WorldWideScience

Sample records for network freeway incident

  1. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  2. Modelling freeway networks by hybrid stochastic models

    OpenAIRE

    Boel, R.; Mihaylova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Traffic flow on freeways is a nonlinear, many-particle phenomenon, with complex interactions between the vehicles. This paper presents a stochastic hybrid model of freeway traffic at a time scale and at a level of detail suitable for on-line flow estimation, for routing and ramp metering control. The model describes the evolution of continuous and discrete state variables. The freeway is considered as a network of components, each component representing a different section of the network. The...

  3. On the measurement and valuation of travel time variability due to incidents on freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Incidents on freeways frequently cause long, unanticipated delays, increasing the economic cost of travel to motorists. This paper provides a simple model for estimating the mean and variance of time lost due to incidents on freeways. It also reviews...

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INCIDENT SERVICE TIME ON URBAN FREEWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a fuzzy incident response model is formulated in terms of incident, type of vehicle, type of incident vehicle, location of incident vehicle, and incident service time. In order to analyze the reliability of the proposed model, the application of the model is made using the actual incident data collected on the freeway in the Los Angeles area. The application of the model shows that the fuzzy incident response system is very effective in describing the actual judgment of the incident operators in terms of incident service time.

  5. Modeling and Density Estimation of an Urban Freeway Network Based on Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangzhou; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-29

    In this paper, in order to describe complex network systems, we firstly propose a general modeling framework by combining a dynamic graph with hybrid automata and thus name it Dynamic Graph Hybrid Automata (DGHA). Then we apply this framework to model traffic flow over an urban freeway network by embedding the Cell Transmission Model (CTM) into the DGHA. With a modeling procedure, we adopt a dual digraph of road network structure to describe the road topology, use linear hybrid automata to describe multi-modes of dynamic densities in road segments and transform the nonlinear expressions of the transmitted traffic flow between two road segments into piecewise linear functions in terms of multi-mode switchings. This modeling procedure is modularized and rule-based, and thus is easily-extensible with the help of a combination algorithm for the dynamics of traffic flow. It can describe the dynamics of traffic flow over an urban freeway network with arbitrary topology structures and sizes. Next we analyze mode types and number in the model of the whole freeway network, and deduce a Piecewise Affine Linear System (PWALS) model. Furthermore, based on the PWALS model, a multi-mode switched state observer is designed to estimate the traffic densities of the freeway network, where a set of observer gain matrices are computed by using the Lyapunov function approach. As an example, we utilize the PWALS model and the corresponding switched state observer to traffic flow over Beijing third ring road. In order to clearly interpret the principle of the proposed method and avoid computational complexity, we adopt a simplified version of Beijing third ring road. Practical application for a large-scale road network will be implemented by decentralized modeling approach and distributed observer designing in the future research.

  6. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management. Inspired by the macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD), describing the relationship between production (average flow completing the trips) and vehicle accumulation (average density) in a traffic network, t...

  7. Expressway and Freeway Emergencies. California Fire Service Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    This manual has been prepared to assist in training fire department personnel for extending emergency service on expressways and freeways. Information provided in the manual is designed to answer questions dealing with these topics: (1) Expressway and Freeway Incidents and Operations, (2) Special Expressway and Freeway Problems, (3) Sizing Up…

  8. Traffic incidents analysis on Slovenian motorway network

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis we were analysing traffic incidents (such as accidents, congestions, heavy snow, etc.) on Slovenian road network, specifically we focused on incidents on motorways. We were starting from database of incidents provided by Prometno-informacijski center (Traffic information center) and added information about hourly traffic at the moment of incident. We were also researching possible correlations between weather and traffic congestions and accidents as well as behaviour of ...

  9. The Nimitz Freeway Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2004-10-01

    One of the most tragic sights created by the Loma Prieta earthquake of Oct. 17, 1989, was the collapse of the double-deck Nimitz Freeway (the Cypress Street Viaduct on Interstate 880) just south and east of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in Oakland. Along a 1.4-km north-south stretch, the upper deck of the freeway fell on top of the lower deck of the freeway, killing 42 motorists (see Fig. 1). Even though the earthquake occurred during rush hour (5:04 p.m.), traffic was extremely light that day because the third game of the World Series between the Oakland Athletics and the San Francisco Giants was about to begin and many commuters were already at home in front of their television sets.

  10. Freeway management and operations handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    This document is the third such handbook for freeway management and operations. It is intended to be an introductory : manual a resource document that provides an overview of the various institutional and technical issues associated with the : pl...

  11. Traffic behavior at freeway bottlenecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This study examines traffic behavior in the vicinity of a freeway bottleneck, revisiting commonly held : assumptions and uncovering systematic biases that likely have distorted empirical studies of bottleneck : formation, capacity drop, and the funda...

  12. A Comparison of Freeway Work Zone Capacity Prediction Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, N.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Peters, D.

    2011-01-01

    To keep the freeway networks in a good condition, road works such as maintenance and reconstruction are carried out regularly. The resulting work zones including the related traffic management measures, give different traffic capacities of the infrastructures, which determines the travel time for

  13. Modeling cooperative driving behavior in freeway merges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Merging locations are major sources of freeway bottlenecks and are therefore important for freeway operations analysis. Microscopic simulation tools have been successfully used to analyze merging bottlenecks and to design optimum geometric configurat...

  14. Improve FREQ macroscopic freeway analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The primary objectives of this project have been to provide technical assistance on district freeway analysis projects, enhance the FREQ model based on guidance and suggestions from Caltrans staff members, and offer three freeway analysis workshops f...

  15. Freeway travel-time estimation and forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This project presents a microsimulation-based framework for generating short-term forecasts of travel time on freeway corridors. The microsimulation model that is developed (GTsim), replicates freeway capacity drop and relaxation phenomena critical f...

  16. Estimation of traffic recovery time for different flow regimes on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study attempts to estimate post-incident traffic recovery time along a freeway using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. It has been found that there is a linear relationship between post-incident traffic recovery time, and incident time and traf...

  17. Improving freight crash incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the most effective way to mitigate the effect of freight : crash incidents on Louisiana freeways. Candidate incident management strategies were reviewed from : practice in other states and from those publi...

  18. Variable speed limit strategies’ analysis with cell transmission model on freeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shubin; Cao, Danni

    2017-08-01

    Mainline freeway traffic flow control is one of the primary methods of traffic management, which can present the best network situation. In this paper, we integrate variable speed limit (VSL) strategy into the cell transmission model (CTM). Then the implementation of the integrated model on freeway traffic network is discussed. A novel optimal model of controlling freeway traffic flow is proposed for minimizing the total travelling time in the network. A solution algorithm is designed by using a simulation method. Considering the main purpose of the speed limit strategy is to control the mainstream flow, we compare the case where the VSL is used with the one without VSL. A simulation is implemented to show that the control strategy is efficient in describing system’s dynamic performance and the dynamic speed limit strategy significantly alleviates congestion.

  19. Road Network Reliability durung an inundation incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzoni, Chrysanthi

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, almost all mobile phones are becoming multi-devices, with manifold uses. A medium-cost modern mobile phone has more than one extra function. For instance, a GPS antenna; a GPS receiver may also be integrated into other devices such as in vehicle satellite navigators or PDA's. In other words, there may not be an alternative way to communicate once people are trapped in a traffic jam, apart from using equipment that in many cases contains a GPS receiver. The target of the proposed PhD project is the creation of a satellite navigation algorithm, capable of giving exact directions for escape, during a flood emergency, in optimum time. To do so, it is necessary to know the spatial distribution of the flood in question. This is information that can be taken from two sources; the 10-year-ERS SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data archive and mathematical models for flood expansion. Once all the information needed is acquired, a GIS platform may be used together with software that deals with network functionality. At the end, a real time emergency product could emerge, as a result of work on a three year PhD thesis

  20. Detection of Cyberbullying Incidents on the Instagram Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinmardi, Homa; Mattson, Sabrina Arredondo; Rafiq, Rahat Ibn; Han, Richard; Lv, Qin; Mishra, Shivakant

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing problem affecting more than half of all American teens. The main goal of this paper is to investigate fundamentally new approaches to understand and automatically detect incidents of cyberbullying over images in Instagram, a media-based mobile social network. To this end, we have collected a sample Instagram data set consisting of images and their associated comments, and designed a labeling study for cyberbullying as well as image content using human labelers at th...

  1. Prediction of Cyberbullying Incidents on the Instagram Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinmardi, Homa; Mattson, Sabrina Arredondo; Rafiq, Rahat Ibn; Han, Richard; Lv, Qin; Mishr, Shivakant

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a growing problem affecting more than half of all American teens. The main goal of this paper is to investigate fundamentally new approaches to understand and automatically detect and predict incidents of cyberbullying in Instagram, a media-based mobile social network. In this work, we have collected a sample data set consisting of Instagram images and their associated comments. We then designed a labeling study and employed human contributors at the crowd-sourced CrowdFlower...

  2. Freeway Multisensor Data Fusion Approach Integrating Data from Cellphone Probes and Fixed Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanglu He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freeway traffic state information from multiple sources provides sufficient support to the traffic surveillance but also brings challenges. This paper made an investigation into the fusion of a new data combination from cellular handoff probe system and microwave sensors. And a fusion method based on the neural network technique was proposed. To identify the factors influencing the accuracy of fusion results, we analyzed the sensitivity of those factors by changing the inputs of neural-network-based fusion model. The results showed that handoff link length and sample size were identified as the most influential parameters to the precision of fusion. Then, the effectiveness and capability of proposed fusion method under various traffic conditions were evaluated. And a comparative analysis between the proposed method and other fusion approaches was conducted. The results of simulation test and evaluation showed that the fusion method could complement the drawback of each collection method, improve the overall estimation accuracy, adapt to the variable traffic condition (free flow or incident state, suit the fusion of data from cellphone probes and fixed sensors, and outperform other fusion methods.

  3. A Comparison of Floating Car vs. Loop Detector Estimated Freeway Travel Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongren Wang, Ph.D. P.E. T.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Floating car- and loop detector-based methods are two different types of methods frequently used to collect travel time delay information across a freeway network. Sometimes, it is necessary to use them jointly to achieve the necessary freeway network coverage, due to the high labor costs for the floating car-based method and the indispensability of sufficient network instrumentation for the loop detector-based method. For example, both floating car- and loop detector-based methods were once used in the Highway Congestion Monitoring Program in the California Department of Transportation. It is therefore necessary to evaluate whether these two types of methods estimate similarly in terms of total travel time delay. To this end, corresponding delay information estimated using both types of methods from 37 freeway segments in the Greater Sacramento Area were collected and compared. It was found that these two types of methods do not estimate similarly in terms of total segment travel time delay. The mean absolute relative difference (MARD can be as high as 78%, especially when delay is defined using a lower reference speed, such as 56 km/h. However, in terms of total segment travel time, the loop detector and the modified floating car method estimated similarly. The MARD is 19%. It was also found that the estimation from the different methods did correlate fairly well, which provides a means of conversion when different methods are used to monitor the total delay across a freeway network. As a spin-off, it was also found that a 1.5 km spacing of loop detectors is sufficient to achieve the 19% MARD as compared with the modified floating car method in terms of total travel time estimation.

  4. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Economic evaluation of tehran-north freeway project with an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the evaluation of freeways and highways with an emphasis on the environmental impacts have been less considered in Iranian scientific and expert forums, so that most of studies have been directed at technical issues. Also, a variety of reports have been presented about Tehran-North Freeway, but since this ...

  6. Vehicle-class Specific Control of Freeway Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.

    2013-01-01

    The increase of mobility of the past decades has led to substantial congestion on the freeways. Traffic jams emerge both on a daily basis at the same location, as well as during accidents when a part of the freeways is temporarily blocked. In those cases, traffic management centers intervene into

  7. Adsorption of heavy metal in freeway by asphalt block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metals are toxic, persistent, and carcinogenic in freeway. Various techniques are available for the removal of heavy metals from waste water among soils during freeway including ion-exchange, membrane filtration, electrolysis, coagulation, flotation, and adsorption. Among them, bio-sorption processes are widely used for heavy metal and other pollutant removal due to its sustainable, rapid and economic. In this paper, heavy metal removal facilitated by adsorption in plants during freeway was illustrated to provide concise information on exploring the adsorption efficiency.

  8. Freeway geometric design for active traffic management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Continued growth in travel on congested urban freeway corridors exceeds the ability of agencies to provide sufficient solutions and alternatives based on traditional roadway expansion and improvement projects. Several countries are implementing manag...

  9. Cellular automata model for use with real freeway data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The exponential rate of increase in freeway traffic is expanding the need for accurate and : realistic methods to model and predict traffic flow. Traffic modeling and simulation facilitates an : examination of both microscopic and macroscopic views o...

  10. Correlation Analysis of Fleet Information Warfare Center Network Incidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ginn, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    .... To allow for efficient access and utilization of the information systems sharing the network the Intrusion Detection Systems must be set at a level that filters out activity deemed as normal or non...

  11. Innovative methods for calculation of freeway travel time using limited data : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Description: Travel time estimations created by processing of simulated freeway loop detector data using proposed method have been compared with travel times reported from VISSIM model. An improved methodology was proposed to estimate freeway corrido...

  12. Assessing segment- and corridor-based travel-time reliability on urban freeways : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Travel time and its reliability are intuitive performance measures for freeway traffic operations. The objective of this project was to quantify segment-based and corridor-based travel time reliability measures on urban freeways. To achieve this obje...

  13. Addressing water incidents by using pipe network models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yoyo, Sonwabiso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available NETWORK MODELS Sonwabiso YOYO, Philip R. PAGE, S’Bonelo ZULU, Frances A’BEAR 1 1 Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), 11 Jan Cilliers Road, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 7600. Tel: +27 (21) 888 2478. Email: syoyo...

  14. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Sande Marianne AB

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs. Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of electronic medical records for monitoring the incidence of chlamydia cases diagnosed in primary care in the Netherlands. Methods In the electronic records of two regional and two national networks, we identified chlamydia diagnoses by means of ICPC codes (International Classification of Primary Care, laboratory results in free text and the prescription of antibiotics. The year of study was 2007 for the two regional networks and one national network, for the other national network the year of study was 2005. We calculated the incidence of diagnosed chlamydia cases per sex, age group and degree of urbanization. Results A large diversity was observed in the way chlamydia episodes were coded in the four different GP networks and how easily information concerning chlamydia diagnoses could be extracted. The overall incidence ranged from 103.2/100,000 to 590.2/100,000. Differences were partly related to differences between patient populations. Nevertheless, we observed similar trends in the incidence of chlamydia diagnoses in all networks and findings were in line with earlier reports. Conclusions Electronic patient records, originally intended for individual patient care in general practice, can be an additional source of data for monitoring chlamydia incidence in primary care and can be of use in assessing the future impact of population-based chlamydia screening programs. To increase the usefulness of data we recommend more efforts to standardize registration by (specific ICPC code and laboratory results across the existing GP networks.

  15. Applying the concept of network enabled capabilities to incident management in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immers, L.H.; Huisken, G.

    2008-01-01

    The application of Incident Management to the Dutch road network suffers from serious problems in terms of availability of accurate and up-to-date information. In this paper we present an approach aimed at diminishing the occurrence of misunderstandings. This approach is based on the concept of

  16. A topology visualization early warning distribution algorithm for large-scale network security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology.

  17. A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Fan, Guotao; Ye, Jianwei; Zhang, Weizhe

    2013-01-01

    It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system's emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks' damage, and strengthen the system's counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system's plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks' topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology. PMID:24191145

  18. A Topology Visualization Early Warning Distribution Algorithm for Large-Scale Network Security Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great significance to research the early warning system for large-scale network security incidents. It can improve the network system’s emergency response capabilities, alleviate the cyber attacks’ damage, and strengthen the system’s counterattack ability. A comprehensive early warning system is presented in this paper, which combines active measurement and anomaly detection. The key visualization algorithm and technology of the system are mainly discussed. The large-scale network system’s plane visualization is realized based on the divide and conquer thought. First, the topology of the large-scale network is divided into some small-scale networks by the MLkP/CR algorithm. Second, the sub graph plane visualization algorithm is applied to each small-scale network. Finally, the small-scale networks’ topologies are combined into a topology based on the automatic distribution algorithm of force analysis. As the algorithm transforms the large-scale network topology plane visualization problem into a series of small-scale network topology plane visualization and distribution problems, it has higher parallelism and is able to handle the display of ultra-large-scale network topology.

  19. PROACTIVE APPROACH TO THE INCIDENT AND PROBLEM MANAGEMENT IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to communication network maintenance has the capability of enhancing the integrity and reliability of communication networks, as well as of reducing maintenance costs and overall number of incidents. This paper presents approaches to problem and incident prevention with the help of root-cause analysis, aligning that with the goal to foresee software performance. Implementation of proactive approach requires recognition of enterprise's current level of maintenance better insights into available approaches and tools, as well as their comparison, interoperability, integration and further development. The approach we are proposing and elaborating in this paper lies on the construction of a metamodel of the problem management of information technology, particularly the proactive problem management. The metamodel is derived from the original ITIL specification and presented in an object-oriented fashion by using structure (class diagrams conform to UML notation. Based on current research, appropriate metrics based on the concept of Key Performance Indicators is suggested.

  20. Concept of operations and policy implications for unmanned aircraft systems use for traffic incident management (UAS-TIM) : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Texas freeways experience considerable traffic congestionsome from high traffic volumes and some from traffic incidents, both minor (e.g., crashes, stalls, and road debris) and major (e.g., vehicle rollovers, chemical spills, flooding, and hurrica...

  1. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  2. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  3. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995-2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-11-17

    Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men.

  4. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  5. Risk factors related to fatal truck crashes on Korean freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Saerona; Oh, Cheol; Kim, Mijeong

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting truck crashes on freeways and propose recommendations for safer truck traffic operations. Truck crashes were analyzed to identify how truck traffic safety is related to prevailing traffic and weather conditions. Prevailing traffic conditions were characterized by central tendencies and the spatiotemporal variation of traffic parameters collected from freeway traffic surveillance systems. A total of 377 truck crashes occurring on Korean freeways in a recent 3-year period, 2008-2010, were analyzed together with corresponding prevailing traffic conditions and weather conditions. Several statistical tests were conducted to understand the characteristics of prevailing traffic conditions before crash occurrence based on different weather conditions. In addition, a binary logistic regression technique was applied to identify causal factors affecting truck crash severity under normal and adverse weather conditions. Major findings from the analyses are discussed with truck operations strategies including speed enforcement, variable speed limit, and truck lane restriction from the safety enhancement point of view. Speed-related variables representing prevailing traffic conditions before crash occurrences were found to be the most statistically significant factors affecting truck crash severity, compared to volume-related variables such as the volume-to-capacity ratio (v/c). It is inferred that speed management is an effective tool for safer truck traffic operations on freeways. The major findings can be further discussed to derive valuable insights into truck traffic operations based on different weather conditions, such as normal and adverse. Some recommendations for safer truck traffic operations were presented based on the results obtained. The outcomes of this study could be effectively utilized to support the development of various traffic operations strategies and policies for truck traffic safety

  6. Estimation of Crash Severity on Mountainous Freeways in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunwei Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountainous freeways always suffer from accidents due to special terrain, weather conditions, driving environment, and so on. Based on the records of 898 accidents that occurred on mountainous freeways in Chongqing during the past 6 years, the partial proportional odds model is used to identify the factors affecting the accident severity. The time of the accident, season, involvement of trucks, accident characteristics, speeding, maximum driving experience of involved drivers, and weather and road conditions are found to be important for the levels of accident severity. Zero to 6 a.m. and 19 to 24 p.m. are the times prone to serious traffic accidents. The probability of serious traffic accidents in summer and autumn is greater than that in spring and winter. Once a truck is involved in an accident, the consequence is often more severe. Turnover and speeding will result in a grave accident. When there is an experienced driver, the probability of serious traffic accidents is low. The fog is extremely unfavorable weather conditions. The probability of serious accident happening in the downgrade, ramp, curve, bridge, and tunnel sections is greater than the others. The results aim to provide valuable reference for traffic safety on mountainous freeways.

  7. Low Cost Wireless Network Camera Sensors for Traffic Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Many freeways and arterials in major cities in Texas are presently equipped with video detection cameras to : collect data and help in traffic/incident management. In this study, carefully controlled experiments determined : the throughput and output...

  8. Trends in Incidence of Hospitalized Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Cardiovascular Research Network (CVRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kristi; Go, Alan S; Leong, Thomas K; Boudreau, Denise M; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Fortmann, Stephen P; Goldberg, Robert J; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Magid, David J; Margolis, Karen L; McNeal, Catherine J; Newton, Katherine M; Novotny, Rachel; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rosamond, Wayne D; Smith, David H; VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Vupputuri, Suma; Waring, Stephen C; Williams, Marc S; Sidney, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Monitoring trends in cardiovascular events can provide key insights into the effectiveness of prevention efforts. Leveraging data from electronic health records provides a unique opportunity to examine contemporary, community-based trends in acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations. We examined trends in hospitalized acute myocardial infarction incidence among adults aged ≥25 years in 13 US health plans in the Cardiovascular Research Network. The first hospitalization per member for acute myocardial infarction overall and for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification primary discharge codes in each calendar year from 2000 through 2008. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence was calculated per 100,000 person-years using direct adjustment with 2000 US census data. Between 2000 and 2008, we identified 125,435 acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of acute myocardial infarction decreased an average 3.8%/y from 230.5 in 2000 to 168.6 in 2008. Incidence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction decreased 8.7%/y from 104.3 in 2000 to 51.7 in 2008, whereas incidence of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction increased from 126.1 to 129.4 between 2000 and 2004 and then decreased thereafter to 116.8 in 2008. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates generally reflected similar patterns, with relatively larger decreases in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction rates in women compared with men. As compared with 2000, the age-adjusted incidence of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in 2008 was 48% lower among men and 61% lower among women. Among a large, diverse, multicenter community-based insured population, there were significant decreases in incidence of hospitalized acute myocardial infarction and the more serious ST-segment elevation

  9. Medication incidents in primary care medicine: a prospective study in the Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network (Sentinella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnädinger, Markus; Conen, Dieter; Herzig, Lilli; Staehelin, Alfred; Zoller, Marco; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe the type, frequency, seasonal and regional distribution of medication incidents in primary care in Switzerland and to elucidate possible risk factors for medication incidents. Design Prospective surveillance study. Setting Swiss primary healthcare, Swiss Sentinel Surveillance Network. Participants Patients with drug treatment who experienced any erroneous event related to the medication process and interfering with normal treatment course, as judged by their physician. The 180 physicians in the study were general practitioners or paediatricians participating in the Swiss Federal Sentinel reporting system in 2015. Outcomes Primary: medication incidents; secondary: potential risk factors like age, gender, polymedication, morbidity, care-dependency, previous hospitalisation. Results The mean rates of detected medication incidents were 2.07 per general practitioner per year (46.5 per 1 00 000 contacts) and 0.15 per paediatrician per year (2.8 per 1 00 000 contacts), respectively. The following factors were associated with medication incidents (OR, 95% CI): higher age 1.004 per year (1.001; 1.006), care by community nurse 1.458 (1.025; 2.073) and care by an institution 1.802 (1.399; 2.323), chronic conditions 1.052 (1.029; 1.075) per condition, medications 1.052 (1.030; 1.074) per medication, as well as Thurgau Morbidity Index for stage 4: 1.292 (1.004; 1.662), stage 5: 1.420 (1.078; 1.868) and stage 6: 1.680 (1.178; 2.396), respectively. Most cases were linked to an incorrect dosage for a given patient, while prescription of an erroneous medication was the second most common error. Conclusions Medication incidents are common in adult primary care, whereas they rarely occur in paediatrics. Older and multimorbid patients are at a particularly high risk for medication incidents. Reasons for medication incidents are diverse but often seem to be linked to communication problems. PMID:28751484

  10. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  11. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management.

  12. Impact of roadside noise barriers on particle size distributions and pollutants concentrations near freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Zhi; Hudda, Neelakshi; Daher, Nancy; Kam, Winnie; Herner, Jorn; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steven; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2010-08-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence has established an association between a host of adverse health effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and co-pollutants, especially those emitted from motor vehicles. Although PM and their co-pollutants dispersion profiles near the open freeway have been extensively characterized by means of both experimental measurements and numerical simulations in recent years, such investigations near freeways with roadside barriers have not been well documented in the literature. A few previous studies suggested that the presence of roadside structures, such as noise barriers and vegetation, may impact the decay of pollutant concentrations downwind of the freeway by limiting the initial dispersion of traffic emissions and increasing their vertical mixing due to the upward deflection of airflow. Since the noise barriers are now common roadside features of the freeways, particularly those running through populated urban areas, it is pertinent to investigate the impact of their presence on the particles and co-pollutants concentrations in areas adjacent to busy roadways. This study investigated two highly trafficked freeways (I-710 and I-5) in Southern California, with two sampling sites for each freeway, one with and the other without the roadside noise barriers. Particle size distributions and co-pollutants concentrations were measured in the immediate proximity of freeways and at different distances downwind of the freeways. The results showed the formation of a "concentration deficit" zone in the immediate vicinity of the freeway with the presence of roadside noise barrier, followed by a surge of pollutant concentrations further downwind at 80-100 m away from freeway. The particle and co-pollutants concentrations reach background levels at farther distances of 250-400 m compared to 150-200 m at the sites without roadside noise barriers.

  13. Improving incidence estimation in practice-based sentinel surveillance networks using spatial variation in general practitioner density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Souty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In surveillance networks based on voluntary participation of health-care professionals, there is little choice regarding the selection of participants’ characteristics. External information about participants, for example local physician density, can help reduce bias in incidence estimates reported by the surveillance network. Methods There is an inverse association between the number of reported influenza-like illness (ILI cases and local general practitioners (GP density. We formulated and compared estimates of ILI incidence using this relationship. To compare estimates, we simulated epidemics using a spatially explicit disease model and their observation by surveillance networks with different characteristics: random, maximum coverage, largest cities, etc. Results In the French practice-based surveillance network – the “Sentinelles” network – GPs reported 3.6% (95% CI [3;4] less ILI cases as local GP density increased by 1 GP per 10,000 inhabitants. Incidence estimates varied markedly depending on scenarios for participant selection in surveillance. Yet accounting for change in GP density for participants allowed reducing bias. Applied on data from the Sentinelles network, changes in overall incidence ranged between 1.6 and 9.9%. Conclusions Local GP density is a simple measure that provides a way to reduce bias in estimating disease incidence in general practice. It can contribute to improving disease monitoring when it is not possible to choose the characteristics of participants.

  14. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili Sani, V.; Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  15. Wavelength prediction of laser incident on amorphous silicon detector by neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili Sani, V., E-mail: vaheed_esmaeely80@yahoo.com [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moussavi-Zarandi, A.; Kafaee, M. [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, P.O. Box 4155-4494, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-21

    In this paper we present a method based on artificial neural networks (ANN) and the use of only one amorphous semiconductor detector to predict the wavelength of incident laser. Amorphous semiconductors and especially amorphous hydrogenated silicon, a-Si:H, are now widely used in many electronic devices, such as solar cells, many types of position sensitive detectors and X-ray imagers for medical applications. In order to study the electrical properties and detection characteristics of thin films of a-Si:H, n-i-p structures have been simulated by SILVACO software. The basic electronic properties of most of the materials used are known, but device modeling depends on a large number of parameters that are not all well known. In addition, the relationship between the shape of the induced anode current and the wavelength of the incident laser leads to complicated calculations. Soft data-based computational methods can model multidimensional non-linear processes and represent the complex input-output relation between the form of the output signal and the wavelength of incident laser.

  16. Depression and unemployment incidence rate evolution in Portugal, 1995–2013: General Practitioner Sentinel Network data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Sousa-Uva, Mafalda; Fonseca, Rita; Marques, Sara; Pina, Nuno; Matias-Dias, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Quantify, for both genders, the correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal between 1995 and 2013. METHODS An ecological study was developed to correlate the evolution of the depression incidence rates estimated by the General Practitioner Sentinel Network and the annual unemployment rates provided by the National Statistical Institute in official publications. RESULTS There was a positive correlation between the depression incidence rate and the unemployment rate in Portugal, which was significant only for males (R2 = 0.83, p = 0.04). For this gender, an increase of 37 new cases of depression per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated for each 1% increase in the unemployment rate between 1995 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS Although the study design does not allow the establishment of a causal association between unemployment and depression, the results suggest that the evolution of unemployment in Portugal may have had a significant impact on the level of mental health of the Portuguese, especially among men. PMID:29166442

  17. Gastrointestinal illness linked to incidents in drinking water distribution networks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Bylund, John; Malm, Annika; Simonsson, Magnus; Toljander, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    During recent years, knowledge gaps on drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness have been identified, especially for non-epidemic cases. Pathogen contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested to contribute to these cases, but the risk factors are not yet fully understood. During 2014-2015, we conducted an epidemiological study in five municipalities in Sweden, to assess whether incidents in the drinking water distribution system influence the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Telephone interviews were conducted in the affected areas and in reference areas 7-14 days after a reported incident. Symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring during the period were documented for each household member. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of vomiting and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the affected areas, compared to the reference areas (ORvom. = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3; ORAGI = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0). Certain conditions, or risk factors, during the incidents, such as sewage and drinking water pipelines at the same level in the trench, were associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. Safety measures taken during repair work, like flushing, were also associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. These results show that incidents in the drinking water distribution network contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness, especially AGI and vomiting, and that external pathogen contamination of the drinking water is a likely cause of these cases of gastrointestinal illness. The results also indicate that safety measures used today may not be sufficient for eliminating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic biosignal management and transmission during telemedicine incidents handled by Mobile Units over diverse network types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandellos, George J; Koutelakis, George V; Panagiotakopoulos, Theodor C; Koukias, Andreas M; Koukias, Mixalis N; Lymberopoulos, Dimitrios K

    2008-01-01

    Early and specialized pre-hospital patient treatment improves outcome in terms of mortality and morbidity, in emergency cases. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of a telemedicine system that supports diverse types of endpoints including moving transports (MT) (ambulances, ships, planes, etc.), handheld devices and fixed units, using diverse communication networks. Target of the above telemedicine system is the pre-hospital patient treatment. While vital sign transmission is prior to other services provided by the telemedicine system (videoconference, remote management, voice calls etc.), a predefined algorithm controls provision and quality of the other services. A distributed database system controlled by a central server, aims to manage patient attributes, exams and incidents handled by different Telemedicine Coordination Centers (TCC).

  19. The interaction evolution model of mass incidents with delay in a social network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang'an; Ma, Chenyang

    2017-10-01

    Recent years have witnessed rapid development of information technology. Today, modern media is widely used for the purpose of spreading information rapidly and widely. In particular, through micro-blog promotions, individuals tend to express their viewpoints and spread information on the internet, which could easily lead to public opinions. Moreover, government authorities also disseminate official information to guide public opinion and eliminate any incorrect conjecture. In this paper, a dynamical model with two delays is investigated to exhibit the interaction evolution between the public and official opinion fields in network mass incidents. Based on the theory of differential equations, the interaction mechanism between two public opinion fields in a micro-blog environment is analyzed. Two delays are proposed in the model to depict the response delays of public and official opinion fields. Some stable conditions are obtained, which shows that Hopf bifurcation can occur as delays cross critical values. Further, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify theoretical results. Our model indicates that there exists a golden time for government intervention, which should be emphasized given the impact of modern media and inaccurate rumors. If the government releases official information during the golden time, mass incidents on the internet can be controlled effectively.

  20. Freeway travel time estimation using existing fixed traffic sensors : phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Freeway travel time is one of the most useful pieces of information for road users and an : important measure of effectiveness (MOE) for traffic engineers and policy makers. In the Greater : St. Louis area, Gateway Guide, the St. Louis Transportation...

  1. Freeway travel time estimation using existing fixed traffic sensors : phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Travel time, one of the most important freeway performance metrics, can be easily estimated using the : data collected from fixed traffic sensors, avoiding the need to install additional travel time data collectors. : This project is aimed at fully u...

  2. Capacity of Freeway Merge Areas with Different On-Ramp Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Shen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of different types of traffic flows on the capacity of freeway merge areas. Based on the classical gap-acceptance model, two calculating models were established specifically considering randomly arriving vehicles and individual difference in driving behaviours. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented to reproduce the maximum traffic volume on the designed freeway merge area under different situations. The results demonstrated that the proposed calculating models have better performance than the conventional gap-acceptance theory on accurately predicting the capacity of freeway merge areas. The findings of research could be helpful to improve the microscopic traffic flow simulation model from a more practical perspective and support the designing of freeway merge areas as well.

  3. Antihypertensive classes, cognitive decline and incidence of dementia: a network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi Marpillat, Natacha; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle; Tropeano, Anne-Isabelle; Bachoud-Levi, Anne-Catherine; Maison, Patrick

    2013-06-01

    Prevention of cognitive decline and dementia with blood pressure lowering treatments has shown inconsistent results. We compared the effects of different classes of antihypertensive drugs on the incidence of dementia, and on cognitive function. We conducted a systematic review and included 19 randomized trials (18 515 individuals) and 11 studies (831 674 individuals) analysing the effects of antihypertensive treatment on cognition and on the incidence of dementia, respectively, in hypertensive patients without prior cerebrovascular disorders. Network meta-analysis was used for the comparison of antihypertensive classes. Antihypertensive treatment, regardless of the drug class, had benefits on overall cognition [effect size 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02-0.07] and all cognitive functions except language. Antihypertensive treatment reduced the risk of all-cause dementia by 9%, with reference to the control group (hazard ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94), when randomized trials and observationnal studies were combined (n = 15). Result was not significant with randomized trials alone (n = 4). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) had larger benefits than placebo on overall cognition (adjusted effect size 0.60 ± 0.18, P = 0.02). ARBs were more effective than β-blockers (0.67 ± 0.18, P = 0.01), diuretics (0.54 ± 0.19, P = 0.04) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (0.47 ± 0.17, P = 0.04) in rank. The mean change in blood pressure did not differ significantly between the different antihypertensive drug classes. Our results support the notion that antihypertensive treatment has beneficial effects on cognitive decline and prevention of dementia, and indicate that these effects may differ between drug classes with ARBs possibly being the most effective.

