WorldWideScience

Sample records for network 1990-1992 status

  1. Amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty 1990-1992: a demonstration of international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vez, L.; Anaya, R. [Instituto Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Mexico City (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The amendments to the Tlatelolco treaty made between 1990-1992, had a major impact on its full enforcement. The paper will analyze the different process for its achievement and their consequences. The first and second amendments were made with the intention of including the Caribbean Countries within the geographical scope of the Treaty; and the third and most important one dealt with the adaptation of the control system foreseen in the Tlatelolco Treaty, to permit the integration of Argentina, Brazil and Chile to it. This work also quotes some facts that implied international collaboration in achieving the complete military denuclearization of Latin America and the Caribbean. (author). 25 refs.

  2. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  3. Genetic comparison among dolphin morbillivirus in the 1990-1992 and 2006-2008 Mediterranean outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellière, Edwige Nina; Esperón, Fernando; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2011-12-01

    In 1990, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) killed thousands of striped dolphins in the Mediterranean. Subsequently, the prevalence of the infection declined in this species. In 2006-2008, the virus killed not only numerous striped dolphins but also long-finned pilot whales. All partial sequences of the phosphoprotein and nucleoprotein genes obtained thus far from different host species during the 2006-2008 outbreak show 100% identity, suggesting that a single virus was involved, and these sequences are nearly identical to the 1990 Spanish strain. Here our first objective was to determine the sequence identity between the morbillivirus from the 2006-2008 outbreak and the 1990 Spanish strain by sequencing more extensive genomic regions of strains from one pilot whale and one striped dolphin stranded in 2007. The second objective was to investigate the relationship between the 1990 and 2007 strains by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on the phosphoprotein gene to compare several Cetacean morbilliviruses, and another tree based on the nearly complete genomes of Mediterranean DMV. The third objective was to identify the most variable regions in the DMV genomes. Results showed that the two 2007 Spanish strains were 99.9% identical over 9050 bp and should be considered the same virus, and that this virus is 99.3-99.4% similar to the 1990 Spanish strain. The phylogenetic trees, together with the common geographical area for the two outbreaks, suggest that the 2007 DMV strains evolved from the 1990 DMV strain. Pilot whales do not seem to have been exposed or infected during the 1990-1992 epidemic, since these populations appeared to be immunologically naïve in 2006-2008. Our results suggest that the virus may have evolved in striped dolphin populations prior to the 2006-2008 outbreak, after which it entered the long-finned pilot whale, perhaps aided by an alanine to valine mutation in the N-terminal domain of the fusion protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  5. ALINE/LALINET Network Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American Lidar Network, ALINE a.k.a LALINET is a federation lidar network established in 2008 which became a member of GALION/GAW program in 2013. Currently the network consists of 9 operational stations with the perspective of two more stations to be included. The network today covers more than 18 million Km2 and spans in latitude from -52° to 21° and in longitude from -78° to -47°. It should cover a larger area in the future as planned with the inclusion of more active stations.

  6. Electrical Network Supervisor Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    2001-01-01

    During year 2000 CERN has installed the Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS) for the monitoring and control of the equipment of the electrical distribution network located in about 100 substations throughout the different sites. In the first phase the system has been installed in parallel with the original CERN-developed system and databases and mimic diagrams have been prepared to cover parts of the distribution network. The system has been integrated with the general ST supervision systems for alarms monitoring and measurement logging, and the data from the ENS are gradually being integrated. In the second phase an extension of the system has been tested to include a direct industrial interface with the electrical equipment without the need for the existing CERN equipment interfaces. During the 2000-2001 shutdown the supervision will be renovated in a number of zones to operate a complete industrial system covering all aspects of the supervision from equipment interfaces to end-user applications.

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health care and disparities in use of care among those with perceived need in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault-Brutus, Andrea; Alegria, Margarita

    2018-02-01

    This study examines whether there are racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health care among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003 in the US. Then among those with perceived need, we examine whether racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care existed in both time periods. Using data from the 1990-1992 National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) and 2001-2003 National Comorbidity Survey - Replication (NCS-R), the study analyzes whether whites differed from blacks and Latinos in rates of perceived need among those with a mood and/or anxiety disorder in 1990-1992 and 2001-2003. Then among those with a disorder and perceived need, rates of mental health care use for whites are compared to black rates and Latino rates in within the 1990-1992 cohort and then within the 2001-2003 cohort. There were no statistical racial/ethnic differences in perceived need in both time periods. Among those with perceived need in 1990-1992, there were no statistical racial/ethnic disparities in the use of mental health care. However, in 2001-2003, disparities in mental health care use existed among those with perceived need. The emergence of racial/ethnic disparities in use of mental health care among those with a perceived need for care in 2001-2003 suggests that personal/cultural belief along with issues concerning access and quality of mental health care may create barriers to receiving perceived needed care. More research is needed to understand why these disparities emerged among those with perceived need in the latter time period and whether these disparities continue to exist in more recent years.

  8. Descaso com a Reforma Agrária e Repressão Contra os Movimentos Sociais: representações do MST sobre Collor (1990-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Coelho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, ao longo de suas três décadas de existência se constituiu como um dos movimentos sociais mais expressivos da história do Brasil, tanto por sua longevidade, quanto pelo alcance de suas mobilizações e atuação no cenário político brasileiro. Por suas concepções e posições políticas, o Movimento sempre se declarou oposição aos presidentes brasileiros, exceto, em relação ao presidente Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva. Nesse sentido, o artigo analisa as representações do MST sobre o presidente Fernando Collor de Mello, por meio do seu periódico, o Jornal Sem Terra, no período em que ocupou a presidência da República (1990-1992. Ao longo do texto, evidencia-se que Collor foi representado como inimigo dos trabalhadores e da reforma agrária, bem como um presidente autoritário.

  9. Social Network Influence and Personal Financial Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Makse, Hernan

    Networks of social ties emerging from individual economic needs display a highly structured architecture. In response to socio-economic demands, people reshape their circle of contacts for maximizing their social status, and ipso facto, the pattern of their interconnections is strongly correlates with their personal financial situation. In this work we transform this qualitative and verbal statement into an operative definition, which allows us to quantify the economic wellness of individuals trough a measure of their collective influence. We consider the network of mobile phone calls made by the Mexican population during three months, in order to study the correlation of person's economic situation with her network location. Notably, we find that rich people tend to be also the most influential nodes, i.e., they self-organize to optimally position themselves in the network. This finding may be also raised at the level of a principle, a fact that would explain the emergence of the phenomenon of collective influence itself as the result of the local optimization of socio-economic interactions. Our method represents a powerful and efficient indicator of socio-economic robustness, which may be applied to maximize the effect of large scale economic intervention and stimulus policies

  10. Reconstruction of network topology using status-time-series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pradumn Kumar; Badarla, Venkataramana

    2018-01-01

    Uncovering the heterogeneous connection pattern of a networked system from the available status-time-series (STS) data of a dynamical process on the network is of great interest in network science and known as a reverse engineering problem. Dynamical processes on a network are affected by the structure of the network. The dependency between the diffusion dynamics and structure of the network can be utilized to retrieve the connection pattern from the diffusion data. Information of the network structure can help to devise the control of dynamics on the network. In this paper, we consider the problem of network reconstruction from the available status-time-series (STS) data using matrix analysis. The proposed method of network reconstruction from the STS data is tested successfully under susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) diffusion dynamics on real-world and computer-generated benchmark networks. High accuracy and efficiency of the proposed reconstruction procedure from the status-time-series data define the novelty of the method. Our proposed method outperforms compressed sensing theory (CST) based method of network reconstruction using STS data. Further, the same procedure of network reconstruction is applied to the weighted networks. The ordering of the edges in the weighted networks is identified with high accuracy.

  11. Anonymous Social Network Ecological Status and Governance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhi-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anonymous social network has attracted ever-increasing attention from research community in recent years, however, it also brings some complications to ours daily life. We want to clarify the status of anonymous social network and put forward some governance strategies. In this paper we focus our attention on analyzing shortcomings of current regulatory strategies by comparing and analyzing the data from anonymous social network application Secret and social network application Sina Weibo. Combining with the characteristics of information dissemination in anonymous social network, we mainly put forward an governance strategy based on geographical location.

  12. Nutritional status, brain network organization, and general intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamroziewicz, Marta K; Talukdar, M Tanveer; Zwilling, Chris E; Barbey, Aron K

    2017-11-01

    The high energy demands of the brain underscore the importance of nutrition in maintaining brain health and further indicate that aspects of nutrition may optimize brain health, in turn enhancing cognitive performance. General intelligence represents a critical cognitive ability that has been well characterized by cognitive neuroscientists and psychologists alike, but the extent to which a driver of brain health, namely nutritional status, impacts the neural mechanisms that underlie general intelligence is not understood. This study therefore examined the relationship between the intrinsic connectivity networks supporting general intelligence and nutritional status, focusing on nutrients known to impact the metabolic processes that drive brain function. We measured general intelligence, favorable connective architecture of seven intrinsic connectivity networks, and seventeen plasma phospholipid monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in a sample of 99 healthy, older adults. A mediation analysis was implemented to investigate the relationship between empirically derived patterns of fatty acids, general intelligence, and underlying intrinsic connectivity networks. The mediation analysis revealed that small world propensity within one intrinsic connectivity network supporting general intelligence, the dorsal attention network, was promoted by a pattern of monounsaturated fatty acids. These results suggest that the efficiency of functional organization within a core network underlying general intelligence is influenced by nutritional status. This report provides a novel connection between nutritional status and functional network efficiency, and further supports the promise and utility of functional connectivity metrics in studying the impact of nutrition on cognitive and brain health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inferring personal economic status from social network location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shaojun; Morone, Flaviano; Sarraute, Carlos; Travizano, Matías; Makse, Hernán A.

    2017-05-01

    It is commonly believed that patterns of social ties affect individuals' economic status. Here we translate this concept into an operational definition at the network level, which allows us to infer the economic well-being of individuals through a measure of their location and influence in the social network. We analyse two large-scale sources: telecommunications and financial data of a whole country's population. Our results show that an individual's location, measured as the optimal collective influence to the structural integrity of the social network, is highly correlated with personal economic status. The observed social network patterns of influence mimic the patterns of economic inequality. For pragmatic use and validation, we carry out a marketing campaign that shows a threefold increase in response rate by targeting individuals identified by our social network metrics as compared to random targeting. Our strategy can also be useful in maximizing the effects of large-scale economic stimulus policies.

  14. Current status of Polish Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, M.; Żołądek, P.; Olech, A.; Tyminski, Z.; Maciejewski, M.; Fietkiewicz, K.; Rudawska, R.; Gozdalski, M.; Gawroński, M. P.; Suchodolski, T.; Myszkiewicz, M.; Stolarz, M.; Polakowski, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Polish Fireball Network (PFN) is a project to monitor regularly the sky over Poland in order to detect bright fireballs. In 2016 the PFN consisted of 36 continuously active stations with 57 sensitive analogue video cameras and 7 high resolution digital cameras. In our observations we also use spectroscopic and radio techniques. A PyFN software package for trajectory and orbit determination was developed. The PFN project is an example of successful participation of amateur astronomers who can provide valuable scientific data. The network is coordinated by astronomers from Copernicus Astronomical Centre in Warsaw, Poland. In 2011-2015 the PFN cameras recorded 214,936 meteor events. Using the PFN data and the UFOOrbit software 34,609 trajectories and orbits were calculated. In the following years we are planning intensive modernization of the PFN network including installation of dozens of new digital cameras.

  15. Status of the Desert Fireball Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillepoix, H. A. R.; Bland, P. A.; Towner, M. C.; Cupák, M.; Sansom, E. K.; Jansen-Sturgeon, T.; Howie, R. M.; Paxman, J.; Hartig, B. A. D.

    2016-01-01

    A meteorite fall precisely observed from multiple locations allows us to track the object back to the region of the Solar System it came from, and sometimes link it with a parent body, providing context information that helps trace the history of the Solar System. The Desert Fireball Network (DFN) is built in arid areas of Australia: its observatories get favorable observing conditions, and meteorite recovery is eased thanks to the mostly featureless terrain. After the successful recovery of two meteorites with 4 film cameras, the DFN has now switched to a digital network, operating 51 cameras, covering 2.5 million km2 of double station triangulable area. Mostly made of off-the-shelf components, the new observatories are cost effective while maintaining high imaging performance. To process the data (~70TB/month), a significant effort has been put to writing an automated reduction pipeline so that all events are reduced with little human intervention. Innovative techniques have been implemented for this purpose: machine learning algorithms for event detection, blind astrometric calibration, and particle filter simulations to estimate both physical properties and state vector of the meteoroid. On 31 December 2015, the first meteorite from the digital systems was recovered: Murrili (the 1.68 kg H5 ordinary chondrite was observed to fall on 27 November 2015). Another 11 events have been flagged as potential meteorites droppers, and are to be searched in the coming months.

  16. Decoupling social status and status certainty effects on health in macaques: a network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Vandeleest

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Although a wealth of literature points to the importance of social factors on health, a detailed understanding of the complex interplay between social and biological systems is lacking. Social status is one aspect of social life that is made up of multiple structural (humans: income, education; animals: mating system, dominance rank and relational components (perceived social status, dominance interactions. In a nonhuman primate model we use novel network techniques to decouple two components of social status, dominance rank (a commonly used measure of social status in animal models and dominance certainty (the relative certainty vs. ambiguity of an individual’s status, allowing for a more complex examination of how social status impacts health. Methods Behavioral observations were conducted on three outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (N = 252 subjects. Subjects’ general physical health (diarrhea was assessed twice weekly, and blood was drawn once to assess biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Results Dominance rank alone did not fully account for the complex way that social status exerted its effect on health. Instead, dominance certainty modified the impact of rank on biomarkers of inflammation. Specifically, high-ranked animals with more ambiguous status relationships had higher levels of inflammation than low-ranked animals, whereas little effect of rank was seen for animals with more certain status relationships. The impact of status on physical health was more straightforward: individuals with more ambiguous status relationships had more frequent diarrhea; there was marginal evidence that high-ranked animals had less frequent diarrhea. Discussion Social status has a complex and multi-faceted impact on individual health. Our work suggests an important role of uncertainty in one’s social status in status-health research. This work also

  17. Center for Network Planning Status Report 2004-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Jensen, Michael

    CNP, Center for Network Planning, was founded January 29th in 2004 based on an agree-ment between the Institutes of Business Studies, Electronic Systems, Mathematics and Planning at Aalborg University and hosted by the department of Control Engineering at the Institute of Electronic Systems. CNP ...... an almost complete state of the art technical framework for its activities as well as an international contact network. The CNP status report 2004 – 2005 summarises the main activities conducted, results achieved and outlines the visions and plans for the period to follow....... was established in order to strengthen the base for research, special studies, educa-tion, training and dissemination of results within the field of Network Planning and with special focus on the development of the next generation ICT Infrastructure. CNP is a member of CTIF, Centre for TeleInFrastruktur, ensuring...

  18. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in white potential blood donors in 1988 and 1,95% in black women attending STD .... per population group and age group of mother, derived from the ..... There are few sources on such a scale which are readily accessible. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics provide such a source. Some bias may be introduced by ...

  19. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey was a joint venture involving many partici- pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato- ries, together with their personnel, are thanked most sin- cerely for their willing co-operation: the Virology. Laboratories of the Universities of Cape Town, Natal and the OFS, the Gynaecology Department of ...

  20. Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Uhlhaas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of context-dependent synchronization of oscillatory neuronal responses in the visual system, the role of neural synchrony in cortical networks has been expanded to provide a general mechanism for the coordination of distributed neural activity patterns. In the current paper, we present an update of the status of this hypothesis through summarizing recent results from our laboratory that suggest important new insights regarding the mechanisms, function and relevance of this phenomenon. In the first part, we present recent results derived from animal experiments and mathematical simulations that provide novel explanations and mechanisms for zero and nero-zero phase lag synchronization. In the second part, we shall discuss the role of neural synchrony for expectancy during perceptual organization and its role in conscious experience. This will be followed by evidence that indicates that in addition to supporting conscious cognition, neural synchrony is abnormal in major brain disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. We conclude this paper with suggestions for further research as well as with critical issues that need to be addressed in future studies.

  1. A network society communicative model for optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD) procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrea Pacheco Pacífico

    2013-01-01

      This article recommends a new way to improve Refugee Status Determination (RSD) procedures by proposing a network society communicative model based on active involvement and dialogue among all implementing partners...

  2. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyshev, A.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Bigrow, J.; Hoeft, B.; Reymund, A.

    2012-12-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  3. Status and trends in networking at LHC Tier1 facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A. [Fermilab; DeMar, P. [Fermilab; Grigaliunas, V. [Fermilab; Bigrow, J. [Brookhaven; Hoeft, B. [KIT, Karlsruhe; Reymund, A. [KIT, Karlsruhe

    2012-06-22

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities Network virtualization

  4. Inferring social status and rich club effects in enterprise communication networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai

    2015-01-01

    Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy.

  5. Collecting and Using Networked Statistics: Current Status, Future Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiott, Judith

    2004-01-01

    For more than five years the Houston Public Library has collected statistics for measuring networked collections and services based on emerging guidelines. While the guidelines have provided authority and stability to the process, the clarification process continues. The development of information discovery software, such as federated search tools…

  6. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  7. Central European MetEor NeTwork: Current status and future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srba, J.; Koukal, J.; Ferus, M.; Lenža, L.; Gorková, S.; Civiš, S.; Simon, J.; Csorgei, T.; Jedlièka, M.; Korec, M.; Kaniansky, S.; Polák, J.; Spurný, M.; Brázdil, T.; Mäsiar, J.; Zima, M.; Delinèák, P.; Popek, M.; Bahýl, V.; Piffl, R.; Èechmánek, M.

    2016-06-01

    The Central European video Meteor Network (CEMeNt) established in 2010 is a platform for cross-border cooperation in the field of video meteor observations between Czech Republic and Slovakia. During five years of operation the CEMeNt network went through an extensive development. In total, 37 video systems were working on 20 permanent stations located in Czech Republic and Slovakia during 2015. In this paper we summarize CEMeNt current status and introduce some future activities.

  8. Plate Boundary Observatory GPS Network Status in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, C. P.; Austin, K. E.; Dittman, T.; Mann, D.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Woolace, A. C.; Kasmer, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    The EarthScope PBO GPS network, funded by the NSF and operated by UNAVCO, is comprised of 599 permanent GPS stations spanning three principal tectonic regimes and is administered by separate management regions (Subduction - Pacific Northwest [91 sites], Extension - East [41 sites], Transform - Southwest [467 sites]). Since the close of construction in September 2008 various enhancements have been implemented through additional funding by the NSF, NOAA, and NASA and in collaboration with stakeholders such as Caltrans, Scripps, and the USGS. Initially, the majority of stations used first generation IP based cellular modems and radios capable of ~10KB/s data rates. The bandwidth limitation was a challenge for regional high-rate data downloads for GPS-seismology and airborne LiDAR surveys, and real-time data flow. Today, only 13 of the original cell modems remain with 297 upgraded cell modems providing 3G/4G/LTE data communications with transfer rates ranging from 80-400 KB/s. Ongoing radio network expansion and upgrades continue to harden communications. 32 VSAT and one manual download site remain. In CA, the network capabilities for 1Hz and 5Hz downloads or real-time streaming are ~95%, ~80% and ~65%, respectively. During the past year, uptime ranged from 94-99% with data return for 15 s data exceeding 99%. Real-time (1 Hz) data from 204 sites are distributed in BINEX and RTCM 2.3/3.1 formats with an average latency of 0.5 s and completion of 86%. A variety of geophysical sensors are co-located with the GPS stations and include: 21 MEMS accelerometers, 31 strong motion and broadband seismometers, 9 borehole strainmeters and 1 long baseline strainmeter. Vaisala meteorological instruments are located at 60 sites of which 38 stream GPS/Met data. In an effort to modernize the network, Trimble NetRS receivers are gradually being replaced with GNSS-capable/enabled receivers and antennas. Today, 11 stations are GLONASS enabled and 84 are GNSS capable.

  9. Dynamic status of REST in the mouse ESC pluripotency network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: REST is abundantly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Many genome-wide analyses have found REST to be an integral part of the ESC pluripotency network. However, experimental systems have produced contradictory findings: (1 REST is required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency and loss of REST causes increased expression of differentiation markers, (2 REST is not required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency and loss of REST does not change expression of differentiation markers, and (3 REST is not required for the maintenance of ESC pluripotency but loss of REST causes decreased expression of differentiation markers. These reports highlight gaps in our knowledge of the ESC network. METHODS: Employing biochemical and genome-wide analyses of various culture conditions and ESC lines, we have attempted to resolve some of the discrepancies in the literature. RESULTS: We show that Rest+/- and Rest-/- AB-1 mutant ESCs, which did not exhibit a role of REST in ESC pluripotency when cultured in the presence of feeder cells, did show impaired self-renewal when compared with the parental cells under feeder-free culture conditions, but only in early passage cells. In late passage cells, both Rest+/- and Rest-/- AB-1 ESCs restored pluripotency, suggesting a passage and culture condition-dependent response. Genome-wide analysis followed by biochemical validation supported this response and further indicated that the restoration of pluripotency was associated by increased expression of the ESC pluripotency factors. E14Tg2a.4 ESCs with REST-knockdown, which earlier showed a REST-dependent pluripotency when cultured under feeder-free conditions, as well as Rest-/- AB-1 ESCs, showed no REST-dependent pluripotency when cultured in the presence of either feeder cells or laminin, indicating that extracellular matrix components can rescue REST's role in ESC pluripotency. CONCLUSIONS: REST regulates ESC pluripotency in culture condition

  10. NASA Global GNSS Network (GGN) Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelger, S.; Sklar, J.; Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, in conjunction with JPL, is responsible for monitoring the 62 GNSS permanent stations, which include 88 GPS receivers, which comprise the NASA Global GNSS Network (GGN). These sites represent approximately 16% of the ~400 International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, and they provide a globally distributed GNSS network to support NASA operations and its commitments to GGOS. UNAVCO provides data flow monitoring, trouble-shooting, station installation, maintenance, as well as engineering services to improve the capabilities and performance of station infrastructure. Activities this past year include the installation of a geodetic quality wellhead monument for the new SEY2 station to replace SEY1, which is mounted on a UCSD seismic station in the Seychelles Islands. SEY1 will be removed soon to accommodate planned maintenance and upgrades by UCSD. Data from both SEY1 and SEY2 are being collected concurrently until maintenance begins. MRTG (Multi Router Traffic Grapher), a tool to aid in characterizing bandwidth usage and to identify communications problems, is now being used to monitor data throughput at 7 stations where VSAT or radio telemetry are used, including: ABPO; AREQ; FALK; GUAM; HARV; ISPA; QUIN; and STHL. Aging computers are being replaced with new hardware running Linux CentOS. These are semi-ruggedized low power solid-state systems built to endure challenging environments. With the aid of on-site collaborators, systems are now deployed at: FALK; CUSV; KELY; STHL; SANT; and ZAMB. Last, 4 new GPS stations were deployed for NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP); three of which (KOKF, KOKG, and KOKR) are located at Koke'e Park Geophysical Observatory on Kauai, Hawai'i, and HAL1 at the Haleakala observatory complex on Maui, Hawai'i. A campaign system was set up at Koke'e in order to sample data quality to determine if an additional station would be viable. Planning is ongoing for deployment of several new stations next year at McDonald Observatory (TX).

  11. Power, Status and Network Perceptions: The Effects of Network Bias on Organizational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    to have achieved. Extending social comparison theory ( Festinger 1954) and cognitive network comparison research (e.g., Burt 1982) to this case, we...Faust, K. 2007. Very local structure in social networks. Sociological Methodology. 37 209-256. Festinger , L. 1954. A theory of social comparison

  12. Health Status and Social Networks as Predictors of Resilience in Older Adults Residing in Rural and Remote Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine McKibbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Health status and social networks are associated with resilience among older adults. Each of these factors may be important to the ability of adults to remain in rural and remote communities as they age. We examined the association of health status and social networks and resilience among older adults dwelling in a rural and remote county in the Western United States. Methods. We selected a random sample of 198 registered voters aged 65 years or older from a frontier Wyoming county. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine the association of health status as well as social networks and resilience. We also examined health status as a moderator of the relationship between social networks and resilience. Results. Family networks (p=0.024 and mental health status (p<0.001 significantly predicted resilience. Mental health status moderated the relationship of family (p=0.004 and friend (p=0.021 networks with resilience. Smaller family and friend networks were associated with greater resilience when mental health status was low, but not when it was high. Conclusion. Efforts to increase mental health status may improve resilience among older adults in rural environments, particularly for those with smaller family and friends networks.

  13. Effects of farmer social status and plant biocultural value on seed circulation networks in Vanuatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed circulation among farmers, which is embedded in composite social networks, is a key process in the dynamics of seed systems that shape crop diversity. We analyzed the daily circulation of biological objects, i.e., cultivated plants (31 species, 284 landraces, within a community of first-generation migrants (16 households, 30 persons living on the island of Vanua Lava in the South Pacific archipelago nation of Vanuatu. By combining participant observation, ethnobiological inventories, and social network analysis, we investigated how farmer social status and plant biocultural value affect plant circulation. Plant biocultural value was estimated by referring to their local classification according to uses, cultivation practices, growing environments, and biological properties. An aggregate plant circulation network (577 events and three subnetworks (i.e., for starchy, side dish, or snack food categories sharing the same 30 nodes were analyzed using exponential random graph models. Evidence that farmer social status influences the patterns of plant circulation was found through the distribution of structural parameters of the network, including: dyadic reciprocity; in-degree, out-degree, and their correlation; triadic cycling; and transitivity. At the scale of the aggregate network, direct or indirect reciprocity was not observed. Instead, a high out-degree (i.e., being a more frequent giver and a negative correlation between in-degree and out-degree both confer prestige and reinforce hierarchy. These results suggest that some of the social dynamics of the Melanesian-type Big Man political system may persist, even though the system itself no longer exists in traditional form. Moreover, based on our comparative analysis of the three subnetworks, farmer social status appears to influence greatly the circulation of plants with high biocultural value while having little influence on plants with low biocultural value. Farmer social status and plant

  14. Reference hydrologic networks I. The status and potential future directions of national reference hydrologic networks for detecting trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Higgins, Hélène; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Marsh, Terry; Looser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Identifying climate-driven trends in river flows on a global basis is hampered by a lack of long, quality time series data for rivers with relatively undisturbed regimes. This is a global problem compounded by the lack of support for essential long-term monitoring. Experience demonstrates that, with clear strategic objectives, and the support of sponsoring organizations, reference hydrologic networks can constitute an exceptionally valuable data source to effectively identify, quantify and interpret hydrological change—the speed and magnitude of which is expected to a be a primary driver of water management and flood alleviation strategies through the future—and for additional applications. Reference hydrologic networks have been developed in many countries in the past few decades. These collections of streamflow gauging stations, that are maintained and operated with the intention of observing how the hydrology of watersheds responds to variations in climate, are described. The status of networks under development is summarized. We suggest a plan of actions to make more effective use of this collection of networks.

  15. A network society communicative model for optimizing the Refugee Status Determination (RSD procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pacheco Pacífico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article recommends a new way to improve Refugee Status Determination (RSD procedures by proposing a network society communicative model based on active involvement and dialogue among all implementing partners. This model, named after proposals from Castells, Habermas, Apel, Chimni, and Betts, would be mediated by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, whose role would be modeled after that of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC practice.

  16. Does Posting Facebook Status Updates Increase or Decrease Loneliness? An Online Social Networking Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Fenne Große; Mehl, Matthias R

    2013-09-01

    Online social networking is a pervasive but empirically understudied phenomenon. Strong public opinions on its consequences exist but are backed up by little empirical evidence and almost no causally-conclusive, experimental research. The current study tested the psychological effects of posting status updates on Facebook using an experimental design. For one week, participants in the experimental condition were asked to post more than they usually do, whereas participants in the control condition received no instructions. Participants added a lab "Research Profile" as a Facebook friend allowing for the objective documentation of protocol compliance, participants' status updates, and friends' responses. Results revealed (1) that the experimentally-induced increase in status updating activity reduced loneliness, (2) that the decrease in loneliness was due to participants feeling more connected to their friends on a daily basis and (3) that the effect of posting on loneliness was independent of direct social feedback (i.e. responses) by friends.

  17. Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L.; Eng, Doug A.; Kirby, Karen W.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Science Mission Directorate s (SMD) International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Mission continues its concept development and is scheduled to complete the first formal milestone gate of a Mission Concept Review (MCR) in Autumn 2009. The mission will establish two-four nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar geophysical stations envisioned to be emplaced by the many nations collaborating on this joint endeavor. This mission will operate over six years or more and make significant progress in satisfying many of the National Research Council s lunar science objectives, while strategically contributing to the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration Policy's objective for a robust robotic lunar program. This paper will provide a status report on the ILN Anchor Nodes mission and overview of the concept to date, which is being implemented jointly by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

  18. Effects of transient unilateral functional brain disruption on global neural network status in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem M Otte

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent focal brain damage can have critical effects on the function of nearby as well as remote brain regions. However, the effects of transient disturbances on global brain function are largely unknown. Our goal was to develop an experimental in vivo model to map the impact of transient functional brain impairment on large-scale neural networks in the absence of structural damage.We describe a new rat model of transient functional hemispheric disruption using unilateral focal anesthesia by intracarotid pentobarbital injection. The brain’s functional status was assessed with resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI and EEG. We performed network analysis to identify and quantify highly connected network hubs, i.e. ‘rich-club organization’, in pre- and postbarbital functional networks.Perfusion MRI data demonstrated that the catheterized carotid artery predominantly supplied the ipsilateral hemisphere, allowing for selective hemispheric brain silencing. The prebarbital baseline network displayed strong functional connectivity within and between hemispheres. Following pentobarbital injection, the disrupted hemisphere revealed increased intrahemispheric functional connectivity with concomitant decrease of interhemispheric connectivity. The bilateral functional network was characterized by a strong positive rich-club effect, which was not affected by ipsilateral disruption. Nevertheless, the rich-club value was significantly decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere and to a lesser extent contralaterally. Loss of interhemispheric EEG synchronization supported the rs-fMRI findings.Our data support the concept that densely connected rich-club regions play a central role in global brain communication, and show that network hub configurations can be significantly affected by focal temporary functional hemispheric disruption without structural neuronal damage. Further studies with this rat model will provide essential additional insights into network

  19. Food-Sharing Networks in Lamalera, Indonesia: Status, Sharing, and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolin, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Costly signaling has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain food sharing in foraging populations. This sharing-as-signaling hypothesis predicts an association between sharing and status. Using exponential random graph modeling (ERGM), this prediction is tested on a social network of between-household food-sharing relationships in the fishing and sea-hunting village of Lamalera, Indonesia. Previous analyses (Nolin 2010) have shown that most sharing in Lamalera is consistent with reciprocal altruism. The question addressed here is whether any additional variation may be explained as sharing-as-signaling by high-status households. The results show that high-status households both give and receive more than other households, a pattern more consistent with reciprocal altruism than costly signaling. However, once the propensity to reciprocate and household productivity are controlled, households of men holding leadership positions show greater odds of unreciprocated giving when compared to households of non-leaders. This pattern of excessive giving by leaders is consistent with the sharing-as-signaling hypothesis. Wealthy households show the opposite pattern, giving less and receiving more than other households. These households may reciprocate in a currency other than food or their wealth may attract favor-seeking behavior from others. Overall, status covariates explain little variation in the sharing network as a whole, and much of the sharing observed by high-status households is best explained by the same factors that explain sharing by other households. This pattern suggests that multiple mechanisms may operate simultaneously to promote sharing in Lamalera and that signaling may motivate some sharing by some individuals even within sharing regimes primarily maintained by other mechanisms. PMID:22822299

  20. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  1. Structural bridging network position is associated with HIV status in a younger Black men who have sex with men epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirav S.; Iveniuk, James; Muth, Stephen Q.; Michaels, Stuart; Jose, Jo-Anne; Laumann, Edward O.; Schneider, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Younger Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) ages 16–29 have the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Despite increased attention to social and sexual networks as a framework for biomedical intervention, the role of measured network positions, such as bridging and their relationship to HIV risk has received limited attention. A network sample (N=620) of BMSM respondents (n=154) and their MSM and transgendered person network members (n=466) was generated through respondent driven sampling of BMSM and elicitation of their personal networks. Bridging status of each network member was determined by a constraint measure and was used to assess the relationship between this bridging and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), sex-drug use (SDU), group sex (GS) and HIV status within the network in South Chicago. Low, moderate and high bridging was observed in 411 (66.8%), 81 (13.2%) and 123 (20.0%) of the network. In addition to age and having sex with men only, moderate and high levels of bridging were associated with HIV status (AOR 3.19; 95% CI 1.58–6.45 and AOR 3.83; 95% CI 1.23–11.95, respectively). Risk behaviors observed including UAS, GS, and SDU were not associated with HIV status, however, they clustered together in their associations with one another. Bridging network position but not risk behavior was associated with HIV status in this network sample of younger BMSM. Socio-structural features such as position within the network may be important when implementing effective HIV prevention interventions in younger BMSM populations. PMID:24337699

  2. Subjective social status, social network and health disparities: empirical evidence from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charonis, Antonios; Kyriopoulos, Ilias-Ioannis; Spanakis, Manos; Zavras, Dimitris; Athanasakis, Kostas; Pavi, Elpida; Kyriopoulos, John

    2017-02-27

    Several studies suggest that socioeconomic status affects (SES) affects self-rated health (SRH), both in Greece and internationally. However, prior research mainly uses objective measures of SES, instead of subjective evaluations of individuals' social status. Based on this, this paper aims to examine (a) the impact of the economic dowturn on SRH in Greece and (b) the relationship between subjective social status (SSS), social network and SRH. The descriptive analysis is based on four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece (2002, 2006, 2011, 2015), while the data for the empirical investigation were derived from the 2015 survey (Health + Welfare Survey GR). The empirical strategy is based on an ordinal logistic regression model, aiming to examine how several variables affect SRH. Size of social network and SSS are among the independent variables employed for the empirical analysis RESULTS: According to our findings, average SRH has deteriorated, and the percentage of the population that reports very good/good SRH has also decreased. Moreover, our empirical analysis suggests that age, existence of a chronic disease, size of social network and SSS affect SRH in Greece. Our findings are consistent with the existing literature and confirm a social gradient in health. According to our analysis, health disparities can be largely attributed to socioeconomic inequalities. The adverse economic climate has impact on socioeconomic differences which in turn affect health disparities. Based on these, policy initiatives are necessasy in order to mitigate the negative impact on health and the disparities caused by economic dowturn and the occuring socioeconomic inequalities.

