WorldWideScience

Sample records for network based energy

  1. Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Modelling Based on Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lin; Wu, Fahui; Yang, Dingcheng; Zhang, Tiankui; Zhu, Xiaoya

    2016-01-01

    The power consumption and energy efficiency of wireless sensor network are the significant problems in Internet of Things network. In this paper, we consider the network topology optimization based on complex network theory to solve the energy efficiency problem of WSN. We propose the energy efficient model of WSN according to the basic principle of small world from complex networks. Small world network has clustering features that are similar to that of the rules of the network but also has ...

  2. Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network Modelling Based on Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The power consumption and energy efficiency of wireless sensor network are the significant problems in Internet of Things network. In this paper, we consider the network topology optimization based on complex network theory to solve the energy efficiency problem of WSN. We propose the energy efficient model of WSN according to the basic principle of small world from complex networks. Small world network has clustering features that are similar to that of the rules of the network but also has similarity to random networks of small average path length. It can be utilized to optimize the energy efficiency of the whole network. Optimal number of multiple sink nodes of the WSN topology is proposed for optimizing energy efficiency. Then, the hierarchical clustering analysis is applied to implement this clustering of the sensor nodes and pick up the sink nodes from the sensor nodes as the clustering head. Meanwhile, the update method is proposed to determine the sink node when the death of certain sink node happened which can cause the paralysis of network. Simulation results verify the energy efficiency of the proposed model and validate the updating of the sink nodes to ensure the normal operation of the WSN.

  3. ENERGY AWARE NETWORK: BAYESIAN BELIEF NETWORKS BASED DECISION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Chaudhari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A Network Management System (NMS plays a very important role in managing an ever-evolving telecommunication network. Generally an NMS monitors & maintains the health of network elements. The growing size of the network warrants extra functionalities from the NMS. An NMS provides all kinds of information about networks which can be used for other purposes apart from monitoring & maintaining networks like improving QoS & saving energy in the network. In this paper, we add another dimension to NMS services, namely, making an NMS energy aware. We propose a Decision Management System (DMS framework which uses a machine learning technique called Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, to make the NMS energy aware. The DMS is capable of analysing and making control decisions based on network traffic. We factor in the cost of rerouting and power saving per port. Simulations are performed on standard network topologies, namely, ARPANet and IndiaNet. It is found that ~2.5-6.5% power can be saved.

  4. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  5. Complex networks-based energy-efficient evolution model for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hailin; Luo Hong; Peng Haipeng; Li Lixiang; Luo Qun

    2009-01-01

    Based on complex networks theory, we present two self-organized energy-efficient models for wireless sensor networks in this paper. The first model constructs the wireless sensor networks according to the connectivity and remaining energy of each sensor node, thus it can produce scale-free networks which have a performance of random error tolerance. In the second model, we not only consider the remaining energy, but also introduce the constraint of links to each node. This model can make the energy consumption of the whole network more balanced. Finally, we present the numerical experiments of the two models.

  6. Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme For Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Sohini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN has emerged as an important supplement to the modern wireless communication systems due to its wide range of applications. The recent researches are facing the various challenges of the sensor network more gracefully. However, energy efficiency has still remained a matter of concern for the researches. Meeting the countless security needs, timely data delivery and taking a quick action, efficient route selection and multi-path routing etc. can only be achieved at the cost of energy. Hierarchical routing is more useful in this regard. The proposed algorithm Energy Aware Cluster Based Routing Scheme (EACBRS aims at conserving energy with the help of hierarchical routing by calculating the optimum number of cluster heads for the network, selecting energy-efficient route to the sink and by offering congestion control. Simulation results prove that EACBRS performs better than existing hierarchical routing algorithms like Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering (DEEC algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks and Energy Efficient Heterogeneous Clustered scheme for Wireless Sensor Network (EEHC.

  7. Prediction Based Energy Balancing Forwarding in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent cellular network technologies, relay stations extend cell coverage and enhance signal strength for mobile users. However, busy traffic makes the relay stations in hot area run out of energy quickly. Energy is a very important factor in the forwarding of cellular network since mobile users(cell phones in hot cells often suffer from low throughput due to energy lack problems. In many situations, the energy lack problems take place because the energy loading is not balanced. In this paper, we present a prediction based forwarding algorithm to let a mobile node dynamically select the next relay station with highest potential energy capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that a relay station only maintains three past status, and then it is able to predict the potential energy capacity. Then, the node selects the next hop with potential maximal energy. Moreover, a location based algorithm is developed to let the mobile node figure out the target region in order to avoid flooding. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increase the aggregate throughput and decrease the delay in cellular network environment.

  8. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Ant Colony Optimization, a swarm intelligence based optimization technique, has been successfully used in network routing. In this paper, we introduce a heuristic way to reduce energy consumption in WSNs routing process using Ant Colony Optimization. We introduce three Ant Colony Optimization ...

  9. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yixue; Peng, Limei; Lu, Huimin; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif

    2017-07-10

    Body area networks (BANs) are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device's battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  10. Energy Harvesting Based Body Area Networks for Smart Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixue Hao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body area networks (BANs are configured with a great number of ultra-low power consumption wearable devices, which constantly monitor physiological signals of the human body and thus realize intelligent monitoring. However, the collection and transfer of human body signals consume energy, and considering the comfort demand of wearable devices, both the size and the capacity of a wearable device’s battery are limited. Thus, minimizing the energy consumption of wearable devices and optimizing the BAN energy efficiency is still a challenging problem. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an energy harvesting-based BAN for smart health and discuss an optimal resource allocation scheme to improve BAN energy efficiency. Specifically, firstly, considering energy harvesting in a BAN and the time limits of human body signal transfer, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem of time division for wireless energy transfer and wireless information transfer. Secondly, we convert the optimization problem into a convex optimization problem under a linear constraint and propose a closed-form solution to the problem. Finally, simulation results proved that when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is small, the proportion of energy consumed by the circuit and signal acquisition of the wearable devices is big, and when the size of data acquired by the wearable devices is big, the energy consumed by the signal transfer of the wearable device is decisive.

  11. Grid-Based Hybrid Network Deployment Approach for Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem Farman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN empower applications for critical decision-making through collaborative computing, communications, and distributed sensing. However, they face several challenges due to their peculiar use in a wide variety of applications. One of the inherent challenges with any battery operated sensor is the efficient consumption of energy and its effect on network lifetime. In this paper, we introduce a novel grid-based hybrid network deployment (GHND framework which ensures energy efficiency and load balancing in wireless sensor networks. This research is particularly focused on the merge and split technique to achieve even distribution of sensor nodes across the grid. Low density neighboring zones are merged together whereas high density zones are strategically split to achieve optimum balance. Extensive simulations reveal that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in terms of load balancing, network lifetime, and total energy consumption.

  12. Energy savings in mobile broadband network based on load predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samulevicius, Saulius; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The deployment of new network equipment is resulting in increasing energy consumption in mobile broadband networks (MBNs). This contributes to higher CO2 emissions. Over the last 10 years MBNs have grown considerably, and are still growing to meet the evolution in traffic volume carried...

  13. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks based on Ant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN's) have become an important and challenging research area in recent years. Wireless Sensor Networks consisting of nodes with limited power are deployed to gather useful information from the field. In WSNs it is critical to collect the information in an energy efficient manner. Ant Colony ...

  14. Evaluating airline energy efficiency: An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xin; Cui, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on evaluating airline energy efficiency, which is firstly divided into four stages: Operations Stage, Fleet Maintenance Stage, Services Stage and Sales Stage. The new four-stage network structure of airline energy efficiency is a modification of existing models. A new approach, integrated with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure, is applied to assess the overall energy efficiency and divisional efficiency of 19 international airlines from 2008 to 2014. The influencing factors of airline energy efficiency are analyzed through the regression analysis. The results indicate the followings: 1. The integrated model can identify the benchmarking airlines in the overall system and stages. 2. Most airlines' energy efficiencies keep steady during the period, except for some sharply fluctuations. The efficiency decreases mainly centralized in the year 2008–2011, affected by the financial crisis in the USA. 3. The average age of fleet is positively correlated with the overall energy efficiency, and each divisional efficiency has different significant influencing factors. - Highlights: • An integrated approach with Network Epsilon-based Measure and Network Slacks-based Measure is developed. • 19 airlines' energy efficiencies are evaluated. • Garuda Indonesia has the highest overall energy efficiency.

  15. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  16. Energy-Efficient Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks Based on Sleep Mode and Heuristic Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulai, Luis G. T.; Durand, Fábio R.; Abrão, Taufik

    2015-05-01

    In this article, an energy-efficiency mechanism for next-generation passive optical networks is investigated through heuristic particle swarm optimization. Ten-gigabit Ethernet-wavelength division multiplexing optical code division multiplexing-passive optical network next-generation passive optical networks are based on the use of a legacy 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network with the advantage of using only an en/decoder pair of optical code division multiplexing technology, thus eliminating the en/decoder at each optical network unit. The proposed joint mechanism is based on the sleep-mode power-saving scheme for a 10-gigabit Ethernet-passive optical network, combined with a power control procedure aiming to adjust the transmitted power of the active optical network units while maximizing the overall energy-efficiency network. The particle swarm optimization based power control algorithm establishes the optimal transmitted power in each optical network unit according to the network pre-defined quality of service requirements. The objective is controlling the power consumption of the optical network unit according to the traffic demand by adjusting its transmitter power in an attempt to maximize the number of transmitted bits with minimum energy consumption, achieving maximal system energy efficiency. Numerical results have revealed that it is possible to save 75% of energy consumption with the proposed particle swarm optimization based sleep-mode energy-efficiency mechanism compared to 55% energy savings when just a sleeping-mode-based mechanism is deployed.

  17. Energy Management for Community Energy Network with CHP Based on Cooperative Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Integrated energy system (IES has received increasing attention in micro grid due to the high energy efficiency and low emission of carbon dioxide. Based on the technology of combined heat and power (CHP, this paper develops a novel operation mechanism with community micro turbine and shared energy storage system (ESS for energy management of prosumers. In the proposed framework, micro-grid operator (MGO equipped with micro turbine and ESS provides energy selling business and ESS leasing business for prosumers. Prosumers can make energy trading with public grid and MGO, and ESS will be shared among prosumers when they pay for the rent to MGO. Based on such framework, we adopt a cooperative game for prosumers to determine optimal energy trading strategies from MGO and public grid for the next day. Concretely, a cooperative game model is formulated to search the optimal strategies aiming at minimizing the daily cost of coalition, and then a bilateral Shapley value (BSV is proposed to solve the allocation problem of coalition’s cost among prosumers. To verify the effectiveness of proposed energy management framework, a practical example is conducted with a community energy network containing MGO and 10 residential buildings. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to provide financial benefits to all prosumers, while providing peak load leveling for the grid.

  18. An energy-aware routing protocol for query-based applications in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahvar, Ehsan; Ahvar, Shohreh; Lee, Gyu Myoung; Crespi, Noel

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP) for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  19. Energy Cooperation in Ultradense Network Powered by Renewable Energy Based on Cluster and Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhong Duo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method about renewable energy cooperation among small base stations (SBSs is proposed, which is for maximizing the energy efficiency in ultradense network (UDN. In UDN each SBS is equipped with energy harvesting (EH unit, and the energy arrival times are modeled as a Poisson counting process. Firstly, SBSs of large traffic demands are selected as the clustering centers, and then all SBSs are clustered using dynamic k-means algorithm. Secondly, SBSs coordinate their renewable energy within each formed cluster. The process of energy cooperation among SBSs is considered as Markov decision process. Q-learning algorithm is utilized to optimize energy cooperation. In the algorithm there are four different actions and their corresponding reward functions. Q-learning explores the action as much as possible and predicts better action by calculating reward. In addition, ε greedy policy is used to ensure the algorithm convergence. Finally, simulation results show that the new method reduces data dimension and improves calculation speed, which furthermore improves the utilization of renewable energy and promotes the performance of UDN. Through online optimization, the proposed method can significantly improve the energy utilization rate and data transmission rate.

  20. Energy efficiency analysis for flexible-grid OFDM-based optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    As the Internet traffic grows, the energy efficiency gains more attention as a design factor for the planning and operation of telecommunication networks. This paper is devoted to the study of energy efficiency in optical transport networks, comparing the performance of an innovative flexible......-aware heuristic algorithms are proposed for the resource allocation both in static (offline) and dynamic (online) scenarios with time-varying demands for the Elastic-bandwidth OFDM-based network and the WDM networks (with SLR and MLR). The energy efficiency performance of the two network technologies under...... different traffic load conditions have been demonstrated for different network sizes through simulations based on the proposed algorithms. The results in energy efficiency and network blocking highlight the benefits of the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats...

  1. The Energy Coding of a Structural Neural Network Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Wang, Rubin; Zhu, Fengyun

    2018-01-01

    Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the present study established a fully connected structural neural network to simulate the neural activity and energy consumption of the network by neural energy coding theory. The numerical simulation result showed that the periodicity of the network energy distribution was positively correlated to the number of neurons and coupling strength, but negatively correlated to signal transmitting delay. Moreover, a relationship was established between the energy distribution feature and the synchronous oscillation of the neural network, which showed that when the proportion of negative energy in power consumption curve was high, the synchronous oscillation of the neural network was apparent. In addition, comparison with the simulation result of structural neural network based on the Wang-Zhang biophysical model of neurons showed that both models were essentially consistent.

  2. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Young; Seo, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2018-01-04

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.

  3. Counter-Based Broadcast Scheme Considering Reachability, Network Density, and Energy Efficiency for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network (WSN is emerging as an innovative method for gathering information that will significantly improve the reliability and efficiency of infrastructure systems. Broadcast is a common method to disseminate information in WSNs. A variety of counter-based broadcast schemes have been proposed to mitigate the broadcast-storm problems, using the count threshold value and a random access delay. However, because of the limited propagation of the broadcast-message, there exists a trade-off in a sense that redundant retransmissions of the broadcast-message become low and energy efficiency of a node is enhanced, but reachability become low. Therefore, it is necessary to study an efficient counter-based broadcast scheme that can dynamically adjust the random access delay and count threshold value to ensure high reachability, low redundant of broadcast-messages, and low energy consumption of nodes. Thus, in this paper, we first measure the additional coverage provided by a node that receives the same broadcast-message from two neighbor nodes, in order to achieve high reachability with low redundant retransmissions of broadcast-messages. Second, we propose a new counter-based broadcast scheme considering the size of the additional coverage area, distance between the node and the broadcasting node, remaining battery of the node, and variations of the node density. Finally, we evaluate performance of the proposed scheme compared with the existing counter-based broadcast schemes. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes in terms of saved rebroadcasts, reachability, and total energy consumption.

  4. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  5. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Ahvar

    2014-01-01

    attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, energy saving protocols are not necessarily good at balancing energy consumption and energy balancing protocols are not always good at reducing energy consumption. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol (ERP for query-based applications in WSNs, which offers a good trade-off between traditional energy balancing and energy saving objectives and supports a soft real time packet delivery. This is achieved by means of fuzzy sets and learning automata techniques along with zonal broadcasting to decrease total energy consumption.

  6. Residual energy level based clustering routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xu; Zhong, Fangming; Chen, Zhikui; Yang, Deli

    2015-12-01

    The wireless sensor networks, which nodes prone to premature death, with unbalanced energy consumption and a short life time, influenced the promotion and application of this technology in internet of things in agriculture. This paper proposes a clustering routing protocol based on the residual energy level (RELCP). RELCP includes three stages: the selection of cluster head, establishment of cluster and data transmission. RELCP considers the remaining energy level and distance to base station, while election of cluster head nodes and data transmitting. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol can efficiently balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  7. Energy neutral protocol based on hierarchical routing techniques for energy harvesting wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Umar B.; Ezugwu, Absalom E.; Ofem, Paulinus O.; Rajamäki, Jyri; Aderemi, Adewumi O.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, researchers in the field of wireless sensor networks have resorted to energy harvesting techniques that allows energy to be harvested from the ambient environment to power sensor nodes. Using such Energy harvesting techniques together with proper routing protocols, an Energy Neutral state can be achieved so that sensor nodes can run perpetually. In this paper, we propose an Energy Neutral LEACH routing protocol which is an extension to the traditional LEACH protocol. The goal of the proposed protocol is to use Gateway node in each cluster so as to reduce the data transmission ranges of cluster head nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol achieves a higher throughput and ensure the energy neutral status of the entire network.

  8. A Centralized Energy Efficient Distance Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit D. Gawade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN typically consists of a large number of low cost wireless sensor nodes which collect and send various messages to a base station (BS. WSN nodes are small battery powered devices having limited energy resources. Replacement of such energy resources is not easy for thousands of nodes as they are inaccessible to users after their deployment. This generates a requirement of energy efficient routing protocol for increasing network lifetime while minimizing energy consumption. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH is a widely used classic clustering algorithm in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Distance (CEED based routing protocol to evenly distribute energy dissipation among all sensor nodes. We calculate optimum number of cluster heads based on LEACH’s energy dissipation model. We propose a distributed cluster head selection algorithm based on dissipated energy of a node and its distance to BS. Moreover, we extend our protocol by multihop routing scheme to reduce energy dissipated by nodes located far away from base station. The performance of CEED is compared with other protocols such as LEACH and LEACH with Distance Based Thresholds (LEACH-DT. Simulation results show that CEED is more energy efficient as compared to other protocols. Also it improves the network lifetime and stability period over the other protocols.

  9. EDOVE: Energy and Depth Variance-Based Opportunistic Void Avoidance Scheme for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouk, Safdar Hussain; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Park, Kyung-Joon; Eun, Yongsoon

    2017-09-26

    Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network (UASN) comes with intrinsic constraints because it is deployed in the aquatic environment and uses the acoustic signals to communicate. The examples of those constraints are long propagation delay, very limited bandwidth, high energy cost for transmission, very high signal attenuation, costly deployment and battery replacement, and so forth. Therefore, the routing schemes for UASN must take into account those characteristics to achieve energy fairness, avoid energy holes, and improve the network lifetime. The depth based forwarding schemes in literature use node's depth information to forward data towards the sink. They minimize the data packet duplication by employing the holding time strategy. However, to avoid void holes in the network, they use two hop node proximity information. In this paper, we propose the Energy and Depth variance-based Opportunistic Void avoidance (EDOVE) scheme to gain energy balancing and void avoidance in the network. EDOVE considers not only the depth parameter, but also the normalized residual energy of the one-hop nodes and the normalized depth variance of the second hop neighbors. Hence, it avoids the void regions as well as balances the network energy and increases the network lifetime. The simulation results show that the EDOVE gains more than 15 % packet delivery ratio, propagates 50 % less copies of data packet, consumes less energy, and has more lifetime than the state of the art forwarding schemes.

  10. A Distance-based Energy Aware Routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Shu, Lei; Niu, Yu; Lee, Sungyoung

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

  11. A Distance-Based Energy Aware Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungyoung Lee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms.

  12. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Shelly; Moh, Sangman

    2016-06-30

    A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN) is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD) scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  13. An Energy-Efficient Game-Theory-Based Spectrum Decision Scheme for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Salim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN is a wireless sensor network in which sensor nodes are equipped with cognitive radio. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient game-theory-based spectrum decision (EGSD scheme for CRSNs to prolong the network lifetime. Note that energy efficiency is the most important design consideration in CRSNs because it determines the network lifetime. The central part of the EGSD scheme consists of two spectrum selection algorithms: random selection and game-theory-based selection. The EGSD scheme also includes a clustering algorithm, spectrum characterization with a Markov chain, and cluster member coordination. Our performance study shows that EGSD outperforms the existing popular framework in terms of network lifetime and coordination overhead.

  14. Price-based Energy Control for V2G Networks in the Industrial Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis and global warming call for a new industrial revolution in production and distribution of renewable energy. Distributed power generation will be well developed in the new smart electricity distribution grid, in which robust power distribution will be the key technology. In this paper, we present a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G network for energy transfer, in which distributed renewable energy helps the power grid balance demand and supply. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs will act as transporters of electricity for distributed renewable energy dispatching. We formulate and analyze the V2G network within the theoretical framework of complex network. We also employ the generalized synchronization method to study the dynamic behavior of V2G networks. Furthermore, we develop a new price-based energy control method to stimulate the PHEV's behavior of charging and discharging. Simulation results indicate that the V2G network can achieve synchronization and each region is able to balance energy supply and demand through price-based control.

  15. Dynamic Hierarchical Energy-Efficient Method Based on Combinatorial Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuchao; Tang, Hongying; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhao, Qin; Yuan, Baoqing Li andXiaobing

    2017-07-19

    Routing protocols based on topology control are significantly important for improving network longevity in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Traditionally, some WSN routing protocols distribute uneven network traffic load to sensor nodes, which is not optimal for improving network longevity. Differently to conventional WSN routing protocols, we propose a dynamic hierarchical protocol based on combinatorial optimization (DHCO) to balance energy consumption of sensor nodes and to improve WSN longevity. For each sensor node, the DHCO algorithm obtains the optimal route by establishing a feasible routing set instead of selecting the cluster head or the next hop node. The process of obtaining the optimal route can be formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem. Specifically, the DHCO algorithm is carried out by the following procedures. It employs a hierarchy-based connection mechanism to construct a hierarchical network structure in which each sensor node is assigned to a special hierarchical subset; it utilizes the combinatorial optimization theory to establish the feasible routing set for each sensor node, and takes advantage of the maximum-minimum criterion to obtain their optimal routes to the base station. Various results of simulation experiments show effectiveness and superiority of the DHCO algorithm in comparison with state-of-the-art WSN routing algorithms, including low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED), genetic protocol-based self-organizing network clustering (GASONeC), and double cost function-based routing (DCFR) algorithms.

  16. An Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vimalarani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.

  17. An Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimalarani, C; Subramanian, R; Sivanandam, S N

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO) algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption.

  18. A decentralized fuzzy C-means-based energy-efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, Osama Moh'd

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network's lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  19. Cluster-based Dynamic Energy Management for Collaborative Target Tracking in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Wei Bi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A primary criterion of wireless sensor network is energy efficiency. Focused onthe energy problem of target tracking in wireless sensor networks, this paper proposes acluster-based dynamic energy management mechanism. Target tracking problem isformulated by the multi-sensor detection model as well as energy consumption model. Adistributed adaptive clustering approach is investigated to form a reasonable routingframework which has uniform cluster head distribution. Dijkstra’s algorithm is utilized toobtain optimal intra-cluster routing. Target position is predicted by particle filter. Thepredicted target position is adopted to estimate the idle interval of sensor nodes. Hence,dynamic awakening approach is exploited to prolong sleep time of sensor nodes so that theoperation energy consumption of wireless sensor network can be reduced. The sensornodes around the target wake up on time and act as sensing candidates. With the candidatesensor nodes and predicted target position, the optimal sensor node selection is considered.Binary particle swarm optimization is proposed to minimize the total energy consumptionduring collaborative sensing and data reporting. Experimental results verify that theproposed clustering approach establishes a low-energy communication structure while theenergy efficiency of wireless sensor networks is enhanced by cluster-based dynamic energymanagement.

  20. Energy Efficient Fuzzy Adaptive Verification Node Selection-Based Path Determination in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are supplied with limited energy resources and are usually installed in unattended and unfriendly environments. These networks are also highly exposed to security attacks aimed at draining the energy of the network to render it unresponsive. Adversaries launch counterfeit report injection attacks and false vote injection attacks through compromised sensor nodes. Several filtering solutions have been suggested for detecting and filtering false reports during the multi-hop forwarding process. However, almost all such schemes presuppose a conventional underlying protocol for data routing that do not consider the attack status or energy dissipation on the route. Each design provides approximately the equivalent resilience in terms of protection against compromised node. However, the energy consumption characteristics of each design differ. We propose a fuzzy adaptive path selection to save energy and avoid the emergence of favored paths. Fresh authentication keys are generated periodically, and these are shared with the filtering nodes to restrict compromised intermediate filtering nodes from the verification process. The scheme helps delay the emergence of hotspot problems near the base station and exhibits improved energy conserving behavior in wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme provides an extended network lifetime and better false data filtering capacity.

  1. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  2. Energy Efficient Clustering Based Network Protocol Stack for 3D Airborne Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Joshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of nodes densely deployed in ad hoc manner. Usually, most of the application areas of WSNs require two-dimensional (2D topology. Various emerging application areas such as airborne networks and underwater wireless sensor networks are usually deployed using three-dimensional (3D network topology. In this paper, a static 3D cluster-based network topology has been proposed for airborne networks. A network protocol stack consisting of various protocols such as TDMA MAC and dynamic routing along with services such as time synchronization, Cluster Head rotation, and power level management has been proposed for this airborne network. The proposed protocol stack has been implemented on the hardware platform consisting of number of TelosB nodes. This 3D airborne network architecture can be used to measure Air Quality Index (AQI in an area. Various parameters of network such as energy consumption, Cluster Head rotation, time synchronization, and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR have been analyzed. Detailed description of the implementation of the protocol stack along with results of implementation has been provided in this paper.

  3. Evaluation and prediction of solar radiation for energy management based on neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoshina, O. V.; Van Tai, Dinh

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there is a high rate of distribution of renewable energy sources and distributed power generation based on intelligent networks; therefore, meteorological forecasts are particularly useful for planning and managing the energy system in order to increase its overall efficiency and productivity. The application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in the field of photovoltaic energy is presented in this article. Implemented in this study, two periodically repeating dynamic ANS, that are the concentration of the time delay of a neural network (CTDNN) and the non-linear autoregression of a network with exogenous inputs of the NAEI, are used in the development of a model for estimating and daily forecasting of solar radiation. ANN show good productivity, as reliable and accurate models of daily solar radiation are obtained. This allows to successfully predict the photovoltaic output power for this installation. The potential of the proposed method for controlling the energy of the electrical network is shown using the example of the application of the NAEI network for predicting the electric load.

  4. An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Query-Based Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Ahvar; Shohreh Ahvar; Gyu Myoung Lee; Noel Crespi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) typically has energy consumption restriction. Designing energy-aware routing protocol can significantly reduce energy consumption in WSNs. Energy-aware routing protocols can be classified into two categories, energy savers and energy balancers. Energy saving protocols are used to minimize the overall energy consumed by a WSN, while energy balancing protocols attempt to efficiently distribute the consumption of energy throughout the network. In general terms, ener...

  5. An energy efficient multiple mobile sinks based routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Peijun; Ruan, Feng

    2018-03-01

    With the fast development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), more and more energy efficient routing algorithms have been proposed. However, one of the research challenges is how to alleviate the hot spot problem since nodes close to static sink (or base station) tend to die earlier than other sensors. The introduction of mobile sink node can effectively alleviate this problem since sink node can move along certain trajectories, causing hot spot nodes more evenly distributed. In this paper, we mainly study the energy efficient routing method with multiple mobile sinks support. We divide the whole network into several clusters and study the influence of mobile sink number on network lifetime. Simulation results show that the best network performance appears when mobile sink number is about 3 under our simulation environment.

  6. A Decentralized Fuzzy C-Means-Based Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Moh’d Alia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is a vital consideration when designing wireless networking protocols. In this paper, we propose a Decentralized Fuzzy Clustering Protocol, named DCFP, which minimizes total network energy dissipation to promote maximum network lifetime. The process of constructing the infrastructure for a given WSN is performed only once at the beginning of the protocol at a base station, which remains unchanged throughout the network’s lifetime. In this initial construction step, a fuzzy C-means algorithm is adopted to allocate sensor nodes into their most appropriate clusters. Subsequently, the protocol runs its rounds where each round is divided into a CH-Election phase and a Data Transmission phase. In the CH-Election phase, the election of new cluster heads is done locally in each cluster where a new multicriteria objective function is proposed to enhance the quality of elected cluster heads. In the Data Transmission phase, the sensing and data transmission from each sensor node to their respective cluster head is performed and cluster heads in turn aggregate and send the sensed data to the base station. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime, data delivery, and energy consumption compared to other well-known energy-efficient protocols.

  7. Promoting sustainable energy systems through networks. A framework for network design developed using the case of BASE (Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlup, M.

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to generate a framework for establishment of networks to promote sustainable energies and to evaluate the value of networking approaches for Sustainable Energies. Three fields of action had to be analysed and described to provide a full overview of the issues of concern for network design. These were defined as being general factors of success for networks, the definition of appropriate network objectives and the incorporation of demands and needs of the stake holders of a certain field of action. In addition, the framework conditions for the broad topic 'Sustainable Energies' was also analysed and discussed. The framework developed was established using a thorough analysis of the above-mentioned fields of action for BASE, the Basel Agency for Sustainable Energy. Building of trust is a prerequisite for network persistence. It is a slow process that involves different levels of trust. Contributing to successful establishment of trust are 'small wins', benefits that can be felt by participants at an early stage and personal contacts. Communication of the result of the network's activities externally is necessary to harvest PR- and image benefits often part of the motivation to join a network. Balanced inputs and outputs in a network by individual organisations and resource and power dependencies among participating organisations are further factors that influence network persistence. For BASE, a UNEP Collaborating Centre which wants to promote and facilitate investment in sustainable energy, accelerate market development and contribute to global climate protection, networking was recognised as a potential way to increase effectiveness as linking together actors of different levels of the value-chain of sustainable energy projects could help overcoming barriers slowing down investment in the new technologies. Different actors could make use of different specializations of the organisations involved in

  8. Lightweight Filter Architecture for Energy Efficient Mobile Vehicle Localization Based on a Distributed Acoustic Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-01-01

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving v...

  9. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  10. GAECH: Genetic Algorithm Based Energy Efficient Clustering Hierarchy in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Baranidharan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is the major issue which determines the lifetime of the network. The parameters chosen for clustering should be appropriate to form the clusters according to the need of the applications. Some of the well-known clustering techniques in WSN are designed only to reduce overall energy consumption in the network and increase the network lifetime. These algorithms achieve increased lifetime, but at the cost of overloading individual sensor nodes. Load balancing among the nodes in the network is also equally important in achieving increased lifetime. First Node Die (FND, Half Node Die (HND, and Last Node Die (LND are the different metrics for analysing lifetime of the network. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, Genetic Algorithm based Energy efficient Clustering Hierarchy (GAECH algorithm, is proposed to increase FND, HND, and LND with a novel fitness function. The fitness function in GAECH forms well-balanced clusters considering the core parameters of a cluster, which again increases both the stability period and lifetime of the network. The experimental results also clearly indicate better performance of GAECH over other algorithms in all the necessary aspects.

  11. An Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Vehicle Detection on Road Network Using Intention Numeration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Devasenapathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate.

  12. Adaptive Critic Neural Network-Based Terminal Area Energy Management and Approach and Landing Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, Katie

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) have different mission requirements than the Space Shuttle, which is used for benchmark guidance design. Therefore, alternative Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) and Approach and Landing (A/L) Guidance schemes can be examined in the interest of cost reduction. A neural network based solution for a finite horizon trajectory optimization problem is presented in this paper. In this approach the optimal trajectory of the vehicle is produced by adaptive critic based neural networks, which were trained off-line to maintain a gradual glideslope.

  13. Fuzzy-Logic Based Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Han, Dezhi; Wu, Huafeng; Zhou, Rundong

    2017-07-03

    Due to the high-energy efficiency and scalability, the clustering routing algorithm has been widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In order to gather information more efficiently, each sensor node transmits data to its Cluster Head (CH) to which it belongs, by multi-hop communication. However, the multi-hop communication in the cluster brings the problem of excessive energy consumption of the relay nodes which are closer to the CH. These nodes' energy will be consumed more quickly than the farther nodes, which brings the negative influence on load balance for the whole networks. Therefore, we propose an energy-efficient distributed clustering algorithm based on fuzzy approach with non-uniform distribution (EEDCF). During CHs' election, we take nodes' energies, nodes' degree and neighbor nodes' residual energies into consideration as the input parameters. In addition, we take advantage of Takagi, Sugeno and Kang (TSK) fuzzy model instead of traditional method as our inference system to guarantee the quantitative analysis more reasonable. In our scheme, each sensor node calculates the probability of being as CH with the help of fuzzy inference system in a distributed way. The experimental results indicate EEDCF algorithm is better than some current representative methods in aspects of data transmission, energy consumption and lifetime of networks.

  14. Fuzzy-Logic Based Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jun; Han, Dezhi; Wu, Huafeng; Zhou, Rundong

    2017-01-01

    Due to the high-energy efficiency and scalability, the clustering routing algorithm has been widely used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In order to gather information more efficiently, each sensor node transmits data to its Cluster Head (CH) to which it belongs, by multi-hop communication. However, the multi-hop communication in the cluster brings the problem of excessive energy consumption of the relay nodes which are closer to the CH. These nodes’ energy will be consumed more quickly than the farther nodes, which brings the negative influence on load balance for the whole networks. Therefore, we propose an energy-efficient distributed clustering algorithm based on fuzzy approach with non-uniform distribution (EEDCF). During CHs’ election, we take nodes’ energies, nodes’ degree and neighbor nodes’ residual energies into consideration as the input parameters. In addition, we take advantage of Takagi, Sugeno and Kang (TSK) fuzzy model instead of traditional method as our inference system to guarantee the quantitative analysis more reasonable. In our scheme, each sensor node calculates the probability of being as CH with the help of fuzzy inference system in a distributed way. The experimental results indicate EEDCF algorithm is better than some current representative methods in aspects of data transmission, energy consumption and lifetime of networks. PMID:28671641

  15. Implementation of Energy Efficiency Based on Time Scheduling to Improve Network Lifetime in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subono .

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ZigBee applications of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network (WSN with Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN can be integrated with e-health technology Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. WBAN are small size and can communicate quickly making it easier for people to obtain information accurately.WBAN has a variety of functions that can help human life. It can be used in the e-health, military and sports. WBAN has the potential to be the future of wireless communication solutions. WBAN use battery as its primary power source. WBAN has limited energy and must be able to save energy consumption in order to operate for a long time. In this study, we propose a method of time scheduling called cycle sleep period (CSP as WBAN solutions to save energy and improve energy efficiency. The CSP method is implemented in the real hardware testbed using sensor e-health includes temperature body and current sensor. We compared the performance of CSP method with duty cycle management (DCM time scheduling-based and without using time scheduling.From the measurement results, our proposed idea has decreasingenergy consumption. Keywords: WSN, LR-WPAN, WBAN, e-health, Time Scheduling

  16. gTBS: A green Task-Based Sensing for energy efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2016-09-08

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are widely used to sense and measure physical conditions for different purposes and within different regions. However due to the limited lifetime of the sensor\\'s energy source, many efforts are made to design energy efficient WSN. As a result, many techniques were presented in the literature such as power adaptation, sleep and wake-up, and scheduling in order to enhance WSN lifetime. These techniques where presented separately and shown to achieve some gain in terms of energy efficiency. In this paper, we present an energy efficient cross layer design for WSN that we named \\'green Task-Based Sensing\\' (gTBS) scheme. The gTBS design is a task based sensing scheme that not only prevents wasting power in unnecessary signaling, but also utilizes several techniques for achieving reliable and energy efficient WSN. The proposed gTBS combines the power adaptation with a sleep and wake-up technique that allows inactive nodes to sleep. Also, it adopts a gradient-oriented unicast approach to overcome the synchronization problem, minimize network traffic hurdles, and significantly reduce the overall power consumption of the network. We implement the gTBS on a testbed and we show that it reduces the power consumption by a factor of 20%-55% compared to traditional TBS. It also reduces the delay by 54%-145% and improves the delivery ratio by 24%-73%. © 2016 IEEE.

  17. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  18. Joint Resource Allocation of Spectrum Sensing and Energy Harvesting in an Energy-Harvesting-Based Cognitive Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive sensor (CS can transmit data to the control center in the same spectrum that is licensed to the primary user (PU when the absence of the PU is detected by spectrum sensing. However, the battery energy of the CS is limited due to its small size, deployment in atrocious environments and long-term working. In this paper, an energy-harvesting-based CS is described, which senses the PU together with collecting the radio frequency energy to supply data transmission. In order to improve the transmission performance of the CS, we have proposed the joint resource allocation of spectrum sensing and energy harvesting in the cases of a single energy-harvesting-based CS and an energy-harvesting-based cognitive sensor network (CSN, respectively. Based on the proposed frame structure, we have formulated the resource allocation as a class of joint optimization problems, which seek to maximize the transmission rate of the CS by jointly optimizing sensing time, harvesting time and the numbers of sensing nodes and harvesting nodes. Using the half searching method and the alternating direction optimization, we have achieved the sub-optimal solution by converting the joint optimization problem into several convex sub-optimization problems. The simulation results have indicated the predominance of the proposed energy-harvesting-based CS and CSN models.

  19. Discovery of intramolecular signal transduction network based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Ma

    Full Text Available A novel approach to reveal intramolecular signal transduction network is proposed in this work. To this end, a new algorithm of network construction is developed, which is based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation. A key feature of this approach is that direction information is specified after inferring protein residue-residue interaction network involved in the process of signal transduction. This enables fundamental analysis of the regulation hierarchy and identification of regulation hubs of the signaling network. A well-studied allosteric enzyme, E. coli aspartokinase III, is used as a model system to demonstrate the new method. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new approach is able to predict all the sites that have been experimentally proved to desensitize allosteric regulation of the enzyme. In addition, the signal transduction network shows a clear preference for specific structural regions, secondary structural types and residue conservation. Occurrence of super-hubs in the network indicates that allosteric regulation tends to gather residues with high connection ability to collectively facilitate the signaling process. Furthermore, a new parameter of propagation coefficient is defined to determine the propagation capability of residues within a signal transduction network. In conclusion, the new approach is useful for fundamental understanding of the process of intramolecular signal transduction and thus has significant impact on rational design of novel allosteric proteins.

  20. Energy Efficiency Performance Improvements for Ant-Based Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamu Murtala Zungeru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem for event gathering in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is the restricted communication range for each node. Due to the restricted communication range and high network density, event forwarding in WSNs is very challenging and requires multihop data forwarding. Currently, the energy-efficient ant based routing (EEABR algorithm, based on the ant colony optimization (ACO metaheuristic, is one of the state-of-the-art energy-aware routing protocols. In this paper, we propose three improvements to the EEABR algorithm to further improve its energy efficiency. The improvements to the original EEABR are based on the following: (1 a new scheme to intelligently initialize the routing tables giving priority to neighboring nodes that simultaneously could be the destination, (2 intelligent update of routing tables in case of a node or link failure, and (3 reducing the flooding ability of ants for congestion control. The energy efficiency improvements are significant particularly for dynamic routing environments. Experimental results using the RMASE simulation environment show that the proposed method increases the energy efficiency by up to 9% and 64% in converge-cast and target-tracking scenarios, respectively, over the original EEABR without incurring a significant increase in complexity. The method is also compared and found to also outperform other swarm-based routing protocols such as sensor-driven and cost-aware ant routing (SC and Beesensor.

  1. Analyzing energy consumption of wireless networks. A model-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Haidi

    2013-03-04

    During the last decades, wireless networking has been continuously a hot topic both in academy and in industry. Many different wireless networks have been introduced like wireless local area networks, wireless personal networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. If these networks want to have a long term usability, the power consumed by the wireless devices in each of these networks needs to be managed efficiently. Hence, a lot of effort has been carried out for the analysis and improvement of energy efficiency, either for a specific network layer (protocol), or new cross-layer designs. In this thesis, we apply model-based approach for the analysis of energy consumption of different wireless protocols. The protocols under consideration are: one leader election protocol, one routing protocol, and two medium access control protocols. By model-based approach we mean that all these four protocols are formalized as some formal models, more precisely, as discrete-time Markov chains (DTMCs), Markov decision processes (MDPs), or stochastic timed automata (STA). For the first two models, DTMCs and MDPs, we model them in PRISM, a prominent model checker for probabilistic model checking, and apply model checking technique to analyze them. Model checking belongs to the family of formal methods. It discovers exhaustively all possible (reachable) states of the models, and checks whether these models meet a given specification. Specifications are system properties that we want to study, usually expressed by some logics, for instance, probabilistic computer tree logic (PCTL). However, while model checking relies on rigorous mathematical foundations and automatically explores the entire state space of a model, its applicability is also limited by the so-called state space explosion problem -- even systems of moderate size often yield models with an exponentially larger state space that thwart their analysis. Hence for the STA models in this thesis, since there

  2. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Harold Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique.

  3. A Energy-Saving Path-Shared Protection Based on Diversity Network Coding for Multi-rate Multicast in WDM Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danling; Lv, Lei; Liu, Huanlin

    2017-08-01

    For improving the survivability and energy saving of multi-rate multicast, a novel energy-saving path-shared protection based on diversity network coding (EPP-DNC) for multi-rate multicast in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) mesh networks is proposed in the paper. In the EPP-DNC algorithm, diversity network coding on the source node for multi-rate multicast is adopted to reduce the coding energy consumption by avoiding network coding on the network's intermediate nodes. To decrease the transmission energy, shortest path shared based on heuristic is proposed to transmit the protection information for the request. To provision request's working paths efficiency, the working paths are routed on the preselected P-cycles with minimum required links and minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed EPP-DNC can save energy consumption and improve bandwidth utilization.

  4. Towards understanding the robustness of energy distribution networks based on macroscopic and microscopic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiming; Shi Benyun

    2012-01-01

    Supply disruptions on one node of a distribution network may spread to other nodes, and potentially bring various social and economic impacts. To understand the performance of a distribution network in the face of supply disruptions, it would be helpful for policy makers to quantitatively evaluate the robustness of the network, i.e., its ability of maintaining a supply–demand balance on individual nodes. In this paper, we first define a notion of network entropy to macroscopically characterize distribution robustness with respect to the dynamics of energy flows. Further, we look into how microscopic evaluation based on a failure spreading model helps us determine the extent to which disruptions on one node may affect the others. We take the natural gas distribution network in the USA as an example to demonstrate the introduced concepts and methods. Specifically, the proposed macroscopic and microscopic evaluations provide us a means of precisely identifying transmission bottlenecks in the U.S. interstate pipeline network, ranking the effects of supply disruptions on individual nodes, and planning geographically advantageous locations for natural gas storage. These findings can offer policy makers, planners, and network managers with further insights into emergency planning as well as possible design improvement. - Highlights: ► This paper evaluates distribution robustness by defining a notion of network entropy. ► The disruption impacts on individual node are evaluated by a failure spreading model. ► The robustness of the U.S. natural gas distribution network is studied. ► Results reveal pipeline bottlenecks, the node rank, and potential storage locations. ► Possible strategies for mitigating the impacts of supply disruptions are discussed.