  4. [Preliminary application of Back-Propagation artificial neural network model on the prediction of infectious diarrhea incidence in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Gu, Jun-zhong; Mao, Sheng-hua; Xiao, Wen-jia; Jin, Hui-ming; Zheng, Ya-xu; Wang, Yong-ming; Hu, Jia-yu

    2013-12-01

    To establish BP artificial neural network predicting model regarding the daily cases of infectious diarrhea in Shanghai. Data regarding both the incidence of infectious diarrhea from 2005 to 2008 in Shanghai and meteorological factors including temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, duration of sunshine and wind speed within the same periods were collected and analyzed with the MatLab R2012b software. Meteorological factors that were correlated with infectious diarrhea were screened by Spearman correlation analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to remove the multi-colinearities between meteorological factors. Back-Propagation (BP) neural network was employed to establish related prediction models regarding the daily infectious diarrhea incidence, using artificial neural networks toolbox. The established models were evaluated through the fitting, predicting and forecasting processes. Data from Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the incidence of infectious diarrhea had a highly positive correlation with factors as daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, minimum relative humidity and average relative humidity in the previous two days (P prediction. Then appeared to be 4.7811, 6.8921,0.7918,0.8418 and 5.8163, 7.8062,0.7202,0.8180, respectively. The rate on mean error regarding the predictive value to actual incidence in 2008 was 5.30% and the forecasting precision reached 95.63% . Temperature and air pressure showed important impact on the incidence of infectious diarrhea. The BP neural network model had the advantages of low simulation forecasting errors and high forecasting hit rate that could ideally predict and forecast the effects on the incidence of infectious diarrhea.

  5. Evaluating the effects of supplemental rest areas on freeway crashes caused by drowsy driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soyoung; Joo, Shinhye; Oh, Cheol

    2017-02-01

    To prevent crashes caused by drowsy driving, supplemental rest areas have been installed in the South Korean freeway system to allow road users to rest. These supplemental rest areas are very small-sized resting facilities located between the larger regular rest areas, which is a unique design. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the supplemental rest areas on reducing crashes caused by drowsy driving. Between 2011 and 2012, supplemental rest areas were first installed in the Gyeongbu Freeway, which was selected as the study area for this study. The first 160km and 178km stretches of the southbound and northbound lanes, respectively, of the Gyeongbu Freeway were considered the reference areas. For both the southbound and northbound lanes, the downstream stretch of the Gyeongbu Freeway was considered the treatment area where the supplemental rest areas were installed. Based on a negative binomial regression of the crashes estimated in the reference and treatment areas, an empirical Bayes approach was employed to quantitatively validate the effects of the supplemental rest areas on reducing crashes caused by drowsy driving. The results showed that the supplemental rest areas reduced freeway crashes caused by drowsy driving by 14%. The supplemental rest areas were most effective in reducing drowsy driving related crashes particularly in freeway sections with 2 or 3 travel lanes or with ramps. As the first data-driven study evaluating the effects of these supplemental rest areas, the results imply that supplemental rest areas provide more opportunities to avoid drowsy driving, and, therefore they should be encouraged for freeways as cost-effective safety improvement facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety Assessment of Auxiliary Lanes in Freeway Interchange Weaving Areas based on Traffic Conflict Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Rao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Auxiliary lanes can provide an improved weaving environment rather than a forced or direct merge or diverse for vehicles entering and departing freeway weaving segments. Considering China's traffic composition and operational status, this paper proposed safety assessment of auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas based on traffic conflict technique in order to estimate its safety impacts and related influential factors considered in design. Based on freeway interchange weaving areas data and actual traffic characteristics, simulation models were built with VISSIM. This paper used Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM to calculate conflicts by inputting vehicle trajectories from VISSIM, analysed the influence of ramp spacing, lane number of mainline, traffic volume, weaving ratio and percentage of heavy vehicles on safety performance of auxiliary lanes in freeway weaving areas. Finally, Traffic Conflict Modification Factor was presented to evaluate effectiveness of implementing auxiliary lanes. The paper found the safety impacts and related influential factors of auxiliary lanes. T he findings can provide support to effective decision making with regards to constructing future auxiliary lanes in freeway interchange weaving areas.

  7. Population-based incidence and mortality cancer trends (1986-1997) from the network of Italian cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, E; Capocaccia, R; Casella, C; Guzzinati, S; Ferretti, S; Rosso, S; Sacchettini, C; Spitale, A; Stracci, F; Tumino, R

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse incidence and mortality cancer trends in the Italian Network of Cancer Registries (about 8,000,000 inhabitants) during the period 1986-1997. Included were 525,645 newly diagnosed cancers and 269,902 cancer deaths (subjects > 14 years). Joinpoints (points in time where trend significantly changes from linearity) were found and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) used to summarize tendencies. Overall cancer incidence increased in both sexes and cancer mortality significantly decreased (since 1991 among men). Lung cancer showed significantly decreasing incidence (EAPC = -1.4%) and mortality (EAPC = -1.6%) among men and increasing trends among women. In women, breast cancer incidence significantly increased (EAPC= +1.7%) and mortality decreased since 1989 (EAPC= -2.0%). Stomach cancer incidence and mortality decreased in both sexes. Prostate incidence sharply increased since 1991 and mortality decreased. Colon cancer incidence increased and rectum mortality decreased significantly in both sexes. Significant increases in incidence were also found for kidney (up to 1991 among men), urinary bladder, skin epithelioma, melanoma, liver (up to 1993 among men), pancreas, mesothelioma, Kaposi's sarcoma (up to 1995 among men), testis, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Mortality significantly decreased for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, liver (women), larynx (men), bone, cervix (since 1990), central nervous system, urinary bladder, thyroid, Hodgkin's lymphomas and leukaemias (men). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality increased in both sexes. In conclusion, most of the changes seen can be explained as the effect of changes in smoking habits and of the extension of secondary prevention activities. The Italian health care system will also have to cope with growing cancer diagnostic and therapeutic needs due to population ageing.

  8. A Spatio-Temporal exploratory analysis of pipe-failure incidents in the Water Distribution Network of Limassol, Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Gagatsis, Anastasios

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to the use of Geographic Information Systems technology in the Water Distribution Networks of Cyprus. A variety of exploratory, statistical and visualization techniques were used in order to identify patterns in the degradation of the WDN of Limassol. The distribution of pipe-failure incidents was studied at the level of District Metered Areas (DMA) boundary classifications and at the location level using point-pattern analysis methodologies. A modified v...

  9. Drivers’ Visual Search Patterns during Overtaking Maneuvers on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drivers gather traffic information primarily by means of their vision. Especially during complicated maneuvers, such as overtaking, they need to perceive a variety of characteristics including the lateral and longitudinal distances with other vehicles, the speed of others vehicles, lane occupancy, and so on, to avoid crashes. The primary object of this study is to examine the appropriate visual search patterns during overtaking maneuvers on freeways. We designed a series of driving simulating experiments in which the type and speed of the leading vehicle were considered as two influential factors. One hundred and forty participants took part in the study. The participants overtook the leading vehicles just like they would usually do so, and their eye movements were collected by use of the Eye Tracker. The results show that participants’ gaze durations and saccade durations followed normal distribution patterns and that saccade angles followed a log-normal distribution pattern. It was observed that the type of leading vehicle significantly impacted the drivers’ gaze duration and gaze frequency. As the speed of a leading vehicle increased, subjects’ saccade durations became longer and saccade angles became larger. In addition, the initial and destination lanes were found to be key areas with the highest visual allocating proportion, accounting for more than 65% of total visual allocation. Subjects tended to more frequently shift their viewpoints between the initial lane and destination lane in order to search for crucial traffic information. However, they seldom directly shifted their viewpoints between the two wing mirrors.

  10. Road Incidents and Network Dynamics : Effects on driving behaviour and traffic congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, V.L.

    2009-01-01

    Incidents cause a large part of the congestion on the road. This PhD study describes how people change their behaviour when facing an incident situation. It is found that car-following behaviour changes and drivers react slower on their predecessors. Furthermore, it is found that drivers change

  11. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  12. Modeling Vehicle Interior Noise Exposure Dose on Freeways Considering Weaving Segment Designs and Engine Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a lab environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic, road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex for its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters, and improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted to twelve subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. An On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their Out-Of-Bag permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments is quantified to Hazard Quotient, NED and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable, the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness, and subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model performs highly predictive power (R

  13. Review of heavy metal bio-remediation in contaminated freeway facilitated by adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng

    2017-08-01

    Toxicity around biological systems is a significant issue for environmental health in a long term. Recent biotechnological approaches for bio-remediation of heavy metals in freeway frequently include mineralization, bio-adsorption or even remediation. Thus, adequate restoration in freeway requiring cooperation, integration and assimilation of such biotechnological advances along with traditional and ethical wisdom to unravel the mystery of nature in the emerging field of bio-remediation was reviewed with highlights to better understand problems associated with toxicity of heavy metals and eco-friendly technologies.

  14. Traveling waves in an optimal velocity model of freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Woods, Andrew

    2001-03-01

    Car-following models provide both a tool to describe traffic flow and algorithms for autonomous cruise control systems. Recently developed optimal velocity models contain a relaxation term that assigns a desirable speed to each headway and a response time over which drivers adjust to optimal velocity conditions. These models predict traffic breakdown phenomena analogous to real traffic instabilities. In order to deepen our understanding of these models, in this paper, we examine the transition from a linear stable stream of cars of one headway into a linear stable stream of a second headway. Numerical results of the governing equations identify a range of transition phenomena, including monotonic and oscillating travelling waves and a time- dependent dispersive adjustment wave. However, for certain conditions, we find that the adjustment takes the form of a nonlinear traveling wave from the upstream headway to a third, intermediate headway, followed by either another traveling wave or a dispersive wave further downstream matching the downstream headway. This intermediate value of the headway is selected such that the nonlinear traveling wave is the fastest stable traveling wave which is observed to develop in the numerical calculations. The development of these nonlinear waves, connecting linear stable flows of two different headways, is somewhat reminiscent of stop-start waves in congested flow on freeways. The different types of adjustments are classified in a phase diagram depending on the upstream and downstream headway and the response time of the model. The results have profound consequences for autonomous cruise control systems. For an autocade of both identical and different vehicles, the control system itself may trigger formations of nonlinear, steep wave transitions. Further information is available [Y. Sugiyama, Traffic and Granular Flow (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995), p. 137].

  15. Improving Security Incidents Detection for Networked Multilevel Intelligent Control Systems in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Chernov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Security monitoring and incident management systems have become the main research focus in the area of intelligent railway control systems. In this work, we discuss a system architecture of multilevel intelligent control system in Russian Railway transport and security incident classification and the handling of theprocess. We make a detailed explanation of problems and tasks of security information and event management system as an important part of a multilevel intelligent control system. We use a rough sets theory to detect an abnormal activity in the considered system. Our main result consists in the development of simple and fast detection techniques that are based on rough sets theory and allow investigating a new type of incidents.

  16. Quantum angular momentum, projective geometry and the networks of seven and ten spins: Fano, Desargues and alternative incidence configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robenilson F.; Arruda, Manuela S.; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P.; Ragni, Mirco; Prudente, Frederico V.; Coletti, Cecilia; Marzuoli, Annalisa; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2017-07-01

    The basic ingredients of the quantum theory of orbital and spin angular momentum (vector coefficients, 3nj symbols) encounter continuing relevance in wide areas beyond the traditional ones (molecular, atomic and nuclear spectroscopies and dynamics). This paper offers insight on the connection at the most elementary of levels with the diagrammatic approaches to projective geometry. In particular here we exhibit how the Fano, Desargues and related incidence configurations emerge in the Racah and in the Biedenharn-Elliott identities, corresponding respectively to the hexagonal and pentagonal relationships that provide the basis for the construction of 3nj symbols and of spin networks. It is shown that the treatment, although mostly confined to the quadrangulation of the real projective plane, permits however the introduction of networks involving seven and ten spins, and preludes to developments towards computational and asymptotic approaches for quantum and semi-classical applications to spectroscopy and dynamics.

  17. Simulation-Based Testbed Development for Analyzing Toll Impacts on Freeway Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Traffic congestion has been a world-wide problem in metropolitan areas all over the world. Toll-based traffic management is one of the most applicable solutions against freeway congestion. This research chooses two toll roads, the SR-167 HOT Lane and...

  18. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinç Öner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at http://www.ohio.edu/orite/research/uitds.cfm.

  19. Incidence of Larval Anisakiosis in Ocean Fish Sold Through Network of Supermarket Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted on a sample of 33 ocean fish of consumption, mackerel and herring uneviscerated and frosen, packed in plastic bags, different weights and purchased from supermarket chain stores, concerning the incidence and intensity of parasitism by larvae of Anisakis sp. to gut and visceral level, lesion picture caused and also some morphological measurements, reveals an incidence of anisakiasis of 60.0% to 72.2% in mackerel and respectively in herring. Regarding the infestation intensity of Anisakis larvae sp., infestations dominate weakly the mackerel (44.4%, followed by medium (33.3% and massive (22.0%. In contrast to the herring are dominant the medium infestations (46.1%, followed by massive (30.7% and low infestations (23.1%.Table of lesion caused by larval stages in gut and visceral level is characterized by intestinal congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and hemoragico – necrotic and the presence of larval cystic foci on serous of gut, kidneys, liver and gonads. Morphological investigations carried out on a sample of 20 larvae, collected from herring and mackerel, regarding biometric aspects, cuticular and of color, body size variables highlights from 13.0 mm / 0.6 mm minimum to 27.0 / 0.6 mm maximum, with an average of 20.0 mm / 0.5 mm, comparable to those presented in the speciality literature.

  20. Longitudinal safety evaluation of electric vehicles with the partial wireless charging lane on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu; Fan, Qi; Wang, Hao

    2018-02-01

    As an environment friendly transportation mode, the electric vehicle (EV) has drawn an increasing amount of attention from governments, vehicle manufactories and researchers recently. One of the biggest issue impeding EV's popularization associates with the charging process. The wireless charging lane (WCL) has been proposed as a convenient charging facility for EVs. Due to the high costs, the application of WCL on the entire freeways is impractical in the near future, while the partial WCL (PWCL) may be a feasible solution. This study aims to evaluate longitudinal safety of EVs with PWCL on freeways based on simulations. The simulation experiments are firstly designed, including deployment of PWCL on freeways and distribution of state of charge (SOC) of EVs. Then, a vehicle behavior model for EVs is proposed based on the intelligent driver model (IDM). Two surrogate safety measures, derived from time-to-collision (TTC), are utilized as indicators for safety evaluations. Sensitivity analysis is also conducted for related factors. Results show that the distribution of EVs' SOC significantly affect longitudinal safety when the PWCL is utilized. The low SOC in traffic consisting of EVs has the negative effect on longitudinal safety. The randomness and incompliance of EV drivers worsens the safety performance. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the larger maximum deceleration rate results in the higher longitudinal crash risks of EVs, while the length of PWCL has no monotonous effect. Different TTC thresholds also show no impact on results. A case study shows the consistent results. Based on the findings, several suggestions are discussed for EVs' safety improvement. Results of this study provide useful information for freeway safety when EVs are applied in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic analysis of a long span, cable-stayed freeway bridge using NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salus, W. L.; Jones, R. E.; Ice, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    The dynamic analysis for earthquake- and wind-induced response of a long span, cable-stayed freeway bridge by NASTRAN in conjunction with post-processors is described. Details of the structural modeling, the input data generation, and numerical results are given. The influence of the dynamic analysis on the bridge design is traced from the project initiation to the development of a successful earthquake and wind resistant configuration.

  2. Analysis of vehicle headway distribution on multi-lane freeway considering car–truck interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Dewen Kong; Xiucheng Guo

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of vehicle headway on multi-lane freeway under lane management in China considering car–truck interaction. More specifically, the study focused on answering the following two questions: (1) whether the car–truck interaction has impact on headway, that is, headway varies by different leading and following vehicle types and (2) what is the best-fitted distribution model for particular headway type under lane management. The ...

  3. Evaluation of automated speed enforcement on Loop 101 freeway in Scottsdale, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retting, Richard A; Kyrychenko, Sergey Y; McCartt, Anne T

    2008-07-01

    Speed cameras can reduce speeding and injury crashes, but in many communities they are confined to low-speed settings such as residential streets and school zones. In 2006 the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, implemented a 9-month pilot program to evaluate the feasibility and effects of highly visible speed camera enforcement on a busy urban freeway. This was the first use of fixed speed cameras on a major US highway. Deployment of six cameras along an 8-mile corridor was associated with large declines in mean speeds and an 88% decrease in the odds of vehicles traveling 11 mph or more above the 65 mph limit. Traffic speeds increased soon after the pilot program was suspended. In addition to reducing speeding along the enforcement corridor, speed cameras were associated with large reductions in speeding on the same highway but 25 miles away from the camera installations. However, traffic speeds were fairly stable on urban freeways in Scottsdale that were not part of the study road. Public opinion surveys found widespread concerns about speeding on the Loop 101 freeway and high levels of support for speed camera enforcement on this road.

  4. How Much Will I Pay for Freeway Real-Time Traffic Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou .

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although there is research focused on real-time traffic information, in terms of types of information, timing of provision and drivers’ acceptance, not much is related to quantifying real-time traffic information and its perceived value, i.e., amount of information and willingness to pay (WTP for that information. In this study, freeway drivers’ preferred types of real-time traffic information and their willingness to pay for them are investigated. Due to traffic information having the property of non-market goods, a contingent valuation method is applied. A computer-aided survey was conducted in rest areas along freeways to obtain the samples needed. A Spike model is used to overcome the serious biases that would otherwise be caused by numerous zero WTPs in samples when logit and probit models are used. Finally, freeway drivers’ WTP for different types of real-time traffic information can be obtained from the estimation results. The results may be of importance in pricing different types of traffic information more realistically in the future.

  5. A multivariate-based conflict prediction model for a Brazilian freeway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleffi, Felipe; Anzanello, Michel José; Cybis, Helena Beatriz Bettella

    2017-01-01

    Real-time collision risk prediction models relying on traffic data can be useful in dynamic management systems seeking at improving traffic safety. Models have been proposed to predict crash occurrence and collision risk in order to proactively improve safety. This paper presents a multivariate-based framework for selecting variables for a conflict prediction model on the Brazilian BR-290/RS freeway. The Bhattacharyya Distance (BD) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are applied to a dataset comprised of variables that potentially help to explain occurrence of traffic conflicts; the parameters yielded by such multivariate techniques give rise to a variable importance index that guides variables removal for later selection. Next, the selected variables are inserted into a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) model to estimate conflict occurrence. A matched control-case technique is applied using traffic data processed from surveillance cameras at a segment of a Brazilian freeway. Results indicate that the variables that significantly impacted on the model are associated to total flow, difference between standard deviation of lanes' occupancy, and the speed's coefficient of variation. The model allowed to asses a characteristic behavior of major Brazilian's freeways, by identifying the Brazilian typical heterogeneity of traffic pattern among lanes, which leads to aggressive maneuvers. Results also indicate that the developed LDA-PCA model outperforms the LDA-BD model. The LDA-PCA model yields average 76% classification accuracy, and average 87% sensitivity (which measures the rate of conflicts correctly predicted). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the Driver’s Behavior Characteristics in Low Volume Freeway Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drivers’ behavior characteristics cannot be ignored in designing freeway interchange facilities in order to improve traffic safety. This paper conducted a field experiment in Qingyin expressway. Four freeway interchanges from K571+538 to K614+932 with relatively low volume were selected, and 12 qualified drivers, 6 car test drivers and 6 truck test drivers, were driving vehicles according to the driving program. GPS and eye-tracking instrument were employed to record running speed, real-time, running track, fixation point, and so forth. Box-plot graphs and Student’s t-test were used to analyze the 12 data sets of driver’s fixation on exit guide signs. Speed-distance curves of effective 11 data sets were plotted to examine the test drivers’ behavior in diverging area and merging area. The results indicated that (1 drivers recognize the exit direction signs in 170 m–180 m advanced distance; (2 the diverging influence area is 1000 m upstream of the diverge point, and the merging influence area is 350 m downstream of the merge point; (3 NO OVERTAKING sign is recommended to be placed at 350 m upstream of the diverge point. The results can provide guidance for the design of freeway interchange facilities and management in order to improve traffic safety.

  7. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  8. Hospital response to a major freeway bridge collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, John L; Chipman, Jeffery; Loppnow, Gregory; Conterato, Marc; Roberts, David; Heegaard, William G; Beilman, Greg; Clark, Michael; Pohland, Jonathan; Ho, Jeffrey D; Brunette, Douglas D; Clinton, Joseph E

    2008-09-01

    We describe the hospital system response to the Interstate 35W bridge collapse in Minneapolis into the Mississippi River on August 1, 2007, which resulted in 13 deaths and 127 injuries. Comparative analysis of response activities at the 3 hospitals that received critical or serious casualties is provided. First-hand experiences of hospital physicians, issues identified in after-action reports, injury severity scores, and other relevant patient data were collected from the 3 hospitals that received seriously injured patients, including the closest hospitals to the collapse on each side of the river. Injuries were consistent with major acceleration/deceleration force injuries. The most critical patients arrived first at each hospital, suggesting appropriate prehospital triage. Capacity of the health care system was not overwhelmed and the involved hospitals generally reported an overresponse by staff. Communication and patient tracking problems occurred at all of the hospitals. Situational awareness was limited due to the scope of structural collapse and incomplete information from the scene. Hospitals were generally satisfied with their surge capacity and incident management plan activation. Issues such as communications, patient tracking, and staff overreporting that have been identified in past incidents also were problematic in this event. Hospitals will need to address deficiencies and build on successful actions to cope with future, potentially larger incidents.

  9. Beyond Risk Compensation: Clusters of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART Users in Sexual Networks Can Modify the Impact of ART on HIV Incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Delva

    Full Text Available Concerns about risk compensation-increased risk behaviours in response to a perception of reduced HIV transmission risk-after the initiation of ART have largely been dispelled in empirical studies, but other changes in sexual networking patterns may still modify the effects of ART on HIV incidence.We developed an exploratory mathematical model of HIV transmission that incorporates the possibility of ART clusters, i.e. subsets of the sexual network in which the density of ART patients is much higher than in the rest of the network. Such clusters may emerge as a result of ART homophily-a tendency for ART patients to preferentially form and maintain relationships with other ART patients. We assessed whether ART clusters may affect the impact of ART on HIV incidence, and how the influence of this effect-modifying variable depends on contextual variables such as HIV prevalence, HIV serosorting, coverage of HIV testing and ART, and adherence to ART.ART homophily can modify the impact of ART on HIV incidence in both directions. In concentrated epidemics and generalized epidemics with moderate HIV prevalence (≈ 10%, ART clusters can enhance the impact of ART on HIV incidence, especially when adherence to ART is poor. In hyperendemic settings (≈ 35% HIV prevalence, ART clusters can reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence when adherence to ART is high but few people living with HIV (PLWH have been diagnosed. In all contexts, the effects of ART clusters on HIV epidemic dynamics are distinct from those of HIV serosorting.Depending on the programmatic and epidemiological context, ART clusters may enhance or reduce the impact of ART on HIV incidence, in contrast to serosorting, which always leads to a lower impact of ART on HIV incidence. ART homophily and the emergence of ART clusters should be measured empirically and incorporated into more refined models used to plan and evaluate ART programmes.

  10. Online Learning Solutions for Freeway Travel Time Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lint, J.W.C.

    2008-01-01

    Providing travel time information to travelers on available route alternatives in traffic networks is widely believed to yield positive effects on individual drive behavior and (route/departure time) choice behavior, as well as on collective traffic operations in terms of, for example, overall time

  11. Incidence of colorectal cancer in new users and non-users of low-dose aspirin without existing cardiovascular disease: A cohort study using The Health Improvement Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucía; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence regarding the chemo-protective effects of aspirin has influenced expert opinion in favour of low-dose aspirin use in certain patient populations without cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of aspirin in reducing the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) may be a large contributor to this favourable risk-benefit profile of low-dose aspirin in primary CVD prevention. Using The Health Improvement Network, we estimated the incidence of CRC in individuals free of CVD and either prescribed or not prescribed prophylactic low-dose aspirin. Two cohorts - new-users of low-dose aspirin (N=109,426) and a comparator cohort of non-users (N=154,056) at start of follow-up - were followed (maximum 13years) to identify incident CRC cases. Individuals with a record of CVD, cancer or low-dose aspirin prescription before start of follow-up were excluded. 2330 incident cases of CRC occurred; 885 in the aspirin cohort and 1445 in the comparator cohort, after mean follow-ups of 5.43years and 5.17years, respectively. Incidence rates of CRC per 10,000 person-years (95% confidence interval) were 14.90 (13.95-15.92) in the aspirin cohort and 18.15 (17.24-19.12) in the comparator cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.82 (0.76-0.89) adjusted for age, sex and primary care practitioner (PCP) visits in the previous year. Lower incidence rates were seen in the aspirin cohort for all strata evaluated (gender, age group and number of PCP visits in the previous year) except those aged ≥80years. Among most individuals without established CVD, initiation of low-dose aspirin is associated with a reduced incidence of CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working.

  13. Verifying emission reductions from heavy-duty diesel trucks operating on Southern California freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H; Park, Seong Suk; Mara, Steven L; Herner, Jorn D

    2014-01-01

    Measurements on truck-dominated freeways in southern California have offered a unique opportunity to track emission changes that have occurred due to the implementation of local and state regulations affecting heavy-duty diesel trucks. These regulations have accelerated fleet turnover to cleaner and newer trucks. In this study, a mobile platform was used to measure nitrogen oxides (NOX), black carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFPs) on diesel-dominated southern California freeways. Fleet-averaged fuel-based emission factors were calculated for diesel trucks and the results showed NOX and BC emissions were reduced by 40% or more between 2009 and 2011, but there were no statistically significant reductions for UFP. Technologies associated with these new trucks, mainly diesel particulate filters, have changed the physical characteristics of diesel particulate, shifting the size distribution of such particles to smaller modes (10-20 nm). In addition, integration of 2007 MY trucks into the fleet was also observed in on-road ratios of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NOX. NO2/NOX ratios steadily increased from 0.23 ± 0.06 in 2009 to 0.30 ± 0.03 in 2010 but plateaued and declined in 2011.

  14. Analysis of vehicle headway distribution on multi-lane freeway considering car–truck interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewen Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of vehicle headway on multi-lane freeway under lane management in China considering car–truck interaction. More specifically, the study focused on answering the following two questions: (1 whether the car–truck interaction has impact on headway, that is, headway varies by different leading and following vehicle types and (2 what is the best-fitted distribution model for particular headway type under lane management. The team collected traffic data, including traffic flow rates, percentage of trucks, speeds, headways, and so on from four segments of Shanghai-Nanjing freeway, Jiangsu Province in China. Then, some statistical methods were used to analyze the vehicle headway. It was found that car–car, car/truck, and truck–truck headways are significantly different from each other. Also, the traffic flow rate, percentage of trucks, and lane position were found to have an influence on the vehicle headway through the tests. Using the maximum-likelihood estimation, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and chi-square test techniques, the distribution models and parameter functions for each headway type were built and validated. The results showed that lognormal model is suitable for car–car and truck–truck headway types, and inverse Gaussian model fits the car/truck headway type well.

  15. Evaluating the safety impact of adaptive cruise control in traffic oscillations on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Li, Zhibin; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu

    2017-07-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC) has been considered one of the critical components of automated driving. ACC adjusts vehicle speeds automatically by measuring the status of the ego-vehicle and leading vehicle. Current commercial ACCs are designed to be comfortable and convenient driving systems. Little attention is paid to the safety impacts of ACC, especially in traffic oscillations when crash risks are the highest. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impacts of ACC parameter settings on rear-end collisions on freeways. First, the occurrence of a rear-end collision in a stop-and-go wave was analyzed. A car-following model in an integrated ACC was developed for a simulation analysis. The time-to-collision based factors were calculated as surrogate safety measures of the collision risk. We also evaluated different market penetration rates considering that the application of ACC will be a gradual process. The results showed that the safety impacts of ACC were largely affected by the parameters. Smaller time delays and larger time gaps improved safety performance, but inappropriate parameter settings increased the collision risks and caused traffic disturbances. A higher reduction of the collision risk was achieved as the ACC vehicle penetration rate increased, especially in the initial stage with penetration rates of less than 30%. This study also showed that in the initial stage, the combination of ACC and a variable speed limit achieved better safety improvements on congested freeways than each single technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Atmospheric conditions create freeways, detours and tailbacks for migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Liechti, Felix; Vansteelant, Wouter M G

    2017-07-01

    The extraordinary adaptations of birds to contend with atmospheric conditions during their migratory flights have captivated ecologists for decades. During the 21st century technological advances have sparked a revival of research into the influence of weather on migrating birds. Using biologging technology, flight behaviour is measured across entire flyways, weather radar networks quantify large-scale migratory fluxes, citizen scientists gather observations of migrant birds and mechanistic models are used to simulate migration in dynamic aerial environments. In this review, we first introduce the most relevant microscale, mesoscale and synoptic scale atmospheric phenomena from the point of view of a migrating bird. We then provide an overview of the individual responses of migrant birds (when, where and how to fly) in relation to these phenomena. We explore the cumulative impact of individual responses to weather during migration, and the consequences thereof for populations and migratory systems. In general, individual birds seem to have a much more flexible response to weather than previously thought, but we also note similarities in migratory behaviour across taxa. We propose various avenues for future research through which we expect to derive more fundamental insights into the influence of weather on the evolution of migratory behaviour and the life-history, population dynamics and species distributions of migrant birds.

  17. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  18. Towards reducing traffic congestion using cooperative adaptive cruise control on a freeway with a ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Arnaout

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, the impact of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems on traffic performance is examined using microscopic agent-based simulation. Using a developed traffic simulation model of a freeway with an on-ramp - created to induce perturbations and to trigger stop-and-go traffic, the CACC system’s effect on the traffic performance is studied. The previously proposed traffic simulation model is extended and validated. By embedding CACC vehicles in different penetration levels, the results show significance and indicate the potential of CACC systems to improve traffic characteristics and therefore can be used to reduce traffic congestion. The study shows that the impact of CACC is positive but is highly dependent on the CACC market penetration. The flow rate of the traffic using CACC is proportional to the market penetration rate of CACC equipped vehicles and the density of the traffic.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses microscopic simulation experiments followed by a quantitative statistical analysis. Simulation enables researchers manipulating the system variables to straightforwardly predict the outcome on the overall system, giving researchers the unique opportunity to interfere and make improvements to performance. Thus with simulation, changes to variables that might require excessive time, or be unfeasible to carry on real systems, are often completed within seconds.Findings: The findings of this paper are summarized as follow:•\tProvide and validate a platform (agent-based microscopic traffic simulator in which any CACC algorithm (current or future may be evaluated.•\tProvide detailed analysis associated with implementation of CACC vehicles on freeways.•\tInvestigate whether embedding CACC vehicles on freeways has a significant positive impact or not.Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this research is that it has been conducted solely in a computer laboratory. Laboratory

  19. A Data-Driven Control Design Approach for Freeway Traffic Ramp Metering with Virtual Reference Feedback Tuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangtai Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ALINEA is a simple, efficient, and easily implemented ramp metering strategy. Virtual reference feedback tuning (VRFT is most suitable for many practical systems since it is a “one-shot” data-driven control design methodology. This paper presents an application of VRFT to a ramp metering problem of freeway traffic system. When there is not enough prior knowledge of the controlled system to select a proper parameter of ALINEA, the VRFT approach is used to optimize the ALINEA's parameter by only using a batch of input and output data collected from the freeway traffic system. The extensive simulations are built on both the macroscopic MATLAB platform and the microscopic PARAMICS platform to show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed data-driven controller tuning approach.

  20. Impact of a freeway on the dispersal of ticks and Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: forested resting areas may become Lyme disease hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Mulvihill, Maria; Szőke, Krisztina; Gönczi, Enikő; Sulyok, Kinga M; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2017-06-01

    Man-made barriers are well known for their effects on ecosystems. Habitat fragmentation, for instance, is a recognised consequence of modern-day infrastructure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity and abundance of tick species, as well as the risks of acquiring tick-borne infections in habitats adjacent to a freeway. Therefore, ixodid ticks were collected from the vegetation at two-week intervals (in the main tick season, from March to June) in eight habitats of different types (forest, grove, grassland) along both sides of a freeway. Ixodes ricinus females were molecularly screened for three species of tick-borne bacteria. In the study period, 887 ixodid ticks were collected. These included 704 I. ricinus (79.4%), 51 Dermacentor reticulatus (5.7%), 78 D. marginatus (8.8%), 35 Haemaphysalis inermis (3.9%) and 19 H. concinna (2.1%). There was no significant difference in the abundance of tick species between similar habitats separated by the freeway, except for the absence of Dermacentor spp. on one side. In I. ricinus females, the overall prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum was low, and (in part due to this low rate) did not show significant difference between the two sides of the freeway. Rickettsia helvetica had significantly different overall prevalence between two distant habitats along the same side of the freeway (12.3% vs. 31.4%), but not between habitats on the opposite sides. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. showed significantly different overall prevalence between habitats both on the same and on the opposite sides of the freeway (8.6-35.9%), and the difference was higher if relevant habitats were also separated by the freeway. Importantly, the prevalence rate of the Lyme disease agent was highest in a forested resting area of the freeway, and was significantly inversely proportional to the prevalence of A. phagocytophilum (taking into account all evaluated habitats), apparently related to deer population density. Prevalence rates

  1. Field evaluation of vegetation and noise barriers for mitigation of near-freeway air pollution under variable wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S.; Ranasinghe, Dilhara R.; Ahangar, Faraz Enayati; Amini, Seyedmorteza; Mara, Steven; Choi, Wonsik; Paulson, Suzanne; Zhu, Yifang

    2018-02-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a significant public health concern, particularly near freeways. Previous studies have suggested either soundwall or vegetation barriers might reduce the near-freeway air pollution. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a combination of both soundwall and vegetation barrier for reducing ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter ≤ 100 nm) and PM2.5 (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) concentrations. Concurrent data collection was carried out at both upwind and downwind fixed locations approximately 10-15 m away from the edge of two major freeways in California. This study observed that the reduction of UFP and PM2.5 was generally greater with the combination barrier than with either soundwall or vegetation alone. Since there were no non-barrier sites at the study locations, the reductions reported here are all in relative terms. The soundwall barrier was more effective for reducing PM2.5 (25-53%) than UFPs (0-5%), and was most effective (51-53% for PM2.5) when the wind speed ranged between 1 and 2 m/s. Under the same range of wind speed, the vegetation barrier had little effect (0-5%) on reducing PM2.5; but was effective at reducing UFP (up to 50%). For both types of roadside barrier, decreasing wind speed resulted in greater net reduction of UFPs (i.e., total number particle concentrations; inversely proportional). This trend was observed, however, only within specific particle size ranges (i.e., diameter effects of soundwall and vegetation barriers for near-freeway air pollution mitigation.