  3. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network): Network Status and Project Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Dausz, K.; Friesen, B. T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Seider, E.; Wang, G.

    2012-12-01

    efficient and effective network management and its longstanding commitment to collaborative science. Field activities for the COCONet project commenced in March 2011 and continue today. We present an overview of COCONet equipment and data communications systems as well as some of the major project milestones to date, including field reconnaissance activities, formal proposals submitted to in-country partner organizations, and ongoing and planned station installations. As of July 2012, proposals for station installation have been accepted at 29 host institutions, and 14 COCONet installations have been completed. In addition, the 61 existing stations have been identified, with data in the UNAVCO archive for 26 of these stations. UNAVCO staff is working with regional partners to include the remaining stations in daily download systems.

  4. Maternal mortality in the Cape Province, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    placentae or severe pre-eclampsia, involves decision- making in larger regional and tertiary hospitals. S Atr Med J 1996; 86: 412·418. ..... 18. 100. ·P=O.lS. Region. Total deliveries. Maternal deaths. Western Eastern Northern Eastern. Cape Cape (PE) Cape Cape (El.) P-value. Average age (yTs). 28.2. 29.2. 27.4. 24.1. 0.08.

  5. A Legacy of Dandelions: Carolyn Lewis Attneave (1990-1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman-Stone, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the legacy of Carolyn Lewis Attneave who was, according to T. D. LaFromboise and J. E. Trimble (1966), "undoubtedly the most well-known psychologist of American Indian background." Reviews Attneave's work in organizations across the United States promoting the causes of American Indian families and community mental health and…

  6. Default network connectivity is linked to memory status in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Victoria M; Paxton, Jessica; Sumowski, James F

    2014-10-01

    Memory impairment affects 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Altered resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has been observed in the default network (DN) of MS patients. No study to date has examined the association of DN FC to its behavioral concomitant, memory. The approach of the present study represents a methodological shift allowing straightforward interpretation of FC alterations in MS, as it presupposes specificity of a network to its paired cognitive function. We examined FC from fMRI collected during rest in the DN of 43 MS patients with and without memory-impairment. Memory-intact patients showed increased DN FC relative to memory-impaired patients. There were no regions of higher FC in memory-impaired patients. DN FC was positively correlated with memory function, such that higher FC was associated with better memory performance. Results were unchanged after controlling for cognitive efficiency, supporting specificity of the DN to memory and not cognitive status more generally. These findings support DN FC as a marker of memory function in MS patients that can be targeted by future treatment interventions. Pairing a functional network with its behavioral concomitant represents a straightforward method for interpreting FC alterations in patients with MS.

  7. Dynamic Social Networks and Physical Aggression: The Moderating Role of Gender and Social Status Among Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Kelly L; Gest, Scott D; Loken, Eric

    2013-09-01

    We examined three interrelated questions: (1) Who selects physically aggressive friends?; (2) Are physically aggressive adolescents influential?; and (3) Who is susceptible to influence from these friends? Using stochastic actor-based modeling, we tested our hypotheses using a sample of 480 adolescents (ages 11-13) who were followed across four assessments (fall and spring of 6th and 7th grade). After controlling for other factors that drive network and behavioral dynamics, we found that physically aggressive adolescents were attractive as friends, physically aggressive adolescents and girls were more likely to select physically aggressive friends, and peer-rejected adolescents were less likely to select physically aggressive friends. There was an overall peer influence effect, but gender and social status were not significant moderators of influence.

  8. Differential Effects of Social Networks on Mammography Use by Poverty Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether social networks have differential effects on mammography use depending on poverty status. Data were analyzed on US women (40+), employing logistic regression and simple slope analyses for a post hoc probing of moderating effects. Among women not in poverty, living with a spouse/partner and attending church, regardless of frequency, were positively associated with mammography use; family size was negatively associated. Among women living in poverty, mammography showed a positive association only with weekly church attendance. Mammography was negatively associated with health-related social interactions occurring through the Internet. Post hoc probing showed significant moderating effects of poverty on the relationship between online health-related interactions and mammography use. To make the Internet a meaningful health empowerment tool for women in poverty, future research should identify how health-related interactions that occur online affect women in poverty's psychological and behavioral reactions that will contribute to our understanding of why they are discouraged from having mammograms. The mechanisms behind the differential effects of church attendance and poverty status on mammography also need further clarification.

  9. MRI to MGMT: predicting methylation status in glioblastoma patients using convolutional recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lichy; Kamdar, Maulik R

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), a malignant brain tumor, is among the most lethal of all cancers. Temozolomide is the primary chemotherapy treatment for patients diagnosed with GBM. The methylation status of the promoter or the enhancer regions of the O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene may impact the efficacy and sensitivity of temozolomide, and hence may affect overall patient survival. Microscopic genetic changes may manifest as macroscopic morphological changes in the brain tumors that can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can serve as noninvasive biomarkers for determining methylation of MGMT regulatory regions. In this research, we use a compendium of brain MRI scans of GBM patients collected from The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) combined with methylation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to predict the methylation state of the MGMT regulatory regions in these patients. Our approach relies on a bi-directional convolutional recurrent neural network architecture (CRNN) that leverages the spatial aspects of these 3-dimensional MRI scans. Our CRNN obtains an accuracy of 67% on the validation data and 62% on the test data, with precision and recall both at 67%, suggesting the existence of MRI features that may complement existing markers for GBM patient stratification and prognosis. We have additionally presented our model via a novel neural network visualization platform, which we have developed to improve interpretability of deep learning MRI-based classification models.

  10. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Claudio; Mutinelli, Franco; Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  11. Disclosure of HIV-positive status to Latino gay men's social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, María Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Poppen, Paul J; Echeverry, John J; Bianchi, Fernanda T

    2004-03-01

    This study explored disclosure of serostatus in a sample of 155 HIV-positive Latino gay men from New York City and Washington, DC. We examined rates of disclosure to different members of the social network: mothers, fathers, close friends, and primary sexual partners. There were high rates of disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus to main partners and closest friends and lower rates to fathers and mothers. We examined the role of 3 contextual target-dependent factors (emotional closeness to target, anticipated reactions from target, and target's knowledge of sexual orientation), as well as acculturation and time since diagnosis. Three separate logistic regression models were performed to predict disclosure of HIV-positive status to 3 targets: mothers, fathers, and closest friends. We found that disclosure was not a generalized tendency, but rather different factors were influential depending on the target. Whether the target was aware of participant's sexual orientation was associated with disclosure in all 3 models. Greater emotional closeness also predicted disclosure to mother and father; greater U.S. acculturation was associated with disclosure to father and marginally to mother. A longer time since diagnosis was associated with disclosure to the closest friend. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account roles and relationships, and their effect on disclosure.

  12. Status differentiation : New insights from agent-based modeling and social network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grow, André

    2016-01-01

    Status is an important aspect of social life that affects people from the day they are born until the day they die. In this dissertation, André Grow examines the processes by which status inequality can emerge between individuals and between social groups, such as men/women, whites/non-whites, and

  13. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  14. Status Struggles: Network Centrality and Gender Segregation in Same- and Cross-Gender Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Robert; Felmlee, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Literature on aggression often suggests that individual deficiencies, such as social incompetence, psychological difficulties, or troublesome home environments, are responsible for aggressive behavior. In this article, by contrast, we examine aggression from a social network perspective, arguing that social network centrality, our primary measure…

  15. Medical applications of wireless sensor networks – current status and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Grgić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a significant development of BASN (Body AreaSensor Networks as a special subclass of WSN (Wireless SensorNetworks has emerged. These networks have enabled a rapiddevelopment of telemedicine systems, which provide remote monitoringof patients and their vital parameters. The article givesa short overview of the BASN networks. Furthermore, a generalsystem architecture of telemedicine systems is proposed. The proposedarchitecture includes a local sensory area, a communicationnetwork area and an institutional network area. It also providesthe security and privacy of patient-related data. Furthermore, thearticle surveys some existing telemedicine systems. Finally, somecurrent problems are explained and the directions for the futuredevelopment of the telemedicine systems are given.

  16. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  17. Applying the Back-Propagation Neural Network model and fuzzy classification to evaluate the trophic status of a reservoir system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C L; Liu, H C

    2015-09-01

    The trophic state index, and in particular, the Carlson Trophic State Index (CTSI), is critical for evaluating reservoir water quality. Despite its common use in evaluating static water quality, the reliability of the CTSI may decrease when water turbidity is high. Therefore, this study examines the reliability of the CTSI and uses the Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) model to create a new trophic state index. Fuzzy theory, rather than binary logic, is implemented to classify the trophic status into its three grades. The results show that compared to the CTSI with traditional classification, the new index with fuzzy classification can improve trophic status evaluation with high water turbidity. A reliable trophic state index can correctly describe reservoir water quality and allow relevant agencies to address proper water quality management strategies for a reservoir system.

  18. A Comparison of Midazolam, Lorazepam, and Diazepam for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus in Children: A Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Yu; Wang, Hong-Ying; Wen, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Bo; Feng, Kang; Fan, Jing-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam were recommended as emergent initial therapy for status epilepticus. However, there are no current studies to confirm the best agent for pediatric status epilepticus. We compared the efficacy of midazolam, lorazepam, and diazepam in treating pediatric status epilepticus using a network meta-analysis method. In total, 16 randomized controlled trials containing 1821 patients were included. Nonintravenous midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, and intravenous diazepam were more successful in achieving seizure cessation when compared with nonintravenous diazepam (odds ratio = 2.23, 95% credibility interval: 1.62, 3.10; odds ratio = 2.71, 95% credibility interval: 1.25, 5.89; odds ratio = 2.65, 95% credibility interval: 1.12, 6.29; respectively). Among lorazepam, midazolam, and diazepam, midazolam had the highest probability (surface under the cumulative ranking area [SUCRA] = 0.792) of achieving seizure cessation, and lorazepam had the largest probability (surface under the cumulative ranking area = 0.4346) of being the best treatment in reduction of respiratory depression. In conclusion, nonintravenous midazolam and intravenous lorazepam were superior to intravenous or nonintravenous diazepam, and intravenous lorazepam was at least as effective as nonintravenous midazolam in treating pediatric status epilepticus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Real-time Data Streams from ``e-RemoteCtrl'' to Central VLBI Network Status Monitoring Services Like IVS Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidhardt, Alexander; Collioud, Arnaud

    2014-12-01

    A central VLBI network status monitoring can be realized by using online status information about current VLBI sessions, real-time, and status data directly from each radio telescope. Such monitoring helps to organize sessions or to get immediate feedback from the active telescopes. Therefore the remote control software for VLBI radio telescopes ``e-RemoteCtrl'' (http://www.econtrol-software.de), which enables remote access as extension to the NASA Field System, realizes real-time data streams to dedicated data centers. The software has direct access to the status information about the current observation (e.g., schedule, scan, source) and the telescope (e.g., current state, temperature, pressure) in real-time. This information are directly sent to ``IVS Live''. ``IVS Live'' (http://ivslive.obs.u-bordeaux1.fr/) is a Web tool that can be used to follow the observing sessions, organized by the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), navigate through past or upcoming sessions, or search and display specific information about sessions, sources (like VLBI images), and stations, by using an Internet browser.

  20. High-Bandwidth Tactical-Network Data Analysis in a High-Performance-Computing (HPC) Environment: Device Status Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Configuration 3 4.1 Status Codes 4 4.2 Request Time 5 4.3 Hydra BLOb Metadata 6 5. Data Processing 6 5.1 Hydra Data Processing Framework 6 5.1.1...statements on any database table or select the entire table at a user-specified interval. Hydra records its data in binary large object ( BLOb ...files.5 The data are organized into cuts inside the BLOb files. Typically each cut represents one poll on the network. 4. Hydra Configuration Hydra

  1. Bulgarian Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks-current status and practical implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Georgiev, Ivan; Dimitrova, Lilia; Slavcheva, Krasimira; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    The scientific information is the latest and one of the best bedrock on which effective policy to combat and cope with natural disasters have to be built. Understanding, monitoring and information for future natural disasters are the way to assist the government and society. Different types of networks provide reliable information on various natural disasters. For example, one of the main priorities of the networks are directed to study seismicity of the Earth, its physical phenomena and fields - with an emphasis on tectonic movements and related risk processes, global changes, rotation and position of the Earth in space. Therefore seismological network using advanced electronic systems and digital seismographs transmission of signals from seismic stations to the centres and the registration, processing and archiving of information is carried out by a specialized computer system. Thus improve the monitoring and analysis of seismicity in the whole plan. Another type networks as permanent GPS/GNSS networks are associated with processing and data analysis, as well as monitoring of recent movements of the earth crust. In this study we focus on Seismological and GPS/GNSS networks on the territory in Bulgaria. At present NIGGG-BAS runs both Bulgarian seismological and GPS/GNSS networks. The Bulgarian seismological network - NOTSSI (National Operative Telemetric System for Seismological Information) was founded at the end of 1980. The network comprises today 15 permanent seismic stations spanning the entire territory of the country and two local net works that are deployed around the town of Provadia and Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria. Since 2005-2006, real-time data exchange between Bulgaria and Greece, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Austria and other regional and national seismological data centers was implemented. NIGGG, respectively NOTSSI, is responsible for rapid earthquake determination, public information trough media, and information of

  2. The impact of social networks on the occupational status of migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, B P

    1989-03-01

    This paper postulates that there is a continuous exchange of information and knowledge between those who share the common bond of having migrated to the US. The individual components of this information exchange constitute social networks. The 2 hypotheses tested are 1) immediate social networks and people known in the US facilitate the flow of information both to new migrants and between established migrants, thus promoting upward social mobility; and 2) access to broader network ties, organization membership, extra-ethnic friendships, and familiarity with established institutions smooths the transition process, resulting in increased social position. The data used comes from a study conducted in 1982-1983 in 4 Mexican sending communities (2 rural, 2 urban), for a total of 440 migrants. Results show that migrants in every socioeconomic bracket reported access to some or all social network characteristics. There was contact with either a family member or acquaintances from the migrants' town of origin. Over 50% of migrants reported knowing many fellow townspeople. Twice as many migrants belong to a sports club as to a social or religious organization. Very few rural migrants report knowing no townspeople, while 32% of urban migrants claim no knowledge of fellow migrants from their town of origin. Urban origin migrants report more contacts with those of other ethnicity than rural migrants. Those employed in agriculture are least acquainted with social information and contacts, while those in skilled and service sectors are well acquainted with them. The results of fact and analysis show that 1) access to personal US networks results in an average 4.4 point advantage in occupational prestige scores over no access, and 2) utilizing institutional US networks combined with any cumulative US experience gives a migrant a 5 point advantage over a fellow migrant with identical experience level but no institutional network contacts. This is also true for institutional

  3. Status of the Southern Carpathian forests in the long-term ecological research network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Badea; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Diana Silaghi; Stefan Neagu; Ion Barbu; Carmen Iacoban; Corneliu Iacob; Gheorghe Guiman; Elena Preda; Ioan Seceleanu; Marian Oneata; Ion Dumitru; Viorela Huber; Horia Iuncu; Lucian Dinca; Stefan Leca; Ioan Taut

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution, bulk precipitation, throughfall, soil condition, foliar nutrients, as well as forest health and growth were studied in 2006–2009 in a long-term ecological research (LTER) network in the Bucegi Mountains, Romania. Ozone (O 3 ) was high indicating a potential for phytotoxicity. Ammonia (NH 3 ) concentrations rose to levels that could contribute to...

  4. MIGRATORY NETWORK AND POPULATION STATUS OF ARDEIDAE IN NORTHERN AZOV SEA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peresadko L. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The migratory network of eight Ardeidae species was considered regards the field research in Northern Azov Sea region in 1988-2003. Some 5405 individuals were banded and 44 recovery reports were obtained. The main route of autumn heron migrations was the south-western, the main wintering site were the Levant, Central and West Africa. It was proved the herons belong to local populations which are the part of large Azov-Black Sea geographical populations.

  5. Dynamic Social Networks and Physical Aggression: The Moderating Role of Gender and Social Status Among Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Rulison, Kelly L; Gest, Scott D.; Loken, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We examined three interrelated questions: (1) Who selects physically aggressive friends?; (2) Are physically aggressive adolescents influential?; and (3) Who is susceptible to influence from these friends? Using stochastic actor-based modeling, we tested our hypotheses using a sample of 480 adolescents (ages 11–13) who were followed across four assessments (fall and spring of 6th and 7th grade). After controlling for other factors that drive network and behavioral dynamics, we found that phys...

  6. MIGRATORY NETWORK AND POPULATION STATUS OF ARDEIDAE IN NORTHERN AZOV SEA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Peresadko L. V.; Koshelev V. A.; Koshelev A. I.

    2012-01-01

    The migratory network of eight Ardeidae species was considered regards the field research in Northern Azov Sea region in 1988-2003. Some 5405 individuals were banded and 44 recovery reports were obtained. The main route of autumn heron migrations was the south-western, the main wintering site were the Levant, Central and West Africa. It was proved the herons belong to local populations which are the part of large Azov-Black Sea geographical populations.

  7. Genetic Evaluation of Children with Global Developmental Delay—Current Status of Network Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Lin Foo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to introduce the screening and referral network of genetic evaluation for children with developmental delay in Taiwan. For these children, integrated systems provide services from the medical, educational, and social welfare sectors. All cities and counties in Taiwan have established a network for screening, detection, referral, evaluation, and intervention services. Increased awareness improves early detection and intervention. There remains a gap between supply and demand, especially with regard to financial resources and professional manpower. Genetic etiology has a major role in prenatal causes of developmental delay. A summary of reports on some related genetic disorders in the Taiwanese population is included in this review. Genetic diagnosis allows counseling with regard to recurrence risk and prevention. Networking with neonatal screening, laboratory diagnosis, genetic counseling, and orphan drugs logistics systems can provide effective treatment for patients. In Taiwan, several laboratories provide genetic tests for clinical diagnosis. Accessibility to advanced expensive tests such as gene chips or whole exome sequencing is limited because of funding problems; however, the service system in Taiwan can still operate in a relatively cost-effective manner. This experience in Taiwan may serve as a reference for other countries.

  8. Racial, Income, and Marital Status Disparities in Hospital Readmissions Within a Veterans-Integrated Health Care Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Crystal Dea; Gao, Kelly; Shulan, Mollie

    2015-12-01

    Hospital readmission is an important indicator of health care quality and currently used in determining hospital reimbursement rates by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Given the important policy implications, a better understanding of factors that influence readmission rates is needed. Racial disparities in readmission have been extensively studied, but income and marital status (a postdischarge care support indicator) disparities have received limited attention. By employing three Poisson regression models controlling for different confounders on 8,718 patients in a veterans-integrated health care network, this study assessed racial, income, and martial disparities in relation to total number of readmissions. In contrast to other studies, no racial and income disparities were found, but unmarried patients experienced significantly more readmissions: 16%, after controlling for the confounders. These findings render unique insight into health care policies aimed to improve race and income disparities, while challenging policy makers to reduce readmissions for those who lack family support. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Network-Centric Operations Support: Lessons Learned, Status, and Way-Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1. Introduction and Executive Summary For Network Centric Warfare (NCW), robust information-sharing...41]); (iii) NPS M&S Virtual Environment open-source tools and resources (e.g. AUV Workbench [42-43]). Due to the breadth and depth of MBSE/SOSE...Frameworks With Sensor-Package Workbench Capabilities: Motivation, Survey of Resources, and Exploratory Results," 15th ICCRTS, 2010 (http://www.dtic.mil

  10. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) status and opportunities for satellite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. M.; Burke, W. R.

    1987-05-01

    The driving force behind the proposed Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) is identified as PTT's and industry. It is doubtful whether ISDN can satisfy business user requirements. For residential users, the prospects are even more uncertain, since the costs associated with the implementation of subscriber loops seem to be out of all proportion to the added value offered to end users in terms of new services. The evolution of IDN in Europe is such that it will leave substantial areas without digital connectivity for many years; morever, the transition from IDN to ISDN still requires the solution of many important problems at different levels of the network. Although ISDN can be expected to be offered gradually at national level in several countries in the coming years, access on a European scale will not be possible to any significant degree before the year 2000 and it will continue to remain unclear whether this offer will correspond to a real demand. It is shown that satellites could be of considerable help in solving Europe's communications problems. By providing instant coverage of the entire West European region, they can offer the benefits of ISDN wherever they are required.

  11. Does a foreign subsidiary’s network status affect its innovation activity? Evidence from postsocialist economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Rojec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaire survey among 809 foreign subsidiaries in five post-socialist economies (East Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Croatia is used to study determinants of innovation activity of foreign subsidiaries. Findings demonstrate that foreign subsidiaries are relatively independent as far as innovation activity is concerned, while at the same time subsidiaries with better access to foreign parent companies R&D results are more likely to innovate. Important differences are found in factors that determine product and process innovation: subsidiaries that invest more in R&D exhibit higher probability for product but not for process innovation; transfer of responsibilities from headquarters to subsidiaries is conducive to process innovation; market-seeking motivation of foreign investors has a negative impact on product innovation status.

  12. The World Radiation Monitoring Center of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network: Status 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemel, Amelie; König-Langlo, Gert; Sieger, Rainer; Long, Charles N.

    2017-04-01

    The World Radiation Monitoring Center (WRMC) is the central archive of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). The BSRN was initiated by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Working Group on Radiative Fluxes and began operations in 1992. One of its aims is to provide short and long-wave surface radiation fluxes of the best possible quality to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific projects. The high quality, uniform and consistent measurements of the BSRN network can be used to monitor the short- and long-wave radiative components and their changes with the best methods currently available, to validate and evaluate satellite-based estimates of the surface radiative fluxes, and to verify the results of global climate models. In 1992 the BSRN/WRMC started at ETH Zurich, Switzerland with 9 stations. Since 2007 the archive is hosted by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) in Bremerhaven, Germany (http://www.bsrn.awi.de/) and comprises a network of currently 59 stations in contrasting climatic zones, covering a latitude range from 80°N to 90°S. Of the 59 stations, 23 offer the complete radiation budget (down- and upwelling short- and long-wave data). In addition to the ftp-service access instituted at ETH Zurich, the archive at AWI offers data access via PANGAEA - Data Publisher for Earth & Environmental Science (https://www.pangaea.de). PANGAEA guarantees the long-term availability of its content through a commitment of the operating institutions. Within PANGAEA, the metadata of the stations are freely available. To access the data itself an account is required. If the scientist accepts to follow the data release guidelines of the archive (http://bsrn.awi.de/data/conditions-of-data-release/) he or she can get an account from amelie.driemel@awi.de. Currently, more than 9,400 station months (>780 years) are available for interested scientists (see also https://dataportals.pangaea.de/bsrn/?q=LR0100 for an overview on available data

  13. Competitive Status Signaling in Peer-to-Peer File-Sharing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry F. Lyle

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet peer-to-peer file sharing is a contemporary example of asymmetrical sharing in which “altruists” (file uploaders share unconditionally with non-reciprocating “free riders” (file downloaders. Those who upload digital media files over the Internet risk prosecution for copyright infringement, and are more vulnerable to computer hackers and viruses. In an analysis of file-sharing behavior among university undergraduates (N=331, we found that significantly more males than females engaged in risky file uploading. Contrary to expectations, uploaders were not concerned about their reputation online and file sharers were not interested in identifying or chatting with uploaders while online. Among uploaders, males were more likely than females to be identified as uploaders by friends, to discuss uploading and to upload in the presence of peers. We interpret these results using costly-signaling theory, and argue that uploading is a costly signal in which males engage in avoidable risk taking as a means to compete for status among peers in social contexts other than the Internet.

  14. PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY: STATUS OF A PROBLEM TODAY. RUSSIAN NETWORK OF JMF-CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Latysheva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of primary immunodeficiency in Russia and the ways of solving of them are discussed in the article. Primary immunodeficiency is a group of rare diseases, so awareness of this pathology in the medical community and among patients is very low. This leads to late diagnosis and inadequate treatment of patients with such conditions. The result of the late beginning of treatment is early development of disability, and the high mortality rate of patients, as well as the high costs of the treatment of complications of primary immunodeficiency and sick-leave certificates for the government. Today in time and adequate therapy allows patients not only to reach adulthood without signs of disability, and to lead an active way of life, but to have healthy children. Given the high cost of therapy in many countries, the issue of providing patients with life-saving drugs remains unresolved. The global practice is to involve social organizations and funds. One of the foundations supporting educational programs, development of laboratories and research in the field of primary immunodeficiency is the Foundation of the Jeffrey Modell. A network of centres for primary immunodeficiency supported by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation (JMF-centers has started its functioning over the territory of the Russian Federation since 2011 in order to improve diagnostics and treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency. A brief description of activity of these centers is presented in the article.

  15. Cross-Layer Explicit Link Status Notification to Improve TCP Performance in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate the performance degradation of conventional TCP in wireless networks, many schemes have been proposed so far. One category of such schemes is the Explicit Loss Notification (ELN scheme in which TCP senders are notified of wireless losses so as to avoid congestion control against those losses. Thus the key design factor of the ELN scheme is how to detect wireless losses accurately and rapidly. This paper proposes a new ELN scheme, in which wireless losses are detected by monitoring the operation of the wireless link layer. By exploiting such cross-layer design, the proposed scheme can detect wireless losses without additional transmission over the wireless link and thus achieves accurate detection with minimum delay. The proposed scheme additionally sends new information, that is, Explicit Retransmission Start Notification, in order to prevent spurious timeouts of the TCP senders. Furthermore, in order to handle packet reordering and avoid successive shrinking of a congestion window due to multiple packet drops, a new TCP modification is proposed. Through intensive simulations, it is demonstrated that the proposed scheme outperforms the other ELN schemes, and yields the throughput performance of more than 400% of TCP-Reno and 150% of Snoop in the considered environments.

  16. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψstem). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500–800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψstem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψstem were between 0.56–0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψstem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of −9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26–0.27 MPa, 0.32–0.34 MPa and −24.2–25.6%, respectively. PMID:29084169

  17. Validity of Preoperative Clinical Findings to Identify Dental Pulp Status: A National Dental Practice-Based Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigg, Maria; Nixdorf, Donald R; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Law, Alan S

    2016-06-01

    Endodontic diagnostic tests are often used clinically to assess pulp status as a basis for the diagnosis and determination of whether root canal treatment (RCT) is indicated. Response to cold and pain on percussion are 2 common tests, yet their validity in identifying nonvital pulp in regular dental practice has not been reported. We assessed the validity of cold and percussion tests to identify nonvital pulp in teeth requiring RCT in a dental practice setting performed by 46 general dentists and 16 endodontists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. The influence of patient-, tooth-, and dentist-related characteristics was investigated. Observed bleeding from the pulp chamber was the clinical reference. Sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), overall test accuracy (TA), positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, and likelihood and diagnostic odds ratios (LR+, LR-, dORs) were calculated for each single test and the combined cold and percussion tests. Seven hundred eight patient teeth were included. Cold test showed high validity to identify a nonvital pulp status (SN = 89%, SP = 80%, TA = 84%, PPV = 81%, NPV = 88%, LR+ = 4.35, LR- = 0.14, dOR = 31.4), whereas pain on percussion had lower validity (SN = 72%, SP = 41%, TA = 56%, PPV = 54%, NPV = 60%, LR+ = 1.22, LR- = 0.69, dOR = 1.78). Combining the 2 tests did not increase validity, whereas preoperative pain, medication intake, patient age and sex, and dentist training level affected test validity significantly. In regular dental practice, the cold test exhibits higher validity to discriminate between vital and nonvital pulp than the tooth percussion test. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of social networks and partnership status on treatment choice in men with localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Karim; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Zavala, Mary; Labo, Jessica; Litwin, Mark S

    2012-04-01

    To determine whether martial status and social support impact treatment choice. The decision to pursue radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is often influenced by factors outside the realm of tumour risk, such as a man's support system at home. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 418 low-income men who were diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and underwent definitive treatment with either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. We performed univariate and multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression analysis, with the dependent variable being treatment type. Confidence intervals (CIs) for the predicted probabilities and relative risks were derived using bias-corrected bootstrapping with 1000 repetitions. Men with two or more members in their support system were more likely to be older, Hispanic, have less than a high school education, earn more than US $1500 monthly, have high-risk disease and be in a significant relationship. In multivariate analysis, partnered men with fewer than two social support members (relative risk, RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63) were more likely to undergo surgery, whereas men who were morbidly obese (RR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.09-0.88), high school graduates (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-0.99) or had high-risk disease (RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.85) were less likely to undergo surgery than their respective referent groups. Partnered men with two or more social support members were no more likely to undergo surgery than unpartnered men who lacked any social support. In the present study cohort, married men with fewer than two members in their social network were more likely to have undergone surgery. Although marital status is often used as a proxy for social support, we find that the quality of support and partner may impact treatment type more than the extent of the social matrix. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  19. Artificial Neural Network to Predict Vine Water Status Spatial Variability Using Multispectral Information Obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Tomas; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Moreno, Miguel Angel; Bardeen, Matthew

    2017-10-30

    Water stress, which affects yield and wine quality, is often evaluated using the midday stem water potential (Ψ stem ). However, this measurement is acquired on a per plant basis and does not account for the assessment of vine water status spatial variability. The use of multispectral cameras mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is capable to capture the variability of vine water stress in a whole field scenario. It has been reported that conventional multispectral indices (CMI) that use information between 500-800 nm, do not accurately predict plant water status since they are not sensitive to water content. The objective of this study was to develop artificial neural network (ANN) models derived from multispectral images to predict the Ψ stem spatial variability of a drip-irrigated Carménère vineyard in Talca, Maule Region, Chile. The coefficient of determination (R²) obtained between ANN outputs and ground-truth measurements of Ψ stem were between 0.56-0.87, with the best performance observed for the model that included the bands 550, 570, 670, 700 and 800 nm. Validation analysis indicated that the ANN model could estimate Ψ stem with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.1 MPa, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.12 MPa, and relative error (RE) of -9.1%. For the validation of the CMI, the MAE, RMSE and RE values were between 0.26-0.27 MPa, 0.32-0.34 MPa and -24.2-25.6%, respectively.