  5. Energy Efficiency Comparison of MIMO-Based and Multihop Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G. Kanatas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs demand the implementation of energy-aware techniques and low-complexity protocols in all layers. Recently, a MIMO-based structure has been proposed to offer enhanced energy savings in WSNs. In this paper, we examine and compare MIMO-based WSN with a multihop transmission in terms of energy efficiency. The results depend on the network density, the channel conditions, and the distance to the destination node. We reach analytical expressions to calculate threshold values of these parameters, which determine the areas where the MIMO-based structure outperforms multihop transmission. Moreover, we present a detailed analysis of the dissipated power during a sensor node_s operation, to prove that as microelectronics develops, the MIMO-based architecture will outperform the equivalent multihop structure for most of the cases examined. Finally, we implement a simple cooperative node selection algorithm to achieve higher energy gains in the MIMO approach, and we examine how this algorithm affects the calculated thresholds.

  6. Energy Efficiency Comparison of MIMO-Based and Multihop Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravos George

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs demand the implementation of energy-aware techniques and low-complexity protocols in all layers. Recently, a MIMO-based structure has been proposed to offer enhanced energy savings in WSNs. In this paper, we examine and compare MIMO-based WSN with a multihop transmission in terms of energy efficiency. The results depend on the network density, the channel conditions, and the distance to the destination node. We reach analytical expressions to calculate threshold values of these parameters, which determine the areas where the MIMO-based structure outperforms multihop transmission. Moreover, we present a detailed analysis of the dissipated power during a sensor node_s operation, to prove that as microelectronics develops, the MIMO-based architecture will outperform the equivalent multihop structure for most of the cases examined. Finally, we implement a simple cooperative node selection algorithm to achieve higher energy gains in the MIMO approach, and we examine how this algorithm affects the calculated thresholds.

  7. Mobile Ad Hoc Network Energy Cost Algorithm Based on Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tareq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a collection of mobile nodes that dynamically form a temporary network without using any existing network infrastructure. MANET selects a path with minimal number of intermediate nodes to reach the destination node. As the distance between each node increases, the quantity of transmission power increases. The power level of nodes affects the simplicity with which a route is constituted between a couple of nodes. This study utilizes the swarm intelligence technique through the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm to optimize the energy consumption in a dynamic source routing (DSR protocol in MANET. The proposed algorithm is called bee DSR (BEEDSR. The ABC algorithm is used to identify the optimal path from the source to the destination to overcome energy problems. The performance of the BEEDSR algorithm is compared with DSR and bee-inspired protocols (BeeIP. The comparison was conducted based on average energy consumption, average throughput, average end-to-end delay, routing overhead, and packet delivery ratio performance metrics, varying the node speed and packet size. The BEEDSR algorithm is superior in performance than other protocols in terms of energy conservation and delay degradation relating to node speed and packet size.

  8. Energy-efficient networking solutions in cloud-based environments: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, F.A.; Lago, P.; Grosso, P.

    The energy consumed by data centers hosting cloud services is increasing enormously. This brings the need to reduce energy consumption of different components in data centers. In this work, we focus on energy efficiency of the networking component. However, how different networking solutions impact

  9. Energy efficient networking solutions in cloud-based environments: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh Moghaddam, F.; Lago, P.; Grosso, P.

    2015-01-01

    The energy consumed by data centers hosting cloud services is increasing enormously. This brings the need to reduce energy consumption of different components in data centers. In this work, we focus on energy efficiency of the networking component. However, how different networking solutions impact

  10. An energy-efficient underground localization system based on heterogeneous wireless networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yazhou; Chen, Cailian; Guan, Xinping; Yang, Qiuling

    2015-05-26

    A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners' should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  11. An Energy-Efficient Underground Localization System Based on Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A precision positioning system with energy efficiency is of great necessity for guaranteeing personnel safety in underground mines. The location information of the miners’ should be transmitted to the control center timely and reliably; therefore, a heterogeneous network with the backbone based on high speed Industrial Ethernet is deployed. Since the mobile wireless nodes are working in an irregular tunnel, a specific wireless propagation model cannot fit all situations. In this paper, an underground localization system is designed to enable the adaptation to kinds of harsh tunnel environments, but also to reduce the energy consumption and thus prolong the lifetime of the network. Three key techniques are developed and implemented to improve the system performance, including a step counting algorithm with accelerometers, a power control algorithm and an adaptive packets scheduling scheme. The simulation study and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and the implementation.

  12. Study on the energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical-network-units for next generation optical access network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yunxin; Jiang, Ning; Qiu, Kun; Xue, Chenpeng

    2014-12-01

    An energy-efficient scheme based on the interconnection of optical network unit (ONU) is introduced, which can significantly reduce the energy consumption of the low-traffic operation. The energy consumption model for the ONU-interconnected optical access network (OAN) based on the electronic switch (ES) technology is established, and the energy efficiency of the proposed scheme is analyzed and compared with that of the OAN using optical switch (OS). The simulation results demonstrate that the ONU-interconnected scheme can efficiently reduce the energy consumption of OAN, and it shows a good energy consumption performance under daily traffic model.

  13. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiwei; Su, Meirong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  14. A Survey of Energy Conservation Mechanisms for Dynamic Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Noor Enam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available WSN (Wireless Sensor Network is an emerging technology that has unlimited potential for numerous application areas including military, crisis management, environmental, transportation, medical, home/ city automations and smart spaces. But energy constrained nature of WSNs necessitates that their architecture and communicating protocols to be designed in an energy aware manner. Sensor data collection through clustering mechanisms has become a common strategy in WSN. This paper presents a survey report on the major perspectives with which energy conservation mechanisms has been proposed in dynamic cluster based WSNs so far. All the solutions discussed in this paper focus on the cluster based protocols only.We have covered a vast scale of existing energy efficient protocols and have categorized them in six categories. In the beginning of this paper the fundamentals of the energy constraint issues of WSNs have been discussed and an overview of the causes of energy consumptions at all layers of WSN has been given. Later in this paper several previously proposed energy efficient protocols of WSNs are presented.

  15. Adaptive Energy-Efficient Target Detection Based on Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengyue Zou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection is a widely used application for area surveillance, elder care, and fire alarms; its purpose is to find a particular object or event in a region of interest. Usually, fixed observing stations or static sensor nodes are arranged uniformly in the field. However, each part of the field has a different probability of being intruded upon; if an object suddenly enters an area with few guardian devices, a loss of detection will occur, and the stations in the safe areas will waste their energy for a long time without any discovery. Thus, mobile wireless sensor networks may benefit from adaptation and pertinence in detection. Sensor nodes equipped with wheels are able to move towards the risk area via an adaptive learning procedure based on Bayesian networks. Furthermore, a clustering algorithm based on k-means++ and an energy control mechanism is used to reduce the energy consumption of nodes. The extended Kalman filter and a voting data fusion method are employed to raise the localization accuracy of the target. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this new system with adaptive energy-efficient methods is able to achieve better performance than the traditional ones.

  16. Adaptive Energy-Efficient Target Detection Based on Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tengyue; Li, Zhenjia; Li, Shuyuan; Lin, Shouying

    2017-05-04

    Target detection is a widely used application for area surveillance, elder care, and fire alarms; its purpose is to find a particular object or event in a region of interest. Usually, fixed observing stations or static sensor nodes are arranged uniformly in the field. However, each part of the field has a different probability of being intruded upon; if an object suddenly enters an area with few guardian devices, a loss of detection will occur, and the stations in the safe areas will waste their energy for a long time without any discovery. Thus, mobile wireless sensor networks may benefit from adaptation and pertinence in detection. Sensor nodes equipped with wheels are able to move towards the risk area via an adaptive learning procedure based on Bayesian networks. Furthermore, a clustering algorithm based on k -means++ and an energy control mechanism is used to reduce the energy consumption of nodes. The extended Kalman filter and a voting data fusion method are employed to raise the localization accuracy of the target. The simulation and experimental results indicate that this new system with adaptive energy-efficient methods is able to achieve better performance than the traditional ones.

  17. Spectrum sensing algorithm based on autocorrelation energy in cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shengwei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shibing

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive radio networks have wide applications in the smart home, personal communications and other wireless communication. Spectrum sensing is the main challenge in cognitive radios. This paper proposes a new spectrum sensing algorithm which is based on the autocorrelation energy of signal received. By taking the autocorrelation energy of the received signal as the statistics of spectrum sensing, the effect of the channel noise on the detection performance is reduced. Simulation results show that the algorithm is effective and performs well in low signal-to-noise ratio. Compared with the maximum generalized eigenvalue detection (MGED) algorithm, function of covariance matrix based detection (FMD) algorithm and autocorrelation-based detection (AD) algorithm, the proposed algorithm has 2 11 dB advantage.

  18. Energy Saving Scheme Based On Traffic Forwarding For Optical Fiber Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, G. Arturo Rodes; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks.......We report on an energy saving block that regroups and powers off OLTs during low traffic periods, resulting in energy savings up to 87,5% in the central office of optical access networks....

  19. Energy Balance Routing Algorithm Based on Virtual MIMO Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are usually energy limited and therefore an energy-efficient routing algorithm is desired for prolonging the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a new energy balance routing algorithm which has the following three improvements over the conventional LEACH algorithm. Firstly, we propose a new cluster head selection scheme by taking into consideration the remaining energy and the most recent energy consumption of the nodes and the entire network. In this way, the sensor nodes with smaller remaining energy or larger energy consumption will be much less likely to be chosen as cluster heads. Secondly, according to the ratio of remaining energy to distance, cooperative nodes are selected to form virtual MIMO structures. It mitigates the uneven distribution of clusters and the unbalanced energy consumption of the whole network. Thirdly, we construct a comprehensive energy consumption model, which can reflect more realistically the practical energy consumption. Numerical simulations analyze the influences of cooperative node numbers and cluster head node numbers on the network lifetime. It is shown that the energy consumption of the proposed routing algorithm is lower than the conventional LEACH algorithm and for the simulation example the network lifetime is prolonged about 25%.

  20. Maximum Power Plus RSSI Based Routing Protocol for Bluetooth Low Energy Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsu Jung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy-conserving multihop routing protocol to maximize network lifetime and consume the battery in a distributed manner during route discovery in energy-constrained Bluetooth Low Energy ad hoc networks. Furthermore, a flooding avoidance approach is adopted by the proposed scheme to minimize the number of route request packets flooded. In addition, the proposed scheme maximizes network lifetime by using residual battery and RSSI as a route metric. The simulation results confirm that our proposed scheme has a surpassing performance with regard to network lifetime, evenly distributed battery consumption, and route discovery latency compared with the traditional on-demand routing protocol.

  1. A Centralized Detection of Sinkhole Attacks Based on Energy Level of the Nodes on Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Nilay Aydın

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks is consist of thousands of small and low-cost devices, which communicate over wireless medium. Due to locating in harsh environment and having limited resources, WSN is prone to various attacks. One of the most dangerous attacks threatening WSN is the sinkhole attack. In this paper, sinkhole attack is modelled on a cluster-based WSN, and a centralized detection algorithm based on the remaining energies of the nodes is proposed. The simulations were run for different values of energy thresholds and various numbers of nodes. The performance of the system was investigated over total energy consumption in the system, the number of packets arrived at base station and true detection rate of the sinkhole node(s. The results showed that the proposed method is energy-efficient and detects the malicious nodes with a 100% accuracy for all number of nodes.

  2. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks by using a fuzzy-based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrito, Salvatore; Nicolosi, Giuseppina

    2016-12-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks are characterized by a distributed architecture realized by a set of autonomous electronic devices able to sense data from the surrounding environment and to communicate among them. These devices are battery powered since they may be used even to monitor hazardous events in inaccessible areas. As a consequence, it is preferable to assure the adoption of energy management solutions in order to extend the WSN lifetime, as far as possible. Moreover, it is crucial to guarantee that the nodes receive the transmitted data correctly. It is clear that trading off power optimization and quality of service has become one the most important concerns when dealing with modern systems based on WSNs. This paper introduces a solution based on a Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) focusing on the minimization of energy consumption of wireless sensor nodes. This is made possible because the sleeping time of these nodes is dynamically regulated by a FLC.

  3. Prediction-Based Energy Saving Mechanism in 3GPP NB-IoT Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The current expansion of the Internet of things (IoT) demands improved communication platforms that support a wide area with low energy consumption. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project introduced narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) as IoT communication solutions. NB-IoT devices should be available for over 10 years without requiring a battery replacement. Thus, a low energy consumption is essential for the successful deployment of this technology. Given that a high amount of energy is consumed for radio transmission by the power amplifier, reducing the uplink transmission time is key to ensure a long lifespan of an IoT device. In this paper, we propose a prediction-based energy saving mechanism (PBESM) that is focused on enhanced uplink transmission. The mechanism consists of two parts: first, the network architecture that predicts the uplink packet occurrence through a deep packet inspection; second, an algorithm that predicts the processing delay and pre-assigns radio resources to enhance the scheduling request procedure. In this way, our mechanism reduces the number of random accesses and the energy consumed by radio transmission. Simulation results showed that the energy consumption using the proposed PBESM is reduced by up to 34% in comparison with that in the conventional NB-IoT method. PMID:28862675

  4. Prediction-Based Energy Saving Mechanism in 3GPP NB-IoT Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinseong; Lee, Jaiyong

    2017-09-01

    The current expansion of the Internet of things (IoT) demands improved communication platforms that support a wide area with low energy consumption. The 3rd Generation Partnership Project introduced narrowband IoT (NB-IoT) as IoT communication solutions. NB-IoT devices should be available for over 10 years without requiring a battery replacement. Thus, a low energy consumption is essential for the successful deployment of this technology. Given that a high amount of energy is consumed for radio transmission by the power amplifier, reducing the uplink transmission time is key to ensure a long lifespan of an IoT device. In this paper, we propose a prediction-based energy saving mechanism (PBESM) that is focused on enhanced uplink transmission. The mechanism consists of two parts: first, the network architecture that predicts the uplink packet occurrence through a deep packet inspection; second, an algorithm that predicts the processing delay and pre-assigns radio resources to enhance the scheduling request procedure. In this way, our mechanism reduces the number of random accesses and the energy consumed by radio transmission. Simulation results showed that the energy consumption using the proposed PBESM is reduced by up to 34% in comparison with that in the conventional NB-IoT method.

  5. Deployment strategy for battery energy storage system in distribution network based on voltage violation regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Zhou, L.; Xu, T.; Fang, W. L.; He, W. G.; Liu, H. M.

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve the situation of voltage violation caused by the grid-connection of photovoltaic (PV) system in a distribution network, a bi-level programming model is proposed for battery energy storage system (BESS) deployment. The objective function of inner level programming is to minimize voltage violation, with the power of PV and BESS as the variables. The objective function of outer level programming is to minimize the comprehensive function originated from inner layer programming and all the BESS operating parameters, with the capacity and rated power of BESS as the variables. The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solve the model. Based on distribution network operation scenarios with photovoltaic generation under multiple alternative output modes, the simulation results of IEEE 33-bus system prove that the deployment strategy of BESS proposed in this paper is well adapted to voltage violation regulation invariable distribution network operation scenarios. It contributes to regulating voltage violation in distribution network, as well as to improve the utilization of PV systems.

  6. IMPROVING THE TRANSMISSION PERFORMANCE BASED ON MINIMIZING ENERGY IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundala Swathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Networking is collectively no of mobile nodes allocate users to correctly detect a distant environment. These wireless mobile networks want strong but simple, scalable, energy efficient and also self organize routing algorithms. In Mobile technology small quantity of power electronics and less power radio frequency have permit the expansion of small, comparatively economical and less power nodes, are associated in a wireless mobile networkIn this study we proposed method are: energy effectiveness, energetic occurrence zone and multiple hop TRANSMIT, taking into concern between the energy of transmit nodes and distance from the transmit node to the trusted neighbor node, link weight energy utilization and distance are measured as most important constraint for decide on greatest possible path from Zone Head (ZH to the neighbor node. In this we use the different constraints and lessen the quantity of distribution messages during the Transmit node choice point to decrease the energy utilization of the complete network.

  7. Agent-based reactive power management of power distribution networks with distributed energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.; Mahmud, M.A.; Oo, A.M.T.; Pota, H.R.; Hossain, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A coordinated multi-agent system is proposed for reactive power management. • A linear quadratic regulator with a proportional integral controller is designed. • Proposed multi-agent scheme provides accurate estimation and control of the system. • Voltage stability is improved with proper power management for different scenarios. • Results obtained from the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional approach. - Abstract: In this paper, a new agent-based distributed reactive power management scheme is proposed to improve the voltage stability of energy distribution systems with distributed generation units. Three types of agents – distribution system agent, estimator agent, and control agent are developed within the multi-agent framework. The agents simultaneously coordinated their activities through the online information and energy flow. The overall achievement of the proposed scheme depends on the coordination between two tasks – (i) estimation of reactive power using voltage variation formula and (ii) necessary control actions to provide the estimated reactive power to the distribution networks through the distributed static synchronous compensators. A linear quadratic regulator with a proportional integrator is designed for the control agent in order to control the reactive component of the current and the DC voltage of the compensators. The performance of the proposed scheme is tested on a 10-bus power distribution network under various scenarios. The effectiveness is validated by comparing the proposed approach to the conventional proportional integral control approach. It is found that, the agent-based scheme provides excellent robust performance under various operating conditions of the power distribution network.

  8. An Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Aware Reinforcement Learning-Based Clustering Algorithm for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Ibrahim; Mohd Ali, Borhanuddin; Rasid, Mohd Fadlee A; Sali, Aduwati; Mohamad, Hafizal

    2015-08-13

    It is well-known that clustering partitions network into logical groups of nodes in order to achieve energy efficiency and to enhance dynamic channel access in cognitive radio through cooperative sensing. While the topic of energy efficiency has been well investigated in conventional wireless sensor networks, the latter has not been extensively explored. In this paper, we propose a reinforcement learning-based spectrum-aware clustering algorithm that allows a member node to learn the energy and cooperative sensing costs for neighboring clusters to achieve an optimal solution. Each member node selects an optimal cluster that satisfies pairwise constraints, minimizes network energy consumption and enhances channel sensing performance through an exploration technique. We first model the network energy consumption and then determine the optimal number of clusters for the network. The problem of selecting an optimal cluster is formulated as a Markov Decision Process (MDP) in the algorithm and the obtained simulation results show convergence, learning and adaptability of the algorithm to dynamic environment towards achieving an optimal solution. Performance comparisons of our algorithm with the Groupwise Spectrum Aware (GWSA)-based algorithm in terms of Sum of Square Error (SSE), complexity, network energy consumption and probability of detection indicate improved performance from the proposed approach. The results further reveal that an energy savings of 9% and a significant Primary User (PU) detection improvement can be achieved with the proposed approach.

  9. Energy conservation in wireless sensor networks: a rule-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, S.; Gaber, M.; Krishnaswamy, S.; Loke, S.

    2011-01-01

    The research reported in this paper addresses the problem of energy conservation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It proposes concepts and techniques to extract environmental information that are useful for controlling sensor operations, in order to enable sensor nodes to conserve their energy, and consequently prolong the network lifetime. These concepts and techniques are consolidated in a generic framework we term CASE: Context Awareness in Sensing Environments framework. CASE targets e...

  10. Game-Theory-Based Approach for Energy Routing in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June S. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small power plants and buildings with renewable power generation capability have recently been added to traditional central power plants. Through these facilities, prosumers appear to have a concurrent role in both energy production and consumption. Based on bidirectional power transfers by large numbers of prosumers, a smart microgrid has become an important factor in efficiently controlling the microgrids used in power markets and in conducting effective power trades among grids. In this paper, we present an approach utilizing the game theory for effective and efficient energy routing, which is a novel and challenging procedure for a smart microgrid network. First, we propose strategies for choosing the desired transaction price for both electricity surpluses and shortages to maximize profits through energy transactions. An optimization scheme is utilized to search for an energy route with minimum cost using the solving method used in a traditional transportation problem by treating the sale and purchase quantities as transportation supply and demand, respectively. To evaluate the effect of the proposed decision strategies, we simulated our mechanism, and the results proved that our mechanism yields results pursued by each strategy. Our proposed strategies will contribute to spreading a smart microgrid for enhancing the utilization of microgrids.

  11. Clustering-based energy-saving algorithm in ultra-dense network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junwei; Zhou, Pengguang; Teng, Deyang; Zhang, Renchi; Xu, Hao

    2017-06-01

    In Ultra-dense Networks (UDN), dense deployment of low power small base stations will cause serious small cells interference and a large amount of energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is to explore the method of reducing small cells interference and energy saving system in UDN, and we innovatively propose a sleep-waking-active (SWA) scheme. The scheme decreases the user outage causing by failure to detect users’ service requests, shortens the opening time of active base stations directly switching to sleep mode; we further proposes a Vertex Surrounding Clustering(VSC) algorithm, which first colours the small cells with the most strongest interference and next extends to the adjacent small cells. VSC algorithm can use the least colour to stain the small cell, reduce the number of iterations and promote the efficiency of colouring. The simulation results show that SWA scheme can effectively improve the system Energy Efficiency (EE), the VSC algorithm can reduce the small cells interference and optimize the users’ Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and throughput.

  12. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  13. Lightweight filter architecture for energy efficient mobile vehicle localization based on a distributed acoustic sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonwook

    2013-08-23

    The generic properties of an acoustic signal provide numerous benefits for localization by applying energy-based methods over a deployed wireless sensor network (WSN). However, the signal generated by a stationary target utilizes a significant amount of bandwidth and power in the system without providing further position information. For vehicle localization, this paper proposes a novel proximity velocity vector estimator (PVVE) node architecture in order to capture the energy from a moving vehicle and reject the signal from motionless automobiles around the WSN node. A cascade structure between analog envelope detector and digital exponential smoothing filter presents the velocity vector-sensitive output with low analog circuit and digital computation complexity. The optimal parameters in the exponential smoothing filter are obtained by analytical and mathematical methods for maximum variation over the vehicle speed. For stationary targets, the derived simulation based on the acoustic field parameters demonstrates that the system significantly reduces the communication requirements with low complexity and can be expected to extend the operation time considerably.

  14. Renewable energy export network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    A Renewable Energy Exporters Network (REEN) has recently been established, following a meeting of renewable energy exporters and government agencies on 30 October 2000. REEN will assist the Australian renewable energy industry to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the burgeoning global market for renewable energy goods and services. Recent estimates of the significant potential global growth is renewable energy demand have reinforced the industry and Government's view that, in the medium to long-term, growth in the Australian renewable energy industry will largely depend on capturing export market share. Expanding the export market was identified as a crucial component in the Renewable Energy Action Agenda, developed jointly by industry and Government and released in June 2000. It was estimated that, for the industry to achieve its vision of sales of $4 billion per year by 2010, exports would need to comprise approximately 50% of the forecast growth in sales. As such, the need for a specific export strategy for the Australian renewable energy industry was recognised in the Action Agenda, and the establishment of the REEN is one of the first initiatives undertaken as part of the Renewable Energy Export Strategy. The REEN comprises approximately 50 export-ready renewable energy companies, the Department of Industry, Science and Resources, Austrade, and Stage Government agencies such as NSW's Sustainable Energy Development Authority. The Export Network will operate electronically, with face-to-face meetings held as appropriate. The Department of Industry, Science and Resources will facilitate the Export Network and has published a website at www.isr.gov.au/industry/reen. The site includes: a members directory; a discussion forum; information on opportunities to showcase Australian renewable; energy products and services; and Iinks to sites containing information that may be useful to renewable energy exporters. Other actions that are being undertaken as

  15. A Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is the core issue of researching that how to prolong the lifetime of wireless sensor network. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a clustering protocol LEACH-PF, which is a multihop routing algorithm with energy potential field of divided clusters. In LEACH-PF, the network is divided into a number of subnetworks and each subnetwork has a cluster head. These clusters construct an intercluster routing tree according to the potential difference of different equipotential fields. The other member nodes of the subnetworks communicate with their cluster head directly, so as to complete regional coverage. The results of simulation show that LEACH-PF can reduce energy consumption of the network effectively and prolong the network lifetime.

  16. Energy-efficient ZigBee-based wireless sensor network for track bicycle performance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharghan, Sadik K; Nordin, Rosdiadee; Ismail, Mahamod

    2014-08-22

    In a wireless sensor network (WSN), saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD) algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  17. Energy-Efficient ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Track Bicycle Performance Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik K. Gharghan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, saving power is a vital requirement. In this paper, a simple point-to-point bike WSN was considered. The data of bike parameters, speed and cadence, were monitored and transmitted via a wireless communication based on the ZigBee protocol. Since the bike parameters are monitored and transmitted on every bike wheel rotation, this means the sensor node does not sleep for a long time, causing power consumption to rise. Therefore, a newly proposed algorithm, known as the Redundancy and Converged Data (RCD algorithm, was implemented for this application to put the sensor node into sleep mode while maintaining the performance measurements. This is achieved by minimizing the data packets transmitted as much as possible and fusing the data of speed and cadence by utilizing the correlation measurements between them to minimize the number of sensor nodes in the network to one node, which results in reduced power consumption, cost, and size, in addition to simpler hardware implementation. Execution of the proposed RCD algorithm shows that this approach can reduce the current consumption to 1.69 mA, and save 95% of the sensor node energy. Also, the comparison results with different wireless standard technologies demonstrate minimal current consumption in the sensor node.

  18. A Real Valued Neural Network Based Autoregressive Energy Detector for Cognitive Radio Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumanyi, A J; Onwuka, E N; Aibinu, A M; Ugweje, O C; Salami, M J E

    2014-01-01

    A real valued neural network (RVNN) based energy detector (ED) is proposed and analyzed for cognitive radio (CR) application. This was developed using a known two-layered RVNN model to estimate the model coefficients of an autoregressive (AR) system. By using appropriate modules and a well-designed detector, the power spectral density (PSD) of the AR system transfer function was estimated and subsequent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the detector generated and analyzed. A high detection performance with low false alarm rate was observed for varying signal to noise ratio (SNR), sample number, and model order conditions. The proposed RVNN based ED was then compared to the simple periodogram (SP), Welch periodogram (WP), multitaper (MT), Yule-Walker (YW), Burg (BG), and covariance (CV) based ED techniques. The proposed detector showed better performance than the SP, WP, and MT while providing better false alarm performance than the YW, BG, and CV. Data provided here support the effectiveness of the proposed RVNN based ED for CR application.

  19. An Energy Balancing Strategy Based on Hilbert Curve and Genetic Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingping Kong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network is a sensing system composed of a few or thousands of sensor nodes. These nodes, however, are powered by internal batteries, which cannot be recharged or replaced, and have a limited lifespan. Traditional two-tier networks with one sink node are thus vulnerable to communication gaps caused by nodes dying when their battery power is depleted. In such cases, some nodes are disconnected with the sink node because intermediary nodes on the transmission path are dead. Energy load balancing is a technique for extending the lifespan of node batteries, thus preventing communication gaps and extending the network lifespan. However, while energy conservation is important, strategies that make the best use of available energy are also important. To decrease transmission energy cost and prolong network lifespan, a three-tier wireless sensor network is proposed, in which the first level is the sink node and the third-level nodes communicate with the sink node via the service sites on the second level. Moreover, this study aims to minimize the number of service sites to decrease the construction cost. Statistical evaluation criteria are used as benchmarks to compare traditional methods and the proposed method in the simulations.

  20. Strategy on energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks based on life cycle cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Qiu, Zejing; Xu, Zhaoyang; Xiao, Chupeng

    2017-08-01

    Because the actual distribution network reconstruction project funds are often limited, the cost-benefit model and the decision-making method are crucial for distribution network energy saving reconstruction project. From the perspective of life cycle cost (LCC), firstly the research life cycle is determined for the energy saving reconstruction of distribution networks with multi-devices. Then, a new life cycle cost-benefit model for energy-saving reconstruction of distribution network is developed, in which the modification schemes include distribution transformers replacement, lines replacement and reactive power compensation. In the operation loss cost and maintenance cost area, the operation cost model considering the influence of load season characteristics and the maintenance cost segmental model of transformers are proposed. Finally, aiming at the highest energy saving profit per LCC, a decision-making method is developed while considering financial and technical constraints as well. The model and method are applied to a real distribution network reconstruction, and the results prove that the model and method are effective.

  1. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-12-02

    In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV) measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN) was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR) is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an energy efficient

  2. Energy Harvesting Chip and the Chip Based Power Supply Development for a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy harvesting chip was developed to scavenge energy from artificial light to charge a wireless sensor node. The chip core is a miniature transformer with a nano-ferrofluid magnetic core. The chip embedded transformer can convert harvested energy from its solar cell to variable voltage output for driving multiple loads. This chip system yields a simple, small, and more importantly, a battery-less power supply solution. The sensor node is equipped with multiple sensors that can be enabled by the energy harvesting power supply to collect information about the human body comfort degree. Compared with lab instruments, the nodes with temperature, humidity and photosensors driven by harvested energy had variation coefficient measurement precision of less than 6% deviation under low environmental light of 240 lux. The thermal comfort was affected by the air speed. A flow sensor equipped on the sensor node was used to detect airflow speed. Due to its high power consumption, this sensor node provided 15% less accuracy than the instruments, but it still can meet the requirement of analysis for predicted mean votes (PMV measurement. The energy harvesting wireless sensor network (WSN was deployed in a 24-hour convenience store to detect thermal comfort degree from the air conditioning control. During one year operation, the sensor network powered by the energy harvesting chip retained normal functions to collect the PMV index of the store. According to the one month statistics of communication status, the packet loss rate (PLR is 2.3%, which is as good as the presented results of those WSNs powered by battery. Referring to the electric power records, almost 54% energy can be saved by the feedback control of an energy harvesting sensor network. These results illustrate that, scavenging energy not only creates a reliable power source for electronic devices, such as wireless sensor nodes, but can also be an energy source by building an

  3. The research on spatial load forecasting model and method of electricity energy alternative based on cloud theory in distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Honglian; Li, Juan; Hu, Zhiyun; Li, Qingbo; Liu, Zifa; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The research on electrical energy alternative mainly focus on alternative energy potential, expanding strategy and benefit analysis due to lack of historical data. This paper presents the total spatial load forecasting model in distribution network based on the proposed electrical energy alternative development coefficient which is generated by electricity energy objective issued by governments. To deal with fuzzy and uncertain in load forecasting for electric boiler and heater, the cloud theory and the regularity in the process of electrical energy alternative popularization are used. The component of electrical alternative spatial load forecasting is presented in sequence. The proposed method is verified in a typical case.

  4. A Novel Scheme for an Energy Efficient Internet of Things Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Shalli; Talwar, Rajneesh; Malhotra, Jyoteesh; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Song, Houbing

    2015-01-01

    One of the emerging networking standards that gap between the physical world and the cyber one is the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, smart objects communicate with each other, data are gathered and certain requests of users are satisfied by different queried data. The development of energy efficient schemes for the IoT is a challenging issue as the IoT becomes more complex due to its large scale the current techniques of wireless sensor networks cannot be applied directly to the IoT. To achieve the green networked IoT, this paper addresses energy efficiency issues by proposing a novel deployment scheme. This scheme, introduces: (1) a hierarchical network design; (2) a model for the energy efficient IoT; (3) a minimum energy consumption transmission algorithm to implement the optimal model. The simulation results show that the new scheme is more energy efficient and flexible than traditional WSN schemes and consequently it can be implemented for efficient communication in the IoT. PMID:26569260

  5. A Novel Scheme for an Energy Efficient Internet of Things Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Shalli; Talwar, Rajneesh; Malhotra, Jyoteesh; Ahmed, Syed Hassan; Sarkar, Mahasweta; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-12

    One of the emerging networking standards that gap between the physical world and the cyber one is the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, smart objects communicate with each other, data are gathered and certain requests of users are satisfied by different queried data. The development of energy efficient schemes for the IoT is a challenging issue as the IoT becomes more complex due to its large scale the current techniques of wireless sensor networks cannot be applied directly to the IoT. To achieve the green networked IoT, this paper addresses energy efficiency issues by proposing a novel deployment scheme. This scheme, introduces: (1) a hierarchical network design; (2) a model for the energy efficient IoT; (3) a minimum energy consumption transmission algorithm to implement the optimal model. The simulation results show that the new scheme is more energy efficient and flexible than traditional WSN schemes and consequently it can be implemented for efficient communication in the IoT.

  6. A Novel Scheme for an Energy Efficient Internet of Things Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalli Rani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging networking standards that gap between the physical world and the cyber one is the Internet of Things. In the Internet of Things, smart objects communicate with each other, data are gathered and certain requests of users are satisfied by different queried data. The development of energy efficient schemes for the IoT is a challenging issue as the IoT becomes more complex due to its large scale the current techniques of wireless sensor networks cannot be applied directly to the IoT. To achieve the green networked IoT, this paper addresses energy efficiency issues by proposing a novel deployment scheme. This scheme, introduces: (1 a hierarchical network design; (2 a model for the energy efficient IoT; (3 a minimum energy consumption transmission algorithm to implement the optimal model. The simulation results show that the new scheme is more energy efficient and flexible than traditional WSN schemes and consequently it can be implemented for efficient communication in the IoT.

  7. An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zahid; Hussain, Sajjad; Javaid, Nadeem; Bouk, Safdar Hussain; Alrajeh, Nabil; Alabed, Mohamad Souheil; Guizani, Nadra

    2017-09-30

    Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (IUASNs) come with intrinsic challenges like long propagation delay, small bandwidth, large energy consumption, three-dimensional deployment, and high deployment and battery replacement cost. Any routing strategy proposed for IUASN must take into account these constraints. The vector based forwarding schemes in literature forward data packets to sink using holding time and location information of the sender, forwarder, and sink nodes. Holding time suppresses data broadcasts; however, it fails to keep energy and delay fairness in the network. To achieve this, we propose an Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding (ESEVBF) scheme. ESEVBF uses the residual energy of the node to scale and vector pipeline distance ratio to expand the holding time. Resulting scaled and expanded holding time of all forwarding nodes has a significant difference to avoid multiple forwarding, which reduces energy consumption and energy balancing in the network. If a node has a minimum holding time among its neighbors, it shrinks the holding time and quickly forwards the data packets upstream. The performance of ESEVBF is analyzed through in network scenario with and without node mobility to ensure its effectiveness. Simulation results show that ESEVBF has low energy consumption, reduces forwarded data copies, and less end-to-end delay.

  8. Wavelet based artificial neural network applied for energy efficiency enhancement of decoupled HVAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahedi, G.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In HVAC systems, temperature and relative humidity are coupled and dynamic mathematical models are non-linear. ► A wavelet-based ANN is used in series with an infinite impulse response filter for self tuning of PD controller. ► Energy consumption is evaluated for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow. ► Substantial enhancement in energy efficiency is realized, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned adaptively. - Abstract: Control methodologies could lower energy demand and consumption of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and, simultaneously, achieve better comfort conditions. However, the application of classical controllers is unsatisfactory as HVAC systems are non-linear and the control variables such as temperature and relative humidity (RH) inside the thermal zone are coupled. The objective of this study is to develop and simulate a wavelet-based artificial neural network (WNN) for self tuning of a proportional-derivative (PD) controller for a decoupled bi-linear HVAC system with variable air volume and variable water flow responsible for controlling temperature and RH of a thermal zone, where thermal comfort and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. To achieve the objective, a WNN is used in series with an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter for faster and more accurate identification of system dynamics, as needed for on-line use and off-line batch mode training. The WNN-IIR algorithm is used for self-tuning of two PD controllers for temperature and RH. The simulation results show that the WNN-IIR controller performance is superior, as compared with classical PD controller. The enhancement in efficiency of the HVAC system is accomplished due to substantially lower consumption of energy during the transient operation, when the gain coefficients of PD controllers are tuned in an adaptive manner, as the steady state setpoints for temperature and

  9. Neural Network based Control of SG based Standalone Generating System with Energy Storage for Power Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2017-08-01

    An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.

  10. Synergies between energy supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Jianzhnog; Yan, Jinyue; Desideri, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national lev...... and integration of local renewables including solar energy wind geothermal waste heat and biomass is presented.......Energy system integration uses a whole-system approach to optimize the synergies between energy supply networks to facilitate and coordinate the grid integration of distributed energy resources while enabling the synergies and conflicts between the local distribution networks and the national level...... objectives to be understood and optimally coordinated. The latest research on the network coupling technologies analysis of synergies between energy supply networks and optimal use of synergies in network operation is discussed. A diagram on the possible interactions between different energy networks...

  11. Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Service Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    We propose an energy-efficient service discovery protocol for wireless sensor networks. Our solution exploits a cluster overlay, where the clusterhead nodes form a distributed service registry. A service lookup results in visiting only the clusterhead nodes. We aim for minimizing the communication

  12. Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Service Discovery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin Perianu, Raluca; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2006-01-01

    We propose an energy-efficient service discovery protocol for wireless sensor networks. Our solution exploits a cluster overlay, where the clusterhead nodes form a distributed service registry. A service lookup results in visiting only the clusterhead nodes. We aim for minimizing the communication

  13. A Comparison of Energy Consumption Prediction Models Based on Neural Networks of a Bioclimatic Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R. Khosravani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption has been increasing steadily due to globalization and industrialization. Studies have shown that buildings are responsible for the biggest proportion of energy consumption; for example in European Union countries, energy consumption in buildings represents around 40% of the total energy consumption. In order to control energy consumption in buildings, different policies have been proposed, from utilizing bioclimatic architectures to the use of predictive models within control approaches. There are mainly three groups of predictive models including engineering, statistical and artificial intelligence models. Nowadays, artificial intelligence models such as neural networks and support vector machines have also been proposed because of their high potential capabilities of performing accurate nonlinear mappings between inputs and outputs in real environments which are not free of noise. The main objective of this paper is to compare a neural network model which was designed utilizing statistical and analytical methods, with a group of neural network models designed benefiting from a multi objective genetic algorithm. Moreover, the neural network models were compared to a naïve autoregressive baseline model. The models are intended to predict electric power demand at the Solar Energy Research Center (Centro de Investigación en Energía SOLar or CIESOL in Spanish bioclimatic building located at the University of Almeria, Spain. Experimental results show that the models obtained from the multi objective genetic algorithm (MOGA perform comparably to the model obtained through a statistical and analytical approach, but they use only 0.8% of data samples and have lower model complexity.

  14. Leasing-Based Performance Analysis in Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanzi; Xu, Jisheng

    2016-02-27

    In this paper, we consider an energy harvesting cognitive radio network (CRN), where both of primary user (PU) and secondary user (SU) are operating in time slotted mode, and the SU powered exclusively by the energy harvested from the radio signal of the PU. The SU can only perform either energy harvesting or data transmission due to the hardware limitation. In this case, the entire time-slot is segmented into two non-overlapping fractions. During the first sub-timeslot, the SU can harvest energy from the ambient radio signal when the PU is transmitting. In order to obtain more revenue, the PU leases a portion of its time to SU, while the SU can transmit its own data by using the harvested energy. According to convex optimization, we get the optimal leasing time to maximize the SU's throughput while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) of PU. To evaluate the performance of our proposed spectrum leasing scheme, we compare the utility of PU and the energy efficiency ratio of the entire networks in our framework with the conventional strategies respectively. The numerical simulation results prove the superiority of our proposed spectrum leasing scheme.

  15. Energy Analysis of Contention Tree-Based Access Protocols in Dense Machine-to-Machine Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vázquez-Gallego

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M area networks aim at connecting an M2M gateway with a large number of energy-constrained devices that must operate autonomously for years. Therefore, attaining high energy efficiency is essential in the deployment of M2M networks. In this paper, we consider a dense M2M area network composed of hundreds or thousands of devices that periodically transmit data upon request from a gateway or coordinator. We theoretically analyse the devices’ energy consumption using two Medium Access Control (MAC protocols which are based on a tree-splitting algorithm to resolve collisions among devices: the Contention Tree Algorithm (CTA and the Distributed Queuing (DQ access. We have carried out computer-based simulations to validate the accuracy of the theoretical models and to compare the energy performance using DQ, CTA, and Frame Slotted-ALOHA (FSA in M2M area networks with devices in compliance with the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer. Results show that the performance of DQ is totally independent of the number of contending devices, and it can reduce the energy consumed per device in more than 35% with respect to CTA and in more than 80% with respect to FSA.

  16. Neural Network Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Control with Quadratic Boost Converter for PMSG—Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Tiwari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN based maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy for wind energy conversion system (WECS implemented with a DC/DC converter. The proposed topology utilizes a radial basis function network (RBFN based neural network control strategy to extract the maximum available power from the wind velocity. The results are compared with a classical Perturb and Observe (P&O method and Back propagation network (BPN method. In order to achieve a high voltage rating, the system is implemented with a quadratic boost converter and the performance of the converter is validated with a boost and single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC. The performance of the MPPT technique along with a DC/DC converter is demonstrated using MATLAB/Simulink.

  17. Research on energy stock market associated network structure based on financial indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xian; An, Haizhong

    2018-01-01

    A financial market is a complex system consisting of many interacting units. In general, due to the various types of information exchange within the industry, there is a relationship between the stocks that can reveal their clear structural characteristics. Complex network methods are powerful tools for studying the internal structure and function of the stock market, which allows us to better understand the stock market. Applying complex network methodology, a stock associated network model based on financial indicators is created. Accordingly, we set threshold value and use modularity to detect the community network, and we analyze the network structure and community cluster characteristics of different threshold situations. The study finds that the threshold value of 0.7 is the abrupt change point of the network. At the same time, as the threshold value increases, the independence of the community strengthens. This study provides a method of researching stock market based on the financial indicators, exploring the structural similarity of financial indicators of stocks. Also, it provides guidance for investment and corporate financial management.

  18. CoCMA: Energy-Efficient Coverage Control in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Memetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chung Wang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSNs has drawn much attention in recent years. Given the limited energy for sensor nodes, it is critical to implement WSNs with energy efficiency designs. Sensing coverage in networks, on the other hand, may degrade gradually over time after WSNs are activated. For mission-critical applications, therefore, energy-efficient coverage control should be taken into consideration to support the quality of service (QoS of WSNs. Usually, coverage-controlling strategies present some challenging problems: (1 resolving the conflicts while determining which nodes should be turned off to conserve energy; (2 designing an optimal wake-up scheme that avoids awakening more nodes than necessary. In this paper, we implement an energy-efficient coverage control in cluster-based WSNs using a Memetic Algorithm (MA-based approach, entitled CoCMA, to resolve the challenging problems. The CoCMA contains two optimization strategies: a MA-based schedule for sensor nodes and a wake-up scheme, which are responsible to prolong the network lifetime while maintaining coverage preservation. The MA-based schedule is applied to a given WSN to avoid unnecessary energy consumption caused by the redundant nodes. During the network operation, the wake-up scheme awakens sleeping sensor nodes to recover coverage hole caused by dead nodes. The performance evaluation of the proposed CoCMA was conducted on a cluster-based WSN (CWSN under either a random or a uniform deployment of sensor nodes. Simulation results show that the performance yielded by the combination of MA and wake-up scheme is better than that in some existing approaches. Furthermore, CoCMA is able to activate fewer sensor nodes to monitor the required sensing area.