  2. Childhood osteosarcoma: Incidence and survival in Argentina. Report from the National Pediatric Cancer Registry, ROHA Network 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F; Cacciavillano, W; Cipolla, M; Coirini, M; Streitenberger, P; López Martí, J; Palladino, M; Morici, M; Onoratelli, M; Drago, G; Schifino, A; Cores, M; Rose, A; Jotomliansky, J; Varel, M; García Lombardi, M

    2017-10-01

    Differences in incidence and survival in osteosarcoma reports are considerable worldwide. This study describes the incidence and survival of patients with osteosarcoma in Argentina with data from the National Pediatric Cancer Registry (ROHA), and the impact of age, gender, stage, regional, and socioeconomic indicators on outcome. Pediatric patients with osteosarcoma reported to ROHA from 2000 through 2013 were analyzed, the annual age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) was calculated using the National Vital Statistics, and survival was estimated. The extended human development index (EHDI) for each reporting region was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. There were 515 cases of osteosarcoma identified, yielding an ASR of 3.2/1,000,000 children (0-14 years old). The ASR did not vary significantly by year of diagnosis but ranged from 4.0/1,000,000 in the Cuyo/Western Central region to 2.7/1,000,000 in the northeast region (P 0.1 in all cases). Survival rate for localized disease was 52% (95% CI 45-57%) and for metastatic 22% (95% CI 15-30%). In Argentina, ASR of osteosarcoma is similar to that in high-income countries, but survival is lower in all regions. Future work will focus on identification and reduction of causes of preventable treatment failure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Field evidence of bird poisonings by imidacloprid-treated seeds: a review of incidents reported by the French SAGIR network from 1995 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Mastain, Olivier; Quintaine, Thomas; Berny, Philippe; Vey, Danièle; Lasseur, Romain; Bro, Elisabeth

    2017-02-01

    The large-scale use of neonicotinoid insecticides has raised growing concerns about their potential adverse effects on farmland birds, and more generally on biodiversity. Imidacloprid, the first neonicotinoid commercialized, has been identified as posing a risk for seed-eating birds when it is used as seed treatment of some crops since the consumption of a few dressed seeds could cause mortality. But evidence of direct effects in the field is lacking. Here, we reviewed the 103 wildlife mortality incidents reported by the French SAGIR Network from 1995 to 2014, for which toxicological analyses detected imidacloprid residues. One hundred and one incidents totalling at least 734 dead animals were consistent with an agricultural use as seed treatment. Grey partridges (Perdix perdix) and "pigeons" (Columba palumbus, Columba livia and Columba oenas) were the main species found. More than 70% of incidents occurred during autumn cereal sowings. Furthermore, since there is no biomarker for diagnosing neonicotinoid poisonings, we developed a diagnostic approach to estimate the degree of certainty that these mortalities were due to imidacloprid poisoning. By this way, the probability that mortality was due to poisoning by imidacloprid-treated seeds was ranked as at least "likely" in 70% of incidents. As a result, this work provides clear evidence to risk managers that lethal effects due to the consumption by birds of imidacloprid-treated seeds regularly occur in the field. This in turn raises the question of the effectiveness of the two main factors (seed burying and imidacloprid-treated seeds avoidance) that are supposed to make the risk to birds negligible. Risk factors and the relevance of mitigation measures are discussed.

  4. Participatory Democracy, Community Organizing and the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Reisner, Ellin; Campbell, Maria; Brugge, Doug

    2017-02-04

    Background: Conflicting interests, power imbalance and relationships characterized by distrust are just a few of the many challenges community-academic research partnerships face. In addition, the time it takes to build relationships is often overlooked, which further complicates matters and can leave well-intentioned individuals re-creating oppressive conditions through inauthentic partnerships. This paper presents a novel approach of using meeting minutes to explore partnership dynamics. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) partnership is used as an illustrative case study to identify how community academic partnerships overcome the challenges associated with community-based participatory research (CBPR). CAFEH is a study of ultrafine particle exposure (UFP) near highways in the Boston, MA area. Methods: Qualitative analysis was applied to meeting minutes and process evaluation reports from the first three years of the CAFEH study (n = 73 files). In addition, a group meeting was held with project partners in order to contextualize the findings from the document analysis. Results: The three most commonly referenced challenges included language barriers, the overall project structure and budgetary constraints. Meanwhile, a heavy emphasis on process and an approach steeped in participatory democracy facilitated CAFEH's ability to overcome these challenges, as well as sustain and augment strong partnership ties. Conclusions: This experience suggests that leadership that incorporates an organizing approach and a transformational style facilitates CBPR processes and helps teams surmount challenges.

  5. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assist them understand a crisis. The Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370 incident is selected as the context for this study, and data is collected following the incident. The results show that different types of motivation result in different participatory behaviours. Controlled motivation is positively related to browsing content, commenting and sharing content. Conversely, autonomous motivation is positively associated with browsing and sharing content. Besides, browsing content and commenting are positively related to people’s situational self-awareness. The theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed.

  6. Incidence, treatment and recurrence of endometriosis in a UK-based population analysis using data from The Health Improvement Network and the Hospital Episode Statistics database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea Soriano, Lucia; López-Garcia, Esther; Schulze-Rath, Renate; Garcia Rodríguez, Luis A

    2017-09-28

    This retrospective study used medical records from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database to evaluate endometriosis (incidence, treatment and need for recurrent invasive procedures) in the general UK population. Women aged 12-54 years between January 2000 and December 2010, with a Read code for endometriosis, were identified in THIN. Cases were validated by manual review of free-text comments in medical records and responses to physician questionnaires. False-negative cases were identified among women with Read codes for hysterectomy or dysmenorrhea. Prescriptions of medical therapies for endometriosis were identified in THIN. Cases of single and recurrent invasive procedures were identified in women with medical records in both THIN and HES. Overall, 5087 women had a Read code for endometriosis, corresponding to an incidence of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99-1.05) per 1000 person-years. After case validation, the estimate was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.43-1.50) per 1000 person-years. Medical therapy was prescribed to 55.5% of women with endometriosis in the first year after diagnosis. In total, 48.3% of women received invasive treatment during the study period; approximately one-fifth of these women required further invasive treatment, mainly in the 3 years after the index procedure. Using Read codes as the only method to identify women with endometriosis underestimates incidence. Over half of women with recorded endometriosis are prescribed medical therapy in the first year after diagnosis. Women with diagnosed endometriosis are at risk of requiring recurrent invasive procedures.

  7. Application of a Combined Model with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) in Forecasting Hepatitis Incidence in Heng County, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hao; Gao, Lian; Liang, Bingyu; Huang, Jiegang; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Yu, Jun; Lai, Jingzhen; Qin, Fengxiang; Su, Jinming; Ye, Li; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis is a serious public health problem with increasing cases and property damage in Heng County. It is necessary to develop a model to predict the hepatitis epidemic that could be useful for preventing this disease. Methods The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model were used to fit the incidence data from the Heng County CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) from January 2005 to December 2012. Then, the ARIMA-GRNN hybrid model was developed. The incidence data from January 2013 to December 2013 were used to validate the models. Several parameters, including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean square error (MSE), were used to compare the performance among the three models. Results The morbidity of hepatitis from Jan 2005 to Dec 2012 has seasonal variation and slightly rising trend. The ARIMA(0,1,2)(1,1,1)12 model was the most appropriate one with the residual test showing a white noise sequence. The smoothing factor of the basic GRNN model and the combined model was 1.8 and 0.07, respectively. The four parameters of the hybrid model were lower than those of the two single models in the validation. The parameters values of the GRNN model were the lowest in the fitting of the three models. Conclusions The hybrid ARIMA-GRNN model showed better hepatitis incidence forecasting in Heng County than the single ARIMA model and the basic GRNN model. It is a potential decision-supportive tool for controlling hepatitis in Heng County. PMID:27258555

  8. A comparative study of generalized linear mixed modelling and artificial neural network approach for the joint modelling of survival and incidence of Dengue patients in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapugoda, J. C.; Sooriyarachchi, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    Survival time of patients with a disease and the incidence of that particular disease (count) is frequently observed in medical studies with the data of a clustered nature. In many cases, though, the survival times and the count can be correlated in a way that, diseases that occur rarely could have shorter survival times or vice versa. Due to this fact, joint modelling of these two variables will provide interesting and certainly improved results than modelling these separately. Authors have previously proposed a methodology using Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) by joining the Discrete Time Hazard model with the Poisson Regression model to jointly model survival and count model. As Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) has become a most powerful computational tool to model complex non-linear systems, it was proposed to develop a new joint model of survival and count of Dengue patients of Sri Lanka by using that approach. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a model using ANN approach and compare the results with the previously developed GLMM model. As the response variables are continuous in nature, Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) approach was adopted to model the data. To compare the model fit, measures such as root mean square error (RMSE), absolute mean error (AME) and correlation coefficient (R) were used. The measures indicate the GRNN model fits the data better than the GLMM model.

  9. Assessing factors causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Chung

    2014-01-01

    High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk factors contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant factors on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at interchange ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Near-Roadway Emission of Reactive Nitrogen Compounds and Other Non-Criteria Pollutants at a Southern California Freeway Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J. A.; Baum, M.; Castonguay, A. E.; Aguirre, V., Jr.; Pesta, A.; Fanter, R. K.; Anderson, M.

    2015-12-01

    Emission control systems in light-duty motor vehicles (LDMVs) have played an important role in improving regional air quality by dramatically reducing the concentration of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides) in exhaust emissions. Unintended side-reactions occurring on the surface of three-way catalysts may lead to emission of a number of non-criteria pollutants whose identity and emission rates are poorly understood. A series of near-roadway field studies conducted between 2009-2015 has investigated LDMV emissions of these pollutants with unprecedented depth of coverage, including reactive nitrogen compounds (NH3, amines, HCN, HONO, and HNO3), organic peroxides, and carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids). Methods to collect these pollutants using mist chambers, annular denuders, impingers, and solid-phase cartridges and quantify their concentration using GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, IC, and colorimetry were developed and validated in the laboratory and field. These methods were subsequently used in near-roadway field studies where the concentrations of the target compounds integrated over 1-4 hour blocks were measured at the edge of a freeway and at a background site 140 m from the roadway. Concentrations followed a steep decreasing gradient from the freeway to the background site. Emission factors (pollutant mass emitted per mass fuel consumed) were calculated by carbon mass balance using the difference in concentration measured between the freeway and background sites for the emitted pollutant and CO2 as a measure of carbon mass in the vehicle exhaust. The significance of these results will be discussed in terms of emissions inventories in the South Coast Air Basin of California, emission trends at this site over the period of 2009-2015, and for NH3, emission measurements conducted by our group and others over the period 2000-2015.

  11. Analyzing crash frequency in freeway tunnels: A correlated random parameters approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qinzhong; Tarko, Andrew P; Meng, Xianghai

    2018-02-01

    The majority of past road safety studies focused on open road segments while only a few focused on tunnels. Moreover, the past tunnel studies produced some inconsistent results about the safety effects of the traffic patterns, the tunnel design, and the pavement conditions. The effects of these conditions therefore remain unknown, especially for freeway tunnels in China. The study presented in this paper investigated the safety effects of these various factors utilizing a four-year period (2009-2012) of data as well as three models: 1) a random effects negative binomial model (RENB), 2) an uncorrelated random parameters negative binomial model (URPNB), and 3) a correlated random parameters negative binomial model (CRPNB). Of these three, the results showed that the CRPNB model provided better goodness-of-fit and offered more insights into the factors that contribute to tunnel safety. The CRPNB was not only able to allocate the part of the otherwise unobserved heterogeneity to the individual model parameters but also was able to estimate the cross-correlations between these parameters. Furthermore, the study results showed that traffic volume, tunnel length, proportion of heavy trucks, curvature, and pavement rutting were associated with higher frequencies of traffic crashes, while the distance to the tunnel wall, distance to the adjacent tunnel, distress ratio, International Roughness Index (IRI), and friction coefficient were associated with lower crash frequencies. In addition, the effects of the heterogeneity of the proportion of heavy trucks, the curvature, the rutting depth, and the friction coefficient were identified and their inter-correlations were analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  13. A Novel Approach to Extract Significant Patterns of Travel Time Intervals of Vehicles from Freeway Gantry Timestamp Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Doo Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is attractive to extract and determine the key features of traffic patterns for mitigating road congestion and predicting travel time of vehicles in traffic analysis. Based on the previous work that is a scalable approach via a Hadoop MapReduce programming model, this paper aims to extract significant patterns of travel time intervals of vehicles from freeway traffic in Taiwan, and meanwhile to compute the statistics of these patterns from the point of view one may concern. Experimental resources are the records of timestamp gantry sequences of vehicles passed in five months from 2016/11 to 2017/3 that were downloaded from the Traffic Data Collection System, one of Taiwan government open data platforms. To select one specific gantry sequence for demonstration, the longest sequence on the trip within the Taiwan National Freeway No. 5 is selected. Experimental results show that some statistics of vehicle travel time intervals according to 24 h per day are computed for illustration. These statistics can not only provide clues to experts to analyze traffic congestions, but also help drivers how to avoid rush hours. Furthermore, this work is able to handle a larger amount of real data and be promising for further traffic and transportation research in the future.

  14. Crash Risk Prediction Modeling Based on the Traffic Conflict Technique and a Microscopic Simulation for Freeway Interchange Merging Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the traffic safety of freeway interchange merging areas based on the traffic conflict technique. The hourly composite risk indexes (HCRI was defined. By the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photography and video processing techniques, the conflict type and severity was judged. Time to collision (TTC was determined with the traffic conflict evaluation index. Then, the TTC severity threshold was determined. Quantizing the weight of the conflict by direct losses of different severities of freeway traffic accidents, the calculated weight of the HCRI can be obtained. Calibration of the relevant parameters of the micro-simulation simulator VISSIM is conducted by the travel time according to the field data. Variables are placed into orthogonal tables at different levels. On the basis of this table, the trajectory file of every traffic condition is simulated, and then submitted into a surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM, identifying the number of hourly traffic conflicts in the merging area, a statistic of HCRI. Moreover, the multivariate linear regression model was presented and validated to study the relationship between HCRI and the influencing variables. A comparison between the HCRI model and the hourly conflicts ratio (HCR, without weight, shows that the HCRI model fitting degree was obviously higher than the HCR. This will be a reference to design and implement operational planners.

  15. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  16. Identifying crash-prone traffic conditions under different weather on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pan

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the relationships between traffic flow characteristics and crash risk under adverse weather conditions will help highway agencies develop proactive safety management strategies to improve traffic safety in adverse weather conditions. The primary objective is to develop separate crash risk prediction models for different weather conditions. The crash data, weather data, and traffic data used in this study were collected on the I-880N freeway in California in 2008 and 2010. This study considered three different weather conditions: clear weather, rainy weather, and reduced visibility weather. The preliminary analysis showed that there was some heterogeneity in the risk estimates for traffic flow characteristics by weather conditions, and that the crash risk prediction model for all weather conditions cannot capture the impacts of the traffic flow variables on crash risk under adverse weather conditions. The Bayesian random intercept logistic regression models were applied to link the likelihood of crash occurrence with various traffic flow characteristics under different weather conditions. The crash risk prediction models were compared to their corresponding logistic regression model. It was found that the random intercept model improved the goodness-of-fit of the crash risk prediction models. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics contributing to crash risk were different across different weather conditions. The speed difference between upstream and downstream stations was found to be significant in each crash risk prediction model. Speed difference between upstream and downstream stations had the largest impact on crash risk in reduced visibility weather, followed by that in rainy weather. The ROC curves were further developed to evaluate the predictive performance of the crash risk prediction models under different weather conditions. The predictive performance of the crash risk model for clear weather was better

  17. Effect of driver's age and side of impact on crash severity along urban freeways: a mixed logit approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Kirolos; Gan, Albert

    2013-09-01

    This study identifies geometric, traffic, environmental, vehicle-related, and driver-related predictors of crash injury severity on urban freeways. The study takes advantage of the mixed logit model's ability to account for unobserved effects that are difficult to quantify and may affect the model estimation, such as the driver's reaction at the time of crash. Crashes of 5 years occurring on 89 urban freeway segments throughout the state of Florida in the United States were used. Examples of severity predictors explored include traffic volume, distance of the crash to the nearest ramp, and detailed driver's age, vehicle types, and sides of impact. To show how the parameter estimates could vary, a binary logit model was compared with the mixed logit model. It was found that the at-fault driver's age, traffic volume, distance of the crash to the nearest ramp, vehicle type, side of impact, and percentage of trucks significantly influence severity on urban freeways. Additionally, young at-fault drivers were associated with a significant severity risk increase relative to other age groups. It was also observed that some variables in the binary logit model yielded illogic estimates due to ignoring the random variation of the estimation. Since the at-fault driver's age and side of impact were significant random parameters in the mixed logit model, an in-depth investigation was performed. It was noticed that back, left, and right impacts had the highest risk among middle-aged drivers, followed by young drivers, very young drivers, and finally, old and very old drivers. To reduce side impacts due to lane changing, two primary strategies can be recommended. The first strategy is to conduct campaigns to convey the hazardous effect of changing lanes at higher speeds. The second is to devise in-vehicle side crash avoidance systems to alert drivers of a potential crash risk. The study provided a promising approach to screening the predictors before fitting the mixed logit model

  18. Application of Bluetooth technology to rural freeway speed data collection ; executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) currently employs a network of side fire speed radar devices to measure travel speeds and travel times on their interstate network. While these devices measure the instantaneous spot speed, segment level s...

  19. Chemical composition of size-resolved particulate matter at near-freeway and urban background sites in the greater Beirut area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saliba, Najat A.; Shihadeh, Alan L.; Jaafar, Malek; Baalbaki, Rima; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2013-12-01

    To characterize road-traffic emissions in the greater Beirut area, size-resolved PM10-2.5, PM2.5-0.25 and PM0.25 samples were concurrently collected at near-freeway and background sites. While particle mass levels were 1.3-2.6 times greater at the roadside than background location, PM10-2.5 and PM0.25 prevailed at both sites (36-43% of PM10). A chemical mass closure showed that PM10-2.5 was mostly composed of crustal material, contributing to 12-23% of its mass across sites. On the other hand, in PM2.5-0.25 and PM0.25, organic matter (46-56%) was dominant at the roadside location, while secondary ions (SI, 54-68%) were more abundant at the background site. In the vicinity of the freeway, organic carbon (OC) levels varied from 4 μg m-3 in PM10-2.5 to 10.1 μg m-3 in PM0.25, exceeding those at the background site by 4-7 times. In contrast, OC was largely water-soluble at the background location, with its water-soluble fraction displaying comparable PM2.5-0.25- and PM0.25-concentrations at both sites, corroborating its regional secondary origin. PM0.25-elemental carbon (EC), which dominated overall EC mass, was 7-fold greater at the near-freeway than background location, indicating a contribution from diesel or also smoking vehicles to road-traffic emissions. PM2.5-SI showed fairly uniform concentrations across sites, confirming their mainly regional source. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were undetected at the coastal background site, whereas their levels peaked at 11.5 ng m-3 in proximity to the freeway, with the majority confined to PM0.25. Compared to other roadways, organic compounds at the freeway location exhibited high hopanes plus steranes-to-total carbon ratios (0.16-1.1 ng μg-1), indicative of different engine configurations, fleet or also lubricating oil formulation. At both locations, PM0.25-bound n-alkanes (C19-C34) showed a predominance of high molecular weight homologues and no carbon number preference, suggesting their likely road dust

  20. Using naturalistic driving study data to investigate the impact of driver distraction on driver's brake reaction time in freeway rear-end events in car-following situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jingru; Davis, Gary A

    2017-12-01

    The rear-end crash is one of the most common freeway crash types, and driver distraction is often cited as a leading cause of rear-end crashes. Previous research indicates that driver distraction could have negative effects on driving performance, but the specific association between driver distraction and crash risk is still not fully revealed. This study sought to understand the mechanism by which driver distraction, defined as secondary task distraction, could influence crash risk, as indicated by a driver's reaction time, in freeway car-following situations. A statistical analysis, exploring the causal model structure regarding drivers' distraction impacts on reaction times, was conducted. Distraction duration, distraction scenario, and secondary task type were chosen as distraction-related factors. Besides, exogenous factors including weather, visual obstruction, lighting condition, traffic density, and intersection presence and endogenous factors including driver age and gender were considered. There was an association between driver distraction and reaction time in the sample freeway rear-end events from SHRP 2 NDS database. Distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and secondary task type were related to reaction time, while all other factors showed no significant effect on reaction time. The analysis showed that driver distraction duration is the primary direct cause of the increase in reaction time, with other factors having indirect effects mediated by distraction duration. Longer distraction duration, the distracted status when a leader braked, and engaging in auditory-visual-manual secondary task tended to result in longer reaction times. Given drivers will be distracted occasionally, countermeasures which shorten distraction duration or avoid distraction presence while a leader vehicle brakes are worth considering. This study helps better understand the mechanism of freeway rear-end events in car-following situations, and

  1. Cancer incidence in adults living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France, based on data from the French Network of Cancer Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiolles, Alice; Roudier, Candice; Goria, Sarah; Stempfelet, Morgane; Kairo, Cécile; Quintin, Cécile; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Monnereau, Alain; Vacquier, Blandine

    2017-10-21

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-km zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RRmen  = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RRwomen  = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RRwomen  = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  2. Auditing organizational communication: evaluating the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the critical incident technique, network analysis, and the communication satisfaction questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the methodology of communication audits. In the context of three Dutch high schools, we evaluated several audit instruments. The first study in this dissertation focuses on the question whether the rationale of the critical incident technique (CIT) still applies when it

  3. Alcoholic beverage preference and diabetes incidence across Europe: the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Jankovic, N.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.; Franco, Oscar H.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives: It is unknown if wine, beer and spirit intake lead to a similar association with diabetes. We studied the association between alcoholic beverage preference and type 2 diabetes incidence in persons who reported to consume alcohol.


    Subjects/Methods: Ten European

  4. Impact of temporary freeway closure on regional air quality: a lesson from Carmageddon in Los Angeles, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Andy; Schweitzer, Lisa; Yang, Wan; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-03-03

    Large cities in the United States face multiple challenges in meeting federal air quality standards. One difficulty arises from the uncertainties in evaluating traffic-related air pollution, especially the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and some particulate matter. Current air quality models are not well suited to evaluate the impact of a short-term traffic change on air quality. Using regional traffic and ambient air quality data from Southern California, we examine the impact of a two-day freeway closure on traffic and several criteria air pollutants (CO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5). The results indicate that regional traffic decreased about 14% on average during the closure. Daily average PM2.5 levels decreased by about 32%, and daily 8 h maximum ozone levels decreased by about 16%. However, the daily 1 h maximum NO2 concentration was higher at some sites during the closure. Despite the mixed results with NO2, this study provides empirical evidence to support traffic reduction as an effective strategy to address chronic air pollution problems, especially with regard to ozone, in Southern California.

  5. Evaluation of the impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control on reducing rear-end collision risks on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Hao; Wang, Wei; Xing, Lu; Liu, Shanwen; Wei, Xueyan

    2017-01-01

    Although plenty of studies have been conducted recently about the impacts of cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) system on traffic efficiency, there are few researches analyzing the safety effects of this advanced driving-assistant system. Thus, the primary objective of this study is to evaluate the impacts of the CACC system on reducing rear-end collision risks on freeways. The CACC model is firstly developed, which is based on the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM). Then, two surrogated safety measures, derived from the time-to-collision (TTC), denoting time exposed time-to-collision (TET) and time integrated time-to-collision (TIT), are introduced for quantifying the collision risks. And the safety effects are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, by the linear stability analysis and simulations. The theoretical and simulation results conformably indicate that the CACC system brings dramatic benefits for reducing rear-end collision risks (TET and TIT are reduced more than 90%, respectively), when the desired time headway and time delay are set properly. The sensitivity analysis indicates there are few differences among different values of the threshold of TTC and the length of a CACC platoon. The results also show that the safety improvements weaken with the decrease of the penetration rates of CACC on the market and the increase of time delay between platoons. We also evaluate the traffic efficiency of the CACC system with different desired time headway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Redbourn incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hare, T. [Dawes Coke Ovens, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Corus

    2007-07-01

    On 1 February 2006 at Redbourn Stockyard, a twenty tonne forklift truck clipped a support stanchion of a vital conveyor causing the conveyor structure to collapse, bringing down essential site utilities for Dawes Lane Coke Ovens and affecting the whole of the works gas main system. The conveyor system stretches several kilometres, carrying coal to Appelby Frodingham Coke Ovens and premium coke to the blast furnaces. This report describes the incident and how Corus dealt with it to reinstate the plant in the fastest and safest time possible. The paper was presented to the Coke Oven Manufacturers Association (COMA) at Monkton Coke & Chemical Co. Ltd. on 18 May 2007. 1 fig., 6 photos.

  7. Application of a New Hybrid Model with Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Nonlinear Auto-Regressive Neural Network (NARNN) in Forecasting Incidence Cases of HFMD in Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Li; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Ying; Wei, Sheng; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    Background Outbreaks of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported for many times in Asia during the last decades. This emerging disease has drawn worldwide attention and vigilance. Nowadays, the prevention and control of HFMD has become an imperative issue in China. Early detection and response will be helpful before it happening, using modern information technology during the epidemic. Method In this paper, a hybrid model combining seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and nonlinear auto-regressive neural network (NARNN) is proposed to predict the expected incidence cases from December 2012 to May 2013, using the retrospective observations obtained from China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention from January 2008 to November 2012. Results The best-fitted hybrid model was combined with seasonal ARIMA and NARNN with 15 hidden units and 5 delays. The hybrid model makes the good forecasting performance and estimates the expected incidence cases from December 2012 to May 2013, which are respectively −965.03, −1879.58, 4138.26, 1858.17, 4061.86 and 6163.16 with an obviously increasing trend. Conclusion The model proposed in this paper can predict the incidence trend of HFMD effectively, which could be helpful to policy makers. The usefulness of expected cases of HFMD perform not only in detecting outbreaks or providing probability statements, but also in providing decision makers with a probable trend of the variability of future observations that contains both historical and recent information. PMID:24893000

  8. Travel Time Estimation Using Freeway Point Detector Data Based on Evolving Fuzzy Neural Inference System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjun Tang

    Full Text Available Travel time is an important measurement used to evaluate the extent of congestion within road networks. This paper presents a new method to estimate the travel time based on an evolving fuzzy neural inference system. The input variables in the system are traffic flow data (volume, occupancy, and speed collected from loop detectors located at points both upstream and downstream of a given link, and the output variable is the link travel time. A first order Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy rule set is used to complete the inference. For training the evolving fuzzy neural network (EFNN, two learning processes are proposed: (1 a K-means method is employed to partition input samples into different clusters, and a Gaussian fuzzy membership function is designed for each cluster to measure the membership degree of samples to the cluster centers. As the number of input samples increases, the cluster centers are modified and membership functions are also updated; (2 a weighted recursive least squares estimator is used to optimize the parameters of the linear functions in the Takagi-Sugeno type fuzzy rules. Testing datasets consisting of actual and simulated data are used to test the proposed method. Three common criteria including mean absolute error (MAE, root mean square error (RMSE, and mean absolute relative error (MARE are utilized to evaluate the estimation performance. Estimation results demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the EFNN method through comparison with existing methods including: multiple linear regression (MLR, instantaneous model (IM, linear model (LM, neural network (NN, and cumulative plots (CP.

  9. Connectivity analysis of one-dimensional ad-hoc networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Applications and communication protocols in dynamic ad-hoc networks are exposed to physical limitations imposed by the connectivity relations that result from mobility. Motivated by vehicular freeway scenarios, this paper analyzes a number of important connectivity metrics for instantaneous...... snapshots of stochastic geographic movement patterns under the assumption of a fixed radio range for each node: (1) The node degree, corresponding to the number of single-hop neighbors of a mobile node; (2) The connectivity number, expressing the number of nodes reachable via multi-hop paths of arbitrary...

  10. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  11. Prevalence, Recurrence, and Incidence of Current Depressive Symptoms among People Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Current studies of depression among people living with HIV focus on describing its point prevalence. Given the fluctuating nature of depression and its profound impacts on clinical and quality-of-life outcomes, this study aimed to examine the prevalence, recurrence and incidence of current depressive symptoms and its underlying catalysts longitudinally and systematically among these individuals.We conducted a prospective cohort study between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 using longitudinal linked data sources. Current depressive symptoms was identified using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, first at baseline and again during follow-up interviews. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize the three outcomes.Of the 3,816 HIV-positive participants, the point prevalence of depressive symptoms was estimated at 28%. Of the 957 participants who were identified with depressive symptoms at baseline and who had at least two years of follow-up, 43% had a recurrent episode. The cumulative incidence among 1,745 previously depressive symptoms free participants (at or prior to baseline was 14%. During the five-year follow-up, our multivariable models showed that participants with greater risk of recurrent cases were more likely to feel worried about their housing situation. Participants at risk of developing incident cases were also likely to be younger, gay or bisexual, and unable to afford housing-related expenses.Depressive symptoms are prevalent and likely to recur among people living with HIV. Our results support the direction of Ontario's HIV/AIDS Strategy to 2026, which addresses medical concerns associated with HIV (such as depression and the social drivers of health in order to enhance the overall well-being of people living with or at risk of HIV. Our findings reinforce the importance of providing effective mental health care and demonstrate the need for long

  12. Emission factors and characteristics of criteria pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a freeway tunnel study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-Lung, Chiang [Department Health Risk Management, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402 (China); Ching-Shyung, Hwu [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hung Kuang University, Taichung, 43302 (China); Shih-Yu, Chen; Sen-Yi, Ma; Yao-Sheng, Huang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Fooyin University, 831, Kaohsiung (China); Ming-Ching, Wu [Department of Technology Management, The Open University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 812 (China)

    2007-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), hydrocarbon (HC), sulfur oxide (SO{sub 2}), particulate matter < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), and 57 VOC species of emissions were confirmed in a freeway tunnel in southern Taiwan. Emission factors were 1.89 (CO), 0.73 (NO{sub x}), 0.46 (HC), 0.02 (SO{sub 2}) and 0.06 (PM{sub 10}) g/km-vehicle for all vehicle fleets. Heavy-duty truck and trailer vehicles contributed 20% of the emissions on workdays and 9.5% on weekends in this study. Paraffins and aromatics were the main VOC groups in the tunnel. Isopentane, toluene, n-pentane, isoprene, 2,3-dimethylbutane, acetone, 2-methylpentane, 1-hexene, 1,2,4-trimethybenzene, 1-butene and propene emissions were the major VOC species. Their emission factors were over 10 mg/km-vehicle. Rainfall and high humidity in the tunnel could have reduced the VOC concentrations and increased the portion of aromatics. In addition to paraffins, olefins, and aromatic compounds, oxygenated compounds (i.e., acetone) were found. The pollutant ratios between the inside center and the outside of the tunnel were about 2-3 for CO, SO{sub 2}, and PM{sub 10} and 42 for NO{sub x}. In addition, the emission factors of the vehicles could reflect real-world vehicle emissions on the highway and be used as baseline information for development of a vehicle control strategy. (author)

  13. People’s Motivation to Participate in Social Network Sites, Subsequent Behaviours, and Situation Self-Awareness following a Crisis: Evidence from the MH370 Flight Incident

    OpenAIRE

    Xuequn Wang

    2016-01-01

    As people increasingly integrate social network sites (SNSs) into their daily lives, they also turn to these sites for timely information following crises. To date, few studies have examined the effects of different types of motivation on participatory behaviours within SNSs following crises. In this study, self-determination theory (SDT) is applied to examine how individuals are motivated to participate in SNSs following a crisis and how individuals’ participatory behaviours can better assis...

  14. A black carbon air quality network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Caubel, J.; Cados, T.; Preble, C.; Rosen, A.

    2016-12-01

    We developed a portable, power efficient black carbon sensor for deployment in an air quality network in West Oakland, California. West Oakland is a San Francisco Bay Area residential/industrial community adjacent to regional port and rail yard facilities, and is surrounded by major freeways. As such, the community is affected by diesel particulate matter emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, locomotives, and ships associated with freight movement. In partnership with Environmental Defense Fund, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, and the West Oakland Environmental Indicators Project, we are collaborating with community members to build and operate a 100-sensor black carbon measurement network for a period of several months. The sensor employs the filter-based light transmission method to measure black carbon. Each sensor node in the network transmits data hourly via SMS text messages. Cost, power consumption, and performance are considered in choosing components (e.g., pump) and operating conditions (e.g., sample flow rate). In field evaluation trials over several weeks at three monitoring locations, the sensor nodes provided black carbon concentrations comparable to commercial instruments and ran autonomously for a week before sample filters and rechargeable batteries needed to be replaced. Buildup to the 100-sensor network is taking place during Fall 2016 and will overlap with other ongoing air monitoring projects and monitoring platforms in West Oakland. Sensors will be placed along commercial corridors, adjacent to freeways, upwind of and within the Port, and throughout the residential community. Spatial and temporal black carbon concentration patterns will help characterize pollution sources and demonstrate the value of sensing networks for characterizing intra-urban air pollution concentrations and exposure to air pollution.

  15. Incident reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J

    Healthcare delivery is a risky business. People view the NHS in the same light as other commercial businesses such as the hotel, retail and airline industries. The White Paper 'The New NHS: Modern, Dependable' (Secretary of State for Health, 1997) places statutory responsibilities on managers and clinicians to provide a quality service and to have accountability for clinical governance and performance management. Quality and risk are two sides of the same coin, i.e. if you have good quality you have low risk, and this firmly supports the clinical effectiveness agenda. Healthcare organizations in all sectors of care delivery need to demonstrate their high levels of achievement and commitment to continuous quality improvements. Risk management is a process for identifying, assessing and evaluating risks which have adverse effects on the quality, safety and effectiveness of service delivery, and taking positive action to eliminate or reduce them. Having an open, honest and blame-free organization which is open to improving processes and systems of care is a big step towards having staff who are committed to quality and getting things right. Near-miss, incident and indicator recording and reporting are cornerstones of any quality and risk management system.

  16. Natural and technical factors in faecal contamination incidents of drinking water in small distribution networks, France, 2003-2004: a geographical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudeau, Pascal; Valdes, Danièle; Mouly, Damien; Stempfelet, Morgane; Seux, René

    2010-03-01

    This geographical study aimed to show natural or water-processing-related factors of faecal contamination incidents (FCIs) of drinking water in continental France. We defined a FCI as the occurrence of at least 20 colony-forming Escherichia coli or enterococci among all the 100 mL samples collected for regulatory purpose within one day from a given drinking water supply zone (SZ). We explored correlations between the standardized number of FCIs per département (N_Pols) and various indicators related to weather, land cover, topography, geology and water management for three SZ size sub-classes. In 2003-2004, 2,739 FCIs occurred in SZs supplying fewer than 2,000 people, mainly with simply disinfected groundwater. N_Pols correlates with four covariates: (1) precipitation; (2) the extension of the karst outcrops; (3) the extent of disinfection; and (4) catchment protection. One hundred millimetres of yearly excess in precipitation increases the pollution risk by 28-37%, depending on the sub-class. A 10% extension of the karst areas, a 10% increase of unprotected resources, or of SZs with no disinfection, could entail a higher risk of FCI by about 10%. The correlations are reproducible over the three sub-classes and corroborate expert appraisals. These results encourage the ongoing effort to generalize disinfection and catchment protection.