  20. Current status of the Essential Variables as an instrument to assess the Earth Observation Networks in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonda, Palma; Maso, Joan; Bombelli, Antonio; Plag, Hans Peter; McCallum, Ian; Serral, Ivette; Nativi, Stefano Stefano

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. Essential Variables (EVs) are defined by ConnectinGEO as "a minimal set of variables that determine the system's state and developments, are crucial for predicting system developments, and allow us to define metrics that measure the trajectory of the system". . Specific application-dependent characteristics, such as spatial and temporal resolution of observations and data quality thresholds, are not generally included in the EV definition. This definition and the present status of EV developments in different societal benefit areas was elaborated at the ConnectinGEO workshop "Towards a sustainability process for GEOSS Essential Variables (EVs)," which was held in Bari on June 11-12, 2015 (http://www.gstss.org/2015_Bari/). Presentations and reports contributed by a wide range of communities provided important inputs from different sectors for assessing the status of the EV development. In most thematic areas, the development of sets of EVs is a community process leading to an agreement on what is essential for the goals of the community. While there are many differences across the communities in the details of the criteria, methodologies and processes used to develop sets of EVs, there is also a considerable common core across the communities, particularly those with a more advanced discussion. In particular, there is some level of overlap in different topics (e.g., Climate and Water), and there is a potential to develop an integrated set of EVs common to several thematic areas as well as specific ones that satisfy only one community. The thematic areas with

  1. Micronutrient intake and status in Central and Eastern Europe compared with other European countries, results from the EURRECA network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Bekkering, G.E.; Roman-Vinas, B.; Ngo, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Glibetic, M.; Golesorkhi, M.; Warthon-Medina, M.; Satalic, Z.; Geelen, A.; Serra Majem, L.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare micronutrient intakes and status in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) with those in other European countries and with reference values. Design: Review of the micronutrient intake/status data from open access and grey literature source

  2. Estimates of the atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen species: Clean Air Status and Trends Network, 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgardner, R.E. Jr.; Lavery, T.F.; Rogers, C.M; Isil, S.S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2002-06-15

    The Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) was established by the US EPA in response to the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment to assess and report on geographic patterns and long-term, temporal trends in ambient air pollution and acid deposition in order to gauge the effectiveness of current and future mandated emission reductions. This paper presents an analysis of the spatial patterns of deposition of sulfur and nitrogen pollutants for the period 1990-2000. Estimates of deposition are provided for two 4-yr periods: 1990-1993 and 1997-2000 selected to contrast deposition before and after the large decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions that occurred in 1995. An analysis of the deposition estimates showed a significant decline in sulfur deposition and no change in nitrogen deposition. The highest rates of sulfur deposition were observed in the Ohio River Valley and downwind states. This region also observed the largest decline in sulfur deposition. The highest rates of nitrogen deposition were observed in the Midwest from Illinois to southern New York State. Sulfur and nitrogen deposition fluxes were significantly higher in the eastern United States as compared to the western sites. Dry deposition contributed approximately 38% of total sulfur deposition and 30% of total nitrogen deposition in the eastern United States. Percentages are similar for the two 4-yr periods. Wet sulfate and dry SO{sub 2} depositions were the largest contributors to sulfur deposition. Wet nitrate, wet ammonium, and dry HNO{sub 3} deposition were the largest contributors to nitrogen deposition. 40 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Food Acquisition through Private and Public Social Networks and Its Relationship with Household Food Security among Various Socioeconomic Statuses in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyun Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to understand food acquisition practices from social networks and its relationship with household food security. In-depth interviews and a survey on food security were conducted with twenty-nine mothers and one father in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Many families acquired food from their extended families, mainly participants’ mothers. Between low-income and non-low-income households, there was a pattern of more active sharing of food through private networks among non-low-income households. Most of the low-income households received food support from public social networks, such as government and charity institutions. Despite the assistance, most of them perceived food insecurity. We hypothesized that the lack of private social support may exacerbate the food security status of low-income households, despite formal food assistance from government and social welfare institutions. Interviews revealed that certain food items were perceived as lacking, such as animal-based protein sources and fresh produce, which are relatively expensive in this setting. Future programs should consider what would alleviate food insecurity among low-income households and determine the right instruments and mode of resolving the unmet needs. Future research could evaluate the quantitative relationship between private resources and food insecurity in households with various income statuses.

  4. Food Acquisition through Private and Public Social Networks and Its Relationship with Household Food Security among Various Socioeconomic Statuses in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Kim, Kirang

    2018-01-25

    This study was conducted to understand food acquisition practices from social networks and its relationship with household food security. In-depth interviews and a survey on food security were conducted with twenty-nine mothers and one father in metropolitan areas of South Korea. Many families acquired food from their extended families, mainly participants' mothers. Between low-income and non-low-income households, there was a pattern of more active sharing of food through private networks among non-low-income households. Most of the low-income households received food support from public social networks, such as government and charity institutions. Despite the assistance, most of them perceived food insecurity. We hypothesized that the lack of private social support may exacerbate the food security status of low-income households, despite formal food assistance from government and social welfare institutions. Interviews revealed that certain food items were perceived as lacking, such as animal-based protein sources and fresh produce, which are relatively expensive in this setting. Future programs should consider what would alleviate food insecurity among low-income households and determine the right instruments and mode of resolving the unmet needs. Future research could evaluate the quantitative relationship between private resources and food insecurity in households with various income statuses.

  5. Community-directed mass drug administration is undermined by status seeking in friendship networks and inadequate trust in health advice networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chami, Goylette F; Kontoleon, Andreas A; Bulte, Erwin; Fenwick, Alan; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Tukahebwa, Edridah M; Dunne, David W

    2017-06-01

    Over 1.9 billion individuals require preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA). Community-directed MDA relies on volunteer community medicine distributors (CMDs) and their achievement of high coverage and compliance. Yet, it is unknown if village social networks influence effective MDA implementation by CMDs. In Mayuge District, Uganda, census-style surveys were conducted for 16,357 individuals from 3,491 households in 17 villages. Praziquantel, albendazole, and ivermectin were administered for one month in community-directed MDA to treat Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm, and lymphatic filariasis. Self-reported treatment outcomes, socioeconomic characteristics, friendship networks, and health advice networks were collected. We investigated systematically missed coverage and noncompliance. Coverage was defined as an eligible person being offered at least one drug by CMDs; compliance included ingesting at least one of the offered drugs. These outcomes were analyzed as a two-stage process using a Heckman selection model. To further assess if MDA through CMDs was working as intended, we examined the probability of accurate drug administration of 1) praziquantel, 2) both albendazole and ivermectin, and 3) all drugs. This analysis was conducted using bivariate Probit regression. Four indicators from each social network were examined: degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality, and the presence of a direct connection to CMDs. All models accounted for nested household and village standard errors. CMDs were more likely to offer medicines, and to accurately administer the drugs as trained by the national control programme, to individuals with high friendship degree (many connections) and high friendship closeness centrality (households that were only a short number of steps away from all other households in the network). Though high (88.59%), additional compliance was associated with directly trusting CMDs for health advice. Effective treatment

  6. Current status of the Essential Variables as an instrument to assess the Earth Observation Networks in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, B.; Maso, J.; Bombelli, A.; Plag, H.P.; McCallum, I.; Serral, I.; Nativi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. Essential Variables (EVs) are defined by ConnectinGEO as "a minimal set of variabl...

  7. Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.

  8. Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard E

    2017-01-01

    Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.

  9. The Context and Provenance of Democratization in Ghana (1990-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maxwell Aidoo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En la última década y la segunda mitad del siglo XX, ha surgido la opinión consensuada de que las dificultades que han retrasado el desarrollo de África son más políticas que económicas. Los politólogos y expertos en el desarrollo de África, sugirieron que la democratización y la gobernanza eran medios de sacar a África del subdesarrollo. De acuerdo con ello, desde 1990 una ola de democratizaciones se ha extendido por la mayor parte de África. Este artículo examina el contexto y los orígenes del proceso de democratización en Ghana. La política de Ghana experimentó un rápido proceso de transformación entre 1990 y 1992. Este período fue testigo de la desaparición de una década de dictadura militar. Se produjo la reinstauración de un sistema de gobierno pluralista y constitucional. Al mismo tiempo, un dramático crecimiento de la sociedad civil empezó a hacerse visible. El trabajo identifica dos desarrollos: luchas de élites y de masas por la incorporación política y económica respectivamente, y presiones externas, que tuvieron un rol dominante en este proceso. Esto ilumina las fuerzas políticas y actores que conformaron la restauración del orden constitucional/democrático en Ghana. El artículo muestra el surgimiento del movimiento por la democracia en Ghana durante los años noventa a causa de la demanda de inclusión política y económica por parte de elementos marginados. La marginación política y económica ocurrió en circunstancias de monolitismo político, autoritarismo coercitivo y recesión económica, o en palabras de Claude Ake (2000 “persistente subdesarrollo”. La demanda por la inclusión ocurrió en dos niveles –en el nivel de las élites como demanda de una asimilación política y en el nivel de las masas como demanda de una asimilación económica. Entonces, el monolitismo político y el persistente subdesarrollo dieron nacimiento a un movimiento por la democracia cuyo objetivo fue la integración económica y política. Visto de esta forma, la ola de democratización en Ghana puede ser explicada como una respuesta a la exclusión y una vía para facilitar la integración.__________________ABSTRACT:In the last decade and half of the twentieth century, a consensus emerged that the difficulties that have slowed down Africa’s development are more political than economic. Political scientists and Africa’s development partners, consequently, suggested democratization and good governance as means of bringing Africa out of underdevelopment.  Accordingly, since 1990, a wave of democratization has engulfed most of Africa.  This paper examines the context and origins of the democratization process in Ghana.  The politics of Ghana underwent a most rapid process of transformation between 1990 and 1992. The period witnessed the obliteration of a decade of military dictatorship.  There was a reinstallation of pluralist politics and constitutional rule.  At the same time, a dramatic growth of civil society became discernible.   The paper identifies two developments, elite and mass struggles for political and economic incorporation respectively, and external pressures, as having played the dominant role in this process.  It highlights the political forces and actors that shaped the restoration of constitutional/democratic rule in Ghana.  The paper addresses the concern that the movement toward democracy in Ghana in the 1990s arose as a demand by politically and economically marginalized elements for incorporation.  The political and economic marginalization occurred in conditions of political monolithism, coercive authoritarianism, and economic slump or, in the words of Claude Ake (2000, “persistent underdevelopment”.  The demand for incorporation occurred on two levels - on the level of elites as demand for political assimilation and on the level of the masses as demand for economic assimilation.  Thus, political monolithism and persistent underdevelopment gave birth to a democracy movement the aim of which was economic and political integration.  Seen this way, the Ghanaian democratization wave was intended to counteract exclusivity and facilitate inclusivity.

  10. [Biological characters of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli isolates from diarrhea patients in Saitama (1990-1992)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, F; Kurazono, T; Yamaguchi, M; Ohzeki, Y; Okuyama, Y

    1994-12-01

    A total of 16 strains of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) isolated from diarrea patients in Saitama from 1990 to 1992 were tested for their serotype, verotoxin production, biochemical characteristics, antibiotics sensitivity and plasmid profiles. By serotype analysis, 14 strains from two outbreaks and 12 sporadic cases were classified as type O157:H7, one as O111:H-(not motility) and one as O128:H2. Typing of verotoxin by gene analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) showed that 9 of O157:H7 strains including two cases from outbreaks and O128:H2 have VT1 and VT2 genes, other O157:H7 have the VT2 gene and O111:H-has only the VT1 gene. Biochemical characteristic analysis indicated two strains of O157:H7 type from outbreaks were biotype II and the rest of O157:H7 were biotype I. One of the O157:H7 strain from a sporadic case showed positive for urease production. According to sensitivity tests against antibiotics, out of the O157:H7 group, one strain was resistant against ABPC, one against SM and two strains resistant to SM-TC. For plasmid profiles, all strains had 94 Kb plasmids and several smaller sizes of plasmids. But 5 strains of O157:H7 had 94 Kb plasmid only.

  11. Project RETOOL: Integrating Special Education Technology into the Higher Education Curriculum 1990-1992. Summation Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Teacher Education Div.

    This document presents nine bibliographies, compiled from training materials used at workshops conducted by Project RETOOL, on the integration of special education technology into the higher education curriculum. Workshop topics include: "Effective Uses of Technology for Teaching Math, Science, Social Studies, and Writing"; "Technology Tools for…

  12. A medical follow-up of 137 Cs Goiania radiation accident: un update (1990-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao-Mello, Carlos Eduardo; Oliveira, Alexandre Rodrigues de [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Farina, Rosana [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to describe the main aftereffects of the 137 Cs accident in the last two years, giving emphasis on clinical, hematological, radiological and psychological aspects. A medical follow-up protocol was established by CNEN and the Leide das Neves Ferreira Foundation of the State of Goias, in order to prospectively follow more than 150 victims. (author). 6 refs.

  13. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  14. AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards homosexuals of black first-year university students: 1990-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, L J; Tredoux, C; Daniels, P

    1994-10-01

    Using an anonymous structured questionnaire to obtain baseline data on knowledge and attitudes of first-year black university students about the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their attitudes towards homosexuals during 1990, 1991, and 1992 (ns = 1902, 2113, and 1558), the following information was obtained. Students' knowledge of AIDS was inadequate and misconceptions about AIDS transmission prevalent as were prejudiced and exclusionary beliefs about people with AIDS. Little difference was evident on any of the scales over the three-year period.

  15. Comparison of Neural Network and Linear Regression Models in Statistically Predicting Mental and Physical Health Status of Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-15

    emotional status, diet and exercise , fear of recurrence, fatigue, dizziness, urinary incontinence, lymphedema, children in the home, and number of...Nash J, Trask P. 2009. Exercise and relaxation intervention for breast cancer survivors: feasibility, acceptability and effects. Psychooncology 18:258...psychological symptoms endorsed were depressive symptoms, anxiety , pain, and fatigue; however, sleep problems, sexual difficulties, and cognitive

  16. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. Methods A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Results Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16–2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16–2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. Conclusions The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in

  17. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V

    2013-11-15

    Older adults are more likely to live alone, because they may have been predeceased by their spouse and friends. Social interaction could also be reduced in this age group due by limited mobility caused by chronic conditions. Therefore, aging is frequently accompanied by reduced social support, which might affect health status. Little is known about the role of gender in the relationship between social support and health in older adults. Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults. A cross-sectional study using two-stage probabilistic sampling recruited 3,649 individuals aged 60 years and above. Data were collected during the national influenza vaccination campaign in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. Individual interviews collected information on SRH, perceived social support, social network, and other covariates. Multivariate logistic regression analyses using nested models were conducted separately for males and females. Independent variables were organised into six blocks: (1) perceived social support and social network, (2) age group, (3) socioeconomic characteristics, (4) health-related behaviours, (5) use of health care services, (6) functional status measures and somatic health problems. Older men who did not participate in group activities were more likely to report poor SRH compared to those who did, (OR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.16-2.30). Low perceived social support predicted the probability of poor SRH in women (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.16-2.34). Poor SRH was associated with low age, low income, not working, poor functional capacity, and depression in both men and women. More somatic health problems were associated with poor SRH in women. The association between social interactions and SRH varies between genders. Low social network involvement is associated with poor SRH in older men, whereas low perceived social

  18. Do Physical and Relational Aggression Explain Adolescents' Friendship Selection? The Competing Roles of Network Characteristics, Gender, and Social Status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while

  19. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  20. Social networks and health status in the elderly: the 'ANZIANI IN-RETE' population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchetti, Luca; Squazzoni, Flaminio; Casnici, Niccolò; Bianchini, Devis; Garrafa, Emirena; Archetti, Claudia; Romano, Valentina; Rozzini, Luca; Melchiori, Michele; Fiorentini, Chiara; Uberti, Daniela; Calza, Stefano; Marengoni, Alessandra

    2017-12-01

    Certain features of the social environment could maintain and even improve not only psychological well-being, but also health and cognition of the elderly. We tested the association between social network characteristics and the number of chronic diseases in the elderly. A randomized sample of the elderly population of Brescia, Italy, was evaluated (N = 200, age ≥65 years). We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, including information on socio-demographic variables (family, friendships, and acquaintance contacts). We measured each person's social network, i.e., degree, efficiency, and variety. The sample included 118 women and 82 men, mean age 77.7 years. The mean number of chronic diseases was 3.5. A higher social network degree, i.e., more social connections, was associated with fewer diseases. We also found that having more contacts with people similar to each other or intense relationships with people who do not know each other were associated with fewer diseases. More healthy people tend to share certain characteristics of social networks. Our study indicates that it is important to look at diseases and health as complex phenomena, which requires integrating different levels of analysis.

  1. Dose Ramadan Fasting Affects Inflammatory Responses: Evidences for Modulatory Roles of This Unique Nutritional Status via Chemokine Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami Mohajeri, Fateme; Ahmadi, Zahra; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Akrami Mohajeri, Elham; Ravari, Ali; Ghalebi, Seyed Razi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The impact of fasting in Ramadan as a unique type of nutritional regimen on biochemical and hematological parameters is still an issue of debate. Almost very little is known regarding the regulatory role(s) of this nutritional status on immune responses or inflammation. Materials and Methods: The levels of biochemical parameters were determined using commercial diagnostic kits. Hematological parameters were also examined. We also employed ELISA for detection of CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL12 chemokines. The Student-T test was used to compare the values of different parameters obtained in the first and last day of Ramadan fasting by employing SPSS (version 18) software. Results: As our findings demonstrated, there was a markedly difference between before and after Ramadan BMI of the individuals who fast. Our results also revealed that there was a remarkable difference between the levels of total cholesterol, FBS, Triglycerides and LDL before and after Ramadan fasting. Results revealed that among studied hematological parameters only the numbers of platelets were markedly different before and after Ramadan fasting program in individuals who practice fasting. Our results also showed decreased levels of pro-inflammatory CXC chemokines but unaltered levels of homoeostatic ones. Conclusion: The results of this study may reveal that Ramadan fasting is quite safe for normal healthy adults and so very useful in reduction of cholesterol and triglycerides in relation with dyslipidemia. It is also possible to conclude that fasting is important in controlling of inflammation via chemokines. PMID:24570826

  2. HEPNet: A Knowledge Base Model of Human Energy Pool Network for Predicting the Energy Availability Status of an Individual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sengupta

    Full Text Available HEPNet is an electronic representation of metabolic reactions occurring within human cellular organization focusing on inflow and outflow of the energy currency ATP, GTP and other energy associated moieties. The backbone of HEPNet consists of primary bio-molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats which ultimately constitute the chief source for the synthesis and obliteration of energy currencies in a cell. A series of biochemical pathways and reactions constituting the catabolism and anabolism of various metabolites are portrayed through cellular compartmentalization. The depicted pathways function synchronously toward an overarching goal of producing ATP and other energy associated moieties to bring into play a variety of cellular functions. HEPNet is manually curated with raw data from experiments and is also connected to KEGG and Reactome databases. This model has been validated by simulating it with physiological states like fasting, starvation, exercise and disease conditions like glycaemia, uremia and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency (DLDD. The results clearly indicate that ATP is the master regulator under different metabolic conditions and physiological states. The results also highlight that energy currencies play a minor role. However, the moiety creatine phosphate has a unique character, since it is a ready-made source of phosphoryl groups for the rapid synthesis of ATP from ADP. HEPNet provides a framework for further expanding the network diverse age groups of both the sexes, followed by the understanding of energetics in more complex metabolic pathways that are related to human disorders.

  3. Cortical networks for vision and language in dyslexic and normal children of variable socio-economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzalvo, Karla; Fluss, Joel; Billard, Catherine; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2012-05-15

    In dyslexia, anomalous activations have been described in both left temporo-parietal language cortices and in left ventral visual occipito-temporal cortex. However, the reproducibility, task-dependency, and presence of these brain anomalies in childhood rather than adulthood remain debated. We probed the large-scale organization of ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children using minimal target-detection tasks that were performed equally well by all groups. In 23 normal and 23 dyslexic 10-year-old children from two different socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds, we compared fMRI activity to visually presented houses, faces, and written strings, and to spoken sentences in the native or in a foreign language. Our results confirm a disorganization of both ventral visual and spoken language areas in dyslexic children. Visually, dyslexic children showed a normal lateral-to-medial mosaic of preferences, as well as normal responses to houses and checkerboards, but a reduced activation to words in the visual word form area (VWFA) and to faces in the right fusiform face area (FFA). Auditorily, dyslexic children exhibited reduced responses to speech in posterior temporal cortex, left insula and supplementary motor area, as well as reduced responses to maternal language in subparts of the planum temporale, left basal language area and VWFA. By correlating these two findings, we identify spoken-language predictors of VWFA activation to written words, which differ for dyslexic and normal readers. Similarities in fMRI deficits in both SES groups emphasize the existence of a core set of brain activation anomalies in dyslexia, regardless of culture, language and SES, without however resolving whether these anomalies are a cause or a consequence of impaired reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The status of marine and coastal EBM among a large sample of U.S. federal programs: a social network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Apa, A.; Fullerton, A.; Schwing, F. B.; Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) is an integrated management approach that considers the entire ecosystem, including humans, across multiple sectors, with the goal to collectively manage natural resources, habitat, and species in a sustainable manner while maintaining ecosystem services to humans on the long-term. In the United States, the National Ocean Council (NOC) established a federal interagency subgroup (National Ocean Policy EBM-Subgroup) to provide policy advice on EBM strategies and technical representation from the federal agencies that are part of the NOC. As part of the NOP EBM-Subgroup effort, this study summarizes the status of EBM for several federal programs within the NOC agencies that implement or support marine and coastal EBM activities. Our objective was to provide an overview of the current state of practice among the many and varied U.S. federal programs employing EBM approaches in the ocean, coastal zone, and the Great Lakes. We used social network analysis techniques to explore similarities among programs in different topic areas (e.g., type of audience, partners, training, EBM best management practices and principles). Results highlight substantial differences in perceived and effective performances across programs, with Management programs showing a higher level of integration of EBM approaches than Non-Management programs. The use of EBM best management practices and principles among programs is unbalanced, with some key elements of EBM strategies less commonly employed in the management planning. This analysis identified gaps in the implementation of EBM strategies that can inform natural resource managers and planners

  5. Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

    2003-02-27

    Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

  6. Enhancement of COPD biological networks using a web-based collaboration interface [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The sbv IMPROVER project team (in alphabetical order

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The construction and application of biological network models is an approach that offers a holistic way to understand biological processes involved in disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive inflammatory disease of the airways for which therapeutic options currently are limited after diagnosis, even in its earliest stage. COPD network models are important tools to better understand the biological components and processes underlying initial disease development. With the increasing amounts of literature that are now available, crowdsourcing approaches offer new forms of collaboration for researchers to review biological findings, which can be applied to the construction and verification of complex biological networks. We report the construction of 50 biological network models relevant to lung biology and early COPD using an integrative systems biology and collaborative crowd-verification approach. By combining traditional literature curation with a data-driven approach that predicts molecular activities from transcriptomics data, we constructed an initial COPD network model set based on a previously published non-diseased lung-relevant model set. The crowd was given the opportunity to enhance and refine the networks on a website (https://bionet.sbvimprover.com/ and to add mechanistic detail, as well as critically review existing evidence and evidence added by other users, so as to enhance the accuracy of the biological representation of the processes captured in the networks. Finally, scientists and experts in the field discussed and refined the networks during an in-person jamboree meeting. Here, we describe examples of the changes made to three of these networks: Neutrophil Signaling, Macrophage Signaling, and Th1-Th2 Signaling. We describe an innovative approach to biological network construction that combines literature and data mining and a crowdsourcing approach to generate a comprehensive set of COPD

  7. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: distribution of infection and disease, in three municipalities of Salta, 1990-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-Estani Sergio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the epidemiological pattern of tegumentary leishmaniasis in an area north of Salta, Argentina. The prevalence and incidence were estimated by means of a cross-sectional study and two follow-up studies during two consecutive years. The Montenegro Skin Test (MST was administered to 7336 subjects at baseline. The prevalence and incidence between 1990 and 1992 of infection (MST reactive was 38? persons and 4.5? persons/year respectively. The prevalence and incidence of tegumentary leishmaniasis (presence of clinical signs was 1.8? and 0.8? persons/year, respectively. A physical examination performed on 264 patients with MST reactive during three years revealed that 130 cases (49.2% had some evident sign of infection (scar and/or lesion, with a clinical presentation compatible with leishmaniasis. Our study demonstrated that after the epidemic outbreak of 1985 the transmission in the study area returned to endemic levels in 1992, and also demonstrated the presence of the asymptomatic infection in the area.

  8. Gender differences in the association of perceived social support and social network with self-rated health status among older adults: a population-based study in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caetano, Silvana C; Silva, Cosme M F P; Vettore, Mario V

    2013-01-01

    .... Hence, the present study tests the hypothesis that gender differences exist in the relationship between perceived social support, social network, and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults...

  9. An a posteriori measure of network modularity [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2ju

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Poisot

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the modularity of networks, and how it deviates from random expectations, important to understand their structure and emerging properties. Several measures exist to assess modularity, which when applied to the same network, can return both different modularity values (i.e. different estimates of how modular the network is and different module compositions (i.e. different groups of species forming said modules. More importantly, as each optimization method uses a different optimization criterion, there is a need to have an a posteriori measure serving as an equivalent of a goodness-of-fit. In this article, I propose such a measure of modularity, which is simply defined as the ratio of interactions established between members of the same modules vs. members of different modules. I apply this measure to a large dataset of 290 ecological networks representing host–parasite (bipartite and predator–prey (unipartite interactions, to show how the results are easy to interpret and present especially to a broad audience not familiar with modularity analyses, but still can reveal new features about modularity and the ways to measure it.

  10. Classification of Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, and normal cognitive status with large-scale network analysis based on resting-state functional MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Ward, B Douglas; Xie, Chunming; Li, Wenjun; Wu, Zhilin; Jones, Jennifer L; Franczak, Malgorzata; Antuono, Piero; Li, Shi-Jiang

    2011-04-01

    To use large-scale network (LSN) analysis to classify subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD), those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and cognitively normal (CN) subjects. The study was conducted with institutional review board approval and was in compliance with HIPAA regulations. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to acquire the voxelwise time series in 55 subjects with clinically diagnosed AD (n = 20), aMCI (n =15), and normal cognitive function (n = 20). The brains were divided into 116 regions of interest (ROIs). The Pearson product moment correlation coefficients of pairwise ROIs were used to classify these subjects. Error estimation of the classifications was performed with the leave-one-out cross-validation method. Linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationship between changes in network connectivity strengths and behavioral scores. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) yielded 87% classification power, 85% sensitivity, and 80% specificity between the AD group and the non-AD group (subjects with aMCI and CN subjects) in the first-step classification. For differentiation between subjects with aMCI and CN subjects, AUC was 95%; sensitivity, 93%; and specificity, 90%. The decreased network indexes were significantly correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination score in all tested subjects. Similarly, changes in network indexes significantly correlated with Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test delayed recall scores in subjects with aMCI and CN subjects. LSN analysis revealed that interconnectivity patterns of brain regions can be used to classify subjects with AD, those with aMCI, and CN subjects. In addition, the altered connectivity networks were significantly correlated with the results of cognitive tests. © RSNA, 2011.

  11. Network Security Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The application of interactive, three-dimensional viewing techniques to the representation of security-related, computer network status and events is expected to improve the timeliness and efficiency...

  12. FALCON: a software package for analysis of nestedness in bipartite networks [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3z8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Beckett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nestedness is a statistical measure used to interpret bipartite interaction data in several ecological and evolutionary contexts, e.g. biogeography (species-site relationships and species interactions (plant-pollinator and host-parasite networks. Multiple methods have been used to evaluate nestedness, which differ in how the metrics for nestedness are determined. Furthermore, several different null models have been used to calculate statistical significance of nestedness scores. The profusion of measures and null models, many of which give conflicting results, is problematic for comparison of nestedness across different studies. We developed the FALCON software package to allow easy and efficient comparison of nestedness scores and statistical significances for a given input network, using a selection of the more popular measures and null models from the current literature. FALCON currently includes six measures and five null models for nestedness in binary networks, and two measures and four null models for nestedness in weighted networks. The FALCON software is designed to be efficient and easy to use. FALCON code is offered in three languages (R, MATLAB, Octave and is designed to be modular and extensible, enabling users to easily expand its functionality by adding further measures and null models. FALCON provides a robust methodology for comparing the strength and significance of nestedness in a given bipartite network using multiple measures and null models. It includes an “adaptive ensemble” method to reduce undersampling of the null distribution when calculating statistical significance. It can work with binary or weighted input networks. FALCON is a response to the proliferation of different nestedness measures and associated null models in the literature. It allows easy and efficient calculation of nestedness scores and statistical significances using different methods, enabling comparison of results from

  13. Status on the Zeus lightning network in Brazil and its application to the electrical sector of COELCE - the Energy Company from Ceara state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Rodriguez, Carlos Augusto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: morales@model.iag.usp.br; Sales, Francisco; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), CE (Brazil)], E-mail: fsales@uece.br; Camara, Keyla Sampaio [Companhia de Energetica do Estado do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: keyla@coelce.com.br, fgmpinheiro@uece.br; Anagnostou, Emmanouil E. [University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)], E-mail: manos@engr.uconn.edu

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the deployment and new perspectives of the ZEUS VLF long range lightning monitoring network that has been established in Brazil after the support of the Research and Development Program of the 'Companhia Energetica do Ceara-(COELCE)'. The ZEUS network measures radio noise emitted by lightning that propagates through the ionosphere-earth surface waveguide up to thousands of kilometers. Two new VLF antennas have been installed in Fortaleza (Ceara) and Cachoeira Paulista (Sao Paulo) Brazil in the first semester of 2006 and were integrated with the 4 sensor installed in Africa and one in the Caribbean. Based on this new configuration, ZEUS is continuing measuring lightning discharges over South and North America, the Atlantic Ocean and Africa. Preliminary validation analysis using the data from the Brazilian Lightning Detection Network (RINDAT), National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) of USA, and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were employed to retrieve the location accuracy during the period of August through November of 2006. The location accuracy is based on coincident timing matches been the sferics measurements observed by ZEUS against the measurements of RINDAT, NLDN and LIS. Based on this new ZEUS configuration, the preliminary validation shows that ZEUS has location accuracy between 10-50 km over Brazil, 5-25 km in Africa, 70-100 km over the southern USA, and 5-25 km in the Atlantic Ocean. The measurements from August through November of 2006 show that the main lightning activity is located in the Western Amazon, Western and Central Africa, Central America, Colombia, Florida and Caribbean regions, which agrees with the lightning maps derived with LIS for the same time period. Finally, since ZEUS is been employed by COELCE, some lightning and thunderstorm products are been developed to help the improvement of their system over the states of Ceara, for example: lightning

  14. Progress and challenges in the computational prediction of gene function using networks [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/SqmJUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pavlidis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this opinion piece, we attempt to unify recent arguments we have made that serious confounds affect the use of network data to predict and characterize gene function. The development of computational approaches to determine gene function is a major strand of computational genomics research. However, progress beyond using BLAST to transfer annotations has been surprisingly slow. We have previously argued that a large part of the reported success in using "guilt by association" in network data is due to the tendency of methods to simply assign new functions to already well-annotated genes. While such predictions will tend to be correct, they are generic; it is true, but not very helpful, that a gene with many functions is more likely to have any function. We have also presented evidence that much of the remaining performance in cross-validation cannot be usefully generalized to new predictions, making progressive improvement in analysis difficult to engineer. Here we summarize our findings about how these problems will affect network analysis, discuss some ongoing responses within the field to these issues, and consolidate some recommendations and speculation, which we hope will modestly increase the reliability and specificity of gene function prediction.

  15. Optimal Design of Air Quality Monitoring Network and its Application in an Oil Refinery Plant: An Approach to Keep Health Status of Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZoroufchiBenis, Khaled; Fatehifar, Esmaeil; Ahmadi, Javad; Rouhi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Industrial air pollution is a growing challenge to humane health, especially in developing countries, where there is no systematic monitoring of air pollution. Given the importance of the availability of valid information on population exposure to air pollutants, it is important to design an optimal Air Quality Monitoring Network (AQMN) for assessing population exposure to air pollution and predicting the magnitude of the health risks to the population. A multi-pollutant method (implemented as a MATLAB program) was explored for configur-ing an AQMN to detect the highest level of pollution around an oil refinery plant. The method ranks potential monitoring sites (grids) according to their ability to represent the ambient concentration. The term of cluster of contiguous grids that exceed a threshold value was used to calculate the Station Dosage. Selection of the best configuration of AQMN was done based on the ratio of a sta-tion's dosage to the total dosage in the network. Six monitoring stations were needed to detect the pollutants concentrations around the study area for estimating the level and distribution of exposure in the population with total network efficiency of about 99%. An analysis of the design procedure showed that wind regimes have greatest effect on the location of monitoring stations. The optimal AQMN enables authorities to implement an effective program of air quality management for protecting human health.

  16. Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

  17. Networking in Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattig, W. Donald

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers as communication devices and presents features of several national bibliographic networks, together with examples of searches for information of interest to academics. The status of electronic publishing is discussed and differences between national and local area networks are described. (Author)

  18. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its signaling network for the treatment of cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhong Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on over three decades of preclinical data, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R signaling has gained recognition as a promoter of tumorogenesis, driving cell survival and proliferation in multiple human cancers. As a result, IGF-1R has been pursued as a target for cancer treatment. Early pioneering efforts targeting IGF- 1R focused on highly selective monoclonal antibodies, with multiple agents advancing to clinical trials. However, despite some initial promising results, recent clinical disclosures have been less encouraging. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that IGF-1R participates in a dynamic and complex signaling network, interacting with additional targets and pathways thereof through various crosstalk and compensatory signaling mechanisms. Such mechanisms of bypass signaling help to shed some light on the decreased effectiveness of selective IGF-1R targeted therapies (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and suggest that targeting multiple nodes within this signaling network might be necessary to produce a more effective therapeutic response. Additionally, such finding have led to the development of small molecule IGF-1R inhibitors which also coinhibit additional targets such as IR and EGFR. Such findings have helped to guide the rationale design of numerous drug combinations which are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.

  19. Modulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and its signaling network for the treatment of cancer: current status and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhong Jin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on over three decades of pre-clinical data, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R signaling has gained recognition as a promoter of tumorogenesis, driving cell survival and proliferation in multiple human cancers. As a result, IGF-1R has been pursued as a target for cancer treatment. Early pioneering efforts targeting IGF-1R focused on highly selective monoclonal antibodies, with multiple agents advancing to clinical trials. However, despite some initial promising results, recent clinical disclosures have been less encouraging. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that IGF-1R participates in a dynamic and complex signaling network, interacting with additional targets and pathways thereof through various crosstalk and compensatory signaling mechanisms. Such mechanisms of bypass signaling help to shed some light on the decreased effectiveness of selective IGF- 1R targeted therapies (e.g. monoclonal antibodies and suggest that targeting multiple nodes within this signaling network might be necessary to produce a more effective therapeutic response. Additionally, such findings have led to the development of small molecule IGF-1R inhibitors which also co-inhibit additional targets such as insulin receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor. Such findings have helped to guide the design rationale of numerous drug combinations that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials.