  19. Modeling and analysis of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling in wireless ad hoc sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yun Won; Hwang, Ho Young

    2010-01-01

    In sensor network, energy conservation is one of the most critical issues since sensor nodes should perform a sensing task for a long time (e.g., lasting a few years) but the battery of them cannot be replaced in most practical situations. For this purpose, numerous energy conservation schemes have been proposed and duty cycling scheme is considered the most suitable power conservation technique, where sensor nodes alternate between states having different levels of power consumption. In order to analyze the energy consumption of energy conservation scheme based on duty cycling, it is essential to obtain the probability of each state. In this paper, we analytically derive steady state probability of sensor node states, i.e., sleep, listen, and active states, based on traffic characteristics and timer values, i.e., sleep timer, listen timer, and active timer. The effect of traffic characteristics and timer values on the steady state probability and energy consumption is analyzed in detail. Our work can provide sensor network operators guideline for selecting appropriate timer values for efficient energy conservation. The analytical methodology developed in this paper can be extended to other energy conservation schemes based on duty cycling with different sensor node states, without much difficulty.

  20. Energy modelling in sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schmidt

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are one of the key enabling technologies for the vision of ambient intelligence. Energy resources for sensor nodes are very scarce. A key challenge is the design of energy efficient communication protocols. Models of the energy consumption are needed to accurately simulate the efficiency of a protocol or application design, and can also be used for automatic energy optimizations in a model driven design process. We propose a novel methodology to create models for sensor nodes based on few simple measurements. In a case study the methodology was used to create models for MICAz nodes. The models were integrated in a simulation environment as well as in a SDL runtime framework of a model driven design process. Measurements on a test application that was created automatically from an SDL specification showed an 80% reduction in energy consumption compared to an implementation without power saving strategies.

  1. Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks – Tabuk Flood Monitoring System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Babiker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency has been considered as the most important issue in wireless sensor networks. As in many applications, wireless sensors are scattered in a wide harsh area, where the battery replacement or charging will be quite difficult and it is the most important challenge. Therefore, the design of energy saving mechanism becomes mandatory in most recent research. In this paper, a new energy efficient clustered routing protocol is proposed: the proposed protocol is based on analyzing the data collected from the sensors in a base-station. Based on this analysis the cluster head will be selected as the one with the most useful data. Then, a variable time slot is specified to each sensor to minimize the transmission of repetitive and un-useful data. The proposed protocol Data-Based Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensors Networks (DCRP was compared with the famous energy efficient LEACH protocol and also with one of the recent energy efficient routing protocols named Position Responsive Routing Protocol (PRRP. DCRP has been used in monitoring the floods in Tabuk area –Saudi Arabia. It shows comparatively better results.

  2. Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Sato, Masahiro; Yarime, Masaru; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yu, Yadong; Kraines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a critical component of achieving sustainable development. In addition to the three aspects of promoting access, renewables, and efficiency, the dimension of resilience in energy systems should also considered. The implementation of resilient energy systems requires a quantitative understanding of the socio-economic practices underlying such systems. Specifically, in line with the increasing globalization of trade, there remains a critical knowledge gap on the link between embodied energy in the production and consumption of traded goods. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate the resilience of global energy systems through an examination of a diversity measure of global embodied electricity trade based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) networks. The significance of this research lies in its ability to utilize high resolution MRIO data sets in assessing the resilience of national energy systems. This research indicates that secure and responsible consumption requires the diversification of not only energy generation but also energy imports. This research will lay the ground for further research in the governance of resilience in global energy networks. - Highlights: • We examine the resilience of global embodied energy based on (MRIO) trade networks. • We propose a secure and responsible mode of thinking for national energy consumption. • Secure & responsible consumption requires diversity in energy generation and imports.

  3. Energy Efficiency of Ultra-Low-Power Bicycle Wireless Sensor Networks Based on a Combination of Power Reduction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kamel Gharghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most wireless sensor network (WSN applications, the sensor nodes (SNs are battery powered and the amount of energy consumed by the nodes in the network determines the network lifespan. For future Internet of Things (IoT applications, reducing energy consumption of SNs has become mandatory. In this paper, an ultra-low-power nRF24L01 wireless protocol is considered for a bicycle WSN. The power consumption of the mobile node on the cycle track was modified by combining adjustable data rate, sleep/wake, and transmission power control (TPC based on two algorithms. The first algorithm was a TPC-based distance estimation, which adopted a novel hybrid particle swarm optimization-artificial neural network (PSO-ANN using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI, while the second algorithm was a novel TPC-based accelerometer using inclination angle of the bicycle on the cycle track. Based on the second algorithm, the power consumption of the mobile and master nodes can be improved compared with the first algorithm and constant transmitted power level. In addition, an analytical model is derived to correlate the power consumption and data rate of the mobile node. The results indicate that the power savings based on the two algorithms outperformed the conventional operation (i.e., without power reduction algorithm by 78%.

  4. An Energy-Efficient and High-Quality Video Transmission Architecture in Wireless Video-Based Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Samei

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological progress in the fields of Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS and wireless communications and also the availability of CMOS cameras, microphones and small-scale array sensors, which may ubiquitously capture multimedia content from the field, have fostered the development of low-cost limited resources Wireless Video-based Sensor Networks (WVSN. With regards to the constraints of videobased sensor nodes and wireless sensor networks, a supporting video stream is not easy to implement with the present sensor network protocols. In this paper, a thorough architecture is presented for video transmission over WVSN called Energy-efficient and high-Quality Video transmission Architecture (EQV-Architecture. This architecture influences three layers of communication protocol stack and considers wireless video sensor nodes constraints like limited process and energy resources while video quality is preserved in the receiver side. Application, transport, and network layers are the layers in which the compression protocol, transport protocol, and routing protocol are proposed respectively, also a dropping scheme is presented in network layer. Simulation results over various environments with dissimilar conditions revealed the effectiveness of the architecture in improving the lifetime of the network as well as preserving the video quality.

  5. Optimal power allocation based on sum-throughput maximization for energy harvesting cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Zhu, Qi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, an optimal power allocation algorithm by maximizing the sum-throughput in energy harvesting cognitive radio networks is proposed. Under the causality constraints of the harvested energy by solar radiation, electromagnetic waves and so on in the two secondary users (SUs), and the interference constraint in the primary user (PU), the sum-throughput maximization problem is formulated. The algorithm decomposes the interference threshold constraint to the power upper bounds of the two SUs. Then, the power allocation problems of the two SUs can be solved by a directional water-filling algorithm (DWA) with the power upper bounds, respectively. The paper gives the algorithm steps and simulation results, and the simulation results verify that the proposed algorithm has obvious advantages over the other two algorithms.

  6. Neural Network Compensation Control for Output Power Optimization of Wind Energy Conversion System Based on Data-Driven Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the uncertainty of wind and because wind energy conversion systems (WECSs have strong nonlinear characteristics, accurate model of the WECS is difficult to be built. To solve this problem, data-driven control technology is selected and data-driven controller for the WECS is designed based on the Markov model. The neural networks are designed to optimize the output of the system based on the data-driven control system model. In order to improve the efficiency of the neural network training, three different learning rules are compared. Analysis results and SCADA data of the wind farm are compared, and it is shown that the method effectively reduces fluctuations of the generator speed, the safety of the wind turbines can be enhanced, the accuracy of the WECS output is improved, and more wind energy is captured.

  7. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of mobile broadband, mobile network operators (MNOs) are experiencing a continuous boost in network traffic. Some MNOs have stopped offering unlimited data plans, replacing them with a variety of data bundles. At the same time operators are looking at the different...... options for how to evolve their networks, allowing them to carry the expected increase in traffic. The best solution is generally selected based on two main criteria, performance and cost. However, pushed by a variety of environmental and energy challenges, MNOs are now also showing interest...... in understanding the impact that different options can have on the energy consumption of their networks. This paper investigates the possible energy gains of evolving a mobile network through a joint pico deployment and macro upgrade solution over a period of 8 years. Besides the network energy consumption, energy...

  8. Optimization based on benefit of regional energy suppliers of distributed generation in active distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xianxu; Li, Guodong; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of electricity market, distributed generation (DG) technology and related policies, regional energy suppliers are encouraged to build DG. Under this background, the concept of active distribution network (ADN) is put forward. In this paper, a bi-level model of intermittent DG considering benefit of regional energy suppliers is proposed. The objective of the upper level is the maximization of benefit of regional energy suppliers. On this basis, the lower level is optimized for each scene. The uncertainties of DG output and load of users, as well as four active management measures, which include demand-side management, curtailing the output power of DG, regulating reactive power compensation capacity and regulating the on-load tap changer, are considered. Harmony search algorithm and particle swarm optimization are combined as a hybrid strategy to solve the model. This model and strategy are tested with IEEE-33 node system, and results of case study indicate that the model and strategy successfully increase the capacity of DG and benefit of regional energy suppliers.

  9. Forecasting building energy consumption with hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kangji [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Electricity Information Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Su, Hongye [Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-11-15

    There are several ways to forecast building energy consumption, varying from simple regression to models based on physical principles. In this paper, a new method, namely, the hybrid genetic algorithm-hierarchical adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (GA-HANFIS) model is developed. In this model, hierarchical structure decreases the rule base dimension. Both clustering and rule base parameters are optimized by GAs and neural networks (NNs). The model is applied to predict a hotel's daily air conditioning consumption for a period over 3 months. The results obtained by the proposed model are presented and compared with regular method of NNs, which indicates that GA-HANFIS model possesses better performance than NNs in terms of their forecasting accuracy. (author)

  10. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  11. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ding

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  12. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  13. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  14. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of things (IoT is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs. The main contributions of a TBSR are (a the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of

  15. A Trust-Based Secure Routing Scheme Using the Traceback Approach for Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiawei; Liu, Anfeng; Zhang, Jian; Xiong, Neal N; Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The Internet of things (IoT) is composed of billions of sensing devices that are subject to threats stemming from increasing reliance on communications technologies. A Trust-Based Secure Routing (TBSR) scheme using the traceback approach is proposed to improve the security of data routing and maximize the use of available energy in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EHWSNs). The main contributions of a TBSR are (a) the source nodes send data and notification to sinks through disjoint paths, separately; in such a mechanism, the data and notification can be verified independently to ensure their security. (b) Furthermore, the data and notification adopt a dynamic probability of marking and logging approach during the routing. Therefore, when attacked, the network will adopt the traceback approach to locate and clear malicious nodes to ensure security. The probability of marking is determined based on the level of battery remaining; when nodes harvest more energy, the probability of marking is higher, which can improve network security. Because if the probability of marking is higher, the number of marked nodes on the data packet routing path will be more, and the sink will be more likely to trace back the data packet routing path and find malicious nodes according to this notification. When data packets are routed again, they tend to bypass these malicious nodes, which make the success rate of routing higher and lead to improved network security. When the battery level is low, the probability of marking will be decreased, which is able to save energy. For logging, when the battery level is high, the network adopts a larger probability of marking and smaller probability of logging to transmit notification to the sink, which can reserve enough storage space to meet the storage demand for the period of the battery on low level; when the battery level is low, increasing the probability of logging can reduce energy consumption. After the level of battery

  16. Scaling up local energy infrastructure; An agent-based model of the emergence of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonathan; Roelich, Katy; Bale, Catherine S.E.; Knoeri, Christof

    2017-01-01

    The potential contribution of local energy infrastructure – such as heat networks – to the transition to a low carbon economy is increasingly recognised in international, national and municipal policy. Creating the policy environment to foster the scaling up of local energy infrastructure is, however, still challenging; despite national policy action and local authority interest the growth of heat networks in UK cities remains slow. Techno-economic energy system models commonly used to inform policy are not designed to address institutional and governance barriers. We present an agent-based model of heat network development in UK cities in which policy interventions aimed at the institutional and governance barriers faced by diverse actors can be explored. Three types of project instigators are included – municipal, commercial and community – which have distinct decision heuristics and capabilities and follow a multi-stage development process. Scenarios of policy interventions developed in a companion modelling approach indicate that the effect of interventions differs between actors depending on their capabilities. Successful interventions account for the specific motivations and capabilities of different actors, provide a portfolio of support along the development process and recognise the important strategic role of local authorities in supporting low carbon energy infrastructure. - Highlights: • Energy policy should account for diverse actor motivations and capabilities. • Project development is a multi-stage process, not a one-off event. • Participatory agent-based modelling can inform policy that accounts for complexity. • Policy should take a portfolio approach to providing support. • Local authorities have an important strategic role in local infrastructure.

  17. Mixed H2/H∞-Based Fusion Estimation for Energy-Limited Multi-Sensors in Wearable Body Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes collect plenty of data for each time period. If all of data are transmitted to a Fusion Center (FC, the power of sensor node would run out rapidly. On the other hand, the data also needs a filter to remove the noise. Therefore, an efficient fusion estimation model, which can save the energy of the sensor nodes while maintaining higher accuracy, is needed. This paper proposes a novel mixed H2/H∞-based energy-efficient fusion estimation model (MHEEFE for energy-limited Wearable Body Networks. In the proposed model, the communication cost is firstly reduced efficiently while keeping the estimation accuracy. Then, the parameters in quantization method are discussed, and we confirm them by an optimization method with some prior knowledge. Besides, some calculation methods of important parameters are researched which make the final estimates more stable. Finally, an iteration-based weight calculation algorithm is presented, which can improve the fault tolerance of the final estimate. In the simulation, the impacts of some pivotal parameters are discussed. Meanwhile, compared with the other related models, the MHEEFE shows a better performance in accuracy, energy-efficiency and fault tolerance.

  18. Energy Efficiency in TDMA-Based Next-Generation Passive Optical Access Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dhaini, Ahmad R.

    2014-06-01

    Next-generation passive optical network (PON) has been considered in the past few years as a cost-effective broadband access technology. With the ever-increasing power saving concern, energy efficiency has been an important issue in its operations. In this paper, we propose a novel sleep-time sizing and scheduling framework for the implementation of green bandwidth allocation (GBA) in TDMA-PONs. The proposed framework leverages the batch-mode transmission feature of GBA to minimize the overhead due to frequent ONU on-off transitions. The optimal sleeping time sequence of each ONU is determined in every cycle without violating the maximum delay requirement. With multiple ONUs possibly accessing the shared media simultaneously, a collision may occur. To address this problem, we propose a new sleep-time sizing mechanism, namely Sort-And-Shift (SAS), in which the ONUs are sorted according to their expected transmission start times, and their sleep times are shifted to resolve any possible collision while ensuring maximum energy saving. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed framework and highlight the merits of our solutions.

  19. Internet-based reporting system for the US Department of Energy extended network of analytical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Hanzelka, C.C.; Rose, L.J.; Price, A.; Holdren, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The official implementation of environmental sampling under Programme 93+2 as a means to enhance nuclear safeguards for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has led the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Extended Network of Analytical Laboratories (ENWAL) to reevaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of its support program in this area. One area of particular concern deals with the methods used for information transfer between the various DOE laboratories, the DOE coordination center in Oak Ridge, and IAEA headquarters in Vienna. This reevaluation has also been extended to included the type and structure of the database used to manage environmental sampling data generated within the DOE ENWAL. Efforts are currently underway to migrate to the same database used by the IAEA to manage environmental sampling data, and to develop a new database structure that allows easier use by the IAEA. The most important part of this upgrade program is the move to the internet to allow secure worldwide, dynamic access by all authorized users of the DOE system. As currently envisioned, a secure web browser and appropriate access privileges are all that will required to use the DOE data reporting and communication system. All transactions involving IAEA environmental samples, such as analysis requests, shipping notification, status information, and data reporting will be conducted over the internet under dynamic conditions. (author)

  20. The shareholding similarity of the shareholders of the worldwide listed energy companies based on a two-mode primitive network and a one-mode derivative holding-based network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Yan, LiLi

    2014-12-01

    Two-mode and multi-mode networks represent new directions of simulating a complex network that can simulate the relationships among the entities more precisely. In this paper, we constructed two different levels of networks: one is the two-mode primitive networks of the energy listed companies and their shareholders on the basis of the two-mode method of complex theory, and the other is the derivative one-mode holding-based network based on the equivalence network theory. We calculated two different topological characteristics of the two networks, that is, the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network (9003 nodes) and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network (619,766 edges), and we analyzed the distribution features of both of the two topological characteristics. In this paper, we define both the weighted and un-weighted Shareholding Similarity Coefficient, and using the data of the worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders as empirical study subjects, we calculated and compared both the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies. The result of the analysis indicates that (1) both the out-degree of the actor nodes of the two-mode network and the weights of the edges of the one-mode network follow a power-law distribution; (2) there are significant differences between the weighted and un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient of the worldwide listed energy companies, and the weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is of greater regularity than the un-weighted one; (3) there are a vast majority of shareholders who hold stock in only one or a few of the listed energy companies; and (4) the shareholders hold stock in the same listed energy companies when the value of the un-weighted shareholding similarity coefficient is between 0.4 and 0.8. The study will be a helpful tool to analyze the relationships of the nodes of the one-mode network, which is constructed based

  1. Inventor networks in renewable energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Graf, Holger; Herrmann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Technological change and gains in efficiency of renewable power generation technologies are to a large extent driven by governmental support. Various policy instruments that can broadly be categorized as technology push, demand pull or systemic constitute part of the policy mix for renewable...... energies. Our goal is to gain insights into the influence of this policy mix on the intensity and organization of inventive activities for wind power and photovoltaics in Germany since the 1980s. We examine the effect of different instruments on the size and structure of co-inventor networks based...

  2. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  3. A New Cooperative MIMO Scheme Based on SM for Energy-Efficiency Improvement in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.

  4. Energy optimization in mobile sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengwei

    Mobile sensor networks are considered to consist of a network of mobile robots, each of which has computation, communication and sensing capabilities. Energy efficiency is a critical issue in mobile sensor networks, especially when mobility (i.e., locomotion control), routing (i.e., communications) and sensing are unique characteristics of mobile robots for energy optimization. This thesis focuses on the problem of energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, and the research results can be extended to energy optimization of a network of mobile robots that monitors the environment, or a team of mobile robots that transports materials from stations to stations in a manufacturing environment. On the energy optimization of mobile robotic sensor networks, our research focuses on the investigation and development of distributed optimization algorithms to exploit the mobility of robotic sensor nodes for network lifetime maximization. In particular, the thesis studies these five problems: 1. Network-lifetime maximization by controlling positions of networked mobile sensor robots based on local information with distributed optimization algorithms; 2. Lifetime maximization of mobile sensor networks with energy harvesting modules; 3. Lifetime maximization using joint design of mobility and routing; 4. Optimal control for network energy minimization; 5. Network lifetime maximization in mobile visual sensor networks. In addressing the first problem, we consider only the mobility strategies of the robotic relay nodes in a mobile sensor network in order to maximize its network lifetime. By using variable substitutions, the original problem is converted into a convex problem, and a variant of the sub-gradient method for saddle-point computation is developed for solving this problem. An optimal solution is obtained by the method. Computer simulations show that mobility of robotic sensors can significantly prolong the lifetime of the whole robotic sensor network while

  5. Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Vuckovic, Dusan; Di Mauro, Alessio

    2012-01-01

    Energy Harvesting comprises a promising solution to one of the key problems faced by battery-powered Wireless Sensor Networks, namely the limited nature of the energy supply (finite battery capacity). By harvesting energy from the surrounding environment, the sensors can have a continuous lifetime...... without any needs for battery recharge or replacement. However, energy harvesting introduces a change to the fundamental principles based on which WSNs are designed and realized. In this poster we sketch some of the key research challenges as well as our ongoing work in designing and realizing Wireless...... Sensor Networks with energy harvesting capability....

  6. Energy metabolism and ATP balance in animal cell cultivation using a stoichiometrically based reaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L; Wang, D I

    1996-12-05

    A metabolic reaction network is developed for the estimation of the stoichiometric production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in animal cell culture. By using the material balance data from fed-batch and batch cultures of hybridoma cells, the stoichiometric ATP productions are determined with estimated effective P/O ratios of 2 for NADH and 1.2 for FADH(2). A significant percentage of the ATP requirement (16-41%) in hybridoma cells is generated directly from free energy release without the participation of oxygen. The oxidative phosphorylation of NADH accounts for about 60% of the total ATP production in the fed-batch cultures and about 47% in the batch culture. The oxidative phosphorylation of FADH(2) accounts for less then 20% of the total ATP production in all cases.A fractional model is devised to analyze the contribution of each nutrient to the ATP production. Results show that a majority of the ATP is produced from glucose metabolism (60-76%). Less than 30% of the ATP is derived from glutamine, and less than 11% is derived from other essential amino acids. The analysis also shows that the glycolytic pathway generates more ATP in the batch (41%) than in the fed-batch (demand estimated from the dry cell weight and cell composition is significantly lower than that calculated from the maximum ATP yield, indicating that the non-growth-associated ATP demand may contain other factors than what is considered in the estimation of the biosynthetic ATP demand.

  7. Robust fault detection of wind energy conversion systems based on dynamic neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Nasser; Sadrnia, Mohammad Ali; Darabi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of faults in wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) is inevitable. In order to detect the occurred faults at the appropriate time, avoid heavy economic losses, ensure safe system operation, prevent damage to adjacent relevant systems, and facilitate timely repair of failed components; a fault detection system (FDS) is required. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have gained a noticeable position in FDSs and they have been widely used for modeling of complex dynamical systems. One method for designing an FDS is to prepare a dynamic neural model emulating the normal system behavior. By comparing the outputs of the real system and neural model, incidence of the faults can be identified. In this paper, by utilizing a comprehensive dynamic model which contains both mechanical and electrical components of the WECS, an FDS is suggested using dynamic RNNs. The presented FDS detects faults of the generator's angular velocity sensor, pitch angle sensors, and pitch actuators. Robustness of the FDS is achieved by employing an adaptive threshold. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is capable to detect the faults shortly and it has very low false and missed alarms rate.

  8. Which energy networks for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, D.; Couturier, Ch.; Batot, Ph.; Jedliczka, M.; Belon, D.; Goy, E.; Bureau, L.

    2010-01-01

    A set of brief articles outlines the importance of energy networks of all kinds for the future of energy conservation. Thus, all networks (communication, data, production command and control) will have a role to play to make all energy networks (electricity, gas, heat, cold, water, sewage, telecommunications) communicate with each other, and a new consumption/production model will have to be developed for each territory by taking into account its capacities to improve energy efficiency and valorize renewable energies. The authors also propose a historical perspective of network development and of their trend to become interconnected and complementary, comment the governance issue in terms of concession, evoke the supply of public networks with biogas (legal framework under development), discuss the value of the project of development of smart grids, suggest that a better electricity demand management could be an efficient alternative to grid development, comment the context and implications of the European directive Linky, outline that heat networks will contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact of buildings, evoke the issue of cold water networks and their impact on air conditioning, present the original heat network which is about to be built in Saint-Brieuc, etc.

  9. OPEX Savings Based on Energy Efficient Strategies in NREN Core Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kleist, Josva

    2014-01-01

    wavelengths and new circuits are established based on a predefined dimensioning plan. However, because of the continuous increase in the overall traffic demand (estimated to be between 30 % and 60 % per year [1] ) as well as due to the more and more heterogeneous behavior of the incoming requests...... – the overprovisioning deployment strategy becomes less and less efficient. This is a challenging aspect especially in NREN environments where new and state of the art s ervices are being proposed or requested (e.g. Photonic Services) and their requirements are often hard to be predicted. Moreover, in terms of energy...... consumption, significant savings can be obtained and accounted into OPEX (Operational Expenditure) by takin g into account a more efficient usage of the opto - electronic resources (such as transponders or regenerators). There are more strategies proposed in the literature to enhance the energy consumption...

  10. Prioritizing Data/Energy Thresholding-Based Antenna Switching for SWIPT-Enabled Secondary Receiver in Cognitive Radio Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2017-12-04

    Simultaneous wireless power and information transfer (SWIPT) is considered in cognitive radio networks with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) secondary receiver (SR). The SR harvests the energy from the secondary transmitter and primary transmitter. The SR uses the antenna switching technique which selects a subset of antennas to decode the information (namely the information decoding (ID) antennas) and the rest to harvest the energy (namely the EH antennas). The AS technique is performed via a thresholding-based strategy inspired from the maximum ratio combining technique with an output threshold (OT-MRC) which is proposed in two ways: the prioritizing data selection (PDS) scheme, and the prioritizing energy selection (PES) scheme. For both schemes, we study the expressions and the asymptotic results of the probability mass function of the selected ID antennas, the average harvested energy, the power outage probability, and the data outage probability. We deduce the performance of the joint PDS and PES scheme. We evaluate all performance metrics for the Rayleigh and Nakagami fading channels. Through the simulation results, we show the impact of different simulation parameters on the performance metrics. We also show that there is a tradeoff between the data and energy performance metrics.

  11. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    to public commitments for reducing their energy and carbon footprint. In 2008 Vodafone stated that by the year 2020, efforts for reducing emissions are expected to halve emissions registered in the year 2006/7. In addition to presenting a more environmentally conscious brand, this is also hoped to reduce...... costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role...

  12. Statistical Delay QoS Provisioning for Energy-Efficient Spectrum-Sharing Based Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the statistical delay quality-of-service (QoS provisioning framework for the energy-efficient spectrum-sharing based wireless ad hoc sensor network (WAHSN, which is characterized by the delay-bound violation probability. Based on the established delay QoS provisioning framework, we formulate the nonconvex optimization problem which aims at maximizing the average energy efficiency of the sensor node in the WAHSN while meeting PU’s statistical delay QoS requirement as well as satisfying sensor node’s average transmission rate, average transmitting power, and peak transmitting power constraints. By employing the theories of fractional programming, convex hull, and probabilistic transmission, we convert the original fractional-structured nonconvex problem to the additively structured parametric convex problem and obtain the optimal power allocation strategy under the given parameter via Lagrangian method. Finally, we derive the optimal average energy efficiency and corresponding optimal power allocation scheme by employing the Dinkelbach method. Simulation results show that our derived optimal power allocation strategy can be dynamically adjusted based on PU’s delay QoS requirement as well as the channel conditions. The impact of PU’s delay QoS requirement on sensor node’s energy efficiency is also illustrated.

  13. Energy optimization based path selection algorithm for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is everyone’s dream to have network connectivity anywhere at all times. This dream can only be realized provided there are feasible solutions that are put in place for the next generation of wireless works. Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs...

  14. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tierney, Brian [ESNet, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  15. Energy efficiency of China's industry sector: An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis)-based decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingnan; Wang, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The process of energy conservation and emission reduction in China requires the specific and accurate evaluation of the energy efficiency of the industry sector because this sector accounts for 70 percent of China's total energy consumption. Previous studies have used a “black box” DEA (data envelopment analysis) model to obtain the energy efficiency without considering the inner structure of the industry sector. However, differences in the properties of energy utilization (final consumption or intermediate conversion) in different industry departments may lead to bias in energy efficiency measures under such “black box” evaluation structures. Using the network DEA model and efficiency decomposition technique, this study proposes an adjusted energy efficiency evaluation model that can characterize the inner structure and associated energy utilization properties of the industry sector so as to avoid evaluation bias. By separating the energy-producing department and energy-consuming department, this adjusted evaluation model was then applied to evaluate the energy efficiency of China's provincial industry sector. - Highlights: • An adjusted network DEA (data envelopment analysis) model for energy efficiency evaluation is proposed. • The inner structure of industry sector is taken into account for energy efficiency evaluation. • Energy final consumption and energy intermediate conversion processes are separately modeled. • China's provincial industry energy efficiency is measured through the adjusted model.

  16. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  17. A new energy-efficient MAC protocol with noise-based transmitted-reference modulation for wireless sensor network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshed, S.; Heijenk, Geert; Meijerink, Arjan; Ye, D.; van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    Energy-constrained behavior of sensor nodes is one of the most important criteria for successful deployment of wireless sensor networks. The medium access control (MAC) protocol determines to a large extent the time a sensor node transceiver spends listening or transmitting, and hence the energy

  18. A simple fracture energy prediction method for fiber network based on its morphological features extracted by X-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiang; Wang, Qinghui; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jingrong

    2013-01-01

    The fracture behavior of a novel porous metal fiber sintered sheet (PMFSS) was predicted using a semi-empirical method combining the knowledge of its morphological characteristics and micro-mechanical responses. The morphological characteristics were systematically summarized based on the analysis of the topologically identical skeleton representation extracted from the X-ray tomography images. The analytical model firstly proposed by Tan et al. [1] was further modified according to the experimental observations from both tensile tests of single fibers and sintered fiber sheets, which built the coupling of single fiber segment and fiber network in terms of fracture energy using a simple prediction method. The efficacy of the prediction model was verified by comparing the predicted results to the experimental measurements. The prediction error that arose at high porosity was analyzed through fiber orientation distribution. Moreover, the tensile fracture process evolving from single fiber segments at micro-scale to the global mechanical performance was investigated

  19. A simple fracture energy prediction method for fiber network based on its morphological features extracted by X-ray tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong, E-mail: Catherine.JRLi@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-11-15

    The fracture behavior of a novel porous metal fiber sintered sheet (PMFSS) was predicted using a semi-empirical method combining the knowledge of its morphological characteristics and micro-mechanical responses. The morphological characteristics were systematically summarized based on the analysis of the topologically identical skeleton representation extracted from the X-ray tomography images. The analytical model firstly proposed by Tan et al. [1] was further modified according to the experimental observations from both tensile tests of single fibers and sintered fiber sheets, which built the coupling of single fiber segment and fiber network in terms of fracture energy using a simple prediction method. The efficacy of the prediction model was verified by comparing the predicted results to the experimental measurements. The prediction error that arose at high porosity was analyzed through fiber orientation distribution. Moreover, the tensile fracture process evolving from single fiber segments at micro-scale to the global mechanical performance was investigated.

  20. Reversing the Energy Trend in Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    of equipment generations at different base station sites. This paper extends the previous study by considering a realistic equipment replacement strategy. In addition to considering three equipment generations, a number of sites are also upgraded to remote radio head, which reduces the energy consumption even...... consumption and cost of the network. However, irrespective of the upgrade strategy, all lead to an overall increase in the energy consumption of the network. This is based on the assumption that all sites are equipped with the same version of the equipment. In reality, it is likely to find a variety...

  1. Implementation of Maintenance System Based on Bluetooth Low Energy for Hermetic Inline Amplifiers in CATV Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Naito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cable television (CATV systems generally consist of a headend, trunk cables, distribution cables in the neighborhood, drop cables to a home and in-house wiring, and terminal equipment. Coaxial cables bring a CATV signal to customer premises through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. Hermetic inline amplifiers are used to amplify the attenuated CATV signal due to propagation loss or splitting the coaxial cable. They are usually installed on utility poles. Therefore, maintenance methods for inline amplifiers on utility poles are important issues in CATV operations. This paper proposes a new maintenance system for inline amplifiers in CATV systems, and develops a prototype implementation. The proposed system consists of an amplifier gain analyser to measure amplification performance of inline amplifiers, a special smartphone application, and a cloud server. The proposed amplifier gain analyser is composed of three functions: a generation of high frequency signals for testing, measurement of the test signal gain, and wireless communication based on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE. We develop a signal generation circuit for a test signal and a smoothing circuit for converting the high frequency test signals into DC signals. The amplifier gain analyser can evaluate an amplifier gain by comparing an input test signal from the signal generation circuit and an output test signal from an inline amplifier. The measurement function uses Nordic nRF51822, which is a System on Chip (SoC for BLE because Nordic nRF51822 has some AD converter ports for evaluating the DC signals. The smartphone application employs BLE communication function to collect the measured amplifier gain from the amplifier gain analyser. Therefore, we developed a special data collection application for iOS. The data collection application has a central function of BLE, and can find a target peripheral device that is the amplifier gain analyser in this paper. Therefore, technicians

  2. Energy prediction using spatiotemporal pattern networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhanhong; Liu, Chao; Akintayo, Adedotun; Henze, Gregor P.; Sarkar, Soumik

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven technique based on the spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) for energy/power prediction for complex dynamical systems. Built on symbolic dynamical filtering, the STPN framework is used to capture not only the individual system characteristics but also the pair-wise causal dependencies among different sub-systems. To quantify causal dependencies, a mutual information based metric is presented and an energy prediction approach is subsequently proposed based on the STPN framework. To validate the proposed scheme, two case studies are presented, one involving wind turbine power prediction (supply side energy) using the Western Wind Integration data set generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for identifying spatiotemporal characteristics, and the other, residential electric energy disaggregation (demand side energy) using the Building America 2010 data set from NREL for exploring temporal features. In the energy disaggregation context, convex programming techniques beyond the STPN framework are developed and applied to achieve improved disaggregation performance.

  3. EYES -- Energy Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.

    The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to

  4. OPEX Savings Based on Energy Efficient Strategies in NREN Core Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Kleist, Josva

    2014-01-01

    consumption, significant savings can be obtained and accounted into OPEX (Operational Expenditure) by takin g into account a more efficient usage of the opto - electronic resources (such as transponders or regenerators). There are more strategies proposed in the literature to enhance the energy consumption...

  5. Energy Efficient Design for OFDM-Based Underlay Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunli Chen

    2014-01-01

    search technique. However, the accuracy of the power allocation solution is dependent on the number of iterations. In order to achieve the exact optimal solution, a new energy efficient power allocation scheme is proposed to balance the tradeoff between SE and EE. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  6. Robust Weighted Sum Harvested Energy Maximization for SWIPT Cognitive Radio Networks Based on Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Pham Viet; Koo, Insoo

    2017-10-06

    In this paper, we consider multiuser simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for cognitive radio systems where a secondary transmitter (ST) with an antenna array provides information and energy to multiple single-antenna secondary receivers (SRs) equipped with a power splitting (PS) receiving scheme when multiple primary users (PUs) exist. The main objective of the paper is to maximize weighted sum harvested energy for SRs while satisfying their minimum required signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), the limited transmission power at the ST, and the interference threshold of each PU. For the perfect channel state information (CSI), the optimal beamforming vectors and PS ratios are achieved by the proposed PSO-SDR in which semidefinite relaxation (SDR) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) methods are jointly combined. We prove that SDR always has a rank-1 solution, and is indeed tight. For the imperfect CSI with bounded channel vector errors, the upper bound of weighted sum harvested energy (WSHE) is also obtained through the S-Procedure. Finally, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-SDR has fast convergence and better performance as compared to the other baseline schemes.

  7. Application of Bayesian neural networks to energy reconstruction in EAS experiments for ground-based TeV astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Xu, Y.; Pan, J.; Lan, J. Q.; Gao, W. W.

    2016-07-01

    A toy detector array is designed to detect a shower generated by the interaction between a TeV cosmic ray and the atmosphere. In the present paper, the primary energies of showers detected by the detector array are reconstructed with the algorithm of Bayesian neural networks (BNNs) and a standard method like the LHAASO experiment [1], respectively. Compared to the standard method, the energy resolutions are significantly improved using the BNNs. And the improvement is more obvious for the high energy showers than the low energy ones.

  8. Estimating missing hourly climatic data using artificial neural network for energy balance based ET mapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) mapping has become an important tool for water resources management at a regional scale. Accurate hourly climatic data and reference ET are crucial input for successfully implementing remote sensing based ET models such as Mapping ET with internal calibra...

  9. Estimating missing hourly climatic data using artificial neural network for energy balance based ET mapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing based evapotranspiration (ET) mapping is an important improvement for water resources management. Hourly climatic data and reference ET are crucial for implementing remote sensing based ET models such as METRIC and SEBAL. In Turkey, data on all climatic variables may not be available ...

  10. Resume: networking in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, J.S.

    1985-11-01

    Networking in High Energy Physics covers communications inside the experiment and internationally. Inside the experiment the need for agreed 'codes of practice' is now accepted. Within Europe it is accepted that a common infrastructure based on the use of the ISO OSI protocols should be used. In the USA a community initiative has been proposed. The background to these approaches is discussed. (author)

  11. Nation-Wide Mobile Network Energy Evolution Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Eva; Frank, Philipp; Micallef, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    be supported. In most cases, these upgrades increase the energy consumption of the network even further. This paper presents a nation-wide case study, based on a commercial network of a leading European operator, intended to provide a clear understanding of how the energy consumption of mobile networks...... is expected to evolve from 2012 until 2020. The study also considers an efficient network capacity evolution path, including base station equipment improvement forecasts....

  12. A simulation-based robust biofuel facility location model for an integrated bio-energy logistics network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Dong Hong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a simulation-based robust biofuel facility location model for solving an integrated bio-energy logistics network (IBLN problem, where biomass yield is often uncertain or difficult to determine.Design/methodology/approach: The IBLN considered in this paper consists of four different facilities: farm or harvest site (HS, collection facility (CF, biorefinery (BR, and blending station (BS. Authors propose a mixed integer quadratic modeling approach to simultaneously determine the optimal CF and BR locations and corresponding biomass and bio-energy transportation plans. The authors randomly generate biomass yield of each HS and find the optimal locations of CFs and BRs for each generated biomass yield, and select the robust locations of CFs and BRs to show the effects of biomass yield uncertainty on the optimality of CF and BR locations. Case studies using data from the State of South Carolina in the United State are conducted to demonstrate the developed model’s capability to better handle the impact of uncertainty of biomass yield.Findings: The results illustrate that the robust location model for BRs and CFs works very well in terms of the total logistics costs. The proposed model would help decision-makers find the most robust locations for biorefineries and collection facilities, which usually require huge investments, and would assist potential investors in identifying the least cost or important facilities to invest in the biomass and bio-energy industry.Originality/value: An optimal biofuel facility location model is formulated for the case of deterministic biomass yield. To improve the robustness of the model for cases with probabilistic biomass yield, the model is evaluated by a simulation approach using case studies. The proposed model and robustness concept would be a very useful tool that helps potential biofuel investors minimize their investment risk.

  13. Charging cost optimization for EV buses using neural network based energy predictor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nageshrao, S.P.; Jacob, J.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-01-01

    For conventional buses, based on the decades of their operational knowledge, public transport companies are able to optimize their cost of operation. However, with recent trend in the usage of electric buses, cost optimal operation can become challenging. In this paper an offline optimal charging

  14. Designing Networked Energy Infrastructures with Architectural Flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melese, Y.G.; Heijnen, P.W.; Stikkelman, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of networked energy infrastructures (like gas pipe networks), generally requires a significant amount of capital investment under resources, market and institutional uncertainties. Several independent suppliers and consumers are to be connected into these networks. However, the actual

  15. Energy generation for an ad hoc wireless sensor network-based monitoring system using animal head movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET are not eas......The supply of energy to electronics is an imperative constraining factor to be considered during the design process of mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks (MANETs). This influence is especially important when the MANET is deployed unattended or the wireless modules within the MANET...... are not easily accessible. Therefore, exploring novel sources of energy generation rather than operating electronics only on limited power supplies such as batteries is a major challenge. Monitoring free-ranging animal behavior is an application in which the entities (animals) within the MANET are not readily...

  16. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  17. On the Design of Energy Efficient Optical Networks with Software Defined Networking Control Across Core and Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a Software Defined Networking (SDN) control plane based on an overlay GMPLS control model. The SDN control platform manages optical core networks (WDM/DWDM networks) and the associated access networks (GPON networks), which makes it possible to gather global information...... and enable wider areas' energy efficiency networking. The energy related information of the networks and the types of the traffic flows are collected and utilized for the end-to-end QoS provision. Dynamic network simulation results show that by applying different routing algorithms according to the type...

  18. Energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Yin, Yarui; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    In order to address the problem of optimizing the spectrum resources and power consumption in elastic optical networks (EONs), we investigate the potential gains by jointly employing the light-tree splitting and traffic grooming for multicast requests. An energy-efficient multicast traffic grooming strategy based on light-tree splitting (EED-MTGS-LS) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we design a traffic pre-processing mechanism to decide the multicast requests' routing order, which considers the request's bandwidth requirement and physical hops synthetically. Then, by dividing a light-tree to some sub-light-trees and grooming the request to these sub-light-trees, the light-tree sharing ratios of multicast requests can be improved. What's more, a priority scheduling vector is constructed, which aims to improve the success rate of spectrum assignment for grooming requests. Finally, a grooming strategy is designed to optimize the total power consumption by reducing the use of transponders and IP routers during routing. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can significantly improve the spectrum utilization and save the power consumption.

  19. Influence of embodied energy in the energy efficiency of optical transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mata, Javier; Ye, Yabin; Lopez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    An energy model including both operational and embodied energy is proposed to evaluate the performance evolution of optical transport networks in a multi-period study up to 15 years. Significant improvements in energy efficiency per GHz and energy reductions can be achieved for flexi-grid OFDM......-based networks with respect to fixed-grid WDM ones....

  20. Design of atomic energy information network system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Lee, H. C.; Chang, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    As the 21 st century is expected to induce a Knowledge based society, responding to this kind of change on our own initiative could be achieved by establishing networks among atomic energy agencies with the Atomic Energy Portal Site in a pivotal role. Thus, enabling the knowledge information from each agency to be easily shared and utilized. Furthermore, it can contribute to further researches by providing accumulated knowledge in the atomic energy, such as research output and past achievements, and by avoiding the repetition of researches on the same subjects. It could also provide remote educational data to researchers and industrial experts in atomic energy, as well as atomic energy information for general public consistently, so that we can promote our confidence in atomic energy

  1. Network-Based Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friman, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    ... (extended from Leavitt, 1965). This text identifies aspects of network-based effectiveness that can benefit from a better understanding of leadership and management development of people, procedures, technology, and organizations...

  2. A network coding based routing protocol for underwater sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huayang; Chen, Min; Guan, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the particularities of the underwater environment, some negative factors will seriously interfere with data transmission rates, reliability of data communication, communication range, and network throughput and energy consumption of underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Thus, full consideration of node energy savings, while maintaining a quick, correct and effective data transmission, extending the network life cycle are essential when routing protocols for underwater sensor networks are studied. In this paper, we have proposed a novel routing algorithm for UWSNs. To increase energy consumption efficiency and extend network lifetime, we propose a time-slot based routing algorithm (TSR).We designed a probability balanced mechanism and applied it to TSR. The theory of network coding is introduced to TSBR to meet the requirement of further reducing node energy consumption and extending network lifetime. Hence, time-slot based balanced network coding (TSBNC) comes into being. We evaluated the proposed time-slot based balancing routing algorithm and compared it with other classical underwater routing protocols. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can reduce the probability of node conflicts, shorten the process of routing construction, balance energy consumption of each node and effectively prolong the network lifetime.

  3. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, D.