  17. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  18. Advance Liquid Metal Reactor Discrete Dynamic Event Tree/Bayesian Network Analysis and Incident Management Guidelines (Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self-correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the system's design to manage the accident. Inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, but nonetheless extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety, thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayesian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR-14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Idaho National Laboratory for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  19. Effects of chemopreventive agents on the incidence of recurrent colorectal adenomas: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veettil SK

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sajesh K Veettil,1 Nattawat Teerawattanapong,2 Siew Mooi Ching,3,4 Kean Ghee Lim,5 Surasak Saokaew,6–9 Pochamana Phisalprapa,10 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk7,8,11,12 1School of Pharmacy/School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Division of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand; 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Malaysian Research Institute on Ageing, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, 5Clinical School, Department of Surgery, International Medical University, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, 6Center of Health Outcomes Research and Therapeutic Safety (Cohorts, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao, 7School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 8Centre of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 9Unit of Excellence on Herbal Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Phayao, Thailand; 10Division of Ambulatory Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 11School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA; 12Health and Well-being Cluster, Global Asia Platform in the 21st Century (GA21 Platform, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Protective effects of several chemopreventive agents (CPAs against colorectal adenomas have been well documented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs; however, there is uncertainty regarding which agents are the most effective.Methods: We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. We performed both pairwise analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA of RCTs to compare the effects of CPAs on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas (primary outcome. Using NMA, we

  20. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  1. Reporting Pesticide Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  2. A utilização de uma rede neural artificial para previsão da incidência da malária no município de Cantá, estado de Roraima Use of an artificial neural network to predict the incidence of malaria in the city of Cantá, state of Roraima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Bernardino da Cunha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A malária é uma doença endêmica na Amazônia Legal Brasileira, apresentando riscos diferentes para cada região. O Município de Cantá, no Estado de Roraima, apresentou para todo o período estudado, um dos maiores índices parasitários anuais do Brasil, com valor sempre maior que 50. O presente estudo visa à utilização de uma rede neural artificial para previsão da incidência da malária nesse município, a fim de auxiliar os coordenadores de saúde no planejamento e gestão dos recursos. MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados no site do Ministério da Saúde, SIVEP - Malária entre 2003 e 2009. Estruturou-se uma rede neural artificial com três neurônios na camada de entrada, duas camadas intermediárias e uma camada de saída com um neurônio. A função de ativação foi à sigmoide. No treinamento, utilizou-se o método backpropagation, com taxa de aprendizado de 0,05 e momentum 0,01. O critério de parada foi atingir 20.000 ciclos ou uma meta de 0,001. Os dados de 2003 a 2008 foram utilizados para treinamento e validação. Comparam-se os resultados com os de um modelo de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Os resultados para todos os períodos previstos mostraram-se que as redes neurais artificiais obtiveram um menor erro quadrático médio e erro absoluto quando comparado com o modelo de regressão para o ano de 2009. CONCLUSÕES: A rede neural artificial se mostrou adequada para um sistema de previsão de malária no município estudado, determinando com pequenos erros absolutos os valores preditivos, quando comparados ao modelo de regressão logística e aos valores reais.INTRODUCTION: Malaria is endemic in the Brazilian Amazon region, with different risks for each region. The City of Cantá, State of Roraima, presented one of the largest annual parasite indices in Brazil for the entire study period, with a value always greater than 50. The present study aimed to use an artificial neural network to predict the

  3. Cyber Incidents Involving Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert J. Turk

    2005-10-01

    The Analysis Function of the US-CERT Control Systems Security Center (CSSC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has prepared this report to document cyber security incidents for use by the CSSC. The description and analysis of incidents reported herein support three CSSC tasks: establishing a business case; increasing security awareness and private and corporate participation related to enhanced cyber security of control systems; and providing informational material to support model development and prioritize activities for CSSC. The stated mission of CSSC is to reduce vulnerability of critical infrastructure to cyber attack on control systems. As stated in the Incident Management Tool Requirements (August 2005) ''Vulnerability reduction is promoted by risk analysis that tracks actual risk, emphasizes high risk, determines risk reduction as a function of countermeasures, tracks increase of risk due to external influence, and measures success of the vulnerability reduction program''. Process control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, with their reliance on proprietary networks and hardware, have long been considered immune to the network attacks that have wreaked so much havoc on corporate information systems. New research indicates this confidence is misplaced--the move to open standards such as Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and Web technologies is allowing hackers to take advantage of the control industry's unawareness. Much of the available information about cyber incidents represents a characterization as opposed to an analysis of events. The lack of good analyses reflects an overall weakness in reporting requirements as well as the fact that to date there have been very few serious cyber attacks on control systems. Most companies prefer not to share cyber attack incident data because of potential financial repercussions. Uniform reporting requirements will do much to make this

  4. Structure of the San Bernardino Basin Along Two Seismic Transects: Rialto-Colton Fault to the San Andreas Fault and Along the I-215 Freeway (I-10 to SR30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Steedman, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, we present seismic data and acquisition parameters for two seismic profiles acquired in the San Bernardino, California area in May and October 2003. We refer to these seismic profiles as the San Bernardino Regional (SBR) and San Bernardino High-Resolution (SBHR) seismic profiles. We present both un-interpreted and interpreted seismic images so that the structure of the area can independently interpreted by others. We explain the rationale for our interpretations within the text of this report, and in addition, we provide a large body of supporting evidence. The SBR seismic profile extended across the San Bernardino Basin approximately N30?E from the town of Colton to the town of Highland. The data were acquired at night when the signal-to-noise ratios were reasonably good, and for the larger shots, seismic energy propagated across the ~20-km-long array. Tomographic velocity data are available to depths of about 4 km, and low-fold reflection data are available to depths in excess of 5 km. The SBR seismic data reveal an asymmetric, fault-bound basin to about 5 km depth. The SBHR seismic profile trended along the I-215 freeway from its intersection with the Santa Ana River to approximately State Road 30 in San Bernardino. Seismic data acquired along the I-215 freeway provide detailed images, with CDP spacing of approximately 2.5 m along an approximately 8.2-km-long profile; shot and geophone spacing was 5 m. For logistical reasons, the high-resolution (SBHR) seismic data were acquired during daylight hours on the shoulder of the I-215 freeway and within 5 to 10 m of high-traffic volumes, resulting in low signal-to-noise ratios. The limited offset at which refracted first-arrivals could be measured along the SBHR seismic profile limited our measurements of tomographic refraction velocities to relatively shallow (< 150 m) depths. The SBHR reflection data reveal a basin with complex structural details within the upper kilometer. The two seismic profiles

  5. Seattle 20 Second Freeway

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This set of data files is one of the four test data sets acquired by the USDOT Data Capture and Management program. It contains the following data for the six months...

  6. Incidence and Trends of Infections with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Ellyn P; Cieslak, Paul R; Cronquist, Alicia B; Dunn, John; Lathrop, Sarah; Rabatsky-Ehr, Therese; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Vugia, Duc J; Zansky, Shelley; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Lynch, Michael; Tauxe, Robert; Geissler, Aimee L

    2017-04-21

    Foodborne diseases represent a substantial public health concern in the United States. CDC's Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors cases reported from 10 U.S. sites* of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine enteric pathogens commonly transmitted through food. This report describes preliminary surveillance data for 2016 on the nine pathogens and changes in incidences compared with 2013-2015. In 2016, FoodNet identified 24,029 infections, 5,512 hospitalizations, and 98 deaths caused by these pathogens. The use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) by clinical laboratories to detect enteric pathogens has been steadily increasing since FoodNet began surveying clinical laboratories in 2010 (1). CIDTs complicate the interpretation of FoodNet surveillance data because pathogen detection could be affected by changes in health care provider behaviors or laboratory testing practices (2). Health care providers might be more likely to order CIDTs because these tests are quicker and easier to use than traditional culture methods, a circumstance that could increase pathogen detection (3). Similarly, pathogen detection could also be increasing as clinical laboratories adopt DNA-based syndromic panels, which include pathogens not often included in routine stool culture (4,5). In addition, CIDTs do not yield isolates, which public health officials rely on to distinguish pathogen subtypes, determine antimicrobial resistance, monitor trends, and detect outbreaks. To obtain isolates for infections identified by CIDTs, laboratories must perform reflex culture † ; if clinical laboratories do not, the burden of culturing falls to state public health laboratories, which might not be able to absorb that burden as the adoption of these tests increases (2). Strategies are needed to preserve access to bacterial isolates for further characterization and to determine the effect of changing trends in testing practices on surveillance.

  7. Police Incident Reports Written

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — This table contains incident reports filed with the Chapel Hill Police Department. Multiple incidents may have been reported at the same time. The most serious...

  8. Incident Information Management Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Pejovic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Flaws of\tcurrent incident information management at CMS and CERN\tare discussed. A new data\tmodel for future incident database is\tproposed and briefly described. Recently developed draft version of GIS-­‐based tool for incident tracking is presented.

  9. Incident reporting in anaesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staender, Sven

    2011-06-01

    Incident reporting can be a powerful tool to detect weaknesses in the complex system of anaesthesiology. Having its roots in aviation, incident reporting today is used in a variety of medical disciplines at the local and even on the national level. Strength of incident reporting is the potential for learning from rare and potentially dangerous events. To properly set up an incident reporting system requires certain conditions to support and motivate reporters. It, furthermore, needs a sound definition or a model of a critical incident as well as a strategy to analyse the reported events. In Europe, a number of countries already run a national reporting system in anaesthesiology with large collections of critical events. These national systems, furthermore, distribute hazard warnings to spread the information on critical incidents among all specialists in that country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cancer incidence among waiters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijula, Jere; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2015-01-01

    INCIDENCE IN SOME CANCER SITES CAN LIKELY BE EXPLAINED BY HIGHER ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION, THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TOBACCO SMOKE HOPEFULLY, THE INCIDENCE OF CANCER AMONG WAITERS WILL DECREASE IN THE FUTURE, DUE TO THE BANNING OF TOBACCO SMOKING IN RESTAURANTS AND BARS IN THE NORDIC...... diagnosed. Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was defined as the observed number of cancer cases divided by the expected number, based on national age, time period and gender-specific cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers in waiters, in the five countries combined...

  11. Delays caused by incidents. Data-driven approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Bakri, T.; Arem, B. van

    2013-01-01

    Road networks are becoming more vulnerable to incidents as a result of the increasing level of congestion. An innovative empirical method is proposed and applied to analyze the delays caused by about 490,000 incidents that occurred in the Netherlands in the period 2007 to 2009. The method was

  12. Incidence of DAA failure and the clinical impact of retreatment in real-life patients treated in the advanced stage of liver disease: Interim evaluations from the PITER network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreta A Kondili

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the virological and clinical outcomes of advanced liver disease patients retreated after first-line DAA failure.To evaluate DAA failure incidence and the retreatment clinical impact in patients treated in the advanced liver disease stage.Data on HCV genotype, liver disease severity, and first and second line DAA regimens were prospectively collected in consecutive patients who reached the 12-week post-treatment and retreatment evaluations from January 2015 to December 2016 in 23 of the PITER network centers.Among 3,830 patients with advanced fibrosis (F3 or cirrhosis, 139 (3.6% failed to achieve SVR. Genotype 3, bilirubin levels >1.5mg/dl, platelet count <120,000/mm3 and the sofosbuvir+ribavirin regimen were independent predictors of failure by logistic regression analysis. The failure rate was 7.6% for patients treated with regimens that are no longer recommended or considered suboptimal (sofosbuvir+ribavirin or simeprevir+sofosbuvir±ribavirin, whereas 1.4% for regimens containing sofosbuvir combined with daclatasvir or ledipasvir or other DAAs. Of the patients who failed to achieve SVR, 72 (51.8% were retreated with a second DAA regimen, specifically 38 (52.7% with sofosbuvir+daclatasvir, 27 (37.5% with sofosbuvir+ledipasvir, and 7 (9.7% with other DAAs ±ribavirin. Among these, 69 (96% patients achieved SVR12 and 3 (4% failed. During a median time of 6 months (range: 5-14 months between failure and the second DAA therapy, the Child-Pugh class worsened in 12 (16.7% patients: from A to B in 10 patients (19.6% and from B to C in 2 patients (10.5%, whereas it did not change in the remaining 60 patients. Following the retreatment SVR12 (median time of 6 months; range: 3-12 months, the Child-Pugh class improved in 17 (23.6% patients: from B to A in 14 (19.4% patients, from C to A in 1 patient (1.4% and from C to B in 2 (2.9% patients; it remained unchanged in 53 patients (73.6% and worsened in 2 (2.8% patients. Of

  13. Characteristics of emergency services personnel related to peritraumatic dissociation during critical incident exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmar, C R; Weiss, D S; Metzler, T J; Delucchi, K

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of emergency services personnel related to acute dissociative responses at the time of critical incident exposure, a phenomenon designated "peritraumatic dissociation." The authors studied 157 rescue workers who responded to the Nimitz Freeway collapse during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area as well as 201 rescue workers who were not involved in that disaster. Demographics, level of critical incident exposure, perceived threat at the time of exposure, personality attributes (assessed by the Hogan Personality Inventory), coping strategies (assessed by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire), and locus of control were related to subjects' scores on the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire. According to univariate tests, the subjects with clinically meaningful levels of peritraumatic dissociation were younger; reported greater exposure to critical incident stress; felt greater perceived threat; had lower scores on the adjustment, identify, ambition, and prudence scales of the Hogan Personality Inventory; had higher scores on measures of coping by means of escape-avoidance, self-control, and active problem solving; and had greater externality in locus of control. Linear modeling with multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that greater feelings of perceived threat, coping by means of escape-avoidance, and coping by means of self-control were associated with a greater likelihood of being in the peritraumatic dissociation group, above and beyond age and exposure to stress. Rescue workers who are shy, inhibited, uncertain about their identity, or reluctant to take leadership roles, who have global cognitive styles, who believe their fate is determined by factors beyond their control, and who cope with critical incident trauma by emotional suppression and wishful thinking are at higher risk for acute dissociative responses to trauma and subsequent posttraumatic stress

  14. Police Incident Blotter (Archive)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Police Blotter Archive contains crime incident data after it has been validated and processed to meet Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) standards, published on a...

  15. Marine Animal Incident Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  16. Drug related critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Hoda, M Q

    2005-01-01

    Drug related incidents are a common form of reported medical errors. This paper reviews the critical incidents related to drug errors reported from the main operating theatre suite in a teaching hospital in a developing country from January 1997 to December 2002. Each report was evaluated individually by two reviewers using a structured process. During this period, 44 874 anaesthetics were administered; 768 critical incidents were reported, 165 (21%) of which were related to drug errors. Underdosage, side-effect/drug reaction and syringe swap were the most common. A total of 76% were classified as preventable; 56% due to human error and 19% due to system error. High risk incidents accounted for 10% of all drug errors and most of these were related to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs. This analysis has been found useful in addressing some issues about priorities.

  17. Incident Report - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Incident Report is a mandatory post trip legal document observers fill out to report any enforcement related situations they have encountered on an observed trip...

  18. 2011 Japanese Nuclear Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s RadNet system monitored the environmental radiation levels in the United States and parts of the Pacific following the Japanese Nuclear Incident. Learn about EPA’s response and view historical laboratory data and news releases.

  19. Large whale incident database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Large whale stranding, death, ship strike and entanglement incidents are all recorded to monitor the health of each population and track anthropogenic factors that...

  20. Drinking Water and Wastewater Laboratory Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website provides the drinking water sector with an integrated nationwide network of laboratories with the analytical capability to respond to intentional and unintentional drinking water incidents.

  1. Information Security Incident Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Persanov

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present report highlights the points of information security incident management in an enterprise. Some aspects of the incident and event classification are given. The author presents his view of the process scheme over the monitoring and processing information security events. Also, the report determines a few critical points of the listed process and gives the practical recommendations over its development and optimization.

  2. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  3. Review of literature and practices for incident management programs : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The project team examined project evaluations, best practice summaries, and synthesis documents, and derived a summary of key elements of programs to speed the time to find and clear stalled vehicles and crashes from freeway shoulders and main lanes....

  4. Radiation incidents in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovelock, D.J. [Dental Hospital and School, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    Most dental practitioners act as their own radiographer and radiologist, unlike their medical colleagues. Virtually all dental surgeons have a dental X-ray machine for intraoral radiography available to them and 40% of dental practices have equipment for dental panoramic tomography. Because of the low energy of X-ray equipment used in dentistry, radiation incidents tend to be less serious than those associated with other aspects of patient care. Details of 47 known incidents are given. The advent of the 1985 and 1988 Ionising Radiation Regulations has made dental surgeons more aware of the hazards of radiation. These regulations, and general health and safety legislation, have led to a few dental surgeons facing legal action. Because of the publicity associated with these court cases, it is expected that there will be a decrease in radiation incidents arising from the practice of dentistry. (author).

  5. Quantifying travel time variability in transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Nonrecurring congestion creates significant delay on freeways in urban areas, lending importance : to the study of facility reliability. In locations where traffic detectors record and archive data, : approximate probability distributions for travel ...

  6. National Incident Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    hygienist Intelligence specialist Law enforcement specialist Legal counsel Mass care specialist Meteorologist Military specialist Mortuary affairs...orders, through Supply, such additional support items as portable toilets , shower facilities, and lighting units. C. GROUND SUPPORT UNIT The Ground... mortuary affairs for incident personnel fatalities. The Medical Unit Leader will develop a Medical Plan, which will, in turn, form part of the IAP

  7. Lightning incidents in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmar Doljinsuren

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This is one of the first studies that has been conducted in Mongolia on the distribution of lightning incidents. The study covers a 10-year period from 2004 to 2013. The country records a human death rate of 15.4 deaths per 10 million people per year, which is much higher than that of many countries with similar isokeraunic level. The reason may be the low-grown vegetation observed in most rural areas of Mongolia, a surface topography, typical to steppe climate. We suggest modifications to Gomes–Kadir equation for such countries, as it predicts a much lower annual death rate for Mongolia. The lightning incidents spread over the period from May to August with the peak of the number of incidents occurring in July. The worst lightning affected region in the country is the central part. Compared with impacts of other convective disasters such as squalls, thunderstorms and hail, lightning stands as the second highest in the number of incidents, human deaths and animal deaths. Economic losses due to lightning is only about 1% of the total losses due to the four extreme weather phenomena. However, unless precautionary measures are not promoted among the public, this figure of losses may significantly increase with time as the country is undergoing rapid industrialization at present.

  8. Link state relationships under incident conditions : using a CTM-based linear programming dynamic traffic assignment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Urban transportation networks, consisting of numerous links and nodes, experience traffic incidents such as accidents and road : maintenance work. A typical consequence of incidents is congestion which results in long queues and causes high travel ti...

  9. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of incident of type 2 diabetes: results from the consortium on health and ageing network of cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamluk, L; O'Doherty, M G; Orfanos, P; Saitakis, G; Woodside, J V; Liao, L M; Sinha, R; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulou, A; Kee, F

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information to support definitive recommendations concerning the role of diet in the development of type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The results of the latest meta-analyses suggest that an increased consumption of green leafy vegetables may reduce the incidence of diabetes, with either no association or weak associations demonstrated for total fruit and vegetable intake. Few studies have, however, focused on older subjects. The relationship between T2DM and fruit and vegetable intake was investigated using data from the NIH-AARP study and the EPIC Elderly study. All participants below the age of 50 and/or with a history of cancer, diabetes or coronary heart disease were excluded from the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio of T2DM comparing the highest with the lowest estimated portions of fruit, vegetable, green leafy vegetables and cabbage intake. Comparing people with the highest and lowest estimated portions of fruit, vegetable or green leafy vegetable intake indicated no association with the risk of T2DM. However, although the pooled OR across all studies showed no effect overall, there was significant heterogeneity across cohorts and independent results from the NIH-AARP study showed that fruit and green leafy vegetable intake was associated with a reduced risk of T2DM OR 0.95 (95% CI 0.91,0.99) and OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.87,0.90) respectively. Fruit and vegetable intake was not shown to be related to incident T2DM in older subjects. Summary analysis also found no associations between green leafy vegetable and cabbage intake and the onset of T2DM. Future dietary pattern studies may shed light on the origin of the heterogeneity across populations.

  10. Traffic incident management in hazardous materials spills in incident clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous materials spills provide unique challenges to traffic incident clearance. When hazardous materials are present, not only do response personnel have to deal with typical traffic incident issues, they also must deal with potential chemical ha...

  11. Medication incidents reported to an online incident reporting system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alrwisan, Adel

    2011-01-15

    AIMS: Approximately 20% of deaths from adverse events are related to medication incidents, costing the NHS an additional £500 million annually. Less than 5% of adverse events are reported. This study aims to assess the reporting rate of medication incidents in NHS facilities in the north east of Scotland, and to describe the types and outcomes of reported incidents among different services. Furthermore, we wished to quantify the proportion of reported incidents according to the reporters\\' profession. METHODS: A retrospective description was made of medication incidents reported to an online reporting system (DATIX) over a 46-month-period (July 2005 to April 2009). Reports originated from acute and community hospitals, mental health, and primary care facilities. RESULTS: Over the study period there were 2,666 incidents reported with a mean monthly reporting rate of 78.2\\/month (SD±16.9). 6.1% of all incidents resulted in harm, with insulin being the most commonly implicated medication. Nearly three-quarters (74.2%, n=1,978) of total incidents originated from acute hospitals. Administration incidents were implicated in the majority of the reported medication incidents (59%), followed by prescribing (10.8%) and dispensing (9.9%), while the nondescript "other medication incidents" accounted for 20.3% of total incidents. The majority of reports were made by nursing and midwifery staff (80%), with medical and dental professionals reporting the lowest number of incidents (n=56, 2%). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of medication incidents in this study were reported by nursing and midwifery staff, and were due to administration incidents. There is a clear need to elucidate the reasons for the limited contribution of the medical and dental professionals to reporting medication incidents.

  12. Prevalence Incidence Mixture Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package and webtool fits Prevalence Incidence Mixture models to left-censored and irregularly interval-censored time to event data that is commonly found in screening cohorts assembled from electronic health records. Absolute and relative risk can be estimated for simple random sampling, and stratified sampling (the two approaches of superpopulation and a finite population are supported for target populations). Non-parametric (absolute risks only), semi-parametric, weakly-parametric (using B-splines), and some fully parametric (such as the logistic-Weibull) models are supported.

  13. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... initial antipsychotic prescribing patterns and associated use of mental health care services. METHOD: Population-based cohort study linking the following Danish national registers: the Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS...

  14. CNEM: Cluster Based Network Evolution Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Nizamani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a network evolution model, which is based on the clustering approach. The proposed approach depicts the network evolution, which demonstrates the network formation from individual nodes to fully evolved network. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering method is applied for the evolution of network. In the paper, we present three case studies which show the evolution of the networks from the scratch. These case studies include: terrorist network of 9/11 incidents, terrorist network of WMD (Weapons Mass Destruction plot against France and a network of tweets discussing a topic. The network of 9/11 is also used for evaluation, using other social network analysis methods which show that the clusters created using the proposed model of network evolution are of good quality, thus the proposed method can be used by law enforcement agencies in order to further investigate the criminal networks

  15. Increasing incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehrer, Michala; Pedersen, Court; Jensen, Thøger G

    2014-01-01

    Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008.......Smaller studies indicate that the incidence of pyogenic spondylodiscitis is increasing, possible related to a growing elderly population. Data supporting this is sparse, and we therefore studied patient characteristics and changes in spondylodiscitis incidence 1995-2008....

  16. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  17. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  18. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  19. Managing Cisco network security

    CERN Document Server

    Knipp, Eric

    2002-01-01

    An in-depth knowledge of how to configure Cisco IP network security is a MUST for anyone working in today''s internetworked world"There''s no question that attacks on enterprise networks are increasing in frequency and sophistication..."-Mike Fuhrman, Cisco Systems Manager, Security ConsultingManaging Cisco Network Security, Second Edition offers updated and revised information covering many of Cisco''s security products that provide protection from threats, detection of network security incidents, measurement of vulnerability and policy compliance and management of security policy across an extended organization. These are the tools that network administrators have to mount defenses against threats. Chapters also cover the improved functionality and ease of the Cisco Secure Policy Manger software used by thousands of small-to-midsized businesses and a special section on the Cisco Aironet Wireless Security Solutions.Security from a real-world perspectiveKey coverage of the new technologies offered by the Cisc...

  20. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  1. Governance of occasional multi-sector networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treurniet, W.; Logtenberg, R.; Groenewegen, P.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale safety and security incidents typically require the coordinated effort of multiple organisations. A networked organisation is generally seen as the most appropriate structure for coordination within safety and security collaborations. Such networks generally are mixed-sector networks in

  2. Analysis of regulatory networks constructed based on gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene coexpression patterns can reveal gene collections with functional consistency. This study systematically constructs regulatory networks for pituitary tumours by integrating gene coexpression, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Through network analysis, we elaborate the incidence mechanism of pituitary ...

  3. Understanding characteristics in multivariate traffic flow time series from complex network structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Zhang, Shen; Tang, Jinjun; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-07-01

    Discovering dynamic characteristics in traffic flow is the significant step to design effective traffic managing and controlling strategy for relieving traffic congestion in urban cities. A new method based on complex network theory is proposed to study multivariate traffic flow time series. The data were collected from loop detectors on freeway during a year. In order to construct complex network from original traffic flow, a weighted Froenius norm is adopt to estimate similarity between multivariate time series, and Principal Component Analysis is implemented to determine the weights. We discuss how to select optimal critical threshold for networks at different hour in term of cumulative probability distribution of degree. Furthermore, two statistical properties of networks: normalized network structure entropy and cumulative probability of degree, are utilized to explore hourly variation in traffic flow. The results demonstrate these two statistical quantities express similar pattern to traffic flow parameters with morning and evening peak hours. Accordingly, we detect three traffic states: trough, peak and transitional hours, according to the correlation between two aforementioned properties. The classifying results of states can actually represent hourly fluctuation in traffic flow by analyzing annual average hourly values of traffic volume, occupancy and speed in corresponding hours.

  4. A common language for computer security incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Howard; Thomas A Longstaff

    1998-10-01

    Much of the computer security information regularly gathered and disseminated by individuals and organizations cannot currently be combined or compared because a common language has yet to emerge in the field of computer security. A common language consists of terms and taxonomies (principles of classification) which enable the gathering, exchange and comparison of information. This paper presents the results of a project to develop such a common language for computer security incidents. This project results from cooperation between the Security and Networking Research Group at the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, and the CERT{reg_sign} Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. This Common Language Project was not an effort to develop a comprehensive dictionary of terms used in the field of computer security. Instead, the authors developed a minimum set of high-level terms, along with a structure indicating their relationship (a taxonomy), which can be used to classify and understand computer security incident information. They hope these high-level terms and their structure will gain wide acceptance, be useful, and most importantly, enable the exchange and comparison of computer security incident information. They anticipate, however, that individuals and organizations will continue to use their own terms, which may be more specific both in meaning and use. They designed the common language to enable these lower-level terms to be classified within the common language structure.

  5. Scrub Typhus Incidence Modeling with Meteorological Factors in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Kwak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its recurrence in 1986, scrub typhus has been occurring annually and it is considered as one of the most prevalent diseases in Korea. Scrub typhus is a 3rd grade nationally notifiable disease that has greatly increased in Korea since 2000. The objective of this study is to construct a disease incidence model for prediction and quantification of the incidences of scrub typhus. Using data from 2001 to 2010, the incidence Artificial Neural Network (ANN model, which considers the time-lag between scrub typhus and minimum temperature, precipitation and average wind speed based on the Granger causality and spectral analysis, is constructed and tested for 2011 to 2012. Results show reliable simulation of scrub typhus incidences with selected predictors, and indicate that the seasonality in meteorological data should be considered.

  6. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  7. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  8. Learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drupsteen, L.; Kampen, J. van

    2014-01-01

    There are many different definitions for what constitutes an incident or an accident, however the focus is always on unintended and often unforeseen events that cause unintended consequences. This article is focused on the process of learning from incidents and accidents. The focus is on making sure

  9. Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xu; Li, Haijian; Qin, Lingqiao; Xu, Dongwei; Ran, Bin; Rong, Jian

    2016-10-27

    To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads.

  10. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  11. Traffic incident management resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The necessity of a multi-disciplinary approach involving law enforcement, fire and rescue, transportation, towing and recovery, and others has been well-recognized and integrated into incident management operations. This same multidisciplinar...

  12. Police Incident Blotter (30 Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The 30 Day Police Blotter contains the most recent initial crime incident data, updated on a nightly basis. All data is reported at the block/intersection level,...

  13. Estimation of Incident Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Helm-Petersen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is the results found by Aalborg University in the calculations of the incident wave heights hm0 and the reflection coefficients α from the LIP-MAST investigations in the Vinje-Basin during May to July 1994.......The paper is the results found by Aalborg University in the calculations of the incident wave heights hm0 and the reflection coefficients α from the LIP-MAST investigations in the Vinje-Basin during May to July 1994....

  14. Incident response: crew scheduling and rerouting of hazmat carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherali, Hanif D.; Subramanian, Shivaram; Kachroo, Pushkin

    1998-01-01

    Incident response strategies deal with the resource allocation and minimum risk re-routing of hazardous material carriers in response to traffic incidents. Such strategies also address the effect of loss in coverage due to the non- availability of response vehicles. In addition, the effect of an incident on hazmat carriers that are presented in the local vicinity is that the resulting traffic congestion considerably increases the risk of exposure for motorists. In such a situation, the hazmat carrier needs to be re- routed through a safer path. We have proposed mathematical models that address each of the two problems. The incident response model identifies an optimal allocation of response agency units and their routing in the even of traffic incidents in real-time, while also taking into consideration the response requirements for future demands. The hazmat re- routing model determines an optimal diversion route in a network using multiple risk-based objective functions to re- route Hazmat carriers in the event of an incident occurring along the prescribed route. Mathematical programming formulations are presented for each case, and solution procedures are outlined. Some computational experience is also provided.

  15. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  16. Incidence of Narcolepsy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Doris; Drechsel-Bäuerle, Ursula; Schmidtmann, Irene; Mayer, Geert; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-10-01

    Following the 2009 pandemic, reports of an association between an AS03 adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine and narcolepsy were published. Besides determining background incidence rates for narcolepsy in Germany this study aimed at investigating whether there was a change in incidence rates of narcolepsy between the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and the post-pandemic period on the population level. Retrospective epidemiological study on the incidence of narcolepsy with additional capture-recapture analysis. German sleep centers. Eligible were patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD10 Code G47.4) within the period from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. None; observational study. A total of 342 sleep centers were invited to participate in the study. Adequate and suitable data were provided by 233 sleep centers (68.1%). A total of 1,198 patients with an initial diagnosis of narcolepsy within the observed period were included, of whom 106 (8.8%) were children and adolescents under the age of 18 years and 1,092 (91.2%) were adults. In children and adolescents, the age-standardized adjusted incidence rate significantly increased from 0.14/100,000 person-years in the pre-pandemic period to 0.50/100,000 person-years in the post-pandemic period (incidence density ratio, IDR 3.57; 95% CI 1.94-7.00). In adults, no significant change was detectable. This increase started in spring 2009. For the years 2007-2011, valid estimates for the incidence of narcolepsy in Germany were provided. In individuals under 18, the incidence rates continuously increased from spring 2009. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Rebecca; Altantsetseg, Dalkhjav; Davaasambuu, Ganmaa; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Tretli, Steinar; Hoover, Robert N; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2012-07-01

    Data on international variation in breast cancer incidence may help to identify additional risk factors. Substantially lower breast cancer rates in Asia than in North America and Western Europe are established, but differences within Asia have been largely ignored despite heterogeneity in lifestyles and environments. Mongolia's breast cancer experience is of interest because of its shared genetics but vastly different diet compared with other parts of Asia. Age-standardized breast cancer incidence and mortality rates obtained from the International Association of Cancer Registries are presented for several Asian countries. Mongolian incidence rates obtained from its cancer registry describe incidence within the country. Breast cancer incidence in Mongolia (age standardized 8.0/100,000) is almost a third of rates in China (21.6/100,000), and over five times that of Japan (42.7/100,000) and Russia (43.2/100,000). Rates within Mongolia appear to have increased slightly over the last decade and are higher in urban than rural areas (annual percentage increase of age-standardized rates from 1998 to 2005 was 3.60 and 2.57 %, respectively). The increase in breast cancer incidence with age plateaus at menopause, as in other Asian populations. Mongolia's low breast cancer incidence is of particular interest because of their unusual diet (primarily red meat and dairy) compared with other Asian countries. More intensive study of potential dietary, reproductive and lifestyle factors in Mongolia with comparison to other Asian populations may provide more clarity in what drives the international breast cancer rate differences.

  18. Improving Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT) Skills, Dynamics and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    recommendations for optimal CSIRT performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cyber Incident Response, Response Teams, Cognitive Task Analysis 16. SECURITY...CSIRT, such as forensics or threat intelligence. This network of teams is known as a multiteam system, or MTS. This concept was emphasized throughout...this project. When reading the chapters in the Handbook, it is important to keep in mind that building a productive CSIRT requires not just

  19. Information sharing for traffic incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Traffic incident management focuses on developing procedures, implementing policies, and deploying technologies to more quickly identify incidents, improve response times, and more effectively and efficiently manage the incident scene. Because so man...

  20. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  1. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  2. Improved security monitoring method for network bordary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liting; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Zhenyan; Qi, Aihua

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a network bordary security monitoring system based on PKI. The design uses multiple safe technologies, analysis deeply the association between network data flow and system log, it can detect the intrusion activities and position invasion source accurately in time. The experiment result shows that it can reduce the rate of false alarm or missing alarm of the security incident effectively.