  20. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Resource Information Network - Status of Salmon and Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Duane A.; Beamesderfer, Raymond C. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Enterprise, OR (United States); Woodard, Bob [Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Information on fish populations, fisheries, and fish habitat is crucial to the success of ongoing program to protect, recover, enhance, and manage fish resources in the Columbia River Basin. However, pertinent data are often difficult to locate because it is scattered among many agencies and is often unpublished. The goal of this annual report is to bring many diverse data types and sources into a single comprehensive report on the status of anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin and the environmental conditions that may affect that status. Brief summaries are provided to identify the type and scope of available information. This synopsis is intended to complement other more detailed reports to which readers are referred for comprehensive treatment of specific subjects. This first report focuses mainly on anadromous salmon and steelhead (primarily through 1994) but the authors intend to expand the scope of future issues to include resident species. This is the first of what the authors intend to be an annual report. They welcome constructive suggestions for improvements. This report is a product of the StreamNet (formerly Coordinated Information System and Northwest Environmental Data Base) project which is a part of the Bonneville Power Administration`s program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The project is called for in the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council. The project`s objective is to promote exchange and dissemination of information in a standardized electronic format throughout the basin. This project is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission with active participation by tribal, state, and federal fish and wildlife agencies.

  1. Status and the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V Utevsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social hierarchy is a fact of life for many animals. Navigating social hierarchy requires understanding one's own status relative to others and behaving accordingly, while achieving higher status may call upon cunning and strategic thinking. The neural mechanisms mediating social status have become increasingly well understood in invertebrates and model organisms like fish and mice but until recently have remained more opaque in humans and other primates. In a new study in this issue, Noonan and colleagues explore the neural correlates of social rank in macaques. Using both structural and functional brain imaging, they found neural changes associated with individual monkeys' social status, including alterations in the amygdala, hypothalamus, and brainstem--areas previously implicated in dominance-related behavior in other vertebrates. A separate but related network in the temporal and prefrontal cortex appears to mediate more cognitive aspects of strategic social behavior. These findings begin to delineate the neural circuits that enable us to navigate our own social worlds. A major remaining challenge is identifying how these networks contribute functionally to our social lives, which may open new avenues for developing innovative treatments for social disorders.

  2. Myocardial infarction in singapore: ethnic variation in evidence-based therapy and its association with socioeconomic status, social network size and perceived stress level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Thet; Loo, Germaine; Tai, Bee-Choo; Phua, Qian-Hui; Chan, Mark Y; Poh, Kian-Keong; Chia, Boon-Lock; Richards, Mark; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a multiethnic Asian country comprising predominantly Chinese, Malays, and Indians. We sought to study the disparities in evidence-based therapy for people from these three ethnic groups who were admitted to hospital with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We also examined its association with socioeconomic level and social network size and the influence on psychological stress level. In a prospective study, patients admitted with STEMI were recruited for a questionnaire survey. Relevant demographic and clinical data were collected. A total of 364 patients were recruited and categorised based on ethnicity: Chinese (222 patients), Malays (72 patients), and Indians (70 patients). Malays and Indians were significantly younger than Chinese at the time of presentation with STEMI. Malays had significantly more children than the Chinese and Indians. Malays were in the lowest socioeconomic class, based on education level (P ≤ .02) and residential type (P ≤ .003). Most (87%) patients were treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. There were no significant differences between Chinese, Malays, and Indians in accessibility to primary percutaneous coronary intervention, symptom-to-balloon time, door-to-balloon time, and prescription of evidence-based medications. Malays had larger social networks for information support (P ≤ .05) and financial support (P ≤ .04) than Chinese and Indians. There were no significant differences between the three ethnic groups in satisfaction with social support. The perceived stress level was higher among Malays and Indians than Chinese. Although Malays were underprivileged in the socioeconomic level, no significant difference in healthcare disparities were observed among the three ethnic groups. This may be a reflection of the advancement in Singapore's healthcare system. The lower socioeconomic level may also explain the higher perceived stress level in Malays. Copyright © 2013 Australian and

  3. Comparative efficacy of vitamin D status in reducing the risk of bladder cancer: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Chen, Changhao; Pan, Wenwei; Gao, Ming; He, Wang; Mao, Ren; Lin, Tianxin; Huang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The optimal concentration of individual vitamin D intake for preventing bladder cancer has not, to our knowledge, been defined. To evaluate the comparative efficacy of different serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in preventing bladder cancer, we conducted a systematic search of the literature published up to April 2015. We applied a pairwise meta-analysis to estimate direct evidence from intervention-control studies and a network meta-analysis within a Bayesian framework to combine direct and indirect evidence. Moreover, a dose-response curve was utilized to predict the optimal median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration based on the odds ratio (OR) for each quintile concentration. Seven studies of a total of 90757 participants, including 2509 bladder cancer patients, were included. Two prospective cohort studies with 57 591 participants and 494 bladder cancer patients, and five case-control studies with 33 166 participants and 2264 bladder cancer patients. From the network meta-analysis, we observed that sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L) were superior to all other 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in decreasing the risk of bladder cancer: OR = 0.68 and 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.52 to 0.87 compared with severely deficient concentrations (cancer risk and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (R(2) = 0.98, P = 0.007). Ensuring sufficient serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations might play an important role in decreasing the risk of bladder cancer. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ≥74 nmol/L was associated with a 60% lower risk of bladder cancer incidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Users’ Survey of Network Ethics in Taiwan Academic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Ming Chuang

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The research using the questionnaire methods is to survey the status of users in TANet and to investigate users' valuing system on network moral norms. The purposes have following: 1. analyzing and comparing different kinds of network policies, computing policies, or codes of information ethics in order to conceive the new rules on the information superhighway; 2. investigating users' background, motivation, and valuing system on network ethics; 3. analyzing network educator's attitudes on network moral norms and the methodology of ethical education in network courses; and 4. establishing the course's foundation of network ethics. [Article content in Chinese

  5. Status epilepticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensiek, AE; Absalom, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Status epilepticus is defined as epileptic activity that continues for more than 30 minutes as a single seizure or as recurrent seizures without inter-ictal return of consciousness. The seizure activity is usually classified as partial or generalized. Although status epilepticus is an uncommon

  6. Ranking the quality of protein structure models using sidechain based network properties [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2eu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the correct structure of a protein given its sequence still remains an arduous task with many researchers working towards this goal. Most structure prediction methodologies result in the generation of a large number of probable candidates with the final challenge being to select the best amongst these. In this work, we have used Protein Structure Networks of native and modeled proteins in combination with Support Vector Machines to estimate the quality of a protein structure model and finally to provide ranks for these models. Model ranking is performed using regression analysis and helps in model selection from a group of many similar and good quality structures. Our results show that structures with a rank greater than 16 exhibit native protein-like properties while those below 10 are non-native like. The tool is also made available as a web-server (http://vishgraph.mbu.iisc.ernet.in/GraProStr/native_non_native_ranking.html, where, 5 modelled structures can be evaluated at a given time.

  7. Stock Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data inform the public of the most recent stock status for all stocks (FSSI and non-FSSI) in the fishery management unit contained in a fishery managment plan....

  8. Sensor Network Data Fusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Vervečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensor network data fusion is widely used in warfare, in areas such as automatic target recognition, battlefield surveillance, automatic vehicle control, multiple target surveillance, etc. Non-military use example are: medical equipment status monitoring, intelligent home. The paper describes sensor networks topologies, sensor network advantages against the isolated sensors, most common network topologies, their advantages and disadvantages.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  10. A network of networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iedema, Rick; Verma, Raj; Wutzke, Sonia; Lyons, Nigel; McCaughan, Brian

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To further our insight into the role of networks in health system reform, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how one agency, the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI), and the multiple networks and enabling resources that it encompasses, govern, manage and extend the potential of networks for healthcare practice improvement. Design/methodology/approach This is a case study investigation which took place over ten months through the first author's participation in network activities and discussions with the agency's staff about their main objectives, challenges and achievements, and with selected services around the state of New South Wales to understand the agency's implementation and large system transformation activities. Findings The paper demonstrates that ACI accommodates multiple networks whose oversight structures, self-organisation and systems change approaches combined in dynamic ways, effectively yield a diversity of network governances. Further, ACI bears out a paradox of "centralised decentralisation", co-locating agents of innovation with networks of implementation and evaluation expertise. This arrangement strengthens and legitimates the role of the strategic hybrid - the healthcare professional in pursuit of change and improvement, and enhances their influence and impact on the wider system. Research limitations/implications While focussing the case study on one agency only, this study is unique as it highlights inter-network connections. Contributing to the literature on network governance, this paper identifies ACI as a "network of networks" through which resources, expectations and stakeholder dynamics are dynamically and flexibly mediated and enhanced. Practical implications The co-location of and dynamic interaction among clinical networks may create synergies among networks, nurture "strategic hybrids", and enhance the impact of network activities on health system reform. Social implications Network governance requires more

  11. Compliance status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.

  12. A research on the application of software defined networking in satellite network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; Chen, Jinqiang; Cao, Suzhi; Cui, Dandan; Li, Tong; Su, Yuxing

    2017-10-01

    Software defined network is a new type of network architecture, which decouples control plane and data plane of traditional network, has the feature of flexible configurations and is a direction of the next generation terrestrial Internet development. Satellite network is an important part of the space-ground integrated information network, while the traditional satellite network has the disadvantages of difficult network topology maintenance and slow configuration. The application of SDN technology in satellite network can solve these problems that traditional satellite network faces. At present, the research on the application of SDN technology in satellite network is still in the stage of preliminary study. In this paper, we start with introducing the SDN technology and satellite network architecture. Then we mainly introduce software defined satellite network architecture, as well as the comparison of different software defined satellite network architecture and satellite network virtualization. Finally, the present research status and development trend of SDN technology in satellite network are analyzed.

  13. In-Hospital Vital Status and Heart Transplants After Intervention for Congenital Heart Disease in the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium: Completeness of Ascertainment Using the National Death Index and United Network for Organ Sharing Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Logan G; Menk, Jeremiah S; Vinocur, Jeffrey M; Oster, Matthew E; Harvey, Brian A; St Louis, James D; Moller, James; Kochilas, Lazaros K

    2016-08-09

    The long-term outcomes of patients undergoing interventions for congenital heart disease (CHD) remain largely unknown. We linked the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC) with the National Death Index (NDI) and the United Network for Organ Sharing Dataset (UNOS) registries to study mortality and transplant occurring up to 32 years postintervention. The objective of the current analysis was to determine the sensitivity of this linkage in identifying patients who are known to have died or undergone heart transplant. We used direct identifiers from 59 324 subjects registered in the PCCC between 1982 and 2003 to test for completeness of case ascertainment of subjects with known vital and heart transplant status by linkage with the NDI and UNOS registries. Of the 4612 in-hospital deaths, 3873 were identified by the NDI as "true" matches for a sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI, 82.9-85.0). There was no difference in sensitivity across 25 congenital cardiovascular conditions after adjustment for age, sex, race, presence of first name, death year, and residence at death. Of 455 known heart transplants in the PCCC, there were 408 matches in the UNOS registry, for a sensitivity of 89.7% (95% CI, 86.9-92.3). An additional 4851 deaths and 363 transplants that occurred outside the PCCC were identified through 2014. The linkage of the PCCC with the NDI and UNOS national registries is feasible with a satisfactory sensitivity. This linkage provides a conservative estimate of the long-term death and heart transplant events in this cohort. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  14. Social Network Centrality and Leadership Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina; Putallaz, Martha; Miller, Shari; Malone, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    Seventh-grade students (N = 324) completed social cognitive maps to identify peer groups and peer group leaders, sociometric nominations to describe their peers’ behaviors, and questionnaires to assess their own behaviors. Peer group members resembled one another in levels of direct and indirect aggression and substance use; girls’ cliques were more behaviorally homogenous than were boys’ cliques. On average, leaders (especially if they were boys) were perceived as engaging in more problem behaviors than were nonleaders. In girls’ cliques, peripheral group members were more similar to their group leader on indirect aggression than were girls who were more central to the clique. Peer leaders perceived themselves as being more able to influence peers but did not differ from nonleaders in their perceived susceptibility to peer influence. The findings contribute to our understanding of processes through which influence may occur in adolescent peer groups. PMID:19763241

  15. Legitimacy and status groups in financial markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preda, Alex

    2005-09-01

    Economic sociologists have argued that financial markets should be analysed as uncertainty-processing social networks and intermediary groups. Networks and intermediaries alone cannot confer legitimacy upon financial actors and transactions. Status groups are a solution to this problem. They emphasize reputation, honour and good social behaviour as stabilizers of collective action, as means of social control and as indicators of legitimacy. I examine here the emergence and evolution of status groups of brokers in London, New York and Paris, and show how emphasis on honour was used to legitimize financial transactions. I argue that financial markets should be conceived as networks, intermediary and status groups. In global, automated financial markets status groups like securities analysts are gaining in prominence.

  16. Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA: a new systems approach to identify therapeutic targets for human genetic diseases [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3gk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Wiley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic interaction networks that underlie most human diseases are highly complex and poorly defined. Better-defined networks will allow identification of a greater number of therapeutic targets. Here we introduce our Yeast Augmented Network Analysis (YANA approach and test it with the X-linked spinal muscular atrophy (SMA disease gene UBA1. First, we express UBA1 and a mutant variant in fission yeast and use high-throughput methods to identify fission yeast genetic modifiers of UBA1. Second, we analyze available protein-protein interaction network databases in both fission yeast and human to construct UBA1 genetic networks. Third, from these networks we identified potential therapeutic targets for SMA. Finally, we validate one of these targets in a vertebrate (zebrafish SMA model. This study demonstrates the power of combining synthetic and chemical genetics with a simple model system to identify human disease gene networks that can be exploited for treating human diseases.

  17. Interpersonal Choice and Networks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Peter M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The microstructures of interpersonal networks in China and the United States contain many consistent patterns, despite the countries' great differences. In-group choices and network diversity are analyzed with regard to age, sex, educational attainment, occupation, socioeconomic status, and proportion of kin in the network. Contains 21 references…

  18. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  19. Network of networks in Linux operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoqin; Chen, Zhen; Xiao, Guanping; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Operating system represents one of the most complex man-made systems. In this paper, we analyze Linux Operating System (LOS) as a complex network via modeling functions as nodes and function calls as edges. It is found that for the LOS network and modularized components within it, the out-degree follows an exponential distribution and the in-degree follows a power-law distribution. For better understanding the underlying design principles of LOS, we explore the coupling correlations of components in LOS from aspects of topology and function. The result shows that the component for device drivers has a strong manifestation in topology while a weak manifestation in function. However, the component for process management shows the contrary phenomenon. Moreover, in an effort to investigate the impact of system failures on networks, we make a comparison between the networks traced from normal and failure status of LOS. This leads to a conclusion that the failure will change function calls which should be executed in normal status and introduce new function calls in the meanwhile.

  20. Descentralización y participación: Los partidos y actores directamente implicados en la experiencia de los centros comunales zonales de Montevideo 1990-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerónimo de SIERRA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el presente artículo los autores analizan la experiencia de implementación de mecanismos de descentralización administrativa con ampliación de la participación ciudadana que está siendo puesto en práctica en la actualidad en Montevideo por el gobierno municipal del Frente Amplio, y el importante apoyo que ha recibido por parte de la ciudadanía.ABSTRACT: In the present artycle, the authors analyze the experience of implementation of administrative decentralization mechanisms with implication of the citizen participation, which is being imposed nowadays in Montevideo by the Municipal Goverment of Frente Amplio, and the important support wich has received by the citizenship.

  1. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in livers of American mink (Mustela vison) and river otter (Lutra canadensis) from the Columbia and Fraser River Basins, 1990-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J.E.; Henny, Charles J.; Harris, M.L.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in aquatic mustelid species on the Fraser and Columbia Rivers of northwestern North America. Carcasses of river otter (Lutra canadensis) (N=24) and mink (Mustela vison) (N=34) were obtained from commercial trappers during the winters of 1990-91 and 1991a??92. Pooled liver samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Most samples contained detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, although there was substantial variability in patterns and trends among neighboring samples. Concentrations of DDE were in some mink and several otter samples from the lower Columbia River elevated (to 4700 g/kg wet weight); excluding one mink sample from the Wenatchee area, mean DDE levels generally decreased between 1978a??79 and 1990a??92. PCBs were present in all samples. PCB concentrations in otter livers collected from the lower Columbia were ten-fold lower than measured a decade previously; nevertheless, a sample taken near Portland had a mean concentration of 1500 g/kg, within a range of concentrations associated with reproductive effects in captive mink. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and TCDF were generally below detection limits, except for one otter collected near a pulp mill at Castlegar, on the upper Columbia, with 11 ng TCDD/kg in liver. Elevated concentrations of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, probably resulting from use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives, were found in both species; one otter sample from the lower Columbia had 2200 ng OCDD/kg. International TCDD toxic equivalent levels in mink (31 ng/kg) and otter (93 ng/kg) from the lower Columbia River approached toxicity thresholds for effects on reproduction in ranch mink.

  2. Three-year summary report of biological monitoring at the Southwest Ocean dredged-material disposal site and additional locations off Grays Harbor, Washington, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antrim, L.D.; Shreffler, D.K.; Pearson, W.H.; Cullinan, V.I. [Battelle Marine Research Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    The Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project was initiated to improve navigation by widening and deepening the federal channel at Grays Harbor. Dredged-material disposal sites were selected after an extensive review process that included inter-agency agreements, biological surveys, other laboratory and field studies, and preparation of environmental impact statements The Southwest Site, was designated to receive materials dredged during annual maintenance dredging as well as the initial construction phase of the project. The Southwest Site was located, and the disposal operations designed, primarily to avoid impacts to Dungeness crab. The Final Environmental Impact Statement Supplement for the project incorporated a Site Monitoring Plan in which a tiered approach to disposal site monitoring was recommended. Under Tier I of the Site Monitoring Plan, Dungeness crab densities are monitored to confirm that large aggregations of newly settled Dungeness crab have not moved onto the Southwest Site. Tier 2 entails an increased sampling effort to determine whether a change in disposal operations is needed. Four epibenthic surveys using beam trawls were conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1992 at the Southwest Site and North Reference area, where high crab concentrations were found in the spring of 1985. Survey results during these three years prompted no Tier 2 activities. Epibenthic surveys were also conducted at two nearshore sites where construction of sediment berms has been proposed. This work is summarized in an appendix to this report.

  3. Abnormal activity of default mode network in GERD patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Huihui; Chen, Ying; Zhao, Xiaohu; Wang, Xiangbin; Jiang, Yuanxi; Wu, Ping; Tang, Yinhan; Meng, Qingwei; Xu, Shuchang

    2013-01-01

    ...). However, most studies were focused on the possible functions of perceptual processing related network during task status, little attention has been paid to default mode network, which has been...

  4. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  5. VSAT standards, status and applications in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, J.; Bull, S.

    1993-08-01

    A development status evaluation is presented for very small aperture terminals (VSATs) in Europe. Attention is given to the role played to date by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute in the promulgation of technical standards, and to the way in which these standards figure in European Community legislation aimed at opening the telecommunications market in Europe to private satellite communications networks. Also noted are the implementation of European VSAT networks to date, and the likely development of market trends from this point.

  6. Balanced Centrality of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciriha, Irene

    2014-01-01

    There is an age-old question in all branches of network analysis. What makes an actor in a network important, courted, or sought? Both Crossley and Bonacich contend that rather than its intrinsic wealth or value, an actor's status lies in the structures of its interactions with other actors. Since pairwise relation data in a network can be stored in a two-dimensional array or matrix, graph theory and linear algebra lend themselves as great tools to gauge the centrality (interpreted as importance, power, or popularity, depending on the purpose of the network) of each actor. We express known and new centralities in terms of only two matrices associated with the network. We show that derivations of these expressions can be handled exclusively through the main eigenvectors (not orthogonal to the all-one vector) associated with the adjacency matrix. We also propose a centrality vector (SWIPD) which is a linear combination of the square, walk, power, and degree centrality vectors with weightings of the various centralities depending on the purpose of the network. By comparing actors' scores for various weightings, a clear understanding of which actors are most central is obtained. Moreover, for threshold networks, the (SWIPD) measure turns out to be independent of the weightings. PMID:27437494

  7. Network systems and groupware for public facilities; Network system to groupware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torimaru, K.; Kubo, S. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, K. [Osaki Computer Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-10

    This paper outlines solutions for network systems and groupware for the infrastructure of information systems in public facilities. With regard to network systems, Fuji Electric's network solutions including requirements of public facilities and application examples are described. With regard to groupware, the status of groupware used for raising efficiency in public facilities and groupware packages marketed by Fuji Electric. (author)

  8. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  9. Network Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology. PMID:23162688

  10. Research of Innovation Diffusion on Industrial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongtai Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The real value of innovation consists in its diffusion on industrial network. The factors which affect the diffusion of innovation on industrial network are the topology of industrial network and rules of diffusion. Industrial network is a complex network which has scale-free and small-world characters; its structure has some affection on threshold, length of path, enterprise’s status, and information share of innovation diffusion. Based on the cost and attitude to risk of technical innovation, we present the “avalanche” diffusing model of technical innovation on industrial network.

  11. Network Information Management Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Deep Space Network is implementing a distributed data base management system in which the data are shared among several applications and the host machines are not totally dedicated to a particular application. Since the data and resources are to be shared, the equipment must be operated carefully so that the resources are shared equitably. The current status of the project is discussed and policies, roles, and guidelines are recommended for the organizations involved in the project.

  12. LHCOPN and LHCONE: Status and Future Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Martelli, Edoardo; Stancu, Stefan Nicolae; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2015-01-01

    The LHC Optical Private Network (LHCOPN), linking CERN and the Tier 1s, and the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) which links these to the Tier 2 community both successfully supported the data transfer needs of the LHC community during Run 1 and have now evolved to serve the networking requirements of the new computing models for Run 2. We present here the current status and the key changes, notably the delivered and planned bandwidth increases, the ongoing work to better address the needs of the Asia-Pacific region, developments to improve redundancy and progress made for provisioning point-to-point links.

  13. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  14. Primary status, complementary status, and organizational survival in the U.S. venture capital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothner, Matthew S; Kim, Young-Kyu; Lee, Wonjae

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a distinction between two kinds of status and examine their effects on the exit rates of organizations investing in the U.S. venture capital industry. Extending past work on status-based competition, we start with a simple baseline: we describe primary status as a network-related signal of an organization's quality in a leadership role, that is, as a function of the degree to which an organization leads others that are themselves well regarded as lead organizations in the context of investment syndicates. Combining Harary's (1959) image of the elite consultant with Goffman's (1956) concept of "capacity-esteem," we then discuss complementary status as an affiliation-based signal of an organization's quality in a supporting role. We measure complementary status as a function of the extent to which an organization is invited into syndicates by well-regarded lead organizations-that is, by those possessing high levels of primary status. Findings show that, conditioning on primary status, complementary status reduces the rate at which venture capital organizations exit the industry. Consistent with the premise that these kinds of status correspond to different roles and market identities, we also find that complementary status attenuates (and ultimately reverses) the otherwise favorable effect of primary status on an organization's life chances. Theoretically and methodologically oriented scope conditions, as well as implications for future research, are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  17. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  18. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  19. Renewables 2012. Global Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawin, J.L. (ed.) [and others

    2012-08-15

    Renewable energy markets and policy frameworks have evolved rapidly in recent years. This report provides a comprehensive and timely overview of renewable energy market, industry, investment, and policy developments worldwide. It relies on the most recent data available, provided by a network of more than 400 contributors and researchers from around the world, all of which is brought together by a multi-disciplinary authoring team. The report covers recent developments, current status, and key trends; by design, it does not provide analysis or forecast the future.

  20. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  1. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  2. Adolescent Controversial Status Brokers: A Double-Edged Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sarah; Zeman, Janice; Carboni, Inga; Gilman, Rich; Thrash, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Using a 3-wave longitudinal, multidimensional approach, this study investigated the influence of social network position and social status on the psychosocial outcomes of 440 youth (45.1% girls; M[subscript age] = 16.1 years; 90.9% Caucasian) over 26 months, focusing on the controversial status classification (i.e., youth who are highly liked and…

  3. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  4. ICFA SCIC Network Monitoring Report

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, Shawn; Babik, Marian; Hayashi, Soichi; Tierney, Brian; Giemza, Henryk; Vukotic, Ilija; O’Connor, Mike; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    This report may be regarded as a follow up to the previous ICFA Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC) Monitoring working group’s Network reports dating back to 1997. The current report updates the January 2015 report. As noted, PingER activities will not be covered in the same depth as earlier reports because of a lack of funding for this effort. We will be including some new areas related to network monitoring in HEP including updates and status on the perfSONAR efforts globally as well as the WLCG Network and Transfer Metrics Working Group activities.

  5. Network neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Sporns, Olaf

    2017-02-23

    Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science. The convergence of empirical and computational advances opens new frontiers of scientific inquiry, including network dynamics, manipulation and control of brain networks, and integration of network processes across spatiotemporal domains. We review emerging trends in network neuroscience and attempt to chart a path toward a better understanding of the brain as a multiscale networked system.

  6. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Bård; Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept of organizational network are identified and critically discussed. Special focus is placed on how information and communication technologies as communication mediators and cognitive pictures influence...

  7. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...... network methodology in one’s research might supersede the perceived benefits of doing so. As a response to that problem, we argue that workshops can act as a road towards meaningful engagement with networks and highlight that network methodology promises new ways of interpreting data to answer questions...

  8. Network Upgrade for the SLC: PEP II Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.; Call, M.; Clark, S.; Coffman, F.; Himel, T.; Lahey, T.; Miller, E.; Sass, R.; /SLAC

    2011-09-09

    The PEP-II control system required a new network to support the system functions. This network, called CTLnet, is an FDDI/Ethernet based network using only TCP/IP protocols. An upgrade of the SLC Control System micro communications to use TCP/IP and SLCNET would allow all PEP-II control system nodes to use TCP/IP. CTLnet is private and separate from the SLAC public network. Access to nodes and control system functions is provided by multi-homed application servers with connections to both the private CTLnet and the SLAC public network. Monitoring and diagnostics are provided using a dedicated system. Future plans and current status information is included.

  9. Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth...

  10. The Differences Between Male And Female Status Updates On Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    ELFRIDA, FELLA FIRUZAH

    2014-01-01

    Key words: language and gender differences, status updates, theme, expression word. This research focuses on analyzing the differences between male and female status updates on twitter. Twitter is one of the most popular social networking and also a one kind of tool for communicating to each other, besides we can get accurate information and it's not only a friendship media. When people updated status, it has differences from one another. Every person has individual own style in writing a twe...

  11. Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Joan; Zenou, Yves

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on social networks by putting together the economics, sociological and physics/applied mathematics approaches, showing their similarities and differences. We expose, in particular, the two main ways of modeling network formation. While the physics/applied mathematics approach is capable of reproducing most observed networks, it does not explain why they emerge. On the contrary, the economics approach is very precise in explaining why networks emerge but does a poor jo...

  12. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Network coding is a technique to increase the amount of information °ow in a network by mak- ing the key observation that information °ow is fundamentally different from commodity °ow. Whereas, under traditional methods of opera- tion of data networks, intermediate nodes are restricted to simply forwarding their incoming.

  13. Signed Networks in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Leskovec, Jure; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the classical theory of structural balance tends to capture certain common patterns of interaction, but that it is also at odds with some of the fundamental phenomena we observe --- particularly related to the evolving, directed nature of these on-line networks. We then develop an alternate theory of status that better explains the observed edge signs and provides insights into the underlying social mechanisms. Our work provides one of the first large-scale evaluations of theories of signed networks using on-line datasets, as ...

  14. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  15. Formation of Bargaining Networks Via Link Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Priazhkina, Sofia; Page, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model of collusive bargaining networks. Given a status quo network, game is played in two stages: in the first stage, pairs of sellers form the network by signing two-sided contracts that allow sellers to use connections of other sellers; in the second stage, sellers and buyers bargain for the product. We extend the notion of a pairwise Nash stability with transfers to pairwise Nash stability with contracts and characterize the subgame perfect equilibria. The equilibrium...

  16. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  17. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  18. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    . The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, which may also incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the upcoming 5G networks. This article not only proposes the fundamentals......Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  19. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...... incorporate content caching and storage, all of which are key challenges of the future Internet and the upcoming 5G networks. This paper proposes some of the keys behind this intersection and supports it with use cases as well as a an implementation that integrated the Kodo library (NC) into OpenFlow (SDN...

  20. USCIS My Case Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — USCIS provide a way for the public who applied for U.S. citizenship to check the status of their application online. To view the status of a case, the application...

  1. GRBS Followed-up by the bootes network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guziy, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Jelínek, M.; Gorosabel, J.; Kubánek, P.; Cunniffe, R.; Lara-Gil, O.; Rabaza-Castillo, O.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Tello, J.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro Cerón, J.; Mateo Sanguino, T. de J.; Hudec, R.; Vitek, S.; de la Morena Carretero, B.; Díaz Andreu, J.; Fernández-Muñoz, R.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Yock, P.; Allen, W.; Bond, I.; Kheyfets, I.; Christie, G.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Cui, C.; Fan, Y.; Park, I. H.

    2013-07-01

    The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.

  2. Local area networks and protocols of data transmission in electric power systems: current status and tendencies; Redes locales y protocolos de transmision de datos en sistemas electricos de potencia: estado actual y tendencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellizzoni, Rodolfo [TRANSBA S.A., Empresa de Transporte de Energia Electrica por Distribucion Troncal de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vignoni, Roberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Ciudad de La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    In electric power systems, overcome the stage of the remote system (SCADA) implementation, the current tendency is the automation and use of open architectures. That tendency is reflected in the use of standardized local area networks of industrial use and adoption of data transmission protocols which are based in international standards. The result is the connectivity and operationalization among the local devices and terminals usually called IED. In this document it is presented a summary of the standardized data transmission protocols, which have been used in electric power substations currently, based on a architecture which defines three layers of the OSI/ISO reference pattern. Based on the tendency increase of automation in substations, some ways of communication have been analyzed, they mean: local area networks such as the Ethernet pattern and some industrial ones and others such as Profibus and its respective implementation in electric power systems. It also is analyzed the tasks which have supported IEC and EPRI for defining a standardization and a model for the open communications in electric power substations.

  3. Telecommunication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Balachandran, Kartheepan; Hald, Sara Ligaard

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we look into the role of telecommunication networks and their capability of supporting critical infrastructure systems and applications. The focus is on smart grids as the key driving example, bearing in mind that other such systems do exist, e.g., water management, traffic control......, etc. First, the role of basic communication is examined with a focus on critical infrastructures. We look at heterogenic networks and standards for smart grids, to give some insight into what has been done to ensure inter-operability in this direction. We then go to the physical network, and look...... at the deployment of the physical layout of the communication network and the related costs. This is an important aspect as one option to use existing networks is to deploy dedicated networks. Following this, we look at some generic models that describe reliability for accessing dynamic information. This part...

  4. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  5. Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Samaka, Mohammed; Khan, Khaled M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wireless communication is the fastest-growing field in the telecommunication industry. Wireless networks have grown significantly as an important segment of the communications industry. They have become popular networks with the potential to provide high-speed, high-quality information exchange between two or more portable devices without any wire or conductors. Wireless networks can simply be characterized as the technology that provides seamless access to information, anywhere, anyplace, an...

  6. Enterpreneurial network

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Antonela; Nguyen, Lien; Kupsyte, Valdone

    2014-01-01

    Network has become more and more indispensable in the entrepreneurial world. Especially in startup businesses, network is crucial for new entrepreneurs. This project looks at how entrepreneurs in different sectors use network to become successful. We chose to work with three entrepreneurs from three companies that have been operational for a few years and conducted face to face interviews with them. Through the data from the interviews, we analyzed firstly what type of entrepreneurs they are,...

  7. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  8. Networking Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    HIDA). Many of these alumni have and will in the future exchange ideas and keep contact not only to Japan, but also to fellow alumni around the globe and, thereby, practice south-south exchanges, which are made possible and traceable by their established alumni network and the World Network of Friends...... (WNF). Through the alumni network, Japan continues to infuse ideas to participants and alumni, who interpret and disseminate these ideas through alumni society networks and activities, but their discussions nationally and regionally also get reported back to Japan and affect future policies...

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize the management of the Technical Network (TN), to ease the understanding and purpose of devices connected to the TN, and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive email notifications from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database. Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Heuristic status polling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Kumar, Sameer [White Plains, NY; Parker, Jeffrey J [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN

    2011-06-07

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for heuristic status polling of a component in a computing system. Embodiments include receiving, by a polling module from a requesting application, a status request requesting status of a component; determining, by the polling module, whether an activity history for the component satisfies heuristic polling criteria; polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component satisfies the heuristic polling criteria; and not polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component does not satisfy the heuristic criteria.