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers (∼1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  4. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  5. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  6. A neural network potential energy surface for the F + CH4reaction including multiple channels based on coupled cluster theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Xin; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H

    2018-03-22

    We report here a new global and full dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the F + CH4 reaction. This PES was constructed by using neural networks (NN) fitting to about 99 000 ab initio energies computed at the UCCSD(T)-F12a/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory, and the correction terms considering the influence of a larger basis set as well as spin-orbit couplings were further implemented with a hierarchial scheme. This PES, covering both the abstraction and substitution channels, has an overall fitting error of 8.24 meV in total, and 4.87 meV for energies within 2.5 eV using a segmented NN fitting method, and is more accurate than the previous PESs.

  7. Energy-efficient optical network units for OFDM PON based on time-domain interleaved OFDM technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhang, Liang; Jiang, Lipeng; Su, Yikai

    2014-06-02

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical network units (ONUs) in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical networks (OFDM PONs) by using time-domain interleaved OFDM (TI-OFDM) technique. In a conventional OFDM PON, each ONU has to process the complete downstream broadcast OFDM signal with a high sampling rate and a large FFT size to retrieve its required data, even if it employs a portion of OFDM subcarriers. However, in our scheme, the ONU only needs to sample and process one data group from the downlink TI-OFDM signal, effectively reducing the sampling rate and the FFT size of the ONU. Thus, the energy efficiency of ONUs in OFDM PONs can be greatly improved. A proof-of-concept experiment is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Compared to the conventional OFDM PON, our proposal can save 17.1% and 26.7% energy consumption of ONUs by halving and quartering the sampling rate and the FFT size of ONUs with the use of the TI-OFDM technology.

  8. Implementation of a Low-Cost Energy and Environment Monitoring System Based on a Hybrid Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sik Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost hybrid wireless sensor network (WSN that utilizes the 917 MHz band Wireless Smart Utility Network (Wi-SUN and a 447 MHz band narrow bandwidth communication network is implemented for electric metering and room temperature, humidity, and CO2 gas measurements. A mesh network connection that is commonly utilized for the Internet of Things (IoT is used for the Wi-SUN under the Contiki OS, and a star connection is used for the narrow bandwidth network. Both a duty-cycling receiver algorithm and a digitally controlled temperature-compensated crystal oscillator algorithm for frequency reference are implemented at the physical layer of the receiver to accomplish low-power and low-cost wireless sensor node design. A two-level temperature-compensation approach, in which first a fixed third-order curve and then a sample-based first-order curve are applied, is proposed using a conventional AT-cut quartz crystal resonator. The developed WSN is installed in a home and provides reliable data collection with low construction complexity and power consumption.

  9. Energy efficient evolution of mobile broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, G.

    2013-04-15

    Over the last decade, the mobile communications industry has broken through some remarkable barriers, pushing further and transforming the way people communicate and access information. As the volume of traffic carried by mobile networks maintains an insatiable growth, mobile network operators are required to ensure that networks can scale accordingly. In addition to upgrading existing networks, a number of operators have already started to rollout a further radio access technology layer, Long Term Evolution, or LTE. In addition to enhancing network capacity, operators are also required to adhere to public commitments for reducing their energy and carbon footprint. In 2008 Vodafone stated that by the year 2020, efforts for reducing emissions are expected to halve emissions registered in the year 2006/7. In addition to presenting a more environmentally conscious brand, this is also hoped to reduce costs, which, based on increasing energy prices and necessary network upgrades are likely to increase. Since base station sites make up for about 75% of the power consumption in mobile networks, studies are focused on this specific network element. A number of factors believed to play a role in the power consumption of mobile networks are separately investigated and later combined, providing a realistic indication of how the consumption is expected to evolve. This is also used as an indication to determine how likely it is for operators to achieve power consumption and emission targets. In order for mobile network operators to upgrade existing infrastructure different options are available. Irrespective of the selected option, capacity upgrades are bound to increase the power consumption of the network. Carried through case studies, a first analysis compares a number of network evolution strategies, determining which provides the necessary performance while limiting the increase in power consumption. Overall, it is noted that a hybrid solution involving the upgrade of

  10. Applications of neural networks in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.S.; Nesic, D.; Sornborger, A.; Johnson, C.R.; Zeller, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Neural network techniques provide promising solutions to pattern recognition problems in high energy physics. We discuss several applications of back propagation networks, and in particular describe the operation of an electron algorithm based on calorimeter energies. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kavaldjiev, N.K.; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen; Nurmi, J.; Takala, J.; Hamalainen, T.D.

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both

  12. DCE: A Distributed Energy-Efficient Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Based on Double-Phase Cluster-Head Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruisong; Yang, Wei; Wang, Yipeng; You, Kaiming

    2017-05-01

    Clustering is an effective technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend the lifetime of wireless sensor network (WSN). The characteristic of energy heterogeneity of WSNs should be considered when designing clustering protocols. We propose and evaluate a novel distributed energy-efficient clustering protocol called DCE for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, based on a Double-phase Cluster-head Election scheme. In DCE, the procedure of cluster head election is divided into two phases. In the first phase, tentative cluster heads are elected with the probabilities which are decided by the relative levels of initial and residual energy. Then, in the second phase, the tentative cluster heads are replaced by their cluster members to form the final set of cluster heads if any member in their cluster has more residual energy. Employing two phases for cluster-head election ensures that the nodes with more energy have a higher chance to be cluster heads. Energy consumption is well-distributed in the proposed protocol, and the simulation results show that DCE achieves longer stability periods than other typical clustering protocols in heterogeneous scenarios.

  13. A Multi-Hop Energy Neutral Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Network Information Gathering in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Lu, Yinzhi; Zhong, Yuanchang; Wu, Xuegang; Yang, Simon X

    2015-12-26

    Energy resource limitation is a severe problem in traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because it restricts the lifetime of network. Recently, the emergence of energy harvesting techniques has brought with them the expectation to overcome this problem. In particular, it is possible for a sensor node with energy harvesting abilities to work perpetually in an Energy Neutral state. In this paper, a Multi-hop Energy Neutral Clustering (MENC) algorithm is proposed to construct the optimal multi-hop clustering architecture in energy harvesting WSNs, with the goal of achieving perpetual network operation. All cluster heads (CHs) in the network act as routers to transmit data to base station (BS) cooperatively by a multi-hop communication method. In addition, by analyzing the energy consumption of intra- and inter-cluster data transmission, we give the energy neutrality constraints. Under these constraints, every sensor node can work in an energy neutral state, which in turn provides perpetual network operation. Furthermore, the minimum network data transmission cycle is mathematically derived using convex optimization techniques while the network information gathering is maximal. Simulation results show that our protocol can achieve perpetual network operation, so that the consistent data delivery is guaranteed. In addition, substantial improvements on the performance of network throughput are also achieved as compared to the famous traditional clustering protocol LEACH and recent energy harvesting aware clustering protocols.

  14. Forming of the regional core transport network taking into account the allocation of alternative energy sources based on artificial intelligence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ZHURAVSKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world the alternative energy sources, which considerably depend on a region, play more and more significant role. However, the transition of regions to new energy sources lead to the change of transport and logistic network configuration. The formation of optimal core transport network today is a guarantee of the successful economic development of a region tomorrow. The present article studies the issue of advanced core transport network development in a region based on the experience of European and Asian countries and the opportunity to adapt the best foreign experience to Russian conditions. On the basis of artificial intelligence methods for forest industry complex of Sverdlovskaya Oblast the algorithm of problem solution of an optimal logistic infrastructure allocation is offered and some results of a regional transport network are presented. These methods allowed to solve the set task in the conditions of information uncertainty. There are suggestions on the improvement of transport and logistic network in the territory of Sverdlovskaya Oblast. Traditionally the logistics of mineral fuel plays main role in regions development. Actually it is required to develop logistic strategic plans to be able to provide different possibilities of power-supply, flexible enough to change with the population density, transport infrastructure and demographics of different regions. The problem of logistic centers allocation was studied by many authors. The approach, offered by the authors of this paper is to solve the set of tasks by applying artificial intelligence methods, such as fuzzy set theory and genetic algorithms.

  15. The FIREMAN: Foraging-inspired energy management in multi-radio Wi-Fi networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available in unnecessary network energy consumption, impacting negatively on the economy, environment and the ICT markets. In order to reduce the potential energy consumption in these networks, this paper proposes a novel energy management scheme based on behavioral...

  16. Network switching strategy for energy conservation in heterogeneous networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujae Song

    Full Text Available In heterogeneous networks (HetNets, the large-scale deployment of small base stations (BSs together with traditional macro BSs is an economical and efficient solution that is employed to address the exponential growth in mobile data traffic. In dense HetNets, network switching, i.e., handovers, plays a critical role in connecting a mobile terminal (MT to the best of all accessible networks. In the existing literature, a handover decision is made using various handover metrics such as the signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and movement speed. However, there are few studies on handovers that focus on energy efficiency in HetNets. In this paper, we propose a handover strategy that helps to minimize energy consumption at BSs in HetNets without compromising the quality of service (QoS of each MT. The proposed handover strategy aims to capture the effect of the stochastic behavior of handover parameters and the expected energy consumption due to handover execution when making a handover decision. To identify the validity of the proposed handover strategy, we formulate a handover problem as a constrained Markov decision process (CMDP, by which the effects of the stochastic behaviors of handover parameters and consequential handover energy consumption can be accurately reflected when making a handover decision. In the CMDP, the aim is to minimize the energy consumption to service an MT over the lifetime of its connection, and the constraint is to guarantee the QoS requirements of the MT given in terms of the transmission delay and call-dropping probability. We find an optimal policy for the CMDP using a combination of the Lagrangian method and value iteration. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed handover strategy.

  17. Stochastic multi-objective model for optimal energy exchange optimization of networked microgrids with presence of renewable generation under risk-based strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazijahani, Farhad Samadi; Ravadanegh, Sajad Najafi; Salehi, Javad

    2018-02-01

    The inherent volatility and unpredictable nature of renewable generations and load demand pose considerable challenges for energy exchange optimization of microgrids (MG). To address these challenges, this paper proposes a new risk-based multi-objective energy exchange optimization for networked MGs from economic and reliability standpoints under load consumption and renewable power generation uncertainties. In so doing, three various risk-based strategies are distinguished by using conditional value at risk (CVaR) approach. The proposed model is specified as a two-distinct objective function. The first function minimizes the operation and maintenance costs, cost of power transaction between upstream network and MGs as well as power loss cost, whereas the second function minimizes the energy not supplied (ENS) value. Furthermore, the stochastic scenario-based approach is incorporated into the approach in order to handle the uncertainty. Also, Kantorovich distance scenario reduction method has been implemented to reduce the computational burden. Finally, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGAII) is applied to minimize the objective functions simultaneously and the best solution is extracted by fuzzy satisfying method with respect to risk-based strategies. To indicate the performance of the proposed model, it is performed on the modified IEEE 33-bus distribution system and the obtained results show that the presented approach can be considered as an efficient tool for optimal energy exchange optimization of MGs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Energy, Entropy and Exergy in Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavisa Aleksic

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The information and communication technology (ICT sector is continuously growing, mainly due to the fast penetration of ICT into many areas of business and society. Growth is particularly high in the area of technologies and applications for communication networks, which can be used, among others, to optimize systems and processes. The ubiquitous application of ICT opens new perspectives and emphasizes the importance of understanding the complex interactions between ICT and other sectors. Complex and interacting heterogeneous systems can only properly be addressed by a holistic framework. Thermodynamic theory, and, in particular, the second law of thermodynamics, is a universally applicable tool to analyze flows of energy. Communication systems and their processes can be seen, similar to many other natural processes and systems, as dissipative transformations that level differences in energy density between participating subsystems and their surroundings. This paper shows how to apply thermodynamics to analyze energy flows through communication networks. Application of the second law of thermodynamics in the context of the Carnot heat engine is emphasized. The use of exergy-based lifecycle analysis to assess the sustainability of ICT systems is shown on an example of a radio access network.

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENT CLUSTER HEAD SELECTION IN MOBILE WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ARSHAD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of New Generation Networks (NWGN many emerging and future enable technologies accomplish the requirements of ubiquitous communication networks. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is a vital category of these stateof-the-art technologies, the enormous concerns of these networks are energy efficient and well-organized data aggregation. Cluster based routing in WSNs is an immense solution to enhance the energy efficiency of the nodes and resourceful data gathering. Many studies on network lifetime and data aggregation have been proposed by the Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH scheme that allows the role of the cluster head rotated among the sensor nodes and attempts to distribute the energy usage through all the nodes. The lifetime of WSNs will be affected by the cluster head (CH selection; this is because a CH consumes more power than a regular (non-CH node. In this research study, an energy efficient cluster head selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed, analysed and validated on the basis of residual energy and randomized selection of the node, who is not assigned as a cluster head in previous round. Moreover, the proposed approach shows the significant improvements when compared with LEACH and A Novel Application Specific Network Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (Hybrid Multi-hop LEACH protocols in terms of energy consumption of sensor nodes, enhanced network lifetime and efficient data gathering due to less energy consumption during data transmission.

  20. Physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; He, Hao; Bi, Meihua; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-05-01

    We propose a physical-layer energy-efficient receiving method based on selective sampling in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access passive optical network (OFDMA-PON). By using the special designed frame head, the receiver within an optical network unit (ONU) can identify the destination of the incoming frame. The receiver only samples at the time when the destination is in agreement with the ONU, while it stays in standby during the rest of the time. We clarify its feasibility through an experiment and analyze the downstream traffic delay by simulation. The results indicate that under limited delay conditions, ˜60% energy can be saved compared with the traditional receiving method in the OFDMA-PON system with 512 ONUs.

  1. Energy efficiency in elastic-bandwidth optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaino, Jorge Lopez; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    The forecasted growth in the Internet traffic has made the operators and industry to be concerned about the power consumption of the networks, and to become interested in alternatives to plan and operate the networks in a more energy efficient manner. The introduction of OFDM, and its property...... of elastic bandwidth allocation, opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks. In this paper, we compare the network planning problem in an elastic bandwidth CO-OFDM-based network and a fixed-grid WDM network. We highlight the benefits that bandwidth elasticity and the selection of different...

  2. Methods for Reducing the Energy Consumption of Mobile Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    traffic the energy consumption remains high. This article proposes two major solutions for mitigating this problem. In the first case, an energy saving between 14% and 36% is observed by allowing the network to dynamically optimize its available capacity based on the traffic being carried. In the second......Up until recently, very little consideration has been given towards reducing the energy consumption of the networks supporting mobile communication. This has now become an important issue since with the predicted boost in traffic, network operators are required to upgrade and extend their networks......, increasing also their overall energy consumption. However, traffic analysis shows that during a 24 hour period, the volume of carried traffic varies continuously, with the network operating anywhere close to its full capacity for very short periods of time. The problem is that during hours of low network...

  3. Energy Consumption Model and Measurement Results for Network Coding-enabled IEEE 802.11 Meshed Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Rasmussen, Ulrik Wilken; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an energy model and energy measurements for network coding enabled wireless meshed networks based on IEEE 802.11 technology. The energy model and the energy measurement testbed is limited to a simple Alice and Bob scenario. For this toy scenario we compare the energy usages...

  4. Neuronal networks and energy bursts in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Liu, D; Song, Z

    2015-02-26

    Epilepsy can be defined as the abnormal activities of neurons. The occurrence, propagation and termination of epileptic seizures rely on the networks of neuronal cells that are connected through both synaptic- and non-synaptic interactions. These complicated interactions contain the modified functions of normal neurons and glias as well as the mediation of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms with feedback homeostasis. Numerous spread patterns are detected in disparate networks of ictal activities. The cortical-thalamic-cortical loop is present during a general spike wave seizure. The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) is the major inhibitory input traversing the region, and the dentate gyrus (DG) controls CA3 excitability. The imbalance between γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibition and glutamatergic excitation is the main disorder in epilepsy. Adjustable negative feedback that mediates both inhibitory and excitatory components affects neuronal networks through neurotransmission fluctuation, receptor and transmitter signaling, and through concomitant influences on ion concentrations and field effects. Within a limited dynamic range, neurons slowly adapt to input levels and have a high sensitivity to synaptic changes. The stability of the adapting network depends on the ratio of the adaptation rates of both the excitatory and inhibitory populations. Thus, therapeutic strategies with multiple effects on seizures are required for the treatment of epilepsy, and the therapeutic functions on networks are reviewed here. Based on the high-energy burst theory of epileptic activity, we propose a potential antiepileptic therapeutic strategy to transfer the high energy and extra electricity out of the foci. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electronic structure analyses of BN network materials using high energy-resolution spectroscopy methods based on transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, M

    2006-07-01

    Electronic structures of boron-nitride (BN) nanotubes and a BN cone-structure material were studied by using a high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) microscope. A trial of the whole electronic structure study of hexagonal BN (h-BN), which consists of flat BN honeycomb layers, was conducted by a combination of EELS and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (TEM-EELS/XES). The pi and pi+sigma plasmon energies of BN nanotubes (BNT) were smaller than those of h-BN. The pi+sigma energy was explained by the surface plasmon excitation. The spectrum of a two-wall BNT of 2.7 nm in diameter showed a new spectral onset at 4 eV. The valence electron excitation spectra obtained from the tip region of the BN cone with an apex angle of 20 degrees showed similar intensity distribution with those of BNTs. The B K-shell electron excitation spectra obtained from the bottom edge region of the BN cone showed additional peak intensity when compared with those of h-BN and BNT. The B K-shell electron excitation spectra and B K-emission spectra of h-BN were compared with a result of a LDA band calculation. It showed that high symmetry points in the band diagram appear as peak and/or shoulder structures in the EELS and XES spectra. Interband transitions appeared in the imaginary part of the dielectric function of h-BN experimentally obtained were assigned in the band diagram. The analysis also presented that the LDA calculation estimated the bandgap energy smaller than the real material by an amount of 2 eV. Those results of TEM-EELS/XES analysis presented that high energy-resolution spectroscopy methods combined with TEM is a promising method to analyze whole electronic structures of nanometer scale materials. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ROUTING IN SENSOR NETWORKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Bilge Kartal

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of tiny devices, which have a battery, a sensor, a microprocessor and a radio transmitter component. Due to a large range of application area, performance metrics in sensor network are strictly application-specic. However, 'unattended operation of the network......-hoc networks, recharging or replacing of the sen- sors battery may be inconvenient, or even impossible in some monitoring environments. Therefore, the key challenge in the design of wireless sen- sor network protocols is how to maximize the network lifetime, which is limited by battery energy in sensor nodes......, while providing the application requirement. In sensor networks, there are two important energy consuming pro- cesses, the rst is transmission-reception phase and the second is listening the radio for any possible event. Therefore, there are two strategies for en- ergy saving. The rst is reducing...

  7. Statistical-QoS Guaranteed Energy Efficiency Optimization for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Cheng, Wenchi; Zhang, Hailin

    2017-08-23

    Energy harvesting, which offers a never-ending energy supply, has emerged as a prominent technology to prolong the lifetime and reduce costs for the battery-powered wireless sensor networks. However, how to improve the energy efficiency while guaranteeing the quality of service (QoS) for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop statistical delay-bounded QoS-driven power control policies to maximize the effective energy efficiency (EEE), which is defined as the spectrum efficiency under given specified QoS constraints per unit harvested energy, for energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks. For the battery-infinite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy converges to the Energy harvesting Water Filling (E-WF) scheme and the Energy harvesting Channel Inversion (E-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. For the battery-finite wireless sensor networks, our developed QoS-driven power control policy becomes the Truncated energy harvesting Water Filling (T-WF) scheme and the Truncated energy harvesting Channel Inversion (T-CI) scheme under the very loose and stringent QoS constraints, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluate the outage probabilities to theoretically analyze the performance of our developed QoS-driven power control policies. The obtained numerical results validate our analysis and show that our developed optimal power control policies can optimize the EEE over energy harvesting based wireless sensor networks.

  8. Energy Efficiency Analysis for Dynamic Routing in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency in telecommunication networks is gaining more relevance as the Internet traffic is growing. The introduction of OFDM and dynamic operation opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks, improving the network flexibility and its efficiency. In this paper, we compare...... the performance in terms of energy efficiency of a flexible-grid OFDM-based solution with a fixed-grid WDM network in a dynamic scenario with time-varying connections. We highlight the benefits that the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats can offer compared...

  9. Bluetooth Low Energy Mesh Networks: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Seyed Mahdi; Gomez, Carles

    2017-06-22

    Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) has gained significant momentum. However, the original design of BLE focused on star topology networking, which limits network coverage range and precludes end-to-end path diversity. In contrast, other competing technologies overcome such constraints by supporting the mesh network topology. For these reasons, academia, industry, and standards development organizations have been designing solutions to enable BLE mesh networks. Nevertheless, the literature lacks a consolidated view on this emerging area. This paper comprehensively surveys state of the art BLE mesh networking. We first provide a taxonomy of BLE mesh network solutions. We then review the solutions, describing the variety of approaches that leverage existing BLE functionality to enable BLE mesh networks. We identify crucial aspects of BLE mesh network solutions and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we highlight currently open issues.

  10. Use of artificial neural networks for transport energy demand modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murat, Yetis Sazi; Ceylan, Halim

    2006-01-01

    The paper illustrates an artificial neural network (ANN) approach based on supervised neural networks for the transport energy demand forecasting using socio-economic and transport related indicators. The ANN transport energy demand model is developed. The actual forecast is obtained using a feed forward neural network, trained with back propagation algorithm. In order to investigate the influence of socio-economic indicators on the transport energy demand, the ANN is analyzed based on gross national product (GNP), population and the total annual average veh-km along with historical energy data available from 1970 to 2001. Comparing model predictions with energy data in testing period performs the model validation. The projections are made with two scenarios. It is obtained that the ANN reflects the fluctuation in historical data for both dependent and independent variables. The results obtained bear out the suitability of the adopted methodology for the transport energy-forecasting problem

  11. Energy Cost Minimization in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks with Hybrid Energy Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever increasing data demand has led to the significant increase of energy consumption in cellular mobile networks. Recent advancements in heterogeneous cellular networks and green energy supplied base stations provide promising solutions for cellular communications industry. In this article, we first review the motivations and challenges as well as approaches to address the energy cost minimization problem for such green heterogeneous networks. Owing to the diversities of mobile traffic and renewable energy, the energy cost minimization problem involves both temporal and spatial optimization of resource allocation. We next present a new solution to illustrate how to combine the optimization of the temporal green energy allocation and spatial mobile traffic distribution. The whole optimization problem is decomposed into four subproblems, and correspondingly our proposed solution is divided into four parts: energy consumption estimation, green energy allocation, user association, and green energy reallocation. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total energy cost.

  12. Costs evaluation methodic of energy efficient computer network reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Nesterenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A key direction of modern computer networks reengineering is their transfer to a new energy-saving technology IEEE 802.3az. To make a reasoned decision about the transition to the new technology is needed a technique that allows network engineers to answer the question about the economic feasibility of a network upgrade. Aim: The aim of this research is development of methodic for calculating the cost-effectiveness of energy-efficient computer network reengineering. Materials and Methods: The methodic uses analytical models for calculating power consumption of a computer network port operating in IEEE 802.3 standard and energy-efficient mode of IEEE 802.3az standard. For frame transmission time calculation in the communication channel used the queuing model. To determine the values of the network operation parameters proposed to use multiagent network monitoring method. Results: The methodic allows calculating the economic impact of a computer network transfer to energy-saving technology IEEE 802.3az. To determine the network performance parameters proposed to use network SNMP monitoring systems based on RMON MIB agents.

  13. Secure energy efficient routing protocol for wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Ayan Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment of economic sensor networks has always been a boon to disaster management applications. However, their vulnerability to a number of security threats makes communication a challenging task. This paper proposes a new routing technique to prevent from both external threats and internal threats like hello flooding, eavesdropping and wormhole attack. In this approach one way hash chain is used to reduce the energy drainage. Level based event driven clustering also helps to save energy. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme extends network lifetime even when the cluster based wireless sensor network is under attack.

  14. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...... and have a steady power supply. Protocol optimizations for the nomadic scenario are presented and validated through simulations...

  15. Node Heterogeneity for Energy Efficient Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    is the introduction of heterogeneous nodes regarding energy, and the other is to synchronize the local clock of the node with the global clock of the network. In this context, the paper proposes Node Heterogeneity aware Energy Efficient Synchronization Algorithm (NHES). It works on the formation of cluster......-based spanning tree (SPT). In the initial stage of the algorithm, the nodes are grouped into the cluster and form the tree. The nodes in the cluster and cluster heads in the network are synchronized with the notion of the global time scale of the network. Also, clock skews may cause the errors and be one...... of the sources of delay and energy consumption. To minimize the energy consumptions and delay, NHES synchronizes the time slots using TDMA based MAC protocol. The results show that level by level synchronization used in NHES is energy efficient and has less delay as compared to the state-of-the-art solutions...

  16. Energy scaling and reduction in controlling complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Wang, Le-Zhi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Recent works revealed that the energy required to control a complex network depends on the number of driving signals and the energy distribution follows an algebraic scaling law. If one implements control using a small number of drivers, e.g. as determined by the structural controllability theory, there is a high probability that the energy will diverge. We develop a physical theory to explain the scaling behaviour through identification of the fundamental structural elements, the longest control chains (LCCs), that dominate the control energy. Based on the LCCs, we articulate a strategy to drastically reduce the control energy (e.g. in a large number of real-world networks). Owing to their structural nature, the LCCs may shed light on energy issues associated with control of nonlinear dynamical networks. PMID:27152220

  17. Energy efficiency in hybrid mobile and wireless networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziaul Haq Abbas

    2012-07-01

    . Towards this direction, various solutions have been proposed, ranging from deployment strategies for base stations to cooperative techniques etc. However, as base stations have the largest share in a network's energy consumption, methods that allow lightly-loaded base stations sleep or be switched off are possible means as a feasible step towards green communications. In this dissertation, we tackle the above mentioned problems from two perspectives, i.e., mobile station's and operator's perspectives. More specifically, by taking into account the amount of transferred data in uplinks and downlinks individually for various components in a hybrid network, strategies are proposed to reduce mobile station's battery energy consumption. For this purpose, other parameters such as link distance and remaining battery energy can also be considered for handover decision making, in order to maximize energy efficiency of the mobile station. To optimize long-term energy consumption of the mobile stations operated in such scenarios, a Markov decision process-based methodology is proposed as our contribution to this topic. Moreover, from operator's perspective, a network energy conservation scheme which may switch off a base station is proposed for micro- or pico-cells scenarios. Both deterministic and probabilistic schemes are proposed for network energy conservation. The problems considered and the solutions proposed in this dissertation advance the frontiers of the research work within the theme of energy efficiency for mobile devices as well as hybrid mobile and wireless networks.(Author)

  18. The optimization of energy storage capacity for distribution networks with the consideration of probability correlation between wind farms based on PSO algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Hongxia; Cao, Xueyuan; Zhu, Xiaojun; Gan, Zhongxue

    2017-04-01

    With the rapid development of the energy networks, various forms of renewable energy resources are absorbed into it. Because of the inherent random behaviour of the renewable resources, introducing them into the energy network will destroy the stability of the grids. It is required to use proper energy storages to reduce the uncertain fluctuation from the renewable energy resources. For a concrete model research, this paper presented an explicit method to give suitable capacities of the energy storages in consideration of the economics of the storage, grid losses and the probabilities of the bus voltages violation, for situations of the winds-power generations injected into the power network. Furthermore, the influence of the correlation between the different winds farms on the optimal storage capacity can also be studied by this method.

  19. Network-Based Management Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Allen L.

    Network-based management procedures serve as valuable aids in organizational management, achievement of objectives, problem solving, and decisionmaking. Network techniques especially applicable to educational management systems are the program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and the critical path method (CPM). Other network charting…

  20. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  1. Delay guaranteed VoD services over group-based integrated fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks with energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Dai, Shifang; Chang, Xiangmao

    2015-08-01

    In group-based fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks, where wireless clients are divided into several groups according to their interested Internet services, VoD services will meet new challenges considering the diversity of video requesting probability for each wireless group. In this paper, we categorize wireless groups into "video-hot" group with great interest in VoD services and "video-cold" group with infrequent video requesting. For video requests from "video-hot" groups, we firstly propose an energy-efficient optical network unit (ONU) selection approach to reduce ONU power consumption by selecting a subset of ONUs to support such requests, then our previously proposed rebroadcast and patching scheme can be effectively applied. For video requests from "video-cold" groups, a batched multicasting scheme is presented for energy and bandwidth saving. Both of the VoD schemes mentioned in this study are with the aim to minimize worst-case playback delay (WPD) which is particularly important as Internet users. In view of that some ONUs may need to handle video requests from two kinds of group, optimal ONU channel assignment aims to minimize weighted overall WPD is also studied. The efficiency of the work is finally demonstrated by the simulations.

  2. Accounting for Energy Cost When Designing Energy-Efficient Wireless Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Vallero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase of the data traffic demand, wireless access networks, through which users access telecommunication services, have expanded, in terms of size and of capability and, consequently, in terms of power consumption. Therefore, costs to buy the necessary power for the supply of base stations of those networks is becoming very high, impacting the communication cost. In this study, strategies to reduce the amount of money spent for the purchase of the energy consumed by the base stations are proposed for a network powered by solar panels, energy batteries and the power grid. First, the variability of the energy prices is exploited. It provides a cost reduction of up to 30%, when energy is bought in advance. If a part of the base stations is deactivated when the energy price is higher than a given threshold, a compromise between the energy cost and the user coverage drop is needed. In the simulated scenario, the necessary energy cost can be reduced by more than 40%, preserving the user coverage by greater than 94%. Second, the network is introduced to the energy market: it buys and sells energy from/to the traditional power grid. Finally, costs are reduced by the reduction of power consumption of the network, achieved by using microcell base stations. In the considered scenario, up to a 31% cost reduction is obtained, without the deterioration of the quality of service, but a huge Capex expenditure is required.

  3. Energy Aware Clustering Algorithms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshan, Noushin; Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Liu, Chenglian

    2011-09-01

    The sensor nodes deployed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are extremely power constrained, so maximizing the lifetime of the entire networks is mainly considered in the design. In wireless sensor networks, hierarchical network structures have the advantage of providing scalable and energy efficient solutions. In this paper, we investigate different clustering algorithms for WSNs and also compare these clustering algorithms based on metrics such as clustering distribution, cluster's load balancing, Cluster Head's (CH) selection strategy, CH's role rotation, node mobility, clusters overlapping, intra-cluster communications, reliability, security and location awareness.

  4. A new MATLAB/Simulink model of triple-junction solar cell and MPPT based on artificial neural networks for photovoltaic energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegazy Rezk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new Matlab/Simulink model of a PV module and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT system for high efficiency InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell. The proposed technique is based on Artificial Neural Network. The equivalent circuit model of the triple-junction solar cell includes the parameters of each sub-cell. It is also include the effect of the temperature variations on the energy gap of each sub-cell as well as the diode reverse saturation currents. The implementation of a PV model is based on the triple-junction solar cell in the form of masked block in Matlab/Simulink software package that has a user-friendly icon and dialog. It is fast and accurate technique to follow the maximum power point. The simulation results of the proposed MPPT technique are compared with Perturb and Observe MPPT technique. The output power and energy of the proposed technique are higher than that of the Perturb and Observe MPPT technique. The proposed technique increases the output energy per day for a one PV module from 3.37 kW h to 3.75 kW h, i.e. a percentage of 11.28%.

  5. Energy Efficiency Challenges of 5G Small Cell Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaohu; Yang, Jing; Gharavi, Hamid; Sun, Yang

    2017-05-01

    The deployment of a large number of small cells poses new challenges to energy efficiency, which has often been ignored in fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. While massive multiple-input multiple outputs (MIMO) will reduce the transmission power at the expense of higher computational cost, the question remains as to which computation or transmission power is more important in the energy efficiency of 5G small cell networks. Thus, the main objective in this paper is to investigate the computation power based on the Landauer principle. Simulation results reveal that more than 50% of the energy is consumed by the computation power at 5G small cell base stations (BSs). Moreover, the computation power of 5G small cell BS can approach 800 watt when the massive MIMO (e.g., 128 antennas) is deployed to transmit high volume traffic. This clearly indicates that computation power optimization can play a major role in the energy efficiency of small cell networks.

  6. Energy flow models for the estimation of technical losses in distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Mau Teng; Tan, Chin Hooi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents energy flow models developed to estimate technical losses in distribution network. Energy flow models applied in this paper is based on input energy and peak demand of distribution network, feeder length and peak demand, transformer loading capacity, and load factor. Two case studies, an urban distribution network and a rural distribution network are used to illustrate application of the energy flow models. Results on technical losses obtained for the two distribution networks are consistent and comparable to network of similar types and characteristics. Hence, the energy flow models are suitable for practical application.

  7. Optimizing Cellular Networks Enabled with Renewal Energy via Strategic Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insoo Sohn

    Full Text Available An important issue in the cellular industry is the rising energy cost and carbon footprint due to the rapid expansion of the cellular infrastructure. Greening cellular networks has thus attracted attention. Among the promising green cellular network techniques, the renewable energy-powered cellular network has drawn increasing attention as a critical element towards reducing carbon emissions due to massive energy consumption in the base stations deployed in cellular networks. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is used to evaluate and optimize systems with multiple players with conflicting objectives and has been successfully used to solve various problems in cellular networks. In this paper, we model the green energy utilization and power consumption optimization problem of a green cellular network as a pilot power selection strategic game and propose a novel distributed algorithm based on a strategic learning method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves correlated equilibrium of the pilot power selection game, resulting in optimum green energy utilization and power consumption reduction.

  8. Optimizing Cellular Networks Enabled with Renewal Energy via Strategic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Insoo; Liu, Huaping; Ansari, Nirwan

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the cellular industry is the rising energy cost and carbon footprint due to the rapid expansion of the cellular infrastructure. Greening cellular networks has thus attracted attention. Among the promising green cellular network techniques, the renewable energy-powered cellular network has drawn increasing attention as a critical element towards reducing carbon emissions due to massive energy consumption in the base stations deployed in cellular networks. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is used to evaluate and optimize systems with multiple players with conflicting objectives and has been successfully used to solve various problems in cellular networks. In this paper, we model the green energy utilization and power consumption optimization problem of a green cellular network as a pilot power selection strategic game and propose a novel distributed algorithm based on a strategic learning method. The simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm achieves correlated equilibrium of the pilot power selection game, resulting in optimum green energy utilization and power consumption reduction.

  9. Poster abstract: A decentralized routing scheme based on a zero-sum game to optimize energy in solar powered sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2014-04-01

    This poster is aimed at solving the problem of maximizing the energy margin of a solar-powered sensor network at a fixed time horizon, to maximize the network performance during an event to monitor. Using a game theoretic approach, the optimal routing maximizing the energy margin of the network at a given time under solar power forcing can be computed in a decentralized way and solved exactly through dynamic programming with a low overall complexity. We also show that this decentralized algorithm is simple enough to be implemented on practical sensor nodes. Such an algorithm would be very useful whenever the energy margin of a solar-powered sensor network has to be maximized at a specific time. © 2014 IEEE.

  10. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  11. Distribution network topology identification based on synchrophasor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Conti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A distribution system upgrade moving towards Smart Grid implementation is necessary to face the proliferation of distributed generators and electric vehicles, in order to satisfy the increasing demand for high quality, efficient, secure, reliable energy supply. This perspective requires taking into account system vulnerability to cyber attacks. An effective attack could destroy stored information about network structure, historical data and so on. Countermeasures and network applications could be made impracticable since most of them are based on the knowledge of network topology. Usually, the location of each link between nodes in a network is known. Therefore, the methods used for topology identification determine if a link is open or closed. When no information on the location of the network links is available, these methods become totally unfeasible. This paper presents a method to identify the network topology using only nodal measures obtained by means of phasor measurement units.

  12. Dual-Cell HSDPA for Network Energy Saving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    The increasing demand for mobile broadband is pushing existing 3G networks closer to their capacity limit. Additional carriers together with new HSPA features (HSPA+) are expected to provide the next necessary boost in network capacity. One specific feature in HSPA+ is referred to as Dual...... consumption. This paper proposes an energy saving feature that exploits variations in network traffic. Based on the individual load of each sector, the feature determines if the secondary carrier is detrimental for reaching some pre-set minimum requirements. Each sector is allowed to switch off one...... of their two carriers, during periods of low network traffic. It is concluded that an energy saving ranging between 14% and 36% is possible. This saving comes without degradation of network performance....

  13. Proportional-integral and proportional-integral-derivative-based cyclic sleep controllers with anti-windup technique for energy-efficient and delay-aware passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takahiro; Kubo, Ryogo

    2016-08-01

    In energy-efficient passive optical network (PON) systems, the increase in the queuing delays caused by the power-saving mechanism of optical network units (ONUs) is an important issue. Some researchers have proposed quality-of-service (QoS)-aware ONU cyclic sleep controllers in PON systems. We have proposed proportional (P) and proportional-derivative (PD)-based controllers to maintain the average queuing delay at a constant level regardless of the amount of downstream traffic. However, sufficient performance has not been obtained because of the sleep period limitation. In this paper, proportional-integral (PI) and proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-based controllers considering the sleep period limitation, i.e., using an anti-windup (AW) technique, are proposed to improve both the QoS and power-saving performance. Simulations confirm that the proposed controllers provide better performance than conventional controllers in terms of the average downstream queuing delay and the time occupancy of ONU active periods.

  14. Strategic business networks in theory and practice. Success factors for network-based management of market partnerships in the energy sector; Strategische Unternehmensnetzwerke in Theorie und Praxis. Erfolgsfaktoren eines netzwerkbasierten Managements von Marktpartnerschaften in der Energiewirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennigs, Joerg

    2011-07-01

    Inspired by the steadily growing discussion around the phenomenon of human networks in science and professional practice the present study undertakes to investigate to what extent the research strategy of business networks can be adapted to the management of market partnerships in the energy sector and is suitable for facilitating the tasks and goals of an efficient network management. Especially in industrial branches with low customer contact intensity, there is great economic value in knowing about potential network partners who could serve as links to customers and the possibilities of customer development and of encouraging customers to participate in desired network activities.

  15. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand. The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network optimization procedure and the network simultaneous factor. Through the simulation, the overall system energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system components are identified. Based on the results, suggestions are given to further reduce the system energy/exergy losses and increase the quality match between the consumer heating demand and the district heating supply. -- Highlights: ► Exergy and energy analysis for low and medium temperature district heating systems. ► Different district heating network dimensioning methods are analyzed. ► Major exergy losses are identified in the district heating network and the in-house substations. ► Advantages to apply low temperature district heating are highlighted through exergy analysis. ► The influence of thermal by-pass on system exergy/energy performance is analyzed.

  16. Future indoor light and associated energy consumption based on professionals' visions: A practice- and network-oriented analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franceschini, Simone; Borup, Mads; Rosales-Carreón, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    Through the insight and visions of Danish lighting experts, this manuscript investigates relationships between future lighting technologies and practices and the expected impacts on energy and lighting consumption. The light-emitting diode (LED) will be the dominant technology of the future smart...... conclude that political guidance is needed if society wants to assure the reduction of energy consumption through widespread diffusion of smart LED lights....... light systems. Though, energy efficiency is expected to improve, new market players will appear and new lighting opportunites will be exploited that, in turn, will increase the demand for light. A rebound effect is expected. The overall impact on the future consumption of energy is uncertain, so we...

  17. AN INTELLIGENT HYBRID NEURAL NETWORK MODEL IN RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gnana Sheela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to predict wind speed automatically in renewable energy systems. Wind energy is one of the renewable energy systems with lowest cost of production of electricity with largest resources available. By the reason of the fluctuation and volatility in wind, the wind speed prediction provides the challenges in the stability of renewable energy system. The aim is to compute predicted wind speed based on hybrid model which integrates a Self Organizing Map (SOM and Back propagation (BP neural network. The simulation result shows that the proposed approach provides significant result of wind speed prediction with less error rates. Due to seasonality, single computing models have some disadvantages such as fluctuality, randomness and unstable. These disadvantages are rectified by using hybrid computing neural network models. Wind speed prediction is an important in the field of wind power plants.

  18. Sinc-function based Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per Printz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM-learning......The purpose of this paper is to describe a neural network (SNN), that is based on Shannons ideas of reconstruction of a real continuous function from its samples. The basic function, used in this network, is the Sinc-function. Two learning algorithms are described. A simple one called IM...

  19. Analysis of Energy Conservation in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Qiang; Blow, Keith J.; Holding, David J.; Marshall, Ian W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use the Erlang theory to quantitatively analyse the trade offs between energy conservation and quality of service in an ad-hoc wireless sensor network. Nodes can be either sleeping, where no transmission or reception can occur, or awake where traffic is processed. Increasing the proportion of time spent in the sleeping state will decrease throughput and increase packet loss and delivery delay. However there is a complex relationship between sleeping time and energy consumptio...

  20. Towards energy aware optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesk, Ivan; Osadola, Tolulope; Idris, Siti

    2013-10-01

    In a today's world, information technology has been identified as one of the major factors driving economic prosperity. Datacenters businesses have been growing significantly in the past few years. The equipments in these datacenters need to be efficiently connected to each other and also to the outside world in order to enable effective exchange of information. This is why there is need for highly scalable, energy savvy and reliable network connectivity infrastructure that is capable of accommodating the large volume of data being exchanged at any time within the datacenter network and the outside network in general. These devices that can ensure such effective connectivity currently require large amount of energy in order to meet up with these increasing demands. In this paper, an overview of works being done towards realizing energy aware optical networks and interconnects for datacenters is presented. Also an OCDMA approach is discussed as potential multiple access technique for future optical network interconnections. We also presented some challenges that might inhibit effective implementation of the OCDMA multiplexing scheme.

  1. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  2. Status of (US) High Energy Physics Networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, H.E.

    1987-02-01

    The current status of Networking to and between computers used by the High Energy Physics community is discussed. Particular attention is given to developments over the last year and to future prospects. Comparison between the current status and that of two years ago indicates that considerable strides have been made but that much remains to be done to achieve an acceptable level of functionality

  3. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand...

  4. Energy Complexity of Recurrent Neural Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2014), s. 953-973 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neural network * finite automaton * energy complexity * optimal size Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2014

  5. SmartHome: a domotic framework based on smart sensing and actuator network to reduce energy wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; De Rango, Floriano; Falbo, Domenico; Barletta, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Domestic environment and human interaction with services supplied by domotic devices is going to be a very interesting application field. With a domotic system is possible to achieve great interaction between human beings, environments and smart devices. The enhancing of these interactions is the main goal of this work whose intent is to improve the classic concept of domotics. The framework we developed can be used for several application fields such as lighting, heating, conditioning or water management and energy consumption. In particular, the proposed system can optimize energy consumptions by rising awareness to users that have full control of their house and the possibility to save money and reduce the impact of the energetic consumes to the earth, matching the new "green" motto requirements. In this way, the overall system wants to match the central concept of Internet Of Things (IoT) as well. From this point of view a complex automation system with smart devices make possible a more efficient way to produce, follow and manage domotic policies. Following the spread of IoT, for this work we designed and implemented new plug-and-play and ready-to-use smart devices that are part of a complex automation system that offers a user-friendly web application and allows users to control and interact with different plans of their house in order to make life more comfortable and be aware of their energy consumptions. Control and awareness arc the two key points that led us to develop the proposed system.