  3. Nutritional deficiency in Dutch primary care: data from general practice research and registration networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, C.A.M. van; Laar, F.A. van de; Waal, M.W.M. de; Okkes, I.M.; Akker, M. van den; Veen, W.J. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Staveren, W.A. van; Binsbergen, J.J. van; Weel, C. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency in adults in general practice. METHODS: Six Dutch general practice research and registration networks supplied incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency by the International Classification of Primary Care

  4. Nutritional deficiency in Dutch primary care : data from general practice research and registration networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wayenburg, CAM; van de Laar, FA; de Waal, MWM; Okkes, IM; van den Akker, M; van der Veen, WJ; Schellevis, FG; van Staveren, WA; van Binsbergen, JJ; van Weel, C

    Objective: To explore incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency in adults in general practice. Methods: Six Dutch general practice research and registration networks supplied incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency by the International Classification of Primary Care

  5. Nutritional deficiency in Dutch primary care: data from general practice research and registration networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wayenburg, van C.A.M.; Laar, van de F.A.; Waal, de M.W.M.; Okkes, I.M.; Akker, van den M.; Veen, van der W.J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Binsbergen, van J.J.; Weel, van C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency in adults in general practice. Methods: Six Dutch general practice research and registration networks supplied incidence and prevalence rates of nutritional deficiency by the International Classification of Primary Care

  6. Cardiovascular disease incidence and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Agyemang, Charles; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Studies on cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and survival show varying results between different ethnic groups. Our aim was to add a new dimension by exploring the role of migrant status in combination with ethnic background on incidence of-and survival from-CVD and more specifically acute...... of some types of cardiovascular disease compared to Danish-born. Family-reunified migrants on the other hand had lower rates of CVD. All migrants had better survival than Danish-born indicating that migrants may not always be disadvantaged in health....

  7. Metabolic Syndrome and Incident Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Earl S.; Li, Chaoyang; Sattar, Naveed

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?Our objective was to perform a quantitative review of prospective studies examining the association between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?Using the title terms ?diabetes? and ?metabolic syndrome? in PubMed, we searched for articles published since 1998. RESULTS?Based on the results from 16 cohorts, we performed a meta-analysis of estimates of relative risk (RR) and incident diabetes. The random-effects summary RRs were 5.17 (95% CI 3.99?6....

  8. Facebook, stress, and incidence of upper respiratory infection in undergraduate college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Jay; Bynog, Pamela; McGehee, Hope; Oakland, Joshua C; Quirk, Shannon; Taga, Carlee; Taylor, Morgan

    2012-12-01

    Having a large social network is generally beneficial to health. However, it is unclear how Internet-based social networks might influence health. Chronic stress can have negative health consequences, and some data suggest that Facebook could be a new source of psychological stress. Thus, we examined undergraduate college student perceptions of Facebook use and incidence of upper respiratory infections (URIs). We hypothesized that subjects with more diverse networks (i.e., more friends on Facebook) would have fewer URIs than their less diverse counterparts; that subjects reporting Facebook-induced stress would be more susceptible to URIs; and that subjects with more diverse networks who report Facebook-induced stress would be less susceptible to URIs than subjects with less diverse social networks who reported Facebook-induced stress. In this prospective study, healthy college students completed online questionnaires that assessed use and perceptions of Facebook and technology, and then were interviewed weekly for 10 weeks to track incidence of URI. URI episodes were defined by a symptom-based criterion. The social network size was significantly related to the rate of URI, such that, the larger the social network, the greater the incidence rate of URI. Most (85.7 percent) respondents experienced some degree of Facebook-induced stress. The effects of Facebook-induced stress on incidence of URI varied across the social network size, such that, the impact of stress on the URI incidence rate increased with the size of the social network. These results are largely in contrast to our hypotheses, but clearly suggest an association between Facebook use, psychological stress, and health.

  9. Risk, Privacy, and Security in Computer Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Årnes, Andre

    2006-01-01

    With an increasingly digitally connected society comes complexity, uncertainty, and risk. Network monitoring, incident management, and digital forensics is of increasing importance with the escalation of cybercrime and other network supported serious crimes. New laws and regulations governing electronic communications, cybercrime, and data retention are being proposed, continuously requiring new methods and tools. This thesis introduces a novel approach to real-time network risk assessmen...

  10. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  11. Coffee consumption and incident dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Mirza (Saira); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); M.A. Ikram (Arfan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCoffee consumption has been frequently reported for its protective association with incident dementia. However, this association has mostly been reported in studies with short follow-up periods, and it remains unclear to what extent reverse causality influences this association. Studying

  12. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    ) and the incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10.......0%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (9.1%). Regardless of place of acquisition, the proportion of bacteremias caused by enterococci increased (p

  13. Towards Incidence Management in 5G Based on Situational Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Isabel Barona López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fifth generation mobile network, or 5G, moves towards bringing solutions to deploying faster networks, with hundreds of thousands of simultaneous connections and massive data transfer. For this purpose, several emerging technologies are implemented, resulting in virtualization and self-organization of most of their components, which raises important challenges related to safety. In order to contribute to their resolution, this paper proposes a novel architecture for incident management on 5G. The approach combines the conventional risk management schemes with the Endsley Situational Awareness model, thus improving effectiveness in different aspects, among them the ability to adapt to complex and dynamical monitoring environments, and countermeasure tracking or the role of context when decision-making. The proposal takes into account all layers for information processing in 5G mobile networks, ranging from infrastructure to the actuators responsible for deploying corrective measures.

  14. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  15. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  16. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  17. Incident dementia in a defined older Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruoling Chen

    Full Text Available Current knowledge about incident dementia is mainly derived from studies undertaken in the West, showing that dementia is related to older age, low socio-economic status, lack of social network, depression and cardiovascular disease risk factors. We know little about incidence and predictors of dementia in China, where the prevalence is increasing and the patterns of risk factors are different.Using a standard interview method, we examined 1526 non-demented people aged ≥65 years who had at least minimal educational level in China in a 7.5-year follow up. Incident dementia was diagnosed by GMS-AGECAT algorithms and psychiatrists.Age-standardised incidence of dementia was 14.7 per 1000 person-years (95%CI 11.3-18.2 per 1000 person-years. The increased risk was significantly associated with age, female gender (adjusted odds ratio 2.48, 95%CI 1.20-5.13, low educational levels, smoking, angina (2.58, 1.01-6.59 and living with fewer family members. Among participants with low educational level, the increased risk was associated with higher income, and with the highest and lowest occupational classes; adjusted odds ratio 2.74 (95%CI 1.12-6.70 for officers/teachers, 3.11 (1.61-6.01 for manual labourers/peasants.Our findings of high incidence of dementia and increased risk among people having low education levels but high income suggest a more potential epidemic and burden of dementia populations in China. Maintaining social network and activities and reducing cardiovascular factors in late life could be integrated into current multi-faceted preventive strategies for curbing the epidemic of dementia.

  18. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  19. An Approach to Modeling the Impact of Traffic Incident on Urban Expressway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify network bottlenecks of urban expressway effectively is a foundational work for improving network traffic condition and preventing traffic congestion. This study proposes a methodology to estimate the impact of traffic incident on urban expressway on the basis of modified cell transmission model. The metastable state was taken into account in the proposed method to reflect the actual operating state of traffic flow on urban expressway as much as possible. Regarding the location of traffic incident, the method of cell restructuring settings was discussed. We then proceed to introduce a new concept of the effected length in a given time period as the evaluation indicator to directly depict the influence of traffic incident. The proposed method was tested on a 6516-meter urban expressway section of west second ring road in Beijing. The simulation results indicated that the proposed methodology performs well to predict the impact of traffic incident on urban expressway.

  20. Dissociative Tendencies and Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between dissociative experiences and road traffic incidents (crashes and traffic tickets in drivers (n=295 from Mar del Plata (Argentina city. A self-report questionnaire was applied to assess traffic crash involvement and sociodemographic variables. Dissociative tendencies were assessed by a modified version of the DES scale. To examine differences in DES scores tests of the difference of means were applied. Drivers who reported to be previously involved in traffic incidents obtained higher puntuations in the dissociative experiences scale than drivers who did not report such events. This result is observed for the total scale and for the three sub-scales (absorption, amnesia and depersonalization. However, differences appeared mainly for minor damage collisions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of dissociative tendencies as a risk factor in road traffic safety.

  1. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  2. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  3. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  4. Regional comparison of cancer incidence:

    OpenAIRE

    Obralić, Nermina

    2004-01-01

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European andworld countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data oncancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo ci...

  5. Coffee consumption and incident dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Saira Saeed; Tiemeier, Henning; de Bruijn, Renée F A G; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica; Koudstaal, Peter J; Ikram, M Arfan

    2014-10-01

    Coffee consumption has been frequently reported for its protective association with incident dementia. However, this association has mostly been reported in studies with short follow-up periods, and it remains unclear to what extent reverse causality influences this association. Studying the long-term effect of coffee consumption on dementia with stratified follow-up time may help resolve this issue. In the population-based Rotterdam Study, coffee consumption was assessed in 1989-1991 (N = 5,408), and reassessed in 1997-1999 (N = 4,368). Follow-up for dementia was complete until 2011. We investigated the association of coffee consumption and incident dementia for the two examination rounds separately using flexible parametric survival models. We studied the entire follow-up period as well as stratified follow-up time at 4 years. For both examination rounds, we did not find an association between coffee consumption and dementia over the entire follow-up. In contrast, for both examination rounds, a protective association was observed only in the follow-up stratum of 0-4 years. Our data suggest that coffee consumption is not associated with incident dementia during long-term. The protective association observed in the short-term might be driven by reverse causality.

  6. Stage-specific cancer incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chefo, Solomon; Tsodikov, Alex

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Early detection of prostate cancer using the prostate-specific antigen test led to a sharp spike in the incidence of the disease accompanied by an equally sharp improvement in patient prognoses as evaluated at the point of advanced diagnosis. Observed outcomes represent age at diagnosis and stage, a categorical prognostic variable combining the actual stage and the grade of tumor. The picture is summarized by the stage-specific cancer incidence that represents a joint survival-multinomial response regressed on factors affecting the unobserved history of the disease before diagnosis (mixture). Fitting the complex joint mixed model to large population data is a challenge. We develop a stable and structured MLE approach to the problem allowing for the estimates to be obtained iteratively. Factorization of the likelihood achieved by our method allows us to work with only a fraction of the model dimension at a time. The approach is based on generalized self-consistency and the quasi-EM algorithm used to handle the mixed multinomial part of the response through Poisson likelihood. The model provides a causal link between the screening policy in the population and the stage-specific incidence. PMID:19452568

  7. [Skin cancer incidence in Zacatecas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-Vega, José Luis; Castañeda-López, Rosalba; Dávila-Rangel, J Ignacio; Mireles-García, Fernando; Ríos-Martínez, Carlos; López-Saucedo, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent cancer related to ultraviolet radiation. The aim was to estimate the incidence of skin cancer type, melanoma and non-melanoma in Zacatecas, Mexico. An epidemiological study was carried out during the period from 2008 to 2012. The data were obtained from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), Secretaría de Salud de Zacatecas (SSZ) and a private source, the Centro Médico Alameda. The incidence and the global prevalence were estimated. We studied 958 skin cancer cases, histopathologically confirmed. The cases were distributed as: 63.6 % basal cell carcinomas, 25.8 % squamous cell carcinomas, and 10.6 % melanoma. Significantly higher proportions were observed in women in the basal cell carcinomas (60.4 %) and squamous cell carcinomas (53.4 %). However, in the case of melanoma, the major proportion was observed in men (55.9 %). The more frequent skin cancer location was the face and for basal cell carcinoma was the nose (53 %); for squamous cell carcinomas were the lips (36 %), and for melanoma it was also the nose (40 %). The skin cancer incidence was estimated in 20 cases for each 100 000 inhabitants. Linear regression analysis showed that the skin cancer is increasing at an annual rate of 10.5 %. The anatomical location indicates that solar UV radiation is a risk factor, since the face is the zone with major exposure to solar radiation.

  8. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  9. Reactions to adverse incidents in the health services on Twitter: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Meaney; Leanne Cussen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Participation in social networking is commonplace and social media is transforming both health and health related research. Of the various social media platforms, Twitter must be considered a platform for rapid and immediate communication. There has been considerable national and international media coverage reporting a number of adverse incidents in the Irish maternity services. The media coverage of these adverse incidents, most recently about a cluster of perinatal deaths, st...

  10. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  11. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  12. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. Roadway network productivity assessment : system-wide analysis under variant travel demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The analysis documented in this report examines the hypothesis that the system-wide productivity of a metropolitan freeway system in peak periods is higher in moderate travel demand conditions than in excessive travel demand conditions. The approach ...

  15. Concussion Incidence in Professional Football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, John T.; Connolly, James G.; Yuk, Frank; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan; Lovell, Mark; Choudhri, Tanvir

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the United States alone, millions of athletes participate in sports with potential for head injury each year. Although poorly understood, possible long-term neurological consequences of repetitive sports-related concussions have received increased recognition and attention in recent years. A better understanding of the risk factors for concussion remains a public health priority. Despite the attention focused on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in football, gaps remain in the understanding of the optimal methodology to determine concussion incidence and position-specific risk factors. Purpose: To calculate the rates of concussion in professional football players using established and novel metrics on a group and position-specific basis. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Athletes from the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National Football League (NFL) seasons were included in this analysis of publicly available data. Concussion incidence rates were analyzed using established (athlete exposure [AE], game position [GP]) and novel (position play [PP]) metrics cumulatively, by game unit and position type (offensive skill players and linemen, defensive skill players and linemen), and by position. Results: In 480 games, there were 292 concussions, resulting in 0.61 concussions per game (95% CI, 0.54-0.68), 6.61 concussions per 1000 AEs (95% CI, 5.85-7.37), 1.38 concussions per 100 GPs (95% CI, 1.22-1.54), and 0.17 concussions per 1000 PPs (95% CI, 0.15-0.19). Depending on the method of calculation, the relative order of at-risk positions changed. In addition, using the PP metric, offensive skill players had a significantly greater rate of concussion than offensive linemen, defensive skill players, and defensive linemen (P < .05). Conclusion: For this study period, concussion incidence by position and unit varied depending on which metric was used. Compared with AE and GP, the PP metric found that the relative risk of concussion for

  16. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B. [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d`Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  17. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  18. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  19. Increasing incidence of diabetes after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauenborg, Jeannet; Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    2004-01-01

    To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes.......To study the incidence of diabetes among women with previous diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the light of the general increasing incidence of overweight and diabetes and to identify risk factors for the development of diabetes....

  20. Complex quantum network geometries: Evolution and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph; Wu, Zhihao

    2015-08-01

    Networks are topological and geometric structures used to describe systems as different as the Internet, the brain, or the quantum structure of space-time. Here we define complex quantum network geometries, describing the underlying structure of growing simplicial 2-complexes, i.e., simplicial complexes formed by triangles. These networks are geometric networks with energies of the links that grow according to a nonequilibrium dynamics. The evolution in time of the geometric networks is a classical evolution describing a given path of a path integral defining the evolution of quantum network states. The quantum network states are characterized by quantum occupation numbers that can be mapped, respectively, to the nodes, links, and triangles incident to each link of the network. We call the geometric networks describing the evolution of quantum network states the quantum geometric networks. The quantum geometric networks have many properties common to complex networks, including small-world property, high clustering coefficient, high modularity, and scale-free degree distribution. Moreover, they can be distinguished between the Fermi-Dirac network and the Bose-Einstein network obeying, respectively, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. We show that these networks can undergo structural phase transitions where the geometrical properties of the networks change drastically. Finally, we comment on the relation between quantum complex network geometries, spin networks, and triangulations.

  1. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  2. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  3. Detecting Terrorism Incidence Type from News Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the experiments to detect terrorism incidence type from news summary data. We have applied classification techniques on news summary data to analyze the incidence and detect the type of incidence. A number of experiments are conducted using various classification algorithms...

  4. Parkinson's disease incidence: magnitude, comparability, time trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, J; Stawiarz, L

    1991-11-01

    In this study, we reviewed incidence surveys of Parkinson's Disease (PD) from all over the world, published during the period 1945-1989, using reported quality criteria. In addition, we compared age-specific PD incidences from selected observations by stratified analysis. Crude incidences were described for 11 populations, and age-specific incidences for three of them: Iceland, Rochester (Minn, USA), and Turku (Finland). Effect modification by age was detected: a) by comparing incidences by age at diagnosis with incidence by age at clinical disease onset; and b) when only data on onset of disease was computed. For disease onsets, the incidences in Rochester for the period 1955-1966, and in Turku (Finland) during the interval 1968-1970, were lower than that in Iceland for the period 1958-1960: RR = 0.58 95% CI (0.41, 0.83), and RR = 0.67 95% CI (0.51, 0.87), respectively. For the Rochester population aged 40-69 years, a statistically significant 56% decrease in the incidences of Parkinsonism onsets during the period 1945-1966 was found. Validity problems in comparing PD incidences and the role of PD underdiagnosis were emphasized. We concluded that: a) stratified analysis is more suitable than standardization when comparing incidences for etiological purposes; b) the incidence of PD was highest in Iceland; and c) in Rochester, PD incidence under the age of 70 decreased with time.

  5. Prediction of secondary crash frequency on highway networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Afrid A; Paleti, Rajesh; Mishra, Sabyasachee; Golias, Mihalis M; Freeze, Philip B

    2017-01-01

    Secondary crash (SC) occurrences are major contributors to traffic delay and reduced safety, particularly in urban areas. National, state, and local agencies are investing substantial amount of resources to identify and mitigate secondary crashes to reduce congestion, related fatalities, injuries, and property damages. Though a relatively small portion of all crashes are secondary, determining the primary contributing factors for their occurrence is crucial. The non-recurring nature of SCs makes it imperative to predict their occurrences for effective incident management. In this context, the objective of this study is to develop prediction models to better understand causal factors inducing SCs. Given the count nature of secondary crash frequency data, the authors used count modeling methods including the standard Poisson and Negative Binomial (NB) models and their generalized variants to analyze secondary crash occurrences. Specifically, Generalized Ordered Response Probit (GORP) framework that subsumes standard count models as special cases and provides additional flexibility thus improving predictive accuracy were used in this study. The models developed account for possible effects of geometric design features, traffic composition and exposure, land use and other segment related attributes on frequency of SCs on freeways. The models were estimated using data from Shelby County, TN and results show that annual average daily traffic (AADT), traffic composition, land use, number of lanes, right side shoulder width, posted speed limits and ramp indicator are among key variables that effect SC occurrences. Also, the elasticity effects of these different factors were also computed to quantify their magnitude of impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced care team response to incidents involving major trauma at night: are helicopters the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Nutbeam, Tim; Crombie, Nick; Lecky, Fiona; Lawrence, Thomas; Hathaway, Karen; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-07-01

    Challenges exist in how to deliver enhanced care to patients suffering severe injury in geographically remote areas within regionalised trauma networks at night. The physician led Enhanced Care Teams (ECTs) in the West Midlands region of England do not currently utilise helicopters to respond to incidents at night. This study describes this remote trauma workload at night within the regional network in terms of incident location; injury profile and patient care needs and discusses various solutions to the delivery of ECTs to such incidents, including the need for helicopter based platforms. We present a retrospective analysis of incidents involving Major Trauma occurring in the West Midlands Regional Trauma Network in England over a one year period (1st April 2012 until the 31st March 2013). Anonymised patient records from the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) for patients that had been conveyed to hospital by ambulance/air ambulance were cross-referenced with the West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust (WMAS) Computer Assisted Dispatch (CAD) archive for the same period. Data were abstracted from the combined dataset relating to injury severity (ISS/ICU admission/death at scene or as inpatient); ECT resource activations/scene attendances; incident location and the need for enhanced level care. A total of 603 incidents involving Major Trauma were identified during night time hours. Enhanced Care Team resources attended scene in 167 cases (27.7%). Of the incidents not attended by an ECT 179 (41.1%) were due to falls and 91 (20.9%) involved a 'Road Traffic Collision'. A total of 36 incidents (6.0% of total at night) occurred in locations identified as being greater than 45min by road from the nearest major trauma centre. In these cases 13 patients had enhanced care needs that could not be addressed at scene by the attending ambulance service personnel. There is limited evidence to support the need for night HEMS operations in the West Midlands

  7. Exploiting the return on experience of incidents in the field of industrial radiography; L'exploitation du retour d'experience des incidents dans le domaine de la radiographie industrielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Crouail, P. [Centre d' Etude sur I' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire (CEPN), 28 rue de la Redoute, 92260 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), 30 rue Olivier Noyer, 75014 Paris (France); Abela, G. [EDF, DIN DQSNR, 1 Place Pleyel, 93282 St Denis Cedex (France); Martin, E. [COFREND, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 PARIS Cedex 15 (France)

    2008-07-01

    After a presentation of the RELIR network (a French system of return on experience on radiological incidents), the aim of which is to collect typical incidents in different activity sectors (industry, medicine, veterinary, research, teaching, transports) in order to report them during professional training sessions, the authors briefly present some new files which have been recently produced. They deal with incidents due to a failing marking-out, intentional marking overstepping during non destructive testing, incomplete evacuation of the exclusion zone during non destructive testing and irradiation of an operator during a gamma-graphic shot, incident during a training session

  8. Incident Wave Climate at the OWC Pico Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Crom, I.; Cabrera Bermejo, H.; Pecher, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to retrieve the incident wave information that coincides with former Pico plant operation periods. The recent implementation of a directional pressure sensor for wave measurement as well as the recovery of the data gathered by a directional wave rider buoy allowed embarkin...... on the validation of two different models by using both wave measurements: a model for wave propagation (SWAN) and an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). This paper, as a first step of a comprehensive study, leads to several recommendations to improve both methodologies in future works....

  9. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  10. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  11. Network traffic anomaly prediction using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptaningtyas, Hening Titi; Fatichah, Chastine; Sabila, Altea

    2017-03-01

    As the excessive increase of internet usage, the malicious software (malware) has also increase significantly. Malware is software developed by hacker for illegal purpose(s), such as stealing data and identity, causing computer damage, or denying service to other user[1]. Malware which attack computer or server often triggers network traffic anomaly phenomena. Based on Sophos's report[2], Indonesia is the riskiest country of malware attack and it also has high network traffic anomaly. This research uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict network traffic anomaly based on malware attack in Indonesia which is recorded by Id-SIRTII/CC (Indonesia Security Incident Response Team on Internet Infrastructure/Coordination Center). The case study is the highest malware attack (SQL injection) which has happened in three consecutive years: 2012, 2013, and 2014[4]. The data series is preprocessed first, then the network traffic anomaly is predicted using Artificial Neural Network and using two weight update algorithms: Gradient Descent and Momentum. Error of prediction is calculated using Mean Squared Error (MSE) [7]. The experimental result shows that MSE for SQL Injection is 0.03856. So, this approach can be used to predict network traffic anomaly.

  12. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  13. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  14. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  15. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  16. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  17. Social network sampling using spanning trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Zeinab S.; Rezvanian, Alireza; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Due to the large scales and limitations in accessing most online social networks, it is hard or infeasible to directly access them in a reasonable amount of time for studying and analysis. Hence, network sampling has emerged as a suitable technique to study and analyze real networks. The main goal of sampling online social networks is constructing a small scale sampled network which preserves the most important properties of the original network. In this paper, we propose two sampling algorithms for sampling online social networks using spanning trees. The first proposed sampling algorithm finds several spanning trees from randomly chosen starting nodes; then the edges in these spanning trees are ranked according to the number of times that each edge has appeared in the set of found spanning trees in the given network. The sampled network is then constructed as a sub-graph of the original network which contains a fraction of nodes that are incident on highly ranked edges. In order to avoid traversing the entire network, the second sampling algorithm is proposed using partial spanning trees. The second sampling algorithm is similar to the first algorithm except that it uses partial spanning trees. Several experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed sampling algorithms on well-known real networks. The obtained results in comparison with other popular sampling methods demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed sampling algorithms in terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (KSD), skew divergence distance (SDD) and normalized distance (ND).

  18. [Multicentre study of infection incidence in knee prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, F; Sanz-Gallardo, M I; Arrazola, M P; García de Codes, A; de Juanes, A; Resines, C

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of surgical site infection in knee prosthesis surgical procedure for a follow-up period of one year in twelve hospitals in Madrid region. A prospective study was carried out from January to December 2009 using a national surveillance system called Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de Calidad. Primary and revision knee joint replacements in patients operated on in the previous year were included. Criteria used to define surgical site infection and patient risk index categories were those established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance. The incidence rates were worked out crude and adjusted by hazard ratio. 2,088 knee prosthesis procedures were analyzed. The overall incidence of surgical site infection was 2.1%. Sixty-five percent of the infections were organ/space. Sixty percent of the infections were identified in the early postoperative period. Of all surgical site infections, 41.9% were microbiologically confirmed. Antibiotic prophylaxis was implemented correctly in 63.3% of the cases. The most important cause of inappropriate prophylaxis was an unsuitable duration in 85.7% of the cases. The presurgical preparation was carried out correctly in 50.3% of surgical operations. The incidence of knee arthroplasty infection was twice as high as in the National Healthcare Safety Network and similar to national rates. In this study, the incidence of infection was within the range of infection rates in other published European studies. Surveillance and control strategies of health care for associated infections allow us to assess trends and the impact of preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. RADIATION CONTAMINATION INCIDENT AT ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 27 June 2000 three specialists were investigating a problem with the extraction electrode of the high-resolution separator (HRS) in Isolde. Whilst using an endoscope in order to have a closer look at the interior, they came into contact with radioactive dust and became contaminated. The level of contamination was low and the radiation dose received by the 3 persons was far below the effective dose limit given in the CERN Radiation Safety Manual and in the regulations of the Host States.According to the usual procedure, the Director General has set up a Fact-Finding Group and an Accident Board in order to advise him on the steps and decisions tobe taken following this incident and in particular to avoid a recurrence.

  20. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  1. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  2. RECOVERY ACT - Robust Optimization for Connectivity and Flows in Dynamic Complex Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Butenko, Sergiy [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Boginski, Vladimir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Uryasev, Stan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-12-25

    The goal of this project was to study robust connectivity and flow patterns of complex multi-scale systems modeled as networks. Networks provide effective ways to study global, system level properties, as well as local, multi-scale interactions at a component level. Numerous applications from power systems, telecommunication, transportation, biology, social science, and other areas have benefited from novel network-based models and their analysis. Modeling and optimization techniques that employ appropriate measures of risk for identifying robust clusters and resilient network designs in networks subject to uncertain failures were investigated in this collaborative multi-university project. In many practical situations one has to deal with uncertainties associated with possible failures of network components, thereby affecting the overall efficiency and performance of the system (e.g., every node/connection has a probability of partial or complete failure). Some extreme examples include power grid component failures, airline hub failures due to weather, or freeway closures due to emergencies. These are also situations in which people, materials, or other resources need to be managed efficiently. Important practical examples include rerouting flow through power grids, adjusting flight plans, and identifying routes for emergency services and supplies, in the event network elements fail unexpectedly. Solutions that are robust under uncertainty, in addition to being economically efficient, are needed. This project has led to the development of novel models and methodologies that can tackle the optimization problems arising in such situations. A number of new concepts, which have not been previously applied in this setting, were investigated in the framework of the project. The results can potentially help decision-makers to better control and identify robust or risk-averse decisions in such situations. Formulations and optimal solutions of the considered problems need

  3. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  4. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  5. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  6. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  7. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  8. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  9. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  10. Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders : A primary care study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, Gabrielle E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This Dutch epidemiological study used primary care-based data to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. Method: A nationwide network of general practitioners, serving a representative sample of the total Dutch population, recorded newly

  11. Incidence of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents in Oregon forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Dunham

    2008-01-01

    This report uses data from a network of forest inventory plots sampled at two points in time, annual aerial insect and disease surveys, and specialized pest damage surveys to quantify the incidence and impact of insects, diseases, and other damaging agents on Oregon's forests. The number and volume of trees damaged or killed by various agents is summarized....

  12. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  13. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  14. Hiding Critical Targets in Smart Grid Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Wei [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Li, Qinghua

    2017-10-23

    With the integration of advanced communication technologies, the power grid is expected to greatly enhance efficiency and reliability of future power systems. However, since most electrical devices in power grid substations are connected via communication networks, cyber security of these communication networks becomes a critical issue. Real-World incidents such as Stuxnet have shown the feasibility of compromising a device in the power grid network to further launch more sophisticated attacks. To deal with security attacks of this spirit, this paper aims to hide critical targets from compromised internal nodes and hence protect them from further attacks launched by those compromised nodes. In particular, we consider substation networks and propose to add carefully-controlled dummy traffic to a substation network to make critical target nodes indistinguishable from other nodes in network traffic patterns. This paper describes the design and evaluation of such a scheme. Evaluations show that the scheme can effectively protect critical nodes with acceptable communication cost.

  15. Research and Development Trends of Car Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Li, Zhixiong; Xie, Guotao

    With the rapid development of the world economy, road transport has become increasingly busy. An unexpected incident would cause serious traffic disaster due to traffic accidents. To solve this problem, the intelligent transportation system (ITS), which is important for the health developments of the city transportation, has become a hot topic. The car networking provides a new way for intelligent transportation system. It can ensure intelligent control and monitoring of urban road with high performance. This paper described the concept of car networking and related technology both in oversea and domestic. The importance of car networking to achieve vehicle and details of the car networking related technologies were illustrated firstly. Then, attentions focus on the research nodus of the car networking. Lastly, the development trend of car networking research was discussed.

  16. Social networks in cardiovascular disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Fadia T; Yan, Xia; Farshid, Maryam; Barakat, Samer; Jung, Miah; Low, Sara; Fedder, Donald

    2010-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Social networks have a positive association with obesity, smoking cessation and weight loss. This article summarizes studies evaluating the impact of social networks on the management of cardiovascular disease. The 35 studies included in the article describe the impact of social networks on a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease, depression and mortality. In addition, having a large-sized social network is also associated with better outcomes and improved health. The role of pharmacists is beginning to play an important role in the patient-centered medical home, which needs to be incorporated into social networks. The patient-centered medical home can serve as an adaptive source for social network evolvement.

  17. Computer Simulation for Emergency Incident Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D L

    2004-12-03

    This report describes the findings and recommendations resulting from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Incident Management Simulation Workshop held by the DHS Advanced Scientific Computing Program in May 2004. This workshop brought senior representatives of the emergency response and incident-management communities together with modeling and simulation technologists from Department of Energy laboratories. The workshop provided an opportunity for incident responders to describe the nature and substance of the primary personnel roles in an incident response, to identify current and anticipated roles of modeling and simulation in support of incident response, and to begin a dialog between the incident response and simulation technology communities that will guide and inform planned modeling and simulation development for incident response. This report provides a summary of the discussions at the workshop as well as a summary of simulation capabilities that are relevant to incident-management training, and recommendations for the use of simulation in both incident management and in incident management training, based on the discussions at the workshop. In addition, the report discusses areas where further research and development will be required to support future needs in this area.

  18. Monitoring Travel Time Reliability on Freeways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, Huizhao

    2008-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important attributes of a trip. The current measures of reliability have in common that in general they all relate to the variability of travel times. However, travel time reliability does not only rely on variability but also on the stability of travel

  19. [Estimation of cancer incidence in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplanche, A; Benhamou, E

    1991-01-01

    National cancer incidence rates are not available in most countries. An estimation of the national cancer incidence from regional incidence data in France is proposed here. National cancer incidence rates (1978-1982) were estimated from the incidence and the mortality observed during the same period in five French departments with a cancer registry and from national mortality data. The cancer registries used for this estimation are: Bas-Rhin, Calvados, Côte-d'Or, Doubs and Isère. The estimation was performed assuming that, for a given cancer site, sex and age group, the mortality/morbidity ratio is the same in the aggregate of the five departments and in France as Crude, age-specific and standardised on world population incidence rates were estimated for the most frequent cancer sites and for each sex. An estimation of the annual number of cases in France between 1978 and 1982 for the main cancer sites is also given.

  20. Fuzzy Logic for Incidence Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical framework for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects in the context of Geography, in which all entities and their relationships are described by human language. These entities could be labelled by commonly used names of landmarks, water areas, and so forth. Unlike single points that are given in Cartesian coordinates, these geographic entities are extended in space and often loosely defined, but people easily perform spatial reasoning with extended geographic objects “as if they were points.” Unfortunately, up to date, geographic information systems (GIS) miss the capability of geometric reasoning with extended objects. The aim of the paper is to present a mathematical apparatus for approximate geometric reasoning with extended objects that is usable in GIS. In the paper we discuss the fuzzy logic (Aliev and Tserkovny, 2011) as a reasoning system for geometry of extended objects, as well as a basis for fuzzification of the axioms of incidence geometry. The same fuzzy logic was used for fuzzification of Euclid's first postulate. Fuzzy equivalence relation “extended lines sameness” is introduced. For its approximation we also utilize a fuzzy conditional inference, which is based on proposed fuzzy “degree of indiscernibility” and “discernibility measure” of extended points. PMID:27689133

  1. Bronchoaspiration: incidence, consequences and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Bonvini, John M

    2011-02-01

    Aspiration is defined as the inhalation of oropharyngeal or gastric contents into the lower respiratory tract. Upon injury, epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages secrete chemical mediators, attracting and activating neutrophils, which in turn release proteases and reactive oxygen species, degrading the alveolocapillary unit. Aspiration can lead to a range of diseases such as infectious pneumonia, chemical pneumonitis or respiratory distress syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. It occurs in approximately 3-10 per 10 000 operations with an increased incidence in obstetric and paediatric anaesthesia. Patients are most at risk during induction of anaesthesia and extubation, in particular in emergency situations. The likelihood of significant aspiration can be reduced by fasting, pharmacological intervention and correct anaesthetic management using a rapid sequence induction. Treatment of acid aspiration is by suctioning after witnessed aspiration; antibiotics are indicated in patients with aspiration pneumonia only. Steroids are not proven to improve outcome or reduce mortality. Patients with acute lung injury requiring mechanical ventilation should be ventilated using lung protective strategies with low tidal volumes and low plateau pressure values, attempting to limit peak lung distension and end-expiratory collapse.

  2. [Congenital syphilis: incidence among newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Moura, E F; Ramos, F L; Holanda, V G

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of congenital syphilis among newborns at the maternity of a public hospital. METHODS: The study was conducted at the maternity of Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará, from May to September 1996; 361 mothers were interviewed, and physical examination was performed in their newborns. Serum samples from both, mothers and neonates, were tested using three methods: VDRL, FTA - Abs, ELISA IgM. The diagnosis of congenital syphilis was established according to the criteria defined by Ministério da Saúde in 1993. RESULTS: The rate of congenital syphilis was of 9.1% (33); in 14 cases, there were one or more signs of the disease: prematurity, hepatomegaly, stillbirth, splenomegaly, perinatal death, abdominal distention, nasal stuffiness, jaundice, newborn small for gestational age. The majority of the infected mothers belonged to the age group of 20-35 years (81.8%); 60.6% were married; 63.6% received prenatal care; 48.5% reported previous spontaneous abortion, and 12.1% previous stillbirth. The rate of bisexuality among fathers was of 9.1%. CONCLUSION: The syphilis control measures and the prenatal care, have not been sufficient to prevent the high rate of the disease.