  11. A systematic review of the status of children's school access in low- and middle-income countries between 1998 and 2013: using the INDEPTH Network platform to fill the research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanda, Mamusu; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The framework for expanding children's school access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been directed by universal education policies as part of Education for All since 1990. In measuring progress to universal education, a narrow conceptualisation of access which dichotomises children's participation as being in or out of school has often been assumed. Yet, the actual promise of universal education goes beyond this simple definition to include retention, progression, completion, and learning. Our first objective was to identify gaps in the literature on children's school access using the zones of exclusion of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transition, and Equity as a framework. Second, we gave consideration to how these gaps can be met by using longitudinal and cross-country data from Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Population and Their Health (INDEPTH) in LMICs. Using Web of Science, we conducted a literature search of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and 2013 in LMICs. The phrases we searched included six school outcomes: school enrolment, school attendance, grade progression, school dropout, primary to secondary school transition, and school completion. From our search, we recorded studies according to: 1) school outcomes; 2) whether longitudinal data were used; and 3) whether data from more than one country were analysed. The area of school access most published is enrolment followed by attendance and dropout. Primary to secondary school transition and grade progression had the least number of publications. Of 132 publications which we found to be relevant to school access, 33 made use of longitudinal data and 17 performed cross-country analyses. The majority of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals on children's school access between 1998 and 2013 were focused on three outcomes

  12. A systematic review of the status of children's school access in low- and middle-income countries between 1998 and 2013: using the INDEPTH Network platform to fill the research gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamusu Kamanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The framework for expanding children's school access in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs has been directed by universal education policies as part of Education for All since 1990. In measuring progress to universal education, a narrow conceptualisation of access which dichotomises children's participation as being in or out of school has often been assumed. Yet, the actual promise of universal education goes beyond this simple definition to include retention, progression, completion, and learning. Objective: Our first objective was to identify gaps in the literature on children's school access using the zones of exclusion of the Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transition, and Equity as a framework. Second, we gave consideration to how these gaps can be met by using longitudinal and cross-country data from Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS sites within the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Population and Their Health (INDEPTH in LMICs. Design: Using Web of Science, we conducted a literature search of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and 2013 in LMICs. The phrases we searched included six school outcomes: school enrolment, school attendance, grade progression, school dropout, primary to secondary school transition, and school completion. From our search, we recorded studies according to: 1 school outcomes; 2 whether longitudinal data were used; and 3 whether data from more than one country were analysed. Results: The area of school access most published is enrolment followed by attendance and dropout. Primary to secondary school transition and grade progression had the least number of publications. Of 132 publications which we found to be relevant to school access, 33 made use of longitudinal data and 17 performed cross-country analyses. Conclusions: The majority of studies published in international peer-reviewed journals on children

  13. Overlay networks toward information networking

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2010-01-01

    With their ability to solve problems in massive information distribution and processing, while keeping scaling costs low, overlay systems represent a rapidly growing area of R&D with important implications for the evolution of Internet architecture. Inspired by the author's articles on content based routing, Overlay Networks: Toward Information Networking provides a complete introduction to overlay networks. Examining what they are and what kind of structures they require, the text covers the key structures, protocols, and algorithms used in overlay networks. It reviews the current state of th

  14. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC...

  15. Sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; Thurston, J.; Kininmonth, S.; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the details of a sensor network that is currently being deployed at the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The sensor network allows scientists to retrieve sensor data that has a high spatial and temporal resolution. We give an overview of the energy-efficient data aggregation

  16. Network Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Dunng the last ten years, many computer networks have been designed, implemented, and put into service in the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, and elsewhere. From the experience obtamed with these networks, certain key design principles have begun to emerge, principles that can be used to

  17. Probabilistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Finn Verner; Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs.......This article describes the basic ideas and algorithms behind specification and inference in probabilistic networks based on directed acyclic graphs, undirected graphs, and chain graphs....

  18. Organizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning; Grande, Bård

    1996-01-01

    The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed.......The paper focuses on the concept of organizational networks. Four different uses of the concept are identified and critically discussed....

  19. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  20. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  1. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  2. Report of 'Survey on Asian environmental information networks'; 'Asia kankyo joho network chosa' ni kansuru hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This project is implemented to survey the current statuses and future trends of the Asian district environment-related information networks, for the (research cooperation project for development of environmental condition measuring laser radar systems), being promoted by NEDO. First, current statuses of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, major domestic nodes and internationally connected conditions are surveyed mainly for internet-connected networks, for surveying the current statuses and future trends of the research networks in Asian countries. Second, current statuses in Indonesia of the network names, managing organizations, user numbers, conditions of use, protocols for use, service conditions, domestic node sites and managing organizations, charge systems and institutions, types/reliability/ stability of the circuits, and conditions of restriction of use, if any, for surveying the current statuses and future trends in Indonesia. Third, conditions of and needs for network utilization by researchers for Asian district environments. (NEDO)

  3. Sequential defense against random and intentional attacks in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Network robustness against attacks is one of the most fundamental researches in network science as it is closely associated with the reliability and functionality of various networking paradigms. However, despite the study on intrinsic topological vulnerabilities to node removals, little is known on the network robustness when network defense mechanisms are implemented, especially for networked engineering systems equipped with detection capabilities. In this paper, a sequential defense mechanism is first proposed in complex networks for attack inference and vulnerability assessment, where the data fusion center sequentially infers the presence of an attack based on the binary attack status reported from the nodes in the network. The network robustness is evaluated in terms of the ability to identify the attack prior to network disruption under two major attack schemes, i.e., random and intentional attacks. We provide a parametric plug-in model for performance evaluation on the proposed mechanism and validate its effectiveness and reliability via canonical complex network models and real-world large-scale network topology. The results show that the sequential defense mechanism greatly improves the network robustness and mitigates the possibility of network disruption by acquiring limited attack status information from a small subset of nodes in the network.

  4. CALIPSO Mission Status Update: Payload Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhappen, Ron; Borchardt, Robert; MacDonnell, David; Cisewski, Mike

    2007-01-01

    The CALIPSO mission payload status update is presented. The contents include: 1) Wide Field Camera Overview; 2) WFC Temperatures; 3) WFC Voltages; 4) Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) Health; 5) IIR Voltages; 6) Payload Control (PLC) Voltages; 7) PLC Temperatures; 8) Low Voltage Power Supply (LVPS) (CALOPS0025N); 9) PLC Radiation Effects; 10) SDS Status (CALOPS0020N); 11) CALIOP LIDAR; 12) Laser Energy Trends; 13) Laser Energy Zoom; 14) Laser Management Approach; 15) Green / Red Ratio; 16) Pedestal @ SHG Temperature Trends; 17) LOM Heater Duty Cycle Trends; 18) LOM Pressure Trends; 19) Boresight Trend; 20) 1064 Dark Noise Trend; 21) 532 SNR Trend; 22) Spike Trends; 23) LIDAR Highlights; 24) Backup Laser Status; and 25) Future Plans.

  5. Service Level Status

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopienski, S

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, IT departments provide, and people use, computing services of an increasingly heterogeneous nature. There is thus a growing need for a status display that groups these different services and reports status and availability in a uniform way. The Service Level Status (SLS) system addresses these needs by providing a web-based display that dynamically shows availability, basic information and statistics about various IT services, as well as the dependencies between them.

  6. Social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Etaner-Uyar, A Sima

    2014-01-01

    The present volume provides a comprehensive resource for practitioners and researchers alike-both those new to the field as well as those who already have some experience. The work covers Social Network Analysis theory and methods with a focus on current applications and case studies applied in various domains such as mobile networks, security, machine learning and health. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0, social media has become a widely used communication platform. Parallel to this development, Social Network Analysis gained in importance as a research field, while opening up many

  7. Network Warrior

    CERN Document Server

    Donahue, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Pick up where certification exams leave off. With this practical, in-depth guide to the entire network infrastructure, you'll learn how to deal with real Cisco networks, rather than the hypothetical situations presented on exams like the CCNA. Network Warrior takes you step by step through the world of routers, switches, firewalls, and other technologies based on the author's extensive field experience. You'll find new content for MPLS, IPv6, VoIP, and wireless in this completely revised second edition, along with examples of Cisco Nexus 5000 and 7000 switches throughout. Topics include: An

  8. SIS - Status Determination

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Status Determination dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information related to overfishing, overfished, and approaching overfished...

  9. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  10. Managing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Heidi; Vintergaard, Christian

    Logically it seems that companies pursuing different business strategies wouldalso manage their relationships with other firms accordingly. Nevertheless, due tothe lack of research in the field of network strategies, this link still remainsinadequately examined. Based on the well-known framework...... isprovided, that the relation between a company's strategy, structure and processesin fact have a considerable influence on its pattern of network behaviour. Threecase studies from the Danish biotech industry exemplify and illustrate how acompany's strategy is directly correlated with how it manages its...... of organisationalbehaviour developed by Miles and Snow (1978), this paper argues that thepatterns of network behaviour practiced by firms greatly depend on the businesstypology of the company. That is, a company's business typology will to a certaindegree dictate the network identity of the company. In this paper evidence...

  11. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    architecture of ‘Hovering Ad-hoc Network (HANET)’ for the latter will be deployed to assist and manage the overloaded primary base stations enhancing the on-demand coverage and capacity of the entire system. Proposed modes can either operate independently or as a cascaded architecture to form a Heterodox......It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide...

  12. Exchange Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Information Exchange Network (EIEN) is an Internet-based system used by state, tribal and territorial partners to securely share environmental and health information with one another and EPA.

  13. Sentinel Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sentinel Network is an integrated, electronic, national medical product safety initiative that compiles information about the safe and effective use of medical products accessible to patients and healthcare practitioners.

  14. computer networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a new dynamic model for the Token Bucket (TB algorithm used in computer networks and use systems approach for its analysis. This model is then augmented by adding a dynamic model for a multiplexor at an access node where the TB exercises a policing function. In the model, traffic policing, multiplexing and network utilization are formally defined. Based on the model, we study such issues as (quality of service QoS, traffic sizing and network dimensioning. Also we propose an algorithm using feedback control to improve QoS and network utilization. Applying MPEG video traces as the input traffic to the model, we verify the usefulness and effectiveness of our model.

  15. Improving Control Mechanism at Routers in TCP/IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Kim Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing control mechanisms at the network nodes have a good active and very effective at each local router, but they do not still strong enough to control nonlinear and dynamical behaviour of the network. Therefore, the control system requirements must be designed to be flexible to fully grasp the important status information of the variation and intelligent control methods to control network congestion in nonlinear network. To solve this problem, we propose a solution combined fuzzy reasoning with neural network control put on active queue management mechanisms at the network nodes.

  16. Study of Tools for Network Discovery and Network Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    DISCOVERY OptiView Console supports central and distributed architectures. OptiView Console consists of the Viewer and the Service Manager that...OptiView console. Service Manager is the engine that performs network discovery, data management, data analysis, and provides notification services...The Service Manager gives you status information and configuration control of the services that are part of the OptiView Console application. These

  17. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  18. Friendship Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan K. Brueckner

    2004-01-01

    Building upon a long tradition in sociology, economists have recently turned their attention to the analysis of social networks. The present paper adds to this emerging literature by proposing a different approach to social-network formation. As in the model of Jackson and Wolinsky (1996), formation of a link between two individuals requires two-sided investments in the present framework. But in contrast to their approach, where the required investments are exogenously specified and link form...

  19. Developer Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-08-21

    NREL's Developer Network, developer.nrel.gov, provides data that users can access to provide data to their own analyses, mobile and web applications. Developers can retrieve the data through a Web services API (application programming interface). The Developer Network handles overhead of serving up web services such as key management, authentication, analytics, reporting, documentation standards, and throttling in a common architecture, while allowing web services and APIs to be maintained and managed independently.

  20. Network Power Fault Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Siviero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Network power fault detection. At least one first network device is instructed to temporarily disconnect from a power supply path of a network, and at least one characteristic of the power supply path of the network is measured at a second network device connected to the network while the at least one first network device is temporarily disconnected from the network

  1. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  2. Sentient networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G.

    1998-03-01

    The engineering problems of constructing autonomous networks of sensors and data processors that can provide alerts for dangerous situations provide a new context for debating the question whether man-made systems can emulate the cognitive capabilities of the mammalian brain. In this paper we consider the question whether a distributed network of sensors and data processors can form ``perceptions`` based on sensory data. Because sensory data can have exponentially many explanations, the use of a central data processor to analyze the outputs from a large ensemble of sensors will in general introduce unacceptable latencies for responding to dangerous situations. A better idea is to use a distributed ``Helmholtz machine`` architecture in which the sensors are connected to a network of simple processors, and the collective state of the network as a whole provides an explanation for the sensory data. In general communication within such a network will require time division multiplexing, which opens the door to the possibility that with certain refinements to the Helmholtz machine architecture it may be possible to build sensor networks that exhibit a form of artificial consciousness.

  3. Morocco: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Morocco begins with an overview of the distribution and usage of Arabic, the official language, the Berber dialects, and French, an unofficial second language. The continuing high status and widespread use of French despite arabization efforts is discussed. A matrix follows that rates these languages and…

  4. Status of APEmille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoloni, A.; Boucaud, P.; Cabibbo, N.; Calvayrac, F.; Della Morte, M.; De Pietri, R.; De Riso, P.; Di Carlo, F.; Di Renzo, F.; Errico, W.; Frezzotti, R.; Giorgino, T.; Heitger, J.; Lonardo, A.; Loukianov, M.; Magazzu, G.; Micheli, J.; Morenas, V.; Paschedag, N.; Pene, O.; Petronzio, R.; Pleiter, D.; Rapuano, F.; Rolf, J.; Rossetti, D.; Sartori, L.; Simma, H.; Schifano, F.; Torelli, M.; Tripiccione, R.; Vicini, P.; Wegner, P

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents the status of the APEmille project, which is essentially completed, as far as machine development and construction is concerned. Several large installations of APEmille are in use for physics production runs leading to many new results presented at this conference. This paper briefly summarizes the APEmille architecture, reviews the status of the installations and presents some performance figures for physics codes.

  5. Telestroke network business model strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, Christopher V; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2012-10-01

    Our objective is to summarize the evidence that supports the reliability of telemedicine for diagnosis and efficacy in acute stroke treatment, identify strategies for funding the development of a telestroke network, and to present issues with respect to economic sustainability, cost effectiveness, and the status of reimbursement for telestroke. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive Optical Network Testbed: EU Project CHRON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; Duran, Ramon J.; Kachris, Christoforos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of cognition in optical networks is to introduce intelligence into the control plane that allows for autonomous end-to-end performance optimization and minimization of required human intervention, particularly targeted at heterogeneous network scenarios. A cognitive network observes, learns......, and makes informed decisions based on its current status and knowledge about past decisions and their results. To test the operation of cognitive algorithms in real time, we created the first operational testbed of a cognitive optical network based on the Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical...... Network (CHRON) architecture. In this experiment, an intelligent control plane, enabled by a cognitive decision system (CDS), was successfully combined with a flexible data plane. The testbed was used to test and validate different scenarios, demonstrating benefits obtained by network cognition...

  7. Social network analysis and dual rover communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

    2013-10-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

  8. Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Coviello

    Full Text Available Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony.

  9. Detecting emotional contagion in massive social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Sohn, Yunkyu; Kramer, Adam D I; Marlow, Cameron; Franceschetti, Massimo; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-01-01

    Happiness and other emotions spread between people in direct contact, but it is unclear whether massive online social networks also contribute to this spread. Here, we elaborate a novel method for measuring the contagion of emotional expression. With data from millions of Facebook users, we show that rainfall directly influences the emotional content of their status messages, and it also affects the status messages of friends in other cities who are not experiencing rainfall. For every one person affected directly, rainfall alters the emotional expression of about one to two other people, suggesting that online social networks may magnify the intensity of global emotional synchrony.

  10. Workplace status: The development and validation of a scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurdjevic, Emilija; Stoverink, Adam C; Klotz, Anthony C; Koopman, Joel; da Motta Veiga, Serge P; Yam, Kai Chi; Chiang, Jack Ting-Ju

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that employee status, and various status proxies, relate to a number of meaningful outcomes in the workplace. The advancement of the study of status in organizational settings has, however, been stymied by the lack of a validated workplace status measure. The purpose of this manuscript, therefore, is to develop and validate a measure of workplace status based on a theoretically grounded definition of status in organizations. Subject-matter experts were used to examine the content validity of the measure. Then, 2 separate samples were employed to assess the psychometric properties (i.e., factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity) and nomological network of a 5-item, self-report Workplace Status Scale (WSS). To allow for methodological flexibility, an additional 3 samples were used to extend the WSS to coworker reports of a focal employee's status, provide additional evidence for the validity and reliability of the WSS, and to demonstrate consensus among coworker ratings. Together, these studies provide evidence of the psychometric soundness of the WSS for assessing employee status using either self-reports or other-source reports. The implications of the development of the WSS for the study of status in organizations are discussed, and suggestions for future research using the new measure are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Network interruptions

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    On Sunday 12 June 2005, a site-wide security software upgrade will be performed on all CERN network equipment. This maintenance operation will cause at least 2 short network interruptions of 2 minutes on each equipment item. There are hundreds of such items across the CERN site (Meyrin, Prévessin and all SPS and LHC pits), and it will thus take the whole day to treat them all. All network users and services will be affected. Central batch computing services will be interrupted during this period, expected to last from 8 a.m. until late evening. Job submission will still be possible but no jobs will actually be run. It is hoped to complete the computer centre upgrades in the morning so that stable access can be restored to lxplus, afs and nice services as soon as possible; this cannot be guaranteed, however. The opportunity will be used to interrupt and perform upgrades on the CERN Document Servers.

  12. Network Survivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marzo, José L.; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    – are vital to modern services such as mobile telephony, online banking and VoIP. This book examines communication networking from a mathematical viewpoint. The contributing authors took part in the European COST action 293 – a four-year program of multidisciplinary research on this subject. In this book...... they offer introductory overviews and state-of-the-art assessments of current and future research in the fields of broadband, optical, wireless and ad hoc networks. Particular topics of interest are design, optimization, robustness and energy consumption. The book will be of interest to graduate students......, researchers and practitioners in the areas of networking, theoretical computer science, operations research, distributed computing and mathematics....

  13. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  14. Adolescent Weight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort Kjelldgaard, Heidi; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Due, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    -aged Children study 2010. The study population (n = 4,922) included students in the fifth, seventh, and ninth grade from a representative sample of Danish schools. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to study the associations between weight status and social relations, supported by a conceptual...... framework for the study of social relations. RESULTS: Among girls, overweight/obese weight status was associated with spending less time with friends after school compared to normal-weight status (0 days/week: odds ratio: 6.25, 95% confidence interval: 2.18-17.95, 1 day/week: 2.81, 1.02-7.77, 2 days/week: 3...

  15. Using NetMaster to manage IBM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Guss

    1991-01-01

    After defining a network and conveying its importance to support the activities at the JSC, the need for network management based on the size and complexity of the IBM SNA network at JSC is demonstrated. Network Management consists of being aware of component status and the ability to control resources to meet the availability and service needs of users. The concerns of the user are addressed as well as those of the staff responsible for managing the network. It is explained how NetMaster (a network management system for managing SNA networks) is used to enhance reliability and maximize service to SNA network users through automated procedures. The following areas are discussed: customization, problem and configuration management, and system measurement applications of NetMaster. Also, several examples are given that demonstrate NetMaster's ability to manage and control the network, integrate various product functions, as well as provide useful management information.

  16. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  17. STATUS GIZI DAN STATUS KESEHATAN SUKU BADUY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Anwar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} The objectives of the study were: (1 To analyze the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of Baduy people; (2 To analyze the health status and nutritional status of Baduy people and its influential factors. This research is an explorative and descriptive study on the socio-cultural aspects of food system. The data were collected through a direct interview and discussion with respondents as well as a direct observation at the location of respondents. A sample size of 338 households was drawn from the population. To obtain the data on the cultural aspects, history and  socio aspect of food, in-depth interviews was conducted with 19 key persons. The study was last for 12 months. In Outer Baduy, the factors significantly related to nutritional status are age, number of household size, income, nutritional knowledge, and wife’s ability to read. In Moslem Baduy, only age and income are related to the nutritional status of children. In Moslem Baduy and the Outer Baduy, the correlation between age and W/A or W/H is similar: namely, the higher the age, the lower would the Z-score for the W/A or W/H. The income is significantly correlated to the child nutritional status according to Z-score for W/A with a high correlation coefficient, that is, 0.61. This means that the higher the income, the higher would be the Z-score value for the W/A.  The distribution of adults according to BMI classification in Outer Baduy it shows that 12.7% husbands and 17.6% wives are thin (wasted, while the

  18. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  19. Micronutrient status in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Lammardo, A. M.; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) encompass an 'at risk' group for micronutrient imbalances. Optimal nutrient status is challenging particularly when a substantial proportion of nutrient intake is from non-natural sources. In PKU patients following dietary treatment supplementation with

  20. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. PRESENT STATUS IN INDIA. FIXED LINES – 36 MILLION. MOBILE CONNECTIONS – 14 MILLION. TELEDENSITY APPROXIMATELY 5. INTERNET CONNECTIONS – 5 MILLION. INTERNET USERS NEARLY – 25 MILLION.

  1. Deadline Compliance Status Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...

  2. COMPASS Status Report 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, A

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the activities and the achievements of the Collaboration during the last year. Covered items are the results and ongoing analysis for the data collected in the previous years, the production status for the last year run and the preparation and start-up of the 2012 run. Hardware topics such as the status of the superconducting target magnet after the failures in 2011 and ECAL0 and CAMERA construction for the 2012 DVCS run are also covered.

  3. Personal networks and private forestry in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Eli S; Becker, Dennis R

    2014-01-01

    Personal networks affect the flow information and behavior through social groups. We investigated the role of personal relationships in the flow of information and adoption of sustainable forest management behavior by private forest landowners. Among the 1767 owners of 20 or more acres of Minnesota forest land surveyed, 90% have received forestry information from at least one source including 65% from a peer and 53% from a professional forester. Forestry information personal network size ranged from 0 to 14 with a mean of 2.92. Network diversity, expressed as the number of different types of information sources within the network, was relatively high relative to network size, suggesting that most landowners value diverse perspectives, despite reporting fairly small networks. Larger acreage owners, management plan holders, and frequent visitors to their forest land had significantly larger and more diverse networks. Network size and diversity were statistically unrelated to ownership tenure, landowner age, and resident/absentee status. Significantly more respondents named a peer or a professional as their most helpful source than other source categories. Satisfaction with forestry information networks was positively associated with network size and diversity, further suggesting that landowners prefer information from a variety of different sources. The results suggest that landowner education designed to foster peer learning and relationship building between landowners, foresters, loggers, and other groups may promote adoption of sustainable forest management practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  5. Status-Based Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destin, Mesmin; Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Psychological research on socioeconomic status (SES) has grown significantly over the past decade. In this article, we build upon and integrate existing approaches to direct greater attention toward investigating the subjective meaning and value that people attach to understanding their own SES as an identity. We use the term status-based identity to organize relevant research and examine how people understand and make meaning of their SES from moment to moment in real time. Drawing from multiple areas of research on identity, we suggest that even temporary shifts in how people construe their status-based identities predict changes in thought, affect, motivation, and behavior. This novel focus is positioned to examine the psychological effects of status transitions (e.g., upward or downward mobility). Further, in initial empirical work, we introduce a new measure to assess uncertainty regarding one's SES (i.e., status-based identity uncertainty) and offer evidence that greater uncertainty regarding one's status-based identity is associated with lower individual well-being. In sum, we argue that insight from the literature on identity will both expand and serve to organize the burgeoning literature on the psychology of SES and, in so doing, reveal promising new directions for research.

  6. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    that their personal networks engage not only their families, but also their home communities and by extension Nepal. The two women constitute weak links between their country and other countries and as such they function as bridges or channels for transmission of practices, ideas, knowledge, and artefacts. However...

  7. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  8. Network Coding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Network Coding. K V Rashmi Nihar B Shah P Vijay Kumar. General Article Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 604-621. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/07/0604-0621. Keywords.

  9. Network Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars; Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    the five strands of theory on the network society. Each theoretical position has its specific implications for acting toward strategic goals. In its entirety, the five perspectives give a thorough understanding of the conditions for successful strategic communication in the 21st century....

  10. distribution network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper examined the acidic properties of distribution transformer oil insulation in service at Jericho distribution network Ibadan, Nigeria. Five oil samples each from six distribution transformers (DT1, DT2, DT3, DT4 and DT5) making a total of thirty samples were taken from different installed distribution transformers all ...

  11. Blockmodeling techniques for complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brian Joseph

    The class of network models known as stochastic blockmodels has recently been gaining popularity. In this dissertation, we present new work that uses blockmodels to answer questions about networks. We create a blockmodel based on the idea of link communities, which naturally gives rise to overlapping vertex communities. We derive a fast and accurate algorithm to fit the model to networks. This model can be related to another blockmodel, which allows the method to efficiently find nonoverlapping communities as well. We then create a heuristic based on the link community model whose use is to find the correct number of communities in a network. The heuristic is based on intuitive corrections to likelihood ratio tests. It does a good job finding the correct number of communities in both real networks and synthetic networks generated from the link communities model. Two commonly studied types of networks are citation networks, where research papers cite other papers, and coauthorship networks, where authors are connected if they've written a paper together. We study a multi-modal network from a large dataset of Physics publications that is the combination of the two, allowing for directed links between papers as citations, and an undirected edge between a scientist and a paper if they helped to write it. This allows for new insights on the relation between social interaction and scientific production. We also have the publication dates of papers, which lets us track our measures over time. Finally, we create a stochastic model for ranking vertices in a semi-directed network. The probability of connection between two vertices depends on the difference of their ranks. When this model is fit to high school friendship networks, the ranks appear to correspond with a measure of social status. Students have reciprocated and some unreciprocated edges with other students of closely similar rank that correspond to true friendship, and claim an aspirational friendship with a much

  12. Communication networks of men facing a diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dot; Oetzel, John; Henderson, Alison

    2016-11-01

    This study seeks to identify the factors that shape the communication networks of men who face a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer, and how these factors relate to their disclosure about their changing health status. Men facing a potential diagnosis of prostate cancer are in a challenging situation; the support benefits of disclosing their changing health status to others in their communication networks is set against a backdrop of the potential stigma and uncertainty of the diagnosis. All men on a prostate biopsy waiting list were eligible for inclusion in an exploratory and interpretive study. Semi-structured interviews with 40 men explored their network structures and disclosure of health information. Thematic analysis highlighted the factors which contributed to their network structures and their disclosure about their health status. Four network factors shaped men's perspectives about disclosing their health status: (1) tie strength, comprising both strong and weak ties; (2) knowledgeable others, with a focus on medical professionals in the family; (3) homophily, which included other individuals with a similar medical condition; and (4) geographical proximity, with a preference for face-to-face communication. Communication networks influence men's disclosure of their health status and in particular weak ties with medical knowledge have an important role. Men who use the potential for support in their networks may experience improved psychosocial outcomes. Using these four network factors-tie strength, knowledgeable others, homophily or geographical proximity-to forecast men's willingness to disclose helps identify men who lack potential support and so are at risk of poor psychosocial health. Those with few strong ties or knowledgeable others in their networks may be in the at-risk cohort. The support provided in communication networks complements formal medical care from nurses and other health professionals, and encouraging patients to use their

  13. The Influence of Academic Tracking on Adolescent Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…

  14. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.K.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Borch, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  15. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks : Selection and Influence Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to

  16. The Ferraro Financial Furor: How the Television Networks Covered It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeanne M.; Sanders, Luther W.

    A study compared the three major American television networks' early evening newscast coverage of 1984 vice-presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro's financial status, specifically examining the emphasis placed on the story and seeking to determine whether coverage was objective or biased. Early evening network newscasts (excluding weekends) for…

  17. Social Networks and Network Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Research in Command & Control • Latent Semantic Analysis – Team communication – Emergent team dynamics – Shared situation awareness • Dynamic Network...requirements – Information technology requirements 28 LSA Essentials of Latent Semantic Analysis 29 Communication Analysis • Goal: Automatically monitor and

  18. Introduction to neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    James, Frederick E

    1994-02-02

    1. Introduction and overview of Artificial Neural Networks. 2,3. The Feed-forward Network as an inverse Problem, and results on the computational complexity of network training. 4.Physics applications of neural networks.

  19. Refractory status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits.

  20. Network gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, John

    2017-01-01

    We introduce the construction of a new framework for probing discrete emergent geometry and boundary-boundary observables based on a fundamentally a-dimensional underlying network structure. Using a gravitationally motivated action with Forman weighted combinatorial curvatures and simplicial volumes relying on a decomposition of an abstract simplicial complex into realized embeddings of proper skeletons, we demonstrate properties such as a minimal volume-scale cutoff, the necessity of a term playing the role of a positive definite cosmological constant as a regulator for nondegenerate geometries, and naturally emergent simplicial structures from Metropolis network evolution simulations with no restrictions on attachment rules or regular building blocks. We see emergent properties which echo results from both the spinfoam formalism and causal dynamical triangulations in quantum gravity, and provide analytical and numerical results to support the analogy. We conclude with a summary of open questions and intent for future work in developing the program.

  1. Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwindling Jerome

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This course presents an overview of the concepts of the neural networks and their aplication in the framework of High energy physics analyses. After a brief introduction on the concept of neural networks, the concept is explained in the frame of neuro-biology, introducing the concept of multi-layer perceptron, learning and their use as data classifer. The concept is then presented in a second part using in more details the mathematical approach focussing on typical use cases faced in particle physics. Finally, the last part presents the best way to use such statistical tools in view of event classifers, putting the emphasis on the setup of the multi-layer perceptron. The full article (15 p. corresponding to this lecture is written in french and is provided in the proceedings of the book SOS 2008.

  2. Network Frontier Workshop 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-11

    networks, biological networks, cognitive and semantic networks and social networks. This field has received a major boost caused by the availability of huge...networks, which require new ways of thinking about the world. Part of the new cognition is provided by the fractional calculus description of temporal...structures in a wide range of examples—including road networks in large urban areas, a rabbit warren, a dolphin social network, a European interbank network

  3. Linear network theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sander, K F

    1964-01-01

    Linear Network Theory covers the significant algebraic aspect of network theory, with minimal reference to practical circuits. The book begins the presentation of network analysis with the exposition of networks containing resistances only, and follows it up with a discussion of networks involving inductance and capacity by way of the differential equations. Classification and description of certain networks, equivalent networks, filter circuits, and network functions are also covered. Electrical engineers, technicians, electronics engineers, electricians, and students learning the intricacies

  4. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  5. Surface Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kostrikov, Ilya; Bruna, Joan; Panozzo, Daniele; Zorin, Denis

    2017-01-01

    We study data-driven representations for three-dimensional triangle meshes, which are one of the prevalent objects used to represent 3D geometry. Recent works have developed models that exploit the intrinsic geometry of manifolds and graphs, namely the Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) and its spectral variants, which learn from the local metric tensor via the Laplacian operator. Despite offering excellent sample complexity and built-in invariances, intrinsic geometry alone is invariant to isometr...

  6. Loss Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes work on the stochastic modelling of loss networks. Such systems have long been of interest to telephone engineers and are becoming increasingly important as models of computer and information systems. Throughout the century problems from this field have provided an impetus to the development of probability theory, pure and applied. This paper provides an introduction to the area and a review of recent work.

  7. Energy Constraint Node Cache Based Routing Protocol For Adhoc Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dhiraj Nitnaware; Ajay Verma

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) is a wireless infrastructureless network, where nodes are free to move independently in any direction. The nodes have limited battery power; hence we require energy efficient routing protocols to optimize network performance. This paper aims to develop a new routing algorithm based on the energy status of the node cache. We have named this algorithm as ECNC_AODV (Energy Constraint Node Cache) based routing protocol which is derived from the AODV protocol. The al...

  8. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; Ouyang, Zhenzheng; Zhang, Pengyuan; Yi, Dongyun; Kong, Dexing

    2015-01-01

    Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  9. Modeling the citation network by network cosmology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xie

    Full Text Available Citation between papers can be treated as a causal relationship. In addition, some citation networks have a number of similarities to the causal networks in network cosmology, e.g., the similar in-and out-degree distributions. Hence, it is possible to model the citation network using network cosmology. The casual network models built on homogenous spacetimes have some restrictions when describing some phenomena in citation networks, e.g., the hot papers receive more citations than other simultaneously published papers. We propose an inhomogenous causal network model to model the citation network, the connection mechanism of which well expresses some features of citation. The node growth trend and degree distributions of the generated networks also fit those of some citation networks well.

  10. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotto, E.

    1987-08-01

    The Network Operating System is an addition to CMS designed to allow multitasking operation, while conserving all the facilities of CMS: file system, interactivity, high level language environment. Multitasking is useful for server virtual machines, e.g. Network Transport Managers, File Managers, Disk space Managers, Tape Unit Managers, where the execution of a task involves long waits due to I/O completion, VCMF communication delays or human responses, during which the task status stays as a control block in memory, while the virtual machine serves other users executing the same lines of code. Multitasking is not only for multi-user service: a big data reduction program may run as a main task, while a side task, connected to the virtual console, gives reports on the ongoing work of the main task in response to user commands and steers the main task through common data. All the service routines (Wait, Create and Delete Task, Get and Release Buffer, VMCF Open and Close Link, Send and Receive, I/O and Console Routines) are FORTRAN callable, and may be used from any language environment consistent with the same parameter passing conventions. The outstanding feature of this system is efficiency, no user defined SVC are used, and the use of other privileged instructions as LPSW or SSM is the bare necessary, so that CP (with the associated overhead) is not too involved. System code and read-only data are write-protected with a different storage key from CMS and user program.