  6. Potential Energy Surface-Based Automatic Deduction of Conformational Transition Networks and Its Application on Quantum Mechanical Landscapes of d-Glucose Conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroko; Oda, Tomohiro; Nakakoji, Kumiyo; Uno, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Iwata, Satoru; Ohno, Koichi

    2016-11-08

    This paper describes our approach that is built upon the potential energy surface (PES)-based conformational analysis. This approach automatically deduces a conformational transition network, called a conformational reaction route map (r-map), by using the Scaled Hypersphere Search of the Anharmonic Downward Distortion Following method (SHS-ADDF). The PES-based conformational search has been achieved by using large ADDF, which makes it possible to trace only low transition state (TS) barriers while restraining bond lengths and structures with high free energy. It automatically performs sampling the minima and TS structures by simply taking into account the mathematical feature of PES without requiring any a priori specification of variable internal coordinates. An obtained r-map is composed of equilibrium (EQ) conformers connected by reaction routes via TS conformers, where all of the reaction routes are already confirmed during the process of the deduction using the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) method. The postcalculation analysis of the deduced r-map is interactively carried out using the RMapViewer software we have developed. This paper presents computational details of the PES-based conformational analysis and its application to d-glucose. The calculations have been performed for an isolated glucose molecule in the gas phase at the RHF/6-31G level. The obtained conformational r-map for α-d-glucose is composed of 201 EQ and 435 TS conformers and that for β-d-glucose is composed of 202 EQ and 371 TS conformers. For the postcalculation analysis of the conformational r-maps by using the RMapViewer software program we have found multiple minimum energy paths (MEPs) between global minima of 1 C 4 and 4 C 1 chair conformations. The analysis using RMapViewer allows us to confirm the thermodynamic and kinetic predominance of 4 C 1 conformations; that is, the potential energy of the global minimum of 4 C 1 is lower than that of 1 C 4 (thermodynamic predominance

  7. Energy-Efficient Routing in GMPLS Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a GMPLS controlled core network model that takes energy efficiency into account is built using OPNET MODELER. By extending the standard GMPLS routing protocol -- OSPF-TE, we are able to spread desired energy related information over the local area, and subsequently use RSVP......-TE for connection setup. The OSPF designing process of the simulation model is given in details, including necessary simplifications to enable a fast implementation while keeping the key characteristics of the GMPLS protocol behaviors. The efficiency of the proposed extensions are analyzed, and improved energy...

  8. Energy networks - The data serving the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    The complementary aspects of the electricity and gas transport networks open new perspectives for the construction of a global energy system that is smarter and oriented to the integration of renewable energies. Moving beyond existing cooperative projects on the security of supply, GRTgaz and RTE intend to draw benefit from the digital revolution to build a response to the regional issues of energy, transport and climate. The Open Data platform provides energy production and consumption data on national and local levels. Use of these multi-energy and multi-operator data will facilitate the development of local authority energy policies and contribute strongly to innovation. It will also contribute to the efficiency of stakeholders in the energy system to engage in more pertinent activities with regions. This first data set is part of the ongoing transparency approach adopted by GRTgaz and RTE to provide better information to citizens, regional authorities and economic actors, for use in developing and assessing energy policies. GRTgaz and RTE already operate web sites (Open Data RTE, Open Data GRTgaz) and applications (GRTgaz+ and eCO2mix), which provide open access to key data concerning energy transport networks. The new energy network data platform will be enriched over time with data from other electricity and gas infrastructure operators. RTE joins the Jupiter 1000 project driven by GRTgaz. The Jupiter 1000 project located in Fos-sur-Mer (Bouches-du-Rhone) is designed to test the technical and economic viability of the Power to Gas concept. This consists in transforming surplus electrical energy from renewable sources into methane by combining hydrogen with CO 2 , for injection and storage in gas networks. RTE has joined the Jupiter 1000 project driven by GRTgaz and featuring seven other industrial partners, with several objectives: manage its needs for flexibility, develop the integration of renewable energy sources and make a valuable contribution to the

  9. An Energy Conservative Wireless Sensor Networks Approach for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption of sensor nodes to prolong the lifetime of finite-capacity batteries and how to enhance the fault-tolerant ability of networks are the major challenges in design of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. In this paper, we present an energy-efficient system of WSNs for black pepper monitoring in tropical areas. At first, we optimized the base station antenna height in order to facilitate reliable communication, after which the Energy-efficient Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (ESPIN routing protocol was utilized to solve the energy saving challenge. We conducted radio propagation experiments in actual black pepper fields. The practical test results illustrate that the ESPIN protocol reduces redundant data transmission and whole energy consumption of network, and enhances the success rate of data transmission compared with traditional Sensor Protocol for Information via Negotiation (SPIN protocol. To further optimize topology for improving the network lifetime, we designed a symmetrical double-chain (SDC topology which is suitable to be deployed in farmland and compared the lifetime with traditional tree topology. Experiment results indicate SDC topology has a longer network lifetime than traditional tree topology. The system we designed will greatly help farmers to make more informed decisions on the efficient use of resources and hence improve black pepper productivity.

  10. Energy Efficient Routing Algorithms in Dynamic Optical Core Networks with Dual Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new energy efficient routing algorithms in optical core networks, with the application of solar energy sources and bundled links. A comprehensive solar energy model is described in the proposed network scenarios. Network performance in energy savings, connection blocking...... probability, resource utilization and bundled link usage are evaluated with dynamic network simulations. Results show that algorithms proposed aiming for reducing the dynamic part of the energy consumption of the network may raise the fixed part of the energy consumption meanwhile....

  11. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  12. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  13. Localization of Energy Harvesting Empowered Underwater Optical Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Nasir

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a received signal strength (RSS) based localization technique is developed for energy harvesting underwater optical wireless sensor networks (EH-UOWSNs), where the optical noise sources and channel impairments of seawater pose significant challenges for range estimation. Energy limitation is another major problem due to the limited battery power and difficulty in replacing or recharging the battery of an underwater sensor node. In the proposed framework, sensor nodes with insufficient battery, harvest the energy and starts communicating once it has sufficient energy storage. Network localization is carried out by measuring the RSSs of active nodes, which are modeled based on the underwater optical communication channel characteristics. Thereafter, block kernel matrices are computed for the RSS based range measurements. Unlike the traditional shortest-path approach, the proposed technique reduces the shortest path estimation for each block kernel matrix. Once the complete block kernel matrices are available, a closed form localization technique is developed to find the location of every optical sensor node in the network. Furthermore, an analytical expression for Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived as a benchmark to compare the localization performance of the proposed technique. Finally, extensive simulations show that the proposed technique outperforms the well-known network localization techniques.

  14. Network-based functional enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirel Christopher L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many methods have been developed to infer and reason about molecular interaction networks. These approaches often yield networks with hundreds or thousands of nodes and up to an order of magnitude more edges. It is often desirable to summarize the biological information in such networks. A very common approach is to use gene function enrichment analysis for this task. A major drawback of this method is that it ignores information about the edges in the network being analyzed, i.e., it treats the network simply as a set of genes. In this paper, we introduce a novel method for functional enrichment that explicitly takes network interactions into account. Results Our approach naturally generalizes Fisher’s exact test, a gene set-based technique. Given a function of interest, we compute the subgraph of the network induced by genes annotated to this function. We use the sequence of sizes of the connected components of this sub-network to estimate its connectivity. We estimate the statistical significance of the connectivity empirically by a permutation test. We present three applications of our method: i determine which functions are enriched in a given network, ii given a network and an interesting sub-network of genes within that network, determine which functions are enriched in the sub-network, and iii given two networks, determine the functions for which the connectivity improves when we merge the second network into the first. Through these applications, we show that our approach is a natural alternative to network clustering algorithms. Conclusions We presented a novel approach to functional enrichment that takes into account the pairwise relationships among genes annotated by a particular function. Each of the three applications discovers highly relevant functions. We used our methods to study biological data from three different organisms. Our results demonstrate the wide applicability of our methods. Our algorithms are

  15. Secure Broadcast in Energy-Aware Wireless Sensor Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lazos, Loukas; Poovendran, Radha

    2002-01-01

    .... The authors show that existing efficient key distribution techniques for wired networks that rely on logical hierarchies are extremely energy inefficient for energy-constrained wireless ad-hoc networks...

  16. Optimized energy-delay sub-network routing protocol development and implementation for wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonda, James W; Zawodniok, Maciej; Jagannathan, S; Watkins, Steve E

    2008-01-01

    The development and the implementation issues of a reactive optimized energy-delay sub-network routing (OEDSR) protocol for wireless sensor networks (WSN) are introduced and its performance is contrasted with the popular ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol. Analytical results illustrate the performance of the proposed OEDSR protocol, while experimental results utilizing a hardware testbed under various scenarios demonstrate improvements in energy efficiency of the OEDSR protocol. A hardware platform constructed at the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR), now the Missouri University of Science and Technology (MST), based on the Generation 4 Smart Sensor Node (G4-SSN) prototyping platform is also described. Performance improvements are shown in terms of end-to-end (E2E) delay, throughput, route-set-up time and drop rates and energy usage is given for three topologies, including a mobile topology. Additionally, results from the hardware testbed provide valuable lessons for network deployments. Under testing OEDSR provides a factor of ten improvement in the energy used in the routing session and extends network lifetime compared to AODV. Depletion experiments show that the time until the first node failure is extended by a factor of three with the network depleting and network lifetime is extended by 6.7%

  17. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  18. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  19. Optimal satisfaction degree in energy harvesting cognitive radio networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zan; Liu, Bo-Yang; Si, Jiang-Bo; Zhou, Fu-Hui

    2015-12-01

    A cognitive radio (CR) network with energy harvesting (EH) is considered to improve both spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency. A hidden Markov model (HMM) is used to characterize the imperfect spectrum sensing process. In order to maximize the whole satisfaction degree (WSD) of the cognitive radio network, a tradeoff between the average throughput of the secondary user (SU) and the interference to the primary user (PU) is analyzed. We formulate the satisfaction degree optimization problem as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. The satisfaction degree optimization problem is solved by using differential evolution (DE) algorithm. The proposed optimization problem allows the network to adaptively achieve the optimal solution based on its required quality of service (Qos). Numerical results are given to verify our analysis. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61301179), the Doctorial Programs Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20110203110011), and the 111 Project (Grant No. B08038).

  20. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  1. Forecasting Energy Commodity Prices Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Panella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new machine learning approach for price modeling is proposed. The use of neural networks as an advanced signal processing tool may be successfully used to model and forecast energy commodity prices, such as crude oil, coal, natural gas, and electricity prices. Energy commodities have shown explosive growth in the last decade. They have become a new asset class used also for investment purposes. This creates a huge demand for better modeling as what occurred in the stock markets in the 1970s. Their price behavior presents unique features causing complex dynamics whose prediction is regarded as a challenging task. The use of a Mixture of Gaussian neural network may provide significant improvements with respect to other well-known models. We propose a computationally efficient learning of this neural network using the maximum likelihood estimation approach to calibrate the parameters. The optimal model is identified using a hierarchical constructive procedure that progressively increases the model complexity. Extensive computer simulations validate the proposed approach and provide an accurate description of commodities prices dynamics.

  2. A genetic algorithm solution for the operation of green LTE networks with energy and environment considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-01-01

    The Base Station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings in cellular networks by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, the exploitation of renewable energies, as additional power sources in smart grids, becomes a real challenge to network operators to reduce power costs. In this paper, we propose a method based on genetic algorithms that decreases the energy consumption of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular network by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from the smart grid without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  3. A Hybrid Energy Sharing Framework for Green Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-12-09

    Cellular operators are increasingly turning towards renewable energy (RE) as an alternative to using traditional electricity in order to reduce operational expenditure and carbon footprint. Due to the randomness in both RE generation and mobile traffic at each base station (BS), a surplus or shortfall of energy may occur at any given time. To increase energy selfreliance and minimize the network’s energy cost, the operator needs to efficiently exploit the RE generated across all BSs. In this paper, a hybrid energy sharing framework for cellular network is proposed, where a combination of physical power lines and energy trading with other BSs using smart grid is used. Algorithms for physical power lines deployment between BSs, based on average and complete statistics of the net RE available, are developed. Afterwards, an energy management framework is formulated to optimally determine the quantities of electricity and RE to be procured and exchanged among BSs, respectively, while considering battery capacities and real-time energy pricing. Three cases are investigated where RE generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. Results investigate the time varying energy management of BSs and demonstrate considerable reduction in average energy cost thanks to the hybrid energy sharing scheme.

  4. Hydrogen energy based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    A concept to produce hydrogen of an energy carrier using nuclear energy was proposed since 1970s, and a number of process based on thermochemical method has been investigated after petroleum shock. As this method is used high temperature based on nuclear reactors, these researches are mainly carried out as a part of application of high temperature reactors, which has been carried out at an aim of the high temperature reactor application in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. On October, 2000, the 'First International Conference for Information Exchange on Hydrogen Production based on Nuclear Energy' was held by auspice of OECD/NEA, where hydrogen energy at energy view in the 21st Century, technology on hydrogen production using nuclear energy, and so on, were published. This commentary was summarized surveys and researches on hydrogen production using nuclear energy carried out by the Nuclear Hydrogen Research Group established on January, 2001 for one year. They contains, views on energy and hydrogen/nuclear energy, hydrogen production using nuclear energy and already finished researches, methods of hydrogen production using nuclear energy and their present conditions, concepts on production plants of nuclear hydrogen, resources on nuclear hydrogen production and effect on global environment, requests from market and acceptability of society, and its future process. (G.K.)

  5. SOFM Neural Network Based Hierarchical Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed network topology provides vital support for routing, data fusion, and target tracking in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Self-organization feature map (SOFM neural network is a major branch of artificial neural networks, which has self-organizing and self-learning features. In this paper, we propose a cluster-based topology control algorithm for WSNs, named SOFMHTC, which uses SOFM neural network to form a hierarchical network structure, completes cluster head selection by the competitive learning among nodes, and takes the node residual energy and the distance to the neighbor nodes into account in the clustering process. In addition, the approach of dynamically adjusting the transmitting power of the cluster head nodes is adopted to optimize the network topology. Simulation results show that SOFMHTC may get a better energy-efficient performance and make more balanced energy consumption compared with some existing algorithms in WSNs.

  6. An optimal stochastic control theory for distributed energy harvesting networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, J. T.

    2009-03-01

    A new approach, based on H2 optimal control theory, is presented for the design of feedback controllers for energy harvesting systems for maximal power generation. The theory applies to stochastically excited vibratory systems in broadband stationary response, and allows for harvested power to be explicitly optimized. It is applicable to both single-transducer systems as well as coupled networks of many transducers. The theory accounts for the influence of energy harvesting on the dynamics of the structure to which the transducers are attached. It also accounts for resistive and semiconductor dissipation in the power-electronic network interfacing the transducers with energy storage. Due to its predominance in the literature, a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam is used as the context for the theory, and simulation examples are used to illustrate various aspects of the optimal controllers.

  7. Final report of the study on heat networks in Ile-de-France, contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional scheme + Judicial aspect + Economic aspect + Assessment of development potential of urban heating in Ile-de-France - Analysis document based on the study on heat networks contributing to the elaboration of the climate-air-energy regional plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    A first report is a contribution to the elaboration of a plan aiming at the substitution of fossil energies, at the development of heat deliveries, while maintaining network economic profitability. Such a plan is based on the connection of buildings, the renovation, extension and interconnection of existing networks, and the creation of new heat networks. The study addressed technical, urban, financial, judicial and cartographic aspects. Public statistical data have been used and interviews of actors (network funders, representatives of delegating authorities, social landlords, administrations, and technical professions) have been performed. A guide of good practices is proposed regarding contract reviewing conditions, possibilities of revision of subscribed power. Prospective issues are discussed: strategic stakes and deposits, actions paths and tools, strategy and action plan. Appendices address methodologies, organisation of the geographical information system, judicial aspect with the circular of 1982, financial data and aspects. Then, a set of reports more precisely presents various aspects addressed as a contribution for the study of heat networks in Ile-de-France: the judicial aspect (present status, guide of good judicial practices), the economic aspect (present status of sale prices and costs, analysis of financing, of revision formula), and an assessment of urban heating development (context, technical aspect, analysis of the geographical information system)

  8. Vision of future energy networks - Final report; Vision of future energy networks - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, K.; Andersson, G.

    2008-07-01

    In the framework of the project 'Vision of Future Networks', models and methods have been developed that enable a greenfield approach for energy systems with multiple energy carriers. Applying a greenfield approach means that no existing infrastructure is taken into account when designing the energy system, i.e. the system is virtually put up on a green field. The developed models refer to the impacts of energy storage on power systems with stochastic generation, to the integrated modelling and optimization of multi-carrier energy systems, to reliability considerations of future energy systems as well as to possibilities of combined transmission of multiple energy carriers. Key concepts, which have been developed in the framework of this project, are the Energy Hub (for the conversion and storage of energy) and the Energy Interconnector (for energy transmission). By means of these concepts, it is possible to design structures for future energy systems being able to cope with the growing requirements regarding energy supply. (author)

  9. Design considerations for energy efficient, resilient, multi-layer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Hansen, Line Pyndt; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates different network design considerations with respect to energy-efficiency, under green-field resilient multi-layer network deployment. The problem of energy efficient, reliable multi-layer network design is known to result in different trade-offs between key performance...... in multi-layer networks and performance measures such as network resource utilization, availability, agility to traffic fluctuations and energy consumption. A green-field network deployment scenario is considered, where different resiliency methods, design methodologies and grooming strategies are applied...

  10. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN): Customer satisfaction survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, A.V. [Information International Associates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Henderson, D.P. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    1996-04-22

    The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Network (EREN) Customer Satisfaction Survey was developed and executed in support of EREN`s continuous quality improvement (CQI) plan. The study was designed to provide information about the demographic make up of EREN users, the value or benefits they derive from EREN, the kinds and quality of services they want, their levels of satisfaction with existing services, their preferences in both the sources of service and the means of delivery, and to provide benchmark data for the establishment of continuous quality improvement measures. The survey was performed by soliciting voluntary participation from members of the EREN Users Group. It was executed in two phases; the first being conducted by phone using a randomly selected group; and the second being conducted electronically and which was open to all of the remaining members of the Users Group. The survey results are described.

  11. Expected Transmission Energy Route Metric for Wireless Mesh Senor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanLiang Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesh is a network topology that achieves high throughput and stable intercommunication. With great potential, it is expected to be the key architecture of future networks. Wireless sensor networks are an active research area with numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year. The overall performance of a WSN highly depends on the energy consumption of the network. This paper designs a new routing metric for wireless mesh sensor networks. Results from simulation experiments reveal that the new metric algorithm improves the energy balance of the whole network and extends the lifetime of wireless mesh sensor networks (WMSNs.

  12. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  13. Exploring the challenges of energy and resources network governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poocharoen, Ora-orn; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    While a growing amount of literature has recently emerged describing network governance, less attention has been paid to evaluating the actual performance of networks. Our paper looks at the challenges facing network governance for natural resources (primarily logging and forestry) and energy (primarily renewable energy and energy efficiency) in Asia. The paper investigates what network governance is, and what types of challenges networks have to tackle. It then develops a qualitative analytical framework to evaluate the effectiveness of networks consisting of five criteria: (1) clarity of roles and objectives among members, (2) having strong, independent, continual sources of funding, (3) institutional formality (having a permanent secretariat, budget, full time staff, etc.), (4) efficacy (ability to accomplish its mission and goals at the least possible cost); and (5) level of interdependency among members. Finally, we apply this framework to four case studies: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Centre for Energy, Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), ASEAN Regional Knowledge Network on Forests and Climate Change (FCC), and ASEAN Regional Knowledge Network on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG). These cases illustrate effective (or ineffective) environmental and energy networks and the factors that are associated with network governance. - Highlights: ► This article evaluates four cases of energy and resources network governance. ► We assess these cases according to five criteria. ► We illustrate the effectiveness (and ineffectiveness) of these networks.

  14. Receiver Based Traffic Control Mechanism to Protect Low Capacity Network in Infrastructure Based Wireless Mesh Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed Sherjeel Ahmad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Zeeshan Shafi

    Infrastructure-based Wireless Mesh Networks are emerging as an affordable, robust, flexible and scalable technology. With the advent of Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) the dream of connecting multiple technology based networks seems to come true. A fully secure WMN is still a challenge for the researchers. In infrastructure-based WMNs almost all types of existing Wireless Networks like Wi-Fi, Cellular, WiMAX, and Sensor etc can be connected through Wireless Mesh Routers (WMRs). This situation can lead to a security problem. Some nodes can be part of the network with high processing power, large memory and least energy issues while others may belong to a network having low processing power, small memory and serious energy limitations. The later type of the nodes is very much vulnerable to targeted attacks. In our research we have suggested to set some rules on the WMR to mitigate these kinds of targeted flooding attacks. The WMR will then share those set of rules with other WMRs for Effective Utilization of Resources.

  15. Balancing act: Government roles in an energy conservation network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterman, A.; Kourula, A.; Levitt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Government-led interorganizational alliance networks present a sensible opportunity to overcome many societal challenges through collaborative governance. In particular, few researchers have studied alliance networks in the field of energy conservation in commercial buildings—a sector with unique

  16. Host Event Based Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan Chugg

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of INL’s research on this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of a host event based network monitoring tool and the effects on host performance. Current host based network monitoring tools work on polling which can miss activity if it occurs between polls. Instead of polling, a tool could be developed that makes use of event APIs in the operating system to receive asynchronous notifications of network activity. Analysis and logging of these events will allow the tool to construct the complete real-time and historical network configuration of the host while the tool is running. This research focused on three major operating systems commonly used by SCADA systems: Linux, WindowsXP, and Windows7. Windows 7 offers two paths that have minimal impact on the system and should be seriously considered. First is the new Windows Event Logging API, and, second, Windows 7 offers the ALE API within WFP. Any future work should focus on these methods.

  17. HAWC Energy Reconstruction via Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Samuel; HAWC Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The High-Altitude Water-Cherenkov (HAWC) γ-ray observatory is located at 4100 m above sea level on the Sierra Negra mountain in the state of Puebla, Mexico. Its 300 water-filled tanks are instrumented with PMTs that detect Cherenkov light produced by charged particles in atmospheric air showers induced by TeV γ-rays. The detector became fully operational in March of 2015. With a 2-sr field of view and duty cycle exceeding 90%, HAWC is a survey instrument sensitive to diverse γ-ray sources, including supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei, and others. Particle-acceleration mechanisms at these sources can be inferred by studying their energy spectra, particularly at high energies. We have developed a technique for estimating primary- γ-ray energies using an artificial neural network (ANN). Input variables to the ANN are selected to characterize shower multiplicity in the detector, the fraction of the shower contained in the detector, and atmospheric attenuation of the shower. Monte Carlo simulations show that the new estimator has superior performance to the current estimator used in HAWC publications. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  18. Entropy and Energy in Quantum Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, David K.

    Quantum channels are functions that map density matrices to density matrices. They can be used to describe a vast array of system environment interactions for quantum mechanical systems. The focus in quantum information theory lies on the study of the information content -- the quantum entropy -- of input and output system. The property of how much information a channel can convey is called capacity. When two quantum channels are combined they act on a bigger, possibly entangled state in parallel. The effects of entanglement on the capacity of a pair of channels have been widely studied. Still, recent work showed unexpected behavior. Hastings [33] found that the capacities of two channels to transmit classical information does not simply add, but can exceed the sum of the individual quantum capacities, a property called superadditivity. We study Hastings' work and find estimates for how large the dimensions of such channels would have to be. The question of capacity relates to the behavior of quantum channels in extremal cases, when the output entropy is minimized. It is natural to wonder about the "standard" behavior of quantum channels and consider their average output entropy. We have studied this behavior in particular in cases where many relatively simple quantum channels act in parallel. When combining quantum channels in parallel, the parts of the system evolve independently of each other -- up to entanglement -- and only interact with the environment. Expanding on this idea one can think of a system where the parts not only interact with the environment but also directly with each other, a quantum channel network. Interesting cases of such systems arise naturally in the study of large biological molecules. In this case, information is often transmitted via energy pulses. Thus, the study of entropy and the study of energy overlap. Of particular interest to us are antennas in photo-active systems, they absorb light energy and transports it to a chemical

  19. Energy management and multi-layer control of networked microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Ramon

    Networked microgrids is a group of neighboring microgrids that has ability to interchange power when required in order to increase reliability and resiliency. Networked microgrid can operate in different possible configurations including: islanded microgrid, a grid-connected microgrid without a tie-line converter, a grid-connected microgrid with a tie-line converter, and networked microgrids. These possible configurations and specific characteristics of renewable energy offer challenges in designing control and management algorithms for voltage, frequency and power in all possible operating scenarios. In this work, control algorithm is designed based on large-signal model that enables microgrid to operate in wide range of operating points. A combination between PI controller and feed-forward measured system responses will compensate for the changes in operating points. The control architecture developed in this work has multi-layers and the outer layer is slower than the inner layer in time response. The main responsibility of the designed controls are to regulate voltage magnitude and frequency, as well as output power of the DG(s). These local controls also integrate with a microgrid level energy management system or microgrid central controller (MGCC) for power and energy balance for. the entire microgrid in islanded, grid-connected, or networked microgid mode. The MGCC is responsible to coordinate the lower level controls to have reliable and resilient operation. In case of communication network failure, the decentralized energy management will operate locally and will activate droop control. Simulation results indicate the superiority of designed control algorithms compared to existing ones.

  20. Sustainable Performance in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    In this practical demo we illustrate the concept of "sustainable performance" in Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). In particular, for different classes of applications and under several energy harvesting scenarios, we show how it is possible to have sustainable performance when...... nodes in the network are powered by ambient energy....

  1. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  2. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Farrar, C. R.; Todd, M. D.; Hodgkiss, T.; Rosing, T.

    2007-02-26

    This report has been developed based on information exchanges at a 2.5-day workshop on energy harvesting for embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems that was held June 28-30, 2005, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The workshop was hosted by the LANL/UCSD Engineering Institute (EI). This Institute is an education- and research-focused collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), Jacobs School of Engineering. A Statistical Pattern Recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and their respective power requirements are summarized, followed by a discussion of SHM sensor network paradigms, power requirements for these networks and power optimization strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations associated with the current technology are addressed. This discussion also addresses current energy harvesting applications and system integration issues. The report concludes by defining some future research directions and possible technology demonstrations that are aimed at transitioning the concept of energy harvesting for embedded SHM sensing systems from laboratory research to field-deployed engineering prototypes.

  3. Design and Performance Analysis of Multi-tier Heterogeneous Network through Coverage, Throughput and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabbir,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented acceleration in wireless industry strongly compels wireless operators to increase their data network throughput, capacity and coverage on emergent basis. In upcoming 5G heterogeneous networks inclusion of low power nodes (LPNs like pico cells and femto cells for increasing network’s throughput, capacity and coverage are getting momentum. Addition of LPNs in such a massive level will eventually make a network populated in terms of base stations (BSs.The dense deployments of BSs will leads towards high operating expenditures (Op-Ex, capital expenditure (Cap-Ex and most importantly high energy consumption in future generation networks. Recognizing theses networks issues this research work investigates data throughput and energy efficiency of 5G multi-tier heterogeneous network. The network is modeled using tools from stochastic geometry. Monte Carlo results confirmed that rational deployment of LPNs can contribute towards increased throughput along with better energy efficiency of overall network.

  4. Measuring and evaluating energy consumption in street lighting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiga, P.; Gasparovsky, D.

    2012-01-01

    Smart metering and smart grid are incoming technologies that provide new opportunities in various fields. In connection with the issue of evaluation of the energy aspects of public lighting networks opens up the possibility of evaluating and measuring consumption. Based on the obtained values would be possible to determine energy consumption of lighting systems. This obtained value could serve as a basis for comparing the relevant networks and thus the optimality assessment of lighting designs. Currently, the measure placed in the switchboard of public lighting. If we have considered sections parametramim same lighting, it is necessary to obtain more value from the measured or determined to assess the consumption of time. Proposal of such methods is still under construction but the basic methods have already been outlined. (Authors)

  5. Energy-Aware Topology Evolution Model with Link and Node Deletion in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Luo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex network theory, a new topological evolving model is proposed. In the evolution of the topology of sensor networks, the energy-aware mechanism is taken into account, and the phenomenon of change of the link and node in the network is discussed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are conducted to explore the topology characteristics and network performance with different node energy distribution. We find that node energy distribution has the weak effect on the degree distribution P(k that evolves into the scale-free state, nodes with more energy carry more connections, and degree correlation is nontrivial disassortative. Moreover, the results show that, when nodes energy is more heterogeneous, the network is better clustered and enjoys higher performance in terms of the network efficiency and the average path length for transmitting data.

  6. Traffic-aware Elastic Optical Networks to leverage Energy Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Because of the static nature of the deployed optical networks, large energy wastage is experienced today in production networks such as Telecom networks . With power-adaptive optical interfaces and suitable grooming procedures, we propose the design of more energy efficient transport networks......-Europea n COST37 network, for both symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations significant savings are obtained . Mixed adaptation (jointly performing symbol-rate and modulation format adaptations) used together with optical grooming allows up to 4 4 % and 4 7 % power savings in DT17 and COST37 networks...

  7. Model Checking for Energy Efficient Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Peter H.; Werner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Networking and power management of wireless energy - conscious sensor networks is an important area of current research. We investigate a network of MicaZ sensor motes using the ZigBee protocol for communication, and provide a model using Timed Safety Automata. Our analysis focuses on estimating energy consumption by model checking in different scenarios using the Uppaal tool. Special interest is devoted to the energy use in margi...

  8. A Mixed Transmission Strategy to Achieve Energy Balancing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tong; Gu, Tao; Jin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    lifetime, and hence, it has many practical implications for sensor network design and deployment. The traditional hop-by-hop transmission model allows a sensor node to propagate its packets in a hop-by-hop manner toward the sink, resulting in poor energy balancing for the entire network. To address......In this paper, we investigate the problem of energy balanced data collection in wireless sensor networks, aiming to balance energy consumption among all sensor nodes during the data propagation process. Energy balanced data collection can potentially save energy consumption and prolong network...... the problem, we apply a slice-based energy model, and divide the problem into inter-slice and intra-slice energy balancing problems. We then propose a probability-based strategy named inter-slice mixed transmission protocol and an intra-slice forwarding technique to address each of the problems. We propose...

  9. Underwater Sensor Network Redeployment Algorithm Based on Wolf Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Feng, Yang; Wu, Feng

    2016-10-21

    This study addresses the optimization of node redeployment coverage in underwater wireless sensor networks. Given that nodes could easily become invalid under a poor environment and the large scale of underwater wireless sensor networks, an underwater sensor network redeployment algorithm was developed based on wolf search. This study is to apply the wolf search algorithm combined with crowded degree control in the deployment of underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm uses nodes to ensure coverage of the events, and it avoids the prematurity of the nodes. The algorithm has good coverage effects. In addition, considering that obstacles exist in the underwater environment, nodes are prevented from being invalid by imitating the mechanism of avoiding predators. Thus, the energy consumption of the network is reduced. Comparative analysis shows that the algorithm is simple and effective in wireless sensor network deployment. Compared with the optimized artificial fish swarm algorithm, the proposed algorithm exhibits advantages in network coverage, energy conservation, and obstacle avoidance.

  10. An Energy-Efficient Scheme for Multirelay Cooperative Networks with Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingcheng Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an energy-efficient scheme in multirelay cooperative networks with energy harvesting where multiple sessions need to communicate with each other via the relay node. A two-step optimal method is proposed which maximizes the system energy efficiency, while taking into account the receiver circuit energy consumption. Firstly, the optimal power allocation for relay nodes is determined to maximize the system throughput; this is based on directional water-filling algorithm. Secondly, using quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO, a joint relay node selection and session grouping optimization is proposed. With this algorithm, sessions can be classified into multiple groups that are assisted by the specific relay node with the maximum energy efficiency. This approach leads to a better global optimization in searching ability and efficiency. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can improve the energy efficiency effectively compared with direct transmission and opportunistic relay-selected cooperative transmission.

  11. Green IGP Link Weights for Energy-efficiency and Load-balancing in IP Backbone Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption of backbone networks has become a primary concern for network operators and regulators due to the pervasive deployment of wired backbone networks to meet the requirements of bandwidth-hungry applications. While traditional optimization of IGP link weights has been used in IP based load-balancing operations, in this paper we introduce a novel link weight setting algorithm, the Green Load-balancing Algorithm (GLA), which is able to jointly optimize both energy efficiency ...

  12. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  13. Iterative free-energy optimization for recurrent neural networks (INFERNO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Pitti

    Full Text Available The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes' synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains. Using a stochastic gradient descent, a reinforcement signal (presumably dopaminergic evaluates the quality of one input vector to move the recurrent neural network to a desired activity; depending on the error made, this input vector is strengthened to hill-climb the gradient or elicited to search for another solution. This vector can be learned then by one associative memory as a model of the basal-ganglia to control the recurrent neural network. Experiments on habit learning and on sequence retrieving demonstrate the capabilities of the dual system to generate very long and precise spatio-temporal sequences, above two hundred iterations. Its features are applied then to the sequential planning of arm movements. In line with neurobiological theories, we discuss its relevance for modeling the cortico-basal working memory to initiate flexible goal-directed neuronal chains of causation and its relation to novel architectures such as Deep Networks, Neural Turing Machines and the Free-Energy Principle.

  14. Iterative free-energy optimization for recurrent neural networks (INFERNO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The intra-parietal lobe coupled with the Basal Ganglia forms a working memory that demonstrates strong planning capabilities for generating robust yet flexible neuronal sequences. Neurocomputational models however, often fails to control long range neural synchrony in recurrent spiking networks due to spontaneous activity. As a novel framework based on the free-energy principle, we propose to see the problem of spikes’ synchrony as an optimization problem of the neurons sub-threshold activity for the generation of long neuronal chains. Using a stochastic gradient descent, a reinforcement signal (presumably dopaminergic) evaluates the quality of one input vector to move the recurrent neural network to a desired activity; depending on the error made, this input vector is strengthened to hill-climb the gradient or elicited to search for another solution. This vector can be learned then by one associative memory as a model of the basal-ganglia to control the recurrent neural network. Experiments on habit learning and on sequence retrieving demonstrate the capabilities of the dual system to generate very long and precise spatio-temporal sequences, above two hundred iterations. Its features are applied then to the sequential planning of arm movements. In line with neurobiological theories, we discuss its relevance for modeling the cortico-basal working memory to initiate flexible goal-directed neuronal chains of causation and its relation to novel architectures such as Deep Networks, Neural Turing Machines and the Free-Energy Principle. PMID:28282439

  15. Energy model for rumor propagation on social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuo; Zhuang, Fuzhen; He, Qing; Shi, Zhongzhi; Ao, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of social networks, the impact of rumor propagation on human lives is more and more significant. Due to the change of propagation mode, traditional rumor propagation models designed for word-of-mouth process may not be suitable for describing the rumor spreading on social networks. To overcome this shortcoming, we carefully analyze the mechanisms of rumor propagation and the topological properties of large-scale social networks, then propose a novel model based on the physical theory. In this model, heat energy calculation formula and Metropolis rule are introduced to formalize this problem and the amount of heat energy is used to measure a rumor’s impact on a network. Finally, we conduct track experiments to show the evolution of rumor propagation, make comparison experiments to contrast the proposed model with the traditional models, and perform simulation experiments to study the dynamics of rumor spreading. The experiments show that (1) the rumor propagation simulated by our model goes through three stages: rapid growth, fluctuant persistence and slow decline; (2) individuals could spread a rumor repeatedly, which leads to the rumor’s resurgence; (3) rumor propagation is greatly influenced by a rumor’s attraction, the initial rumormonger and the sending probability.

  16. Equalized Energy Consumption in Wireless Body Area Networks for a Prolonged Network Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam El Azhari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenal advances in electronics contributed to a widespread use of distributed sensors in wireless communications. A set of biosensors can be deployed or implanted in the human body to form a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN, where various WBAN PHY layers are utilized. The WBAN allows the measurement of physiological data, which is forwarded by the gateway to the base station for analysis purposes. The main issue in conceiving a WBAN communication mechanism is to manage the residual energy of sensors. The mobile agent system has been widely applied for surveillance applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. It consists in dispatching one or more mobile agents simultaneously to collect data, while following a predetermined optimum itinerary. The continuous use of the optimal itinerary leads to a rapid depletion of sensor nodes batteries, which minimizes the network lifetime. This paper presents a new algorithm to equalize the energy consumption among sensor motes. The algorithm exploits all the available paths towards the destination and classifies them with respect to the end-to-end delay and the overall energy consumption. The proposed algorithm performs better compared to the optimal routing path. It increases the network lifetime to the maximum by postponing routing of data via the most-recently used path, and it also maintains data delivery within the delay interval threshold.

  17. Assessing Security-Critical Energy-Efficient Sensor Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Y.W.; Dulman, S.; Etalle, S.; Havinga, P.

    2002-06-10

    In the EYES project (http://eyes.eu.org/), we are investigating self-organizing, collaborative, energy-efficient sensor networks. This study is devoted to the security aspects of the project. Our contribution is three-fold: firstly, we present a survey, where we discuss the dominant issues of energy-security trade-off in the network protocol and key management design space. From there we set out future research directions for our security framework. Secondly, we propose an assessment framework based on system profile, with which we have managed to carve out manageable design spaces from the seemingly infinite possibilities of ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Finally, we have benchmarked some well-known cryptographic algorithms in search for the best compromise in security and energy-efficiency, on a typical sensor node. Our preliminary investigations also cover an important parameter in the design space: the resource requirements of the symmetric key algorithms RC5 (encryption algorithm) and TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm)

  18. Topsector Energy. Innovation Officers Network; Topsector Energie. Innovatie Attache Netwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Top Sector policy of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (ELI) has resulted in strongly worded plans with big ambitions for the various priority sectors. In this publication the Dutch Network of Innovation Officers gives an overview for the Top Sector Energy of developments taking place in the leading countries of the world in the field of Research, Development and Innovation. The information provides clues for the establishment and strengthening of international R and D strategy for the top sector and related options for cooperation with foreign parties [Dutch] Het topsectorenbeleid van onder meer het Ministerie van Economische zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie (ELI) heeft geresulteerd in scherp geformuleerde plannen met flinke ambities voor de diverse topsectoren. Het Netwerk van Innovatie Attachés geeft in deze publikatie een overzicht voor de Topsector Energie wat er in de meest toonaangevende landen van de wereld gebeurt op het terrein van Research and Development en Innovatie. De informatie biedt aanknopingspunten voor het opzetten en versterken van een internationale R and D strategie voor de topsector en daar toe behorende samenwerking met buitenlandse partijen.

  19. Modelling the impact of social network on energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Feng; Zhang, Jiangfeng; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue; Galloway, Stuart; Lo, Kwok L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy saving propagation along a social network is modelled. • This model consists of a time evolving weighted directed network. • Network weights and information decay are applied in savings calculation. - Abstract: It is noted that human behaviour changes can have a significant impact on energy consumption, however, qualitative study on such an impact is still very limited, and it is necessary to develop the corresponding mathematical models to describe how much energy savings can be achieved through human engagement. In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified by the decay of information. Expected energy savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information source or multiple sources. This model is tested on a social network consisting of 40 people. The results show that the strength of relations between individuals is more important to information diffusion than the number of connections individuals have. The expected energy savings of optimally chosen node can be 25.32% more than randomly chosen nodes at the end of the second month for the case of single information source in the network, and 16.96% more than random nodes for the case of multiple information sources. This illustrates that the model presented in this paper can be used to determine which individuals will have the most influence on the social network, which in turn provides a useful guide to identify targeted customers in energy efficiency technology rollout

  20. Saving energy for the data collection point in WBAN network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Duc, Toan; Kamioka, Eiji

    2017-11-01

    Wireless sensor networking (WSN) has been rapidly developed and become essential in various domains including health care systems. Such systems use WSN to collect real-time medical sensed data, aiming at improving the patient safety. For instance, patients suffered from adverse events, i.e., cardiac or respiratory arrests, are monitored so as to prevent them from getting harm. Sensors are placed on, in or near the patients' body to continuously collect sensing data such as the electrocardiograms, blood oxygenation, breathing, and heart rate. In this case, the sensors form a subcategory of WSN called wireless body area network (WBAN). In WBAN, sensing data are sent to one or more data collection points called personal server (PS). The role of PS is important since it forwards sensed data, to a medical server via a Bluetooth/WLAN connection in real time to support storage of information and real-time diagnosis, the device can also issue a notification of an emergency status. Since PS is a battery-based device, when its battery is empty, it will disconnect the sensed medical data with the rest network. To best of our knowledge, very few studies that focus on saving energy for the PS. To this end, this work investigates the trade-off between energy consumption for wireless communication and the amount of sensing data. An energy consumption model for wireless communication has been proposed based on direct measurement using real testbed. According to our findings, it is possible to save energy for the PS by selecting suitable wireless technology to be used based on the amount of data to be transmitted.

  1. Relay Selection for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Energy Harvesting Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kaiyan; Wang, Fei; Li, Songsong; Jiang, Fengjiao; Cao, Lijie

    2018-01-01

    Energy harvesting from the surroundings is a promising solution to provide energy supply and extend the life of wireless sensor networks. Recently, energy harvesting has been shown as an attractive solution to prolong the operation of cooperative networks. In this paper, we propose a relay selection scheme to optimize the amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative transmission in wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks. The harvesting energy and channel conditions are considered to select the optimal relay as cooperative relay to minimize the outage probability of the system. Simulation results show that our proposed relay selection scheme achieves better outage performance than other strategies.

  2. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    ISLAM, M. R.; KIM, J.

    2009-01-01

    An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs) are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP). Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for...

  3. Energy efficient topology control algorithm for wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aron, FO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of the topology of a network makes it possible for the network nodes to reduce their power of transmission while ensuring that network connectivity is preserved. This paper explains the need for energy consumption control in Wireless...