  3. Two /sup 238/Pu inhalation incidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, R.R.; Hall, R.M.

    1978-06-01

    Two employees inhaled significant amounts of /sup 238/Pu in separate unrelated contamination incidents in 1977. Both acute exposure incidents are described and the urine, feces, and in-vivo chest count data for each employee. Case B (/sup 238/PuNO/sub 3/) received 24 DTPA treatments beginning the day of the incident while, for medical reasons, Case A (/sup 238/PuO/sub 2/) received no therapy.

  4. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  5. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  6. A new, accurate predictive model for incident hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völzke, Henry; Fung, Glenn; Ittermann, Till; Yu, Shipeng; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Dörr, Marcus; Lieb, Wolfgang; Völker, Uwe; Linneberg, Allan; Jørgensen, Torben; Felix, Stephan B; Rettig, Rainer; Rao, Bharat; Kroemer, Heyo K

    2013-11-01

    Data mining represents an alternative approach to identify new predictors of multifactorial diseases. This work aimed at building an accurate predictive model for incident hypertension using data mining procedures. The primary study population consisted of 1605 normotensive individuals aged 20-79 years with 5-year follow-up from the population-based study, that is the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). The initial set was randomly split into a training and a testing set. We used a probabilistic graphical model applying a Bayesian network to create a predictive model for incident hypertension and compared the predictive performance with the established Framingham risk score for hypertension. Finally, the model was validated in 2887 participants from INTER99, a Danish community-based intervention study. In the training set of SHIP data, the Bayesian network used a small subset of relevant baseline features including age, mean arterial pressure, rs16998073, serum glucose and urinary albumin concentrations. Furthermore, we detected relevant interactions between age and serum glucose as well as between rs16998073 and urinary albumin concentrations [area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC 0.76)]. The model was confirmed in the SHIP validation set (AUC 0.78) and externally replicated in INTER99 (AUC 0.77). Compared to the established Framingham risk score for hypertension, the predictive performance of the new model was similar in the SHIP validation set and moderately better in INTER99. Data mining procedures identified a predictive model for incident hypertension, which included innovative and easy-to-measure variables. The findings promise great applicability in screening settings and clinical practice.

  7. A generative model for predicting terrorist incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh C.; Verma, Archit; Felmlee, Diane; Pearson, Gavin; Whitaker, Roger

    2017-05-01

    A major concern in coalition peace-support operations is the incidence of terrorist activity. In this paper, we propose a generative model for the occurrence of the terrorist incidents, and illustrate that an increase in diversity, as measured by the number of different social groups to which that an individual belongs, is inversely correlated with the likelihood of a terrorist incident in the society. A generative model is one that can predict the likelihood of events in new contexts, as opposed to statistical models which are used to predict the future incidents based on the history of the incidents in an existing context. Generative models can be useful in planning for persistent Information Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) since they allow an estimation of regions in the theater of operation where terrorist incidents may arise, and thus can be used to better allocate the assignment and deployment of ISR assets. In this paper, we present a taxonomy of terrorist incidents, identify factors related to occurrence of terrorist incidents, and provide a mathematical analysis calculating the likelihood of occurrence of terrorist incidents in three common real-life scenarios arising in peace-keeping operations

  8. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...

  9. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    architecture of ‘Hovering Ad-hoc Network (HANET)’ for the latter will be deployed to assist and manage the overloaded primary base stations enhancing the on-demand coverage and capacity of the entire system. Proposed modes can either operate independently or as a cascaded architecture to form a Heterodox......It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide...

  10. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  11. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  12. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  13. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  14. Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner

    2004-01-01

    Building upon a long tradition in sociology, economists have recently turned their attention to the analysis of social networks. The present paper adds to this emerging literature by proposing a different approach to social-network formation. As in the model of Jackson and Wolinsky (1996), formation of a link between two individuals requires two-sided investments in the present framework. But in contrast to their approach, where the required investments are exogenously specified and link form...

  15. Developer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  16. A regulatory network for human adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... Human adenocarcinoma (AC) is the most frequently diagnosed human lung cancer and its absolute incidence is increasing dramatically. Our study aimed to interpret the mechanisms of human adenocarcinoma through the regulation network based on differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We used the ...

  17. Structural network efficiency predicts conversion to dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, A.; van Uden, I.W.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; van der Holst, H.; van Norden, A.; de Laat, K.; Dijk, E.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Markus, H.S.; Norris, David Gordon; de Leeuw, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether structural network connectivity at baseline predicts incident all-cause dementia in a prospective hospital-based cohort of elderly participants with MRI evidence of small vessel disease (SVD). Methods: A total of 436 participants from the Radboud University Nijmegen

  18. Risk Factors Incident Preterm Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liva Maita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labor or parturition Prematurus is labor that occurs at age less than 37 weeks of pregnancy is calculated from the first day of last period. Data in hospitals Arifin Achmad Pekanbaru data obtained in 2010 obtained data on the number of labor as much as 2400 cases, with 190 cases of preterm labor (7.91%, in 2011 the number of births as 2287 cases with 279 cases of preterm labor (12% and in the period January-April 2012 Number 780 cases of preterm labor (11.5%. The purpose of research is knowing the relationship of the complications of pregnancy, a history of preterm labor, anemia, age and parity with preterm labor. Type of research is a case-control study. The population in this study were all mothers giving birth at hospitals Arifin achmad Pekanbaru. Size of the sample consisted of 245 cases and 245 controls. Data analysis was performed by univariate, bivariate and multivariate Logistic Regression method Ganda. The results is a complication of pregnancy (95% CI: 4.09 to 9.21, age (95% CI: 1.58 to 3.69, and parity (95% CI: 1.05 to 2.36 associated with preterm labor. The conclusion that the dominant variables associated with the incidence of preterm birth is a complication of pregnancy and no variable counfounding. Advice to pregnant women who experience pregnancy complications during their pregnancy on a regular basis at least four times during pregnancy and high parity mothers are advised to use contraception; To health professionals to classify the status of patients at risk to facilitate the provision of IEC.

  19. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  20. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  1. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  2. The incidence of congenital heart disease: previous findings and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranović, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with "adult" CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  3. The incidence of congenital heart disease: Previous findings and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHD are the most common of all congenital anomalies, and represent a significant global health problem. Involvement of medical professionals of different profiles has led to drastic changes in survival and quality of life of children with CHD. The motivation for the implementation of the first large population studies on this subject was not only to obtain answers to the question on the level of incidence of CHD, but the harmonization of criteria and protocols for monitoring and treatment of certain defects as well as the planning of medical staff dealing with children with CHD. Data on the incidence varies from 4-10/1000 live births. Fetal echocardiography can have potential impact on decrease of CHD incidence. The increase in incidence may be due to the possibility that children with CHD will grow up and have offsprings. Owing to the progress that has been made, an increasing number of patients experiences adulthood, creating an entirely new and growing population of patients: patients with “adult” CHD. Survivors suffer morbidity resulting from their circulatory abnormalities as well as from medical and surgical therapies they have been subjected to. Application of the achievements of human genome projects will in time lead to drastic changes in the approach to the patients with CHD. Until the time when it is possible, the goal will be further improvement of the existing system of service: networking in a unique, multicenter clinical registry of patients with CHD, as well as upgrading of technical and non-technical conditions for the treatment of patients with CHD. We are in an unprecedented time of change, but are actually at the end of the beginning of making pediatric cardiac care a highly reliable institution.

  4. Sociodemographic trends in the incidence of pancreatic and biliary tract cancer in UK primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret G Keane

    Full Text Available The UK incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is approximately 9/100,000 population compared with 1-2/100,000 for biliary tract cancer (BTC. This study explores the incidence of these cancers over time and the influence of socio-demographic and geographic factors in a UK primary care cohort.This study uses data from a large UK primary care database, The Health Improvement Network (THIN. All adult patients contributing data to THIN between January 2000 and December 2010 were included. Annual incidence rates were calculated, adjusted for age, gender, time period, deprivation score (Townsend quintile and strategic health authority.From 2000-2010, the annual incidence of PDAC increased by an average of 3% per year (95% CI 1.00-4.00% and BTC by 4% (95% CI 2.00-6.00%. Incidence of both cancers increased steeply with age and was higher in men. BTC was associated with increasing deprivation (most deprived versus least deprived quintile (OR: 1.45 [95% CI: 1.17, 1.79.].The overall incidence of both cancers is low but increasing. Variations in incidence may reflect changes in coding practice or increased exposure to associated risk factors.

  5. The spillover influence of partner's education on myocardial infarction incidence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpi, Fanny; Martikainen, Pekka; Konttinen, Hanna; Silventoinen, Karri; Torssander, Jenny; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-09

    Education is believed to have positive spillover effects across network connections. Partner's education may be an important resource preventing the incidence of disease and helping patients cope with illness. We examined how partner's education predicted myocardial infarction (MI) incidence and survival net of own education and other socioeconomic resources in Finland. A sample of adults aged 40-69 at baseline in Finland in 1990 was followed up for MI incidence and mortality during the period 1991-2007 (n=354,100). Lower own and spousal education both contributed independently to a higher risk of MI incidence and fatality when mutually adjusted. Having a partner with basic education was particularly strongly associated with long-term fatality in women with a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.22, 1.92) compared to women with tertiary level educated partners. There was some evidence that the incidence risk associated with basic spousal education was weaker in those with own basic education. The highest risks of MI incidence and fatality were consistently found in those without a partner, whereas the most favorable outcomes were in households where both partners had a tertiary level of education. Accounting for spousal education demonstrates how health-enhancing resources accumulate to some households. Marriage between people of similar educational levels may therefore contribute to the widening of educational differences in MI incidence and survival.

  6. Development of a highway incident management operational and training guide for incident responders in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Each year highway traffic incidents, such as crashes, place responders on and beside roadways with : dangerous high-speed traffic. The unexpected conditions of an incident scene have the potential to surprise : unsuspecting or inattentive drivers, po...

  7. Computer incident response and forensics team management conducting a successful incident response

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Leighton

    2013-01-01

    Computer Incident Response and Forensics Team Management provides security professionals with a complete handbook of computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management. This unique approach teaches readers the concepts and principles they need to conduct a successful incident response investigation, ensuring that proven policies and procedures are established and followed by all team members. Leighton R. Johnson III describes the processes within an incident response event and shows the crucial importance of skillful forensics team management, including when and where the transition to forensics investigation should occur during an incident response event. The book also provides discussions of key incident response components. Provides readers with a complete handbook on computer incident response from the perspective of forensics team management Identify the key steps to completing a successful computer incident response investigation Defines the qualities necessary to become a succ...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.307 - Incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incident management. 1542.307 Section 1542.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Incident management. (a) Each airport operator must establish procedures to evaluate bomb threats, threats...

  9. Incidence and predictors of coronary stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ascenzo, Fabrizio; Bollati, Mario; Clementi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Stent thrombosis remains among the most feared complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting. However, data on its incidence and predictors are sparse and conflicting. We thus aimed to perform a collaborative systematic review on incidence and predictors of stent thrombo...

  10. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... Survey of resistant patterns of microbes to drugs has shown a rise in the incidence of microbial resistance to most prescribed antibiotics. Therefore this study is aimed at determining the incidence of S. aureus in UTI cases and also to document the antibiotic sensitivity pattern in our environment, with the ...

  11. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of salmonella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to investigate the incidence of Salmonella species among 300 children using stool samples from six hospitals in the metropolitan Kano. The organisms were investigated using cultural, serological biochemical characterization and sensitivity to some antimicrobial agents. The incidence of the bacteria ...

  12. Linux Incident Response Volatile Data Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Cyber incident response is an emphasized subject area in cybersecurity in information technology with increased need for the protection of data. Due to ongoing threats, cybersecurity imposes many challenges and requires new investigative response techniques. In this study a Linux Incident Response Framework is designed for collecting volatile data…

  13. Network Security Hacks Tips & Tools for Protecting Your Privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This second edition of Network Security Hacks offers 125 concise and practical hacks, including more information for Windows administrators, hacks for wireless networking (such as setting up a captive portal and securing against rogue hotspots), and techniques to ensure privacy and anonymity, including ways to evade network traffic analysis, encrypt email and files, and protect against phishing attacks. System administrators looking for reliable answers will also find concise examples of applied encryption, intrusion detection, logging, trending, and incident response.

  14. Methodologies and techniques for analysis of network flow data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A.; Grigoriev, M.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Network flow data gathered at the border routers and core switches is used at Fermilab for statistical analysis of traffic patterns, passive network monitoring, and estimation of network performance characteristics. Flow data is also a critical tool in the investigation of computer security incidents. Development and enhancement of flow based tools is an on-going effort. This paper describes the most recent developments in flow analysis at Fermilab.

  15. [Cancer incidence in the Altai Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, I N; Pisareva, L F; Ananina, O A; Khriapenkov, A V; Cherdyntseva, N V

    2014-01-01

    From all regions of the Siberian Federal District (SFD), the Altai Republic is the least urbanized territory, more than third of its population is Altai. The Altai Republic ranks the 11th for cancer incidence among 12 territories of SFD. Cancer incidence rate is 1.4 times less in females than in males. There is a tendency toward increased cancer incidence in the Republic. The two most common cancer sites in males are digestive and respiratory organs. In females, the most common cancer sites are reproductive and digestive organs. Prostate cancer has the highest incidence rate in males and kidney cancer in females. Increase in the cancer incidence rate was observed among male patients who are younger and older than able-bodied age and in female patients who were younger than able-bodied age. Problems related to the improvement of methods for cancer prevention, early detection and treatment are of great importance.

  16. Integrated Control of Mixed Traffic Networks using Model Predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation The growth of our road infrastructure cannot keep up with the growing mobility of people, and the corresponding increase in traffic demand. This results in daily congestion on the freeways. It is an illusion that the problem of congestion can be solved completely within a few years, but

  17. Application of a Hidden Bayes Naive Multiclass Classifier in Network Intrusion Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Levent

    2013-01-01

    With increasing Internet connectivity and traffic volume, recent intrusion incidents have reemphasized the importance of network intrusion detection systems for combating increasingly sophisticated network attacks. Techniques such as pattern recognition and the data mining of network events are often used by intrusion detection systems to classify…

  18. Network interruptions

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  19. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  20. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  1. Increase of Prostate Cancer Incidence in Martinique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Belpomme

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer incidence is steadily increasing in many developed countries. Because insular populations present unique ethnic, geographical, and environmental characteristics, we analyzed the evolution of prostate cancer age-adjusted world standardized incidence rates in Martinique in comparison with that of metropolitan France. We also compared prostate cancer incidence rates, and lifestyle-related and socioeconomic markers such as life expectancy, dietary energy, and fat supply and consumption, with those in other Caribbean islands, France, UK, Sweden, and USA. The incidence rate of prostate cancer in Martinique is one of the highest reported worldwide; it is continuously growing since 1985 in an exponential mode, and despite a similar screening detection process and lifestyle-related behaviour, it is constantly at a higher level than in metropolitan France. However, Caribbean populations that are genetically close to that of Martinique have generally much lower incidence of prostate cancer. We found no correlation between prostate cancer incidence rates, life expectancy, and diet westernization. Since the Caribbean African descent-associated genetic susceptibility factor would have remained constant during the 1980–2005, we suggest that in Martinique some environmental change including the intensive use of carcinogenic organochlorine pesticides might have occurred as key determinant of the persisting highly growing incidence of prostate cancer.

  2. Malware Propagation and Prevention Model for Time-Varying Community Networks within Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the adoption of Software Defined Networks (SDNs grows, the security of SDN still has several unaddressed limitations. A key network security research area is in the study of malware propagation across the SDN-enabled networks. To analyze the spreading processes of network malware (e.g., viruses in SDN, we propose a dynamic model with a time-varying community network, inspired by research models on the spread of epidemics in complex networks across communities. We assume subnets of the network as communities and links that are dense in subnets but sparse between subnets. Using numerical simulation and theoretical analysis, we find that the efficiency of network malware propagation in this model depends on the mobility rate q of the nodes between subnets. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold qc. The network malware will spread in the SDN when the mobility rate q>qc. The malware will survive when q>qc and perish when qnetwork malware and provide a theoretical basis to reduce and prevent network security incidents.

  3. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  4. Incidence of hip fracture in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyranvand, Mandana; Mohammadi, Goergee

    2009-12-01

    SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of hip fracture in Kermanshah, Iran. 161 cases (88 men and 73 women) were recorded. The annual age-standardized incidence rates were 181.1/100,000 in men and 214.6/100,000 in women. Incidence rate of hip fracture was less than in Western countries. INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is the most serious complication of osteoporosis, the most common metabolic bone disease worldwide. The incidence of hip fracture in the elderly patients varies in different areas. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence rate of hip fracture in Kermanshah, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases of hip fracture patients who aged 50 years or more admitted in six referral orthopedic hospitals in Kermanshah from May 21, 2007 to May 21, 2008 were studied. The age- and sex-specific incidence rates of hip fracture per 100,000 persons were calculated using the population data from the last national census in Iran, 2007. RESULTS: A total of 161 cases of hip fracture (88 men and 73 women) were recorded. The annual age-standardized incidence rates were 181.1/100,000 in men and 214.6/100,000 in women. The female to male ratio of hip fracture incidence was 1.18. CONCLUSION: We found a relatively low incidence of hip fracture in Iran than in Western countries, which is mostly due to the lower rate in women. This is probably related to the different lifestyle factors in different societies.

  5. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  6. remote sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Unold, Georg; Junker, Astrid; Altmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-throughput (HT) plant phenotyping systems enable the quantitative analysis of a variety of plant features in a fully automated fashion. The comprehensive phenomics infrastructure at IPK comprises three LemnaTec conveyor belt-based (plant-to-sensor) systems for the simultaneous analysis of large numbers of individual plants of different sizes. For monitoring of environmental conditions within the plant growth area and soil conditions in individual pots, highly modular and flexible remote sensing devices are required. We present the architecture of a wireless sensor network implemented in the HT plant phenotyping systems at IPK in the frame of the German Plant Phenotyping Network (DPPN). This system comprises 350 soil monitoring modules, each measuring water content, water matrix potential, temperature and electric conductivity. Furthermore small and large sensor platforms enable the continuous monitoring of environmental parameters such as incident photosynthetic active radiation, total radiation balance, relative humidity and CO2 concentration and more. Finally we present an introduction into data management and maintenance."

  7. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    that their personal networks engage not only their families, but also their home communities and by extension Nepal. The two women constitute weak links between their country and other countries and as such they function as bridges or channels for transmission of practices, ideas, knowledge, and artefacts. However...

  8. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  9. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  10. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  11. distribution network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper examined the acidic properties of distribution transformer oil insulation in service at Jericho distribution network Ibadan, Nigeria. Five oil samples each from six distribution transformers (DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5) making a total of thirty samples were taken from different installed distribution transformers all ...

  12. Kentucky's highway incident management strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Kentucky s Highway Incident Management Strategic Plan consists of a mission statement, 4 goals, 16 objectives, and 49 action strategies. The action strategies are arranged by priority and recommended time frame for implementation. When implemented...

  13. Incidence of tuberculosis in and around Banglore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of Tuberculosis is higher in developing countries due to absence of National control and Eradication programme. Incidence is higher due to close contact with infected animal or human being. In the present study, 2668 bovines were screened for tuberculosis by single intradermal test from 15 different organized government and private farm. Currently, the SID test is used worldwide to determine whether an animal is sensitized to Mycobacterial antigens or not and the test is approved by OIE. Out of which, incidence of 2.89% in HF cross breeds, 0.69% in Jersey cross bred animals and none were shown reactor to Single Intradermal test in Indigenous animals. The higher incidence of 3.26% was found in female and 0.48% found in male. The calves which were below two year of age were found 1.56% reactor. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 161-164

  14. USFA NFIRS 2006 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2006 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  15. USFA NFIRS 2000 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2000 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  16. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  17. USFA NFIRS 2007 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2007 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  18. Regional Traffic Incident Management Programs : implementation guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist organizations and their leaders in implementing and sustaining regional traffic incident management programs, both by examining some successful models, and by considering some of the lessons learned by early ...

  19. USFA NFIRS 2002 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2002 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  2. USFA NFIRS 2003 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2003 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. USFA NFIRS 2001 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2001 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  4. USFA NFIRS 2004 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2004 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  5. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Conference Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  6. Oil Spill Incident Tracking [ds394

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Office of Spill Prevention and Response (OSPR) Incident Tracking Database is a statewide oil spill tracking information system. The data are collected by OSPR...

  7. National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) is a reporting standard that fire departments use to uniformly report on the full range of their activities, from...

  8. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Methods: Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. Results: A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010....... The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have...

  9. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    , and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  10. Operation of the International Monitoring System Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Fernando; Castillo, Enrique; Nikolova, Svetlana; Daly, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The IMS is a globally distributed network of monitoring facilities using sensors from four technologies. It is designed to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by nuclear test explosions and the subsequently released radioactive isotopes. Monitoring stations transmit their data to the IDC in Vienna, Austria, over a global private network known as the Global Communications Infrastructure (GCI). In order to satisfy the strict data and network availability requirements of the IMS Network, the operation of the facilities and the GCI are managed by IDC Operations. IDC Operations has three functions: the first is to ensure proper operation and functioning of the stations, the second to ensure proper operation and functioning of the GCI, and the third, handled by the IDC Operations Centre is to provide network oversight and incident management. At the core of the IMS Network operations are a series of tools for: monitoring the stations' state of health and data quality, troubleshooting incidents, communicating with internal and external stakeholders, and reporting. An overview of the tools currently used by IDC Operations as well as those under development will be presented. This will include an outline of the IDC's strategy for operations and its dependence on entities both inside and outside the CTBTO.

  11. The Mayaguez incident an organizational theory analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tyynismaa, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Applying selected concepts of organizational theory to the Mayaguez incident of 1975 leads to a more comprehensive understanding of events and more accurate lessons learned. Application of organizational theory to the Mayaguez incident demonstrates the decision processes at the executive level left the military operation vulnerable to failure. Henry Mintzberg's structural contingency model and Lee Bowman and Terrence Deal's frames model are used and are applied to executive-level decision...

  12. Wrong-patient incidents during medication administrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkänen, Marja; Tiainen, Maijaterttu; Haatainen, Kaisa

    2017-08-17

    To describe the factors pertaining to medication being administered to the wrong patient and to describe how patient identification is mentioned in wrong-patient incident reports. Although patient identification has been given high priority to improve patient safety, patient misidentifications occur, and wrong-patient incidents are common. A descriptive content analysis. Incident reports related to medication administration (n = 1,012) were collected from two hospitals in Finland between 1 January 2013-31 December 2014. Of those, only incidents involving wrong-patient medication administration (n = 103) were included in this study. Wrong-patient incidents occurred due for many reasons, including nurse-related factors (such as tiredness, a lack of skills or negligence) but also system-related factors (such as rushing or heavy workloads). In 77% (n = 79) of wrong-patient incident reports, the process of identifying of the patient was not described at all. There is need to pay more attention to and increase training in correct identification processes to prevent wrong-patient incidents, and it is important to adjust system factors to support nurses. Active patient identification procedures, double-checking and verification at each stage of the medication process should be implemented. More attention should also be paid to organisational factors, such as division of work, rushing and workload, as well as to correct communication. The active participation of nurses in handling incidents could increase risk awareness and facilitate useful protection actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Incidence and Prevalence of Psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were....... The relationship between psoriasis incidence and age appeared to be relatively linear, and disease prevalence was comparable to that in other European countries....

  14. Thyroid cancer: is the incidence rise abating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassolas, Geneviève; Hafdi-Nejjari, Zakia; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine; Belot, Aurélien; Berger-Dutrieux, Nicole; Decaussin-Petrucci, Myriam; Bournaud, Claire; Peix, Jean Louis; Orgiazzi, Jacques; Borson-Chazot, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine recent trends in thyroid cancer incidence rates and to analyze histopathological characteristics and geographical distribution. Histologically proven 5367 cases were collected over the period 1998-2006 in France from the Rhône-Alpes thyroid cancer registry. Geographical variations of incidence were analyzed using a mixed Poisson model. The average incidence rates, age standardized to the world population, were 3.9/100,000 in men and 12.3/100,000 in women, higher than those previously reported in France. After an initial increase during the first 3 years, a steady level of incidence was observed for the period 2001-2006. The annual incidence rate of microcarcinomas was correlated with that of all cancers in men and women (r=0.78 and 0.89; Prise in thyroid cancer incidence is now abating. It could reflect standardization in diagnostic procedures. Further studies, performed on a more prolonged period, are necessary to confirm these data.

  15. Incidence and Prevalence of Psoriasis in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Egeberg

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007 and 55.4% (2009, and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7–58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2% were identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60–69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10-year study course. The relationship between psoriasis incidence and age appeared to be relatively linear, and disease prevalence was comparable to that in other European countries.

  16. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  17. Social Networks and Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Research in Command & Control • Latent Semantic Analysis – Team communication – Emergent team dynamics – Shared situation awareness • Dynamic Network...requirements – Information technology requirements 28 LSA Essentials of Latent Semantic Analysis 29 Communication Analysis • Goal: Automatically monitor and

  18. Introduction to neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    James, Frederick E

    1994-02-02

    1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.

  19. Comparative Incidence of Conformational, Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify incidence and survival patterns in conformational neurodegenerative disorders (CNDDs.We identified 2563 reports on the incidence of eight conditions representing sporadic, acquired and genetic, protein-associated, i.e., conformational, NDD groups and age-related macular degeneration (AMD. We selected 245 papers for full-text examination and application of quality criteria. Additionally, data-collection was completed with detailed information from British, Swedish, and Spanish registries on Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD forms, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and sporadic rapidly progressing neurodegenerative dementia (sRPNDd. For each condition, age-specific incidence curves, age-adjusted figures, and reported or calculated median survival were plotted and examined.Based on 51 valid reported and seven new incidence data sets, nine out of eleven conditions shared specific features. Age-adjusted incidence per million person-years increased from ≤1.5 for sRPNDd, different CJD forms and Huntington's disease (HD, to 1589 and 2589 for AMD and Alzheimer's disease (AD respectively. Age-specific profiles varied from (a symmetrical, inverted V-shaped curves for low incidences to (b those increasing with age for late-life sporadic CNDDs and for sRPNDd, with (c a suggested, intermediate, non-symmetrical inverted V-shape for fronto-temporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Frequently, peak age-specific incidences from 20-24 to ≥90 years increased with age at onset and survival. Distinct patterns were seen: for HD, with a low incidence, levelling off at middle age, and long median survival, 20 years; and for sRPNDd which displayed the lowest incidence, increasing with age, and a short median disease duration.These results call for a unified population view of NDDs, with an age-at-onset-related pattern for acquired and sporadic CNDDs. The pattern linking age at onset to incidence magnitude and survival might

  20. 7 Mass casualty incidents: a review of triage severity planning assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Recent events involving a significant number of casualties have emphasised the importance of appropriate preparation for receiving hospitals, especially Emergency Departments, during the initial response phase of a major incident. Development of a mass casualty resilience and response framework in the Northern Trauma Network included a review of existing planning assumptions in order to ensure effective resource allocation, both in local receiving hospitals and system-wide.Existing planning assumptions regarding categorisation by triage level are generally stated as a ratio for P1:P2:P3 of 25%:25%:50% of the total number of injured survivors. This may significantly over-, or underestimate, the number in each level of severity in the case of a large-scale incident. A pilot literature review was conducted of the available evidence from historical incidents in order to gather data regarding the confirmed number of overall casualties, 'critical' cases, admitted cases, and non-urgent or discharged cases. This data was collated and grouped by mechanism in order to calculate an appropriate severity ratio for each incident type. 12 articles regarding mass casualty incidents from the last two decades were identified covering three main incident types: (1) Mass transportation crash, (2) Building fire, and (3) Bomb and related terrorist attacks and involving a total of 3615 injured casualties. The overall mortality rate was calculated as 12.3%. Table 1 summarises the available patient casualty data from each of the specific incidents reported and calculated proportions of critical ('P1'), admitted ('P2'), and non-urgent or ambulatory cases ('P3'). Despite the heterogeneity of data and range of incident type there is sufficient evidence to suggest that current planning assumptions are incorrect and a more refined model is required. An important finding is the variation in proportion of critical cases depending upon the mechanism. For example, a greater than expected proportion

  1. Cancer incidence in France over the 1980-2012 period: Hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guyader-Peyrou, S; Belot, A; Maynadié, M; Binder-Foucard, F; Remontet, L; Troussard, X; Bossard, N; Monnereau, A

    2016-04-01

    The classification of hematological malignancies (HMs) has changed in recent decades. For the first time, the French network of cancer registries (Francim) provides estimates for incidence and trends of HM in France between 1980 and 2012 for major HM subtypes. Incidence was directly estimated by modeling the incidence rates measured in the cancer registry area. For each HM subtype, a "usable incidence period" was defined a priori, corresponding to the years for which all the registries collected them in a homogeneous way. For both sexes and each HM subtype, age-period-cohort models were used to estimate national incidence trends. Overall in France, there were an estimated 35,000 new HMs in 2012 (19,400 in men and 15,600 in women). Lymphoid malignancies accounted for more than two-thirds of HM incident cases (n=25,136). The incidence sex ratio (M/F) varied from 1.1 for classical Hodgkin lymphoma to 4.0 for mantle-cell lymphoma. The median age at diagnosis ranged from 62 to 81 years according to the major HM subtypes. Overall in both sexes, the top five most frequent HMs in 2012 were plasma cell neoplasm (about 4900 estimated cases), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (4500 cases), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndromes (4100 cases), and acute myeloid leukemia (2800 cases). The incidence rates increased for follicular lymphoma and plasma cell neoplasm during the study period in both sexes. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma was relatively stable in men between 1980 and 2012 and increased in both sexes during the most recent period. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, other than chronic myelogenous leukemia, are the only subtype that showed a slightly downward trend in incidence between 2003 and 2012 in both sexes. The striking differences in the incidence patterns by histologic subtype strongly suggest a certain level of etiologic heterogeneity among hematological malignancies and support the pursuit of epidemiologic analysis by

  2. Network gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, John

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.

  3. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  4. Network Frontier Workshop 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-11

    networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks and social networks. This field has received a major boost caused by the availability of huge...networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal...structures in a wide range of examples—including road networks in large urban areas, a rabbit warren, a dolphin social network, a European interbank network

  5. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  6. Clinical incidents involving students on placement: an analysis of incident reports to identify potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Maloney, S; Lo, K; Morgan, P

    2015-06-01

    Students are sometimes involved in incidents during clinical training. To the authors' knowledge, no quantitative studies of incidents specifically involving physiotherapy students on clinical placement are available in the literature. A retrospective audit (2008 to 2011) of incident reports involving physiotherapy students was conducted to identify the nature and features of incidents. The study aimed to determine if injuries to a student or patient were more or less likely when the supervisor was in close proximity, and whether students with lower academic performance in their preclinical semester were more likely to be involved in an incident. There were 19 care-delivery-related and three equipment-related incidents. There were no incidents of violent, aggressive or demeaning behaviour towards students. The incident rate was 9.0/100,000 student-hours for third-year students and 6.8/100,000 student-hours for fourth-year students. The majority of incidents (55%) occurred from 11 am to 12-noon and from 3 pm to 3.30 pm. Incidents more often resulted in patient or student injury when the supervisor was not in close proximity (approximately 50% vs approximately 20%), although the difference was not significant (P=0.336). The academic results of students involved in incidents were equivalent to the whole cohort in their preclinical semester {mean 75 [standard deviation (SD) 6] vs 76 (SD 7); P=0.488}. The unexpected temporal clustering of incidents warrants further investigation. Student fatigue may warrant attention as a potential contributor; however, contextual factors, such as staff workload, along with organisational systems, structures and procedures may be more relevant. The potential relationship between supervisor proximity and injury also warrants further exploration. The findings of the present study should be integrated into clinical education curricula and communicated to clinical educators. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by

  7. Surface Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrikov, Ilya; Bruna, Joan; Panozzo, Daniele; Zorin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    We study data-driven representations for three-dimensional triangle meshes, which are one of the prevalent objects used to represent 3D geometry. Recent works have developed models that exploit the intrinsic geometry of manifolds and graphs, namely the Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and its spectral variants, which learn from the local metric tensor via the Laplacian operator. Despite offering excellent sample complexity and built-in invariances, intrinsic geometry alone is invariant to isometr...

  8. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  9. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio

    2010-12-21

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adrienne A; Jacobson, Judith S; Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan; Horowicz-Mehler, Nathalie C; Neugut, Alfred I

    2007-09-01

    Nearly 10% of immigrants to the United States come from the Caribbean region. In this paper, we analyzed incidence and mortality rates of the major cancers in the Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad and Tobago, and compared them with US patterns. We obtained age-standardized, sex-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, cervix, esophagus, large bowel, liver, lung, pancreas, prostate, and stomach for 8 Caribbean countries and the United States from the GLOBOCAN program of the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) and for the U.S. population from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the NCI. GLOBOCAN incidence and mortality rates for the overall United States were lower than but correlated with overall SEER rates. Based on GLOBOCAN data, the incidence and mortality rates of cancers of the breast, prostate, large bowel, and lung, and, among males, bladder cancer were lower in the Caribbean countries than the United States. Caribbean countries had higher rates of cancers of the cervix, esophagus, liver, and stomach. Haiti had the highest incidence and mortality rates of cervix and liver cancers. Jamaica and Haiti had the highest rates of stomach cancer. Cancer incidence and mortality in the Caribbean generally follow known patterns of association with economic development, infectious agents, and racial/ethnic origin. Studying these patterns and how immigration changes them may yield clues to cancer etiology. A better understanding of cancer incidence and mortality rates may help health policymakers to implement state-of-the-art treatment and preventive services for people of Caribbean descent both in their native countries and in immigrant communities in the United States.

  11. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  12. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    Full Text Available Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  13. Influence of social relationship domains and their combinations on incident dementia: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Murata, Chiyoe; Saito, Masashige; Takeda, Tokunori; Kondo, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Social relationships consist of mutually related but distinct dimensions. It remains unclear how these domains independently contribute to incident dementia. This large-scale, prospective cohort study examines associations between the social relationship domains as well as their combinations and incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. We analysed data from 13 984 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ without long-term care needs living in Aichi prefecture in Japan. Incident dementia was assessed based on the Long-term Care Insurance records, followed for 3436 days from the baseline survey conducted in 2003. Three social relationships domains (social support, social networks and social activities) were further divided into a total of eight subdomains. A social relationship diversity score was calculated using the social relationship domains which were significantly related to incident dementia. A Cox proportional hazards model showed that being married, exchanging support with family members, having contact with friends, participating in community groups and engaging in paid work were related to a lower likelihood of developing incident dementia, controlling for covariates and other social relationship domains. The diversity scores, ranging from 0 to 5, were linearly associated with incident dementia (psocial relationship subdomains which were negatively related to incident dementia, suggesting that dementia may potentially be prevented by enhancing these social relationships. Future studies should examine independent pathways between each social relationship domain and incident dementia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Network origin-destination demand estimation using limited link traffic counts : strategic deployment of vehicle detectors through an integrated corridor management framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    In typical road traffic corridors, freeway systems are generally well-equipped with traffic surveillance systems such as vehicle detector (VD) and/or closed circuit television (CCTV) systems in order to gather timely traffic information for traffic c...