  11. Challenges in Second-Generation Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pescapé Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks have the potential to provide ubiquitous high-speed Internet access at low costs. The good news is that initial deployments of WiFi meshes show the feasibility of providing ubiquitous Internet connectivity. However, their performance is far below the necessary and achievable limit. Moreover, users' subscription in the existing meshes is dismal even though the technical challenges to get connectivity are low. This paper provides an overview of the current status of mesh networks' deployment, and highlights the technical, economical, and social challenges that need to be addressed in the next years. As a proof-of-principle study, we discuss the above-mentioned challenges with reference to three real networks: (i MagNets, an operator-driven planned two-tier mesh network; (ii Berlin Freifunk network as a pure community-driven single-tier network; (iii Weimar Freifunk network, also a community-driven but two-tier network.

  12. Fighting status inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Landes, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    as a theoretical foil for this as compared to a liberal notion of non-interference. The article concludes that there is a prima facie case for incorporating non-dominance into our thinking about public health, but that it needs to go hand in hand with a more traditional liberal ideal of non-interference.......Status inequalities seem to play a fairly big role in creating inequalities in health. This article assumes that there can be good reasons to fight status inequalities in order to reduce inequalities in health. It examines whether the neorepublican ideal of non-dominance does a better job...

  13. New Service Status Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On Monday 14 October, the Service Status Board for GS and IT will change. The new Status Board will be integrated with the CERN Service Portal and with the CERN Service Catalogue.   As of today, the SSB will display “Service Incidents”, “Planned Interventions” and “Service Changes”. References valid from 14 October: CERN SSB at https://cern.ch/ssb Computing SSB (previously IT SSB) at https://cern.ch/itssb   Nicole Cremel, IT and GS Service Management Support

  14. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  15. Atmospheric icing status and type of southwest China networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission line disconnection, tower collapse and insulator flashover caused by icing seriously threaten power system security. Ice type and state of transmission lines, which vary a lot with terrain and climate, in typical areas such as Daqing-ridge, Yak Mountain and Erlang Mountain in Sichuan Province in South China were investigated in this paper. It is shown that mixed-phase ice with obvious layered structure, low density, strong adhesive force and windward-side growth is the main type of ice threatening the security of transmission lines and insulators. There is more ice on the ends of insulators than other areas in severe cases, where all sheds of the insulator is bridged by ice. Besides, temperature, humidity and precipitation intensity are main factors influencing the icing process. As a result, terrain and climate play a leading role in determination of icing type and severity.

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Clique Membership Status and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems during Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Brendgen, Mara; Koot, Hans M.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal link between clique membership status and the development of psychopathology in 451 children followed annually from age 9 to 12 years. Classroom clique membership status was identified through social network analysis, and internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed using peer nominations. Controlling…

  17. Network Firewall Dynamics and the Subsaturation Stabilization of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Khan

    2013-01-01

    individuals engaging in risk acts over a period of 15 years. The model’s parameters are based on analyses of data collected in prior studies of the real-world risk networks of people who inject drugs (PWID in New York City. Analysis of system trajectories reveals the structural mechanisms by which individuals with mature HIV infections tend to partition the network into homogeneous clusters (with respect to infection status and how uninfected clusters remain relatively stable (with respect to infection status over long stretches of time. We confirm the spontaneous emergence of network firewalls in the system and reveal their structural role in the nonspreading of HIV.

  18. Gender differences in the support networks of caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, J; Neufeld, A; Harrison, M J

    1996-09-01

    Nurses in home care and long-term care settings play an important role in assisting family caregivers of elders who are cognitively impaired to sustain personal support while caregiving. Research has shown that such support is associated with positive health status. The characteristics of the caregiver's social network provide information about the potential for support. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the social networks of men and women caregivers in terms of the composition of the social network and the size of the available, utilized and conflicted social networks. The possible relationship between the demographic characteristics of caregivers and the size and composition of their social networks was also examined. In comparison to men, the conflicted social networks of women were larger and comprised of more family members. For women, age, years of caregiving and socioeconomic status were not significantly related to the size of their social network. However, younger men and men of higher socioeconomic status reported significantly larger available social networks than other men. Knowledge of the gender differences in network size and composition that were identified in this study contributes to nurses' ability to identify caregivers who may be at risk for inadequate social support. In conjunction with the findings from related studies these results have implications for nursing assessment and intervention in home care and long-term care settings.

  19. Media Challenging Status Quo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    ). Skeptical internet sociologists such as Morozov (2011) point out that the same media which was used e.g. to mobilize the ‘Twitter revolution’ in Iran in 2009 also was used by the regime to infiltrate and strike down the democratic movement. Following such position statements, international media...... and communication research is currently engaging in a longer and deeper process of examining and assessing the cultural consequences of networked communication. One present challenge is to understand digital media and networked communication at the intersection of established and countercultural, utopian...

  20. How to estimate the signs' configuration in the directed signed social networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Gao, Fujuan; Jiang, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Inspired by the ensemble theory in statistical mechanics, we introduce a reshuffling approach to empirical analyze signs' configuration in the directed signed social networks of Epinions and Slashdots. In our reshuffling approach, each negative link has the reshuffling probability prs to exchange its sign with another positive link chosen randomly. Many reshuffled networks with different signs' configuration are built under different prss. For each reshuffled network, the entropies of the self social status are calculated and the opinion formation of the majority-rule model is analyzed. We find that Souts reach their own minimum values and the order parameter |m* | reaches its maximum value in the networks of Epinions and Slashdots without the reshuffling operation. Namely, individuals share the homogeneous properties of self social status and dynamic status in the real directed signed social networks. Our present work provides some interesting tools and perspective to understand the signs' configuration in signed social networks, especially in the online affiliation networks.

  1. Open innovation in networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  2. n status confessionis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC) and the — then — Re- formed Ecumenical Synod (RES) eventually declared a status confessionis against the theological and moral justification of apartheid. In this process the Afrikaans Re- formed Churches came under serious fire. The questions arising from this ...

  3. Status, Numbers and Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model of social influence in n-person groups. We argue that disagreement between group members introduces uncertainty into the social situation, and this uncertainty motivates people to use status characteristics to evaluate the merits of a particular opinion. Our model takes the numerical distribution of opinions and the…

  4. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  5. Angola: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in Angola begins with an overview of the usage and distribution of Portuguese as the official language, and the four most significant native languages and dialects spoken there: Umbundu, Kimbundu, Kikongo, and Lunda-Chokwe. The introduction of Spanish through Cuban trainers, teachers, and military advisors…

  6. Status of numerical relativity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical relativity; gravitational waves; black hole; neutron star. ... and stellar collapse, emphasizing the well-developed current status of such implementations that enable simulations for several astrophysical phenomena. Some of our latest results for simulation of binary neutron star mergers are briefly presented.

  7. Liberia: Country Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barbara

    A survey of the status of language usage in Liberia begins with an overview of the distribution of the 16 languages and dialects spoken natively there that are recognized by the government. These include, in order of number of native speakers: Kpelle, Bassa, Gio, Kru, Mano, Lorma, Krahn, Gola, Mandingo, Kissi, Vai, English, Gbandi, Mende, Belle,…

  8. ENLIGHT Network

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art techniques borrowed from particle accelerators and detectors are a key element in hadrontherapy and several European projects are actively fostering the collaboration amongst the various disciplines and countries. ENLIGHT was established in 2002 to coordinate these European efforts in hadron therapy. The ENLIGHT network is formed by the European hadrontherapy Community, with more than 300 participants from twenty European countries. A major achievement of ENLIGHT has been the blending of traditionally separate communities so that clinicians, physicists, biologists and engineers with experience and interest in particle therapy are working together.

  9. Local Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social commun...

  10. Probe Project Status and Accomplishments - Year Two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, R.D.

    2002-04-11

    The Probe project has established a facility for storage- and network-related research, development and testing. With sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Probe is investigating local-area or wide-area distributed storage issues ranging from data mining to optimizing retrieval operations from tape devices. Probe has completed its second full year of operation. In this document we will describe the status of the project as of December 31, 2001. This year we will structure this document by category of work, rather than by project status. We will present sections describing Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computation (SciDAC) projects, network research and research on data mining and distributed cluster analysis. Another section will describe data-transfer application development and testing and other types of hardware- and software-related testing and development activities. We will then describe the work undertaken for presentation at the SC2001 conference. The final section will summarize this year's publications. Individual projects described in this document have used some Probe resource--equipment, software, staff or funding. By describing these projects we do not imply that the work should be entirely credited to Probe, although we do assert that Probe's existence and assistance provided benefit to the work. The Probe project is funded by the Mathematical, Information, and Computer Sciences (MICS) department of the Advanced Scientific Computing Research office, Office of Science, Department of Energy.

  11. Connectivity of communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent developments on connectivity of communication networks, ranging from connectivity of large static networks and connectivity of highly dynamic networks to connectivity of small to medium sized networks. This book also introduces some applications of connectivity studies in network optimization, in network localization, and in estimating distances between nodes. The book starts with an overview of the fundamental concepts, models, tools, and methodologies used for connectivity studies. The rest of the chapters are divided into four parts: connectivity of large static networks, connectivity of highly dynamic networks, connectivity of small to medium sized networks, and applications of connectivity studies.

  12. Status of memory loss.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iyer, Parameswaran Mahadeva

    2012-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with first onset of seizure with no prior history of cognitive dysfunction. EEG revealed focal non-convulsive status epilepticus. MRI brain showed a left temporal non-enhancing lesion. Temporal pole biopsy showed acute neuronal necrosis and astrocyte hyperplasia together with extensive amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was present. Postmortem examination revealed extensive plaque and tangle disease. Perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia was limited to the left temporal area. The presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia in the left temporal cortex, combined with extensive plaque and tangle disease may have contributed to the focal status epilepticus in this patient. Although the presence of focal perivascular oligodendroglial hyperplasia has been reported in cases of temporal lobe epilepsy, it has not been reported as a cause of seizure in patients with Alzheimer\\'s disease previously. Further studies for clinical-pathologic correlation would be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  13. Status Epilepticus in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, K; Rana, S; Kanitkar, M; Adhikari, M

    2005-02-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening emergency that requires prompt treatment, including basic neuroresuscitation principles (the ABCs), antiepileptic drugs to stop the seizure and identification of etiology. It results from an inability to normally abort an isolated seizure either due to ineffective inhibition, or due to abnormally persistent excessive excitation. Symptomatic SE is more common in younger children and the likely etiology depends on the age of the child. Treating the precipitating cause may prevent ongoing neurologic injury and facilitates seizure control. Benzodiapenes, phenytoin and phenobarbital form the mainstay of treatment. A systematic treatment regimen, planned in advance, is needed, including one for refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Patient education and home management of seizures is important to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with SE.

  14. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  15. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  16. The status of GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribier, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires)

    1990-01-01

    The present status of the Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment performed by the GALLEX Collaboration in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is described. The implementation phase of this experiment is now completed, the whole gallium is at hand and data taking starts now. After a short introduction and an outline of the basic experimental procedure, details will be given on different parts of the experiment and on some background. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  18. Event-driven approach of layered multicast to network adaptation in RED-based IP networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Kitae; Li, Qing; Kuo, C.-C. J.

    2003-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the congestion control problem for layered video multicast in IP networks of active queue management (AQM) using a simple random early detection (RED) queue model. AQM support from networks improves the visual quality of video streaming but makes network adaptation more di+/-cult for existing layered video multicast proticols that use the event-driven timer-based approach. We perform a simplified analysis on the response of the RED algorithm to burst traffic. The analysis shows that the primary problem lies in the weak correlation between the network feedback and the actual network congestion status when the RED queue is driven by burst traffic. Finally, a design guideline of the layered multicast protocol is proposed to overcome this problem.

  19. Dynamic social network analysis using conversational dynamics in social networking and microblogging environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Gabriel; Savell, Robert; Cybenko, George

    2010-04-01

    In many security environments, the textual content of communications may be unavailable. In these instances, it is often desirable to infer the status of the network and its component entities from patterns of communication flow. Conversational dynamics among entities in the network may provide insight into important aspects of the underlying social network such as the formational dynamics of group structures, the active state of these groups, individuals' roles within groups, and the likelihood of individual participation in conversations. To gain insight into the use of conversational dynamics to facilitate Dynamic Social Network Analysis, we explore the use of interevent timings to associate entities in the Twitter social networking and micro-blogging environment. Specifically, we use message timings to establish inter-nodal relationships among participants. In addition, we demonstrate a new visualization technique for tracking levels of coordination or synchronization within the community via measures of socio-temporal coherence of the participants.

  20. [Civil status and suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  1. HIV Clients as Agents for Prevention: A Social Network Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ssali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV prevention efforts to date have not explored the potential for persons living with HIV to act as change agents for prevention behaviour in their social networks. Using egocentric social network analysis, this study examined the prevalence and social network correlates of prevention advocacy behaviours (discussing HIV in general; encouraging abstinence or condom use, HIV testing, and seeking HIV care enacted by 39 HIV clients in Uganda. Participants engaged in each prevention advocacy behaviour with roughly 50–70% of the members in their network. The strongest determinant of engaging in prevention advocacy with more of one’s network members was having a greater proportion of network members who knew one’s HIV seropositive status, as this was associated with three of the four advocacy behaviours. These findings highlight the potential for PLHA to be key change agents for HIV prevention within their networks and the importance of HIV disclosure in facilitating prevention advocacy.

  2. Migrant networks and pathways to child obesity in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Mathew J; Goldman, Noreen; Teruel, Graciela; Rubalcava, Luis

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: 1) to assess the link between migrant networks and becoming overweight or obese and 2) to explore the pathways by which migrant networks may contribute to the increasing overweight and obese population of children in Mexico. Using two waves of the Mexican Family Life Survey (MxFLS), we find that children and adolescents (ages 3 to 15) living in households with migrant networks are at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese over the period of observation, relative to their peers with no migrant networks. Sedentary behavior and household-level measures of economic wellbeing explain some of the association between networks and changes in weight status, but the role of extended networks remains significant. Community-level characteristics related to migration do not account for any of the observed relationship between household-level networks and becoming overweight or obese. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  4. MICROCONTROLLERS HYBRID NETWORK FOR DISTRIBUTED INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Córdoba-Montiel

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the proposal of an hybrid microcontroller network is presented, whose main application is orientedtowards the implementation of a functionally distributed system, which is commanded from a personal computer(PC, where a program developed for the Windows graphical environment is executed and acts as System Monitorsupervising the events related to the indebted operation of the network, unfolding numerically and graphicallyfrom the information that handles to node level and the present status of the network. The network wasimplemented under the common bus topology and the application includes the physical layer handling under theRS-485 standard used in the connection between each considered microcontroller node, as well as differentmicrocontroller families such as Motorola, Microchip and the AVR of ATMEL are used.

  5. Social network analysis and network connectedness analysis for industrial symbiotic systems: model development and case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Hongmei; Chen, Bin; Yang, Naijin

    2013-06-01

    An important and practical pattern of industrial symbiosis is rapidly developing: eco-industrial parks. In this study, we used social network analysis to study the network connectedness (i.e., the proportion of the theoretical number of connections that had been achieved) and related attributes of these hybrid ecological and industrial symbiotic systems. This approach provided insights into details of the network's interior and analyzed the overall degree of connectedness and the relationships among the nodes within the network. We then characterized the structural attributes of the network and subnetwork nodes at two levels (core and periphery), thereby providing insights into the operational problems within each eco-industrial park. We chose ten typical ecoindustrial parks in China and around the world and compared the degree of network connectedness of these systems that resulted from exchanges of products, byproducts, and wastes. By analyzing the density and nodal degree, we determined the relative power and status of the nodes in these networks, as well as other structural attributes such as the core-periphery structure and the degree of sub-network connectedness. The results reveal the operational problems created by the structure of the industrial networks and provide a basis for improving the degree of completeness, thereby increasing their potential for sustainable development and enriching the methods available for the study of industrial symbiosis.

  6. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  7. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  8. Visualization of Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boertjes, E.M.; Kotterink, B.; Jager, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Current visualizations of social networks are mostly some form of node-link diagram. Depending on the type of social network, this can be some treevisualization with a strict hierarchical structure or a more generic network visualization.

  9. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  10. Educational status, social economic status and evaluation of some dimensions of octogenarians' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Keika; Pedrazzani, Elisete Silva

    2007-01-01

    To describe the profile of a sample of octogenarians (n=80) attended at the municipal health network of a city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil; evaluate their perception regarding quality of life dimensions (QoL); identify correlations between socio economic status, education level and QoL. It is an exploratory descriptive study with a quantitative analysis of data. The results revealed that this population is predominantly female, widowed, illiterate, sedentary and poor, who need health services and leisure opportunities, and whose main support is religion. The socio economic status did not interfere in the QoL perception, though, higher education and participation in physical activities result in higher satisfaction.

  11. Computer networks monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Antončič , Polona

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis entitled Computer Networks Monitoring introduces the basics of computer networks, the aim and the computer data reclamation from networking devices, software for the system follow-up together with the case of monitoring a real network with tens of network devices. The networks represent an important part in the modern information technology and serve for the exchange of data and sources which makes their impeccability of crucial importance. Correct and efficient sys...

  12. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  13. Basics of Computer Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.

  14. Percolation in clustered networks

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joel C

    2009-01-01

    The social networks that infectious diseases spread along are typically clustered. Because of the close relation between percolation and epidemic spread, the behavior of percolation in such networks gives insight into infectious disease dynamics. A number of authors have studied clustered networks, but the networks often contain preferential mixing between high degree nodes. We introduce a class of random clustered networks and another class of random unclustered networks with the same prefer...

  15. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    or she must make. Network Mapping System ( NeMS ) is a software-based tool created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to discover and map...network assets in support of cyber situational awareness [10]. NeMS combines both active probes and passive monitoring of network data to map the network...security settings in order to maximize efficiency without disrupting network activities. Tests of NeMS in control networks yielded great results, as

  16. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  17. Stem Cell Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a general computational theory of stem cell networks and their developmental dynamics. Stem cell networks are special cases of developmental control networks. Our theory generates a natural classification of all possible stem cell networks based on their network architecture. Each stem cell network has a unique topology and semantics and developmental dynamics that result in distinct phenotypes. We show that the ideal growth dynamics of multicellular systems generated by stem cell ...

  18. Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037

  19. Running a network on a shoestring: the Global Invasive Species Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Simpson, Annie; Graham, James J; Newman, Gregory J.; Bargeron, Chuck T.

    2015-01-01

    The Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN) was conceptualized in 2004 to aggregate and disseminate invasive species data in a standardized way. A decade later the GISIN community has implemented a data portal and three of six GISIN data aggregation models in the GISIN data exchange Protocol, including invasive species status information, resource URLs, and occurrence data. The portal is based on a protocol developed by representatives from 15 countries and 27 organizations of the global invasive species information management community. The GISIN has 19 data providers sharing 34,343 species status records, 1,693,073 occurrences, and 15,601 resource URLs. While the GISIN's goal is to be global, much of its data and funding are provided by the United States. Several initiatives use the GISIN as their information backbone, such as the Great Lakes Early Detection Network (GLEDN) and the North American Invasive Species Network (NAISN). Here we share several success stories and organizational challenges that remain.

  20. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  1. Airborne Network Optimization with Dynamic Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University...require small amounts of network bandwidth to perform routing. This thesis advocates the use of Kalman filters to predict network congestion in...airborne networks. Intelligent agents can make use of Kalman filter predictions to make informed decisions to manage communication in airborne networks. The

  2. Next Generation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Schwartz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two network types had been existing in Slovakia by the end of the year 2004 – public switched telephone network – PSTN and packet switched data network – DCN. The other network, known as the next generation network – NGN, has been put into operation since the beginning of the year 2005. The role of the next generation network is to merge the both previous network types into one unified complex network with the full centralised control, based on routing and packet switching. The T-Com company (previous Slovak Telecom was the first who did it.

  3. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off-the-shelf ha......Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off...

  4. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks......Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...

  5. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-30

    STATUS CODES: A- 8 G - 0 , Y- 0 , Z- 0 8925 0153 A-A-20177 CANDY AND CHOCOLATE CONFECTION GL F2 934 944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0155 JJJ-S-351H SYRUP...944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0153 A-A-20177 CANDY AND CHOCOLATE CONFECTION GL F2 934 944 944 A GL SA 50 SS N D 8925 0155 JJJ-S-351H SYRUP MCA GL G5

  6. Model Validation Status Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  7. The status of GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, T.; Anselmann, P.; Breitenbach, M.; Hampel, W.; Heusser, G.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Lenzing, A.; Pernicka, E.; Plaga, R.; Povh, B.; Schlosser, C.; Voelk, H.; Wink, R.; Wojcik, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)); Bellotti, E. (Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)); Ammon, R. v.; Balata, M.; Ebert, K.; Fritsch, T.; Hellriegel, K.; Henrich, E.; Stieglitz, L.; Weyrich, F. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.)); Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Ragazzi, S.; Zanotti, L. (Milan Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.; Schanda, U. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik); Berthomieu, G.; Schatzmann, E. (Nice Univ., 06 (France). Observatoire); Carmi, I.; Dostrovsky, I. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); D' Angelo, S.; Bacci, C.; Belli, P.; Bernabei, R.; Paoluzi, L. (Rome-2 Univ. (Italy)); Cribier, M.; Dupont, G.; Gosset, L.; Pichard, B.; Rich, J.; Spiro; GALLEX Collaboration

    1991-04-01

    A radiochemical Gallium-Solar-Neutrino Detector has been set up at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. All major installations are implemented and the target, 53,5 m{sup 3} of galliumchloride solution containing 30.3 tons of gallium, has been brought underground after removing cosmogenic Ge-isotopes through nitrogen purge. This final implementation status and the achieved parameters characterizing the experiment are described in this report. Full scale performance tests and optimalization of the operating conditions of the extraction system are presently under way. (orig.).

  8. Status of Wheeler Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This is one in a series of status reports prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) for those interested in the conditions of TVA reservoirs. This overview of Wheeler Reservoir summarizes reservoir purposes and operation, reservoir and watershed characteristics, reservoir uses and use impairments, and water quality and aquatic biological conditions. The information presented here is from the most recent reports, publications, and original data available. If no recent data were available, historical data were summarized. If data were completely lacking, environmental professionals with special knowledge of the resource were interviewed. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    PERFO CS B2 B 943 954 954 A 99 N 55M TOTAL -3 ,DELINQUENT -0 , STATUS CODES: A- 3 G6-0 , Y -0 , Z-O0 5610 0513 NIL D 16680D DECK COVERING SH D2 883 893...MIL A 49201 ARRESTER ELEC F1482 F1495 G CR D2 904 924 934 A CR U B 5920 A947 MIL M 49240A MULTIPLEXER TD 1235 P TTC CR F! 923 924 924 A N C 5920 D196

  10. Social network analysis of study environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Divjak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Student working environment influences student learning and achievement level. In this respect social aspects of students’ formal and non-formal learning play special role in learning environment. The main research problem of this paper is to find out if students' academic performance influences their position in different students' social networks. Further, there is a need to identify other predictors of this position. In the process of problem solving we use the Social Network Analysis (SNA that is based on the data we collected from the students at the Faculty of Organization and Informatics, University of Zagreb. There are two data samples: in the basic sample N=27 and in the extended sample N=52. We collected data on social-demographic position, academic performance, learning and motivation styles, student status (full-time/part-time, attitudes towards individual and teamwork as well as informal cooperation. Afterwards five different networks (exchange of learning materials, teamwork, informal communication, basic and aggregated social network were constructed. These networks were analyzed with different metrics and the most important were betweenness, closeness and degree centrality. The main result is, firstly, that the position in a social network cannot be forecast only by academic success and, secondly, that part-time students tend to form separate groups that are poorly connected with full-time students. In general, position of a student in social networks in study environment can influence student learning as well as her/his future employability and therefore it is worthwhile to be investigated.

  11. Sentiment analysis on smoking in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofean, Mustafa; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks play a vital role in daily life to share the opinions or behaviors on different topics. The data of social networks can be used to understand health-related behaviors. In this work, we used Twitter status updates to survey of smoking behaviors among the users. We introduce approach to classify the sentiment of smoke-related tweets into positive and negative tweets. The classifier is based on the Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and can achieve high accuracy up to 86%.

  12. Facebook: Networking the Community of Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    of communication also provides the basis for the formation and maintenance of people’s social identity, so that they and society are in harmony. In contrast to community communication, the article explores the notion of network communication, which is classified as communication that may have some positive effects...... but that also may pose certain risks for modern society and for the development and maintenance of social identity. The article argues that communication through and about status updates on Facebook may be categorized as network communication, and finally it discusses whether and to what extent this kind...

  13. Network 'small-world-ness': a quantitative method for determining canonical network equivalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Humphries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many technological, biological, social, and information networks fall into the broad class of 'small-world' networks: they have tightly interconnected clusters of nodes, and a shortest mean path length that is similar to a matched random graph (same number of nodes and edges. This semi-quantitative definition leads to a categorical distinction ('small/not-small' rather than a quantitative, continuous grading of networks, and can lead to uncertainty about a network's small-world status. Moreover, systems described by small-world networks are often studied using an equivalent canonical network model--the Watts-Strogatz (WS model. However, the process of establishing an equivalent WS model is imprecise and there is a pressing need to discover ways in which this equivalence may be quantified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We defined a precise measure of 'small-world-ness' S based on the trade off between high local clustering and short path length. A network is now deemed a 'small-world' if S>1--an assertion which may be tested statistically. We then examined the behavior of S on a large data-set of real-world systems. We found that all these systems were linked by a linear relationship between their S values and the network size n. Moreover, we show a method for assigning a unique Watts-Strogatz (WS model to any real-world network, and show analytically that the WS models associated with our sample of networks also show linearity between S and n. Linearity between S and n is not, however, inevitable, and neither is S maximal for an arbitrary network of given size. Linearity may, however, be explained by a common limiting growth process. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown how the notion of a small-world network may be quantified. Several key properties of the metric are described and the use of WS canonical models is placed on a more secure footing.

  14. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    While most research in Social Network Analysis has focused on single networks, the availability of complex on-line data about individuals and their mutual heterogenous connections has recently determined a renewed interest in multi-layer network analysis. To the best of our knowledge, in this paper...... we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...... networks. Our model, motivated by an empirical analysis of real multi-layered network data, is a conservative extension of single-network models and emphasizes the additional level of complexity that we experience when we move from a single- to a more complete and realistic multi-network context....

  15. Noisy Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sung Hoon; Gamal, Abbas El; Chung, Sae-Young

    2010-01-01

    A noisy network coding scheme for sending multiple sources over a general noisy network is presented. For multi-source multicast networks, the scheme naturally extends both network coding over noiseless networks by Ahlswede, Cai, Li, and Yeung, and compress-forward coding for the relay channel by Cover and El Gamal to general discrete memoryless and Gaussian networks. The scheme also recovers as special cases the results on coding for wireless relay networks and deterministic networks by Avestimehr, Diggavi, and Tse, and coding for wireless erasure networks by Dana, Gowaikar, Palanki, Hassibi, and Effros. The scheme involves message repetition coding, relay signal compression, and simultaneous decoding. Unlike previous compress--forward schemes, where independent messages are sent over multiple blocks, the same message is sent multiple times using independent codebooks as in the network coding scheme for cyclic networks. Furthermore, the relays do not use Wyner--Ziv binning as in previous compress-forward sch...

  16. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  17. Research on Holographic Evaluation of Service Quality in Power Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Jing, Tao; Ji, Yutong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of power data network, the continuous development of the Power data application service system, more and more service systems are being put into operation. Following this, the higher requirements for network quality and service quality are raised, in the actual process for the network operation and maintenance. This paper describes the electricity network and data network services status. A holographic assessment model was presented to achieve a comprehensive intelligence assessment on the power data network and quality of service in the operation and maintenance on the power data network. This evaluation method avoids the problems caused by traditional means which performs a single assessment of network performance quality. This intelligent Evaluation method can improve the efficiency of network operation and maintenance guarantee the quality of real-time service in the power data network..

  18. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  19. Engineering technology for networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Arthur S.; Benjamin, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Space Network (SN) modeling and evaluation are presented. The following tasks are included: Network Modeling (developing measures and metrics for SN, modeling of the Network Control Center (NCC), using knowledge acquired from the NCC to model the SNC, and modeling the SN); and Space Network Resource scheduling.

  20. Technologies for Home Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A broad overview of the home networking field, ranging from wireless technologies to practical applications. In the future, it is expected that private networks (e.g. home networks) will become part of the global network ecosystem, participating in sharing their own content, running IP...

  1. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luella Fu

    Full Text Available Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use.These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook.During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates.The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00, lower transitivity (p = 0.00, and larger diameter (p = 0.00. Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01, less transitivity (p = .04, and fewer isolates (p = .01. Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher

  2. An exploration of the Facebook social networks of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Luella; Jacobs, Megan A; Brookover, Jody; Valente, Thomas W; Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-01-01

    Social networks influence health behavior, including tobacco use and cessation. To date, little is known about whether and how the networks of online smokers and non-smokers may differ, or the potential implications of such differences with regards to intervention efforts. Understanding how social networks vary by smoking status could inform public health efforts to accelerate cessation or slow the adoption of tobacco use. These secondary analyses explore the structure of ego networks of both smokers and non-smokers collected as part of a randomized control trial conducted within Facebook. During the trial, a total of 14,010 individuals installed a Facebook smoking cessation app: 9,042 smokers who were randomized in the trial, an additional 2,881 smokers who did not meet full eligibility criteria, and 2,087 non-smokers. The ego network for all individuals was constructed out to second-degree connections. Four kinds of networks were constructed: friendship, family, photo, and group networks. From these networks we measured edges, isolates, density, mean betweenness, transitivity, and mean closeness. We also measured diameter, clustering, and modularity without ego and isolates. Logistic regressions were performed with smoking status as the response and network metrics as the primary independent variables and demographics and Facebook utilization metrics as covariates. The four networks had different characteristics, indicated by different multicollinearity issues and by logistic regression output. Among Friendship networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with lower betweenness (p = 0.00), lower transitivity (p = 0.00), and larger diameter (p = 0.00). Among Family networks, the odds of smoking were higher in networks with more vertices (p = .01), less transitivity (p = .04), and fewer isolates (p = .01). Among Photo networks, none of the network metrics were predictive of smoking status. Among Group networks, the odds of smoking were higher when diameter

  3. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  4. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...

  5. Networking for big data

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Shui; Misic, Jelena; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2015-01-01

    Networking for Big Data supplies an unprecedented look at cutting-edge research on the networking and communication aspects of Big Data. Starting with a comprehensive introduction to Big Data and its networking issues, it offers deep technical coverage of both theory and applications.The book is divided into four sections: introduction to Big Data, networking theory and design for Big Data, networking security for Big Data, and platforms and systems for Big Data applications. Focusing on key networking issues in Big Data, the book explains network design and implementation for Big Data. It exa

  6. Report on investigation in fiscal 2000 of industrial technology exchange with international networking organizations; 2000 nendo kokusaitekina network gata soshiki tono sangyo gijutsu koryu chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to promote exchange of industrial technologies, investigations and analyses were made on identification of the current status of networking organizations in different countries working as windows for industrial technology exchange, and on the actual status of technology commercialization methods in overseas incubators. Activities were taken in the following three fields: 1) the current status of networking organizations and incubators in different countries, 2) typology of technology commercialization, technical fields, and success factors, and 3) possibility of the use of technology information in the networking organizations. In Item 1), investigations were performed on the current status and actual activity status of the networking organizations including research parks and individual incubators intended of information exchange, mainly in the United States, UK, and Finland. In Item 2), considerations are given on the points related to technology incubation based on the information about the networking organizations and incubators in each country, and the way the industry-academia cooperation should be. In Item 3), discussions were given on the roles of the networking organizations and the possibility of utilization of technological information in the networking organizations in Japan. (NEDO)

  7. Predicting network structure using unlabeled interaction information

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim, Mehwish; Brandes, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    We are interested in the question whether interactions in online social networks (OSNs) can serve as a proxy for more persistent social relation. With Facebook as the context of our analysis, we look at commenting on wall posts as a form of interaction, and friendship ties as social relations. Findings from a pretest suggest that others’ joint commenting patterns on someone’s status posts are indeed indicative of friendship ties between them, independent of the contents. This would have impli...

  8. Epidemics on interconnected networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, Mark; Havlin, S.; Stanley, H. E.

    2012-06-01

    Populations are seldom completely isolated from their environment. Individuals in a particular geographic or social region may be considered a distinct network due to strong local ties but will also interact with individuals in other networks. We study the susceptible-infected-recovered process on interconnected network systems and find two distinct regimes. In strongly coupled network systems, epidemics occur simultaneously across the entire system at a critical infection strength βc, below which the disease does not spread. In contrast, in weakly coupled network systems, a mixed phase exists below βc of the coupled network system, where an epidemic occurs in one network but does not spread to the coupled network. We derive an expression for the network and disease parameters that allow this mixed phase and verify it numerically. Public health implications of communities comprising these two classes of network systems are also mentioned.

  9. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  10. The CMS HF status

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmat, Rahmat

    2012-01-01

    The experiments at the Large Hadron Collider will have to deal with unprecedented radiation levels. The design of the CMS forward calorimetry detector (HF) is now finalized. The present design of CMS calls for the HF calorimeter to be based on quartz fiber technology. It consists of two modules, located symmetrically at about 11 meters from either side of interaction point. They cover the pseudorapidity range 3-5. The length along the beam is 1.65m or 10 nuclear interaction lenghts. Each calorimeter consists of a large steel block that serves as the absorber. Embedded quartz fibers in the steel absorber run parallel to the beam and constitute the active component of the detector. In order to optimize energy resolution for E and ET flows and forward jets, the calorimeter is effectively segmented longitudinally by using two different fiber lengths. The present status will be discussed.