  4. Opportunities and Challenges of AC/DC Transmission Network Planning Considering High Proportion Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Habib

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The time and space distribution characteristics of future high proportion of renewable energy sources will bring unprecedented challenges to the electric power system’s processing and planning, the basic form of electric power system and operating characteristics will have fundamental changes. Based on the research status quo at home and abroad, this paper expounds the four scientific problems of the transmission network planning with high proportion of renewable energy. Respectively, from the network source collaborative planning, transmission network flexible planning. With the distribution network in conjunction with the transmission network planning, transmission planning program comprehensive evaluation and decision-making methods. This paper puts forward the research ideas and framework of transmission network planning considering the high proportion of renewable energy. At the end, the future high proportion of (renewable energy grid-connected transmission network’s opportunities and challenges are presented.

  5. Knowledge-Based Network Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan-lin; Hung, Chaw-Kwei; Stedry, Steven P.; McClure, James P.; Yeh, Show-Way

    1988-03-01

    An expert system is being implemented for enhancing operability of the Ground Communication Facility (GCF) of Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Deep Space Network (DSN). The DSN is a tracking network for all of JPL's spacecraft plus a subset of spacecrafts launched by other NASA centers. A GCF upgrade task is set to replace the current GCF aging system with new, modern equipments which are capable of using knowledge-based monitor and control approach. The expert system, implemented in terms of KEE and SUN workstation, is used for performing network fault management, configuration management, and performance management in real-time. Monitor data are collected from each processor and DSCC's in every five seconds. In addition to serving as input parameters of the expert system, extracted management information is used to update a management information database. For the monitor and control purpose, software of each processor is divided into layers following the OSI standard. Each layer is modeled as a finite state machine. A System Management Application Process (SMAP) is implemented at application layer, which coordinates layer managers of the same processor and communicates with peer SMAPs of other processors. The expert system will be tuned by augmenting the production rules as the operation is going on, and its performance will be measured.

  6. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-02-07

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network is investigated. For a one-day operation cycle, the cellular network aims to reduce energy procurement costs from the smart grid by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from their locally deployed RE sources as well as from the smart grid. In addition to that, it aims to determine the extra amount of energy to be sold to the electrical grid at each time period. Chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the randomness in the RE generation. Then, to make the optimization problem tractable, two well- know convex approximation methods, namely; Chernoff and Chebyshev based-approaches, are analyzed in details. Numerical results investigate the optimized energy procurement for various daily scenarios and compare between the performances of the employed convex approximation approaches.

  7. Security challenges for energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Papini, Davide; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    With the recent introduction of Energy-Harvesting nodes, security is gaining more and more importance in sensor networks. By exploiting the ability of scavenging energy from the surrounding environment, the lifespan of a node has drastically increased. This is one of the reason why security needs...... networks. Finally, we present and discuss existing security solutions for EH-WSNs....

  8. Small Distributed Renewable Energy Generation for Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindris M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the existing energy policies, the use of renewable energy has increased considerably all over the world in order to respond to the increasing energy consumption and to reduce the environmental impact of the electricity generation. Although most policy makers and companies are focusing on large applications, the use of cheap small generation units, based on local renewable resources, has become increasingly attractive for the general public, small farms and remote communities. The paper presents several results of a research project aiming to identify the power quality issues and the impact of RES based distributed generation (DG or other non-linear loads on low voltage (LV distribution networks in Romania; the final goal is to develop a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC able to diminish the existing disturbances. Basically, the work analyses the existing DG technologies and identifies possible solutions for their integration in Romania; taking into account the existent state of the art, the attention was paid on small systems, using wind and solar energy, and on possibility to integrate them into suburban and rural LV distribution networks. The presence of DG units at distribution voltage level means the transition from traditional passive to active distribution networks. In general, the relatively low penetration levels of DG does not produce problems; however, the nowadays massive increase of local power generation have led to new integration challenges in order to ensure the reliability and quality of the power supply. Power quality issues are identified and their assessment is the key element in the design of measures aiming to diminish all existing disturbances.

  9. On the Design of Energy Efficient Optical Networks with Software Defined Networking Control Across Core and Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Yan, Ying; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a Software Defined Networking (SDN) control plane based on an overlay GMPLS control model. The SDN control platform manages optical core networks (WDM/DWDM networks) and the associated access networks (GPON networks), which makes it possible to gather global information...

  10. Wireless Sensor Network Based Smart Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey JOSEPH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Intelligence is a vision in which various devices come together and process information from multiple sources in order to exert control on the physical environment. In addition to computation and control, communication plays a crucial role in the overall functionality of such a system. Wireless Sensor Networks are one such class of networks, which meet these criteria. These networks consist of spatially distributed sensor motes which work in a co-operative manner to sense and control the environment. In this work, an implementation of an energy-efficient and cost-effective, wireless sensor networks based vehicle parking system for a multi-floor indoor parking facility has been introduced. The system monitors the availability of free parking slots and guides the vehicle to the nearest free slot. The amount of time the vehicle has been parked is monitored for billing purposes. The status of the motes (dead/alive is also recorded. Information like slot allocated, directions to the slot and billing data is sent as a message to customer’s mobile phones. This paper extends our previous work 1 with the development of a low cost sensor mote, about one tenth the cost of a commercially available mote, keeping in mind the price sensitive markets of the developing countries.

  11. Reflections on the role of energy network companies in the energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, B.M.; De Bruijne, M.L.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Energy network companies are commonly attributed the public task to help society in becoming greener in the domain of energy. This extra public task has high costs and comes with high uncertainties. It may also compete with existing public tasks of network companies. When network

  12. Early Forming a Hummingbird-like Hovering Neural Network Circuitry Pattern with Reentrant Spatiotemporal Energy-Sensory Orientation Privileged to Avoid “Epilepsy” Based on a Biomimetic Acetylcholinesterase Memcapacitor Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen T. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hummingbird’s significant asymmetry hovering flight with energy conservation pattern is remarkable among all vertebrates. However, little is known to human’s neuronal network circuitry current flow pattern for whether or not has this privilege during slow wave sleeping (SWS. What is the advantage in order to avoid diseases if we have this network pattern ? A memory device was developed with nanostructured biomimetic acetylcholinesterase (ACHE gorge membrane on gold chips as memcapacitor 1, served as a normal brain network prosthesis, compared with a mutated ACHE prosthesis as device 2, for evaluation of neuronal network circuitry integrity in the presence of Amyloid- beta (Ab under the conditions of free from tracers and antibodies in spiked NIST SRM 965A human serum. Three categories of Reentrant Energy-Sensory images are presented based on infused brain pulse energies in a matrix of “Sensory Biomarkers” having frequencies over 0.25-333 Hz at free and fixed Ab levels, respectively. Early non-symptomatic epilepsy was indentified and predicted by device 2 due to Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO and large areas of 38 µM Ab re-depositions. Device 1 sensitively “feels” Ab damage because of its Frequency Oscillation (HFO enhanced the hummingbird- like hovering pattern with higher reentrant energy sensitivity of 0.12 pj/bit/s/µm3 without Ab compared with Ab, 13 aj/bit/s/µm3/nM over 3.8-471 nM range over 0.003-4s. Device 1 reliably detected early CR dysfunction privileged to avoid epilepsy.

  13. Energy-efficient algorithm for broadcasting in ad hoc wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Naixue; Huang, Xingbo; Cheng, Hongju; Wan, Zheng

    2013-04-12

    Broadcasting is a common and basic operation used to support various network protocols in wireless networks. To achieve energy-efficient broadcasting is especially important for ad hoc wireless sensor networks because sensors are generally powered by batteries with limited lifetimes. Energy consumption for broadcast operations can be reduced by minimizing the number of relay nodes based on the observation that data transmission processes consume more energy than data reception processes in the sensor nodes, and how to improve the network lifetime is always an interesting issue in sensor network research. The minimum-energy broadcast problem is then equivalent to the problem of finding the minimum Connected Dominating Set (CDS) for a connected graph that is proved NP-complete. In this paper, we introduce an Efficient Minimum CDS algorithm (EMCDS) with help of a proposed ordered sequence list. EMCDS does not concern itself with node energy and broadcast operations might fail if relay nodes are out of energy. Next we have proposed a Minimum Energy-consumption Broadcast Scheme (MEBS) with a modified version of EMCDS, and aimed at providing an efficient scheduling scheme with maximized network lifetime. The simulation results show that the proposed EMCDS algorithm can find smaller CDS compared with related works, and the MEBS can help to increase the network lifetime by efficiently balancing energy among nodes in the networks.

  14. An acoustical model based monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessels, P.W.; Basten, T.G.H.; Eerden, F.J.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the approach for an acoustical model based monitoring network is demonstrated. This network is capable of reconstructing a noise map, based on the combination of measured sound levels and an acoustic model of the area. By pre-calculating the sound attenuation within the network the

  15. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E. Golden; Selvi, S. Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. PMID:26881269

  16. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, E Golden; Selvi, S Tamil

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  17. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Golden Julie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes.

  18. Spatial structure, inequality and trading community of renewable energy networks: A comparative study of solar and hydro energy product trades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xin; Yang, Yu; Dong, Wen; Wang, Changjian; Liu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy trade is booming and has formed complicated networks worldwide. However, our knowledge of the spatial structures and evolution of these networks is limited. In this paper, network analyses are used to examine the geographic characteristics of selected renewable energy trades and their evolution based on the United Nations COMTRADE Database from 1988 to 2013. The results show that the networks are expanding to include more and more countries and relationships, and scale of the networks is larger than ever. A tripartite confrontational renewable energy trading system has been forming and is strengthening. Europe, the USA, China and other Asian countries are the main players, and China has overtaken the USA and Europe as the leading player. Inequality and ‘small-world’ characteristics appear in renewable energy trade. Solar energy trade presents a triadic community structure with Europe, the USA and China as the dominant players, while hydro energy trade presents a smaller and more dispersed structure. The core–periphery structure strongly suggests a trade dependency between hubs and peripheral elements in renewable energy trade. Developing countries should design appropriate incentives and contribute to particular segments in renewable energy value chain to accelerate and benefit from the South–South renewable energy trade. - Highlights: • Renewable energy trade networks are identified and analyzed. • Tripartite confrontational renewable energy trade systems have been formed and are strengthening. • Unequal and ‘small world’ characteristics have appeared in the renewable energy trade. • China has overtaken the USA and Europe as the leading player in the renewable energy trade. • Developing countries should make efforts to benefit from the South–South energy trade.

  19. Multi-source energy networks for cargo Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the feasibility of installing renewable energy generation technologies on sea-going transport, taking into account the additional weight and power consumption. This study in based on the power management of a 26,198 tonne commercial chemical tanker. The management system would aim at reducing the number of generators as well as the power required from burning fossil fuels. After a process of elimination of potential technologies based on feasibility of the project and shipboard application, the work is focused towards photovoltaic and wind energy generation in combination with fossil fueled engines and Li-ion battery storage covering the higher energy density needs, and the intermittent nature of renewables. The network architecture is optimized in order to have the highest efficiency, and reduced system weight. The results show that successful management of the system can lead to reduction in generator requirement, and energy despite the weight of extra installations of photovoltaic and wind energy generation systems. By reducing the number of generators and allowing each remaining one to operate near their maximum power, the specific fuel consumption is improved, the efficiency is increased, resulting in significant fuel and cost saving, along with the mass of fuel to be carried on-board.

  20. Energy-aware virtual network embedding in flexi-grid networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongping; Luo, Shan; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Sheng

    2017-11-27

    Network virtualization technology has been proposed to allow multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VNs) to coexist on a shared substrate network, which increases the utilization of the substrate network. Efficiently mapping VNs on the substrate network is a major challenge on account of the VN embedding (VNE) problem. Meanwhile, energy efficiency has been widely considered in the network design in terms of operation expenses and the ecological awareness. In this paper, we aim to solve the energy-aware VNE problem in flexi-grid optical networks. We provide an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to minimize the electricity cost of each arriving VN request. We also propose a polynomial-time heuristic algorithm where virtual links are embedded sequentially to keep a reasonable acceptance ratio and maintain a low electricity cost. Numerical results show that the heuristic algorithm performs closely to the ILP for a small size network, and we also demonstrate its applicability to larger networks.

  1. Energy demand estimation of South Korea using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geem, Zong Woo; Roper, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Because South Korea's industries depend heavily on imported energy sources (fifth largest importer of oil and second largest importer of liquefied natural gas in the world), the accurate estimating of its energy demand is critical in energy policy-making. This research proposes an artificial neural network model (a structure with feed-forward multilayer perceptron, error back-propagation algorithm, momentum process, and scaled data) to efficiently estimate the energy demand for South Korea. The model has four independent variables, such as gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, and export amounts. The data are obtained from diverse local and international sources. The proposed model better estimated energy demand than a linear regression model (a structure with multiple linear variables and least square method) or an exponential model (a structure with mixed integer variables, branch and bound method, and Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method) in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE). The model also forecasted better than the other two models in terms of RMSE without any over-fitting problem. Further testing with four scenarios based upon reliable source data showed unanticipated results. Instead of growing permanently, the energy demands peaked at certain points, and then decreased gradually. This trend is quite different from the results by regression or exponential model.

  2. A Quantum Cryptography Communication Network Based on Software Defined Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongliang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Internet, information security has attracted great attention in today’s society, and quantum cryptography communication network based on quantum key distribution (QKD is a very important part of this field, since the quantum key distribution combined with one-time-pad encryption scheme can guarantee the unconditional security of the information. The secret key generated by quantum key distribution protocols is a very valuable resource, so making full use of key resources is particularly important. Software definition network (SDN is a new type of network architecture, and it separates the control plane and the data plane of network devices through OpenFlow technology, thus it realizes the flexible control of the network resources. In this paper, a quantum cryptography communication network model based on SDN is proposed to realize the flexible control of quantum key resources in the whole cryptography communication network. Moreover, we propose a routing algorithm which takes into account both the hops and the end-to-end availible keys, so that the secret key generated by QKD can be used effectively. We also simulate this quantum cryptography communication network, and the result shows that based on SDN and the proposed routing algorithm the performance of this network is improved since the effective use of the quantum key resources.

  3. Transceiver design for wireless energy harvesting cooperative networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shiyang

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the RF energy harvesting technique is studied in the cooperative wireless network, and different optimization studies are investigated. First, an energy-efficient optimization is considered in the cooperative system with the time switching relaying and power splitting relaying protocols. Then, a security issue in the cooperative network with energy harvesting is proposed, in which the optimization problem is designed to maximize the secrecy rate. We also consider the applicati...

  4. Dynamic energy management employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xin; Phillips, Chris; Wang, Jiayuan

    2013-01-01

    management framework employing renewable energy sources in IP over DWDM core networks. The main concept is to combine infrastructure sleeping and virtual router migration to improve the network energy efficiency. By using the energy source information provided by the smart grid, the nodes that are powered...

  5. Problems of organization and development of the Latvian energy efficiency network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Puikevica-Puikevska, I.

    1999-01-01

    The idea to create an Energy Efficiency Network (Network) was put forward in Canada. In 1989 similar activities started in Norway. Taking account the difficult economical situation in the Latvia industry, such a Network would help to develop our enterprises under conditions of competition. In the future, this Network is to ensure a stabile operation of the international level. Therefore Network's purposes are: to promote decision-making process with due account for the energy efficiency measures and environment-friendly energy use in industry; to encourage reducing the specific consumption of energy; to promote the information exchange among industrial enterprises as well as with new technology suppliers, and service and consulting enterprises. The task of Network is to process information on the activities of enterprises, to perform computations and to show the condition of every enterprise in the same branch of industry, by means of diagrams and tables, as well as to reveal weak points of the enterprise. The benefits of the Network participants: Network information data base allows the participants to compare their energy efficiency data with those of other enterprises in the same branch of industry; opportunity to receive information on the newest achievements in the energy efficiency measures; opportunity to familiarise themselves with the necessary project documentation, reports, ets. Network's activities are organised due consideration for particular needs of an enterprise reported directly by the participants of the enterprise. (author)

  6. Energy-saving with low dimensional network in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Gomi, Takuma; Endo, Tatsuya; Hirai, Tomo; Sasaki, Takato

    2017-01-01

    An adaptation process in the transportation network of Physarum plasmodium was investigated by measuring oxygen consumption during network formation. Simultaneously, the fractal dimension as a measure of network structure was estimated. Oxygen consumption decreased during the development of the network, whereas the network structure changed from a thin mesh-type to a thick dendritic type. Our data suggested that the morphology of the plasmodial network governed energy consumption; a low dimensional network in the sense of the fractal dimension reduced energy consumption. These data were supported by experimental results excluding biological reasons, such as differences in starvation/nutrient-fullness states, and aspects of mitochondrial distribution. Model analysis using the Physarum algorithm with volume conservation constraints confirmed the above findings. (paper)

  7. High energy density interpenetrating networks from ionic networks and silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The energy density of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is sought increased for better exploitation of the DE technology since an increased energy density means that the driving voltage for a certain strain can be lowered in actuation mode or alternatively that more energy can be harvested in generator...

  8. Forest biomass-based energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; Pankaj Lal; Andres Susaeta; Robert C. Abt; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsHarvesting woody biomass for use as bioenergy is projected to range from 170 million to 336 million green tons by 2050, an increase of 54 to 113 percent over current levels.Consumption projections for forest biomass-based energy, which are based on Energy Information Administration projections, have a high level of...

  9. Application of neural networks for the prediction of energy use in supermarket buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, T.J.; Tassou, S.A.; Datta, D. [Brunel Univ., Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Marriott, D. [Safeway Stores 6 Millington, Middx (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of neural networks to predict energy consumption in commercial buildings. To date, many researchers have demonstrated that neural networks can be more reliable energy predictors than the traditional statistical approaches and can also form the basis for predictive controllers of HVAC equipment. This paper shows the preliminary results of research work at Brunel University for predicting the variation of electricity consumption in a supermarket building based on a neural network. A comparison of the prediction performance of the neural network and a traditional regression approach is presented.

  10. Energy efficient networking via dynamic relay node selection in wireless networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Maurits

    Mobile wireless ad-hoc networks need to maximize their network lifetime (defined as the time until the first node runs out of energy). In the broadcast network lifetime problem, all nodes are sending broadcast traffic, and one asks for an assignment of transmit powers to nodes, and for sets of relay

  11. Stability and mobility of Cu-vacancy clusters in Fe-Cu alloys: A computational study based on the use of artificial neural networks for energy barrier calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuet, M. I.; Castin, N.; Becquart, C. S.; Malerba, L.

    2011-05-01

    An atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) method has been applied to study the stability and mobility of copper-vacancy clusters in Fe. This information, which cannot be obtained directly from experimental measurements, is needed to parameterise models describing the nanostructure evolution under irradiation of Fe alloys (e.g. model alloys for reactor pressure vessel steels). The physical reliability of the AKMC method has been improved by employing artificial intelligence techniques for the regression of the activation energies required by the model as input. These energies are calculated allowing for the effects of local chemistry and relaxation, using an interatomic potential fitted to reproduce them as accurately as possible and the nudged-elastic-band method. The model validation was based on comparison with available ab initio calculations for verification of the used cohesive model, as well as with other models and theories.

  12. SDN-Enabled Communication Network Framework for Energy Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To support distributed energy generators and improve energy utilization, energy Internet has attracted global research focus. In China, energy Internet has been proposed as an important issue of government and institutes. However, managing a large amount of distributed generators requires smart, low-latency, reliable, and safe networking infrastructure, which cannot be supported by traditional networks in power grids. In order to design and construct smart and flexible energy Internet, we proposed a software defined network framework with both microgrid cluster level and global grid level designed by a hierarchical manner, which will bring flexibility, efficiency, and reliability for power grid networks. Finally, we evaluate and verify the performance of this framework in terms of latency, reliability, and security by both theoretical analysis and real-world experiments.

  13. Energy-aware virtual network embedding in flexi-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rongping; Luo, Shan; Wang, Haoran; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Virtual network embedding (VNE) problem is to map multiple heterogeneous virtual networks (VN) on a shared substrate network, which mitigate the ossification of the substrate network. Meanwhile, energy efficiency has been widely considered in the network design. In this paper, we aim to solve the energy-aware VNE problem in flexi-grid optical networks. We provide an integer linear programming (ILP) formulation to minimize the power increment of each arriving VN request. We also propose a polynomial-time heuristic algorithm where virtual links are embedded sequentially to keep a reasonable acceptance ratio and maintain a low energy consumption. Numerical results show the functionality of the heuristic algorithm in a 24-node network.

  14. Energy efficient smart phones for 5G networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses current technology trends and requirements leading towards the next era in mobile communication handsets; and beyond that the book proposes innovative solutions that could be candidate solutions for 5G phones. It adopts a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary stance towards handset design, a necessary ingredient if 5th Generation handset and services are to really take-off. Therefore the scope of the book targets a broad range of subjects, including energy efficiency, RF design, cooperation, context-aware systems, roaming, and short-range networking, all of which working in synergy to provide seamless mobility and high speed connectivity within a HetNet environment. Specifically, the authors investigate how we can exploit the cooperation paradigm and context-aware mechanism working in synergy to provide energy compliant phones that can introduce power savings of up to 50% on state-of-the-art. Going beyond this, a chapter on business modeling approaches is also included, based on incentiv...

  15. Which energy networks for tomorrow?; Quels reseaux energetiques pour demain?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, D. [CLER, 75 - Paris (France); Couturier, Ch. [Association Solagro, 31 - Toulouse (France); Batot, Ph. [Syndicat Departemental d' Energie et d' Equipements de la Vendee - SyDEU (France); Jedliczka, M. [Hespul, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Belon, D. [Federation Nationale des Collectivites Concedantes et Regies - FNCCR, 75 - Paris (France); Goy, E. [AMORCE, 69 - Lyon (France); Bureau, L. [IZUBA, 34 - Meze (France)

    2010-07-01

    A set of brief articles outlines the importance of energy networks of all kinds for the future of energy conservation. Thus, all networks (communication, data, production command and control) will have a role to play to make all energy networks (electricity, gas, heat, cold, water, sewage, telecommunications) communicate with each other, and a new consumption/production model will have to be developed for each territory by taking into account its capacities to improve energy efficiency and valorize renewable energies. The authors also propose a historical perspective of network development and of their trend to become interconnected and complementary, comment the governance issue in terms of concession, evoke the supply of public networks with biogas (legal framework under development), discuss the value of the project of development of smart grids, suggest that a better electricity demand management could be an efficient alternative to grid development, comment the context and implications of the European directive Linky, outline that heat networks will contribute to the reduction of the environmental impact of buildings, evoke the issue of cold water networks and their impact on air conditioning, present the original heat network which is about to be built in Saint-Brieuc, etc.

  16. Durer-pentagon-based complex network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Hou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel Durer-pentagon-based complex network was constructed by adding a centre node. The properties of the complex network including the average degree, clustering coefficient, average path length, and fractal dimension were determined. The proposed complex network is small-world and fractal.

  17. Modelling and designing electric energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retiere, N.

    2003-11-01

    The author gives an overview of his research works in the field of electric network modelling. After a brief overview of technological evolutions from the telegraph to the all-electric fly-by-wire aircraft, he reports and describes various works dealing with a simplified modelling of electric systems and with fractal simulation. Then, he outlines the challenges for the design of electric networks, proposes a design process, gives an overview of various design models, methods and tools, and reports an application in the design of electric networks for future jumbo jets

  18. Location based Network Optimizations for Mobile Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen

    The availability of location information in mobile devices, e.g., through built-in GPS receivers in smart phones, has motivated the investigation of the usefulness of location based network optimizations. Since the quality of input information is important for network optimizations, a main focus...... the achievable accuracy of future localization system in mobile settings, as well as quantifying the impact of having a realistic model of the required measurement exchanges. Secondly, this work has considered different large scale and small scale location based network optimizations, namely centralized relay...... and highly mobile scenarios....

  19. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking

  20. Agent-based modeling and network dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Namatame, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The book integrates agent-based modeling and network science. It is divided into three parts, namely, foundations, primary dynamics on and of social networks, and applications. The book begins with the network origin of agent-based models, known as cellular automata, and introduce a number of classic models, such as Schelling’s segregation model and Axelrod’s spatial game. The essence of the foundation part is the network-based agent-based models in which agents follow network-based decision rules. Under the influence of the substantial progress in network science in late 1990s, these models have been extended from using lattices into using small-world networks, scale-free networks, etc. The book also shows that the modern network science mainly driven by game-theorists and sociophysicists has inspired agent-based social scientists to develop alternative formation algorithms, known as agent-based social networks. The book reviews a number of pioneering and representative models in this family. Upon the gi...

  1. Stability-Aware Geographic Routing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Dinh Hieu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of wireless sensor networks that harvest energy from environmental sources such as solar, vibration, and thermoelectric to power sensor nodes is emerging to solve the problem of energy limitation. Based on the photo-voltaic model, this research proposes a stability-aware geographic routing for reliable data transmissions in energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSNs to provide a reliable routes selection method and potentially achieve an unlimited network lifetime. Specifically, the influences of link quality, represented by the estimated packet reception rate, on network performance is investigated. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms an energy-harvesting-aware method in terms of energy consumption, the average number of hops, and the packet delivery ratio.

  2. Network reliability analysis based on percolation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Daqing; Zhang, Qiong; Zio, Enrico; Havlin, Shlomo; Kang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new way of looking at the reliability of a network using percolation theory. In this new view, a network failure can be regarded as a percolation process and the critical threshold of percolation can be used as network failure criterion linked to the operational settings under control. To demonstrate our approach, we consider both random network models and real networks with different nodes and/or edges lifetime distributions. We study numerically and theoretically the network reliability and find that the network reliability can be solved as a voting system with threshold given by percolation theory. Then we find that the average lifetime of random network increases linearly with the average lifetime of its nodes with uniform life distributions. Furthermore, the average lifetime of the network becomes saturated when system size is increased. Finally, we demonstrate our method on the transmission network system of IEEE 14 bus. - Highlights: • Based on percolation theory, we address questions of practical interest such as “how many failed nodes/edges will break down the whole network?” • The percolation threshold naturally gives a network failure criterion. • The approach based on percolation theory is suited for calculations of large-scale networks

  3. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O.; Alfa, Attahiru S.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  4. A Survey on an Energy-Efficient and Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundile, Olayinka O; Alfa, Attahiru S

    2017-05-10

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) form an important part of industrial application. There has been growing interest in the potential use of WSNs in applications such as environment monitoring, disaster management, health care monitoring, intelligence surveillance and defence reconnaissance. In these applications, the sensor nodes (SNs) are envisaged to be deployed in sizeable numbers in an outlying area, and it is quite difficult to replace these SNs after complete deployment in many scenarios. Therefore, as SNs are predominantly battery powered devices, the energy consumption of the nodes must be properly managed in order to prolong the network lifetime and functionality to a rational time. Different energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols have been proposed in literature over the years. The energy-efficient routing protocols strive to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each SN. On the other hand, the energy-balanced routing protocols protract the network lifetime by uniformly balancing the energy consumption among the nodes in the network. There have been various survey papers put forward by researchers to review the performance and classify the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WSNs. However, there seems to be no clear survey emphasizing the importance, concepts, and principles of load-balanced energy routing protocols for WSNs. In this paper, we provide a clear picture of both the energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols for WSNs. More importantly, this paper presents an extensive survey of the different state-of-the-art energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols. A taxonomy is introduced in this paper to classify the surveyed energy-efficient and energy-balanced routing protocols based on their proposed mode of communication towards the base station (BS). In addition, we classified these routing protocols based on the solution types or algorithms, and the input decision

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of low temperature district heating network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    is designed to supply heating for 30 low energy detached residential houses. The network operational supply/return temperature is set as 55 °C/25 °C, which is in line with a pilot project carried out in Denmark. Two types of in-house substations are analyzed to supply the consumer domestic hot water demand......Low temperature district heating with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building heating demand and the low quality heating supply from waste heat or renewable energy. In this paper, a hypothetical low temperature district heating network....... The space heating demand is supplied through floor heating in the bathroom and low temperature radiators in the rest of rooms. The network thermal and hydraulic conditions are simulated under steady state. A district heating network design and simulation code is developed to incorporate the network...

  6. Adaptive Multipath Key Reinforcement for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Dragoni, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs) constitute systems of networked sensing nodes that are capable of extracting energy from the environment and that use the harvested energy to operate in a sustainable state. Sustainability, seen as design goal, has a significant impact...... on the design of the security protocols for such networks, as the nodes have to adapt and optimize their behaviour according to the available energy. Traditional key management schemes do not take energy into account, making them not suitable for EH-WSNs. In this paper we propose a new multipath key...... reinforcement scheme specifically designed for EH-WSNs. The proposed scheme allows each node to take into consideration and adapt to the amount of energy available in the system. In particular, we present two approaches, one static and one fully dynamic, and we discuss some experimental results....

  7. Energy Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, L S; Cutler, D E [eds.

    1990-09-01

    To aid in the processing of bibliographic citations (including cataloging information, subject content indicators and abstracts), data are encoded in a format specific to OSTI. This format allows for computer storage, manipulation, and retrieval using both online and offline systems. Expansion of OSTI's data files to include nonnuclear information is relatively recent, beginning in 1974. OSTI's selection and announcement of technical information now represents a broad spectrum of energy-related fields following current research and development interest in both the domestic and the international arenas. To make the database as comprehensive as possible, current as well as background information is included. As part of its responsibility to build and maintain this database, OSTI accepts data on magnetic tape and floppy diskettes; OSTI's responsibility also includes dissemination of this technical information on magnetic tape as well. Each outgoing tape represents a two-week period of input to the database and may vary from 5000 to 14,000 records per tape. These tapes or diskettes, their format, and data content are described in this document.

  8. From free energy to expected energy: Improving energy-based value function approximation in reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Stefan; Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    Free-energy based reinforcement learning (FERL) was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state and action spaces. However, the FERL method does only really work well with binary, or close to binary, state input, where the number of active states is fewer than the number of non-active states. In the FERL method, the value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). In our earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of the FERL method can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network. In this study, we propose that RBM function approximation can be further improved by approximating the value function by the negative expected energy (EERL), instead of the negative free energy, as well as being able to handle continuous state input. We validate our proposed method by demonstrating that EERL: (1) outperforms FERL, as well as standard neural network and linear function approximation, for three versions of a gridworld task with high-dimensional image state input; (2) achieves new state-of-the-art results in stochastic SZ-Tetris in both model-free and model-based learning settings; and (3) significantly outperforms FERL and standard neural network function approximation for a robot navigation task with raw and noisy RGB images as state input and a large number of actions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. A Distributed Algorithm for Energy Optimization in Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Wisniewski, Rafal; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study in the form of a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system is considered. A distributed control is developed that minimizes the aggregated electrical energy consumption of the pumps in the network without violating the control demands. The algorithm...... a Plug & Play control system as most commissioning can be done during the manufacture of the pumps. Only information on the graph-structure of the hydraulic network is needed during installation....

  10. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  11. Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks Through Balanced Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Douligeris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide utilization of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is obstructed by the severely limited energy constraints of the individual sensor nodes. This is the reason why a large part of the research in WSNs focuses on the development of energy efficient routing protocols. In this paper, a new protocol called Equalized Cluster Head Election Routing Protocol (ECHERP, which pursues energy conservation through balanced clustering, is proposed. ECHERP models the network as a linear system and, using the Gaussian elimination algorithm, calculates the combinations of nodes that can be chosen as cluster heads in order to extend the network lifetime. The performance evaluation of ECHERP is carried out through simulation tests, which evince the effectiveness of this protocol in terms of network energy efficiency when compared against other well-known protocols.

  12. Neural networks for offline analysis in high-energy physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, Alessandro D.

    1995-04-01

    Feed-forward neural networks are nowadays a standard tool in the toolbox of high energy physicists. This talk summarizes the fields of application in offline analysis, and discusses some open problems.

  13. Security of supply and regulation of energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the security of energy supplies has re-emerged as a central issue in the energy policy arena in the UK and elsewhere. This re-emergence takes place against a backdrop of increased liberalisation of the energy markets, so that security of supply needs to be revisited within this context. Security of supply is multifaceted, but is often discussed in terms of physical availability of energy sources and their commodity price risk. This paper discusses the relationship between security of supply and network regulation-that is, how the energy networks, and appropriate regulation of them, can contribute to security of supply in liberalised energy sectors. Energy networks are predominantly natural monopolies and as a result are generally subject to regulatory oversight. We discuss a range of issues and trends that pose challenges and opportunities to network regulation and which call for new and innovative measures. The paper identifies a number of areas where network regulation can play a significant role in increasing the security of supply of future energy systems

  14. Web-based networking within the framework of ANENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.W.; Lee, E.J.; Kim, Y.T.; Nam, Y.M.; Kim, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is actively participating in the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT), which is an IAEA activity to promote nuclear knowledge management. This has led KAERI to conduct a web-based networking for nuclear education and training in Asia. The networking encompasses the establishment of a relevant website and a system for a sustainable operation of the website. The established ANENT website features function as a database providing collected information, a link facilitating a systematic worldwide access to relevant websites, and an activity implementation for supporting the individual tasks of ANENT. The required information is being collected and loaded onto the database, and the website will be improved step by step. Consequently, networking is expected to play an important role, through cooperating with other networks, and thus contributing to a future global network for a sustainable development of nuclear technology. (author)

  15. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  16. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self......Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...

  17. A random network based, node attraction facilitated network evolution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, I present a method of network evolution that based on random network, and facilitated by node attraction. In this method, I assume that the initial network is a random network, or a given initial network. When a node is ready to connect, it tends to link to the node already owning the most connections, which coincides with the general rule (Barabasi and Albert, 1999 of node connecting. In addition, a node may randomly disconnect a connection i.e., the addition of connections in the network is accompanied by the pruning of some connections. The dynamics of network evolution is determined of the attraction factor Lamda of nodes, the probability of node connection, the probability of node disconnection, and the expected initial connectance. The attraction factor of nodes, the probability of node connection, and the probability of node disconnection are time and node varying. Various dynamics can be achieved by adjusting these parameters. Effects of simplified parameters on network evolution are analyzed. The changes of attraction factor Lamda can reflect various effects of the node degree on connection mechanism. Even the changes of Lamda only will generate various networks from the random to the complex. Therefore, the present algorithm can be treated as a general model for network evolution. Modeling results show that to generate a power-law type of network, the likelihood of a node attracting connections is dependent upon the power function of the node's degree with a higher-order power. Matlab codes for simplified version of the method are provided.

  18. Community Based Networks and 5G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2016-01-01

    . The findings indicate that 5G connectivity can be extended to rural areas by these networks, via heterogenous networks. Hence the delivery of 5G data rates delivery via Wireless WAN in rural areas can be achieved by utilizing the causal factors of the identified models for Community Based Networks.......The deployment of previous wireless standards has provided more benefits for urban dwellers than rural dwellers. 5G deployment may not be different. This paper identifies that Community Based Networks as carriers that deserve recognition as potential 5G providers may change this. The argument...... is hinged on a research aimed at understanding how and why Community Based Networks deploy telecom and Broadband infrastructure. The study was a qualitative study carried out inductively using Grounded Theory. Six cases were investigated.Two Community Based Network Mobilization models were identified...

  19. Wireless Sensor Network for Advanced Energy Management Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Theisen; Bin Lu, Charles J. Luebke

    2009-09-23

    Eaton has developed an advanced energy management solution that has been deployed to several Industries of the Future (IoF) sites. This demonstrated energy savings and reduced unscheduled downtime through an improved means for performing predictive diagnostics and energy efficiency estimation. Eaton has developed a suite of online, continuous, and inferential algorithms that utilize motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and motor power signature analysis (MPSA) techniques to detect and predict the health condition and energy usage condition of motors and their connect loads. Eaton has also developed a hardware and software platform that provided a means to develop and test these advanced algorithms in the field. Results from lab validation and field trials have demonstrated that the developed advanced algorithms are able to detect motor and load inefficiency and performance degradation. Eaton investigated the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) within various industrial facilities to understand concerns about topology and environmental conditions that have precluded broad adoption by the industry to date. A Wireless Link Assessment System (WLAS), was used to validate wireless performance under a variety of conditions. Results demonstrated that wireless networks can provide adequate performance in most facilities when properly specified and deployed. Customers from various IoF expressed interest in applying wireless more broadly for selected applications, but continue to prefer utilizing existing, wired field bus networks for most sensor based applications that will tie into their existing Computerized Motor Maintenance Systems (CMMS). As a result, wireless technology was de-emphasized within the project, and a greater focus placed on energy efficiency/predictive diagnostics. Commercially available wireless networks were only utilized in field test sites to facilitate collection of motor wellness information, and no wireless sensor network products were

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  1. PRIORITY BASED PACKET SCHEDULING APPROACH FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    A priority based packet scheduling scheme is proposed which aims at scheduling different types of data packets, such as real time and non-real-time data packets at sensor nodes with resource constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks. Most of the existing packet-scheduling mechanisms of Wireless Sensor Networks use First Come First Served (FCFS), non-preemptive priority and preemptive priority scheduling algorithms. These algorithms results in long end-to-end data transmission delay, high energy...

  2. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D; Rao, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network.

  3. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available , and will require unique energy efficient solutions. For instance, an MS may be battery-powered, and the relevant energy efficient solution would include switching-off the display and minimizing signalling overhead (e.g. sleep mode). Meanwhile energy efficient... solution for the BS may include the intelligent sleep mode policies when the number of users and the traffic load decreases [3]. Due to the growing demand for advanced broadband wireless technologies and services, research in green radio solutions...

  4. Energy-Aware Forwarding Strategies for Delay Tolerant Network Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahzad Kaviani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN is well suited to challenging environments, defined by the lack of reliable end-to-end communication paths to the destination. However, the available energy is not considered in the majority of existing DTN routing protocols when they make forwarding decisions. This limits both delivery probabilities and the network lifetimes in energy-constrained applications. This paper investigates energy-aware routing protocols for wildlife tracking application to transmit data from attached sensors on the animal’s back to data collection base stations. We propose three new network protocol strategies to extend common DTN routing protocols, and consider the available energy to achieve efficient utilization of the node’s energy in transmission and sensing. These strategies enhance packet delivery rates up to 13% by carefully using the limited energy resources. We simulate two different animal tracking scenarios and show that the new strategies provide significant performance improvement under different scenarios.

  5. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP. PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1 reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2 reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN.

  6. Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for Gradient Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Migabo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low computational cost, the Gradient Based Routing (GBR broadcast of interest messages in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs causes significant packets duplications and unnecessary packets transmissions. This results in energy wastage, traffic load imbalance, high network traffic, and low throughput. Thanks to the emergence of fast and powerful processors, the development of efficient network coding strategies is expected to enable efficient packets aggregations and reduce packets retransmissions. For multiple sinks WSNs, the challenge consists of efficiently selecting a suitable network coding scheme. This article proposes a Cooperative and Adaptive Network Coding for GBR (CoAdNC-GBR technique which considers the network density as dynamically defined by the average number of neighbouring nodes, to efficiently aggregate interest messages. The aggregation is performed by means of linear combinations of random coefficients of a finite Galois Field of variable size GF(2S at each node and the decoding is performed by means of Gaussian elimination. The obtained results reveal that, by exploiting the cooperation of the multiple sinks, the CoAdNC-GBR not only improves the transmission reliability of links and lowers the number of transmissions and the propagation latency, but also enhances the energy efficiency of the network when compared to the GBR-network coding (GBR-NC techniques.

  7. Adaptive control of the packet transmission period with solar energy harvesting prediction in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kideok; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-04-24

    A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  8. Adaptive Control of the Packet Transmission Period with Solar Energy Harvesting Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kideok Kwon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of research works has studied packet scheduling policies in energy scavenging wireless sensor networks, based on the predicted amount of harvested energy. Most of them aim to achieve energy neutrality, which means that an embedded system can operate perpetually while meeting application requirements. Unlike other renewable energy sources, solar energy has the feature of distinct periodicity in the amount of harvested energy over a day. Using this feature, this paper proposes a packet transmission control policy that can enhance the network performance while keeping sensor nodes alive. Furthermore, this paper suggests a novel solar energy prediction method that exploits the relation between cloudiness and solar radiation. The experimental results and analyses show that the proposed packet transmission policy outperforms others in terms of the deadline miss rate and data throughput. Furthermore, the proposed solar energy prediction method can predict more accurately than others by 6.92%.

  9. Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: comparison and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Murukesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consists of nodes with limited resources. Hence, it is important to design protocols or algorithms which increases energy efficiency in order to improve the network lifetime. In this paper, techniques used in the network layer (routing of the internet protocol stack to achieve energy efficiency are reviewed. Usually, the routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: (1 Network Structure, (2 Communication Model, (3 Topology Based, and (4 Reliable Routing. In this work, only network structure based routing protocols are reviewed due to the page constraint. Besides, this type of protocols are much popular among the researchers since they are fairly simple to implement and produce good results as presented in this paper. Also, the pros and cons of each protocols are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with possible further research directions.

  10. Leader Election Protocol for Energy Efficient Mobile Sensor Networks (EYES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Hurink, Johann L.

    In this paper we develop and analyze a wireless wave leader election protocol (WWLE) for wireless mobile ad hoc networks, with emphasis on the resulting energy consumption. Within the operating system of the EYES architecture we apply a power model to schedule tasks in order to minimize energy

  11. Energy Aware GPSR Routing Protocol in a Wireless Sensor Network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is the scarce resource in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), and it determines the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, WSN algorithms and routing protocols should be selected in a manner which fulfills these energy requirements. This paper presents a solution to increase the lifetime of WSNs by decreasing their ...

  12. Cloud-based Networked Visual Servo Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Chen, Chih-Chung

    2013-01-01

    The performance of vision-based control systems, in particular of highly dynamic vision-based motion control systems, is often limited by the low sampling rate of the visual feedback caused by the long image processing time. In order to overcome this problem, the networked visual servo control...... feedback, ii) a stabilizing control law for the networked visual servo control system with time-varying feedback time delay, and iii) a sending rate scheduling strategy aiming at reducing the communication network load. The performance of the networked visual servo control system with sending rate...

  13. Trust-Aware and Low Energy Consumption Security Topology Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN is a kind of distributed and self-organizing networks, in which the sensor nodes have limited communication bandwidth, memory, and limited energy. The topology construction of this network is usually vulnerable when attacked by malicious nodes. Besides, excessive energy consumption is a problem that can not be ignored. Therefore, this paper proposes a secure topology protocol of WSN which is trust-aware and of low energy consumption, called TLES. The TLES considers the trust value as an important factor affecting the behavior of node. In detail, the TLES would take trust value, residual energy of the nodes, and node density into consideration when selecting cluster head nodes. Then, TLES constructs these cluster head nodes by choosing the next hop node according to distance to base station (BS, nodes’ degrees, and residual energy, so as to establish a safe, reliable, and energy saving network. Experimental results show that the algorithm can effectively isolate the malicious node in the network and reduce the consumption of energy of the whole network.

  14. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever......-changing environmental energy sources. In this paper, we present an improved and extended version of ODMAC and we analyze it by means of an analytical model that can approximate several performance metrics in an arbitrary network topology. The simulations and the analytical experiments show ODMAC's ability to satisfy...