  15. Incidence and prevalence of psoriasis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Skov, Lone; Gislason, Gunnar H.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and temporal trends of psoriasis in Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were examined. There was a female predominance ranging between 50.0% (2007) and 55.4% (2009), and the mean age at time of diagnosis was 47.7-58.7 years. A total of 126,055 patients with psoriasis (prevalence 2.2%) were...... identified. Incidence rates of psoriasis (per 100,000 person years) ranged from 107.5 in 2005 to a peak incidence of 199.5 in 2010. Incidence rates were higher for women, and patients aged 60-69 years, respectively. Use of systemic non-biologic agents, i.e. methotrexate, cyclosporine, retinoids, or psoralen...... plus ultraviolet A (PUVA) increased over the study course, and were used in 15.0% of all patients. Biologic agents (efalizumab, etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, or ustekinumab) were utilized in 2.7% of patients. On a national level, incidence of psoriasis fluctuated during the 10- year study course...

  16. Incidence and overall survival of malignant ameloblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Rizzitelli

    Full Text Available Malignant ameloblastoma, comprising metastasizing ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma, represents 1.6-2.2% of all odontogenic tumors. Due to its rare nature, malignant ameloblastoma has only been reported in the literature in small case series or case reports. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER database, we have performed a population-based study to determine the incidence rate and the absolute survival of malignant ameloblastoma.Using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O codes 9310/3 and 9270/3, data from the SEER database were used to calculate the incidence rate and absolute survival rate of population with malignant ameloblastoma.The overall incidence rate of malignant ameloblastoma was 1.79 per 10 million person/year. The incidence rate was higher in males than females and also higher in black versus white population. The median overall survival was 17.6 years from the time of diagnosis and increasing age was associated with a statistically significant poorer survival.To our best knowledge, we report the largest population-based series of malignant ameloblastoma. The incidence rate was 1.79 per 10 million person/year and the overall survival was 17.6 years.

  17. [Incidence some congenital defects in Monterrey, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo J; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2002-12-01

    In Mexico, the congenital defects (CD) in newborns represent the third cause of infant morbi-mortality. Incidence rates/1000 reported for our country vary from 8.15 (Puebla) to 32.90 (Distrito Federal). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of some CD in Monterrey, Mexico. A transversal, prospective, descriptive, and observational study was carried out at the Hospital de Ginecologia y Obstetricia No. 23, IMSS during January 1995 to December 1999. The external CD were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) and classified according to their topography distribution. A total incidence of 9.89 [(1309/132,369)* 1000)] was detected. The more frequent CD were: the nervous system (2.33), the chromosomal (1.67), osteomuscular (1.67) of face and neck (1.18), and reproductive system (0.81). The less frequent CD were: the digestive system (0.43), diverse syndromes (0.38), and skin (0.29). Even though the global incidence of DC observed in this study is into the rank informed in the national and international literature. Because of this incidence has a great variability, we considered important to homogenize diagnosis criteria for each DC. With this results it will be possible to carry out comparative cross-sectional studies to determine if they are similar or different and then, by association studies to establish its possible etiological factors.

  18. Early childhood leukemia incidence trends in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Incidence rates of childhood leukemia vary between different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to test possible trends in incidence rate of early childhood leukemia (children AAIR) of overall early childhood leukemia was 61 per million. The AAIR for acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was 44 per million and nonlymphoid acute leukemia (NLAL) was 14 per million. The median ALL/NLAL ratio was 3.0, suggesting higher incidence rate of NLAL in these settings. The joinpoint analysis demonstrated increased leukemia incidence rate in João Pessoa (AAPC = 20; 95% CI: 3.5, 39.4) and Salvador (AAPC = 8.68; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.9), respectively, whereas incidence rate in São Paulo PBCR decreased (AAPC = -4.02%; 95% CI: -6.1%, -1.9%). Correlation between ALL AAIR and selected variables of socioeconomic (SES) factors was not observed. Increased AAIR regionally overtime was observed. However, the interpretation for such phenomenon should be cautious because it might reflect the access to health care, diagnosis procedures, and improvement of PBCR´s quality. The observed trend supports the necessity of further ecological studies.

  19. Low cancer incidence rates in Ohio Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Judith A; Ferketich, Amy K; Kauffman, Ross M; MacEachern, Steven N; Wilkins, J R; Wilcox, Patricia P; Pilarski, Robert T; Nagy, Rebecca; Lemeshow, Stanley; de la Chapelle, Albert; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2010-01-01

    The Amish have not been previously studied for cancer incidence, yet they have the potential to help in the understanding of its environmental and genetic contributions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer among the largest Amish population. Adults from randomly selected households were interviewed and a detailed cancer family history was taken. Using both the household interview data and a search of the Ohio cancer registry data, a total of 191 cancer cases were identified between the years 1996 and 2003. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rate for all cancers among the Amish adults was 60% of the age-adjusted adult rate in Ohio (389.5/10(5) vs. 646.9/10(5); p Amish was 37% of the rate for Ohio adults (p Amish was 72% of the age-adjusted adult rate in Ohio (p = 0.0001). Cancer incidence is low in the Ohio Amish. These data strongly support reduction of cancer incidence by tobacco abstinence but cannot be explained solely on this basis. Understanding these contributions may help to identify additional important factors to target to reduce cancer among the non-Amish.

  20. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability by Direct Binomial Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard......Binomial modelling; cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard...

  1. Hazmat Yearly Incident Summary Reports - Data Mining Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  2. Hazmat 10 Year Incident Summary Reports - Data Mining Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Series of Incident data and summary statistics reports produced which provide statistical information on incidents by type, year, geographical location, and others....

  3. Predicting Cumulative Incidence Probability: Marginal and Cause-Specific Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2005-01-01

    cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling......cumulative incidence probability; cause-specific hazards; subdistribution hazard; binomial modelling...

  4. Real-time Detection of Road Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Škorput

    2010-07-01

    KEY WORDS: intelligent transport system, incident management system, traffic model in the status space, theory of estimation, extended Kalman filter, automatic incident detection, decision support system

  5. Making Sense in the Edge of Chaos: A Framework for Effective Initial Response Efforts to Large-Scale Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    While the ad hoc networks that form during an incident response are indeed inevitable and important, perhaps the “smart practice” ( Bardach 1) here is...Situations Caused by Flooding.” E:CO 9 (2007): 37–43. Print. Bardach , Eugene. “Part III: Smart Practices Research.” N.p.: n.d. Print. Barrett

  6. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  7. Incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob; Vestergaard, Mogens; Pedersen, Marianne G

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the occurrence of epilepsy in Denmark between 1977 and 2002, taking gender, age, and secular trends into consideration. METHODS: We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify all persons born in Denmark and the Danish National Hospital Register to identify persons...... registered with epilepsy between 1977 and 2002. RESULTS: Between 1977 and 2002 the average incidence of epilepsy was 68.8 new epilepsy patients per 100,000 person-years at risk. However, the incidence changed with calendar time and increased steeply from 1990 to 1995, probably due to changes in diagnostic...... declined from a high level in children to a low level between 20 and 40 years of age, and thereafter a gradual increase was seen. The incidence rate was slightly higher in men than in women except for the age range 10-20 years. About 2% of the population was diagnosed with epilepsy at some point during...

  8. Incidence of bruxism in TMD population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandwani, Briesh; Ceneviz, Caroline; Mehta, Noshir; Scrivani, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study presented here was to examine the incidence of bruxism in patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders. Two cohorts of patients suffering from temporomandibular disorders were evaluated. One group, composed of 163 patients, was asked specifically about the occurrence of bruxism, while the other group, composed of 200 patients, was not specifically asked about bruxism (self-reporting). The incidence of bruxism was only 20.5% for the group that only self-reported bruxism, while the incidence was 65% when asked specifically about bruxism. It is critical to ask specifically about bruxism. Patients are more likely to report bruxism when asked specifically about it. It is important to incorporate this as part of a TMD evaluation.

  9. Determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    Most occupational health researchers have studied individual determinants, tending to forget those causes that are universally present. To explore some determinants of occupational disease incidence in Mexico, the authors carried out an ecological study with data from 32 Mexican states. Using ordinary least squares regression, they explored associations between occupational disease incidence and the Gini coefficient, the percentage of small and median enterprises, and migration. Income inequality and the combined percentage of small and median enterprises were negatively associated with the incidence of occupational disease. In Mexico, the "population strategy" of the prevention of occupational disease suggests that big enterprises' contexts are related to a higher occurrence of occupational diseases. Further studies using multilevel approaches are needed to establish whether these occupational diseases are related to exposures present in big or in small and median enterprises.

  10. Incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weble, Tanja Cruusberg; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Kissmeyer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to monitor the evolution of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in Denmark over 70 years. We also compared registrations of pancreatic cancer in a nationwide population-based database, the Danish Cancer Registry, and a clinical database, the Danish Pancreatic...... Cancer Database, in 2012-2013. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Registrations of pancreatic cancer from the Danish Cancer Registry over 1943-2012 were used to calculate age-specific incidence rates per 100 000 person years by sex and age in 5-year period, weighted by the Segi World Standard Population for age...... standardization. We used absolute numbers from the Cancer Registry and the Pancreatic Cancer Database, including distribution of topography of cancers registered in 2012-2013, to compare registration in the two data sources. RESULTS: The incidence rates of pancreatic cancer among Danish men increased until 1968...

  11. Cervical cancer incidence in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Lönnberg, Stefan; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    or underscreened birth cohorts. Conclusion: The current bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer can largely be explained by the different screening histories of successive birth cohorts. While it is reasonable to offer screening to elderly women today, birth cohort trends in disease burden......Aim: In many countries, the age-specific pattern of cervical cancer incidence is currently bipolar with peaks at for instance 45 and 65 years of age. Consequently, a large proportion of cervical cancer cases are presently diagnosed in women above the screening age. The purpose of the study...... was to determine whether this bipolar pattern in age-specific incidence of cervical cancer reflects underlying biology or can be explained by the fact that the data come from birth cohorts with different screening histories. Methods: Combination of historical data on cervical screening and population-based cancer...

  12. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  13. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  14. Atherosclerosis and incident depression in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S; Hek, Karin; Luijendijk, Hendrika J; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-11-01

    Depression is a prominent concern for older adults; therefore, it is important to identify causal mechanisms so that prevention and treatment strategies can be developed. The vascular depression hypothesis proposes that vascular factors precede the onset of depression in older adults. However, although cross-sectional associations have been established, owing to a lack of objective assessments and longitudinal data, the validity and temporal nature of this relationship is unclear. To examine whether atherosclerosis, an asymptomatic subclinical indicator of vascular burden, increases the risk of developing depression in older adults. Prospective, population-based study. Set within the Rotterdam study, participants were assessed on objective measures of generalized atherosclerosis at baseline (1997-1999) and followed up for an average of 6 years for incident depression. The baseline sample consisted of 3564 participants (56% female) with a mean age of 72 years who initially did not have depression or dementia. Depression was categorized into symptoms or syndromes and assessed in a multidimensional manner from physician and mental health specialist reports, pharmacy records (antidepressant usage), a clinical interview, and self-report. During 21 083 person-years, 429 incidents of depressive symptoms and 197 incidents of depressive syndromes occurred. Individual atherosclerotic measures and a composite measure were not predictive of incident depressive symptoms (composite measure hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.05) or incident depressive syndromes (composite measure hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.16). An a priori power analysis indicated a sufficient sample size (α = .05; 0.95 power). Atherosclerosis does not appear to increase the risk of incident depression in older adults. These findings do not support the vascular depression hypothesis and, alternatively, taking findings from prior studies into account, suggest either that

  15. Incidence of Fragile X syndrome in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, James J; Sweeney, Michael; Donnelly, Deirdre E; Lambert, Deborah M; Beattie, Eleanor D; Gervin, Celine M; Barton, David E; Lynch, Sally A

    2017-03-01

    Described as the commonest single gene cause of learning disability internationally, the incidence of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) has never previously been determined in Ireland. The aim of this work was to determine the observed incidence of FXS in the island of Ireland; the Republic of Ireland (ROI) and Northern Ireland (NI) separately and combined. Ascertainment was achieved for a cross-sectional study by a retrospective, clinical and laboratory database review of positive FXS cases, born in either ROI or NI, between years 2000-2009 inclusive. The observed incidence of FXS per 10,000 live births in the island of Ireland in males was 0.94 (95%CI: 0.75-1.13) or ∼1:10,600 and in females was 0.23 (95%CI: 0.14-0.32) or ∼1:43,000. Comparable testing rates for FXS are present in ROI and NI, with on average 1.48% (1.30% in ROI, 1.96% in NI) of live male births and 0.4% (0.35% in ROI, 0.55% in NI) of live female births undergoing analysis which is comparable to other centres internationally. This study demonstrates the observed incidence of FXS in the island of Ireland is (i) approximately half the estimated worldwide incidence in males and is not explained by low levels of testing, and (ii) approximately one quarter the estimated worldwide incidence in females which may be explained by low levels of testing. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Incidents that require emergency operating procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinn, M.S.; Menegus, R.L.; Neill, J.S.; Ring, H.F.

    1953-11-27

    All foreseeable emergencies are adequately forestalled by installing in the reactor areas of the Savannah River Plant a number of pieces of auxiliary equipment. This precaution is taken in order to prevent permanent damage to the main equipment and to contain the radioactive material in the restricted areas of the plant. However, in the unlikely event of failure of some pieces of the main and/or auxiliary equipment, it is necessary that the operators take coordinated emergency action in order to prevent damage and hazard. In some cases swift action is called for. Because there are many pieces of equipment, all of which can conceivably be said to be subject to failure or faulty operation, one could postulate an astronomical number of failure incidents, each one different. But many of these would be highly improbable or call for the same emergency action. On the master incident sheet, Table 1, there are defined twenty such incidents, which represent a fair cross section of the possibilities. In compiling this table, the authors have kept in mind all of the worst reactor accidents that have occurred in the US and Canada and those minor equipment failures that have occurred at SRP before the startup of the reactors. In addition, there are one or two in the table that are almost impossible to conceive in any reasonable frame of probability; these represent limiting cases insofar as hazard is concerned. The consequences of the incidents mentioned in Table 1 are the results to be expected if the unaffected equipment functions properly, but the operators take no emergency action. For those cases in which damage is to be expected, emergency action by the operators can greatly reduce or eliminate entirely the damage and spread of radioactivity. As a means of showing what actions are necessary and how rapidly they must be accomplished, the twenty incidents considered in this report are analyzed in more detail on the sheets labeled INCIDENT No.

  17. Incidence and characteristics of chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Gil; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns. Characteristics of the affected body region, depth of burns, industry, task, and causative agents were analyzed from two databases. The incidence of chemical burns was calculated according to employment status. The most common regions involving chemical burns with hospital visits were the skin followed by the eyes. For skin lesions, the hands and wrists were the most commonly affected regions. Second degree burns were the most common in terms of depth of skin lesions. The hospital visit incidence was 1.96 per 10,000 person-year in the general population. The compensated chemical burns incidence was 0.17 per 10,000 person-year. Employees and the self-employed showed a significantly increased risk of chemical burns undergoing hospital visits compared to their dependents. Chemical burns on the skin and eyes are almost equally prevalent. The working environment was associated with increased risk of chemical burns. Our results may aid in estimating the size of the problem and prioritizing prevention of chemical burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Traffic incidents in motorways : An empirical proposal for incident detection using data from mobile phone operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbruggen, John; Tranos, Emmanouil; Rietveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proves that mobile phone usage data is an easy to use, cheap and most importantly, reliable predictor of motorway incidents. Using econometric modelling, this paper provides a proof of concept of how mobile phone usage data can be utilised to detect motorway incidents. Greater Amsterdam

  19. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  20. LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN OMSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Kosenok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer incidence in the Omsk region was studied. Advanced lung cancer was shown to be commonly detected in patients of the 30 to 49 age group. For this patient group, adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type of lung cancer. The highest incidence of lung cancer was observed in both men and women aged 45–47 years. Thus, to improve early detection of lung cancer, the optimal age for lung cancer screening should be in the age range of 40–50 years.

  1. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  2. Local Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social commun...

  3. [Medical service systems for tuberculosis in low-incidence countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Seiya; Ito, Kunihiko; Takatorige, Toshio; Ohkado, Akihiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2012-09-01

    Currently, Japan has a near low incidence of tuberculosis (TB); the incidence is below 20/100,000. Considering this incidence, the medical service provision system needs to be restructured and related policies need to be revised. The Revised National Guidelines for TB Control, issued in May 2011 by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, provided the policy towards achieving a low incidence of TB. This study aims to provide suggestions for restructuring the medical service system in Japan by analyzing the systems in selected countries with low incidence. Between 2004 and 2010, we conducted tours to study TB control and medical services in the UK, the USA, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. In these tours, we visited the medical facilities, agencies implementing preventive activities, health departments of central and local governments, reference laboratories, technical agencies, non-governmental organizations, and other organizations involved in TB control in these countries. In addition, we collected information from published papers and related documents through the internet. This paper reports the policies and strategies adopted in these low-incidence countries, especially pertaining to medical service systems, directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) services, hospital beds and facilities, objectives and duration of hospitalization, and mechanisms for maintaining quality medical services. In all the visited countries, except Germany, TB patients were diagnosed and treated, as well as provided support such as DOTS, by a single organization or agency. In the US and Norway, DOTs was provided to all TB patients at chest centers and/or health centers. On the other hand, in the UK, guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) stated that DOT is not necessary for managing most active TB cases. In these countries there were 3 modes of treating infectious patients: home isolation, hospitalization for the first 2 weeks

  4. Perceptions and Incidence of Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwing, Travis G.; Rash, Joshua A.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Bramble, Bev; Landine, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety (TA) can lower student GPA and increase dropout rates in populations of university students. Despite numerous treatment options, many students still suffer from TA. The stigma attached to this type of anxiety and the incidence rates and perceptions of TA were quantified through surveys distributed to 1,099 students at a Canadian…

  5. National Toxic Substance Incidents Program (NTSIP)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-03

    This podcast gives an overview of the three components of the National Toxic Substance Incidents Program: state surveillance, national database, and response teams.  Created: 2/3/2011 by Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.   Date Released: 2/3/2011.

  6. Incident response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, J.B.G.A.; Houtzager, M.M.G.; Jacobs, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) was granted by ASHRAE (1306-RP) to conduct scientfic review and feasibility analysis of technologies and methods for measuring aircraft power system contaminants in the cabin air during unanticipated adverse incidents. In particular,

  7. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-08

    Jun 8, 2015 ... Oppegaard et al., 2001; Mesa et al., 2006; Egea et al.,. 2012). There is no data available about ESBL-producing bacteria in food and aquaculture products and food of animal's origin in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the incidence and to provide current baseline information ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Incidence of seropositive myasthenia gravis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003 -. Table I. Comparison of the annual incidence rates (IR) of myasthenia gravis in different countries. Country (year). IR/million/year (95% CI). Method of diagnosis. Estonia (1970 - 1996)7. 4.0 (3.4 - 4.7). Clin/pharm*. Greece (1992 - 1997)13.

  9. Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus amongst patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) in UBTH Benin City, Nigeria. ... (4.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.0%) and Candida albican (1.0%). No growth was recorded in 46.6% of cultures. The occurrence of S. aureus was found to be ...

  10. Low-Incidence, High-Consequence Pathogens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-21

    Dr. Stephan Monroe, a deputy director at CDC, discusses the impact of low-incidence, high-consequence pathogens globally.  Created: 2/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/26/2014.

  11. 78 FR 38878 - Critical Incident Stress Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... benefits by providing employees with knowledge, coping skills, and services that would help them: (1... difficulties, trouble concentrating, hypervigilance and exaggerated sensory reactions--often leading sufferers... the definition expands the definition beyond an accident/incident leading to another person's actual...

  12. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  13. Incidence and Demographics of Pediatric Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillson, Natalie; Jones, Charlotte; Reem, Rachel E; Rogers, David L; Zumberge, Nicholas; Aylward, Shawn C

    2017-08-01

    We analyzed the incidence and demographic features of pediatric intracranial hypertension. Inpatient and outpatient encounters of children aged 18 years or younger who were diagnosed with primary (idiopathic) or secondary intracranial hypertension between January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Data were collected from a subspecialty clinic devoted to intracranial hypertension and the sole children's hospital in a large Midwestern city of the United States. Estimated incidence rates were calculated based on the number of newly diagnosed patients in our hospital's primary service area, which includes seven central Ohio counties. Sex, race, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and geographic distribution were also noted. A total of 74 pediatric patients were diagnosed with intracranial hypertension (49 primary/idiopathic and 25 secondary) between January 2010 and December 2013. Using census data, we determined the pediatric population in our service area during the four-year period. The Ohio Hospital Association's database indicated that 92.3% of patients aged 0 to 17 years residing in the region sought care at our institution. By combining these data, we calculated an annual incidence of primary and secondary intracranial hypertension of 0.63 and 0.32 per 100,000 children, respectively. The estimated annual incidence of pediatric primary intracranial hypertension in our seven county service area in central Ohio is similar to previous pediatric reports from other countries and is 67% of that reported in the US adult population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social Relations at Work and Incident Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat...

  15. Football injuries – surveillance, incidence and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    followed over three seasons, a proprioceptive training programme significantly reduced the incidence of injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament.32. In another study concentrating on hamstring strains, eccentric training combined with warm- up stretching significantly reduced the risk of hamstring strains in male elite football.

  16. Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Lindsey, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes traffic bottleneck congestion when drivers randomly cause incidents that temporarily block the bottleneck. Drivers have general scheduling preferences for time spent at home and at work. They independently choose morning departure times from home to maximize expected utility w...

  17. INCIDENCE.CDR NEW 1.CDR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Road traffic accidents occur frequently among commercial motorcyclists in this community. Introduction of road safety education targeted at discouraging alcohol use among these motorcyclists while riding and ensuring periodic visual acuity assessment is recommended. ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Incidence of road ...

  18. Incidence and Disability-Adjusted Life Years

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis covers a range of clinical manifestations. Estimation of the burden of leishmaniasis may help guide healthcare management personnel and policy-makers in applying effective interventions. The present study aimed to calculate the incidence and burden of cutaneous and visceral.

  19. incidence of occupational stress among medical radiographers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Biomechanical and Psychosocial stresses are capable of destabilizing any health care professional. The current health sector reform in Nigeria, which lays emphasis on service delivery on a background of very few radiographers, may lead to an increase in stress level. This study investigated the incidence of ...

  20. Is Abortion Incidence Rising In Nigeria?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    N, Cuca YP. The incidence of induced abortion in. Nigeria. International Family Planning Perspectives. 1998; 24: 4, 156-164. 2. Okonofua FE, Odimegwu C, Ajabor H, Daru H and Johnson. A: Assessing the prevalence and determinants of unwanted pregnancy and induced abortion in South West. Nigeria. Studies in Family ...

  1. State Methods for a Cyber Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Computer Security Incident Response Team CSO Chief Security Officer CSSP Control Systems Security Program DEMA Department of Emergency Management and...NCSD). The DHS Control Systems Security Program ( CSSP ), operated under the NCSD, manages and operates the Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency

  2. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener Dik, Pablo H; Niño Gualdron, Yeimy M; Galletti, María F; Cribioli, Carolina M; Mariani, Gonzalo L

    2017-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is the most common chronic pulmonary sequela among very low birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to estimate its incidence in our Neonatal Unit over the past 5 years and analyze associated risk factors. An observational and analytical study was conducted in a retrospective cohort, using data obtained from a prospective database of infants born at Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with a birth weight of less than 1500 grams between January 2010 and December 2014. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and its association with several secondary outcome measures were studied. Two hundred and forty-five patients were included. The incidence of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia was 22%, and it was associated with a younger gestational age and lower birth weight. A significant association was observed with surfactant use, mechanical ventilation requirement, and length of mechanical ventilation. Patients with moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus and late-onset sepsis. A lower birth weight (adjusted odds ratio |-#91;aOR|-#93;: 0.99, 95% confidence interval |-#91;CI|-#93;: 0.991-0.997, pdysplasia in our unit was associated with a lower birth weight and the length of mechanical ventilation. Among infants born at less than 32 weeks of gestation, intrauterine growth restriction accounted for an additional risk.

  3. Incident Investigation in SMS and FRMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Kingston, J.; Stewart, D.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 4: Incident Investigation in SMS and FRMS The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and methodology to

  4. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  5. Critical Incident Reporting Systems: Perceived Competing Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An additional five competing consequences added to the complex dilemma of judging reportable incidents. The key implication of the study is that high risk organisations should acknowledge the existence of the social construction of reporting, while associated adjustments to the reporting system may have benefits to the ...

  6. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response

  7. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response

  8. Incidence, symptomatology and aetiological factors for Asherman's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Asherman's syndrome is a significant cause of secondary amenorrhoea and infertility in Nigeria. It is largely preventable and safe practices will make it rare. Aim: To determine the incidence, symptomatology and aetiological factors for Asherman's syndrome in Orlu, South East Nigeria. Methods: A prospective ...

  9. Incident Management Organization succession planning stakeholder feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black

    2013-01-01

    This report presents complete results of a 2011 stakeholder feedback effort conducted for the National Wildfire Coordination Group (NWCG) Executive Board concerning how best to organize and manage national wildland fire Incident Management Teams in the future to meet the needs of the public, agencies, fire service and Team members. Feedback was collected from 858...

  10. Ulcerative Keratitis: incidence, seasonal distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seasonal distribution of corneal ulcer was highest in month June 11(18.0%). Complications from the ulcers included central leucoma 19 (31.2%) and panophthalmitis 6 (9.9%). Conclusion: The incidence rate of ulcerative keratitis is 0.6% occurring highest in the month of June with more bacterial than fungal isolates.

  11. The changing incidence of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Sosa, Julie A

    2016-11-01

    During the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased substantially in many countries, including the USA. The rise in incidence seems to be attributable both to the growing use of diagnostic imaging and fine-needle aspiration biopsy, which has led to enhanced detection and diagnosis of subclinical thyroid cancers, and environmental factors. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) practice guidelines for the management of adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer differ substantially from the previous ATA guidelines published in 2009. Specifically, the problems of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a disease that is typically indolent, where treatment-related morbidity might not be justified by a survival benefit, now seem to be acknowledged. As few modifiable risk factors for thyroid cancer have been established, the specific environmental factors that have contributed to the rising incidence of thyroid cancer remain speculative. However, the findings of several large, well-designed epidemiological studies have provided new information about exposures (such as obesity) that might influence the development of thyroid cancer. In this Review, we describe the changing incidence of thyroid cancer, suggest potential explanations for these trends, emphasize the implications for patients and highlight ongoing and potential strategies to combat this growing clinical and public health issue.

  12. The incidence of anorexia nervosa on Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Harten, PN; Hermans, KME; Katzman, MA; Matroos, GE; Susser, ES

    Objective: Although anorexia nervosa was once thought to occur only in affluent societies, cases have now been documented across the globe. To examine whether anorexia nervosa emerges in societies undergoing socioeconomic transition, the authors studied the incidence of anorexia nervosa on the

  13. Recent trends in the incidence of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Walters

    Full Text Available Anxiety is common, with significant morbidity, but little is known about presentations and recording of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in primary care. This study aimed to determine trends in incidence and socio-demographic variation in General Practitioner (GP recorded diagnoses of anxiety, mixed anxiety/depression, panic and anxiety symptoms.Annual incidence rates of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms were calculated from 361 UK general practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN database between 1998 and 2008, adjusted for year of diagnosis, gender, age, and deprivation. Incidence of GP recorded anxiety diagnosis fell from 7.9 to 4.9/1000PYAR from 1998 to 2008, while incidence of anxiety symptoms rose from 3.9 to 5.8/1000PYAR. Incidence of mixed anxiety/depression fell from 4.0 to 2.2/1000PYAR, and incidence of panic disorder fell from 0.9/1000PYAR in 1998 to 0.5/1000PYAR in 2008. All these entries were approximately twice as common in women and more common in deprived areas. GP-recorded anxiety diagnoses, symptoms and mixed anxiety/depression were commonest aged 45-64 years, whilst panic disorder/attacks were more common in those 16-44 years. GPs predominately use broad non-specific codes to record anxiety problems in the UK.GP recording of anxiety diagnoses has fallen whilst recording of anxiety symptoms has increased over time. The incidence of GP recorded diagnoses of anxiety diagnoses was lower than in screened populations in primary care. The reasons for this apparent under-recording and whether it represents under-detection in those being seen, a reluctance to report anxiety to their GP, or a reluctance amongst GPs to label people with anxiety requires investigation.

  14. Connectivity of communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent developments on connectivity of communication networks, ranging from connectivity of large static networks and connectivity of highly dynamic networks to connectivity of small to medium sized networks. This book also introduces some applications of connectivity studies in network optimization, in network localization, and in estimating distances between nodes. The book starts with an overview of the fundamental concepts, models, tools, and methodologies used for connectivity studies. The rest of the chapters are divided into four parts: connectivity of large static networks, connectivity of highly dynamic networks, connectivity of small to medium sized networks, and applications of connectivity studies.

  15. Women, Loneliness, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between loneliness and risk of incident coronary heart disease (CHD) over a 19-year follow-up period in a community sample of men and women. Loneliness, the perceived discrepancy between actual and desired social relationships, has been linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, no previous research has prospectively examined the association between loneliness and incident CHD in a community sample of men and women. Methods Hypotheses were examined using data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey and its follow-up studies (n = 3003). Loneliness, assessed by one item from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression scale, and covariates were derived from baseline interviews. Incident CHD was derived from hospital records/death certificates over 19 years of follow-up. Hypotheses were evaluated, using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among women, high loneliness was associated with increased risk of incident CHD (high: hazard ratio = 1.76, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.17â2.63; medium: hazard ratio = 0.98, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.64â1.49; reference: low), controlling for age, race, education, income, marital status, hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and body mass index. Findings persisted additionally controlling for depressive symptoms. No significant associations were observed among men. Conclusions Loneliness was prospectively associated with increased risk of incident CHD, controlling for multiple confounding factors. Loneliness among women may merit clinical attention, not only due to its impact on quality of life but also its potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:19661189

  16. Incidence of Posttraumatic Shoulder Dislocation in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyluk, Karol J; Jasiński, Andrzej; Mielnik, Michał; Koczy, Bogdan

    2016-10-25

    BACKGROUND The incidence of shoulder joint dislocation has been estimated at 11-26 per 100 000 population per year. In our opinion, basic epidemiological data need to be continually updated in studies of large populations. To study the incidence of posttraumatic dislocation of the shoulder joint in the Polish population. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively investigated the entire Polish population between 1 January 2010 and 1 January 2015. To identify the study group, data collected in the electronic database of the National Health Fund were used. The study group was divided into subgroups to detect possible differences in the incidence of shoulder dislocation with regard to age, sex, and season of the year (month) when the dislocation occurred. RESULTS The cumulative size of the study sample was 192.72 million over the 5 years of the study. We identified 51 409 patients with first posttraumatic shoulder dislocation, at a mean age of 50.83 years (SD 21.12), from 0 to 104 years. The incidence of traumatic shoulder dislocations for the entire study group ranged from 24.75/100 000/year (number of posttraumatic shoulder dislocations per 100 000 persons per year) to 29.09/100 000/year, for a mean of 26.69/100 000/year. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the overall incidence of first-time posttraumatic shoulder dislocations in the Polish general population was 26.69 per 100 000 persons per year. These results are higher than estimates presented by other authors. It is necessary to study, regularly update, and monitor this problem in the general population.

  17. Cancer incidence in Italian contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Comba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of cancer among residents in sites contaminated by pollutants with a possible health impact is not adequately studied. In Italy, SENTIERI Project (Epidemiological study of residents in National Priority Contaminated Sites, NPCSs was implemented to study major health outcomes for residents in 44 NPCSs. METHODS. The Italian Association of Cancer Registries (AIRTUM records cancer incidence in 23 NPCSs. For each NPCSs, the incidence of all malignant cancers combined and 35 cancer sites (coded according to ICD-10, was analysed (1996-2005. The observed cases were compared to the expected based on age (5-year period,18 classes, gender, calendar period (1996-2000; 2001-2005, geographical area (North-Centre and Centre-South and cancer sites specific rates. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR with 90% Confidence Intervals were computed. RESULTS. In both genders an excess was observed for overall cancer incidence (9% in men and 7% in women as well as for specific cancer sites (colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung, skin melanoma, bladder and Non Hodgkin lymphoma. Deficits were observed for gastric cancer in both genders, chronic lymphoid leukemia (men, malignant thyroid neoplasms, corpus uteri and connective and soft-tissue tumours and sarcomas (women. DISCUSSION. This report is, to our knowledge, the first one on cancer risk of residents in NPCSs. The study, although not aiming to estimate the cancer burden attributable to the environment as compared to occupation or life-style, supports the credibility of an etiologic role of environmental exposures in contaminated sites. Ongoing analyses focus on the interpretation of risk factors for excesses of specific cancer types overall and in specific NPCSs in relation to the presence of carcinogenic pollutants.

  18. The epidemiology of major incidents in the Western Cape Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major incidents were accordingly defined as. 'any incident where the location, number, severity or type of live casualties requires extraordinary resources'. [1] Incidents were only entered onto the database after they had been declared a major incident by the emergency medical services (EMS) officer commanding the scene ...

  19. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  20. Incidents with hazardous radiation sources; Zwischenfaelle mit gefaehrlichen Strahlenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenhacker, Stefan [Bundesministerium fuer Inneres, Traiskirchen (Austria). Abt. 1/9 - Zivilschutzschule

    2016-07-01

    Incidents with hazardous radiation sources can occur in any country, even those without nuclear facilities. Preparedness for such incidents is supposed to fulfill globally agreed minimum standards. Incidents are categorized in incidents with licensed handling of radiation sources as for material testing, transport accidents of hazardous radiation sources, incidents with radionuclide batteries, incidents with satellites containing radioactive inventory, incidents wit not licensed handling of illegally acquired hazardous radiation sources. The emergency planning in Austria includes a differentiation according to the consequences: incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in restricted contamination, incidents with release of radioactive materials resulting in local contamination, and incidents with the hazard of e@nhanced exposure due to the radiation source.