  11. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-31

    TO OBTAIN SH Cl 921 921 921 G N 6105 0172 ANSI C50.41 82 POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR YD F5 B 921 921 921 G YD N 6105 TOTAL- 13. DELINQUENT- 2. STATUS...MIL B XXXXX BAG SLEEPING ARCTIC SURVIVAL 11 B4 913 922 922 A 11 N D 8465 N047 MIL-B-29110C(NU) BAG LAUNDRY SUBMARINE NU D2 901 903 923 A NU - CT U...PLASTIC UTILITIES YD F5 B 921 921 921 G ER YD 85 N 6105 0172 ANSI C50.41 82 POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR YD F5 B 921 921 921 G YD N 6110 0370 UL 891 84 NOT

  12. PANIC: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, M. C.; Rodríguez Gómez, J.

    2011-11-01

    PANIC, the PAnoramic Near Infrared Camera, is a new instrument for Calar Alto Observatory (CAHA) is a wide-field infraredimager for the CAHA 2.2 m and 3.5 m telescopes. The optics is a folded single optical train, pure lens optics, with a pixel scale of 0.45 arcsec/pixel (18 microns) at the 2.2 m telescope and 0.23 arcsec/pixel at the 3.5 m. A mosaic of four Hawaii-2RG detectorsprovides a field of view (FOV) of 0.5x0.5 degrees and 0.25x0.25 degrees, respectively. It will cover the photometric bandsfrom Z to K_s (0.8 to 2.5 microns) with a low thermal background due to cold stops. Here we present the current status of the project.

  13. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-30

    6505 TOTAL- 115, DELINQUENT- 16, STATUS CODES: A- 91, G- 24, Y- 0, Z- 0 6508 0026 A-A-XXX LIPSTICK . ANTI-CHAP MB DM F2 A 912 922 922 A MD MS 03 N 6508...MS36187 FURNACE MUFFLE LABORATORY EA H5 913 914 914 A EA MS 99 DP N D 6640 1736 10 MS36234 INCUBATOR BACTERIA & EGG INCUBAT EA H5 913 914 914 A EA MS...MUFFLE LABORATORY EA H5 913 914 914 A EA MS 99 DP N D 6640 1736 20 MS36234 INCUBATOR BACTERIA & EGG INCUBAT EA H5 913 914 914 A EA MS 99 DP N D 6640

  14. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    MIL-D-2273E DYLE MIX RECOLOR AND FLD DY GL H5 924 941 933 G GL MC 68 GS U 6820 A098 JAN-D-511A DYES GREEN AND SCARLET AR D2 872 892 904 A AR U B 6820...1077 MIL-L-83795A LAYOUT DYE BLUE 68 A2 904 914 944 A 68 U 6850 1079 MIL C XXXXX CLEANING COMPOUND PRECOATING 68 A4 E 904 921 921 A 68 N C 6850 1084 MIL...G AS U C 8475 TOTAL - 4 , DELINQUENT- 4 , STATUS CODES: A- 4 G - 0 ,Y - 0 , Z - 0 8520 A078 MIL-H-43606B GL HAND CLEANER WATERLESS GL F2 924 934 934 A

  15. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  16. Orion Project Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiewing, Albert; Hopkins, Jeffrey L.

    2015-05-01

    Originally started in 2012 as the Betelgeuse Project, interest in the other bright stars of Orion soon expanded the Project stars to include a total of six of the brightest stars in Orion. The name was then changed to the Orion Project. Orion is one of the most famous constellations. Its declination along the celestial equator is such that it is visible from most of northern and southern hemispheres. In addition, the stars of Orion are very bright and interesting. The Orion Project now includes the stars Betelgeuse, Rigel, Saiph and the three stars of Orion's belt, Mintaka, Alnilam and Alnitak. The projects objectives are both to help the observer produce quality photometric and spectroscopic data and to produce archival quality photometric (BVRIJH bands) and spectroscopy (low, mid and high-resolution) data. This paper is a summary of the Orion Project status.

  17. The research on user behavior evaluation method for network state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengyuan; Xu, Haishui

    2017-08-01

    Based on the correlation between user behavior and network running state, this paper proposes a method of user behavior evaluation based on network state. Based on the analysis and evaluation methods in other fields of study, we introduce the theory and tools of data mining. Based on the network status information provided by the trusted network view, the user behavior data and the network state data are analysed. Finally, we construct the user behavior evaluation index and weight, and on this basis, we can accurately quantify the influence degree of the specific behavior of different users on the change of network running state, so as to provide the basis for user behavior control decision.

  18. Biomarkers of Selenium Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Combs, Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential trace element, selenium (Se, has multiple biological activities, which depend on the level of Se intake. Relatively low Se intakes determine the expression of selenoenzymes in which it serves as an essential constituent. Higher intakes have been shown to have anti-tumorigenic potential; and very high Se intakes can produce adverse effects. This hierarchy of biological activities calls for biomarkers informative at different levels of Se exposure. Some Se-biomarkers, such as the selenoproteins and particularly GPX3 and SEPP1, provide information about function directly and are of value in identifying nutritional Se deficiency and tracking responses of deficient individuals to Se-treatment. They are useful under conditions of Se intake within the range of regulated selenoprotein expression, e.g., for humans <55 μg/day and for animals <20 μg/kg diet. Other Se-biomarkers provide information indirectly through inferences based on Se levels of foods, tissues, urine or feces. They can indicate the likelihood of deficiency or adverse effects, but they do not provide direct evidence of either condition. Their value is in providing information about Se status over a wide range of Se intake, particularly from food forms. There is need for additional Se biomarkers particularly for assessing Se status in non-deficient individuals for whom the prospects of cancer risk reduction and adverse effects risk are the primary health considerations. This would include determining whether supranutritional intakes of Se may be required for maximal selenoprotein expression in immune surveillance cells. It would also include developing methods to determine low molecular weight Se-metabolites, i.e., selenoamino acids and methylated Se-metabolites, which to date have not been detectable in biological specimens. Recent analytical advances using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry suggest prospects for detecting these metabolites.

  19. Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work? A social network perspective on workplace gossip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwardt, Lea; Labianca, Giuseppe (Joe); Wittek, Rafael

    Gossip is informal talking about colleagues. Taking a social network perspective, we argue that group boundaries and social status in the informal workplace network determine who the objects of positive and negative gossip are. Gossip networks were collected among 36 employees in a public child care

  20. Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver C

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physi

  1. How Did the Information Flow in the #AlphaGo Hashtag Network? A Social Network Analysis of the Large-Scale Information Network on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyoung

    2017-12-01

    As it becomes common for Internet users to use hashtags when posting and searching information on social media, it is important to understand who builds a hashtag network and how information is circulated within the network. This article focused on unlocking the potential of the #AlphaGo hashtag network by addressing the following questions. First, the current study examined whether traditional opinion leadership (i.e., the influentials hypothesis) or grassroot participation by the public (i.e., the interpersonal hypothesis) drove dissemination of information in the hashtag network. Second, several unique patterns of information distribution by key users were identified. Finally, the association between attributes of key users who exerted great influence on information distribution (i.e., the number of followers and follows) and their central status in the network was tested. To answer the proffered research questions, a social network analysis was conducted using a large-scale hashtag network data set from Twitter (n = 21,870). The results showed that the leading actors in the network were actively receiving information from their followers rather than serving as intermediaries between the original information sources and the public. Moreover, the leading actors played several roles (i.e., conversation starters, influencers, and active engagers) in the network. Furthermore, the number of their follows and followers were significantly associated with their central status in the hashtag network. Based on the results, the current research explained how the information was exchanged in the hashtag network by proposing the reciprocal model of information flow.

  2. Online Social Activity Reflects Economic Status

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  3. Online social activity reflects economic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Wang, Jun; Shao, Junming; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    To characterize economic development and diagnose the economic health condition, several popular indices such as gross domestic product (GDP), industrial structure and income growth are widely applied. However, computing these indices based on traditional economic census is usually costly and resources consuming, and more importantly, following a long time delay. In this paper, we analyzed nearly 200 million users' activities for four consecutive years in the largest social network (Sina Microblog) in China, aiming at exploring latent relationships between the online social activities and local economic status. Results indicate that online social activity has a strong correlation with local economic development and industrial structure, and more interestingly, allows revealing the macro-economic structure instantaneously with nearly no cost. Beyond, this work also provides a new venue to identify risky signal in local economic structure.

  4. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Functions of National Sport Governing Bodies: A Network Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chelladurai, Packianathan; Zintz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    National sport governing bodies (NSGBs) are distinct from other nonprofits in the way that they are mechanisms instituted to govern other sport organizations that deliver the services in their respective sports. This formal status places a NSGB at the summit or apex of a network of organizations dealing with the same sport. This conceptual paper describes the nature of the apex of a network of sport organizations and describes the unique functions associated with that role.

  6. Epidemic Network Failures in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Katsikas, Dimitrios; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support epid...... epidemic failure resolution is proposed. The results provide important input to service recovery mechanisms under epidemic failures.......This paper presents a failure propagation model for transport networks which are affected by epidemic failures. The network is controlled using the GMPLS protocol suite. The Susceptible Infected Disabled (SID) epidemic model is investigated and new signaling functionality of GMPLS to support...

  7. COMPARISON OF WIRELESS NETWORK OVER WIRED NETWORK AND ITS TYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Shukla; Meghana K M; Manjunath C R; SantoshNaik

    2017-01-01

    Wireless network has become one of the major requirements in today world. People expect wireless network in home, shopping mall, university etc. Nowadays, we cannot imagine the life without network. In this paper focuses on what the different types of networks are. Why wired network is preferred over wireless network. We will further compare the wired network with the wireless network and also present different type of wireless network. This paper provides the basic knowledge about Wired, Wir...

  8. Facility Activity Inference Using Radiation Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ramirez Aviles, Camila A. [ORNL

    2017-11-01

    We consider the problem of inferring the operational status of a reactor facility using measurements from a radiation sensor network deployed around the facility’s ventilation off-gas stack. The intensity of stack emissions decays with distance, and the sensor counts or measurements are inherently random with parameters determined by the intensity at the sensor’s location. We utilize the measurements to estimate the intensity at the stack, and use it in a one-sided Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) to infer on/off status of the reactor. We demonstrate the superior performance of this method over conventional majority fusers and individual sensors using (i) test measurements from a network of 21 NaI detectors, and (ii) effluence measurements collected at the stack of a reactor facility. We also analytically establish the superior detection performance of the network over individual sensors with fixed and adaptive thresholds by utilizing the Poisson distribution of the counts. We quantify the performance improvements of the network detection over individual sensors using the packing number of the intensity space.

  9. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  10. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  11. Computer network defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urias, Vincent; Stout, William M. S.; Loverro, Caleb

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus for protecting virtual machines. A computer system creates a copy of a group of the virtual machines in an operating network in a deception network to form a group of cloned virtual machines in the deception network when the group of the virtual machines is accessed by an adversary. The computer system creates an emulation of components from the operating network in the deception network. The components are accessible by the group of the cloned virtual machines as if the group of the cloned virtual machines was in the operating network. The computer system moves network connections for the group of the virtual machines in the operating network used by the adversary from the group of the virtual machines in the operating network to the group of the cloned virtual machines, enabling protecting the group of the virtual machines from actions performed by the adversary.

  12. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  13. Recruitment dynamics in adaptive social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkarayev, Maxim S.; Schwartz, Ira B.; Shaw, Leah B.

    2013-06-01

    We model recruitment in adaptive social networks in the presence of birth and death processes. Recruitment is characterized by nodes changing their status to that of the recruiting class as a result of contact with recruiting nodes. Only a susceptible subset of nodes can be recruited. The recruiting individuals may adapt their connections in order to improve recruitment capabilities, thus changing the network structure adaptively. We derive a mean-field theory to predict the dependence of the growth threshold of the recruiting class on the adaptation parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of adaptation on the recruitment level, as well as on network topology. The theoretical predictions are compared with direct simulations of the full system. We identify two parameter regimes with qualitatively different bifurcation diagrams depending on whether nodes become susceptible frequently (multiple times in their lifetime) or rarely (much less than once per lifetime).

  14. Exploring Social Networking Technologies as Tools for HIV Prevention for Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, Jorge; Kidder, Thomas; Albritton, Tashuna; Blick, Gary; Pachankis, John; Grandelski, Valen; Grandeleski, Valen; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-08-01

    Social networking technologies are influential among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may be an important strategy for HIV prevention. We conducted focus groups with HIV positive and negative participants. Almost all participants used social networking sites to meet new friends and sexual partners. The main obstacle to effective HIV prevention campaigns in social networking platforms was stigmatization based on homosexuality as well as HIV status. Persistent stigma associated with HIV status and disclosure was cited as a top reason for avoiding HIV-related conversations while meeting new partners using social technologies. Further, social networking sites have different social etiquettes and rules that may increase HIV risk by discouraging HIV status disclosure. Overall, successful interventions for MSM using social networking technologies must consider aspects of privacy, stigma, and social norms in order to enact HIV reduction among MSM.

  15. Sentinel-2 mission status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca

    2017-04-01

    The SENTINEL-2 mission is the European Multispectral Imaging Mission for the Copernicus joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The SENTINEL-2 mission includes 13-spectral band multispectral optical imager with different resolution (down to 10 m) and a swath width of 290km. It provides very short revisit times and rapid product delivery. The mission is composed of a constellation of two satellite units, SENTINEL-2A and SENTINEL-2B, sharing the same orbital plane and featuring a short repeat cycle of 5 days at the equator optimized to mitigate the impact of clouds for science and applications. SENTINEL-2 enables exploitation for a variety of land and coastal applications such as agriculture, forestry, land cover and land cover change, urban mapping, emergency, as well as inland water, ice, glaciers and also coastal zone and closed seas applications. Following the launch of the Sentinel-2A in June 2015 and successful operations and data delivery since December 2015, the Sentinel-2B satellite is set for launch in March 2017. The full operation capacity is foreseen after the in-orbit commissioning phase of the Sentinel-2B unit in early summer 2017. The objective of the talk is to provide information about the mission status, and the way to achieve full operational capacity with 2 satellites.

  16. Biosimilar drugs: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Jagjit

    2014-07-01

    Biologic products are being developed over the past three decades. The expiry of patent protection for many biological medicines has led to the development of biosimilars in UK or follow on biologics in USA. This article reviews the literature on biosimilar drugs that covers the therapeutic status and regulatory guidelines. Appraisal of published articles from peer reviewed journals for English language publications, search from PubMed, and guidelines from European Medicines Agency, US Food Drug Administration (FDA) and India were used to identify data for review. Literature suggest that biosimilars are similar biological products, i.e., comparable but not identical to the reference product, are not generic version of innovator product and do not ensure therapeutic equivalence. Biosimilars present more challenges than conventional generics and marketing approval is also more complicated. To improve access, US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation act 2009 and US FDA allowed "abbreviated pathway" for their approval. U.S law has defined new standards and terms and EMA scientific guidelines have also set detailed approval standards. India being one of the most preferred manufacturing destinations of biosimilars, there is a need for stringent safety and regulatory guidelines. The New India Guidelines "Draft Guidelines on Similar Biologics were announced in June 2012, by Department of Biotechnology at Boston bio and available online.

  17. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  18. Intelligent networked teleoperation control

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhijun; Su, Chun-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a unified framework for networked teleoperation systems involving multiple research fields: networked control systems for linear and nonlinear forms, bilateral teleoperation, trilateral teleoperation, multilateral teleoperation and cooperative teleoperation. It closely examines networked control as a field at the intersection of systems & control and robotics and presents a number of experimental case studies on testbeds for robotic systems, including networked haptic devices, robotic network systems and sensor network systems. The concepts and results outlined are easy to understand, even for readers fairly new to the subject. As such, the book offers a valuable reference work for researchers and engineers in the fields of systems & control and robotics.

  19. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  20. Cisco networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Start a career in networking Cisco Networking Essentials, 2nd Edition provides the latest for those beginning a career in networking. This book provides the fundamentals of networking and leads you through the concepts, processes, and skills you need to master fundamental networking concepts. Thinking of taking the CCENT Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician ICND1 Exam 100-101? This book has you covered! With coverage of important topics and objectives, each chapter outlines main points and provides clear, engaging discussion that will give you a sound understanding of core topics and c

  1. Status Offenders and Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews recent changes in North Carolina law and policy affecting compulsory school attendance and status offenders. Status offenders are children who commit offenses that are unique to children--such as being truant, running away from home, or being beyond the disciplinary control of their parents. (Author/IRT)

  2. Bufferless transmission in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Cunlai; Cui, Wei; Wu, Jiexin; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Complex bufferless networks such as on-chip networks and optical burst switching networks haven't been paid enough attention in network science. In complex bufferless networks, the store and forward mechanism is not applicable, since the network nodes are not allowed to buffer data packets. In this paper, we study the data transmission process in complex bufferless networks from the perspective of network science. Specifically, we use the Price model to generate the underlying network topolog...

  3. Exhibition as Network, Network as Curator: Canonizing Art from “Latin America”

    OpenAIRE

    Quiles, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the network curatorial model popularized in the early 2000s by Héctor Olea and Mari Carmen Ramírez’s Heterotopías: medio siglo sin-lugar, 1918-1968. The network allows for a paradoxical rejection and reinforcement of Latin American art’s peripheral status, rendering the region simultaneously a bounded locality where new ideas emerge and a set of nodes in a global art ecology. Recent exhibitions such as the Red Conceptualismos del Sur’s Perder la forma humana (2012-2014) ...

  4. Do Policy Networks lead to Network Governing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    This paper challenges the notion that creation of local policy networks necessarily leads to network governing. Through actor-centred case studies in the area of municipally implemented employment policy in Denmark it was found that the local governing mode is determined mainly by the municipality...

  5. Networks and Networking: The Public Administrative Agendas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    2014-01-01

    Published in 1997, the article “Treating Networks Seriously: Practical and Research-Based Agendas in Public Administration” outlined the importance of networks for the field of public administration and suggested a series of research agendas that should be pursued. That argument has received

  6. Content Delivery in Future Mobile Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Karl; Raber, Sergey

    2003-07-01

    With the fast progress in the deployment of wireless networks during the last few years, the global communication market requires the development of new methods for content delivery towards mobile users. It is currently characterised by the introduction of the 3rd generation of terrestrial mobile networks based on 3GPP's UMTS standard. It is expected that this will eventually lead to integrated all-IP-based infrastructures supporting a variety of radio access technologies (so-called beyond-3G-networks or 4th Generation networks). The integration of mobility support, security and accounting and provisioning of differentiated qualities of service are among the issues which are currently researched in the 4G framework.Since it is not possible to change network protocols and infrastructure at once in order to optimize them for mobile services, it is very important to find an appropriate way for the migration from the current infrastructure towards an integrated architecture, where fixed and mobile networks coexist and interoperate in the most effective and flexible way.The integration of satellite communication networks into the terrestrial mobile communication environment is the focus of R&D activities at the Competence Centre for Advanced Satellite Communication of the FhG FOKUS institute. These activities are presented in this article, with a focus on the CoDeSat Content Delivery over Satellite project.In the remainder of this article we first summarize services and service requirements as they are considered in our work. We then discuss the challenges derived from these requirements with respect to current network and protocol architectures. Finally, we describe our approach, and the current status of our prototype implementation.

  7. Network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers in respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaodan; Chen, Luonan; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Identification and validation of interaction networks and network biomarkers have become more critical and important in the development of disease-specific biomarkers, which are functionally changed during disease development, progression or treatment. The present review headlined the definition, significance, research and potential application for network biomarkers, interaction networks and dynamical network biomarkers (DNB). Disease-specific interaction networks, network biomarkers, or DNB...

  8. Understanding social hierarchies: The neural and psychological foundations of status perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica E; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R

    2015-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review, we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are sociocultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents.

  9. Understanding Social Hierarchies: The Neural and Psychological Foundations of Status Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2017-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184

  10. NETWORKS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL - IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES FOR ENTREPRENEURS IN TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela CORODEANU AGHEORGHIESEI; Valentin NIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    In the business field, the social networks based on ties of trust are an attribute of organizations with strong organizational culture where the social status is important. These networks are the source of social capital.Given the role of tourism industry in the development community, especially since 1990, according david a. Fennell (2003) the social capital can exist at the micro levelwith reference to social network sites that exist in the very strong social arrangements, at the meso-level...

  11. Mobile ad hoc networking the cutting edge directions

    CERN Document Server

    Basagni, Stefano; Giordano, Silvia; Stojmenovic, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    ""An excellent book for those who are interested in learning the current status of research and development . . . [and] who want to get a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art.""-E-Streams This book provides up-to-date information on research and development in the rapidly growing area of networks based on the multihop ad hoc networking paradigm. It reviews all classes of networks that have successfully adopted this paradigm, pointing out how they penetrated the mass market and sparked breakthrough research. Covering both physical issues and applica

  12. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...

  13. Networks around entrepreneurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Jensen, Kent Wickstrøm

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurs are networking with others to get advice for their businesses. The networking differs between men and women; notably, men are more often networking in the public sphere and women are more often networking in the private sphere. The aim here is to account for how...... such gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks differ between societies and cultures. Research Design: Based on survey data from the Global Entrepreneurships Monitor, a sample of 16,365 entrepreneurs is used to compare the gendering of entrepreneurs’ networks in China, and five countries largely located around...... the Persian Gulf, namely Yemen, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Qatar and United Arab Emirates. Findings: Analyses show that female entrepreneurs tend to have slightly larger private sphere networks than male entrepreneurs. The differences between male and female entrepreneurs’ networking in the public sphere...

  14. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  15. Multilayer Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickison, Mark; Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    social network systems, the evolution of interconnected social networks, and dynamic processes such as information spreading. A single real dataset is used to illustrate the concepts presented throughout the book, demonstrating both the practical utility and the potential shortcomings of the various......Multilayer networks, in particular multilayer social networks, where users belong to and interact on different networks at the same time, are an active research area in social network analysis, computer science, and physics. These networks have traditionally been studied within these separate...... research communities, leading to the development of several independent models and methods to deal with the same set of problems. This book unifies and consolidates existing practical and theoretical knowledge on multilayer networks including data collection and analysis, modeling, and mining of multilayer...

  16. Networking for the Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickel, Petra; Hörisch, Jacob; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    from 248 technology-based start-ups shows that those firms with a strong external environmental orientation have significantly higher networking frequencies and build larger networks. Conversely, a strong internal environmental orientation is linked to smaller networks. Thus, the results highlight......Although the public debate on the environmental orientation of firms has intensified, there is a lack of understanding about the consequences of that orientation, especially in terms of its impact on firms' networking behavior. In order to fill this gap, this paper analyzes the impact of external...... and internal environmental orientation on start-ups’ network characteristics, because networks are both vital for the success of start-ups and resource demanding. More specifically, the effects of environmental orientation on networking frequency and network size among start-ups are analyzed. Empirical data...

  17. Virtualized Network Control (VNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Thomas [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Guok, Chin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghani, Nasir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The focus of this project was on the development of a "Network Service Plane" as an abstraction model for the control and provisioning of multi-layer networks. The primary motivation for this work were the requirements of next generation networked applications which will need to access advanced networking as a first class resource at the same level as compute and storage resources. A new class of "Intelligent Network Services" were defined in order to facilitate the integration of advanced network services into application specific workflows. This new class of network services are intended to enable real-time interaction between the application co-scheduling algorithms and the network for the purposes of workflow planning, real-time resource availability identification, scheduling, and provisioning actions.

  18. Wireshark network security

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    If you are network administrator or a security analyst with an interest in using Wireshark for security analysis, then this is the book for you. Basic familiarity with common network and application services terms and technologies is assumed.

  19. Energy Sciences Network (ESnet)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Sciences Network is the Department of Energy’s high-speed network that provides the high-bandwidth, reliable connections that link scientists at national...

  20. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  1. Adaptive dynamical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikov, O. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    Dynamical networks are systems of active elements (nodes) interacting with each other through links. Examples are power grids, neural structures, coupled chemical oscillators, and communications networks, all of which are characterized by a networked structure and intrinsic dynamics of their interacting components. If the coupling structure of a dynamical network can change over time due to nodal dynamics, then such a system is called an adaptive dynamical network. The term ‘adaptive’ implies that the coupling topology can be rewired; the term ‘dynamical’ implies the presence of internal node and link dynamics. The main results of research on adaptive dynamical networks are reviewed. Key notions and definitions of the theory of complex networks are given, and major collective effects that emerge in adaptive dynamical networks are described.

  2. Determinants of Network Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ysa, Tamyko; Sierra, Vicenta; Esteve, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The literature on network management is extensive. However, it generally explores network structures, neglecting the impact of management strategies. In this article we assess the effect of management strategies on network outcomes, providing empirical evidence from 119 urban revitalization...... networks. We go beyond current work by testing a path model for the determinants of network outcomes and considering the interactions between the constructs: management strategies, trust, complexity, and facilitative leadership. Our results suggest that management strategies have a strong effect on network...... outcomes and that they enhance the level of trust. We also found that facilitative leadership has a positive impact on network management as well as on trust in the network. Our findings also show that complexity has a negative impact on trust. A key finding of our research is that managers may wield more...

  3. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Bladder Cancer Think Tank Bladder Cancer Research Network Bladder Cancer Genomics Consortium Get Involved Ways to ... us? Who we are The Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) is a community of patients, caregivers, survivors, ...

  4. Congenital Heart Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects. Important Notice The Congenital Heart Information Network website is temporarily out of service. Please join ... and Uwe Baemayr for The Congenital Heart Information Network Exempt organization under Section 501(c)3. Copyright © ...

  5. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  6. National Lymphedema Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11-14 NLN Lymphedema Awareness Month National Lymphedema Network Lymphedema Overview Start Here! Get an overview of ... activities and goings-on. Follow the National Lymphedema Network newsfeed below. Also, see the following links for ...

  7. Linux Networking Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Carla

    2008-01-01

    If you want a book that lays out the steps for specific Linux networking tasks, one that clearly explains the commands and configurations, this is the book for you. Linux Networking Cookbook is a soup-to-nuts collection of recipes that covers everything you need to know to perform your job as a Linux network administrator. You'll dive straight into the gnarly hands-on work of building and maintaining a computer network

  8. Social Networking and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Curran; Michael Mc Hugh

    2013-01-01

    The rise of social networking has revolutionised how people communicate on a daily basis. In a world where more people are connecting to the internet, social networking services create an immediate communication link between users. Social networking sites provide multiple services which include emailing, instant messaging, uploading files, gaming and finding friends. Just as social networking has become a more popular method of communication in recent years, the ways in which people look afte...

  9. Organization Virtual or Networked?

    OpenAIRE

    Rūta Tamošiūnaitė

    2013-01-01

    Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked org...

  10. Dynamics of social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, Holger; Davidsen, Joern; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Complex networks as the World Wide Web, the web of human sexual contacts or criminal networks often do not have an engineered architecture but instead are self-organized by the actions of a large number of individuals. From these local interactions non-trivial global phenomena can emerge as small-world properties or scale-free degree distributions. A simple model for the evolution of acquaintance networks highlights the essential dynamical ingredients necessary to obtain such complex network ...

  11. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  12. ISTIMES project: status and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, V.; Proto, M.; Soldovieri, F.

    2012-04-01

    ISTIMES is a project approved in the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union under the Joint Call FP7-ICT-SEC-2007-1. It has a three years duration and will be completed within June 2012. According to the aims of the proposal, ISTIMES project has designed, assessed and developed a prototypical modular and scalable ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring; the specific application field was the reliability and safety of critical transport infrastructures, even if the modularity of the ISTIMES approach has permitted to extend it successfully to other critical infrastructures as dams. The continuous and fruitful involvement of end users (as Italian Civil Protection) allowed to develop applications focused on users needs. ISTIMES couples current monitoring of infrastructures with a high situational awareness during crises management, providing updated and detailed real and near real time information about the infrastructure status to improve decision support for emergency and disasters stakeholders. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of heterogeneous sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfaces with other networks. It relies on state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite and airborne measurements. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance at different temporal and spatial scales, providing indexes and images of the critical transport infrastructures. The project has exploited, assessed and improved many different non-invasive technologies based on electromagnetic sensing as: Optic Fiber Sensors, Synthetic Aperture; Radar (SAR) satellite platform; Hyperspectral Spectroscopy; Infrared

  13. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Falco-Walter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT. Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus, elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE.

  14. Securing Personal Network Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehangir, A.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    A Personal Network is a self-organizing, secure and private network of a user’s devices notwithstanding their geographic location. It aims to utilize pervasive computing to provide users with new and improved services. In this paper we propose a model for securing Personal Network clusters. Clusters

  15. Measuring information networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of governance (CEO) defined by company executives in the USA where two CEOs are connected by a link if they are members of the same board [9]. One sees that IS > IS(random) for most networks, except for the fly network. Thus most networks have a topology that tends to hide nodes. In fact this can be quantified.

  16. OSI Network Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ethan

    1990-01-01

    Management of heterogeneous networks is complicated by the persistence of proprietary management schemes. The need for integration of network management capabilities is pressing. The International Organization for Standardization is developing standards for managing networks as part of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) effort. OSI management…

  17. Managing Knowledge Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Noshir S.; Monge, Peter R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a multitheoretical, multilevel (MTML) model to study the management of knowledge networks. Considers theoretical mechanisms for emergence of knowledge networks and presents empirical findings about the emergence of knowledge networks. Concludes that it is necessary to utilize MTML models to integrate multiple social and communication…

  18. Neural Network Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Salamon, Peter

    1990-01-01

    We propose several means for improving the performance an training of neural networks for classification. We use crossvalidation as a tool for optimizing network parameters and architecture. We show further that the remaining generalization error can be reduced by invoking ensembles of similar...... networks....

  19. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  20. Spanish Museum Libraries Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Prado, Rosario

    This paper describes the creation of an automated network of museum libraries in Spain. The only way in which the specialized libraries in the world today can continue to be active and to offer valid information is to automate the service they offer, and create network libraries with cooperative plans. The network can be configured with different…

  1. Optimal Fragile Financial Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglionesi, F.; Navarro, N.

    2007-01-01

    We study a financial network characterized by the presence of depositors, banks and their shareholders. Belonging to a financial network is beneficial for both the depositors and banks' shareholders since the return to investment increases with the number of banks connected. However, the network is

  2. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  3. Metallic nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  4. The Network Paradox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David Rothkopf

    2015-01-01

    .... Call it the "network paradox," a phenomenon by which joining a network can both strengthen and create new vulnerabilities for those on the network. Setting aside hyperbole and simplistic visions is essential when planning for a future that is going to become dramatically different in many complex ways.

  5. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  6. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  7. Animal transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-06

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...

  9. Synchronization of networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... We study the synchronization of coupled dynamical systems on networks. The dynamics is governed by a local nonlinear oscillator for each node of the network and interactions connecting different nodes via the links of the network. We consider existence and stability conditions for both single- and ...

  10. Network Descriptions and NEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, H.E.; Ham, J.J. van der; Daal, M. van; Laat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    The network is one of the most important components of NEC. In order to achieve high levels of agility and flexibility it is important that all users and providers have a good overview of the capabilities and possibilities of the network. Historically network applications have used their own

  11. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    to be superior, i.e. a status quo effect. However, in the stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In the Choice Experiment literature, status quo bias...

  12. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: sixth periodic summary report (1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothert, J.E.; Dana, M.T.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1982. Included is an update on network status and a summary of the USGS blind sample analysis program and laboratory sample exchanges during 1982. The statistical summary is deferred to a forthcoming publication.

  13. The Social Networks of Children With and Without Disabilities in Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura; Sawyer, Brook

    2017-09-01

    Interaction with peers is an important contributor to young children's social and cognitive development. Yet, little is known about the nature of social networks within preschool inclusive classrooms. The current study applied a social network analysis to characterize children's peer interactions in inclusive classrooms and their relations with children's disability status. The participants were 485 preschoolers from 64 early childhood special education (ECSE) inclusive classrooms. Results from teachers' report of children's social networks showed that children with disabilities formed smaller play networks compared to their typically developing peers in the classroom, but no evidence indicated that children with disabilities engaged in more conflict networks than their counterparts. Children's play and conflict networks were segregated by children's disability status.

  14. Is the immune network a complex network?

    CERN Document Server

    Souza-e-Silva, Hallan

    2012-01-01

    Some years ago a cellular automata model was proposed to describe the evolution of the immune repertoire of B cells and antibodies based on Jerne's immune network theory and shape-space formalism. Here we investigate if the networks generated by this model in the different regimes can be classified as complex networks. We have found that in the chaotic regime the network has random characteristics with large, constant values of clustering coefficients, while in the ordered phase, the degree distribution of the network is exponential and the clustering coefficient exhibits power law behavior. In the transition region we observed a mixed behavior (random-like and exponential) of the degree distribution as opposed to the scale-free behavior reported for other biological networks. Randomness and low connectivity in the active sites allow for rapid changes in the connectivity distribution of the immune network in order to include and/or discard information and generate a dynamic memory. However it is the availabil...

  15. Localizing and placement of network node functions in a network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, R.J.; Meulenhoff, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    The invention enables placement and use of a network node function in a second network node instead of using the network node function in a first network node. The network node function is e.g. a server function or a router function. The second network node is typically located in or close to the

  16. Social networking in a disconnected network: fbDTN: facebook over DTN

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In this demo, we describe the design and implementation of fbDTN, a gateway that allow users to access Facebook services over a Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) in a convenient and secure manner. Our system enables users to read their news feed, post status updates and photos, and comment and "like" the posts of other people. We also show the importance of supporting applications like this in a DTN and allow demo session attendees to see this system in action.