  15. Self-organized topology of recurrence-based complex networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid technological advancement, network is almost everywhere in our daily life. Network theory leads to a new way to investigate the dynamics of complex systems. As a result, many methods are proposed to construct a network from nonlinear time series, including the partition of state space, visibility graph, nearest neighbors, and recurrence approaches. However, most previous works focus on deriving the adjacency matrix to represent the complex network and extract new network-theoretic measures. Although the adjacency matrix provides connectivity information of nodes and edges, the network geometry can take variable forms. The research objective of this article is to develop a self-organizing approach to derive the steady geometric structure of a network from the adjacency matrix. We simulate the recurrence network as a physical system by treating the edges as springs and the nodes as electrically charged particles. Then, force-directed algorithms are developed to automatically organize the network geometry by minimizing the system energy. Further, a set of experiments were designed to investigate important factors (i.e., dynamical systems, network construction methods, force-model parameter, nonhomogeneous distribution) affecting this self-organizing process. Interestingly, experimental results show that the self-organized geometry recovers the attractor of a dynamical system that produced the adjacency matrix. This research addresses a question, i.e., “what is the self-organizing geometry of a recurrence network?” and provides a new way to reproduce the attractor or time series from the recurrence plot. As a result, novel network-theoretic measures (e.g., average path length and proximity ratio) can be achieved based on actual node-to-node distances in the self-organized network topology. The paper brings the physical models into the recurrence analysis and discloses the spatial geometry of recurrence networks

  16. Self-organized topology of recurrence-based complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Gang

    2013-12-01

    With the rapid technological advancement, network is almost everywhere in our daily life. Network theory leads to a new way to investigate the dynamics of complex systems. As a result, many methods are proposed to construct a network from nonlinear time series, including the partition of state space, visibility graph, nearest neighbors, and recurrence approaches. However, most previous works focus on deriving the adjacency matrix to represent the complex network and extract new network-theoretic measures. Although the adjacency matrix provides connectivity information of nodes and edges, the network geometry can take variable forms. The research objective of this article is to develop a self-organizing approach to derive the steady geometric structure of a network from the adjacency matrix. We simulate the recurrence network as a physical system by treating the edges as springs and the nodes as electrically charged particles. Then, force-directed algorithms are developed to automatically organize the network geometry by minimizing the system energy. Further, a set of experiments were designed to investigate important factors (i.e., dynamical systems, network construction methods, force-model parameter, nonhomogeneous distribution) affecting this self-organizing process. Interestingly, experimental results show that the self-organized geometry recovers the attractor of a dynamical system that produced the adjacency matrix. This research addresses a question, i.e., "what is the self-organizing geometry of a recurrence network?" and provides a new way to reproduce the attractor or time series from the recurrence plot. As a result, novel network-theoretic measures (e.g., average path length and proximity ratio) can be achieved based on actual node-to-node distances in the self-organized network topology. The paper brings the physical models into the recurrence analysis and discloses the spatial geometry of recurrence networks.

  17. Energy Harvesting Wireless Strain Networks, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Prime Research LC (PPLC) and Virginia Tech (VT) propose to develop an energy harvesting wireless strain node technology that utilizes single-crystal piezoelectric...

  18. Resource management for energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Deyu; Zhou, Haibo; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2017-01-01

    This SpringerBrief offers a comprehensive review and in-depth discussion of the current research on resource management. The authors explain how to best utilize harvested energy and temporally available licensed spectrum. Throughout the brief, the primary focus is energy and spectrum harvesting sensor networks (ESHNs) including energy harvesting (EH)-powered spectrum sensing and dynamic spectrum access. To efficiently collect data through the available licensed spectrum, this brief examines the joint management of energy and spectrum. An EH-powered spectrum sensing and management scheme for Heterogeneous Spectrum Harvesting Sensor Networks (HSHSNs) is presented in this brief. The scheme dynamically schedules the data sensing and spectrum access of sensors in ESHSNs to optimize the network utility, while considering the stochastic nature of EH process, PU activities and channel conditions. This brief also provides useful insights for the practical resource management scheme design for ESHSNs and motivates a ne...

  19. Advanced fibre based energy storage.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New energy storage devices are required to enable future technologies. With the rise of wearable consumer and medical devices, a suitable flexible and wearable means of storing electrical energy is required. Fibre-based devices present a possible method of achieving this aim. Fibres are inherently more flexible than their bulk counterparts, and as such can be employed to form the electrodes of flexible batteries and capacitors. They also present a facile possibility for incorporation into man...

  20. Utilizing HPC Network Technologies in High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2088631; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Because of their performance characteristics high-performance fabrics like Infiniband or OmniPath are interesting technologies for many local area network applications, including data acquisition systems for high-energy physics experiments like the ATLAS experiment at CERN. This paper analyzes existing APIs for high-performance fabrics and evaluates their suitability for data acquisition systems in terms of performance and domain applicability. The study finds that existing software APIs for high-performance interconnects are focused on applications in high-performance computing with specific workloads and are not compatible with the requirements of data acquisition systems. To evaluate the use of high-performance interconnects in data acquisition systems a custom library, NetIO, is presented and compared against existing technologies. NetIO has a message queue-like interface which matches the ATLAS use case better than traditional HPC APIs like MPI. The architecture of NetIO is based on a interchangeable bac...

  1. Graphene-based energy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yusoff, A Rashid bin Mohd

    2015-01-01

    This first book dedicated to the topic provides an up-to-date account of the many opportunities graphene offers for robust, workable energy generation and storage devices. Following a brief overview of the fundamentals of graphene, including the main synthesis techniques, characterization methods and properties, the first part goes on to deal with graphene for energy storage applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage. The second part is concerned with graphene-based energy-generation devices, in particular conventional as well as microbial and enzymatic f

  2. Energy Level Performance of Packet Delivery Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks in Shadowed Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab NANDI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates energy level performance of three packet delivery schemes in a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN in shadowed channel. Three different information delivery mechanisms are investigated using regenerative relays with or without error correction capability. Energy consumption for successful delivery of a data packet for each mechanism is evaluated and compared under several conditions of node density, bit rate, transmit power etc. Energy efficiency of different retransmission schemes is evaluated. Further an optimal packet length based on energy efficiency is derived. Impact of different level of severity of shadowing on energy consumption is also investigated. Further impact of fixed and optimal packet size on energy consumption is analyzed.

  3. Conference on photovoltaic energy network parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Pierre-Marie; Masson, Gaetan; Henzelmann, Orsten; Joly, Jean-Pierre; Guillemoles, Jean-Francois; Auffret, Jean-Marc; Berger, Arnaud; Binder, Jann; Martin, David; Beck, Bernhard; Mahuet, Audrey; Mueller, Thorsten; Contamin, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a conference on the present day and future challenges of the development, support and market integration of photovoltaic energy. In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, about 120 participants exchanged views on support models to renewable energy sources, research results on self-consumption and business models for the renewable energies sector. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Overview of France's PV support policies (Pierre-Marie Abadie); 2 - Grid parity: first step towards PV competitiveness (Gaetan Masson); 3 - How competitive is solar power? Requirements and impact on the European industry (Orsten Henzelmann); 4 - Key elements of the National Institute of Solar energy - INeS (Jean-Pierre Joly); 5 - Research priorities according to the Paris Institute of Photovoltaics (Jean-Francois Guillemoles); 6 - Bosch Solar energy (Jean-Marc Auffret); 7 - Financing and insuring photovoltaics - History and future prospects (Arnaud Berger); 8 - Decentralized Photovoltaics: Autonomy, Self-Consumption and Reduction of Grid Loading through electrical and Thermal Storage (Jann Binder); 9 - Off Grid systems, mini grid and grid parity, field feedback and perspectives. From the producer-consumer to the smart grid: experience feedback of PV management models (David Martin); 10 - Benefits for solar power plants in respect of grid stabilization (Bernhard Beck); 11 - Renewable energies integration to electricity market: impacts and challenges (Audrey Mahuet); 12 - Promotion of PV in Germany: Feed-in tariffs, self-consumption and direct selling - Review and forecast (Thorsten Mueller); 13 - How to support renewable electricity in France? (Raphael Contamin)

  4. An optimization method of VON mapping for energy efficiency and routing in elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanlin; Xiong, Cuilian; Chen, Yong; Li, Changping; Chen, Derun

    2018-03-01

    To improve resources utilization efficiency, network virtualization in elastic optical networks has been developed by sharing the same physical network for difference users and applications. In the process of virtual nodes mapping, longer paths between physical nodes will consume more spectrum resources and energy. To address the problem, we propose a virtual optical network mapping algorithm called genetic multi-objective optimize virtual optical network mapping algorithm (GM-OVONM-AL), which jointly optimizes the energy consumption and spectrum resources consumption in the process of virtual optical network mapping. Firstly, a vector function is proposed to balance the energy consumption and spectrum resources by optimizing population classification and crowding distance sorting. Then, an adaptive crossover operator based on hierarchical comparison is proposed to improve search ability and convergence speed. In addition, the principle of the survival of the fittest is introduced to select better individual according to the relationship of domination rank. Compared with the spectrum consecutiveness-opaque virtual optical network mapping-algorithm and baseline-opaque virtual optical network mapping algorithm, simulation results show the proposed GM-OVONM-AL can achieve the lowest bandwidth blocking probability and save the energy consumption.

  5. Energy Security: Reducing Vulnerabilities to Global Energy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    establishment of the Department of Energy. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 imposed Corporate Average Fuel Economy ( CAFE ) standards for...emissions) by 2030. 35 Meteorological Hazards The Gulf of Mexico region accounts for over 25 percent of the United States’ oil production and about...Hurricane Rita nearly 100 percent of the Federally-administered Gulf of Mexico daily oil and gas production was shut down. Nearly 6.9 million barrels

  6. Energy-Efficient Optimal Power Allocation in Integrated Wireless Sensor and Cognitive Satellite Terrestrial Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengchao; Li, Guangxia; An, Kang; Gao, Bin; Zheng, Gan

    2017-09-04

    This paper proposes novel satellite-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which integrate the WSN with the cognitive satellite terrestrial network. Having the ability to provide seamless network access and alleviate the spectrum scarcity, cognitive satellite terrestrial networks are considered as a promising candidate for future wireless networks with emerging requirements of ubiquitous broadband applications and increasing demand for spectral resources. With the emerging environmental and energy cost concerns in communication systems, explicit concerns on energy efficient resource allocation in satellite networks have also recently received considerable attention. In this regard, this paper proposes energy-efficient optimal power allocation schemes in the cognitive satellite terrestrial networks for non-real-time and real-time applications, respectively, which maximize the energy efficiency (EE) of the cognitive satellite user while guaranteeing the interference at the primary terrestrial user below an acceptable level. Specifically, average interference power (AIP) constraint is employed to protect the communication quality of the primary terrestrial user while average transmit power (ATP) or peak transmit power (PTP) constraint is adopted to regulate the transmit power of the satellite user. Since the energy-efficient power allocation optimization problem belongs to the nonlinear concave fractional programming problem, we solve it by combining Dinkelbach's method with Lagrange duality method. Simulation results demonstrate that the fading severity of the terrestrial interference link is favorable to the satellite user who can achieve EE gain under the ATP constraint comparing to the PTP constraint.

  7. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  8. Incentive-Based Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall-Anese, Emiliano [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Xinyang [University of Colorado; Chen, Lijun [University of Colorado

    2017-07-03

    This paper considers distribution networks fea- turing distributed energy resources, and designs incentive-based mechanisms that allow the network operator and end-customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Two different network-customer coordination mechanisms that require different amounts of information shared between the network operator and end-customers are developed to identify a solution of a well-defined social-welfare maximization prob- lem. Notably, the signals broadcast by the network operator assume the connotation of prices/incentives that induce the end- customers to adjust the generated/consumed powers in order to avoid the violation of the voltage constraints. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.

  9. Incentive-Based Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xinyang; Chen, Lijun; Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri

    2017-03-03

    This paper considers distribution networks fea- turing distributed energy resources, and designs incentive-based mechanisms that allow the network operator and end-customers to pursue given operational and economic objectives, while concurrently ensuring that voltages are within prescribed limits. Two different network-customer coordination mechanisms that require different amounts of information shared between the network operator and end-customers are developed to identify a solution of a well-defined social-welfare maximization prob- lem. Notably, the signals broadcast by the network operator assume the connotation of prices/incentives that induce the end- customers to adjust the generated/consumed powers in order to avoid the violation of the voltage constraints. Stability of the proposed schemes is analytically established and numerically corroborated.

  10. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a

  11. QoS and energy aware cooperative routing protocol for wildfire monitoring wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Mohamed; Cherif, Sofiane; Besbes, Hichem

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are presented as proper solution for wildfire monitoring. However, this application requires a design of WSN taking into account the network lifetime and the shadowing effect generated by the trees in the forest environment. Cooperative communication is a promising solution for WSN which uses, at each hop, the resources of multiple nodes to transmit its data. Thus, by sharing resources between nodes, the transmission quality is enhanced. In this paper, we use the technique of reinforcement learning by opponent modeling, optimizing a cooperative communication protocol based on RSSI and node energy consumption in a competitive context (RSSI/energy-CC), that is, an energy and quality-of-service aware-based cooperative communication routing protocol. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in terms of network lifetime, packet delay, and energy consumption.

  12. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  13. Cognitive Radio-based Home Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarijari, M.A.B.

    2016-01-01

    A future home area network (HAN) is envisaged to consist of a large number of devices that support various applications such as smart grid, security and safety systems, voice call, and video streaming. Most of these home devices are communicating based on various wireless networking technologies

  14. Energy Aware Computing in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Brødløs; Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Koch, Peter

    2005-01-01

    the unreliable wireless link. Principles of multi–processor energy aware task scheduling are used exploiting performance scalable technologies such as Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS). We introduce a novel mechanism referred to as D2VS and here it is shown by means of simulation that savings of 40% can be achieved....

  15. Modeling the interdependent network based on two-mode networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Feng; Gao, Xiangyun; Guan, Jianhe; Huang, Shupei; Liu, Qian

    2017-10-01

    Among heterogeneous networks, there exist obviously and closely interdependent linkages. Unlike existing research primarily focus on the theoretical research of physical interdependent network model. We propose a two-layer interdependent network model based on two-mode networks to explore the interdependent features in the reality. Specifically, we construct a two-layer interdependent loan network and develop several dependent features indices. The model is verified to enable us to capture the loan dependent features of listed companies based on loan behaviors and shared shareholders. Taking Chinese debit and credit market as case study, the main conclusions are: (1) only few listed companies shoulder the main capital transmission (20% listed companies occupy almost 70% dependent degree). (2) The control of these key listed companies will be more effective of avoiding the spreading of financial risks. (3) Identifying the companies with high betweenness centrality and controlling them could be helpful to monitor the financial risk spreading. (4) The capital transmission channel among Chinese financial listed companies and Chinese non-financial listed companies are relatively strong. However, under greater pressure of demand of capital transmission (70% edges failed), the transmission channel, which constructed by debit and credit behavior, will eventually collapse.

  16. Wireless Sensors and Networks for Advanced Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.

    2005-05-06

    Numerous national studies and working groups have identified low-cost, very low-power wireless sensors and networks as a critical enabling technology for increasing energy efficiency, reducing waste, and optimizing processes. Research areas for developing such sensor and network platforms include microsensor arrays, ultra-low power electronics and signal conditioning, data/control transceivers, and robust wireless networks. A review of some of the research in the following areas will be discussed: (1) Low-cost, flexible multi-sensor array platforms (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, humidity, NH{sub 3}, O{sub 2}, occupancy, etc.) that enable energy and emission reductions in applications such as buildings and manufacturing; (2) Modeling investments (energy usage and savings to drive capital investment decisions) and estimated uptime improvements through pervasive gathering of equipment and process health data and its effects on energy; (3) Robust, self-configuring wireless sensor networks for energy management; and (4) Quality-of-service for secure and reliable data transmission from widely distributed sensors. Wireless communications is poised to support technical innovations in the industrial community, with widespread use of wireless sensors forecasted to improve manufacturing production and energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Progress being made in wireless system components, as described in this paper, is helping bring these projected improvements to reality.

  17. Energy networks for fossil fuel; Reti energetiche per combustibili fossili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bologna, S.; Vignolini, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1995-12-01

    The document, after an overview of the present national energy situation, covers in detail the actual situation of the national networks of pipelines for oil and gas transportations, with emphasis to the aspects most relevant from the technology innovation point of view. Design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas networks of pipelines is quite challenging and requires very advanced engineering solutions and technologies, above all for remote control, operation, diagnostic and safety systems.

  18. Throughput, Energy and Overhead of Multicast Device-to-Device Communications with Network Coded Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Heide, Janus; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation strategies in mobile networks typically rely in short range technologies, like LTE-A Device to Device (D2D) communications, for data exchange between devices forming mobile clouds. These communications provide a better device experience since the clouds offload the network. Nevertheless......, this assumes that the throughput gains and energy savings in multicasting are much larger between devices than the base station to the receivers. However, current mobile networks suffer from many different issues varying the performance in data rates, which calls into question these assumptions. Therefore......, a first objective of this work is to assess the operating regions where employing cooperation results in higher throughput and/or energy savings. We consider multicast scenarios with network coded mechanisms employing Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC). However, although RLNC is good for low amount...

  19. Realistic Energy Saving Potential of Sleep Mode for Existing and Future Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Saker, Louai; Elayoubi, Salah Eddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive overview on an energy saving feature referred to as ‘site sleep mode’, designed for existing and future mobile broadband networks. In addition to providing a detailed understanding of the main concept, the paper also provides various studies and results to highlight...... potential savings, and emphasize some of the expected limitations. Since site measurements show that the energy consumption of base station sites is largely load-independent, this makes such a feature highly effective for reducing the energy consumption of mobile networks during hours of low traffic. After...

  20. Strategies for Power/Energy Saving in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORAS, G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The power/energy losses reduction in distribution systems is an important issue during planning and operation, with important technical and economical implications. Thus, the energy losses minimization implies not only the technical improvement of the network, through its renewal with the introduction of the technological innovations in the equipment and circuit components as well as the optimal planning of the design and development of the network, but also requires the use of the methods and software tools to facilitate the operation process. The paper presents a strategy for power/energy saving which replacement of the 6 kV voltage level with 20 kV voltage level in correlation with the extent of using efficient transformers. In this line, different urban distribution networks were analyzed using fuzzy techniques.

  1. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Low Temperature District Heating Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    Low temperature district heating (LTDH) with reduced network supply and return temperature provides better match of the low quality building thermal demand and the low quality waste heat supply. In this paper, an exemplary LTDH network was designed for 30 low energy demand residential houses, which...... is in line with a pilot project that is carrying out in Denmark with network supply/return temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The consumer domestic hot water (DHW) demand is supplied with a special designed district heating (DH) storage tank. The space heating (SH) demand is supplied with a low temperature radiator....... The network thermal and hydraulic conditions were simulated under steady state with an in-house district heating network design and simulation code. Through simulation, the overall system energetic and exergetic efficiencies were calculated and the exergy losses for the major district heating system...

  2. Supporting Scientific Research with the Energy Sciences Network

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Monga, Inder

    2016-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is a high-performance, unclassified national network built to support scientific research. Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Science (SC) and managed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, ESnet provides services to more than 40 DOE research sites, including the entire National Laboratory system, its supercomputing facilities, and its major scientific instruments. ESnet also connects to 140 research and commercial networks, permitting DOE-funded scientists to productively collaborate with partners around the world. ESnet Division Director (Interim) Inder Monga and ESnet Networking Engineer David Mitchell will present current ESnet projects and research activities which help support the HEP community. ESnet  helps support the CERN community by providing 100Gbps trans-Atlantic network transport for the LHCONE and LHCOPN services. ESnet is also actively engaged in researching connectivity to cloud computing resources for HEP workflows a...

  3. Dynamic Cooperative Clustering Based Power Assignment: Network Capacity and Lifetime Efficient Topology Control in Cooperative Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication (CC is used in topology control as it can reduce the transmission power and expand the transmission range. However, all previous research on topology control under the CC model focused on maintaining network connectivity and minimizing the total energy consumption, which would lead to low network capacity, transmission interruption, or even network paralysis. Meanwhile, without considering the balance of energy consumption in the network, it would reduce the network lifetime and greatly affect the network performance. This paper tries to solve the above problems existing in the research on topology control under the CC model by proposing a power assignment (DCCPA algorithm based on dynamic cooperative clustering in cooperative ad hoc networks. The new algorithm clusters the network to maximize network capacity and makes the clusters communicate with each other by CC. To reduce the number of redundant links between clusters, we design a static clustering method by using Kruskal algorithm. To maximize the network lifetime, we also propose a cluster head rotating method which can reach a good tradeoff between residual energy and distance for the cluster head reselection. Experimental results show that DCCPA can improve 80% network capacity with Cooperative Bridges algorithm; meanwhile, it can improve 20% network lifetime.

  4. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Dynamics-based centrality for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Kori, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    Determining the relative importance of nodes in directed networks is important in, for example, ranking websites, publications, and sports teams, and for understanding signal flows in systems biology. A prevailing centrality measure in this respect is the PageRank. In this work, we focus on another class of centrality derived from the Laplacian of the network. We extend the Laplacian-based centrality, which has mainly been applied to strongly connected networks, to the case of general directed networks such that we can quantitatively compare arbitrary nodes. Toward this end, we adopt the idea used in the PageRank to introduce global connectivity between all the pairs of nodes with a certain strength. Numerical simulations are carried out on some networks. We also offer interpretations of the Laplacian-based centrality for general directed networks in terms of various dynamical and structural properties of networks. Importantly, the Laplacian-based centrality defined as the stationary density of the continuous-time random walk with random jumps is shown to be equivalent to the absorption probability of the random walk with sinks at each node but without random jumps. Similarly, the proposed centrality represents the importance of nodes in dynamics on the original network supplied with sinks but not with random jumps.

  6. Algorithms for energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.

    2007-01-21

    The recent advances in microsensor and semiconductor technology have opened a new field within computer science: the networking of small-sized sensors which are capable of sensing, processing, and communicating. Such wireless sensor networks offer new applications in the areas of habitat and environment monitoring, disaster control and operation, military and intelligence control, object tracking, video surveillance, traffic control, as well as in health care and home automation. It is likely that the deployed sensors will be battery-powered, which will limit the energy capacity significantly. Thus, energy efficiency becomes one of the main challenges that need to be taken into account, and the design of energy-efficient algorithms is a major contribution of this thesis. As the wireless communication in the network is one of the main energy consumers, we first consider in detail the characteristics of wireless communication. By using the embedded sensor board (ESB) platform recently developed by the Free University of Berlin, we analyze the means of forward error correction and propose an appropriate resync mechanism, which improves the communication between two ESB nodes substantially. Afterwards, we focus on the forwarding of data packets through the network. We present the algorithms energy-efficient forwarding (EEF), lifetime-efficient forwarding (LEF), and energy-efficient aggregation forwarding (EEAF). While EEF is designed to maximize the number of data bytes delivered per energy unit, LEF additionally takes into account the residual energy of forwarding nodes. In so doing, LEF further prolongs the lifetime of the network. Energy savings due to data aggregation and in-network processing are exploited by EEAF. Besides single-link forwarding, in which data packets are sent to only one forwarding node, we also study the impact of multi-link forwarding, which exploits the broadcast characteristics of the wireless medium by sending packets to several (potential

  7. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.

  8. Modeling Irrigation Networks for the Quantification of Potential Energy Recovering: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Water irrigation systems are required to provide adequate pressure levels in any sort of network. Quite frequently, this requirement is achieved by using pressure reducing valves (PRVs. Nevertheless, the possibility of using hydraulic machines to recover energy instead of PRVs could reduce the energy footprint of the whole system. In this research, a new methodology is proposed to help water managers quantify the potential energy recovering of an irrigation water network with adequate conditions of topographies distribution. EPANET has been used to create a model based on probabilities of irrigation and flow distribution in real networks. Knowledge of the flows and pressures in the network is necessary to perform an analysis of economic viability. Using the proposed methodology, a case study has been analyzed in a typical Mediterranean region and the potential available energy has been estimated. The study quantifies the theoretical energy recoverable if hydraulic machines were installed in the network. Particularly, the maximum energy potentially recovered in the system has been estimated up to 188.23 MWh/year with a potential saving of non-renewable energy resources (coal and gas of CO2 137.4 t/year.

  9. Liberalisation in network based industries. An economic analysis by case studies of railway, telecommunication and energy utilities; Liberalisierung von Netzindustrien. Eine oekonomische Analyse am Beispiel der Eisenbahn, der Telekommunikation und der Leitungsgebundenen Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2006-07-01

    The liberalisation of network based industries represents an economic problem, which raises on the one hand a multiplicity of theoretically unresolved questions and for which exist now on the other hand experiences in economic policy in Germany. The causes of the economic problems are not only to be found thereby in certain industry characteristics of the network based industries, but also in a missed special treatment of the network based economic sectors in the past by the economic policy. However, competition pushes in network based industries at borders, because the infrastructure necessary for the production of network based services typically represents an non-open to attack, natural monopoly in the hand of an established, vertically integrated supplier. From it extensive possibilities for the discrimination of competitors result, the competition political action need draw. It applies to analyze these in the available work and to discuss alternative solutions of the discrimination problem. (orig.)

  10. Hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation Passive Optical Networks based on network coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jijun; Bai, Wei; Liu, Xin; Feng, Nan; Maier, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Network coding (NC) integrated into Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is regarded as a promising solution to achieve higher throughput and energy efficiency. To efficiently support multimedia traffic under this new transmission mode, novel NC-based hybrid scheduling mechanisms for Next-generation PONs (NG-PONs) including energy management, time slot management, resource allocation, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) scheduling are proposed in this paper. First, we design an energy-saving scheme that is based on Bidirectional Centric Scheduling (BCS) to reduce the energy consumption of both the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Units (ONUs). Next, we propose an intra-ONU scheduling and an inter-ONU scheduling scheme, which takes NC into account to support service differentiation and QoS assurance. The presented simulation results show that BCS achieves higher energy efficiency under low traffic loads, clearly outperforming the alternative NC-based Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme. Furthermore, BCS is shown to provide better QoS assurance.

  11. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent...... to the residual energy and positions of nodes. In every round the node called auxiliary cluster-head calculates the position of the clusterhead using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA). After aggregating the data received, the cluster-head node decides whether to choose another cluster...

  12. The vision of a future energy supply network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, G.; Favre-Perrod, P.; Geidl, M.; Kloeckl, B.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses a concept developed within the framework of a project entitled 'Vision of Future Energy Networks' carried out at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. The project looked at the possibility of using synergies between various energy carriers and systems. Network topologies are discussed that can cope with the distributed production of energy in installations featuring technologies such as combined heat and power, micro gas turbines and wind-power installations. The topics discussed include the use of a large amount of such distributed generation capacity and which network topologies and storage requirements would be necessary for their operation. Also, under the title 'energy hubs', possible synergies with other forms of energy use are examined. The modelling, dimensioning and use of such hubs are dealt with for various scenarios, ranging from single family homes through to combinations of industrial complexes and whole residential areas. Questions of reliability are addressed and the idea of an 'Energy Interconnector' that supplies electrical, chemical and thermal energy is introduced

  13. Building a Network Based Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sea Shuan Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study about the development of a network based laboratory environment in the “Unix introduction” course for the undergraduate students. The study results and the response from the students from 2005 to 2006 will be used to better understand what kind of method is more suitable for students. We also use the data collected to adjust our teaching strategy and try to build up a network based laboratory environment.

  14. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  15. A Game for Energy-Aware Allocation of Virtualized Network Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bruschi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network Functions Virtualization (NFV is a network architecture concept where network functionality is virtualized and separated into multiple building blocks that may connect or be chained together to implement the required services. The main advantages consist of an increase in network flexibility and scalability. Indeed, each part of the service chain can be allocated and reallocated at runtime depending on demand. In this paper, we present and evaluate an energy-aware Game-Theory-based solution for resource allocation of Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs within NFV environments. We consider each VNF as a player of the problem that competes for the physical network node capacity pool, seeking the minimization of individual cost functions. The physical network nodes dynamically adjust their processing capacity according to the incoming workload, by means of an Adaptive Rate (AR strategy that aims at minimizing the product of energy consumption and processing delay. On the basis of the result of the nodes’ AR strategy, the VNFs’ resource sharing costs assume a polynomial form in the workflows, which admits a unique Nash Equilibrium (NE. We examine the effect of different (unconstrained and constrained forms of the nodes’ optimization problem on the equilibrium and compare the power consumption and delay achieved with energy-aware and non-energy-aware strategy profiles.

  16. Medium Access Control in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon

    Focusing on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that are powered by energy harvesting, this dissertation focuses on energy-efficient communication links between senders and receivers that are alternating between active and sleeping states of operation. In particular, the focus lies on Medium Access......, collision avoidance, provision of Quality of Service (QoS) and security. Focusing on the particular requirements of an energy harvesting application, the dissertation continues with the presentation of a MAC protocol, named ODMAC, which extends the receiver-initiated paradigm with several energy......-efficient features that aim to adapt the consumed energy to match the harvested energy, distribute the load with respect to the harvested energy, decrease the overhead of the communication, address the requirements for collision avoidance, prioritize urgent traffic and secure the system against beacon replay attacks...

  17. Usage Based Building Management through Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Varick L.

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a field with broad variety of applications. Its flexibility for remote continuous measurement lends itself to applications ranging from locating snipers to measuring volcanic activity. One application that stands to substantially benefit from WSNs is building management. Buildings currently account for 41% of the total energy consumption of U.S. [bed11]. Reducing this energy is of critical importance if we are to achieve sustainability. In most commercial buildings, many rooms remain unoccupied or are conditioned assuming maximum occupancy. By relaxing temperature setbacks and adjusting ventilation to match actual occupancy, significant energy savings are possible. This Dissertation examines the use of wireless sensor networks for the purpose of building energy management and actuation. It explores the design and development of wireless sensor networks for building energy management, how data from these deployments are utilized, the development and implementation of data driven occupancy models to perform simulation and prediction, how data models are used to actuate building management systems, and how crowd-sourced data can be integrated into building control strategies. We show based on real-world data that 30% energy savings is possible through usage based strategies and that 80% occupant satisfaction rates are possible by occupant driven control strategies.

  18. A complex systems approach to planning, optimization and decision making for energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jessica; Kempener, Ruud; Cohen, Brett; Petrie, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores a new approach to planning and optimization of energy networks, using a mix of global optimization and agent-based modeling tools. This approach takes account of techno-economic, environmental and social criteria, and engages explicitly with inherent network complexity in terms of the autonomous decision-making capability of individual agents within the network, who may choose not to act as economic rationalists. This is an important consideration from the standpoint of meeting sustainable development goals. The approach attempts to set targets for energy planning, by determining preferred network development pathways through multi-objective optimization. The viability of such plans is then explored through agent-based models. The combined approach is demonstrated for a case study of regional electricity generation in South Africa, with biomass as feedstock

  19. IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) heterogeneous networking infrastructure for energy efficient building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Saad, Leila; Chauvenet, Cedric; Tourancheau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing developments of home, building and city automation, Power Line Communication (PLC) networking is called for unprecedented usage, especially for energy efficiency improvement. Our view of the future building networking infrastructure places PLC as the central point. We point that while Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is necessary in the sensor and actuator networking infrastructure, PLC is mandatory for the smart-grid metering and command infrastructure. PLC will also serve the sensor/actuator infrastructure when the energy requirement of the probing system itself cannot be fulfilled by autonomous battery and harvesting based nodes. PLC may also provide the numerous bridges necessary to sustain a long lifetime (years) with the battery based WSN part of the infrastructure. This new role of PLC networking will be possible only if the interoperability between all media and technology is made possible. Thanks to the converging design of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) networking layers, we show that such a full inter-interoperability is already possible even in very tiny constrained networking devices. Moreover, the low power PLC technology used in our experiments will be able to provide this smart grid monitoring without impacting noticeably the overall energy balance of the monitored system.

  20. Economic Assessment of Network-Constrained Transactive Energy for Managing Flexible Demand in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Xue, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources such as electric vehicles and heat pumps connected to power systems raises operational challenges to the network operator, for example, introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level if their operations...... method in the system, given the high penetration of distributed energy resources. This paper firstly describes the NCTE-based distribution system that introduces a new interacting scheme for actors at the distribution system level. Then, technical modeling and economic interpretation of the NCTE...... are not properly coordinated. Coordination and control of a large number of distributed energy resources requires innovative approaches. In this paper, we follow up on a recently proposed network-constrained transactive energy (NCTE) method for scheduling of electric vehicles and heat pumps within a retailer...

  1. Network-based Database Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.N.; Knudsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    A course in database design and implementation has been de- signed, utilizing existing network facilities. The course is an elementary course for students of computer engineering. Its purpose is to give the students a theoretical database knowledge as well as practical experience with design...... and implementation. A tutorial relational database and the students self-designed databases are implemented on the UNIX system of Aalborg University, thus giving the teacher the possibility of live demonstrations in the lecture room, and the students the possibility of interactive learning in their working rooms...

  2. A Jackson network model and threshold policy for joint optimization of energy and delay in multi-hop wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2014-11-20

    This paper studies the joint optimization problem of energy and delay in a multi-hop wireless network. The optimization variables are the transmission rates, which are adjustable according to the packet queueing length in the buffer. The optimization goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the packet transmission delay throughout the network. In this paper, we aim at understanding the well-known decentralized algorithms which are threshold based from a different research angle. By using a simplified network model, we show that we can adopt the semi-open Jackson network model and study this optimization problem in closed form. This simplified network model further allows us to establish some significant optimality properties. We prove that the system performance is monotonic with respect to (w.r.t.) the transmission rate. We also prove that the threshold-type policy is optimal, i.e., when the number of packets in the buffer is larger than a threshold, transmit with the maximal rate (power); otherwise, no transmission. With these optimality properties, we develop a heuristic algorithm to iteratively find the optimal threshold. Finally, we conduct some simulation experiments to demonstrate the main idea of this paper.

  3. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division....... A comprehensive analysis on the trade-off between power consumption and capital expenditures (CAPEX) is also presented. The results confirmed that gross-grained designs (i.e., designs that account for high bandwidth technologies) are attractive from a cost perspective, however, power consumption needs...... named KeyFlow are reported showing more than 50% reduction in the round trip time, eliminating jitter from the system, and obtaining up to 57% power reduction compared to a reference OpenFlow switch. Furthermore, this thesis introduces an evaluation of a novel approach for short range high capacity...

  4. Energy-efficient wireless mesh networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntlatlapa, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available   result   energy  consumption   must   be   minimized   while  achieving   high   throughput   and   low   delay.   In  this context, we are engaged in various projects  to   design   transmission   stratergy   to   minimize  the...   that   large  numbers  of  people  rely on a single telephone line. These characteristics make it difficult to provide  public   telecommunication   services  of   acceptable  quality by traditional means at  affordable prices,  while...

  5. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  6. Outage Probability Minimization for Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Jing, Tao; Huo, Yan; Jiang, Kaiwei

    2017-01-24

    The incorporation of cognitive radio (CR) capability in wireless sensor networks yields a promising network paradigm known as CR sensor networks (CRSNs), which is able to provide spectrum efficient data communication. However, due to the high energy consumption results from spectrum sensing, as well as subsequent data transmission, the energy supply for the conventional sensor nodes powered by batteries is regarded as a severe bottleneck for sustainable operation. The energy harvesting technique, which gathers energy from the ambient environment, is regarded as a promising solution to perpetually power-up energy-limited devices with a continual source of energy. Therefore, applying the energy harvesting (EH) technique in CRSNs is able to facilitate the self-sustainability of the energy-limited sensors. The primary concern of this study is to design sensing-transmission policies to minimize the long-term outage probability of EH-powered CR sensor nodes. We formulate this problem as an infinite-horizon discounted Markov decision process and propose an ϵ -optimal sensing-transmission (ST) policy through using the value iteration algorithm. ϵ is the error bound between the ST policy and the optimal policy, which can be pre-defined according to the actual need. Moreover, for a special case that the signal-to-noise (SNR) power ratio is sufficiently high, we present an efficient transmission (ET) policy and prove that the ET policy achieves the same performance with the ST policy. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed policies and the impaction of various network parameters.

  7. Outage Probability Minimization for Energy Harvesting Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of cognitive radio (CR capability in wireless sensor networks yields a promising network paradigm known as CR sensor networks (CRSNs, which is able to provide spectrum efficient data communication. However, due to the high energy consumption results from spectrum sensing, as well as subsequent data transmission, the energy supply for the conventional sensor nodes powered by batteries is regarded as a severe bottleneck for sustainable operation. The energy harvesting technique, which gathers energy from the ambient environment, is regarded as a promising solution to perpetually power-up energy-limited devices with a continual source of energy. Therefore, applying the energy harvesting (EH technique in CRSNs is able to facilitate the self-sustainability of the energy-limited sensors. The primary concern of this study is to design sensing-transmission policies to minimize the long-term outage probability of EH-powered CR sensor nodes. We formulate this problem as an infinite-horizon discounted Markov decision process and propose an ϵ-optimal sensing-transmission (ST policy through using the value iteration algorithm. ϵ is the error bound between the ST policy and the optimal policy, which can be pre-defined according to the actual need. Moreover, for a special case that the signal-to-noise (SNR power ratio is sufficiently high, we present an efficient transmission (ET policy and prove that the ET policy achieves the same performance with the ST policy. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed policies and the impaction of various network parameters.

  8. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  9. Optimized smart grid energy procurement for LTE networks using evolutionary algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2014-11-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can contribute significantly to reducing worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Moreover, introducing renewable energy as an alternative power source has become a real challenge among network operators. In this paper, we formulate an optimization problem that aims to maximize the profit of Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operators and to simultaneously minimize the CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired quality of service (QoS). The BS sleeping strategy lends itself to an interesting implementation using several heuristic approaches, such as the genetic (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms. In this paper, we propose GA-based and PSO-based methods that reduce the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (renewable energy and electricity retailers), as well. A comparison with another previously proposed algorithm is also carried out to evaluate the performance and the computational complexity of the employed methods.

  10. Microinstallations Based on Renewable Energy Sources in the Construction Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzak, Lucjan

    2017-10-01

    The focus of this paper is on the status and prognoses of the use of microinstallations based on renewable energy sources to supply heat and power. The technologies that have been important in Europe and Poland for microgeneration of electricity include photovoltaic systems, micro wind turbines and co-generation systems. Solar collectors, heat pumps and biomass have also been used to generate heat. Microinstallations for renewable energy sources represent the initial point and the foundation for the development of micro networks, intelligent networks and the whole prosumer energy sector.

  11. Analytical network process based optimum cluster head selection in wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farman, Haleem; Javed, Huma; Jan, Bilal; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Shaukat; Khalil, Falak Naz; Khan, Murad

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are becoming ubiquitous in everyday life due to their applications in weather forecasting, surveillance, implantable sensors for health monitoring and other plethora of applications. WSN is equipped with hundreds and thousands of small sensor nodes. As the size of a sensor node decreases, critical issues such as limited energy, computation time and limited memory become even more highlighted. In such a case, network lifetime mainly depends on efficient use of available resources. Organizing nearby nodes into clusters make it convenient to efficiently manage each cluster as well as the overall network. In this paper, we extend our previous work of grid-based hybrid network deployment approach, in which merge and split technique has been proposed to construct network topology. Constructing topology through our proposed technique, in this paper we have used analytical network process (ANP) model for cluster head selection in WSN. Five distinct parameters: distance from nodes (DistNode), residual energy level (REL), distance from centroid (DistCent), number of times the node has been selected as cluster head (TCH) and merged node (MN) are considered for CH selection. The problem of CH selection based on these parameters is tackled as a multi criteria decision system, for which ANP method is used for optimum cluster head selection. Main contribution of this work is to check the applicability of ANP model for cluster head selection in WSN. In addition, sensitivity analysis is carried out to check the stability of alternatives (available candidate nodes) and their ranking for different scenarios. The simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing energy efficient clustering protocols in terms of optimum CH selection and minimizing CH reselection process that results in extending overall network lifetime. This paper analyzes that ANP method used for CH selection with better understanding of the dependencies of

  12. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  13. Learning free energy landscapes using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; Whitmer, Jonathan K.

    2018-03-01

    Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes. We demonstrate that this method is capable of rapidly adapting to complex free energy landscapes and is not prone to boundary or oscillation problems. The method is made robust to hyperparameters and overfitting through Bayesian regularization which penalizes network weights and auto-regulates the number of effective parameters in the network. ANN sampling represents a promising innovative approach which can resolve complex free energy landscapes in less time than conventional approaches while requiring minimal user input.

  14. Learning free energy landscapes using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidky, Hythem; Whitmer, Jonathan K

    2018-03-14

    Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes. We demonstrate that this method is capable of rapidly adapting to complex free energy landscapes and is not prone to boundary or oscillation problems. The method is made robust to hyperparameters and overfitting through Bayesian regularization which penalizes network weights and auto-regulates the number of effective parameters in the network. ANN sampling represents a promising innovative approach which can resolve complex free energy landscapes in less time than conventional approaches while requiring minimal user input.

  15. Enhancement of Adaptive Cluster Hierarchical Routing Protocol using Distance and Energy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawar, N.M.; Soliman, S.E.; Kelash, H.M.; Ayad, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The application of wireless networking is widely used in nuclear applications. This includes reactor control and fire dedication system. This paper is devoted to the application of this concept in the intrusion system of the Radioisotope Production Facility (RPF) of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority. This includes the tracking, monitoring and control components of this system. The design and implementation of wireless sensor networks has become a hot area of research due to the extensive use of sensor networks to enable applications that connect the physical world to the virtual world [1-2]. The original LEACH is named a communication protocol (clustering-based); the extended LEACH’s stochastic cluster head selection algorithm by a deterministic component. Depending on the network configuration an increase of network lifetime can be accomplished [3]. The proposed routing mechanisms after enhancement divide the nodes into clusters. A cluster head performs its task which is considerably more energy-intensive than the rest of the nodes inside sensor network. So, nodes rotate tasks at different rounds between a cluster head and other sensors throughout the lifetime of the network to balance the energy dissipation [4-5].The performance improvement when using routing protocol after enhancement of the algorithm which takes into consideration the distance and the remaining energy for choosing the cluster head by obtains from the advertise message. Network Simulator (Ns2 simulator) is used to prove that LEACH after enhancement performs better than the original LEACH protocol in terms of Average Energy, Network Life Time, Delay, Throughput and Overhead.