  1. Anti-Social Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Allen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With research highlighting the growing incidence of public opposition to the building of mosques and the innovative use of social networking, especially Facebook, to disseminate and garner support for such opposition, a pilot study sought to investigate this in relation to the proposed Dudley “super mosque.” Focusing on the Facebook group Stop Dudley Super Mosque and Islamic Village, members were engaged online to explore why they opposed the mosque. Some of the emergent themes included planning and location, inclusion and public investment as well as those relating to notions of identity, heritage, otherness, and Islamification. Overt racist and Islamophobic reasons were also identified. The sense of political disconnect of members is also considered. Concluding with a contextualization of the findings within the existing body of scholarly output, in particular the building of mosques and Islamophobia, having recognized how spaces such as Facebook have potential to function as sites for research and method also, an extended methodological consideration is also included.

  2. Dementia incidence trend over 1992-2014 in the Netherlands: Analysis of primary care data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Emma F; Richard, Edo; Arts, Derk L; Nooyens, Astrid C J; Coloma, Preciosa M; de Waal, Margot W M; van den Akker, Marjan; Biermans, Marion C J; Nielen, Markus M J; van Boven, Kees; Smeets, Hugo; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Busschers, Wim B; van Gool, Willem A; Moll van Charante, Eric P

    2017-03-01

    Recent reports have suggested declining age-specific incidence rates of dementia in high-income countries over time. Improved education and cardiovascular health in early age have been suggested to be bringing about this effect. The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific dementia incidence trend in primary care records from a large population in the Netherlands. A dynamic cohort representative of the Dutch population was composed using primary care records from general practice registration networks (GPRNs) across the country. Data regarding dementia incidence were obtained using general-practitioner-recorded diagnosis of dementia within the electronic health records. Age-specific dementia incidence rates were calculated for all persons aged 60 y and over; negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the time trend. Nine out of eleven GPRNs provided data on more than 800,000 older people for the years 1992 to 2014, corresponding to over 4 million person-years and 23,186 incident dementia cases. The annual growth in dementia incidence rate was estimated to be 2.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.8%), and incidence rates were 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.13) times higher for women compared to men. Despite their relatively low numbers of person-years, the highest age groups contributed most to the increasing trend. There was no significant overall change in incidence rates since the start of a national dementia program in 2003 (-0.025; 95% CI -0.062 to 0.011). Increased awareness of dementia by patients and doctors in more recent years may have influenced dementia diagnosis by general practitioners in electronic health records, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the data. Within the clinical records of a large, representative sample of the Dutch population, we found no evidence for a declining incidence trend of dementia in the Netherlands. This could indicate true stability in incidence rates, or a balance between increased detection and a

  3. Dementia incidence trend over 1992-2014 in the Netherlands: Analysis of primary care data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F van Bussel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports have suggested declining age-specific incidence rates of dementia in high-income countries over time. Improved education and cardiovascular health in early age have been suggested to be bringing about this effect. The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific dementia incidence trend in primary care records from a large population in the Netherlands.A dynamic cohort representative of the Dutch population was composed using primary care records from general practice registration networks (GPRNs across the country. Data regarding dementia incidence were obtained using general-practitioner-recorded diagnosis of dementia within the electronic health records. Age-specific dementia incidence rates were calculated for all persons aged 60 y and over; negative binomial regression analysis was used to estimate the time trend. Nine out of eleven GPRNs provided data on more than 800,000 older people for the years 1992 to 2014, corresponding to over 4 million person-years and 23,186 incident dementia cases. The annual growth in dementia incidence rate was estimated to be 2.1% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.8%, and incidence rates were 1.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.13 times higher for women compared to men. Despite their relatively low numbers of person-years, the highest age groups contributed most to the increasing trend. There was no significant overall change in incidence rates since the start of a national dementia program in 2003 (-0.025; 95% CI -0.062 to 0.011. Increased awareness of dementia by patients and doctors in more recent years may have influenced dementia diagnosis by general practitioners in electronic health records, and needs to be taken into account when interpreting the data.Within the clinical records of a large, representative sample of the Dutch population, we found no evidence for a declining incidence trend of dementia in the Netherlands. This could indicate true stability in incidence rates, or a balance between increased

  4. Reconstructing the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Yadav, V.; Verhulst, K. R.; Thorpe, A. K.; Hopkins, F. M.; Prasad, K.; Kuai, L.; Thompson, D. R.; Wong, C.; Sander, S. P.; Mueller, K. L.; Nehrkorn, T.; Lee, M.; Hulley, G. C.; Johnson, W. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Whetstone, J. R.; Miller, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Natural gas is a key energy source and presents significant policy challenges including energy reliability and the potential for fugitive methane emissions. The well blowout reported in October 2015 at the Aliso Canyon underground gas storage facility near Porter Ranch, California and subsequent uncontrolled venting was the largest single anthropogenic methane source known to date. Multiple independent estimates indicate that this super-emitter source rivaled the normal methane flux of the entire South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) for several months until the well was plugged. The complexity of the event and logistical challenges - particularly in the initial weeks - presented significant barriers to estimating methane losses. Additionally, accounting for total gas lost is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the sequence of events and the controlling physical processes. We used a tiered system of observations to assess methane emissions from the Aliso Canyon incident. To generate a complete flux time-series, we applied tracer-transport models and tracer-tracer techniques to persistent, multi-year atmospheric methane observations from a network of surface in-situ and remote-sensing instruments. To study the fine spatio-temporal structure of methane plumes and understand the changing source morphology, we conducted intensive mobile surface campaigns, deployed airborne imaging spectrometers, requested special observations from two satellites, and employed large eddy simulations. Through a synthesis analysis we assessed methane fluxes from Aliso Canyon before, during and after the reported incident. We compared our fine scale spatial data with bottom-up data and reports of activity at the facility to better understand the controlling processes. We coordinated with California stakeholder agencies to validate and interpret these results and to consider the potential broader implications on underground gas storage and future priorities for methane monitoring.

  5. Underestimation of Leptospirosis Incidence in the French West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassadou, Sylvie; Rosine, Jacques; Flamand, Claude; Escher, Martina; Ledrans, Martine; Bourhy, Pascale; Picardeau, Mathieu; Quénel, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis affecting mainly tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, particularly South America and the Caribbean. As in many other countries, under-reporting of cases was suspected in the French West Indies because of inadequate access to diagnostic tests for the general population. In order to estimate the real incidence of leptospirosis in Guadeloupe and Martinique, a study was performed in 2011 using the three prevailing available biological tests for diagnosis: Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), IgM ELISA and PCR. The study investigated inpatients and outpatients and used active case ascertainment from data provided by a general practitioners' sentinel network. The epidemiology of the disease was also described in terms of severity and demographic characteristics. Leptospirosis incidence was estimated at 69.4 (95%CI 47.6-91.1) and 60.6 (95%CI 36.3-85.0) annual cases per 100,000 inhabitants in Guadeloupe and Martinique, respectively, which was 3 and 4 times higher than previous estimations. Inclusion of PCR and IgM ELISA tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis resulted in improved sensitivity in comparison with MAT alone. Our results highlighted the substantial health burden of the disease in these two territories and the importance of access to appropriate laboratory tests. Based on our results, PCR and IgM ELISA tests have now been included in the list of tests reimbursed by the national system of social security insurance in France. Our results also underline the relevance of implementing an integrated strategy for the surveillance, prevention and control of leptospirosis in the French West Indies.

  6. Organizational Models for Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    When a computer security attack on an organization occurs, an intrusion is recognized, or some other kind of computer security incident occurs, it is...response capability or a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT). When an incident occurs, the goal of the CSIRT is to control and minimize...disadvantages and the kinds of incident management services that best fit with it. An earlier SEI publication, the Handbook for Computer Security Incident

  7. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Lee, Jong-Keun; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate of Korea?s current cancer burden, this study aimed to report on projected cancer incidence and mortality rates for the year 2016. Materials and Methods: Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2013 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2014 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence in 2016 was projected by fitting a linear regression model to observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against obser...

  8. [Decrease in the incidence of chickenpox in the Community of Madrid after universal childhood immunization. Years 2001-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Comas, Luis; Latasa Zamalloa, Pello; Alemán Vega, Guadalupe; Ordobás Gavín, María; Arce Arnáez, Araceli; Rodero Garduño, Inmaculada; Estirado Gómez, Alicia; Marisquerena, Ester Insúa

    2018-01-01

    Varicella vaccine was recommended in the Community of Madrid (CM) at 15months of age between November 2006 and December 2013. The objective was to describe the impact of vaccination on the incidence of varicella in the CM during the period 2001-2015. A descriptive study of cases of varicella reported to the Sentinel Physician Network of the CM and the cases recorded in the Minimum Basic Data Set at hospital discharge was carried out. Total incidence of cases and of hospital admissions were calculated, as well as specific incidence by age and sex. The incidence was 94.0% lower between 2012 and 2013 than between 2001 and 2003. Between 2014 and 2015 the incidence was 61.8% higher than between 2012 and 2013. The highest incidence was observed in children aged 0 to 4years except for 2010-2014, which was exceeded by the incidence in children aged 5 to 9. The trend in hospital admissions was also decreasing, with the highest incidence in children aged 0 to 1year, followed by 1-4years. There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of cases and of hospital admissions by varicella in all age groups after the recommendation to vaccinate at 15months of age, which is compatible with the effectiveness of a dose and its ability to produce immunity group. The withdrawal of this recommendation between 2014 and 2015 has led to an increase in the incidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel R; Terkildsen Maindal, Helle

    2017-04-01

    We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Non-diabetic participants (n=7662) of the "English Longitudinal Study of Ageing" (3398 men) aged 50-91years were followed until 2012/2013, after baseline assessment of depressive symptoms, social support, relational strain, and network size. Hazard ratios (HR) for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Age and sex adjusted HRs showed that social relations were associated with incident diabetes (Support: HR 0.98 95% CI 0.97; 0.99, Strain: HR 1.02 95% CI 1.01; 1.04, Network limited : HR 1.19 95% CI 0.98; 1.44), however, when adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, household wealth, health behaviour, and body mass index the associations were attenuated and were no longer statistically significant. Depressive symptoms were associated with higher diabetes risk. This effect was not modified by any of the social variables. People with stronger social relations are at lower risk of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS DeFraia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. Objective: To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Methods: Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Results: Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Conclusion: Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  11. Psychological Trauma in the Workplace: Variation of Incident Severity among Industry Settings and between Recurring vs Isolated Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFraia, G S

    2015-07-01

    Psychologically traumatic workplace events (known as critical incidents) occur within various work environments, with workgroups in certain industries vulnerable to multiple incidents. With the increasing prevalence of incidents in the USA, incident response is a growing practice area within occupational medicine, industrial psychology, occupational social work and other occupational health professions. To analyze a measure of incident severity based on level of disruption to the workplace and explore whether incident severity varied among different industry settings or between workgroups experiencing multiple vs single traumatic incidents. Administrative data mining was employed to examine practice data from a workplace trauma response unit in the USA. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test whether scores from an instrument measuring incident severity level varied among industry settings or between workgroups impacted by multiple vs isolated events. Incident severity level differed among various industry settings. Banks, retail stores and fast food restaurants accounted for the most severe incidents, while industrial and manufacturing sites reported less severe incidents. Workgroups experiencing multiple incidents reported more severe incidents than workgroups experiencing a single incident. Occupational health practitioners should be alert to industry differences in several areas: pre-incident resiliency training, the content of business recovery plans, assessing worker characteristics, strategies to assist continuous operations and assisting workgroups impacted by multiple or severe incidents.

  12. Operation of International Monitoring System Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Svetlana; Araujo, Fernando; Aktas, Kadircan; Malakhova, Marina; Otsuka, Riyo; Han, Dongmei; Assef, Thierry; Nava, Elisabetta; Mickevicius, Sigitas; Agrebi, Abdelouaheb

    2015-04-01

    The IMS is a globally distributed network of monitoring facilities using sensors from four technologies: seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide. It is designed to detect the seismic and acoustic waves produced by nuclear test explosions and the subsequently released radioactive isotopes. Monitoring stations transmit their data to the IDC in Vienna, Austria, over a global private network known as the GCI. Since 2013, the data availability (DA) requirements for IMS stations account for quality of the data, meaning that in calculation of data availability data should be exclude if: - there is no input from sensor (SHI technology); - the signal consists of constant values (SHI technology); Even more strict are requirements for the DA of the radionuclide (particulate and noble gas) stations - received data have to be analyzed, reviewed and categorized by IDC analysts. In order to satisfy the strict data and network availability requirements of the IMS Network, the operation of the facilities and the GCI are managed by IDC Operations. Operations has following main functions: - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the stations; - to ensure proper operation and functioning of the GCI; - to ensure efficient management of the stations in IDC; - to provide network oversight and incident management. At the core of the IMS Network operations are a series of tools for: monitoring the stations' state of health and data quality, troubleshooting incidents, communicating with internal and external stakeholders, and reporting. The new requirements for data availability increased the importance of the raw data quality monitoring. This task is addressed by development of additional tools for easy and fast identifying problems in data acquisition, regular activities to check compliance of the station parameters with acquired data by scheduled calibration of the seismic network, review of the samples by certified radionuclide laboratories. The DA for the networks of

  13. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huan [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Tang, Xiaobin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing (China); Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Various incident sites of CNTs are classified into three types for the first time. • Different ion energies and fluences are considered to study the radiation damage. • CNTs have ability to heal the radiation-induced damage at higher temperature. • Stability of a large-diameter tube excels in a slim one under the same conditions. - Abstract: The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  14. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  15. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  16. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  17. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  18. Computer networks monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Antončič , Polona

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis entitled Computer Networks Monitoring introduces the basics of computer networks, the aim and the computer data reclamation from networking devices, software for the system follow-up together with the case of monitoring a real network with tens of network devices. The networks represent an important part in the modern information technology and serve for the exchange of data and sources which makes their impeccability of crucial importance. Correct and efficient sys...

  19. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  20. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  1. Percolation in clustered networks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joel C

    2009-01-01

    The social networks that infectious diseases spread along are typically clustered. Because of the close relation between percolation and epidemic spread, the behavior of percolation in such networks gives insight into infectious disease dynamics. A number of authors have studied clustered networks, but the networks often contain preferential mixing between high degree nodes. We introduce a class of random clustered networks and another class of random unclustered networks with the same prefer...

  2. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    or she must make. Network Mapping System ( NeMS ) is a software-based tool created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to discover and map...network assets in support of cyber situational awareness [10]. NeMS combines both active probes and passive monitoring of network data to map the network...security settings in order to maximize efficiency without disrupting network activities. Tests of NeMS in control networks yielded great results, as

  3. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  4. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  5. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  6. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...require small amounts of network bandwidth to perform routing. This thesis advocates the use of Kalman filters to predict network congestion in...airborne networks. Intelligent agents can make use of Kalman filter predictions to make informed decisions to manage communication in airborne networks. The

  7. The critical incident technique reappraised: using critical incidents to illuminate organizational practices and build theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Gregory; Tourish, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a reconceptualization of the critical incident technique (CIT) and affirm its utility in management and organization studies.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing a case study from a leadership context, the paper applies the CIT to explore various leadership behaviours in the context of nonprofit boards in Canada. Semi-structured critical incident interviews were used to collect behavioural data from 53 participants – board chairs, board...

  8. 78 FR 38949 - Computer Security Incident Coordination (CSIC): Providing Timely Cyber Incident Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... skillsets (e.g., network sniffing, system administration, firewall configuration, reverse engineering, etc... posted (e.g., personal or confidential business information). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  9. Abortion incidence in Cambodia, 2005 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh

    2015-01-01

    Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.

  10. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Summarizing differences in cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Jie; Fine, Jason

    2008-10-30

    The cumulative incidence function is widely reported in competing risks studies, with group differences assessed by an extension of the log-rank test. However, simple, interpretable summaries of group differences are not available. An adaptation of the proportional hazards model to the cumulative incidence function is often employed, but the interpretation of the hazard ratio may be somewhat awkward, unlike the usual survival set-up. We propose nonparametric inferences for general summary measures, which may be time-varying, and for time-averaged versions of the measures. Theoretical justification is provided using counting process techniques. A real data example illustrates the practical utility of the methods. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Critical incidents: effective communication and documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelock, J; Innerarity, S

    2001-02-01

    Critical incidents can be defined at sentinel events, critical patient care issues, or any patient event outside the normal parameters of care. Nurses are central to maintaining the standard of care for patients in these situations. Miscommunication, including inadequate communication and illegible or incomplete documentation, forms a basis for many clinical and interpersonal problems in nursing practice. This practical article discusses expectations, both professional and legal, for avoiding and/or managing critical incidents. Suggestions for assessment parameters to report are included in table format, which the nurse can 'clip and use' as a reminder of data to have prepared before calling and/or presenting the problem. Steps are proposed for a logical, organized plan to help the nurse communicate more effectively. Recommendations for essentials of documentation regarding the verbal interaction and orders received are also presented.

  13. A New Model For Understanding Incident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    to incident management. You have been an amazing sounding board and welcome challenger for every crazy idea I have had, and I have loved all of your...problemitization, “If we see problematizations as amplifications or intensifications of domains of engaged action, then the pressing analytical... nature , this method inherently lends itself to critique, which is expected and invited, as the intent of the synthesis is to encourage, incite, and

  14. The computer incident response framework (CIRF)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Informatics) A company’s valuable information assets face many risks from internal and external sources. When these risks are exploited and reports on information assets are made public, it is usually easy to determine which companies had a contingency plan to deal with the various aspects of these “computer incidents”. This study incorporates important factors of computer incidents into a framework which will assists the company in effectively dealing and managing computer inciden...

  15. Can we learn from SCADA security Incidents?

    OpenAIRE

    Tryfonas, Theo; May, John H R

    2013-01-01

    Security experts across the world continue to sound the alarm bells about the security of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Industrial Control Systems look more and more like consumer PCs. They are used everywhere and involve a considerable amount of software, often outdated and unpatched. Recent security incidents in the context of SCADA and Industrial Control Systems emphasise greatly the importance of good governance and control of SCADA infrastructures. In particular the ability to respon...

  16. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  17. Decision making in incident control teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephan, S. [Queensland Department of Mines and Energy, Qld. (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The decision making process during a mine emergency is explored. Using examples from other areas as well as mining industries, poor decision making processes are illustrated. Some decision traps discussed include group think, Abilene paradox, lack of frame control and confirmation bias. Practical techniques that a mine manager, as incident controller, can apply to improve the group decision making process are described. Techniques such as devils advocacy, dialectic decision making, scenario development and decision auditing are explained. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Lung cancer incidence in never-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelee, Heather A.; Chang, Ellen T.; Gomez, Scarlett L.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Feskanich, Diane; Clarke, Christina A.; Holmberg, Lars; Yong, Lee C.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Gould, Michael K.; West, Dee W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. While smoking remains the predominant cause of lung cancer, lung cancer in never-smokers is an increasingly prominent public health issue. Data on this topic, particularly lung cancer incidence rates in never-smokers, however, are limited. Methods We review the existing literature on lung cancer incidence and mortality rates among never-smokers and present new data regarding rates in never-smokers from large, population-based cohorts: 1) Nurses’ Health Study, 2) Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 3) California Teachers Study, 4) Multiethnic Cohort Study, 5) Swedish Lung Cancer Register in the Uppsala/Örebro region, and the 6) First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Results Truncated age-adjusted incidence rates of lung cancer among never-smokers aged 40 to 79 years in these six cohorts ranged from 14.4 to 20.8 per 100,000 person-years in women and 4.8 to 13.7 per 100,000 person-years in men, supporting earlier observations that women are more likely than men to have non-smoking-associated lung cancer. The distinct biology of lung cancer in never-smokers is apparent in differential responses to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and an increased prevalence of adenocarcinoma histology in never-smokers. Conclusion Lung cancer in never-smokers is an important public health issue needing further exploration of its incidence patterns, etiology, and biology. PMID:17290054

  19. Hospital Incidence and Mortality Rates of Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Carolin; Thomas-Rueddel, Daniel O; Hartmann, Michael; Hartog, Christiane S; Welte, Tobias; Heublein, Steffen; Dennler, Ulf; Reinhart, Konrad

    2016-03-11

    Sepsis, the most severe manifestation of acute infection, poses a major challenge to health care systems around the world. To date, adequate data on the incidence and mortality of sepsis in Germany have been lacking. Nationwide case-related hospital DRG statistics for the years 2007-2013 were used to determine the in-hospital incidence and mortality of sepsis. Cases were identified on the basis of the clinical and pathogen-based ICD-10 codes for sepsis. The statistical evaluation was standardized for age and sex and carried out separately for each age group. The number of cases of sepsis rose by an average of 5.7% per year, from 200 535 in 2007 to 279 530 in 2013, corresponding to an increase in the adjusted in-hospital incidence from 256 to 335 cases per 100 000 persons per year. The percentage of patients with severe sepsis rose from 27% to 41%. The in-hospital mortality of sepsis fell over the same period by 2.7%, to 24.3%. In 2013, 67 849 persons died of sepsis in German hospitals (or died of another disease, but also had sepsis). The incidence was highest in the youngest and oldest age groups, and the in-hospital mortality rose nearly linearly with age from age 40 onward. Sepsis and death from sepsis are markedly more common in Germany than previously assumed, and they are on the rise. Sepsis statistics should become a standard component of federal statistical reports on public health, as well as of hospital statistics. Preventive measures and evidencebased treatment should be implemented across the nation.

  20. Incidence of coliphage in potable water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    el-Abagy, M M; Dutka, B J; Kamel, M; el Zanfaly, H T

    1988-01-01

    Samples of drinking water from different sources in greater Cairo, Egypt, and bottled drinking water were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, and coliphage populations. Of the 147 samples tested, 4 samples were positive for both total coliforms and coliphage, 65 samples were negative for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and coliphage, and 78 samples were positive for coliphage and negative for total coliforms and fecal coliforms. The incidence of coliphage in these potable water suppl...

  1. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  2. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...

  3. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks......Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...

  4. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cuadros Carlesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28 and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919 and rate of falls (r = 0.8770. The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload.

  5. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  6. Breast cancer incidence and neighbourhood income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borugian, Marilyn J; Spinelli, John J; Abanto, Zenaida; Xu, Chen Lydia; Wilkins, Russell

    2011-06-01

    In developed countries, women of higher socioeconomic status often have higher breast cancer incidence rates, compared with women of lower socioeconomic status. Data were extracted from the Canadian Cancer Registry for the 229,955 cases of adult female invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1992 through 2004. Postal code at diagnosis was used to determine neighbourhood income quintile. Breast cancer incidence was examined by year, region, age and neighbourhood income quintile. Census data for 1991 on children ever born and British Columbia data for 2006 on first-time attendance at mammography screening were analyzed by neighbourhood income quintile. Residence in the lowest as opposed to the highest neighbourhood income quintile was associated with a 15% lower risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer. Higher income levels were associated with lower parity in 1991 and a higher prevalence of first-time screening mammography in British Columbia in 2006. Canadian data support an association between the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer and neighbourhood income quintile. Parity and mammography screening may account for some differences in incidence.

  7. Higher Incidence of Hypospadias in Monochorionic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Remco; Burger, Nienke C M; van Zwet, Erik W; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Haak, Monique C; van den Hoek, Joop; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    Hypospadias is associated with twinning. The incidence of hypospadias in monochorionic and dichorionic male twins is, however, yet to be determined. All medical records of monochorionic and dichorionic twins admitted to our neonatal nursery between January 2004 and August 2013 were reviewed for the presence of hypospadias. A total of 350 monochorionic and 303 dichorionic male twins were included in the study. The incidence of hypospadias in monochorionic and dichorionic groups was 4% (14/350) and 1% (3/303) (p = .016) respectively. In 11 of the 15 twin couples, hypospadias occurred in the twin with the lowest birth weight. The rate of hypospadias in twin infants small-for-gestational-age group was 10% (6/60) compared with 2% (11/593) in the appropriate-for-gestational-age group (p = .002). In a multivariate analysis, both monochorionicity and small-for-gestational-age were independently associated with hypospadias, odds ratio 4.1 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-14.7) and 6.1 (95% CI: 2.2-17.2) respectively. The incidence of hypospadias is four-fold higher in monochorionic twins compared with dichorionic twins. Hypospadias is also independently associated with small-for-gestational-age.

  8. [Anatomic incidence of meniscochondrocalcinosis of the knee].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrovic, D; Stankovic, A; Morin, J; Borda-Iriarte, O; Uzan, M; Quintero, M; Memin, Y; Bard, M; de Sèze, S; Richewaert, A

    1982-06-01

    The authors have studied the incidence of menisco-calcinosis (MC) and that of menisco-chondrocalcinosis (MCC) of knee joints of 108 non selected cadavera. The mean age of the subjects was 71.8 +/- 13.8 years. The study was performed by radiographic examination of the menisci and cartilagineous fragments of femoral condyles using high contrast films. The incidence of MC or MCC was found to be 18.5 per cent. It was slightly higher in females (21.5 p. cent) than in males (15.8 p. cent) subjects but this difference failed to reach the level of statistical significance. No positive case was detected before the age of 60 years. For the age groups of: 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and over 90 years, its incidence was: 11.7; 26.9; 21.2 and 50 (4 subjects out of 8) per cent respectively. Approximately 40 per cent of all positive cases had meniscocalcinosis without associated chondrocalcinosis. No single case of chondrocalcinosis without meniscocalcinosis was observed. Six out of 8 cases with MC calcinosis and 2 out of 12 cases with MCC were unilateral. The external menisci were more frequently and more heavily affected than internal ones. Eighty per cent of the knees affected by either MC or MCC were at the same time associated to an osteoarthrotic lesion compared to 35 p. cent of the knees without MC or MCC matched for age: a result which appeared to be highly significant difference.

  9. Injury incidence in hip hop dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H

    2012-06-01

    Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Semiparametric models for cumulative incidence functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, John; Dignam, James J

    2004-03-01

    In analyses of time-to-failure data with competing risks, cumulative incidence functions may be used to estimate the time-dependent cumulative probability of failure due to specific causes. These functions are commonly estimated using nonparametric methods, but in cases where events due to the cause of primary interest are infrequent relative to other modes of failure, nonparametric methods may result in rather imprecise estimates for the corresponding subdistribution. In such cases, it may be possible to model the cause-specific hazard of primary interest parametrically, while accounting for the other modes of failure using nonparametric estimators. The cumulative incidence estimators so obtained are simple to compute and are considerably more efficient than the usual nonparametric estimator, particularly with regard to interpolation of cumulative incidence at early or intermediate time points within the range of data used to fit the function. More surprisingly, they are often nearly as efficient as fully parametric estimators. We illustrate the utility of this approach in the analysis of patients treated for early stage breast cancer.

  11. Incidence and prevalence of patellofemoral pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Selfe, James; Thacker, Damian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is considered one of the most common forms of knee pain, affecting adults, adolescents, and physically active populations. Inconsistencies in reported incidence and prevalence exist and in relation to the allocation of healthcare and research funding, there is a cl......BACKGROUND: Patellofemoral pain is considered one of the most common forms of knee pain, affecting adults, adolescents, and physically active populations. Inconsistencies in reported incidence and prevalence exist and in relation to the allocation of healthcare and research funding....... If heterogeneous, data were analysed descriptively. Where studies were homogeneous, data were pooled through a meta-analysis. RESULTS: 23 studies were included. Annual prevalence for patellofemoral pain in the general population was reported as 22.7%, and adolescents as 28.9%. Incidence rates in military recruits...... ranged from 9.7-571.4/1,000 person-years, amateur runners in the general population at 1080.5/1,000 person-years and adolescents amateur athletes 5.1%-14.9% over 1 season. One study reported point prevalence within military populations as 13.5%. The pooled estimate for point prevalence in adolescents...

  12. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO GUILHERME C. M. DE CAMPOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results.

  13. Situational Awareness of Network System Roles (SANSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, Kelly M [ORNL; Reed, Joel W [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    In a large enterprise it is difficult for cyber security analysts to know what services and roles every machine on the network is performing (e.g., file server, domain name server, email server). Using network flow data, already collected by most enterprises, we developed a proof-of-concept tool that discovers the roles of a system using both clustering and categorization techniques. The tool's role information would allow cyber analysts to detect consequential changes in the network, initiate incident response plans, and optimize their security posture. The results of this proof-of-concept tool proved to be quite accurate on three real data sets. We will present the algorithms used in the tool, describe the results of preliminary testing, provide visualizations of the results, and discuss areas for future work. Without this kind of situational awareness, cyber analysts cannot quickly diagnose an attack or prioritize remedial actions.

  14. Second Hip Fracture: Incidence, Trends, and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Ramón; Pérez-Fernández, Elia; Crespí, Natalia; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Rodriguez Caravaca, Gil; Gil de Miguel, Angel; Carmona, Loreto

    2017-11-20

    Older persons who have suffered a hip fracture (HFx) are at increased risk of subsequent hip fractures. The cumulative incidence of a second hip fracture (SHFx) has been estimated in 8.4%; however, no studies have been carried out in our country, and the information on risk markers of SHFx is limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence, explore trends, and examine predictors of SHFx in a suburban population of Spain. An observational longitudinal retrospective study was performed in a universal health coverage setting (Alcorcón, 1999-2011). Data were obtained from the area hospital discharge database. Annual incidence of HFx was estimated over 100,000 population (general and persons with HFx), and median time to SHFx by Kaplan-Meier tables. Cox regression was used for the analysis of association between SHFx and baseline predictors, measured by hazard ratio (HR). Among the 3430 patients who suffered a first HFx in the study period, 255 (7.4%) experienced a SHFx (4.5% of men and 8.5% of women). Median time between the first and second HFx was 3.7 years (SD 3.2). Annual incidence of HFx in population over 45 was 290.5 per 100,000 inhabitants (131.03 in men and 433.11 in women). Annual incidence of SHFx among persons with a HFx was 956.7 per 100,000 (1052.1 in women and 595.5 in men). There was a decline trend along the study period with an annual reduction of 10.4% (95% CI 7.7-13.0%; p < 0.001) in both sexes. The following associations were found: female sex (HR 1.41, 95% CI 0.97-2.02), age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04), living in a nursing house (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.94), and moderate to severe liver disease (HR 4.96, 95% CI 1.23-20.06). In our environment the occurrence of a SHFx is 7.4%, three-fold risk compared to no previous HFx. Being woman, elderly, living in a nursing home, and having severe to moderate liver disease may be important predictors of a SHFx. There seems to be adequate time between the first and the SHFx for interventions

  15. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  16. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  17. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  18. Skin Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Spain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, A; Descalzo-Gallego, M A; Otero-Rivas, M M; Posada-García, C; Rodríguez-Pazos, L; Pastushenko, I; Marcos-Gragera, R; García-Doval, I

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe the incidence and mortality of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma in Spain. We performed a search of the MEDLINE and Embase databases and reviewed articles from the Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated and statistical heterogeneity was measured using the I(2) index. A random-effects model was used to perform the meta-analysis because of the heterogeneity of the data. Thirty-two papers were included in the systematic review. The crude incidence rate for basal cell carcinoma was 113.05 (95% CI, 89.03-137.08) cases per 100 000 person-years for the studies based on the registration methodology normally used by registries (in which only 1 tumor with histological confirmation is counted per person). However, the same incidence rate calculated on the basis of clinical and histologic criteria and counting tumors rather than individual patients was 253.23 (95% CI, 273.01-269.45) cases per 100 000 person-years. The incidence was 38.16 (95% CI, 31.72-39.97) cases per 100 000 person-years for squamous cell carcinoma, 8.76 (95% CI, 7.50-10.02) cases per 100 000 person-years for melanoma, and 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15-0.40) cases per 100 000 person-years for Merkel cell carcinoma. The registration methodology normally used by cancer registries probably underestimates the incidence rates of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma in Spain. The incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma are lower in Spain than in other European countries. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV viremia and incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients successfully treated with antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Chad J; Buchanan, Ashley L; Cole, Stephen R; Hou, Lifang; Mugavero, Michael J; Crane, Heidi M; Moore, Richard D; Haubrich, Richard H; Gopal, Satish; Eron, Joseph J; Hunt, Peter W; Rodriguez, Benigno; Mayer, Kenneth; Saag, Michael S; Kitahata, Mari M

    2014-06-01

    The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients remains high despite treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated NHL incidence in HIV-infected patients followed in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems who started combination ART and achieved suppression of HIV. We estimated the hazard ratio for NHL by time-varying HIV viremia categories, accounting for time-varying CD4 cell count using marginal structural models. We observed 37 incident NHL diagnoses during 21 607 person-years of follow-up in 6036 patients (incidence rate, 171 per 100 000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 124-236). NHL incidence was high even among patients with nadir CD4 cell count >200 cells/µL (140 per 100 000 person-years [95% CI, 80-247]). Compared with ≤50 copies/mL, hazard ratios (HRs) for NHL were higher among those with HIV viremia of 51-500 copies/mL (HR current = 1.66 [95% CI, .70-3.94]; HR 3-month lagged = 2.10 [95% CI, .84-5.22]; and HR 6-month lagged = 1.46 [95% CI, .60-3.60]) and >500 copies/mL (HR current = 2.39 [95% CI, .92-6.21]; HR 3-month lagged = 3.56 [95% CI, 1.21-10.49]; and HR 6-month lagged = 2.50 [95% CI, .91-6.84]). Current HIV RNA as a continuous variable was also associated with NHL (HR = 1.42 per log10 copies/mL [95% CI, 1.05-1.92]). Our findings demonstrate a high incidence of NHL among HIV-infected patients on ART and suggest a role of HIV viremia in the pathogenesis of NHL. Earlier initiation of potent ART and maximal continuous suppression of HIV viremia may further reduce NHL risk.

  20. Incidence of anal cancer in California: increased incidence among men in San Francisco, 1973-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Rosemary D; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2003-05-01

    Incidence of anal cancer has increased in the United States during the past 30 years. This report describes the incidence of this rare cancer in the diverse California population. Age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) were calculated by gender, race/ethnicity, county, and year of diagnosis for over 2100 cases of cancer of the anus diagnosed between 1995 and 1999. Age-adjusted incidence rates by time period 1973-1999 were calculated for San Francisco County. Age-adjusted incidence was higher for women than for men (AAIR 1.5 vs 1.2) in California, but men under age 40 and those classified as non-Hispanic Black had higher rates than women, and men had higher rates in San Francisco County (AAIR=8.7). Rates were higher among non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites than among Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islanders. For all of California, there was an average 2% annual increase among non-Hispanic White men between 1988 and 1999. Incidence of this cancer among White males residing in San Francisco County more than doubled between the 1984-1990 and 1996-1999 time periods. Rates rose especially dramatically for San Francisco men ages 40 to 64, from 3.7 cases per 100,000 in 1973-1978 to 8.6 cases per 100,000 in 1984-1990 and to 20.6 cases per 100,000 in 1996-1999. Elevated incidence of anal cancer among White men residing in San Francisco County is likely to be related to the high proportion of men who have sex with men. Rates of anal cancer in this high-risk population increased during the past decade.