  17. Oscillations and synchrony in a cortical neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jingyi; Wang, Rubin; Yan, Chuankui; Du, Ying

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the oscillations and synchronization status of two different network connectivity patterns based on Izhikevich model are studied. One of the connectivity patterns is a randomly connected neuronal network, the other one is a small-world neuronal network. This Izhikevich model is a simple model which can not only reproduce the rich behaviors of biological neurons but also has only two equations and one nonlinear term. Detailed investigations reveal that by varying some key parameters, such as the connection weights of neurons, the external current injection, the noise of intensity and the neuron number, this neuronal network will exhibit various collective behaviors in randomly coupled neuronal network. In addition, we show that by changing the number of nearest neighbor and connection probability in small-world topology can also affect the collective dynamics of neuronal activity. These results may be instructive in understanding the collective dynamics of mammalian cortex.

  18. Business communication in social networks: Content management and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Nicolás

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, management of communication in social networks has become an indispensable strategic activity and contributes directly to change the mode of relationship between business and its stakeholders. The first section of this paper presents a brief analysis of the results reported in different specialized national studies in social networks. We analyse the general activities that users prefer to do and activities that users value most brands on networks. If an organization wants to successfully manage their communication in social networks is very important to know the behaviour of the users and design strategies based on their status and economic activity. This paper presents a brief analysis of social branding through the classification of different corporate content posted on their networks.

  19. Joint community and anomaly tracking in dynamic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Baingana, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Most real-world networks exhibit community structure, a phenomenon characterized by existence of node clusters whose intra-edge connectivity is stronger than edge connectivities between nodes belonging to different clusters. In addition to facilitating a better understanding of network behavior, community detection finds many practical applications in diverse settings. Communities in online social networks are indicative of shared functional roles, or affiliation to a common socio-economic status, the knowledge of which is vital for targeted advertisement. In buyer-seller networks, community detection facilitates better product recommendations. Unfortunately, reliability of community assignments is hindered by anomalous user behavior often observed as unfair self-promotion, or "fake" highly-connected accounts created to promote fraud. The present paper advocates a novel approach for jointly tracking communities while detecting such anomalous nodes in time-varying networks. By postulating edge creation as the ...

  20. Distributed applications monitoring at system and network level

    CERN Document Server

    Aderholz, Michael; Augé, E; Bagliesi, G; Banistoni, G; Barone, L; Boschini, M; Brunengo, A; Bunn, J J; Butler, J; Campanella, M; Capiluppi, P; D'Amato, M; Darneri, M; Di Mattia, A; Dorokhov, A E; Gagliardi, F; Gaines, I; Gasparini, U; Ghiselli, A; Gordon, J; Grandi, C; Gálvez, P; Harris, F; Holtman, K; Karimäki, V; Karita, Y; Klem, J T; Legrand, I; Leltchouk, M; Linglin, D; Lubrano, P; Luminari, L; McArthur, I C; Michelotto, M; Morita, Y; Nazarenko, A; Newman, H; O'Dell, Vivian; O'Neale, S W; Osculati, B; Pepé, M; Perini, L; Pinfold, James L; Pordes, R; Prelz, F; Putzer, A; Resconi, S; Robertson, L; Rolli, S; Sasaki, T; Sato, H; Schaffer, R D; Schalk, T L; Servoli, L; Sgaravatto, M; Shiers, J; Silvestris, L; Siroli, G P; Sliwa, K; Smith, T; Somigliana, R; Stanescu, C; Stockinger, H E; Ugolotti, D; Valente, E; Vistoli, C; Wilkinson, R P; Willers, Ian Malcolm; Williams, D O

    2001-01-01

    Most distributed applications are based on architectural models that do not involve real-time knowledge of network status and of their network usage. Moreover the new "network aware" architectures are still under development and their design is not yet complete. We considered, as a use case, an application using ODBMS (Objectivity /DB) for the distributed analysis of experimental data. The dynamic usage of system and network resources at host and application levels has been measured in different client/server configurations, and on several LAN and WAN layouts. The aim was to study the application efficiency and behavior versus the network characteristics and conditions. The most interesting results of the LAN and WAN tests are described. System bottlenecks and limitations have been identified, and efficient working conditions in the different scenarios have been defined. The behavior observed when moving away from the optimal working conditions is also described.

  1. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  2. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  3. Robustness of weighted networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Cassi, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Complex network response to node loss is a central question in different fields of network science because node failure can cause the fragmentation of the network, thus compromising the system functioning. Previous studies considered binary networks where the intensity (weight) of the links is not accounted for, i.e. a link is either present or absent. However, in real-world networks the weights of connections, and thus their importance for network functioning, can be widely different. Here, we analyzed the response of real-world and model networks to node loss accounting for link intensity and the weighted structure of the network. We used both classic binary node properties and network functioning measure, introduced a weighted rank for node importance (node strength), and used a measure for network functioning that accounts for the weight of the links (weighted efficiency). We find that: (i) the efficiency of the attack strategies changed using binary or weighted network functioning measures, both for real-world or model networks; (ii) in some cases, removing nodes according to weighted rank produced the highest damage when functioning was measured by the weighted efficiency; (iii) adopting weighted measure for the network damage changed the efficacy of the attack strategy with respect the binary analyses. Our results show that if the weighted structure of complex networks is not taken into account, this may produce misleading models to forecast the system response to node failure, i.e. consider binary links may not unveil the real damage induced in the system. Last, once weighted measures are introduced, in order to discover the best attack strategy, it is important to analyze the network response to node loss using nodes rank accounting the intensity of the links to the node.

  4. Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozimkiewicz, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches for Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in GPON networks are proposed, and validated through simulations in the OPNET modeler. One approach address a Status Reporting scheme, where the bandwidth allocation originates from the client request. The second use a centralized Non...

  5. Collaborative Network Evolution: The Los Angeles Terrorism Early Warning Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    overly dependent on the ad hoc ‘ sneaker net’ of personal relations among known colleagues.12 An effective network linking federal, state and local...personal affinities, or ascribed status of members who participate regularly in collective activities. At the same time, the particular patterning of

  6. ATM Technology Adoption in U.S. Campus Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Engui; Perry, John F.; Anderson, Larry S.; Brook, R. Dan; Hare, R. Dwight; Moore, Arnold J.; Xu, Xiaohe

    This study examined the relationships between ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) adoption in universities and four organizational variables: university size, type, finances, and information processing maturity. Another purpose of the study was to identify the current status of ATM adoption in campus networking. Subjects were university domain LAN…

  7. Managing a large academic CD-ROM network

    OpenAIRE

    Seidler, Wolfram; Oberhauser, Otto

    1996-01-01

    Describes one of the largest CD-ROM networks in Europe, managed by the University of Vienna Library over the past 3 years. Discusses background, history of the project, the current technical status, use of the system, some economic aspects, and current issues and problems.

  8. Rapid innovation diffusion in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreindler, Gabriel E; Young, H Peyton

    2014-07-22

    Social and technological innovations often spread through social networks as people respond to what their neighbors are doing. Previous research has identified specific network structures, such as local clustering, that promote rapid diffusion. Here we derive bounds that are independent of network structure and size, such that diffusion is fast whenever the payoff gain from the innovation is sufficiently high and the agents' responses are sufficiently noisy. We also provide a simple method for computing an upper bound on the expected time it takes for the innovation to become established in any finite network. For example, if agents choose log-linear responses to what their neighbors are doing, it takes on average less than 80 revision periods for the innovation to diffuse widely in any network, provided that the error rate is at least 5% and the payoff gain (relative to the status quo) is at least 150%. Qualitatively similar results hold for other smoothed best-response functions and populations that experience heterogeneous payoff shocks.

  9. Managing Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awate, Snehal Suyash; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Mudambi, Ram

    In this article, we treat innovation as a multidimensional construct spanning people, technologies, and geographies. We study how these dimensions interact and impact firms' inventor networks and the ultimate innovation performance. We identify five distinct planes in which inventor networks reside...... of the costs and benefits of being centrally located on multiplex network versus having an equal distribution of ties between the different network layers. Using patent data on the global wind power industry, we find evidence suggesting that being centrally positioned on a multiplex network with an equal...

  10. Networks Technology Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Keiji K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The papers included in these proceedings represent the most interesting and current topics being pursued by personnel at GSFC's Networks Division and supporting contractors involved in Space, Ground, and Deep Space Network (DSN) technical work. Although 29 papers are represented in the proceedings, only 12 were presented at the conference because of space and time limitations. The proceedings are organized according to five principal technical areas of interest to the Networks Division: Project Management; Network Operations; Network Control, Scheduling, and Monitoring; Modeling and Simulation; and Telecommunications Engineering.

  11. Learning conditional Gaussian networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Susanne Gammelgaard

    This paper considers conditional Gaussian networks. The parameters in the network are learned by using conjugate Bayesian analysis. As conjugate local priors, we apply the Dirichlet distribution for discrete variables and the Gaussian-inverse gamma distribution for continuous variables, given...... a configuration of the discrete parents. We assume parameter independence and complete data. Further, to learn the structure of the network, the network score is deduced. We then develop a local master prior procedure, for deriving parameter priors in these networks. This procedure satisfies parameter...... independence, parameter modularity and likelihood equivalence. Bayes factors to be used in model search are introduced. Finally the methods derived are illustrated by a simple example....

  12. NASA's unique networking environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  13. Computer-communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Meditch, James S

    1983-01-01

    Computer- Communication Networks presents a collection of articles the focus of which is on the field of modeling, analysis, design, and performance optimization. It discusses the problem of modeling the performance of local area networks under file transfer. It addresses the design of multi-hop, mobile-user radio networks. Some of the topics covered in the book are the distributed packet switching queuing network design, some investigations on communication switching techniques in computer networks and the minimum hop flow assignment and routing subject to an average message delay constraint

  14. Microsoft Windows networking essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Darril

    2011-01-01

    The core concepts and technologies of Windows networking Networking can be a complex topic, especially for those new to the field of IT. This focused, full-color book takes a unique approach to teaching Windows networking to beginners by stripping down a network to its bare basics, thereby making each topic clear and easy to understand. Focusing on the new Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) program, this book pares down to just the essentials, showing beginners how to gain a solid foundation for understanding networking concepts upon which more advanced topics and technologies can be built.

  15. Networks in Cognitive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Chater, Nick; Christiansen, Morten H

    2013-01-01

    Networks of interconnected nodes have long played a key role in cognitive science, from artificial neural networks to spreading activation models of semantic memory. Recently, however, a new Network Science has been developed, providing insights into the emergence of global, system-scale properties in contexts as diverse as the Internet, metabolic reactions or collaborations among scientists. Today, the inclusion of network theory into cognitive sciences, and the expansion of complex systems science, promises to significantly change the way in which the organization and dynamics of cognitive and behavioral processes are understood. In this paper, we review recent contributions of network theory at different levels and domains within the cognitive sciences.

  16. Cisco Networking Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    McMillan, Troy

    2011-01-01

    An engaging approach for anyone beginning a career in networking As the world leader of networking products and services, Cisco products are constantly growing in demand. Yet, few books are aimed at those who are beginning a career in IT--until now. Cisco Networking Essentials provides a solid foundation on the Cisco networking products and services with thorough coverage of fundamental networking concepts. Author Troy McMillan applies his years of classroom instruction to effectively present high-level topics in easy-to-understand terms for beginners. With this indispensable full-color resour

  17. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed......, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape...

  18. Wireless mesh networks

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a new technology that has the potential to revolutionize how we access the Internet and communicate with co-workers and friends. Wireless Mesh Networks examines the concept and explores its advantages over existing technologies. This book explores existing and future applications, and examines how some of the networking protocols operate.The text offers a detailed analysis of the significant problems affecting wireless mesh networking, including network scale issues, security, and radio frequency interference, and suggests actual and potential solutions for each pro

  19. Innovation and network collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Müller, Sabine; Jørgensen, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can benefit from network collaboration by enhancing opportunities for innovation. Managing the necessary collaboration to benefit from network participation may however be particularly challenging for SMEs due to their size...... and their inherent shortage of resources. In this paper, we propose that human resource management (HRM) practices may provide a means by which SMEs can increase their innovation capacity through network collaboration. Following a brief presentation of the relevant literature on networks, and innovation in networks...

  20. Network structure of production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Enghin; Hortaçsu, Ali; Roberts, James; Syverson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Complex social networks have received increasing attention from researchers. Recent work has focused on mechanisms that produce scale-free networks. We theoretically and empirically characterize the buyer–supplier network of the US economy and find that purely scale-free models have trouble matching key attributes of the network. We construct an alternative model that incorporates realistic features of firms’ buyer–supplier relationships and estimate the model’s parameters using microdata on firms’ self-reported customers. This alternative framework is better able to match the attributes of the actual economic network and aids in further understanding several important economic phenomena. PMID:21402924

  1. The GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations and an Update on the Space Geodesy Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Ma, Chopo; Noll, Carey; Pavlis, Erricos; Schuh, Harald; Schoene, Tilo; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Kenyon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The GGOS Bureau of Networks and Communications is being reorganized into the Bureau of Networks and Observations. Although the GGOS Bureau of Networks and Communication was the Bureau of the Services, it focused primarily on the geometric techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS, and DORIS) that provided the foundation for the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. Over the course of the last several years the Space Geodesy networks have grown; new systems are in the process of deployment, new sites are being established following the GGOS concept of "core" sites and new technologies are implemented to enhance performance in data yield as well as accuracy. In particular, several groups are undertaking initiatives and seeking partnerships to update existing sites and expand the networks in geographic areas void of coverage. It has also been long recognized that new data products generated by entities within and outside of GGOS will require integration with those of the geometric and non-geometric Service data in order to produce new and improved products such as a Unified Height System, improved tide and ocean models, and better hazard assessment tools. The role of the new Bureau is now being expanded to better integrate the non-geometric Services (Gravity Service, Tide gauge networks, etc.) and to strengthen communications with the space missions, the simulation activities to project network capability, and some of the data gathering functions. The expanded Bureau will include the GGOS Working Groups on Missions, Simulations, Data and Information Systems, and it will be tightly linked to the IERS Working Group on Survey and Co-location. The reorganized Bureau will now become the GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations. This poster will outline the plan for the new Bureau and will give an update on the status of the ground networks that will participate as well as its other components.

  2. Use of a Real-Time Remote Monitoring Network (RTRM) to Characterize the Guadalquivir Estuary (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Caballero; Victoria López-Rodas; Javier Ruiz; Laura Prieto; Susana Flecha; Manuel Díez-Minguito; Eduardo Costas; Gabriel Navarro; Isabel Emma Huertas

    2012-01-01

    The temporal variability of hydrological variables in the Guadalquivir estuary was examined during three years through a real-time remote monitoring network (RTRM). The network was developed with the aim of studying the influence of hydrodynamical and hydrological features within the estuary on the functioning of the pelagic ecosystem. Completing this data-gathering network, monthly cruises were performed in order to measure biogeochemical variables that are indicative of the trophic status o...

  3. Personal support networks, social capital, and risk of relapse among individuals treated for substance use issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panebianco, Daria; Gallupe, Owen; Carrington, Peter J; Colozzi, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The success of treatment for substance use issues varies with personal and social factors, including the composition and structure of the individual's personal support network. This paper describes the personal support networks and social capital of a sample of Italian adults after long-term residential therapeutic treatment for substance use issues, and analyses network correlates of post-treatment substance use (relapse). Using a social network analysis approach, data were obtained from structured interviews (90-120 min long) with 80 former clients of a large non-governmental therapeutic treatment agency in Italy providing voluntary residential treatments and rehabilitation services for substance use issues. Participants had concluded the program at least six months prior. Data were collected on socio-demographic variables, addiction history, current drug use status (drug-free or relapsed), and the composition and structure of personal support networks. Factors related to risk of relapse were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. A main goal of this study was to identify differences between the support network profiles of drug free and relapsed participants. Drug free participants had larger, less dense, more heterogeneous and reciprocal support networks, and more brokerage social capital than relapsed participants. Additionally, a lower risk of relapse was associated with higher socio-economic status, being married/cohabiting, and having network members with higher socio-economic status, who have greater occupational heterogeneity, and reciprocate support. Post-treatment relapse was found to be negatively associated with the socioeconomic status and occupational heterogeneity of ego's support network, reciprocity in the ties between ego and network members, and a support network in which the members are relatively loosely connected with one another (i.e., ego possesses "brokerage social capital"). These findings suggest the

  4. E-commerce System Security Assessment based on Bayesian Network Algorithm Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; Xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of e-commerce network security is based on assessment method Bayesian networks, and it first defines the vulnerability status of e-commerce system evaluation index and the vulnerability of the state model of e-commerce systems, and after the principle of the Bayesian network reliability of e-commerce system and the criticality of the vulnerabilities were analyzed, experiments show that the change method is a good evaluation of the security of e-commerce systems.

  5. Coagulation Status in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Johansen, Maria Egede; Mogensen, Ulla B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory diseases other than hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) have been associated with prothrombotic/hypercoagulable status. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible association between the chronic inflammatory skin disease HS and prothrombotic/hypercoagulable state. METHODS: We...

  6. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  7. Emergent complex network geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihao; Menichetti, Giulia; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2015-05-18

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geometrical growing networks are present in a large set of real networks describing biological, social and technological systems.

  8. Fulcrum Network Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Fulcrum network codes, which are a network coding framework, achieve three objectives: (i) to reduce the overhead per coded packet to almost 1 bit per source packet; (ii) to operate the network using only low field size operations at intermediate nodes, dramatically reducing complexity...... in the network; and (iii) to deliver an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a high field size network coding system for high-end receivers while simultaneously catering to low-end ones that can only decode in a lower field size. Sources may encode using a high field size expansion to increase...... the number of dimensions seen by the network using a linear mapping. Receivers can tradeoff computational effort with network delay, decoding in the high field size, the low field size, or a combination thereof....

  9. Network topology analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb, Jeffrey L.; Lee, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging high-bandwidth, low-latency network technology has made network-based architectures both feasible and potentially desirable for use in satellite payload architectures. The selection of network topology is a critical component when developing these multi-node or multi-point architectures. This study examines network topologies and their effect on overall network performance. Numerous topologies were reviewed against a number of performance, reliability, and cost metrics. This document identifies a handful of good network topologies for satellite applications and the metrics used to justify them as such. Since often multiple topologies will meet the requirements of the satellite payload architecture under development, the choice of network topology is not easy, and in the end the choice of topology is influenced by both the design characteristics and requirements of the overall system and the experience of the developer.

  10. Internet protocol network mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youd, David W.; Colon III, Domingo R.; Seidl, Edward T.

    2016-02-23

    A network mapper for performing tasks on targets is provided. The mapper generates a map of a network that specifies the overall configuration of the network. The mapper inputs a procedure that defines how the network is to be mapped. The procedure specifies what, when, and in what order the tasks are to be performed. Each task specifies processing that is to be performed for a target to produce results. The procedure may also specify input parameters for a task. The mapper inputs initial targets that specify a range of network addresses to be mapped. The mapper maps the network by, for each target, executing the procedure to perform the tasks on the target. The results of the tasks represent the mapping of the network defined by the initial targets.

  11. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00260714; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  12. Networks in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Networks have played a critical role in high-energy physics (HEP), enabling us to access and effectively utilize globally distributed resources to meet the needs of our physicists. Because of their importance in enabling our grid computing infrastructure many physicists have taken leading roles in research and education (R&E) networking, participating in, and even convening, network related meetings and research programs with the broader networking community worldwide. This has led to HEP benefiting from excellent global networking capabilities for little to no direct cost. However, as other science domains ramp-up their need for similar networking it becomes less clear that this situation will continue unchanged. What this means for ATLAS in particular needs to be understood. ATLAS has evolved its computing model since the LHC started based upon its experience with using globally distributed resources. The most significant theme of those changes has been increased reliance upon, and use of, its networks....

  13. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include...... learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  14. The status of BAT detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Amy; Markwardt, Craig B.; Krimm, Hans Albert; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We will present the current status of the Swift/BAT detector. In particular, we will report the updated detector gain calibration, the number of enable detectors, and the global bad time intervals with potential calibration issues. We will also summarize the results of the yearly BAT calibration using the Crab nebula. Finally, we will discuss the effects on the BAT survey, such as the sensitivity, localization, and spectral analysis, due to the changes in detector status.

  15. Research on key technology of space laser communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chengwu; Huang, Huiming; Liu, Hongyang; Gao, Shenghua; Cheng, Liyu

    2016-10-01

    Since the 21st century, Spatial laser communication has made a breakthrough development. Europe, the United States, Japan and other space powers have carried out the test of spatial laser communication technology on-orbit, and put forward a series of plans. In 2011, China made the first technology demonstration of satellite-ground laser communication carried by HY-2 satellite. Nowadays, in order to improve the transmission rate of spatial network, the topic of spatial laser communication network is becoming a research hotspot at home and abroad. This thesis, from the basic problem of spatial laser communication network to solve, analyzes the main difference between spatial network and ground network, which draws forth the key technology of spatial laser communication backbone network, and systematically introduces our research on aggregation, addressing, architecture of spatial network. From the perspective of technology development status and trends, the thesis proposes the development route of spatial laser communication network in stages. So as to provide reference about the development of spatial laser communication network in China.

  16. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  17. Organization of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  18. An Assessment of Contagion on Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    ocial network influence has been recognized as an important determinant for consumer behaviour. Through a web-based survey using restaurant consumption as a research context, this study explores social influence resulting from two distinct social reference processes: communication and comparison...... to competitionbased consumption. In other words, the more competitive the consumers are, the less they tend to follow others’ recommendation, the more they consume products and services to establish or maintain their status in the social network. Several managerial implications are provided........ The relationship between social interactions and social influence is moderated by opinion leadership and attitude towards status consumption, which are conceptualized to represent consumers’ competitiveness. Consumers’ status consumption contributes negatively to recommendation-based consumption, but positively...

  19. Cloud networking understanding cloud-based data center networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cloud Networking: Understanding Cloud-Based Data Center Networks explains the evolution of established networking technologies into distributed, cloud-based networks. Starting with an overview of cloud technologies, the book explains how cloud data center networks leverage distributed systems for network virtualization, storage networking, and software-defined networking. The author offers insider perspective to key components that make a cloud network possible such as switch fabric technology and data center networking standards. The final chapters look ahead to developments in architectures

  20. Network interventions on physical activity in an afterschool program: an agent-based social network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-04-01

    We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.

  1. Optical Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ansari, Nirwan

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Optical Access Networks With the wide deployment of fiber-optic technology over the past two decades, we have witnessed a tremendous growth of bandwidth capacity in the backbone networks of today's telecommunications infrastructure. However, access networks, which cover the "last-mile" areas and serve numerous residential and small business users, have not been scaled up commensurately. The local subscriber lines for telephone and cable television are still using twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Most residential connections to the Internet are still through dial-up modems operating at a low speed on twisted pairs. As the demand for access bandwidth increases with emerging high-bandwidth applications, such as distance learning, high-definition television (HDTV), and video on demand (VoD), the last-mile access networks have become a bandwidth bottleneck in today's telecommunications infrastructure. To ease this bottleneck, it is imperative to provide sufficient bandwidth capacity in the access networks to open the bottleneck and thus present more opportunities for the provisioning of multiservices. Optical access solutions promise huge bandwidth to service providers and low-cost high-bandwidth services to end users and are therefore widely considered the technology of choice for next-generation access networks. To realize the vision of optical access networks, however, many key issues still need to be addressed, such as network architectures, signaling protocols, and implementation standards. The major challenges lie in the fact that an optical solution must be not only robust, scalable, and flexible, but also implemented at a low cost comparable to that of existing access solutions in order to increase the economic viability of many potential high-bandwidth applications. In recent years, optical access networks have been receiving tremendous attention from both academia and industry. A large number of research activities have been carried out or

  2. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  3. Multilayer Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiana, Michael; Muldoon, Sarah Feldt

    2018-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is facing an unprecedented expanse in the volume and diversity of available data. Traditionally, network models have provided key insights into the structure and function of the brain. With the advent of big data in neuroscience, both more sophisticated models capable of characterizing the increasing complexity of the data and novel methods of quantitative analysis are needed. Recently, multilayer networks, a mathematical extension of traditional networks, have gained increasing popularity in neuroscience due to their ability to capture the full information of multi-model, multi-scale, spatiotemporal data sets. Here, we review multilayer networks and their applications in neuroscience, showing how incorporating the multilayer framework into network neuroscience analysis has uncovered previously hidden features of brain networks. We specifically highlight the use of multilayer networks to model disease, structure-function relationships, network evolution, and link multi-scale data. Finally, we close with a discussion of promising new directions of multilayer network neuroscience research and propose a modified definition of multilayer networks designed to unite and clarify the use of the multilayer formalism in describing real-world systems.

  4. Serial Network Flow Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  5. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  6. Collaborative learning in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Winter; Watts, Duncan J

    2012-01-17

    Complex problems in science, business, and engineering typically require some tradeoff between exploitation of known solutions and exploration for novel ones, where, in many cases, information about known solutions can also disseminate among individual problem solvers through formal or informal networks. Prior research on complex problem solving by collectives has found the counterintuitive result that inefficient networks, meaning networks that disseminate information relatively slowly, can perform better than efficient networks for problems that require extended exploration. In this paper, we report on a series of 256 Web-based experiments in which groups of 16 individuals collectively solved a complex problem and shared information through different communication networks. As expected, we found that collective exploration improved average success over independent exploration because good solutions could diffuse through the network. In contrast to prior work, however, we found that efficient networks outperformed inefficient networks, even in a problem space with qualitative properties thought to favor inefficient networks. We explain this result in terms of individual-level explore-exploit decisions, which we find were influenced by the network structure as well as by strategic considerations and the relative payoff between maxima. We conclude by discussing implications for real-world problem solving and possible extensions.

  7. Status and Future Developments of SIRGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, L.; Lauría, E.; Brunini, C.; Amaya, W.; Sanchez, L.; Drewes, H.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the status and future developments of the SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference System for the Americas) project. Since its creation, in 1993, SIRGAS has coordinated two continental GPS campaigns in 1995 an 2000, responsible for the establishment of a very accurate 3D reference frame in the region. First focusing on South America, the project has expanded its scope to Latin America since 2001. Currently the maintenance of the SIRGAS reference frame is carried out through more than 80 continuous operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) stations available in the region, whose data is officially processed by the International GNSS Service (IGS) Regional Network Associate Analysis Centre for SIRGAS (IGS RNACC-SIR), functioning at the DGFI (Deutsches Geodatisches Forschungsinstitut), in Munich, to generate weekly coordinates and velocity information of each continuous GNSS station. Since October 2006, five additional experimental processing centers - located at the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics of Mexico (INEGI), Military Geographic Institute of Argentina (IGM), University of La Plata (UNLP), Argentina, and Geographic Institute Agustín Codazzi, Colombia (IGAC) - have also been processing data from those stations in order to assume the official processing responsibility in near future. Many Latin American countries have already adopted SIRGAS as their new official reference system. Besides, efforts have been carried out in order to have the national geodetic networks of Central American countries connected to the SIRGAS reference frame, which will be accomplished by a GNSS campaign scheduled for the first semester of 2007. In terms of vertical datum, SIRGAS continues to coordinate with each member country all the necessary efforts towards making the geodetic leveling data available together with gravity information in order to support the computation of

  8. Sensor Network Motes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leopold, Martin

    . In addition, we present our results from porting the highly popular sensor network operating system TinyOS to a new and emerging system on a chip based platform. Moving the sensor network field towards the use of system-on- a-chip devices has large potential in terms of price and performance. We claim to have......This dissertation describes our efforts to improve sensor network performance evaluation and portability, within the context of the sensor network project Hogthrob. In Hogthrob, we faced the challenge of building an sensor network architecture for sow monitoring. This application has hard...... requirements on price and performance, and shows great potential for using sensor networks. Throughout the project we let the application requirements guide our design choices, leading us to push the technologies further to meet the specific goal of the application. In this dissertation, we attack two key...

  9. Liner Service Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouer, Berit Dangaard

    This thesis concerns design of liner shipping networks using operations research to optimize liner shipping networks at the strategic, tactical and operational level. Liner shipping networks are often compared to public transit networks as they consist of a set of scheduled sailings connecting....... The research field of liner shipping network design is relatively young and many open research questions exists. Among others, a unified and rich mathematical model formulating the main characteristics of the business domain has not been clearly described and exact methods for such mathematical models...... are still not able to solve significant instances of this complex optimization problem. In this thesis two research directions are explored within the field: The first research direction contributes to basic research on the liner shipping network design problem by describing the domain seen from...

  10. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  11. Managing Interorganizational Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jeppe

    bold enough to predict that networks will become the dominant organisation form in future. Several authors maintain that the shift from traditional hierarchical structures to networks involves dramatic changes for managers and employees (Champy 2002, Rohlin 1994, Kanter 2002). This article seeks...... to isolate some of the forthcoming changes and outlines a map for network management. We will try to avoid summarising the increasingly extensive literature about organisations which are characterised by networks and restrict our focus to management in inter-organisational networks. Inter......Management literature’s many descriptions of the current and future challenges and new trends within organisation and management forms depict a motley and kaleidoscopic picture of the future. However, one idea reoccurs throughout most of the literature – the organisational network. Some are even...

  12. Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius

    resources are limited. Hence, to counteract this trend, current QoS mechanisms must become simpler to deploy and operate, in order to motivate NSPs to employ QoS techniques instead of overprovisioning. Software Defined Networking (SDN) represents a paradigm shift in the way telecommunication and data...... networks are designed and managed. This thesis argues that SDN can greatly simplify QoS provisioning in communication networks, and even improve QoS in various ways. To this end, the impact of SDN on QoS is assessed from both a network performance perspective (e.g. bandwidth, delay), and also from a more...... generic perspective (e.g. service provisioning speed, resources availability). As a result, new mechanisms for providing QoS are proposed, solutions for SDN-specific QoS challenges are designed and tested, and new network management concepts are prototyped, all aiming to improve QoS for network services...

  13. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  14. Macroecology of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Olesen, Jens Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Aim Interacting communities of species are organized into complex networks, and network analysis is reckoned to be a strong tool for describing their architecture. Many species assemblies show strong macroecological patterns, e.g. increasing species richness with decreasing latitude, but whether...... towards the tropics, and that network topology would be affected by current climate. Location Global. Methods Each network was organized as a presence/absence matrix, consisting of P plant species, A pollinator species and their links. From these matrices, network parameters were estimated. Additionally......, data about geography (latitude, elevation), climate at the network site (temperature, precipitation) and sampling effort (observation days) and extent (study-plot size) were gathered. Analyses were done using simultaneous autoregressive modelling (SAR). Results Species richness did not vary strongly...

  15. Social cognitive radio networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xu

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents research results on social cognitive radio networks, a transformational and innovative networking paradigm that promotes the nexus between social interactions and cognitive radio networks. Along with a review of the research literature, the text examines the key motivation and challenges of social cognitive radio network design. Three socially inspired distributed spectrum sharing mechanisms are introduced: adaptive channel recommendation mechanism, imitation-based social spectrum sharing mechanism, and evolutionarily stable spectrum access mechanism. The brief concludes with a discussion of future research directions which ascertains that exploiting social interactions for distributed spectrum sharing will advance the state-of-the-art of cognitive radio network design, spur a new line of thinking for future wireless networks, and enable novel wireless service and applications.

  16. Professional social networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    We review the current state of social communication between healthcare professionals, the role of consumer social networking, and some emerging technologies to address the gaps. In particular, the review covers (1) the current state of loose social networking for continuing medical education (CME) and other broadcast information dissemination; (2) social networking for business promotion; (3) social networking for peer collaboration, including simple communication as well as more robust data-centered collaboration around patient care; and (4) engaging patients on social platforms, including integrating consumer-originated data into the mix of healthcare data. We will see how, as the nature of healthcare delivery moves from the institution-centric way of tradition to a more social and networked ambulatory pattern that we see emerging today, the nature of health IT has also moved from enterprise-centric systems to more socially networked, cloud-based options.

  17. Reconfigureable network node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderveen, Keith B [Tracy, CA; Talbot, Edward B [Livermore, CA; Mayer, Laurence E [Davis, CA

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  18. Status Checking System of Home Appliances using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Chi-Yurl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.

  19. Security for multihop wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shafiullah

    2014-01-01

    Security for Multihop Wireless Networks provides broad coverage of the security issues facing multihop wireless networks. Presenting the work of a different group of expert contributors in each chapter, it explores security in mobile ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks, wireless mesh networks, and personal area networks.Detailing technologies and processes that can help you secure your wireless networks, the book covers cryptographic coprocessors, encryption, authentication, key management, attacks and countermeasures, secure routing, secure medium access control, intrusion detection, ep

  20. Clustering signatures classify directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Fink, T. M. A.

    2008-09-01

    We use a clustering signature, based on a recently introduced generalization of the clustering coefficient to directed networks, to analyze 16 directed real-world networks of five different types: social networks, genetic transcription networks, word adjacency networks, food webs, and electric circuits. We show that these five classes of networks are cleanly separated in the space of clustering signatures due to the statistical properties of their local neighborhoods, demonstrating the usefulness of clustering signatures as a classifier of directed networks.