  16. Energy Savings through Site Renewal in an HSPA/LTE Network Evolution Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    Mobile network operators are committing themselves to reduce the energy consumption of their networks. However, the expected growth in traffic and the upgrades required to sustain this growth pose a serious question on whether these targets are achievable. Through a case study, this paper looks a...... to just 12%. In some cases, when a less aggressive traffic growth is assumed, the energy savings are enough to balance any increase in energy. In a best case scenario, where all sites are replaced when new equipment is available, energy savings close to 40% are achievable....... at how the energy consumption of a mobile network is likely to develop over a period of nine years, considering the evolution of an existing HSPA layer into a multi-layered (HSPA+LTE) network. Besides, this study also considers four different equipment versions released throughout the years, which...... are introduced in the network based on a replacement strategy. In addition, the two most modern sites are assumed to be configured with remote radio head. In comparison to the reference case which leads to an increase in energy consumption of almost 200%, considering these site upgrades can limit the increase...

  17. Energy-Efficient Unequal Chain Length Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Baniata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in sensing and communication technologies such as wireless sensor networks (WSN have enabled low-priced distributed monitoring systems that are the foundation of smart cities. These advances are also helping to monitor smart cities and making our living environments workable. However, sensor nodes are constrained in energy supply if they have no constant power supply. Moreover, communication links can be easily failed because of unequal node energy depletion. The energy constraints and link failures affect the performance and quality of the sensor network. Therefore, designing a routing protocol that minimizes energy consumption and maximizes the network lifetime should be considered in the design of the routing protocol for WSN. In this paper, we propose an Energy-Efficient Unequal Chain Length Clustering (EEUCLC protocol which has a suboptimal multihop routing algorithm to reduce the burden on the cluster head and a probability-based cluster head selection algorithm to prolong the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the EEUCLC mechanism enhanced the energy balance and prolonged the network lifetime compared to other related protocols.

  18. Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Mousa, Mustafa

    2014-02-24

    The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.

  19. Routing versus energy optimization in a linear network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Tom Johannes Maria; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; de Graaf, Maurits

    In wireless networks, devices (or nodes) often have a limited battery supply to use for the sending and reception of transmissions. By allowing nodes to relay messages for other nodes, the distance that needs to be bridged can be reduced, thus limiting the energy needed for a transmission. However,

  20. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 1009–1021. Protocol of networks using energy sharing collisions of bright solitons. K NAKAMURA1,2, T KANNA3,∗ and K SAKKARAVARTHI3. 1Faculty of Physics ... solitonic collisions is expected and therefore multiple soliton dynamics leads to a triv- ..... One can obtain various choices of αk which satisfy eq.

  1. Image reconstruction of cyclotron beam based on Hopfield network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Thoru; Tanizaki, Naoaki (Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Tanashi, Tokyo (Japan). Systems Engineering Lab.)

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a beam image reconstruction method based on Hopfield neural networks. The images of beam emitted from cyclotrons are measured as three projection patterns by 3-wire beam sensors. The reconstruction of beam image is necessary because the measured projection patterns are not easy to understand for inexperienced operators. First, the energy function is defined using the measured projection patterns as constraints. Then surface tension terms, which make the surface area minimal, are added to it in order to generate smooth images. The weights of links of the Hopfield network are determined by the coefficients of the energy function. Through the convergence of the network, beam images which satisfy the projection patterns and look natural for human sense can be reconstructed. (author).

  2. REACH: An Efficient MAC Protocol for RF Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teasung Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a MAC protocol for Radio Frequency (RF energy harvesting in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. In the conventional RF energy harvesting methods, an Energy Transmitter (ET operates in a passive manner. An ET transmits RF energy signals only when a sensor with depleted energy sends a Request-for-Energy (RFE message. Unlike the conventional methods, an ET in the proposed scheme can actively send RF energy signals without RFE messages. An ET determines the active energy signal transmission according to the consequence of the passive energy harvesting procedures. To transmit RF energy signals without request from sensors, the ET participates in a contention-based channel access procedure. Once the ET successfully acquires the channel, it sends RF energy signals on the acquired channel during Short Charging Time (SCT. The proposed scheme determines the length of SCT to minimize the interruption of data communication. We compare the performance of the proposed protocol with RF-MAC protocol by simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can increase the energy harvesting rate by 150% with 8% loss of network throughput compared to RF-MAC. In addition, the proposed protocol can increase the lifetime of WSN because of the active energy signal transmission method.

  3. Identifying network public opinion leaders based on Markov Logic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Xiaoqiang; He, Hui; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity.

  4. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Architecture Analysis of an FPGA-Based Hopfield Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo de Abreu de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnections between electronic circuits and neural computation have been a strongly researched topic in the machine learning field in order to approach several practical requirements, including decreasing training and operation times in high performance applications and reducing cost, size, and energy consumption for autonomous or embedded developments. Field programmable gate array (FPGA hardware shows some inherent features typically associated with neural networks, such as, parallel processing, modular executions, and dynamic adaptation, and works on different types of FPGA-based neural networks were presented in recent years. This paper aims to address different aspects of architectural characteristics analysis on a Hopfield Neural Network implemented in FPGA, such as maximum operating frequency and chip-area occupancy according to the network capacity. Also, the FPGA implementation methodology, which does not employ multipliers in the architecture developed for the Hopfield neural model, is presented, in detail.

  6. Designing Network-based Business Model Ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Nekoo, Ali Reza; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Zarei, Behrouz

    2015-01-01

    is going to propose e-business model ontology from the network point of view and its application in real world. The suggested ontology for network-based businesses is composed of individuals` characteristics and what kind of resources they own. also, their connections and pre-conceptions of connections...... such as shared-mental model and trust. However, it mostly covers previous business model elements. To confirm the applicability of this ontology, it has been implemented in business angel network and showed how it works....

  7. Apriori-based network intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenjin; Liu Junrong; Liu Baoxu

    2012-01-01

    With the development of network communication technology, more and more social activities run by Internet. In the meantime, the network information security is getting increasingly serious. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has greatly improved the general security level of whole network. But there are still many problem exists in current IDS, e.g. high leak rate detection/false alarm rates and feature library need frequently upgrade. This paper presents an association-rule based IDS. This system can detect unknown attack by generate rules from training data. Experiment in last chapter proved the system has great accuracy on unknown attack detection. (authors)

  8. [Signaling network-based functional cell design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jianqi; Wei, Ping

    2017-03-25

    Cellular signaling networks act as the central processor to deal with environmental signals and regulate cell function, and determine cell fate. Using synthetic biology approach to engineer cell signaling networks is crucial for ultimately constructing man-made "cell machines". Cellular signaling networks can encode sophisticated cell information by processing quantitatively signaling dynamics, which enables multi-dimensional regulation of functional sub-circuits. Here, we first review the research progresses on the signaling coding mechanisms; and then elaborate the methodologies and applications of cells signaling engineering; finally, we envision that signaling-based cell engineering are important for the increasingly-complicated next generation synthetic biology.

  9. Toward Measuring Network Aesthetics Based on Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengqiang Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this exploratory paper, we discuss quantitative graph-theoretical measures of network aesthetics. Related work in this area has typically focused on geometrical features (e.g., line crossings or edge bendiness of drawings or visual representations of graphs which purportedly affect an observer’s perception. Here we take a very different approach, abandoning reliance on geometrical properties, and apply information-theoretic measures to abstract graphs and networks directly (rather than to their visual representaions as a means of capturing classical appreciation of structural symmetry. Examples are used solely to motivate the approach to measurement, and to elucidate our symmetry-based mathematical theory of network aesthetics.

  10. Security challenges for energy-harvesting wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, Alessio; Papini, Davide; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    With the recent introduction of Energy-Harvesting nodes, security is gaining more and more importance in sensor networks. By exploiting the ability of scavenging energy from the surrounding environment, the lifespan of a node has drastically increased. This is one of the reason why security needs...... a new take in this topic. Traditional solutions may not work in this new field. Brand new challenges and threats may arise and new solutions have to be designed. In this paper we present a taxonomy of attacks, focusing on how they change in the energy harvesting scenario compared to regular sensor...

  11. Energy Efficient Wireless Vehicular-Guided Actuator Network

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2013-06-09

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient vehicular guided system for environmental disaster management using wireless sensor/actuator networks. Sensor nodes within clusters are controlled by a master node that is dynamically selected. Actuators support mobility for every sensor node in the area of interest. The system maintains energy efficiency using statistical, correlation, and confidence for determining actuator actions and implements an adaptive energy scheme to prolong the system lifespan. Experimental results show that the system is capable of saving up to 2.7Watt for every 28KByte of data exchanged. We also show that actuator actions are correct with a 90% confidence.

  12. Fuzzy C-Means Clustering and Energy Efficient Cluster Head Selection for Cooperative Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Dost Muhammad Saqib; Saeed, Nasir; Nam, Haewoon

    2016-09-09

    We propose a novel cluster based cooperative spectrum sensing algorithm to save the wastage of energy, in which clusters are formed using fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and a cluster head (CH) is selected based on a sensor's location within each cluster, its location with respect to fusion center (FC), its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and its residual energy. The sensing information of a single sensor is not reliable enough due to shadowing and fading. To overcome these issues, cooperative spectrum sensing schemes were proposed to take advantage of spatial diversity. For cooperative spectrum sensing, all sensors sense the spectrum and report the sensed energy to FC for the final decision. However, it increases the energy consumption of the network when a large number of sensors need to cooperate; in addition to that, the efficiency of the network is also reduced. The proposed algorithm makes the cluster and selects the CHs such that very little amount of network energy is consumed and the highest efficiency of the network is achieved. Using the proposed algorithm maximum probability of detection under an imperfect channel is accomplished with minimum energy consumption as compared to conventional clustering schemes.

  13. A Novel Cross-Layer Routing Protocol Based on Network Coding for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Shilian; Bu, Renfei; Zhang, Eryang

    2017-08-08

    Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years because of their numerous applications in ocean monitoring, resource discovery and tactical surveillance. However, the design of reliable and efficient transmission and routing protocols is a challenge due to the low acoustic propagation speed and complex channel environment in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer routing protocol based on network coding (NCRP) for UWSNs, which utilizes network coding and cross-layer design to greedily forward data packets to sink nodes efficiently. The proposed NCRP takes full advantages of multicast transmission and decode packets jointly with encoded packets received from multiple potential nodes in the entire network. The transmission power is optimized in our design to extend the life cycle of the network. Moreover, we design a real-time routing maintenance protocol to update the route when detecting inefficient relay nodes. Substantial simulations in underwater environment by Network Simulator 3 (NS-3) show that NCRP significantly improves the network performance in terms of energy consumption, end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio compared with other routing protocols for UWSNs.

  14. Pricing and Capacity Planning Problems in Energy Transmission Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer

    strategy. In the Nordic electricity system a market with zonal prices is adopted. We consider the problem of designing zones in an optimal way explicitly considering uncertainty. Finally, we formulate the integrated problem of pipeline capacity expansion planning and transmission pricing in natural gas...... necessitates a radical change in the way we plan and operate energy systems. Another paradigm change which began in the 1990’s for electricity systems is that of deregulation. This has led to a variety of different market structures implemented across the world. In this thesis we discuss capacity planning...... and transmission pricing problems in energy transmission networks. Although the modelling framework applies to energy networks in general, most of the applications discussed concern the transmission of electricity. A number of the problems presented involves transmission switching, which allows the operator...

  15. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  16. An improved modified LEACH-C algorithm for energy efficient routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mansukh lal Parmar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN is mainly characterized by its limited power supply. Hence the need for Energy efficient infrastructure is becoming increasingly more important since it impact in network lifetime. Here the focus of this paper on Hierarchy clustering because multi-hope short range communication between wireless sensor nodes is energy efficient compared to Single-hope long range communication. In Hierarchy clustering, there are many Protocols but this paper talk about the well-known Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH[1].Centralized Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH-C and Advanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy(ALEACH are energy efficient clustering routing protocol and they are belonging to hierarchy routing. In this paper we proposed Modified LEACH-C to upgrade the execution of existing Leach-C in such sort of Topology where Leach-C not performs so well. By Applying Method of Distance calculation between CH (cluster-head to Member node and BS (base-station to Member node. Making non-overlapping cluster using assigning proper ID while creating clusters. This makes the routing protocol more energy effective and delays life-time of a wireless sensor network. Simulation results demonstrate that Modified LEACH-C enhances network life-time contrasted with LEACH-C algorithm.

  17. Research on Battery Energy Storage System Based on User Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Wang, Xuguang; Zhang, Dong; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces the effect of user side energy storage on the user side and the network side, a battery energy storage system for the user side is designed. The main circuit topology of the battery energy storage system based on the user side is given, the structure is mainly composed of two parts: DC-DC two-way half bridge converter and DC-AC two-way converter, a control strategy combining battery charging and discharging characteristics is proposed to decouple the grid side and the energy storage side, and the block diagram of the charging and discharging control of the energy storage system is given. The simulation results show that the battery energy storage system of the user side can not only realize reactive power compensation of low-voltage distribution network, but also improve the power quality of the users.

  18. Diffusion of influence in energy awareness campaigns on the online social networking site of facebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samaha, Kimberly

    2010-09-15

    The era of government jurisdiction based on separate and autonomous entities has been replaced with an intergovernmental and intersectoral network of industry, regulators, special interest groups and individual citizens. New forms of regulatory feedback will be inspired more by the concepts of networks- they will be flatter, leaner, and more flexible. An evaluation of new methods for the diffusion of public awareness regarding energy technologies, policies and projects, was conducted using the technology platform of Facebook. This paper reports on the results of an eighteen month formal study of the Diffusion of Influence in Online Social Networks.

  19. Map of decentralised energy potential based on renewable energy sources in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D. R.; Ban, M.; Duic, N.; Bogdan, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Although the Republic of Croatia is almost completely electrified there are still regions where electricity network is not in place or network capacity is insufficient. These regions usually include areas of special state care (underdeveloped, war-affected or depopulated areas), islands, and mountainous areas. However, they often have good renewable energy potential. Decentralised energy generation based on renewable energy sources (wind power, hydropower, solar energy, biomass) has potential to ensure energy supply to users in remote and often isolated rural areas (off-grid applications). Such applications will primarily be related to tourism business in mountainous, rural and island/coastal regions. Also, agriculture, wood-processing and food-processing industries will potentially be interested in application of decentralised energy generation systems, most likely those using biomass as fuel (for example cogeneration facilities, connected on-grid).(author)

  20. Evaluating C-RAN Fronthaul Functional Splits in Terms of Network Level Energy and Cost Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2016-01-01

    model quantifies the multiplexing gains and the trade-offs between centralization and decentralization concerning the cost of the pool, fronthaul network capacity and resource utilization. The event-based simulation captures the influence of the traffic load dynamics and traffic type variation......The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional...... split in the baseband processing chain has been proposed to overcome these challenges. This paper evaluates, by mathematical and simulation methods, different splits with respect to network level energy and cost efficiency having in the mind the expected quality of service.The proposed mathematical...

  1. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Nestor; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Cabrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been...... of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) based schemes for the Raspberry Pi models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy...... consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less...

  2. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency.

  3. Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based.

  4. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  5. Electronic implementation of associative memory based on neural network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moopenn, A.; Lambe, John; Thakoor, A. P.

    1987-01-01

    An electronic embodiment of a neural network based associative memory in the form of a binary connection matrix is described. The nature of false memory errors, their effect on the information storage capacity of binary connection matrix memories, and a novel technique to eliminate such errors with the help of asymmetrical extra connections are discussed. The stability of the matrix memory system incorporating a unique local inhibition scheme is analyzed in terms of local minimization of an energy function. The memory's stability, dynamic behavior, and recall capability are investigated using a 32-'neuron' electronic neural network memory with a 1024-programmable binary connection matrix.

  6. A new graphical method for Pinch Analysis applications: Heat exchanger network retrofit and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A.

    2015-01-01

    Energy integration is a key solution in chemical process and crude refining industries to minimise external fuel consumption and to face the impact of growing energy crises. Typical energy integration projects can reach a reduction of heating fuels and cold utilities by up to 40% compared with original designs or existing installations. Pinch Analysis is a leading tool and regarded as an efficient method to increase energy efficiency and minimise fuel flow consumptions. It is valid for both natures of design, grassroots and retrofit situations. It can practically be applied to synthesise a HEN (heat exchanger network) or modify an existing preheat train for minimum energy consumption. Heat recovery systems or HENs are networks for exchanging heat between hot and cold process sources. All heat transferred from hot process sources into cold process sinks represent the scope for energy integration. On the other hand, energies required beyond this integrated amount are to be satisfied by external utilities. Graphical representations of Pinch Analysis, such as Composite and Grand Composite Curves are very useful for grassroots designs. Nevertheless, in retrofit situation the analysis is not adequate and besides it is graphically tedious to represent existing exchangers on such graphs. This research proposes a new graphical method for the analysis of heat recovery systems, applicable to HEN retrofit. The new graphical method is based on plotting temperatures of process hot streams versus temperatures of process cold streams. A new graph is constructed for representing existing HENs. For a given network, each existing exchanger is represented by a straight line, whose slope is proportional to the ratio of heat capacities and flows. Further, the length of each exchanger line is related to the heat flow transferred across this exchanger. This new graphical representation can easily identify exchangers across the pinch, Network Pinch, pinching matches and improper placement

  7. Report by the study committee related to data held by energy network and infrastructure managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at providing a view of the status of data related to energy and held by network and infrastructure managers and operators. It is notably based on about fifty hearings of regulated energy operators, providers, representatives of electricity producers, local authorities, representatives of public bodies awarding concession and exploitation, and consumer associations. The authors also met heat and water network operators, IT service companies, start-ups of the energy sector, and telecommunications operators, and representatives of French and European institutional bodies. Fifteen propositions have been formulated which address the imperative of data consistence, quality and inter-operability, the clarification of the game of actors for an efficient governance of networks, the necessity of a consolidated confidence of consumers regarding the management of their data, and the activities of regulation (readability of analysis criteria, predictability of the resulting action)

  8. Network-based analysis of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z-P; Wang, Y; Zhang, X-S; Chen, L

    2012-02-01

    Complex diseases are commonly believed to be caused by the breakdown of several correlated genes rather than individual genes. The availability of genome-wide data of high-throughput experiments provides us with new opportunity to explore this hypothesis by analysing the disease-related biomolecular networks, which are expected to bridge genotypes and disease phenotypes and further reveal the biological mechanisms of complex diseases. In this study, the authors review the existing network biology efforts to study complex diseases, such as breast cancer, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease, using high-throughput data and computational tools. Specifically, the authors categorise these existing methods into several classes based on the research topics, that is, disease genes, dysfunctional pathways, network signatures and drug-target networks. The authors also summarise the pros and cons of those methods from both computation and application perspectives, and further discuss research trends and future topics of this promising field.

  9. FPGA-based network intrusion detection for IEC 61850-based industrial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsik Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an FPGA-based network intrusion detection system for the IEC 61850-based industrial network that is specially designed for substation automation. The proposed system uses the Shift-And algorithm for detecting malicious network packets within IEC 61850 messages. To implement a complex rule matching module with a limited memory size of FPGA, a specially designed rule matching module was proposed in this paper. For feasibility evaluation, a prototype with 265 regular expression matching modules was implemented using Xilinx Zynq-7030 FPGA and its performance is presented in this paper. Keywords: Network intrusion detection system (NIDS, IEC 61850, Regular expression, Substation automation, FPGA

  10. Recursive Neural Networks Based on PSO for Image Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Rong Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image parsing algorithm which is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Recursive Neural Networks (RNNs. State-of-the-art method such as traditional RNN-based parsing strategy uses L-BFGS over the complete data for learning the parameters. However, this could cause problems due to the nondifferentiable objective function. In order to solve this problem, the PSO algorithm has been employed to tune the weights of RNN for minimizing the objective. Experimental results obtained on the Stanford background dataset show that our PSO-based training algorithm outperforms traditional RNN, Pixel CRF, region-based energy, simultaneous MRF, and superpixel MRF.

  11. Neural Network Based Intelligent Sootblowing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Rhode

    2005-04-01

    . Due to the composition of coal, particulate matter is also a by-product of coal combustion. Modern day utility boilers are usually fitted with electrostatic precipitators to aid in the collection of particulate matter. Although extremely efficient, these devices are sensitive to rapid changes in inlet mass concentration as well as total mass loading. Traditionally, utility boilers are equipped with devices known as sootblowers, which use, steam, water or air to dislodge and clean the surfaces within the boiler and are operated based upon established rule or operator's judgment. Poor sootblowing regimes can influence particulate mass loading to the electrostatic precipitators. The project applied a neural network intelligent sootblowing system in conjunction with state-of-the-art controls and instruments to optimize the operation of a utility boiler and systematically control boiler slagging/fouling. This optimization process targeted reduction of NOx of 30%, improved efficiency of 2% and a reduction in opacity of 5%. The neural network system proved to be a non-invasive system which can readily be adapted to virtually any utility boiler. Specific conclusions from this neural network application are listed below. These conclusions should be used in conjunction with the specific details provided in the technical discussions of this report to develop a thorough understanding of the process.

  12. A Fair Resource Allocation Algorithm for Data and Energy Integrated Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement of wireless network technologies and the rapid increase in the number of mobile devices, mobile users (MUs have an increasing high demand to access the Internet with guaranteed quality-of-service (QoS. Data and energy integrated communication networks (DEINs are emerging as a new type of wireless networks that have the potential to simultaneously transfer wireless energy and information via the same base station (BS. This means that a physical BS is virtualized into two parts: one is transferring energy and the other is transferring information. The former is called virtual energy base station (eBS and the latter is named as data base station (dBS. One important issue in such setting is dynamic resource allocation. Here the resource concerned includes both power and time. In this paper, we propose a fair data-and-energy resource allocation algorithm for DEINs by jointly designing the downlink energy beamforming and a power-and-time allocation scheme, with the consideration of finite capacity batteries at MUs and power sensitivity of radio frequency (RF to direct current (DC conversion circuits. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of fairness, beamforming design, sensitivity, and average throughput.

  13. Flow based vs. demand based energy-water modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozos, Evangelos; Nikolopoulos, Dionysis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Koukouvinos, Antonios; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    The water flow in hydro-power generation systems is often used downstream to cover other type of demands like irrigation and water supply. However, the typical case is that the energy demand (operation of hydro-power plant) and the water demand do not coincide. Furthermore, the water inflow into a reservoir is a stochastic process. Things become more complicated if renewable resources (wind-turbines or photovoltaic panels) are included into the system. For this reason, the assessment and optimization of the operation of hydro-power systems are challenging tasks that require computer modelling. This modelling should not only simulate the water budget of the reservoirs and the energy production/consumption (pumped-storage), but should also take into account the constraints imposed by the natural or artificial water network using a flow routing algorithm. HYDRONOMEAS, for example, uses an elegant mathematical approach (digraph) to calculate the flow in a water network based on: the demands (input timeseries), the water availability (simulated) and the capacity of the transmission components (properties of channels, rivers, pipes, etc.). The input timeseries of demand should be estimated by another model and linked to the corresponding network nodes. A model that could be used to estimate these timeseries is UWOT. UWOT is a bottom up urban water cycle model that simulates the generation, aggregation and routing of water demand signals. In this study, we explore the potentials of UWOT in simulating the operation of complex hydrosystems that include energy generation. The evident advantage of this approach is the use of a single model instead of one for estimation of demands and another for the system simulation. An application of UWOT in a large scale system is attempted in mainland Greece in an area extending over 130×170 km². The challenges, the peculiarities and the advantages of this approach are examined and critically discussed.

  14. A Game Theoretic Optimization Method for Energy Efficient Global Connectivity in Hybrid Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JongHyup Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For practical deployment of wireless sensor networks (WSN, WSNs construct clusters, where a sensor node communicates with other nodes in its cluster, and a cluster head support connectivity between the sensor nodes and a sink node. In hybrid WSNs, cluster heads have cellular network interfaces for global connectivity. However, when WSNs are active and the load of cellular networks is high, the optimal assignment of cluster heads to base stations becomes critical. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a game theoretic model to find the optimal assignment of base stations for hybrid WSNs. Since the communication and energy cost is different according to cellular systems, we devise two game models for TDMA/FDMA and CDMA systems employing power prices to adapt to the varying efficiency of recent wireless technologies. The proposed model is defined on the assumptions of the ideal sensing field, but our evaluation shows that the proposed model is more adaptive and energy efficient than local selections.

  15. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree-Based

  16. Energy Efficient Routing and Node Activity Scheduling in the OCARI Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sensor nodes are characterized by a small size, a low cost, an advanced communication technology, but also a limited amount of energy. Energy efficient strategies are required in such networks to maximize network lifetime. In this paper, we focus on a solution integrating energy efficient routing and node activity scheduling. The energy efficient routing we propose, called EOLSR, selects the route and minimizes the energy consumed by an end-to-end transmission, while avoiding nodes with low residual energy. Simulation results show that EOLSR outperforms the solution selecting the route of minimum energy as well as the solution based on node residual energy. Cross-layering allows EOLSR to use information from the application layer or the MAC layer to reduce its overhead and increase network lifetime. Node activity scheduling is based on the following observation: the sleep state is the least power consuming state. So, to schedule node active and sleeping periods, we propose SERENA that colors all network nodes using a small number of colors, such that two nodes with the same color can transmit without interfering. The node color is mapped into a time slot during which the node can transmit. Consequently, each node is awake during its slot and the slots of its one-hop neighbors, and sleeps in the remaining time. We evaluate SERENA benefits obtained in terms of bandwidth, delay and energy. We also show how cross-layering with the application layer can improve the end-to-end delays for data gathering applications.

  17. Energy-Efficient Channel Coding Strategy for Underwater Acoustic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielli Barreto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Underwater acoustic networks (UAN allow for efficiently exploiting and monitoring the sub-aquatic environment. These networks are characterized by long propagation delays, error-prone channels and half-duplex communication. In this paper, we address the problem of energy-efficient communication through the use of optimized channel coding parameters. We consider a two-layer encoding scheme employing forward error correction (FEC codes and fountain codes (FC for UAN scenarios without feedback channels. We model and evaluate the energy consumption of different channel coding schemes for a K-distributed multipath channel. The parameters of the FEC encoding layer are optimized by selecting the optimal error correction capability and the code block size. The results show the best parameter choice as a function of the link distance and received signal-to-noise ratio.

  18. Transport energy demand modeling of South Korea using artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geem, Zong Woo

    2011-01-01

    Artificial neural network models were developed to forecast South Korea's transport energy demand. Various independent variables, such as GDP, population, oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount, were considered and several good models (Model 1 with GDP, population, and passenger transport amount; Model 2 with GDP, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount; and Model 3 with oil price, number of vehicle registrations, and passenger transport amount) were selected by comparing with multiple linear regression models. Although certain regression models obtained better R-squared values than neural network models, this does not guarantee the fact that the former is better than the latter because root mean squared errors of the former were much inferior to those of the latter. Also, certain regression model had structural weakness based on P-value. Instead, neural network models produced more robust results. Forecasted results using the neural network models show that South Korea will consume around 37 MTOE of transport energy in 2025. - Highlights: → Transport energy demand of South Korea was forecasted using artificial neural network. → Various variables (GDP, population, oil price, number of registrations, etc.) were considered. → Results of artificial neural network were compared with those of multiple linear regression.

  19. Impact of stand-by energy losses in electronic devices on smart network performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić-Lukić Jasmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited energy resources and environmental concerns due to ever increasing energy consumption, more and more emphasis is being put on energy savings. Smart networks are promoted worldwide as a powerful tool used to improve the energy efficiency through consumption management, as well as to enable the distributed power generation, primarily based on renewable energy sources, to be optimally explored. To make it possible for the smart networks to function, a large number of electronic devices is needed to operate or to be in their stand-by mode. The consumption of these devices is added to the consumption of many other electronic devices already in use in households and offices, thus giving rise to the overall power consumption and threatening to counteract the primary function of smart networks. This paper addresses the consumption of particular electronic devices, with an emphasis placed on their thermal losses when in stand-by mode and their total share in the overall power consumption in certain countries. The thermal losses of electronic devices in their stand-by mode are usually neglected, but it seems theoretically possible that a massive increase in their number can impact net performance of the future smart networks considerably so that above an optimum level of energy savings achieved by their penetration, total consumption begins to increase. Based on the current stand-by energy losses from the existing electronic devices, we propose that the future penetration of smart networks be optimized taking also into account losses from their own electronic devices, required to operate in stand-by mode.

  20. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  1. Topology of Wireless Sensor Network Based on the Perception Needs of the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuanjun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to adapt to the characteristics of multi network convergence of IOT, this paper sorts out and summarizes the development status and existing problems of Internet of things (IOT and wireless sensor network (WSN as well as the key points for future research. Based on the existing research, the wireless sensor topology SORCA protocol is improved, and an energy saving intrusion tolerant network topology SORCA-W generation method is proposed, which realizes the interconnection of multiple sensor networks. Firstly, according to the location of nodes, the network is divided into topology network composed of hexagonal units. Through adding different network nodes collection summary, the neighbor table is judged and modified, and the name of the network is added. As a result, it is concluded that a plurality of wireless sensor networks can be connected for communication, which realizes the multi network integration of perception layer of Internet of things

  2. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc

  3. Workshop on environmental and energy applications of neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report consists of the abstracts for the papers given at the conference. Applications of neural networks in the environmental, energy and biomedical fields are discussed. Some of the topics covered are: predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation; hazardous waste characterization; nondestructive TRU (transuranic) waste assay; risk analysis; load forecasting for electric utilities; design of a wind power storage and generation system; nuclear fuel management; etc.

  4. Using network analysis to understand public policy for wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantoch-Wood, Angus; Connor, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    The UK′s wave energy sector is at a pre-commercial stage transitioning from prototype/demonstration towards a revenue supported industry. A host of advantages that could be realised through successful commercialisation include; the potential to generate 40–50 TWh/yr, £3.7bn of export, and 10,000+ jobs by 2020 (with tidal). Despite this, criticisms have been made about the lack of; coordination between funding bodies, communication between stakeholders and overly centralised actors. Although the value of strong problem solving networks has been noted, problems arise in validating the presence, nature and value of relationships as well as identification of tacit and informal linkages. Here network analysis is used to validate these criticisms and provide insight into sector activities. It is shown that although high levels of interaction are occurring overall, there are wide disparities. Prime movers are clearly present and less mature developers are isolated from the system as it develops norms and practices. This, combined with government fund gating has led to a Matthew effect whereby some have access to finance and are shaping institutional norms while others struggle. Although convergence is expected, a lack of public sector coordination, transparency of decision making and comparability between devices has reduced both investor and stakeholder legitimacy. -- Highlights: •Network analysis of the UK wave energy sector. •Introduction of network analysis metrics as an analytical tool within innovation systems. •Identification of government fund gating for technologies within UK wave energy sector. •Identification of Mathew effect among device developers within the UK wave energy sector

  5. On Hybrid Energy Utilization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tala’t

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless sensor network (WSN, many applications have limited energy resources for data transmission. In order to accomplish a better green communication for WSN, a hybrid energy scheme can supply a more reliable energy source. In this article, hybrid energy utilization—which consists of constant energy source and solar harvested energy—is considered for WSN. To minimize constant energy usage from the hybrid source, a Markov decision process (MDP is designed to find the optimal transmission policy. With a finite packet buffer and a finite battery size, an MDP model is presented to define the states, actions, state transition probabilities, and the cost function including the cost values for all actions. A weighted sum of constant energy source consumption and a packet dropping probability (PDP are adopted as the cost value, enabling us to find the optimal solution for balancing the minimization of the constant energy source utilization and the PDP using a value iteration algorithm. As shown in the simulation results, the performance of optimal solution using MDP achieves a significant improvement compared to solution without its use.

  6. Telecommunications energy and greenhouse gas emissions management for future network growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chien Aun; Gygax, André F.; Leckie, Christopher; Wong, Elaine; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Hinton, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Model to evaluate key interdependencies of a fast growing telecommunications network. • Network growth analysis using real data and Monte Carlo simulation. • Importance of both operational and embodied energy efficiency improvements. • Embodied energy expected to dominate in the future under current energy efficiency trends. • Carbon footprint and energy management through optimum network replacement cycle. - Abstract: A key aspect of greener network deployment is how to achieve sustainable growth of a telecommunications network, both in terms of operational and embodied energy. Hence, in this paper we investigate how the overall energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a fast growing telecommunications network can be minimized. Due to the complexities in modeling the embodied energy of networks, this aspect of energy consumption has received limited attention by network operators. Here, we present the first model to evaluate the interdependencies of the four main contributing factors in managing the sustainable growth of a telecommunications network: (i) the network’s operational energy consumption; (ii) the embodied energy of network equipment; (iii) network traffic growth; and (iv) the expected energy efficiency improvements in both the operational and embodied phases. Using Monte Carlo techniques with real network data, our results demonstrate that under the current trends in overall energy efficiency improvements the network embodied energy will account for over 40% of the total network energy in 2025 compared to 20% in 2015. Further, we find that the optimum equipment replacement cycle, which will result in the lowest total network life cycle energy, is directly dependent on the technological progress in energy efficiency improvements of both operational and embodied phases. Our model and analysis highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to better understand the interactions between network growth, technological

  7. Energy-Efficient Channel Handoff for Sensor Network-Assisted Cognitive Radio Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sajjad; Vu-Van, Hiep; Insoo, Koo

    2015-07-23

    The visiting and less-privileged status of the secondary users (SUs) in a cognitive radio network obligates them to release the occupied channel instantly when it is reclaimed by the primary user. The SU has a choice to make: either wait for the channel to become free, thus conserving energy at the expense of delayed transmission and delivery, or find and switch to a vacant channel, thereby avoiding delay in transmission at the expense of increased energy consumption. An energy-efficient decision that considers the tradeoff between energy consumption and continuous transmission needs to be taken as to whether to switch the channels. In this work, we consider a sensor network-assisted cognitive radio network and propose a backup channel, which is sensed by the SU in parallel with the operating channel that is being sensed by the sensor nodes. Imperfect channel sensing and residual energy of the SU are considered in order to develop an energy-efficient handoff strategy using the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), which considers beliefs about the operating and backup channels and the remaining energy of the SU in order to take an optimal channel handoff decision on the question "Should we switch the channel?" The objective is to dynamically decide in each time slot whether the SU should switch the channel or not in order to maximize throughput by utilizing energy efficiently. Extensive simulations were performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed channel handoff strategy, which was demonstrated in the form of throughput with respect to various parameters, i.e., detection probability, the channel idle probabilities of the operating and backup channels, and the maximum energy of the SU.

  8. Energy performance of windows based on the net energy gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Svend; Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new method to set up energy performance requirements and energy classes for windows of all dimensions and configurations. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. The net energy gain can be calculated for one...... orientation or averaged over different orientations. The averaged value may be used for energy labeling of windows of standard size. Requirements in building codes may also be based on the net energy gain instead of the thermal transmittance of the window. The size and the configuration of the window, i.......e. number of glazing units, have a very large effect on the net energy gain. Therefore the energy labeling or the requirements based on the standard size may not give valid information on the energy performance of windows of non-standard size. The paper presents a method to set up requirements and classes...

  9. On Goodput and Energy Measurements of Network Coding Schemes in the Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor J. Hernández Marcano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Given that next generation networks are expected to be populated by a large number of devices, there is a need for quick deployment and evaluation of alternative mechanisms to cope with the possible generated traffic in large-scale distributed data networks. In this sense, the Raspberry Pi has been a popular network node choice due to its reduced size, processing capabilities, low cost and its support by widely-used operating systems. For information transport, network coding is a new paradigm for fast and reliable data processing in networking and storage systems, which overcomes various limitations of state-of-the-art routing techniques. Therefore, in this work, we provide an in-depth performance evaluation of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC-based schemes for the Raspberry Pi Models 1 and 2, by showing the processing speed of the encoding and decoding operations and the corresponding energy consumption. Our results show that, in several scenarios, processing speeds of more than 80 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 1 and 800 Mbps in the Raspberry Pi Model 2 are attainable. Moreover, we show that the processing energy per bit for network coding is below 1 nJ or even an order of magnitude less in these scenarios.

  10. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  11. Neural networks and cellular automata in experimental high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.

    1987-11-01

    Within the past few years, two novel computing techniques, cellular automata and neural networks, have shown considerable promise in the solution of problems of a very high degree of complexity, such as turbulent fluid flow, image processing, and pattern recognition. Many of the problems faced in experimental high energy physics are also of this nature. Track reconstruction in wire chambers and cluster finding in cellular calorimeters, for instance, involve pattern recognition and high combinatorial complexity since many combinations of hits or cells must be considered in order to arrive at the final tracks or clusters. Here we examine in what way connective network methods can be applied to some of the problems of experimental high physics. It is found that such problems as track and cluster finding adapt naturally to these approaches. When large scale hardwired connective networks become available, it will be possible to realize solutions to such problems in a fraction of the time required by traditional methods. For certain types of problems, faster solutions are already possible using model networks implemented on vector or other massively parallel machines. It should also be possible, using existing technology, to build simplified networks that will allow detailed reconstructed event information to be used in fast trigger decisions

  12. For a rational energy transition based on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmin, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    After having recalled the meaning of the concept of energy transition, and stated that this concept is a fuzzy one, this paper addresses the issue of the future of energy through the concept of Energy returned on Energy invested (EROI). It discusses this approach by outlining that energy is the initial driver of economy, and by showing that only hydroelectricity, coal, nuclear and wind energy have a sufficient return rate, and that shale gas is an energy source for the short and medium term. Then, based on data related to world energy resources and consumption, to electric power production from various sources, to pollution health impacts, to electricity prices for industries and for households, it discusses the sustainability of the energy mix regarding energy reserves, health issues, and economic issues. Some examples (Spain, Germany) illustrate economic problems faced by some renewable energies. Finally, the authors outline that, thanks to its nuclear policy, France is the western country which is the most committed in energy transition. Some proposals are made to support nuclear energy, to reduce the use of fossil energies, to launch an ambitious research policy (on energy storage, on photovoltaic energy, on CO 2 hydrogenation, on hydrogen as a fuel), in favour of energy mixes decided at national levels in Europe

  13. Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting for Long Lifetime Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Bo; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    , in most of the cases, the sensor nodes are either powered by non-replaceable batteries, or there will be a considerable replacement cost. Thus a self-rechargeable sensor node design is necessary: the sensor node should be able to harvest energy from the environment. Among the existing techniques......, harvesting energy from the radio frequency (RF) waves gives the lowest system design. Previous research on RF energy harvesting is based on the model that the radio energy is omnidirectional in the air. In this paper, a directional transmission/receiving model is proposed which can further overcome the path...... loss of the RF signals. On the node level, a virtual floating gate based CMOS biasing is used for the energy conversion circuit. With the proposed technique, the sensor node is able to harvest the energy from base station up to 30 meters....

  14. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  15. Location-based Forwarding in Vehicular Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on location-based message forwarding in vehicular networks to support intelligent transportation systems (ITSs). ITSs are transport systems that utilise information and communication technologies to increase their level of automation, in this way levering the performance of

  16. Survey of Energy Harvesting Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks in Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziadak Bogdan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.

  17. Energy flexibility assessment of a multi agent-based smart home energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Shokri Gazafroudi; Tiago Pinto; Francisco Prieto-Castrillo; Juan Manuel Corchado; Omid Abrishambaf; Aria Jozi; Zita Vale

    2018-01-01

    Power systems worldwide are complex and challenging environments. The increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Multi-agent based simulation platforms have proven to be a good option to study the several issues related to these systems. In a smaller scale, a home energy management system would be effective for the both sides of the network. It can reduce the electricity costs of the demand side,...

  18. Hybrid Evolutionary Approaches to Maximum Lifetime Routing and Energy Efficiency in Sensor Mesh Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahat, Alma A M; Everson, Richard M; Fieldsend, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    Mesh network topologies are becoming increasingly popular in battery-powered wireless sensor networks, primarily because of the extension of network range. However, multihop mesh networks suffer from higher energy costs, and the routing strategy employed directly affects the lifetime of nodes with limited energy resources. Hence when planning routes there are trade-offs to be considered between individual and system-wide battery lifetimes. We present a multiobjective routing optimisation approach using hybrid evolutionary algorithms to approximate the optimal trade-off between the minimum lifetime and the average lifetime of nodes in the network. In order to accomplish this combinatorial optimisation rapidly, our approach prunes the search space using k-shortest path pruning and a graph reduction method that finds candidate routes promoting long minimum lifetimes. When arbitrarily many routes from a node to the base station are permitted, optimal routes may be found as the solution to a well-known linear program. We present an evolutionary algorithm that finds good routes when each node is allowed only a small number of paths to the base station. On a real network deployed in the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, these solutions, using only three paths per node, are able to achieve minimum lifetimes of over 99% of the optimum linear program solution's time to first sensor battery failure.

  19. Analysis of recurrent neural networks for short-term energy load forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Persio, Luca; Honchar, Oleksandr

    2017-11-01

    Short-term forecasts have recently gained an increasing attention because of the rise of competitive electricity markets. In fact, short-terms forecast of possible future loads turn out to be fundamental to build efficient energy management strategies as well as to avoid energy wastage. Such type of challenges are difficult to tackle both from a theoretical and applied point of view. Latter tasks require sophisticated methods to manage multidimensional time series related to stochastic phenomena which are often highly interconnected. In the present work we first review novel approaches to energy load forecasting based on recurrent neural network, focusing our attention on long/short term memory architectures (LSTMs). Such type of artificial neural networks have been widely applied to problems dealing with sequential data such it happens, e.g., in socio-economics settings, for text recognition purposes, concerning video signals, etc., always showing their effectiveness to model complex temporal data. Moreover, we consider different novel variations of basic LSTMs, such as sequence-to-sequence approach and bidirectional LSTMs, aiming at providing effective models for energy load data. Last but not least, we test all the described algorithms on real energy load data showing not only that deep recurrent networks can be successfully applied to energy load forecasting, but also that this approach can be extended to other problems based on time series prediction.

  20. UD-WCMA: An Energy Estimation and Forecast Scheme for Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2017-04-11

    Energy estimation and forecast represents an important role for energy management in solar-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In general, the energy in such networks is managed over a finite time horizon in the future based on input solar power forecasts to enable continuous operation of the WSNs and achieve the sensing objectives while ensuring that no node runs out of energy. In this article, we propose a dynamic version of the weather conditioned moving average technique (UD-WCMA) to estimate and predict the variations of the solar power in a wireless sensor network. The presented approach combines the information from the real-time measurement data and a set of stored profiles representing the energy patterns in the WSNs location to update the prediction model. The UD-WCMA scheme is based on adaptive weighting parameters depending on the weather changes which makes it flexible compared to the existing estimation schemes without any precalibration. A performance analysis has been performed considering real irradiance profiles to assess the UD-WCMA prediction accuracy. Comparative numerical tests to standard forecasting schemes (EWMA, WCMA, and Pro-Energy) shows the outperformance of the new algorithm. The experimental validation has proven the interesting features of the UD-WCMA in real time low power sensor nodes.