we find that global capacity constraints have both explanatory and predictive power for domestic consumer’s price inflation in China. Therefore, the central bank of China should react to developments in global output gaps.

  19. Dynamic QoS Configuration of a DVB-RCS Satellite Terminal for SIPbased Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemin, Baptiste; Berthou, Pascal; Gayraud, Thierry; Baudoin, Cedric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Satellite systems were long-dedicated mainly to broadcast services as television whereas Internet access was offered by terrestrial networks as DSL technologies. However, the democratization of DVB-S terminal, the standardization of a return channel via satellite (DVB-RCS) and the significant breakthroughs leading to DVB-S2 standard have allowed them to represent an interesting alternative to terrestrial networks in remote areas. But, to be competitive, DVB-S2/RCS syst...

  20. A large-scale biomass bulk terminal

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the possibility of a large-scale bulk terminal in West Europe dedicated to handle solid and liquid biomass materials. Various issues regarding the conceptual design of such a terminal have been investigated and demonstrated in this research: the potential biomass materials that will be the major international trade flows in the future, the characteristics of these potential biomass materials, the interaction between the material properties and terminal equipment, the pe...